WorldWideScience

Sample records for mixed industrial emissions

  1. Mixing and Mass Transfer in Industrial Bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    becomes an important issue, and from mixing time as a function of the geometry of the reactor and the power input, one derives expressions for the transfer parameters. This chapter collects the most important empirical knowledge about design of mixers to achieve a particular goal. The resulting design......Design of a real reactor for a real process in industrial scale requires much more than the design of the "ideal" reactors. This insight is formulated in empirical relations between key process parameters, such as mass and heat transfer coefficients, and the power input to the process. Mixing...

  2. In situ biomonitoring of the genotoxic effects of mixed industrial emissions using the Tradescantia micronucleus and pollen abortion tests with wild life plants: Demonstration of the efficacy of emission controls in an eastern European city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misik, Miroslav [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Micieta, Karol [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Solenska, Martina [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Misikova, Katarina [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Pisarcikova, Helena [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Knasmueller, Siegfried [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Inner Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: siegfried.knasmueller@meduniwien.ac.at

    2007-01-15

    Aim of the study was to monitor changes of genotoxic activity of urban air caused by an incinerator and a petrochemical plant in Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and pollen fertility assays with wild plants (Chelidonium majus, Clematis vitalba, Cichorium intybus, Linaria vulgaris, Robinia pseudoacacia). While in the first sampling period (1997-2000) significantly (on average 80%) more MN were found at the polluted site in comparison to controls from a rural area, no significant effects were observed during a later period (between 2003 and 2005). A similar pattern was observed in the pollen abortion assays in which the most pronounced effects were found in chicory and false acacia. The differences of the results obtained in the two periods can be explained by a substantial reduction of air pollution by use of new technologies. In particular the decrease of SO{sub 2} emissions may account for the effects seen in the present study. - Air pollution caused by industrial emissions induced micronuclei in Tradescantia and increased pollen abortion in wild plant species.

  3. Lidar Measurements of Industrial Benzene Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, A. J. C.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Gast, L. F. L.

    2016-06-01

    The ability to measure benzene concentrations was added to the RIVM mobile DIAL system. In a ten-days campaign, it was used to measure benzene emissions in the Rijnmond, a heavily industrialised area in the South-west of the Netherlands with petrochemical industry, petrochemical products storage and the port of Rotterdam. On two of the ten days, benzene emissions were found. Combined with measurements of wind speed and wind direction, the Lidar measurements indicated the possible origins of these emissions. This makes the Lidar a valuable tool, augmenting the data collected at fixed monitoring stations.

  4. Lidar Measurements of Industrial Benzene Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkhout A.J.C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to measure benzene concentrations was added to the RIVM mobile DIAL system. In a ten-days campaign, it was used to measure benzene emissions in the Rijnmond, a heavily industrialised area in the South-west of the Netherlands with petrochemical industry, petrochemical products storage and the port of Rotterdam. On two of the ten days, benzene emissions were found. Combined with measurements of wind speed and wind direction, the Lidar measurements indicated the possible origins of these emissions. This makes the Lidar a valuable tool, augmenting the data collected at fixed monitoring stations.

  5. CO2 emissions in the steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kundak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Global CO2 emissions caused by the burning of fossil fuels over the past century are presented. Taking into consideration the total world production of more than 1,3 billion tons of steel, the steel industry produces over two billion tons of CO2. Reductions in CO2 emissions as a result of technological improvements and structural changes in steel production in industrialized countries during the past 40 years are described. Substantial further reductions in those emissions will not be possible using conventional technologies. Instead, a radical cutback may be achieved if, instead of carbon, hydrogen is used for direct iron ore reduction. The cost and the ensuing CO2 generation in the production of hydrogen as a reducing agent from various sources are analysed.

  6. Alternative industrial carbon emissions benchmark based on input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengyao; Ji, Xi

    2016-12-01

    Some problems exist in the current carbon emissions benchmark setting systems. The primary consideration for industrial carbon emissions standards highly relate to direct carbon emissions (power-related emissions) and only a portion of indirect emissions are considered in the current carbon emissions accounting processes. This practice is insufficient and may cause double counting to some extent due to mixed emission sources. To better integrate and quantify direct and indirect carbon emissions, an embodied industrial carbon emissions benchmark setting method is proposed to guide the establishment of carbon emissions benchmarks based on input-output analysis. This method attempts to link direct carbon emissions with inter-industrial economic exchanges and systematically quantifies carbon emissions embodied in total product delivery chains. The purpose of this study is to design a practical new set of embodied intensity-based benchmarks for both direct and indirect carbon emissions. Beijing, at the first level of carbon emissions trading pilot schemes in China, plays a significant role in the establishment of these schemes and is chosen as an example in this study. The newly proposed method tends to relate emissions directly to each responsibility in a practical way through the measurement of complex production and supply chains and reduce carbon emissions from their original sources. This method is expected to be developed under uncertain internal and external contexts and is further expected to be generalized to guide the establishment of industrial benchmarks for carbon emissions trading schemes in China and other countries.

  7. Alternative industrial carbon emissions benchmark based on input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengyao; Ji, Xi

    2016-05-01

    Some problems exist in the current carbon emissions benchmark setting systems. The primary consideration for industrial carbon emissions standards highly relate to direct carbon emissions (power-related emissions) and only a portion of indirect emissions are considered in the current carbon emissions accounting processes. This practice is insufficient and may cause double counting to some extent due to mixed emission sources. To better integrate and quantify direct and indirect carbon emissions, an embodied industrial carbon emissions benchmark setting method is proposed to guide the establishment of carbon emissions benchmarks based on input-output analysis. This method attempts to link direct carbon emissions with inter-industrial economic exchanges and systematically quantifies carbon emissions embodied in total product delivery chains. The purpose of this study is to design a practical new set of embodied intensity-based benchmarks for both direct and indirect carbon emissions. Beijing, at the first level of carbon emissions trading pilot schemes in China, plays a significant role in the establishment of these schemes and is chosen as an example in this study. The newly proposed method tends to relate emissions directly to each responsibility in a practical way through the measurement of complex production and supply chains and reduce carbon emissions from their original sources. This method is expected to be developed under uncertain internal and external contexts and is further expected to be generalized to guide the establishment of industrial benchmarks for carbon emissions trading schemes in China and other countries.

  8. Quantifying aluminum and semiconductor industry perfluorocarbon emissions from atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jooil; Fraser, Paul J.; Li, Shanlan; Mühle, Jens; Ganesan, Anita L.; Krummel, Paul B.; Steele, L. Paul; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Mi-Kyung; Arnold, Tim; Harth, Christina M.; Salameh, Peter K.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Weiss, Ray F.; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

    2014-07-01

    The potent anthropogenic perfluorocarbon greenhouse gases tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and hexafluoroethane (C2F6) are emitted to the atmosphere mainly by the aluminum and semiconductor industries. Global emissions of these perfluorocarbons (PFCs) calculated from atmospheric measurements are significantly greater than expected from reported national and industry-based emission inventories. In this study, in situ measurements of the two PFCs in the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment network are used to show that their emission ratio varies according to the relative regional presence of these two industries, providing an industry-specific emission "signature" to apportion the observed emissions. Our results suggest that underestimated emissions from the global semiconductor industry during 1990-2010, as well as from China's aluminum industry after 2002, account for the observed differences between emissions based on atmospheric measurements and on inventories. These differences are significant despite the large uncertainties in emissions based on the methodologies used by these industries.

  9. Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuanyuan; Chen Weiping; Huang Dan

    2010-01-01

    Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2), issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel indu...

  10. In situ biomonitoring of the genotoxic effects of mixed industrial emissions using the Tradescantia micronucleus and pollen abortion tests with wild life plants: demonstration of the efficacy of emission controls in an eastern European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misík, Miroslav; Micieta, Karol; Solenská, Martina; Misíková, Katarína; Pisarcíková, Helena; Knasmüller, Siegfried

    2007-01-01

    Aim of the study was to monitor changes of genotoxic activity of urban air caused by an incinerator and a petrochemical plant in Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and pollen fertility assays with wild plants (Chelidonium majus, Clematis vitalba, Cichorium intybus, Linaria vulgaris, Robinia pseudoacacia). While in the first sampling period (1997-2000) significantly (on average 80%) more MN were found at the polluted site in comparison to controls from a rural area, no significant effects were observed during a later period (between 2003 and 2005). A similar pattern was observed in the pollen abortion assays in which the most pronounced effects were found in chicory and false acacia. The differences of the results obtained in the two periods can be explained by a substantial reduction of air pollution by use of new technologies. In particular the decrease of SO(2) emissions may account for the effects seen in the present study.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  12. Balancing regional industrial development: analysis on regional disparity of China's industrial emissions and policy implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang; Luo, Xiao;

    2016-01-01

    Efficient industrial emissions mitigation strategy is critical for China's national action on climate change and sustainable development, considering its rapid industrialization. Regional disparity brings difficulties and uncertainties to policy implementation in China. Therefore, an investigatio...... and an environmental inequity. Regional oriented mitigation strategies are required to balance regional disparity, so as to realize the industrial emission control policy under the “equity and efficiency” principle.......Efficient industrial emissions mitigation strategy is critical for China's national action on climate change and sustainable development, considering its rapid industrialization. Regional disparity brings difficulties and uncertainties to policy implementation in China. Therefore, an investigation...... on the regional features of industrial emissions is critical to better decision makings. While to date, related studies have been rather few. This paper applies a spatial analysis on regional features of China's industrial emissions (SO2, NOx and PM2.5 and CO2 emission) in 31 provinces. Spatial autocorrelation...

  13. Using LMDI method to analyze the change of industrial CO2 emission from energy use in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin YANG; Bin CHEN

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbon economy is becoming a new approach to optimize economic development, ensuring energy security and coping with climate change. As one of the important emission sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), the industrial sector should be prioritized in the development of low-carbon economy. In this study, the carbon emission from industrial energy use of Chongqing is accounted. On basis of industrial carbon emission (ICE)accounting, main factors responsible for industrial CO2emission are identified and quantitatively analyzed using the Log-Mean Divisia Index method. The factors influencing ICE include energy mix, energy intensity, industrial structure and industrial output. It is found that the industrial output is the main driving force of ICE. The energy structure performs as a negative factor in carbon emission growth. By means of decomposing the influencing factors, several policy proposals were suggested for policy makers to build a low carbon city.

  14. Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2, issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel industry, and proposed various kinds of analyzing models. The primary measures mainly focus on the targeted policies formulation and also on clean and high-efficient technologies development. The differences and similarities in energy conservation and emission reduction in foundry industry between China and other countries were discussed, while, the future development trend was also pointed out.

  15. PAH emission from the industrial boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Mi, H; Lee, W; You, W; Wang, Y

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from 25 industrial boilers were investigated. The fuels used for these 25 boilers included 21 heavy oil, two diesel, a co-combustion of heavy oil and natural gas (HO+NG) and a co-combustion of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas (COG+BFG) boilers. PAH samples from the stack flue gas (gas and particle phases) of these 25 boilers were collected by using a PAH stack sampling system. Twenty one individual PAHs were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Total-PAH concentration in the flue gas of 83 measured data for these 25 boiler stacks ranged between 29.0 and 4250 microg/m(3) and averaged 488 microg/m(3). The average of PAH-homologue mass (F%) counted for the total-PAH mass was 54.7%, 9.47% and 15.3% for the 2-ring, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, respectively. The PAHs in the stack flue gas were dominant in the lower molecular weight PAHs. The emission factors (EFs) of total-PAHs were 13,300, 2920, 2880 and 208 microg/kg-fuel for the heavy oil, diesel, HO+NG and COG+BFG fueled-boiler, respectively. Nap was the most predominant PAH occurring in the stack flue gas. In addition, the EF of 21 individual PAHs in heavy-oil boiler were almost the highest among the four various fueled-boilers except for those of FL and BkF in the diesel boiler. Furthermore, the EF of total-PAHs or BaP for heavy oil were both one order of magnitude higher than that for the diesel-fueled boiler.

  16. Greenhouse gases emissions, growth and the energy mix in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, Gustavo A. [Departamento de Analisis Economico, Universidad de La Laguna (Spain); Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada (FEDEA), Madrid (Spain); Instituto Complutense de Analisis Economico (ICAE), UCM, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    The importance of energy on greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is reflected by the fact that 65% of said emissions in the World are currently due to the use and production of energy. However, most empirical emission models are found within the Environmental Kuznetz Curve (EKC) framework, which focuses on the relationship between emissions and economic development. Ang's (2007, 2008) papers are some of the exceptions that simultaneously study the relationship between emissions, growth and energy. With respect to Ang's research, we contribute on two important aspects. First, while Ang uses a particular country as the study and use time series techniques, we take advantage of a panel data set of 24 European countries between 1990 and 2006 and use a Dynamic Panel Data (DPD) framework. Second, the impact of energy consumption on emissions would depend on the primary energy mix and on the final use of this energy, and we consider both factors in the model. (author)

  17. Danish Emission Inventory for Solvent Use in Industries and Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik

    This report presents the Danish emission inventory for Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC), N2O and CO2 from the use of solvents in industries and households. The methodology, data sources, activity data, emission factors and emissions are presented for 1985 to 2007 and uncertainties, QA...... to CO2 emissions but they are fundamental in relation to many human and environmental health issues and to longrange transport of chemical active species. Use and emission patterns of NMVOCs are diverse and complex, as many chemicals are categorised as NMVOCs and are present in many different industrial...... activities and consumer products. Emissions are calculated based on detailed information on chemical use, mainly derived from Statistics Denmark and the Nordic database: Substances in Preparations in the Nordic Countries (SPIN) and from communication with industries and related institutions in Europe...

  18. Danish Emission Inventory for Solvent Use in Industries and Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik

    activities and consumer products. Emissions are calculated based on detailed information on chemical use, mainly derived from Statistics Denmark and the Nordic database: Substances in Preparations in the Nordic Countries (SPIN) and from communication with industries and related institutions in Europe......This report presents the Danish emission inventory for Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC), N2O and CO2 from the use of solvents in industries and households. The methodology, data sources, activity data, emission factors and emissions are presented for 1985 to 2007 and uncertainties, QA...... to CO2 emissions but they are fundamental in relation to many human and environmental health issues and to longrange transport of chemical active species. Use and emission patterns of NMVOCs are diverse and complex, as many chemicals are categorised as NMVOCs and are present in many different industrial...

  19. Methane emission in the gas industry of Russia; Emissions de methane dans l'industrie gaziere de la Russie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedykh, A.D. [Join-Stock Company Gazprom (Russian Federation); Gritsenko, A.I.; Akopova, G.S. [VNIIGAZ (Russian Federation); Maksimov, V.M. [Oil and Gas Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The paper presents the methodology of methane emission estimation and the strategy of the gas industry of Russia in the limitation of natural gas emission into the atmosphere. Special attention is paid to the problem of relationship between natural gas and climate change. The results of actual leakage and technological natural gas emission measurement, methods and control means are given. Design options on methane emission reduction under different processes, gas leakage and accidents. (authors)

  20. Emissions from Power Plant and Industrial Boiler Sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides hourly data on SO2, NOx, and CO2 emissions; gross load, steam load, and heat input; from electricity generation units and industrial boilers from...

  1. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodríguez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL. The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2 receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  2. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodríguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR plots allowed to identify the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the Southern slope of Atlas emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria and Tunisia appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least a 60% of the sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90% of sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions observed in the SAL is linked to soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  3. Society of the plastic industry process emission initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdermott, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    At first view, plastics process emissions research may not seem to have much bearing on outgassing considerations relative to advanced composite materials; however, several parallel issues and cross currents are of mutual interest. The following topics are discussed: relevance of plastics industry research to aerospace composites; impact of clean air act amendment requirements; scope of the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. activities in thermoplastic process emissions and reinforced plastics/composites process emissions; and utility of SPI research for advanced polymer composites audiences.

  4. China's Industrialization and Reduction of Greenhouse Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiahuaPan

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the size of the Chinese economy has more than quadrupled and the energy consumption more than doubled. The drive for further industrialization over the next two decades will continue the trend on a much larger scale. The net increase in emissions from 1990 to 2001 amounted to 823 million tons of COy accounting for 27 percent of the world's total. Energy supply and security constitute key constraints to industrialization and,therefore, the mitigation of emissions can in fact contribute to the achievement of development goals. Many actions can be taken to balance industrialization and reduction of emissions.As a large and rapidly growing market, China shares many opportunities with European partners for business cooperation and joint efforts for the reduction of emissions through clean development mechanisms and other bilateral initiatives.

  5. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  6. Mixed Criticality Scheduling for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi; Xia, Changqing; Xu, Huiting; Wang, Jintao; Zeng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely used in industrial systems. Their real-time performance and reliability are fundamental to industrial production. Many works have studied the two aspects, but only focus on single criticality WSNs. Mixed criticality requirements exist in many advanced applications in which different data flows have different levels of importance (or criticality). In this paper, first, we propose a scheduling algorithm, which guarantees the real-time performance and reliability requirements of data flows with different levels of criticality. The algorithm supports centralized optimization and adaptive adjustment. It is able to improve both the scheduling performance and flexibility. Then, we provide the schedulability test through rigorous theoretical analysis. We conduct extensive simulations, and the results demonstrate that the proposed scheduling algorithm and analysis significantly outperform existing ones. PMID:27589741

  7. Balancing regional industrial development: analysis on regional disparity of China's industrial emissions and policy implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang; Luo, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Efficient industrial emissions mitigation strategy is critical for China's national action on climate change and sustainable development, considering its rapid industrialization. Regional disparity brings difficulties and uncertainties to policy implementation in China. Therefore, an investigation...... development, and highlight not only disparity, but also inequity exists. It is concluded that, there is a larger unequal distribution of GDP per unit of air pollutants and CO2 emission between eastern and western regions, reveals that less developed western and central regions suffer from the emission leakage...

  8. 40 CFR 52.796 - Industrial continuous emission monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industrial continuous emission monitoring. 52.796 Section 52.796 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.796...

  9. Atmospheric emission of polychlorinated biphenyls from multiple industrial thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Cai, Mingwei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Du, Bing; Dong, Shujun; Hu, Jicheng; Xiao, Ke

    2013-03-01

    In this study, field measurements were conducted to estimate and characterize the atmospheric emission levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from multiple industrial thermal processes. The emission levels and profiles of PCBs from five types of thermal processes at twenty-three plants were studied and compared with eight processes reported in our previous studies. Correlation analysis was preformed to identify a marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. A significant correlation was observed between congener CB-118 and ΣPCB (R(2)=0.65 and pemission of ΣPCB. The profiles of PCBs emitted from the thirteen thermal processes were compared, and this information could be used for studying source-receptor relationships and identifying the specific sources of PCBs. To prioritize the sources for control, the concentrations of PCBs from thirteen industrial thermal sources were compared. The PCB concentrations from secondary zinc smelting and thermal wire reclamation were about one to three order magnitude higher than those of other sources, which suggests that these two sources be given priority in PCB source control. Finally, the atmospheric emission factors of PCBs from the thirteen industrial sources were summarized, and these data will be useful for developing an integrated emission inventory of PCBs.

  10. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  11. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail: c.bottrill@surrey.ac.u, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  12. Energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in Swedish manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Martinez, C.I. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, University of La Salle, Bogota (Colombia); Silveira, S [Energy and Climate Studies, Department of Energy Technology, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    This paper analyses the trends in energy consumption and CO2 emissions as a result of energy efficiency improvements in Swedish manufacturing industries between 1993 and 2008. Using data at the two-digit level, the performance of this sector is studied in terms of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, energy efficiency measured as energy intensity, value of production, fuel sources, energy prices and energy taxes. It was found that energy consumption, energy intensity and CO2 emission intensity, measured as production values, have decreased significantly in the Swedish manufacturing industries during the period studied. The results of the decomposition analysis show that output growth has not required higher energy consumption, leading to a reduction in both energy and CO2 emission intensities. The role of structural changes has been minor, and the trends of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions have been similar during the sample period. A stochastic frontier model was used to determine possible factors that may have influenced these trends. The results demonstrate that high energy prices, energy taxes, investments and electricity consumption have influenced the reduction of energy and CO2 emission intensities, indicating that Sweden has applied an adequate and effective energy policy. The study confirms that it is possible to achieve economic growth and sustainable development whilst also reducing the pressure on resources and energy consumption and promoting the shift towards a low-carbon economy.

  13. Decomposition of Energy-related CO2 Emissions from Shanghai's Industries and Policy Implications%Decomposition of Energy-related CO2 Emissions from Shanghai's Industries and Policy Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei; Zhu Dajian

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies a decomposition analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions in the industrial sectors of Shanghai over the period 1994-2007.The Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method is applied to this study in terms of six factors: labor force, labor mobility, gross labor productivity, energy intensity, fuel mix, and emission coefficient. In addition, the decoupling effect be- tween industrial economic growth and CO2 emissions is analyzed to evaluate CO2 mitigation strategies for Shanghai. The results show that all labor productivity has the largest positive effect on CO2 emission changes in the industrial sectors, whereas labor mo- bility and energy intensity are the main components for decreasing CO2 emissions. Other factors have different effects on CO2 mitiga- tion in different sub-periods. Although a relative decoupling of industrial CO2 emissions from the economic growth in Shanghai has been found, Shanghai should keep pace with the industrial CO2 emissions reduction by implementing low-carbon technology. These results have important policy implications: Plan C is the reasonable choice for Shanghai.

  14. Great tit response to decreasing industrial heavy metal emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R A; Gomes, T; Eira, C; Vaqueiro, J; Vingada, J V

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of environmental pollution on decreasing great tit (Parus major) breeding parameters in an industrial area in the west coast of Portugal. Several great tit breeding parameters were monitored in the industrial area, as well as in a rural area not affected by industrial emissions. Low levels of air pollution in both industrial and rural areas were confirmed by assessing trace element concentrations in pine needles. Concentrations of Cd and Hg in pine needles from the industrial area (Cd = 0.05 ppm; Hg = 0.005 ppm) were significantly lower than those found in needles collected from the reference area (Cd = 0.07 ppm; Hg = 0.007 ppm). Additionally, the breeding success of great tits increased in the industrial area in comparison to the reference area (0.93 ± 0.08 and 0.62 ± 0.22, respectively). The changes on great tit breeding parameters were probably related with changes in the breeding density of other competitive species, together with a decreasing frass-fall biomass. Further long-term ecological studies in industrial areas are necessary to understand the changing breeding performance and strategies used by great tits in response to pollution shifts in the environment.

  15. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies based on trace gas mixing ratios in ice cores and charcoal data indicate that biomass burning emissions over the past millennium exceeded contemporary emissions by up to a factor of 4 for certain time periods. This is surprising because various sources of biomass burning are linked with population density, which has increased over the past centuries. We have analysed how emissions from several landscape biomass burning sources could have fluctuated to yield emissions that are in correspondence with recent results based on ice core mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO and its isotopic signature measured at South Pole station (SPO. Based on estimates of contemporary landscape fire emissions and the TM5 chemical transport model driven by present-day atmospheric transport and OH concentrations, we found that CO mixing ratios at SPO are more sensitive to emissions from South America and Australia than from Africa, and are relatively insensitive to emissions from the Northern Hemisphere. We then explored how various landscape biomass burning sources may have varied over the past centuries and what the resulting emissions and corresponding CO mixing ratio at SPO would be, using population density variations to reconstruct sources driven by humans (e.g., fuelwood burning and a new model to relate savanna emissions to changes in fire return times. We found that to match the observed ice core CO data, all savannas in the Southern Hemisphere had to burn annually, or bi-annually in combination with deforestation and slash and burn agriculture exceeding current levels, despite much lower population densities and lack of machinery to aid the deforestation process. While possible, these scenarios are unlikely and in conflict with current literature. However, we do show the large potential for increased emissions from savannas in a pre-industrial world. This is mainly because in the past, fuel beds were probably less fragmented compared to the

  16. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies based on trace gas mixing ratios in ice cores and charcoal data indicate that biomass burning emissions over the past millennium exceeded contemporary emissions by up to a factor of 4 for certain time periods. This is surprising because various sources of biomass burning are linked with population density, which has increased over the past centuries. Here we have analyzed how emissions from several biomass burning sources could have fluctuated to yield emissions that are in correspondence with recent results based on ice core mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO and its isotopic signature measured at South Pole station (SPO. Based on estimates of contemporary fire emissions and the TM5 chemical transport model, we found that CO mixing ratios at SPO are more sensitive to emissions from South America and Australia than from Africa, and are relatively insensitive to emissions from the Northern Hemisphere. We then explored how various biomass burning sources may have varied over the past centuries and what the resulting emissions and corresponding CO mixing ratio at SPO would be, using population density variations to reconstruct sources driven by humans (e.g. fuelwood burning and a new model to relate savanna emissions to changes in fire return times. We found that to match the observed ice core CO data all savannas in the Southern Hemisphere had to burn annually, or bi-annually in combination with deforestation and slash and burn agriculture matching current levels despite much lower population densities and lack of machinery to aid the deforestation process. While possible, these scenarios are unlikely and in conflict with current literature. However, we do show the large potential for increased emissions from savannas in a pre-industrial world. This is mainly because in the past, fuel beds were probably less fragmented compared to the current situation; we show that the majority of savannas have not burned in the past 10 yr, even

  17. [Analysis on oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, De-Sheng; Kuang, Yuan-Cheng; Liu, Xin; Dai, Fei-Hong

    2012-06-01

    By measuring the particulate matter of oil fume which is over 10 microm or below 10 microm separately and using microradiography and Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI), it is found out the distributing characteristic of oil fume particles in catering industry cooking emission. The result shows that the diameter of the oil fume particles which was sedimentated in the kitchen is between 10-400 microm, the concentration peak value is between 10-100 microm. The diameter of oil fume aerosol is mostly smaller than 1 microm, while the concentration peak value is between 0.063-0.109 microm. In addition, the mass concentration peak value is between 6.560-9.990 microm. Through the analysis to the physical characteristics of oil fume from catering industry cooking emissions, the eigenvalue of the oil fume has been found and the feature matter for monitoring the oil fume has been discovered to provide a reasonable standard for controlling and monitoring the catering industry cooking emission.

  18. Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry's greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Alex D.; Bergerson, Joule A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    The magnitude of Canada's oil sands reserves, their rapidly expanding and energy intensive production, combined with existing and upcoming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions regulations motivate an evaluation of oil sands-derived fuel production from a life cycle perspective. Thirteen studies of GHG emissions associated with oil sands operations are reviewed. The production of synthetic crude oil (SCO) through surface mining and upgrading (SM&Up) or in situ and upgrading (IS&Up) processes is reported to result in emissions ranging from 62 to 164 and 99 to 176 kgCO2eq/bbl SCO, respectively (or 9.2-26.5 and 16.2-28.7 gCO2eq MJ-1 SCO, respectively), compared to 27-58 kgCO2eq/bbl (4.5-9.6 gCO2eq MJ-1) of crude for conventional oil production. The difference in emissions intensity between SCO and conventional crude production is primarily due to higher energy requirements for extracting bitumen and upgrading it into SCO. On a 'well-to-wheel' basis, GHG emissions associated with producing reformulated gasoline from oil sands with current SM&Up, IS&Up, and in situ (without upgrading) technologies are 260-320, 320-350, and 270-340 gCO2eq km-1, respectively, compared to 250-280 gCO2eq km-1 for production from conventional oil. Some variation between studies is expected due to differences in methods, technologies studied, and operating choices. However, the magnitude of the differences presented suggests that a consensus on the characterization of life cycle emissions of the oil sands industry has yet to be reached in the public literature. Recommendations are given for future studies for informing industry and government decision making.

  19. Gas Emissivity of a Modified Cellulose Mix at the Temperature of 900°C

    OpenAIRE

    Zawieja Z.; Sawicki J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study of gas emissivity and the volumetric gas flow rate from a patented modified cellulose mix used in production of disposable sand casting moulds. The modified cellulose mix with such additives as expanded perlite, expanded vermiculite and microspheres was used as the study material. The results for gas emissivity and the gas flow rate for the modified cellulose mix were compared with the gas emissivity of the commercial material used in gating systems...

  20. Tracking industrial energy efficiency and CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-25

    Industry accounts for about one-third of global energy demand. Most of that energy is used to produce raw materials: chemicals, iron and steel, non-metallic minerals, pulp and paper and non-ferrous metals. Just how efficiently is this energy put to work? This question was on the minds of the G8 leaders at their summit in Gleneagles in 2005, when they set a 'Plan of Action for Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development'. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide information and advice in a number of areas including special attention to the industrial sector. Tracking Industrial Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions responds to the G8 request. This major new analysis shows how industrial energy efficiency has improved dramatically over the last 25 years. Yet important opportunities for additional gains remain, which is evident when the efficiencies of different countries are compared. This analysis identifies the leaders and the laggards. It explains clearly a complex issue for non-experts. With new statistics, groundbreaking methodologies, thorough analysis and advice, and substantial industry consultation, this publication equips decision makers in the public and private sectors with the essential information that is needed to reshape energy use in manufacturing in a more sustainable manner.

  1. Biomonitoring of air pollution in a mixed industrial/residential district in the region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, A. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie; Silva, M.D. da; Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ecologia

    2002-07-01

    During a one year's study, bioindicator plants were used in order to monitor the air quality in a mixed industrial/residential district of the city of Sao Paulo do Campo in the metropolitan region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil. The percentage of ozone-induced injuries on tobacco Bel-W3 leaves was low except from the reference site located at the Botanical Garden at Sao Paulo. In exposed rye grass cultures (Lolium multiflorum), relatively high levels of lead and zinc were found particularly at sites influenced by industrial and traffic emissions whereas the foliar nickel concentrations remained low in the whole area. (orig.)

  2. US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

    1984-03-01

    A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

  3. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  4. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...

  5. Energy Efficiency and Emissions Reduction Potential of China's Industrial Sector%Energy Efficiency and Emissions Reduction Potential of China's Industrial Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xiaohong; Zhang Chao

    2012-01-01

    Based on the total-factor energy efficiency framework, this paper calculates China's industrial energy efficiency and CO2 emissions reduction potential from 2000 to 2009 by utilizing the directional distance function and data envelopment analysis. The empirical results show that: China's industrial overall energy effi- ciency is relatively lower while the emis-sions reduction potential is relatively greater, given the optimum production frontier. Sig- nificant indus-trial disparities of energy efficiency and emissions reduction potential exist. Energy efficiency and emis-sions reduc- tion potential significantly show different tendencies of industrial dynamic variation. This paper suggests the Chinese government impose differential carbon taxes, flexibly utilize carbon market me-cha-nism, strengthen energy-saving technological R&D, promote the utilization of renewable energy, and strengthen environmental supervision and regulation, so as to improve China's industrial en- ergy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions.

  6. Industrial transformation and green production to reduce environmental emissions:Taking cement industry as a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU¨ Yong-Long; GENG Jing; HE Gui-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Industrial transformation and green production (ITGP) is a new 10-year international research initiative proposed by the Chinese National Committee for Future Earth. It is also an important theme for adapting and responding to global environmental change. Aiming at a thorough examination of the implementation of ITGP in China, this paper presents its objectives, its three major areas, and their progress so far. It also identifies the key elements of its management and proposes new perspectives on managing green transformation. For instance, we introduce a case study on cement industry that shows the positive policy effects of reducing backward production capacity on PCDD/Fs emissions. Finally, to develop different transformation scenarios for a green future, we propose four strategies:1) policy integration for promoting green industry, 2) system innovation and a multidisciplinary approach, 3) collaborative governance with all potential stakeholders, and 4) managing uncertainty, risks, and long-time horizons.

  7. Industrial transformation and green production to reduce environmental emissions: Taking cement industry as a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Long Lü

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial transformation and green production (ITGP is a new 10-year international research initiative proposed by the Chinese National Committee for Future Earth. It is also an important theme for adapting and responding to global environmental change. Aiming at a thorough examination of the implementation of ITGP in China, this paper presents its objectives, its three major areas, and their progress so far. It also identifies the key elements of its management and proposes new perspectives on managing green transformation. For instance, we introduce a case study on cement industry that shows the positive policy effects of reducing backward production capacity on PCDD/Fs emissions. Finally, to develop different transformation scenarios for a green future, we propose four strategies: 1 policy integration for promoting green industry, 2 system innovation and a multidisciplinary approach, 3 collaborative governance with all potential stakeholders, and 4 managing uncertainty, risks, and long-time horizons.

  8. Emissions trading and innovation in the German electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, Martin

    2010-07-01

    One major objective of the introduction of emissions trading in the European Union was to promote innovation towards mitigating climate change. Focusing on the German electricity industry, the extent to which this objective has been achieved up to now and how the design of the trading scheme could be improved towards achieving the intended objective shall be analyzed in this thesis. These questions are tackled in the thesis from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. The theoretical analysis was largely based on neoclassical environmental economics by using an algebraic model which allowed for comparison of the relevant companies' profits under various configurations of the analyzed design options. The empirical analysis was grounded on two surveys of the electricity industry - one before the start of emissions trading, the other after two and a half years of experience - which enabled identification of the concrete changes in the companies' perceptions and attitudes towards innovation due to the introduction of emissions trading. The analysis reveals some indications that the instrument has basically functioned as originally intended although it has certainly not yet developed its full potential in terms of promoting innovation towards a more climate friendly electricity system. From an environmental innovation perspective the following improvements are essential: (1) Closure provisions should be abolished as soon as possible because they basically extend the lifetime of old installations and thus rather delay innovation. (2) Fuel-specific allocation to new entrants should also be abandoned since it eliminates - at least partly - the incentives to shift investments towards technologies which use more carbon friendly fuels such as natural gas or biomass. (3) Introducing full auctioning for the electricity industry would remedy both of the above-mentioned weaknesses and at the same time eliminate the windfall profit generated by free allocation of

  9. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissions for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP

  10. EMISSION AND TRENDS IN RECLAIMING WASTE HEAT IN INDUSTRIAL INSTALATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Hys

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of waste heat emission in a typical industrial installation. On the basis of the process monitoring system, periodic analyses of fumes composition, installation process manual and the conducted measurements of the heat fluxes from individual sources emitting heat on the way of natural convection from the devices’ coats and forced convection in the fumes flux were calculated. According to the authors the heat of temperature 140–155 °C and surface power density 860–970 W/m2 emitted by devices’ covers can be reclaimed in ORC techniques, Peltier’s modules and the systems realising Stirling cycle. Part of the waste heat included in fumes, which makes c.a. 76% of the total emission from the installation, should be returned to the process of fuel oxidation, what will reduce the emission by c.a. 18% and the volume of consumed fuel by c.a. 25 m3 CH4/h, according to the presented calculations.

  11. The Production, Value, and Reduction Responsibility of Carbon Emissions through Electricity Consumption of Manufacturing Industries in South Korea and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitikun, Medhawin

    , manufacturing industries take full responsibility for emissions reductions by curtailing their use of energy without any subsidies from the government. Revenue function estimates provide measures of the differential costs imposed on different industries by emissions reductions. In the second scenario, emissions reductions are achieved by changing the mix of electricity generation technologies used by the power generation sector within the country. For the international case, I focus on the fairness of emission reduction responsibility among countries. To be fair to countries at different levels of development and with different rate of carbon emissions, I propose a new method to adjust the timing and rates of emission reductions based on a lifetime cumulative emission per capita.

  12. Industrial mixing techniques for Hanford double-shell tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daymo, E.A.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps are currently the baseline technology for sludge mobilization and mixing in one-million gallon double-shell tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. Improvements to the baseline jet mixer pump technology are sought because jet mixer pumps have moving parts that may fail or require maintenance. Moreover, jet mixers are relatively expensive, they heat the waste, and, in some cases, may not mobilize enough of the sludge. This report documents a thorough literature search for commercially available applicable mixing technologies that could be used for double-shell tank sludge mobilization and mixing. Textbooks, research articles, conference proceedings, mixing experts, and the Thomas Register were consulted to identify applicable technologies. While there are many commercial methods that could be used to mobilize sludge or mix the contents of a one-million gallon tank, few will work given the geometrical constraints (e.g., the mixer must fit through a 1.07-m-diameter riser) or the tank waste properties (e.g., the sludge has such a high yield stress that it generally does not flow under its own weight). Pulsed fluid jets and submersible Flygt mixers have already been identified at Hanford and Savannah River Sites for double-shell tank mixing applications. While these mixing technologies may not be applicable for double-shell tanks that have a thick sludge layer at the bottom (since too many of these mixers would need to be installed to mobilize most of the sludge), they may have applications in tanks that do not have a settled solids layer. Retrieval projects at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy sites are currently evaluating the effectiveness of these mixing techniques for tank waste applications. The literature search did not reveal any previously unknown technologies that should be considered for sludge mobilization and mixing in one-million gallon double-shell tanks.

  13. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; de La Rosa, J.

    2011-07-01

    An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands) shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  14. Gas Emissivity of a Modified Cellulose Mix at the Temperature of 900°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawieja Z.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study of gas emissivity and the volumetric gas flow rate from a patented modified cellulose mix used in production of disposable sand casting moulds. The modified cellulose mix with such additives as expanded perlite, expanded vermiculite and microspheres was used as the study material. The results for gas emissivity and the gas flow rate for the modified cellulose mix were compared with the gas emissivity of the commercial material used in gating systems in disposable sand casting moulds. The results have shown that the modified cellulose mix is characterized by a lower gas emissivity by as much as 50% and lower gas flow rate per unit mass during the process of thermal degradation at the temperature of 900°C, compared to the commercial mix. It was also noted that the amount of microspheres considerably affected the amount of gas produced.

  15. The concept of effective emissivity of nonisothermal mixed pixel and its test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on two preconditions, the local thermal equilibrium is satisfied and emissivities do not change with temperature, the concept of component effective emissivity of nonisothermal mixed pixel has been put forward and then the radiant directionality model of nonisothermal mixed pixel constructed from it. Our study shows that the component effective emissivity is associated with geometric structure, optical properties of target, and viewing angle, but does not depend onthe component temepratures. The component temperatures can only change the ratio of component radiance to the total radiance of the mixed-pixel. The total effective emissivity of this pixel is the complement of its directional-hemisphere reflectance. After the simulation of component effective emissivity of the discrete cones and continuous vegetation canopy (winter wheat) by the Monte Carlo method, our model of radiant directionality of nonisothermal mixed pixel have been proved by lab and field measurements.

  16. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, V. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davies, R. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holbery, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This report analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities.

  17. The Application of Two-stage Structure Decomposition Technique to the Study of Industrial Carbon Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqiu HE

    2015-01-01

    The total carbon emissions control is the ultimate goal of carbon emission reduction, while industrial carbon emissions are the basic units of the total carbon emission. On the basis of existing research results, in this paper, a two-stage input-output structure decomposition method is creatively proposed for fully combining the input-output method with the structure decomposition technique. In this study, more comprehensive technical progress indicators were chosen in comparison with the previous studies and included the utilization efficiency of all kinds of intermediate inputs such as energy and non-energy products, and finally were positioned at the factors affecting the carbon emissions of different industries. Through analysis, the affecting rate of each factor on industrial carbon emissions was acquired. Thus, a theory basis and data support is provided for the total carbon emissions control of China from the perspective of industrial emissions.

  18. 75 FR 32005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... hazardous air pollutants emissions standards reflecting the application of the maximum achievable control....7485 of subpart DDDDD (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Industrial... were not achieving emissions reductions through the use of an emission control system and there were...

  19. Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

    2014-08-01

    The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263 t, also other emissions were 48,853 t PM, 24,533 t SOx, 79,943 t NOx, 31,908 t VOC, 454 t NH3 and 2264 t N2O under controlled conditions.

  20. Performance characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mohite

    2016-08-01

    July 10th 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Mohite. S, Kumar, S. &  Maji, S.  (2016 Performance  characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 163-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.163-170 

  1. Using LMDI approach to analyze changes in carbon dioxide emissions of China’s logistics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: China is confronting with tremendous pressure in carbon emission reduction. While logistics industry seriously relies on fossil fuel, and emits greenhouse gas, especially carbon dioxide. The aim of this article is to estimate the carbon dioxide emission in China’s logistics sector, and analyze the causes for the change of carbon dioxide emission, and identify the critical factors which mainly drive the change in carbon dioxide emissions of China’s logistics industry. Design/methodology/approach: The logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI method has often been used to analyze decomposition of energy consumption and carbon emission due to its theoretical foundation, adaptability, ease of use and result interpretation. So we use the LMDI method to analyze the changes in carbon dioxide emission in China’s logistics industry in this paper. Findings: By analyzing carbon dioxide emission of China’s logistics, the results show that the carbon dioxide emission of logistics in China has increased by 21.5 times, from 45.1 million tons to 1014.1 million tons in the research period. The highway transport is the main contributor to carbon dioxide emission in logistics industry. The energy intensity and carbon dioxide emission factors were contributing to the reduction of carbon dioxide emission in China’s logistics industry in overall study period. Originality/value: Although there are a lot of literature analyzed carbon dioxide emission in many industry sectors, for example manufacturing, iron and steel , pulp and paper, cement, glass industry, and so on. However, few scholars researched on carbon dioxide emission in logistics industry. This the first study is in the context of carbon dioxide emission of China’s logistics industry.

  2. Industry-Oriented Laboratory Development for Mixed-Signal IC Test Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Haffner, M.; Yoder, S.; Scott, M.; Reehal, G.; Ismail, M.

    2010-01-01

    The semiconductor industry is lacking qualified integrated circuit (IC) test engineers to serve in the field of mixed-signal electronics. The absence of mixed-signal IC test education at the collegiate level is cited as one of the main sources for this problem. In response to this situation, the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at…

  3. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coking industries in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Mu; Lin Peng; Junji Cao; Qiusheng He; Fan Li; Jianqiang Zhang; Xiaofeng Liu

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to assess the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from coking industries,with field samplings conducted at four typical coke plants.For each selected plant,stack flue gas samples were collected during processes that included charging coal into the ovens (CC),pushing coke (PC) and the combustion of coke-oven gas (CG).Sixteen individual PAHs on the US EPA priority list were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).Results showed that the total PAH concentrations in the flue gas ranged from 45.776 to 414.874 μg/m3,with the highest emission level for CC (359.545 μg/m3).The concentration of PAH emitted from the CC process in CP1 (stamp charging) was lower than that from CP3 and CP4 (top charging).Low-molecular-weight PAHs (i.e.,two-to three-ring PAHs) were predominant contributors to the total PAH contents,and Nap,AcPy,Flu,PhA,and AnT were found to be the most abundant ones.Total BaPeq concentrations for CC (2.248 iμg/m3) were higher than those for PC (1.838 μg/m3) and CG (1.082 μg/m3),and DbA was an important contributor to carcinogenic risk as BaP in emissions from coking processes.Particulate PAH accounted for more than 20% of the total BaPeq concentrations,which were significantly higher than the corresponding contributions to the total PAH mass concentration (5%).Both particulate and gaseous PAH should be taken into consideration when the potential toxicity risk of PAH pollution during coking processes is assessed.The mean total-PAH emission factors were 346.132 and 93.173 μg/kg for CC and PC,respectively.

  4. How Much CO2 Emissions Can Be Reduced in China’s Heating Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available China’s heating industry is a coal-fired industry with serious environmental issues. CO2 emissions from the heating industry accounted for an average 6.1% of China’s carbon emissions during 1985–2010. The potential for reducing emissions in China’s heating industry is evaluated by co-integration analysis and scenario analysis. The results demonstrate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship among CO2 emissions and the influencing factors, including energy intensity, industrial scale, labor productivity, and energy productivity. Monte Carlo technique is adopted for risk analysis. It is found that the CO2 emissions reduction potential of the heating industry will be 26.7 million tons of coal equivalent (Mtce in 2020 and 64.8 Mtce in 2025 under the moderate scenario, compared with 50.6 Mtce in 2020 and 122.1 Mtce in 2025 under the advanced scenario. Policy suggestions are provided accordingly.

  5. [Research on contribution decomposition by industry to China's carbon intensity reduction and carbon emission growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing-Jing; Ye, Bin; Ji, Jun-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-01

    The binding carbon intensity index and the pilot "cap-and-trade" emission trading scheme are two important approaches currently applied by China to mitigate its greenhouse gases emissions. It is of great significance to research the influence mechanism of related factors by industry on the dynamics of national carbon intensity and emission, not only for setting industry-specified intensity reduction target but also for setting industry coverage of the ETS. Two LMDI models were applied in this paper to decompose industry contributions to the changes of China's carbon intensity and carbon emission during the period of 1996-2010. Empirical results showed that: The decline of national carbon intensity was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value proportions of all industries, and the impact of industry carbon intensities was larger. The increase of national carbon emission was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value of all industries. The former had inhibitory effect whist the latter had decisive promoting effect. The five industries making the largest contribution to the changes of national carbon emission and carbon intensity included industries of electricity, nonmetal mineral, ferrous metal, transportation service, chemical materials, which were followed by the industries of agriculture, coal mining and processing, petroleum and natural gas extraction. Petroleum refining and coking industry and construction industry made small contribution to the decline of national carbon intensity, but made large contribution to the growth of national carbon emission. The contributions of service industries to national carbon emission growth showed a rising trend, especially those of transportation service industry, wholesaling, retailing and catering service industry.

  6. MIX: a mosaic Asian anthropogenic emission inventory under the international collaboration framework of the MICS-Asia and HTAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zhang, Qiang; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Woo, Jung-Hun; He, Kebin; Lu, Zifeng; Ohara, Toshimasa; Song, Yu; Streets, David G.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Cheng, Yafang; Hong, Chaopeng; Huo, Hong; Jiang, Xujia; Kang, Sicong; Liu, Fei; Su, Hang; Zheng, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The MIX inventory is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. Emissions are estimated for all major anthropogenic sources in 29 countries and regions in Asia. We conducted detailed comparisons of different regional emission inventories and incorporated the best available ones for each region into the mosaic inventory at a uniform spatial and temporal resolution. Emissions are aggregated to five anthropogenic sectors: power, industry, residential, transportation, and agriculture. We estimate the total Asian emissions of 10 species in 2010 as follows: 51.3 Tg SO2, 52.1 Tg NOx, 336.6 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), 28.8 Tg NH3, 31.7 Tg PM10, 22.7 Tg PM2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC, and 17.3 Pg CO2. Emissions from China and India dominate the emissions of Asia for most of the species. We also estimated Asian emissions in 2006 using the same methodology of MIX. The relative change rates of Asian emissions for the period of 2006-2010 are estimated as follows: -8.1 % for SO2, +19.2 % for NOx, +3.9 % for CO, +15.5 % for NMVOC, +1.7 % for NH3, -3.4 % for PM10, -1.6 % for PM2.5, +5.5 % for BC, +1.8 % for OC, and +19.9 % for CO2. Model-ready speciated NMVOC emissions for SAPRC-99 and CB05 mechanisms were developed following a profile-assignment approach. Monthly gridded emissions at a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° are developed and can be accessed from http://www.meicmodel.org/dataset-mix.

  7. Radon-222, a proxy for vertical mixing of emissions in the urban nocturnal boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, S.; Williams, A. G.; Griffiths, A.; Crawford, J.; Zahorowski, W.

    2012-04-01

    south of Sydney, Australia, that is affected by a heterogeneous distribution of emission sources. We develop a simple method for characterising and quantifying the strength of atmospheric mixing at night over land, and demonstrate the usefulness of this radon-based technique over and above conventional stability classification measures in identifying atmospheric conditions conducive to the accumulation of significant pollution in the lower atmosphere. Our findings show that at spatial scales comparable to those of a large city, continuous radon observations from a single, economical, low-maintenance detector can provide a clearer indication of potential pollution levels than conventional metorological measurements. Furthermore, despite significant industrial, urban and rural emissions within the airshed, we show that the highest hourly rates of public exposure to PM2.5 aerosols in the Wollongong city centre under strongly stable conditions are due to domestic wood smoke emissions from the western foothills.

  8. Modeling policy mix to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian palm oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Y H Silitonga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research is to develop a model that will explain the impact of government policies to the competitiveness of palm oil industry. The model involves two commodities in this industry, namely crude palm oil (CPO and refined palm oil (RPO, each has different added value. Design/methodology/approach: The model built will define the behavior of government in controlling palm oil industry, and their interactions with macro-environment, in order to improve the competitiveness of the industry. Therefore the first step was to map the main activities in this industry using value chain analysis. After that a conceptual model was built, where the output of the model is competitiveness of the industry based on market share. The third step was model formulation. The model is then utilized to simulate the policy mix given by government in improving the competitiveness of Palm Oil Industry. Research limitations/implications: The model was developed using only some policies which give direct impact to the competitiveness of the industry. For macro environment input, only price is considered in this model. Practical implications: The model can simulate the output of the industry for various government policies mix given to the industry. Originality/value: This research develops a model that can represent the structure and relationship between industry, government and macro environment, using value chain analysis and hierarchical multilevel system approach.

  9. Reduction of Multi-pollutant Emissions from Industrial Sectors: The U.S. Cement Industry – A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge Carbon dioxide (CO2) accounts for more than 90% of worldwide CO2-eq green-house gas (GHG) emissions from industrial sectors other than power generation. Amongst these sectors, the cement industry is one ...

  10. International Oil Price’s Impacts on Carbon Emission in China’s Transportation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper analyses the impact mechanism of international oil price on the industrial carbon emission, and uses the partial least squares regression model to study international oil price’s impact on carbon emissions in China’s transportation industry.Design/methodology/approach: This paper chooses five independent variables of GDP, international oil price, private car population, passenger and freight transportation volume as impact factors to investigate industrial carbon emissions, the paper also analyses the impact mechanism of international oil price on the industrial carbon emission, and finally the paper uses the partial least squares regression model to study international oil price’s impact on carbon emissions in China’s transportation industry. With the independent variables’ historical data from 1994 to 2009 as a sample, the fitting of the industry carbon emissions is satisfying. And based on the data of 2011, the paper maintains the private car owning, passenger and freight transportation volume to study international oil prices’ impact on the industry carbon emissions at different levels of GDP.Findings: The results show that: with the same GDP growth, the industry carbon emissions increase with the rise in international oil prices, and vice versa, the industry carbon emissions decrease; and lastly when GDP increases to a certain extent, in both cases of international oil prices’ rise or fall, the industry carbon emissions will go up, and the industry carbon emissions increase even faster while the energy prices are rising.Practical implications: Limit the growth in private-vehicle ownership, change China's transport sector within the next short-term in the structure of energy consumption and put forward China's new energy, alternative energy sources and renewable energy application so as to weaken the dependence on international oil, and indirectly slowdown China's GDP growth rate, which are all possible

  11. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: I. Industry and transport sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadavarte, Pankaj; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Emissions estimation, for research and regulatory applications including reporting to international conventions, needs treatment of detailed technology divisions and high-emitting technologies. Here we estimate Indian emissions, for 1996-2015, of aerosol constituents (PM2.5, BC and OC) and precursor gas SO2, ozone precursors (CO, NOx, NMVOC and CH4) and greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O), using a common fuel consumption database and consistent assumptions. Six source categories and 45 technologies/activities in the industry and transport sectors were used for estimating emissions for 2010. Mean emission factors, developed at the source-category level, were used with corresponding fuel consumption data, available for 1996-2011, projected to 2015. New activities were included to account for fugitive emissions of NMVOC from chemical and petrochemical industries. Dynamic emission factors, reflecting changes in technology-mix and emission regulations, were developed for thermal power plants and on-road transport vehicles. Modeled emission factors were used for gaseous pollutants for on-road vehicles. Emissions of 2.4 (0.6-7.5) Tg y-1 PM2.5, 0.23 (0.1-0.7) Tg y-1 BC, 0.15 (0.04-0.5) Tg y-1 OC, 7.3 (6-10) Tg y-1 SO2, 19 (7.5-33) Tg y-1 CO, 1.5 (0.1-9) Tg y-1 CH4, 4.3 (2-9) Tg y-1 NMVOC, 5.6 (1.7-15.9) Tg y-1 NOx, 1750 (1397-2231) Tg y-1 CO2 and 0.13 (0.05-0.3) Tg y-1 N2O were estimated for 2015. Significant emissions of aerosols and their precursors were from coal use in thermal power and industry (PM2.5 and SO2), and on-road diesel vehicles (BC), especially superemitters. Emissions of ozone precursors were largely from thermal power plants (NOx), on-road gasoline vehicles (CO and NMVOC) and fugitive emissions from mining (CH4). Highly uncertain default emission factors were the principal contributors to uncertainties in emission estimates, indicating the need for region specific measurements.

  12. Carbon-14 based determination of the biogenic fraction of industrial CO2 emissions : Application and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, S. W. L.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The C-14 method is a very reliable and sensitive method for industrial plants, emission authorities and emission inventories to verify data estimations of biogenic fractions of CO2 emissions. The applicability of the method is shown for flue gas CO2 samples that have been sampled in I-h intervals at

  13. Industrialization, Environment and Health: the Impacts of Industrial SO2 Emission on Public Health in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we construct a model in which the impact of pollution on health is exerted through both direct and indirect channels.The indirect channel is captured by a production func tion in which the principal health-improving factor,income growth,can be realized only in the cost of pollution increase.This model is then tested by the aggregated chronicle disease data in over 78 Chinese counties.Our results show,after attaining the threshold of 8 μg/m2,continuous increase in industrial SO2 emission density will lead the ratio of population suffering chronicle diseases,among which respiratory diseases occupy a significant proportion,to rise.However,owing to technological progress in pollution control activities,the needed SO2 emission to produce one unit of GDP diminishes with time.Therefore,the negative effect from pollution augmentation on public health seems to be recompensed more and more by the positive effect of economic growth.

  14. Measurement of emissivity of industrial surfaces using a simple method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmeyer, H.

    1988-01-01

    To detect emissivity, the drop in temperature of the sample undergoing radiation exchange with the wall in an evacuated space is measured over a given period. In this manner, emissivities of various synthetic resin lacquers, metals, and metallic coatings were measured. Once the emissivity is known, the same method can be used to detect specific heat and the head condition of gases.

  15. Emission factor development for the malt beverage, wine, and distilled spirits industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapp, T.; Shrager, B. [Midwest Research Institute, Cary, NC (United States); Safriet, D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Midwest Research Institute is currently developing emission factors for inclusion in AP-42 Chapter 9, Food and Agricultural Industries. Three of the sections cover the production of malt beverages, wine, and distilled spirits. The malt beverage segment focuses on the development of ethanol emission factors for filling operations, which were recently identified as the large source of brewery ethanol emissions. The discussion includes a description of the production process and emissions factors for breweries, a history of emission factories for breweries, a description of emission testing conducted at two large breweries, and a presentation of some of the emission factors for malt beverage production. The wine industry segment focuses on emissions from the fermentation stage for red and white wines, the pomace screen and pomace press for red wines, and bottling of white wine. Emission factors are presented for ethanol emissions from each of these sources as well as other VOC emissions from the fermentation process. A discussion of the wine production process is presented. A discussion of the emission sources and available emission factors is presented for the distilled spirits industry segment. Factors are presented for the fermentation and aging stages. A process description is presented for the production of Bourbon whisky.

  16. Performance analysis of CO(2) emissions and energy efficiency of metal industries in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Guan, Yang; Wan, Zheng; Chu, Chunli; Ju, Meiting

    2014-02-15

    Nonferrous metal industries play an important role in China's national economy and are some of the country's largest energy consumers. To better understand the nature of CO(2) emissions from these industries and to further move towards low-carbon development in this industry sector, this study investigates the CO(2) emissions of 12 nonferrous metal industries from 2003 to 2010 based on their life-cycle assessments. It then classifies these industries into four "emission-efficiency" types through cluster analysis. The results show that (1) the industrial economy and energy consumption of China's nonferrous metal industries have grown rapidly, although their recent energy consumption rate shows a declining trend. (2) The copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, and magnesium industries, classified as high-emission industries, are the main contributors of CO(2) emissions. The results have implications for policy decisions that aim to enhance energy efficiency, particularly for promoting the transformation of low-efficiency industries to high-efficiency ones. The study also highlights the important role of policy development in technological innovations, optimization, and upgrades, the reduction of coal proportion in energy consumption, and the advancement of new energy sources.

  17. Analyzing the Mixing Dynamics of an Industrial Batch Bin Blender via Discrete Element Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitraye Sen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A discrete element model (DEM has been developed for an industrial batch bin blender in which three different types of materials are mixed. The mixing dynamics have been evaluated from a model-based study with respect to the blend critical quality attributes (CQAs which are relative standard deviation (RSD and segregation intensity. In the actual industrial setup, a sensor mounted on the blender lid is used to determine the blend composition in this region. A model-based analysis has been used to understand the mixing efficiency in the other zones inside the blender and to determine if the data obtained near the blender-lid region are able to provide a good representation of the overall blend quality. Sub-optimal mixing zones have been identified and other potential sampling locations have been investigated in order to obtain a good approximation of the blend variability. The model has been used to study how the mixing efficiency can be improved by varying the key processing parameters, i.e., blender RPM/speed, fill level/volume and loading order. Both segregation intensity and RSD reduce at a lower fill level and higher blender RPM and are a function of the mixing time. This work demonstrates the use of a model-based approach to improve process knowledge regarding a pharmaceutical mixing process. The model can be used to acquire qualitative information about the influence of different critical process parameters and equipment geometry on the mixing dynamics.

  18. Toxic emissions during co-combustion of biomass-waste wood-lignite blends in an industrial boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, P; Skodras, G; Sakellaropoulos, G P; Blumenstock, M; Schramm, K W; Kettrup, A

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the PCDD/F emissions during the co-combustion of waste wood/coal co-combustion in an industrial boiler and to determine the relation of the toxic emissions to the fuel properties. Co-combustion experiments were performed in a 13.8 MWthermal industrial moving grate combustor. The fuels which were examined in this study included Greek lignite, natural uncontaminated wood, power poles and medium density fibers (MDFs) which were by-products of the plant production process. Fuel blends were prepared by mixing single components in various concentrations. PCDD/F emissions were collected during experimental runs and were analyzed according to standard methods. Low PCDD/F emissions were obtained during the co-combustion tests, lower than the limit value of 0.1 ng TEQ/Nm3. The lowest values were observed during the combustion of fuel blends containing MDF, possibly due to the inhibitory action of some of the N-containing MDF ingredients, such as urea. No direct correlation was found between the PCDD/F and the copper emissions, while examination of the PCDD/F homologue patterns revealed the predominance of the lower chlorinated isomers over the higher ones.

  19. Embodied energy consumption and carbon emissions evaluation for urban industrial structure optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xi; Chen, Zhanming; Li, Jinkai

    2014-03-01

    Cities are the main material processors associated with industrialization. The development of urban production based on fossil fuels is the major contributor to the rise of greenhouse gas density, and to global warming. The concept of urban industrial structure optimization is considered to be a solution to urban sustainable development and global climate issues. Enforcing energy conservation and reducing carbon emissions are playing key roles in addressing these issues. As such, quantitative accounting and the evaluation of energy consumption and corresponding carbon emissions, which are by-products of urban production, are critical, in order to discover potential opportunities to save energy and to reduce emissions. Conventional evaluation indicators, such as "energy consumption per unit output value" and "emissions per unit output value", are concerned with immediate consumptions and emissions; while the indirect consumptions and emissions that occur throughout the supply chain are ignored. This does not support the optimization of the overall urban industrial system. To present a systematic evaluation framework for cities, this study constructs new evaluation indicators, based on the concepts of "embodied energy" and "embodied carbon emissions", which take both the immediate and indirect effects of energy consumption and emissions into account. Taking Beijing as a case, conventional evaluation indicators are compared with the newly constructed ones. Results show that the energy consumption and emissions of urban industries are represented better by the new indicators than by conventional indicators, and provide useful information for urban industrial structure optimization.

  20. Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimation Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shires, T.M.; Loughran, C.J. [URS Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    2004-02-01

    This document is a compendium of currently recognized methods and provides details for all oil and gas industry segments to enhance consistency in emissions estimation. This Compendium aims to accomplish the following goals: Assemble an expansive collection of relevant emission factors for estimating GHG emissions, based on currently available public documents; Outline detailed procedures for conversions between different measurement unit systems, with particular emphasis on implementation of oil and gas industry standards; Provide descriptions of the multitude of oil and gas industry operations, in its various segments, and the associated emissions sources that should be considered; and Develop emission inventory examples, based on selected facilities from the various segments, to demonstrate the broad applicability of the methodologies. The overall objective of developing this document is to promote the use of consistent, standardized methodologies for estimating GHG emissions from petroleum industry operations. The resulting Compendium documents recognized calculation techniques and emission factors for estimating GHG emissions for oil and gas industry operations. These techniques cover the calculation or estimation of emissions from the full range of industry operations - from exploration and production through refining, to the marketing and distribution of products. The Compendium presents and illustrates the use of preferred and alternative calculation approaches for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions for all common emission sources, including combustion, vented, and fugitive. Decision trees are provided to guide the user in selecting an estimation technique based on considerations of materiality, data availability, and accuracy. API will provide (free of charge) a calculation tool based on the emission estimation methodologies described herein. The tool will be made available at http://ghg.api.org/.

  1. Directional infrared emission resulting from cascade population inversion and four-wave mixing in Rb vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulshin, Alexander; Budker, Dmitry; McLean, Russell

    2014-02-15

    Directional infrared emission at 1.37 and 5.23 μm is generated in Rb vapors that are stepwise excited by low-power cw resonant light. The radiation at 5.23 μm originating from amplified spontaneous emission on the 5D(5/2)→6P(3/2) transition and wave mixing consists of forward- and backward-directed components with distinctive spectral and spatial properties. Diffraction-limited light at 1.37 μm generated in the copropagating direction only is a product of parametric wave mixing around the 5P(3/2)→5D(5/2)→6P(3/2)→6S(1/2)→5P(3/2) transition loop. This highly nondegenerate mixing process involves one externally applied and two internally generated optical fields. Similarities between wave mixing generated blue and 1.37 μm light are demonstrated.

  2. [Study on feasible emission control level of air pollutions for cement industry ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2014-09-01

    The revised National Emission Standard of Air Pollutions for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control level of air pollutions. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air pollutants emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the pollutants, improving the particulate and NO emissions control level, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air pollutants. The standard will become the gripper of pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.

  3. Grassland carbon sequestration and emissions following cultivation in a mixed crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Bharat Sharma; Rasmussen, Jim; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Grasslands are potential carbon sinks to reduce unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2. Effect of age (1–4-year-old) and management (slurry, grazing multispecies mixture) of a grass phase mixed crop rotation on carbon sequestration and emissions upon cultivation was compared with 17-year...... with age but indifference in CO2 emissions across the age and management in temporary grasslands, thus, indicates potential for long-term sequestration of soil C....

  4. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der G.R.; Peters, W.; Leeuwen, van T.T.; Giglio, L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies based on trace gas mixing ratios in ice cores and charcoal data indicate that biomass burning emissions over the past millennium exceeded contemporary emissions by up to a factor of 4 for certain time periods. This is surprising because various sources of biomass burning are linked wi

  5. Formation of industrial mixed culture biofilm in chlorophenol cultivated medium of microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Huzairy; Jin, Bo; Dai, Sheng; Ngau, Cornelius

    2016-11-01

    The formation of microbial biofilm while maintaining the electricity output is a challenging topic in microbial fuel cell (MFC) studies. This MFC critical factor becomes more significant when handling with industrial wastewater which normally contains refractory and toxic compounds. This study explores the formation of industrial mixed culture biofilm in chlorophenol cultivated medium through observing and characterizing microscopically its establishment on MFC anode surface. The mixed culture was found to develop its biofilm on the anode surface in the chlorophenol environment and established its maturity and dispersal stages with concurrent electricity generation and phenolic degradation. The mixed culture biofilm engaged the electron transfer roles in MFC by generating current density of 1.4 mA/m2 and removing 53 % of 2,4-dichlorophenol. The results support further research especially on hazardous wastewater treatment using a benign and sustainable method.

  6. MIX: a mosaic Asian anthropogenic emission inventory for the MICS-Asia and the HTAP projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Zhang, Q.; Kurokawa, J.; Woo, J.-H.; He, K. B.; Lu, Z.; Ohara, T.; Song, Y.; Streets, D. G.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Hong, C. P.; Huo, H.; Jiang, X. J.; Kang, S. C.; Liu, F.; Su, H.; Zheng, B.

    2015-12-01

    An anthropogenic emission inventory for Asia is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) projects by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. Emissions are estimated for all major anthropogenic sources in 30 countries and regions in Asia. We conducted detailed comparisons of different regional emission inventories and incorporated the best-available ones for each region into the mosaic inventory at a uniform spatial and temporal resolution. We estimate the total Asian emissions of ten species in 2010 as follows: 51.3 Tg SO2, 52.1 Tg NOx, 336.6 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), 28.8 Tg NH3, 31.7 Tg PM10, 22.7 Tg PM2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC and 17.3 Pg CO2. Emissions from China and India dominate the emissions of Asia for most of the species. We also estimated Asian emissions in 2006 using the same methodology of MIX. The relative change rates of Asian emissions for the period of 2006-2010 are estimated as follows: -8.0 % for SO2, +19 % for NOx, +4 % for CO, +15 % for NMVOC, +2 % for NH3, -3 % for PM10, -2 % for PM2.5, +6 % for BC, +2 % for OC and +20 % for CO2. Model-ready speciated NMVOC emissions for SAPRC-99 and CB05 mechanisms were developed following a profile-assignment approach. Monthly gridded emissions at a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° are developed and can be accessed from http://www.meicmodel.org/dataset-mix.

  7. MIX: a mosaic Asian anthropogenic emission inventory for the MICS-Asia and the HTAP projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An anthropogenic emission inventory for Asia is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP projects by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. Emissions are estimated for all major anthropogenic sources in 30 countries and regions in Asia. We conducted detailed comparisons of different regional emission inventories and incorporated the best-available ones for each region into the mosaic inventory at a uniform spatial and temporal resolution. We estimate the total Asian emissions of ten species in 2010 as follows: 51.3 Tg SO2, 52.1 Tg NOx, 336.6 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds, 28.8 Tg NH3, 31.7 Tg PM10, 22.7 Tg PM2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC and 17.3 Pg CO2. Emissions from China and India dominate the emissions of Asia for most of the species. We also estimated Asian emissions in 2006 using the same methodology of MIX. The relative change rates of Asian emissions for the period of 2006–2010 are estimated as follows: −8.0 % for SO2, +19 % for NOx, +4 % for CO, +15 % for NMVOC, +2 % for NH3, −3 % for PM10, −2 % for PM2.5, +6 % for BC, +2 % for OC and +20 % for CO2. Model-ready speciated NMVOC emissions for SAPRC-99 and CB05 mechanisms were developed following a profile-assignment approach. Monthly gridded emissions at a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° are developed and can be accessed from http://www.meicmodel.org/dataset-mix.

  8. Quantifying the Industrial Facility-Level Emission Rate of Methane in Various Segments of the Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Mitchell, A.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Robinson, A. L.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Marchese, A.

    2014-12-01

    Methane, the dominant component in natural gas, is a potent short-lived radiative forcer. Recent technological advances in the extraction of oil and gas have increased the production rate dramatically since early 2000. In the context of CO2 emissions per energy generated, natural gas promises a tantalizing thermodynamic advantage over coal and other hydrocarbons. Natural gas emissions to the atmosphere along the entire path from well to customer, however, can wipe out the radiative forcing advantage once they surpass a threshold fraction of distributed gas. Recent studies have been undertaken to assess the methane emissions at various types of facilities within different sectors of the oil and gas industry. The distribution of observed facility level emission rates along with other results and conclusions from those studies will be presented. The implications that these findings have on the emissions inventories from these sectors will be discussed.

  9. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations sati...

  10. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 μm, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

  11. Quantitative assessment of industrial VOC emissions in China: Historical trend, spatial distribution, uncertainties, and projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenghang; Shen, Jiali; Zhang, Yongxin; Huang, Weiwei; Zhu, Xinbo; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Linghong; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa

    2017-02-01

    The temporal trends of industrial volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions was comprehensively summarized for the 2011 to 2013 period, and the projections for 2020 to 2050 for China were set. The results demonstrate that industrial VOC emissions in China increased from 15.3 Tg in 2011 to 29.4 Tg in 2013 at an annual average growth rate of 38.3%. Guangdong (3.45 Tg), Shandong (2.85 Tg), and Jiangsu (2.62 Tg) were the three largest contributors collectively accounting for 30.4% of the national total emissions in 2013. The top three average industrial VOC emissions per square kilometer were Shanghai (247.2 ton/km2), Tianjin (62.8 ton/km2), and Beijing (38.4 ton/km2), which were 12-80 times of the average level in China. The data from the inventory indicate that the use of VOC-containing products, as well as the production and use of VOCs as raw materials, as well as for storage and transportation contributed 75.4%, 10.3%, 9.1%, and 5.2% of the total emissions, respectively. ArcGIS was used to display the remarkable spatial distribution variation by allocating the emission into 1 km × 1 km grid cells with a population as surrogate indexes. Combined with future economic development and population change, as well as implementation of policy and upgrade of control technologies, three scenarios (scenarios A, B, and C) were set to project industrial VOC emissions for the years 2020, 2030, and 2050, which present the industrial VOC emissions in different scenarios and the potential of reducing emissions. Finally, the result shows that the collaborative control policies considerably influenced industrial VOC emissions.

  12. Analyzing and forecasting CO2 emission reduction in China's steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chengkang; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Baohua; Chen, Shan; Qin, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Recent measures of carbon dioxide emissions from the steel industry of China have indicated a high rate of total CO2 emissions from the industry, even compared to the rest of the world. So, CO2 emission reduction in China's steel industry was analyzed, coupling the whole process and scenarios analysis. First, assuming that all available advanced technologies are almost adopted, this study puts forward some key potential-sectors and explores an optimal technical route for reducing CO2 emissions from the Chinese steel industry based on whole process analysis. The results show that in the stages of coking, sintering, and iron making, greater potential for reducing emissions would be fulfilled by taking some technological measures. If only would above well-developed technologies be fulfill, the CO2 emissions from 5 industry production stages would be reduced substantially, and CO2 emissions per ton of steel could be decreased to 1.24 (ton/ton-steel) by 2020. At the same time, the scenarios analysis indicates that if mature carbon-reducing technologies are adopted, and if the difference between steel output growth rate and the GDP growth rate could be controlled below 3%, CO2 emissions from China's steel industry would approach the goal of reducing CO2 emissions per GDP unit by 40%-45% of the 2005 level by 2020. This indicates that the focus of carbon dioxide emissions reduction in China lies in policy adjustments in order to enhance technological application, and lies in reasonably controlling the pace of growth of GDP and steel output.

  13. Effects of different mixing ratios on emissions from passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; Yin, Hang; Guo, Jiadong; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Peipei

    2011-01-01

    Regulated and unregulated emissions from four passenger cars fueled with methanol/gasoline blends at different mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30, M50, M85 and M100) were tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled by Tenax TA and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (TD-GC/MS). Carbonyls were trapped on dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that total emissions of VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p, m, o-xylene) from all vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends were lower than those from vehicles fueled with only gasoline. Compared to the baseline, the use of M85 decreased BTEX emissions by 97.4%, while the use of M15 decreased it by 19.7%. At low-to-middle mixing ratios (M15, M20, M30 and M50), formaldehyde emissions showed a slight increase while those of high mixing ratios (M85 and M100) were three times compared with the baseline gasoline only. When the vehicles were retrofitted with new three-way catalytic converters (TWC), emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were decreased by 24%-50%, 10%-35%, and 24%-58% respectively, compared with the cars using the original equipment manufacture (OEM) TWC. Using the new TWC, emissions of formaldehyde and BTEX were decreased, while those of other carbonyl increased. It is necessary that vehicles fueled with methanol/gasoline blends be retrofitted with a new TWC. In addition, the specific reactivity of emissions of vehicles fueled with M15 and retrofitted with the new TWC was reduced from 4.51 to 4.08 compared to the baseline vehicle. This indicates that the use of methanol/gasoline blend at a low mixing ratio may have lower effect on environment than gasoline.

  14. Insights into the emission reductions of multiple unintentional persistent organic pollutants from industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Yuyang; Zhan, Jiayu

    2016-02-01

    Industrial activities result in unintentional production of multiple types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at various concentrations. Because of the potential adverse effect of these POPs on the environment, biota and human health, methods for controlling emission of POPs are required. Development and application of techniques for controlling emissions of POPs can be a technical and economic burden for the industry involved. Therefore, from the point of view of cost-benefit analysis, reducing emissions of multiple pollutants at the same time is optimal for sustainable industrial development. Although techniques have been developed for reducing the emissions of individual POPs, such as dioxins, further work is required on multi-POP control emissions from industrial activities. This paper discusses three important aspects that need to be taken to achieve multi-POP control. These aspects include the establishment of a comprehensive system for evaluating the risk from emissions of multiple POPs, determination of indicators for total emissions of multiple POPs, and the preparation and application of functional materials to inhibit formation of multiple POPs. These discussion might be helpful for the future research on the multi-POP control in industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of mixing and covering with mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen Hai; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Yi Ming; Li, Guo Xue; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated effects of mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting using pig manure amended with corn stalks. Apart from a control treatment, three treatments were conducted with the addition of 5% (wet weight of raw materials) of mature compost: (a) mixing raw materials with mature compost at the beginning of composting; (b) covering raw materials with mature compost throughout the experimental period; and (c) covering raw materials with mature compost at the start of composting, but incorporating it into composting pile on day 6 of composting. Mature compost used for the last treatment was inoculated with 2% (wet weight) of raw materials of strain M5 (a methanotrophic bacterium) solution. During 30-d of composting, three treatments with the addition of mature compost could reduce CH4 emission by 53-64% and N2O emission by 43-71%. However, covering with mature compost throughout the experimental period increased cumulative NH3 emission by 61%, although it could reduce 34% NH3 emission in the first 3d. Inoculating strain M5 in mature compost covered on the top of composting pile within first 6d enhanced CH4 oxidation, but simultaneously increased N2O emission. In addition, mixing with mature compost could improve compost maturity. Given the operational convenience in practice, covering with mature compost and then incorporating it into composting pile is a suitable approach to mitigate gaseous emissions during composting.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from concrete can be reduced by using mix proportions, geometric aspects, and age as design factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sabbie A.; Horvath, Arpad; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.; Ostertag, Claudia P.

    2015-11-01

    With increased awareness of the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the significant contribution from the cement industry, research efforts are being advanced to reduce the impacts associated with concrete production and consumption. A variety of methods have been proposed, one of the most common being the replacement of cement as a binder in concrete with supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash (FA), which can have lower environmental effects. The use of FA can change the kinetics of the hydration reactions and, consequently, modify the evolution of the concrete strength over time. Yet the influence of designing structural elements to obtain the required strength at later ages has not been examined in terms of their influence on global warming potential (GWP) of concrete. This research investigates the influence of design age, in addition to mix proportions and geometric aspects, on the GWP associated with making beams, columns, and a concrete building frame. Findings suggest that while the GWP for beams is not highly dependent on concrete mixture strength, the GWP for columns is dependent on strength, thus the influence of required strength at later ages influences GWP of making columns more so than beams. For the concrete frame analyzed, a potential 45% reduction in GWP, depending on mix proportions and design age, was found. Using the findings from this research, the GWP associated with production of concrete in California could be reduced by approximately 1.8 million metric tons of CO2-eq emissions, equivalent to approximately 2% of all industrial GHG emissions in California.

  17. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 15: GAS-ASSISTED GLYCOL PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  18. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 13: CHEMICAL INJECTION PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  19. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 12: PNEUMATIC DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  20. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 11: COMPRESSOR DRIVER EXHAUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  1. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 7: BLOW AND PURGE ACTIVITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  2. Economic development and multiple air pollutant emissions from the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between economic growth and emissions of eight environmental air pollutants (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur oxide (SOx), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH3)) in 39 countries from 1995 to 2009. We tested an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 16 individual industry sectors and for the total industrial sector. The results clarified that at least ten individual industries do not have an EKC relationship in eight air pollutants even though this relationship was observed in the country and total industrial sector level data. We found that the key industries that dictated the EKC relationship in the country and the total industrial sector existed in CO2, N2O, CO, and NMVOC emissions. Finally, the EKC turning point and the relationship between economic development and trends of air pollutant emissions differ among industries according to the pollution substances. These results suggest inducing new environmental policy design such as the sectoral crediting mechanism, which focuses on the industrial characteristics of emissions.

  3. A method to estimate emission rates from industrial stacks based on neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcese, Luis E; Toselli, Beatriz M

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents a technique based on artificial neural networks (ANN) to estimate pollutant rates of emission from industrial stacks, on the basis of pollutant concentrations measured on the ground. The ANN is trained on data generated by the ISCST3 model, widely accepted for evaluation of dispersion of primary pollutants as a part of an environmental impact study. Simulations using theoretical values and comparison with field data are done, obtaining good results in both cases at predicting emission rates. The application of this technique would allow the local environment authority to control emissions from industrial plants without need of performing direct measurements inside the plant.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Majid, E-mail: majid_qau86@yahoo.com [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Haripur, Hattar Road, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Haripur 22620 (Pakistan); Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian [Leaf Agronomy Manager, Pakistan Tobacco Company, Akora Khattak Factory, P.O. and District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Sharma, Benktesh Dash [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO{sub 2}e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO{sub 2}e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO{sub 2}e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO{sub 2}e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy

  5. Emission Mitigation of CO2 in Steel Industry:Current Status and Future Scenarios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chang-qing; CHEN Li-yun; ZHANG Chun-xia; QI Yuan-hong; YIN Rui-yu

    2006-01-01

    The sustainable development against global warming is a challenge faced by societies at global level. For steel industry, the pressure of reducing CO2 emission is likely to last many years. During the past decades, the CO2 emission per ton steel has been reduced mainly due to the improvement of energy efficiency. Entering the 21st century, the steel manufacturing route must have three functions, namely, production of high performance steel products, conversion of energy, and treatment of waste. In the near future, it is expected that existing BF-BOF and EAF routes will be improved, in order to produce high performance steels, increase the use of scrap, and integrate steel industry with other industries for mitigating CO2 emission. In the long term, using carbon-free energy, reducing agents, and storing CO2 securely or converting CO2 into a harmless substance can be presumed for tremendous reduction in CO2 emission.

  6. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rubber Industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Kroeze, C.; Rattanapan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rubber production has been taking place in Thailand for many decades. Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. We present emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the production of fresh latex, and three primary rubber products, including concentrated latex, block rubb

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rubber Industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Kroeze, C.; Rattanapan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rubber production has been taking place in Thailand for many decades. Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. We present emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the production of fresh latex, and three primary rubber products, including concentrated latex, block

  9. Iron ore industry emissions as a potential ecological risk factor for tropical coastal vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuki, Kacilda N; Oliva, Marco A; Pereira, Eduardo G

    2008-07-01

    In the coastal zone of the Espírito Santo state, Brazil, fragments of restinga, which form a natural ecosystem, share their space with an increasing number of iron ore industries. The iron ore dust and SO(2) originating from the industry processing activities can interfere with the vegetation of the adjacent ecosystems at various levels. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of industry emissions on representative members of the restinga flora, by measuring physiological and phenological parameters. Foliar samples of Ipomoea pes caprae, Canavalia rosea, Sophora tomentosa, and Schinus terebinthifolius were collected at three increasing distances from an ore industry (1.0, 5.0, and 15.0 km), and were assessed for their dust deposition, chlorophyll, and Fe content. Phenological monitoring was focused on the formation of shoots, flowers, and fruits and was also performed throughout the course of a year. The results showed that the edaphic characteristics and the mineral constitutions of the plants were affected by industry emissions. In addition, the chlorophyll content of the four species increased with proximity to the industry. Phenological data revealed that the reproductive effort, as measured by fruit production, was affected by emissions and S. tomentosa was the most affected species. The use of an integrative approach that combines biochemical and ecological data indicates that the restinga flora is under stress due to industry emissions, which on a long-term basis may put the ecosystem at risk.

  10. Iron Ore Industry Emissions as a Potential Ecological Risk Factor for Tropical Coastal Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuki, Kacilda N.; Oliva, Marco A.; Pereira, Eduardo G.

    2008-07-01

    In the coastal zone of the Espírito Santo state, Brazil, fragments of restinga, which form a natural ecosystem, share their space with an increasing number of iron ore industries. The iron ore dust and SO2 originating from the industry processing activities can interfere with the vegetation of the adjacent ecosystems at various levels. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of industry emissions on representative members of the restinga flora, by measuring physiological and phenological parameters. Foliar samples of Ipomoea pes caprae, Canavalia rosea, Sophora tomentosa, and Schinus terebinthifolius were collected at three increasing distances from an ore industry (1.0, 5.0, and 15.0 km), and were assessed for their dust deposition, chlorophyll, and Fe content. Phenological monitoring was focused on the formation of shoots, flowers, and fruits and was also performed throughout the course of a year. The results showed that the edaphic characteristics and the mineral constitutions of the plants were affected by industry emissions. In addition, the chlorophyll content of the four species increased with proximity to the industry. Phenological data revealed that the reproductive effort, as measured by fruit production, was affected by emissions and S. tomentosa was the most affected species. The use of an integrative approach that combines biochemical and ecological data indicates that the restinga flora is under stress due to industry emissions, which on a long-term basis may put the ecosystem at risk.

  11. Does trade openness affect CO2 emissions: evidence from ten newly industrialized countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Liu, Xuyi; Bae, Junghan

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines whether the hypothetical environmental Kuznet curve (EKC) exists or not and investigates how trade openness affects CO2 emissions, together with real GDP and total primary energy consumption. The study sample comprises ten newly industrialized countries (NICs-10) from 1971 to 2013. The results support the existence of hypothetical EKC and indicate that trade openness negatively and significantly affects emissions, while real GDP and energy do positive effects of emissions. Moreover, the empirical results of short-run causalities indicate feedback hypothetical linkage of real GDP and trade, unidirectional linkages from energy to emissions, and from trade to energy. The error correction terms (ECTs) reveal in the long run, feedback linkages of emissions, real GDP, and trade openness, while energy Granger causes emissions, real GDP, and trade, respectively. The study recommendations are that our policymakers should encourage and expand the trade openness in these countries, not only to restrain CO2 emissions but also to boost their growth.

  12. Decoupling of CO2-emissions from Energy Intensive Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Enevoldsen, M. K.; Ryelund, A. V.

    for own-price and cross-price elasticities of the individual fuels. Whereas elasticities for electricity and gas are found to be moderate, the own-price elasticity for oil, coal and waste is relatively high (-0.4 to -0.6), indicating that consumption of these fuels is relatively price elastic......This report shows that a decoupling between economic growth, expressed as gross value added, and CO2 emissions has been achieved in the period from 1990-2001 in many energy-intensive and less energy-intensive sectors across the Nordic countries. The report investigates the impact of prices...... and taxes on the trends in CO2 emissions on the basis of a novel method that relies on sector-specific energy prices. Whereas previous research has been unable to account for the implications of complex tax exemptions and price discounts, the present report bridges the gap and provides innovative estimates...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1583 - What are the emission points and control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....1583 What are the emission points and control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant? (a) The emission points and control requirements for an existing industrial POTW treatment plant are... control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1583 Section 63.1583 Protection...

  14. Estimation of Pre-industrial Nitrous Oxide Emission from the Terrestrial Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R.; Tian, H.; Lu, C.; Zhang, B.; Pan, S.; Yang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is currently the third most important greenhouse gases (GHG) after methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Global N2O emission increased substantially primarily due to reactive nitrogen (N) enrichment through fossil fuel combustion, fertilizer production, and legume crop cultivation etc. In order to understand how climate system is perturbed by anthropogenic N2O emissions from the terrestrial biosphere, it is necessary to better estimate the pre-industrial N2O emissions. Previous estimations of natural N2O emissions from the terrestrial biosphere range from 3.3-9.0 Tg N2O-N yr-1. This large uncertainty in the estimation of pre-industrial N2O emissions from the terrestrial biosphere may be caused by uncertainty associated with key parameters such as maximum nitrification and denitrification rates, half-saturation coefficients of soil ammonium and nitrate, N fixation rate, and maximum N uptake rate. In addition to the large estimation range, previous studies did not provide an estimate on preindustrial N2O emissions at regional and biome levels. In this study, we applied a process-based coupled biogeochemical model to estimate the magnitude and spatial patterns of pre-industrial N2O fluxes at biome and continental scales as driven by multiple input data, including pre-industrial climate data, atmospheric CO2 concentration, N deposition, N fixation, and land cover types and distributions. Uncertainty associated with key parameters is also evaluated. Finally, we generate sector-based estimates of pre-industrial N2O emission, which provides a reference for assessing the climate forcing of anthropogenic N2O emission from the land biosphere.

  15. [Effects of Eliminating Backward Production Capacities on Reduction of Dioxin Emissions in Key Industries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Lu, Yong-long; Ren, Bing-nan; Wang, Tie-yu

    2016-03-15

    Phase-out of backward production facilities can significantly reduce the emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from the industrial thermal process. An estimation of reduced dioxin emissions due to closure of backward production capacities is valuable to objectively evaluate China's efforts in and contribution to performing the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Our group previously evaluated environmental effects of the phase-out of backward production facilities on dioxin emissions from 2006 to 2009. Based on the above study, due to the phase-out of backward production capacities from 2010 to 2013, the reductions in dioxin emissions to air from power generation sector, coke sector, and iron & steel (including ferroalloy) sector were estimated to be 86.13, 133.94 and 78.78 g · a⁻¹, respectively. Because the emission factors used in this paper are a little bit conservative, the actual reduced emissions may be greater than the estimated values. Besides the industrial sectors mentioned above, reduced dioxin emissions can also be estimated in more industrial sectors such as cement, calcium carbide, metal smelting and papermaking sectors. The paper also provided methods for the future comprehensive evaluation of dioxin reduction.

  16. End-user GHG emissions from energy. Reallocation of emissions from energy industries to end users 2005-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R. (European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark)); Watterson, J. (AEA Technology plc - EEA' s European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation (ETC/ACM) (United Kingdom))

    2011-12-15

    The objective of this report is to help improve the understanding of past greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends in the energy sector from the demand or end-user side. To do this, the report develops a methodology to redistributes emissions from energy industries to the final users (by sector) of that energy. This reallocation is done on the basis of Eurostat's energy balances and GHG inventories for the energy sector as reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), for the period 2005-2009. (Author)

  17. End-user GHG emissions from energy. Reallocation of emissions from energy industries to end users 2005-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Watterson, J. [AEA Technology plc - EEA' s European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation (ETC/ACM) (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this report is to help improve the understanding of past GHG emission trends in the energy sector from the demand or end-user side. To do this, the report develops a methodology to redistributes emissions from energy industries to the final users (by sector) of that energy. This reallocation is done on the basis of Eurostat's energy balances and GHG inventories for the energy sector as reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), for the period 2005-2010. (Author)

  18. Ammonia emissions from livestock industries in Canada: Feasibility of abatement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, Richard, E-mail: richard.carew@agr.gc.c [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, 4200 Highway 97, P.O. Box 5000, Summerland, British Columbia, VOH1Z0 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    An updated national ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions inventory was employed to study the relationship between NH{sub 3} emissions and livestock industries in Canada. Emissions from animal agriculture accounted for 322 kilotonnes (kt) or 64% of Canadian NH{sub 3} emissions in 2002. Cattle and swine accounted for the bulk of livestock emissions. The provinces of Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan accounted for 28.1%, 22.0%, 18.7%, and 13.1% of total livestock emissions, respectively. Emissions from Ontario and Quebec were attributed to the intensive production of dairy, hogs and poultry. Dairy cattle emissions per hectolitre of milk were higher in Ontario and Quebec than in other provinces, while swine emissions per livestock unit were higher than either beef or dairy cattle. A review of the abatement literature indicated diet manipulation to improve N efficiency and land spreading methods are very effective techniques to lower NH{sub 3} emissions. Future research is required to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters and feces/urine separation methods. - Livestock NH{sub 3} emissions are higher in areas characterized by intensive livestock production with diet manipulation and land spreading offering the greatest potential for NH{sub 3} abatement options.

  19. Energy savings and emission reductions in industrial boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidur R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper energy use of boiler fan motors has been estimated using energy audit data. Energy savings using VSD by modulating fan speed has been estimated as well. Bill savings and associated emission reductions using VSD have been estimated and presented in this paper. It has been found that 139,412 MWh, 268,866, 159,328 MWh, and 99,580 MWh electrical energy can be saved for 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% motor loadings, respectively for 60% speed reduction. Corresponding bill savings for the aforementioned energy savings have been found to be US$7,318,335, US$14,113,933, US$8,363,812, and US135,911,944 for 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% motor loadings, respectively for 60% speed reduction. Along with energy savings, 69,770,744 kg, 134,558,329 kg, 79,738,065 kg, 49,836,603 kg of CO2 emission can be avoided for the associated energy savings as a result of energy savings using VSD for 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% motor loadings. Moreover, 32,503,558 GJ of fossil fuel can be saved for the flue gas temperature reduction as a result of reducing fan motor speed reduction. Flue gas energy savings for oxegen trim system has been estimated and found to be 549,310,130 GJ for 16.9% of excess air reduction with payback period less than a day.

  20. Improved Fossil/Industrial CO2 Emissions Modeling for the North American Carbon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Seib, B.; Mendoza, D.; Knox, S.; Fischer, M.; Murtishaw, S.

    2006-12-01

    The quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions has implications for a wide variety of scientific and policy- related questions. Improvement in inverse-estimated carbon fluxes, country-level carbon budgeting, analysis of regional emissions trading systems, and targeting of observational systems are all important applications better served by improvements in understanding where and when fossil fuel/industrial CO2 is emitted. Traditional approaches to quantifying fossil/industrial CO2 emissions have relied on national sales/consumption of fossil fuels with secondary spatial footprints performed via proxies such as population. This approach has provided global spatiotemporal resolution of one degree/monthly. In recent years the need has arisen for emission estimates that not only achieve higher spatiotemporal scales but include a process- level component. This latter attribute provides dynamic linkages between energy policy/decisionmaking and emissions for use in projecting changes to energy systems and the implications these changes may have on climate change. We have embarked on a NASA-funded research strategy to construct a process-level fossil/industrial CO2 emissions model/database for North America that will resolve fossil/industrial CO2 emissions hourly and at 36 km. This project is a critical component of the North American Carbon Program. Our approach builds off of many decades of air quality monitoring for regulated pollutants such as NOx, VOCs and CO that has been performed by regional air quality managers, states, and the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States. By using the highly resolved monitoring data supplied to the EPA, we have computed CO2 emissions for residential, commercial/industrial, transportation, and biogenic sources. This effort employs a new emissions modeling system (CONCEPT) that spatially and temporally distributes the monitored emissions across the US. We will provide a description of the methodology we have employed, the

  1. Geographical Detector Model for Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying the influencing factors of carbon dioxide emissions is not only practically but also theoretically crucial for establishing regional carbon-reduction policies, developing low-carbon economy and solving the climate problems. Therefore, we used a geographical detector model which is consists of four parts, i.e., risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector and interaction detector to analyze the effect of these social economic factors, i.e., GDP, industrial structure, urbanization rate, economic growth rate, population and road density on the increase of energy consumption carbon dioxide emissions in industrial sector in Inner Mongolia northeast of China. Thus, combining with the result of four detectors, we found that GDP and population more influence than economic growth rate, industrial structure, urbanization rate and road density. The interactive effect of any two influencing factors enhances the increase of the carbon dioxide emissions. The findings of this research have significant policy implications for regions like Inner Mongolia.

  2. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  3. Neutrino emissivity in the quark-hadron mixed phase of neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinella, William M. [Computational Science Research Center San Diego State University, San Diego, CA (United States); San Diego State University, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Weber, Fridolin [San Diego State University, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, La Jolla, CA (United States); Contrera, Gustavo A. [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET - Dept. de Fisica, UNLP, IFLP, La Plata (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Grupo de Gravitacion, Astrofisica y Cosmologia, Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, La Plata (Argentina); Orsaria, Milva G. [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Grupo de Gravitacion, Astrofisica y Cosmologia, Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-03-15

    Numerous theoretical studies using various equation of state models have shown that quark matter may exist at the extreme densities in the cores of high-mass neutron stars. It has also been shown that a phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter would result in an extended mixed phase region that would segregate phases by net charge to minimize the total energy of the phase, leading to the formation of a crystalline lattice. The existence of quark matter in the core of a neutron star may have significant consequences for its thermal evolution, which for thousands of years is facilitated primarily by neutrino emission. In this work we investigate the effect a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase can have on the neutrino emissivity from the core. To this end we calculate the equation of state using the relativistic mean-field approximation to model hadronic matter and a nonlocal extension of the three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for quark matter. Next we determine the extent of the quark-hadron mixed phase and its crystalline structure using the Glendenning construction, allowing for the formation of spherical blob, rod, and slab rare phase geometries. Finally we calculate the neutrino emissivity due to electron-lattice interactions utilizing the formalism developed for the analogous process in neutron star crusts. We find that the contribution to the neutrino emissivity due to the presence of a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase is substantial compared to other mechanisms at fairly low temperatures (

  4. Revisiting the emissions-energy-trade nexus: evidence from the newly industrializing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Kyophilavong, Phouphet

    2016-04-01

    This paper applies Pedroni's panel cointegration approach to explore the causal relationship between trade openness, carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth for the panel of newly industrialized economies (i.e., Brazil, India, China, and South Africa) over the period of 1970-2013. Our panel cointegration estimation results found majority of the variables cointegrated and confirm the long-run association among the variables. The Granger causality test indicates bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption. A unidirectional causality is found running from trade openness to carbon dioxide emission and energy consumption and economic growth to carbon dioxide emissions. The results of causality analysis suggest that the trade liberalization in newly industrialized economies induces higher energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, the causality results are checked using an innovative accounting approach which includes forecast-error variance decomposition test and impulse response function. The long-run coefficients are estimated using fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) method, and results conclude that the trade openness and economic growth reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the long run. The results of FMOLS test sound the existence of environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. It means that trade liberalization induces carbon dioxide emission with increased national output, but it offsets that impact in the long run with reduced level of carbon dioxide emissions.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from Australian beef and sheep industries; on farms, in feedlots and in transport and meat processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The Australian livestock and livestock processing industries are thought to be major sources of greenhouse gas emissions in Australia. The meat industry contributes 8% of greenhouse gas emissions, other agriculture and forest use 19%, transport 14%, manufacturing 10%, other human activity 9% and the remaining 40% comes from energy production, distribution and use. This report considers the emission control options and their applicability to the meat industry. Emission control policies like emission taxes will reduce annual farm income by $652 million for a 20% reduction in gas emissions. An alternative approach is tradeable emission quotas, but its application to Australian agriculture must be investigated. The report concludes that the small contribution of meat industries to national greenhouse emissions must be recognised and that continued research into the management of animal production systems and the economic consequences of global warming are priority issues for agriculture. Figs., tabs.

  6. Environmental inspections and emissions of the pulp and paper industry : the case of Quebec

    OpenAIRE

    Laplante, Benoit; Rilstone, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, industrial countries have enacted (or amended) many environmental laws and regulations to control and improve air and water quality. Developing countries are increasingly enacting similar legislation. But imposing a ceiling on a plant's emissions does not guarantee reduced emissions or an improved environment. Ensuring the attainment of the regulation's objectives requires monitoring the behavior of the regulated facility and enforcing environmental standards. Most of t...

  7. Trace Element Accumulation in Selected Bioindicators Exposed to Emissions along the Industrial Facilities of Danube Lowland

    OpenAIRE

    SPIEGEL, Heide

    2002-01-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the effects of the atmospheric emissions of two significant industrial centres of the Danube Lowland: the Schwechat and Slovnaft refineries. In this connection the environmental pollution of emission zones by heavy metals on the base of selected bioindicators (soil, lucerne, wheat, earthworms) should be evaluated. The phenomenon of the atmospheric impact of heavy metal aerosols on the food chain and substance transfer for the model studied (...

  8. CO{sub 2} emissions and reduction potential in China's chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Bing [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Zhou, Wenji; Hu, Shanying; Li, Qiang; Jin, Yong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Griffy-Brown, Charla [Graziadio School of Business, Pepperdine University, Los Angeles, CA 90045 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    GHG (Increasing greenhouse gas) emissions in China imposes enormous pressure on China's government and society. The increasing GHG trend is primarily driven by the fast expansion of high energy-intensive sectors including the chemical industry. This study investigates energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in the processes of chemical production in China through calculating the amounts of CO{sub 2} emissions and estimating the reduction potential in the near future. The research is based on a two-level perspective which treats the entire industry as Level one and six key sub-sectors as Level two, including coal-based ammonia, calcium carbide, caustic soda, coal-based methanol, sodium carbonate, and yellow phosphorus. These two levels are used in order to address the complexity caused by the fact that there are more than 40 thousand chemical products in this industry and the performance levels of the technologies employed are extremely uneven. Three scenarios with different technological improvements are defined to estimate the emissions of the six sub-sectors and analyze the implied reduction potential in the near future. The results highlight the pivotal role that regulation and policy administration could play in controlling the CO{sub 2} emissions by promoting average technology performances in this industry. (author)

  9. Enhancement of Exciton Emission in Lead Halide-Based Layered Perovskites by Cation Mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Masanao; Komatsu, Yumeko; Sakamoto, Naotaka

    2016-04-01

    Spin-coated films of a lead halide, PbX: X = I and Br, layered perovskites having cyclohexenylethyl ammonium molecule as an organic layer, which were mixed with other metal halide-based layered perovskites consisting of various divalent metal halides (for example, Ca2, Cdl2, FeI2, SnBr2 and so on), were prepared. The results of X-ray diffraction measurements exhibited that solid solution formation between PbX-based layered perovskite and other divalent metal halide-based layered perovskites was observed up to very high molar concentration of 50 molar% in the mixed film samples when divalent cations having ionic radius close to that of Pb2+ were employed. In the solid solution films, the exciton emission was much enhanced at room temperature. Exciton emission intensity of Pbl-based layered perovskite mixed with Cal-based layered perovskite (20 molar%) is about 5 times large that of the pristine Pbl-based layered perovskite, and that of PbBr-based layered perovskite mixed with SnBr-based layered perovskite (20 molar%) was also about 5 times large that of the pristine PbBr-based layered perovskite at room temperature.

  10. CO2 emissions associated with electric vehicle charging: The impact of electricity generation mix, charging infrastructure availability and vehicle type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce; Miller, John; O’Shaughnessy, Eric; Wood, Eric; Shapiro, Evan

    2016-06-01

    The emission reduction benefits of EVs are dependent on the time and location of charging. An analysis of battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles under four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles shows that CO2 emissions are highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix. Availability of workplace charging generally results in lower emissions, while restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions.

  11. Electricity production and SO{sub 2} emissions in Poland`s power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salay, J.

    1996-09-01

    The report analyzes how the Polish power industry`s electricity production and SO{sub 2} emissions have changed between 1988 and 1994. It examines to what extent the Polish government`s reform of air pollution control and its reorganization of the power industry affected power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions in the same period. SO{sub 2} emissions from Polish power plants fell by 37% in 1988-1994. The drop in emissions was partly a result of the fall in economic activity and electricity production in the early 1990s. The main reasons for the emission reduction were the introduction of hard budget constraints, increased coal prices, and stricter enforcement of air pollution control. These reforms created strong incentives for power plants to switch to high-quality coal with lower sulfur content and higher heating value. Improved efficiency of electricity generation also contributed to the fall in SO{sub 2} emissions. 32 refs, 15 figs, 1 tab

  12. China to Strengthen the Effort for Industrial Energy-Saving,Consumption Reduction, Emission Reduction and Pollution Control in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Li Yizhong, Minister of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, said on February 1, 2010 that China would take four measures to enhance industrial energy-saving, consumption reduction, emission reduction, and pollution control in 2010.

  13. Spatial Assessment of Cancer Incidences and the Risks of Industrial Wastewater Emission in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingru Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s rapid economic growth and social transitions have deteriorated environmental conditions and caused further public health issues in last three decades. This study examines the complex mechanisms of how socioeconomic transitions and physical environmental conditions impact public health, especially with respect to increasing cancer incidences in mainland China from a spatial-temporal perspective. Specifically, (1 spatial variations of seven types of cancer incidences were analyzed in relation to heavy metal emissions from industrial wastewater at the prefecture-level city scale from 2004 to 2009. Additionally; (2 spatial statistical methods were employed to explore the associations between health outcome, heavy metal emissions from industrial wastewater (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, lead, as well as socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and physical environmental factors (hydrology and vegetation coverage. Results showed a significant increase of cancer incidences between 2004 and 2009. Consistent with the spatial pattern of heavy metal emissions, cancer patient clusters were identified in both traditional industrial bases and newly industrialized economic zones, especially in major cities located at downstream watersheds, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenyang, and Wuhan. The results also revealed the double-edged effects of industrialization, economic growth, and urbanization on natural environment and human health. The findings provide informative knowledge of heavy metal pollution and cancer outbreaks in China and therefore offer valuable reference for authorities formulating regulations.

  14. Micro-Mixing Lean-Premix System for Ultra-Low Emission Hydrogen/Syngas Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlendur Steinthorsson; Brian Hollon; Adel Mansour

    2010-06-30

    The focus of this project was to develop the next generation of fuel injection technologies for environmentally friendly, hydrogen syngas combustion in gas turbine engines that satisfy DOE's objectives of reducing NOx emissions to 3 ppm. Building on Parker Hannifin's proven Macrolamination technology for liquid fuels, Parker developed a scalable high-performing multi-point injector that utilizes multiple, small mixing cups in place of a single conventional large-scale premixer. Due to the small size, fuel and air mix rapidly within the cups, providing a well-premixed fuel-air mixture at the cup exit in a short time. Detailed studies and experimentation with single-cup micro-mixing injectors were conducted to elucidate the effects of various injector design attributes and operating conditions on combustion efficiency, lean stability and emissions and strategies were developed to mitigate the impact of flashback. In the final phase of the program, a full-scale 1.3-MWth multi-cup injector was built and tested at pressures from 6.9bar (100psi) to 12.4bar (180psi) and flame temperatures up to 2000K (3150 F) using mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas as fuel with nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The injector operated without flash back on fuel mixtures ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% hydrogen and emissions were shown to be insensitive to combustor pressure. NOx emissions of 3-ppm were achieved at a flame temperature of 1750K (2690 F) when operating on a fuel mixture containing 50% hydrogen and 50% natural gas by volume with 40% nitrogen dilution and 1.5-ppm NOx was achieved at a flame temperature of 1680K (2564 F) using only 10% nitrogen dilution. NOx emissions of 3.5-ppm were demonstrated at a flame temperature of 1730K (2650 F) with only 10% carbon dioxide dilution. Finally, 3.6-ppm NOx emissions were demonstrated at a flame temperature over 1600K (2420 F) when operating on 100% hydrogen fuel with 30% carbon dioxide dilution. Superior

  15. Ending emissions: Industry targets venting, while flaring progress lauded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, N.

    2003-06-01

    The progress achieved by the multi-stakeholder solution gas flaring reduction program in Alberta is discussed. The program was initiated in 1999 by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB); within the first three years upstream flaring of solution gas was reduced by 53 per cent. Progress has also been made in reducing volumes of solution gas venting: between 1996 and 2001, there has been a 32 per cent reduction in combined flared and vented volumes of solution gas. Well test flaring has also been reduced by reduced test durations and volumes, to wit: there has been a 3 per cent reduction in flaring volumes while well tests have increased by 23 per cent. At gas plants, the decrease in flaring and venting amounted to 19 per cent, attributed mostly to industry response to the EUB's Guide 60, which incorporates many of the recommendations of the 2002 report and recommendations of the Flaring/Venting Project Team of the Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA).

  16. Detection of gross errors using mixed integer optimization approach in process industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Cong-li; SU Hong-ye; CHU Jian

    2007-01-01

    A novel mixed integer linear programming (NMILP) model for detection of gross errors is presented in this paper.Yamamura et al.(1988) designed a model for detection of gross errors and data reconciliation based on Akaike information criterion (AIC). But much computational cost is needed due to its combinational nature. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP)approach was performed to reduce the computational cost and enhance the robustness. But it loses the super performance of maximum likelihood estimation. To reduce the computational cost and have the merit of maximum likelihood estimation, the simultaneous data reconciliation method in an MILP framework is decomposed and replaced by an NMILP subproblem and a quadratic programming (QP) or a least squares estimation (LSE) subproblem. Simulation result of an industrial case shows the high efficiency of the method.

  17. Critical levels and loads and the regulation of industrial emissions in northwest British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williston, P.; Aherne, J.; Watmough, S.; Marmorek, D.; Hall, A.; de la Cueva Bueno, P.; Murray, C.; Henolson, A.; Laurence, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Northwest British Columbia, Canada, a sparsely populated and largely pristine region, is targeted for rapid industrial growth owing to the modernization of an aluminum smelter and multiple proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities. Consequently, air quality in this region is expected to undergo considerable changes within the next decade. In concert, the increase in LNG capacity driven by gas production from shale resources across North America has prompted environmental concerns and highlighted the need for science-based management decisions regarding the permitting of air emissions. In this study, an effects-based approach widely-used to support transboundary emissions policy negotiations was used to assess industrial air emissions in the Kitimat and Prince Rupert airsheds under permitted and future potential industrial emissions. Critical levels for vegetation of SO2 and NO2 and critical loads of acidity and nutrient nitrogen for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were estimated for both regions and compared with modelled concentration and deposition estimates to identify the potential extent and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. The critical level for SO2 was predicted to be exceeded in an area ranging from 81 to 251 km2 in the Kitimat airshed owing to emissions from an existing smelter, compared with acidity for soil ranged from 1 to 28 km2 in Kitimat and 4-10 km2 in Prince Rupert, while the areal exceedance of empirical critical load for nutrient N was predicted to be greater in the Prince Rupert airshed (20-94 km2) than in the Kitimat airshed (1-31 km2). The number of lakes that exceeded the critical load of acidity did not vary greatly across emissions scenarios in the Kitimat (21-23 out of 80 sampled lakes) and Prince Rupert (0 out of 35 sampled lakes) airsheds. While critical loads have been widely used to underpin international emissions reductions of transboundary pollutants, it is clear that they can also play an important role in managing regional

  18. The development of the Czech Republic electric industry - Reliable, safe and responsible source mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, Miroslav; Jez, Jiri; Ptacek, Jiri

    2010-09-15

    The paper focuses on the development of the Czech Republic electric industry in close perspective and the prediction of its expected future in period up to 2030. The goal of the paper is to specify methods and procedures applied within periodic assessment of Czech electric power sector balance outlook for the State authorities. A necessity to respect economic recession and politicization of the issue of power sector development has invoked that these items are added to commonly used procedures. A key criterion is the reliable and safe electricity supply by adequate source mix for acceptable prices and environmental aspects.

  19. Use of a moss biomonitoring method to compile emission inventories for small-scale industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Z; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Real, C; Fernández, J A

    2014-06-30

    We used a method of detecting small-scale pollution sources (DSSP) that involves measurement of the concentrations of elements in moss tissues, with the following aims: (i) to determine any common qualitative patterns of contaminant emissions for individual industrial sectors, (ii) to compare any such patterns with previously described patterns, and (iii) to compile an inventory of the metals and metalloids emitted by the industries considered. Cluster analysis revealed that there were no common patterns of emission associated with the industrial sectors, probably because of differences in production processes and in the types of fuel and raw materials. However, when these variables were shared by different factories, the concentrations of the elements in moss tissues enabled the factories to be grouped according to their emissions. We compiled a list of the metals and metalloids emitted by the factories under study and found that the DSSP method was satisfactory for this purpose in most cases (53 of 56). The method appears to be a useful tool for compiling contaminant inventories; it may also be useful for determining the efficacy of technical improvements aimed at reducing the industrial emission of contaminants and could be incorporated in environmental monitoring and control programmes.

  20. Assessing industrial energy use and CO2 emissions : Opportunities for energy efficiency, biomass and CCS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314118101

    2012-01-01

    A large body of literature deals with issues related to monitoring of industrial energy use and CO2 emissions, assessment of the potentials of low-carbon technologies and the development of long term scenarios. However, in these assessments knowledge gaps and large uncertainties continue to exist. M

  1. Odor compounds in waste gas emissions from agricultural operations and food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappert, S; Müller, R

    2005-01-01

    In the last decades, large-scale agricultural operations and food industries have increased. These operations generate numerous types of odors. The reduction of land areas available for isolation of agricultural and food processing industrial operations from the public area and the increase in sensitivity and demand of the general public for a clean and pleasant environment have forced all of these industries to control odor emissions and toxic air pollutants. To develop environmentally sound, sustainable agricultural and food industrial operations, it is necessary to integrate research that focuses on modern analytical techniques and latest sensory technology of measurement and evaluation of odor and pollution, together with a fundamental knowledge of factors that are the basic units contributing to the production of odor and pollutants. Without a clear understanding of what odor is, how to measure it, and where it originates, it will be difficult to control the odor. The present paper reviews the available information regarding odor emissions from agricultural operations and food industries by giving an overview about odor problems, odor detection and quantification, and identifying the sources and the mechanisms that contribute to the odor emissions. Finally, ways of reducing or controlling the odor problem are discussed.

  2. Exergy analysis on industrial boiler energy conservation and emission evaluation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan

    2017-06-01

    Industrial boiler is one of the most energy-consuming equipments in china, the annual consumption of energy accounts for about one-third of the national energy consumption. Industrial boilers in service at present have several severe problems such as small capacity, low efficiency, high energy consumption and causing severe pollution on environment. In recent years, our country in the big scope, long time serious fog weather, with coal-fired industrial boilers is closely related to the regional characteristics of high strength and low emissions [1]. The energy-efficient and emission-reducing of industry boiler is of great significance to improve China’s energy usage efficiency and environmental protection. Difference in thermal equilibrium theory is widely used in boiler design, exergy analysis method is established on the basis of the first law and second law of thermodynamics, by studying the cycle of the effect of energy conversion and utilization, to analyze its influencing factors, to reveal the exergy loss of location, distribution and size, find out the weak links, and a method of mining system of the boiler energy saving potential. Exergy analysis method is used for layer combustion boiler efficiency and pollutant emission characteristics analysis and evaluation, and can more objectively and accurately the energy conserving potential of the mining system of the boiler, find out the weak link of energy consumption, and improve equipment performance to improve the industrial boiler environmental friendliness.

  3. The role of industrial processes in the reduction of selected greenhouse gases emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski Maciej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the selected anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG emission sources in industrial processes, as well as the mitigation policies and measures in Annex I Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. [Text of the United Nations … 1992].The main gas in this category is carbon dioxide, but several countries have a dominant share of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs with a clear upward trend in their emissions. In Poland, the majority of the GHG emissions from industrial processes come from three categories: refrigeration and air-conditioning (HFCs, cement production (CO2 and ammonia production (CO2. An analysis of the policies and measures implemented or planned in this group of countries shows that voluntary programs and agreements among governments and stakeholders are the most effective. A crucial element of the voluntary programs is the support to assist enterprises in the transition to the best low carbon technologies and practices.

  4. Magnetic characteristics of industrial dust from different sources of emission: A case study of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszkiewicz, Marcin; Magiera, Tadeusz; Kapička, Aleš; Petrovský, Eduard; Grison, Hanna; Gołuchowska, Beata

    2015-05-01

    Dust emission and deposition in topsoil have negative effect on individual components of the ecosystem. In addition to routine geochemical analyses, magnetic measurements may provide useful complementary information related to the type, concentration and grain-size distribution of the technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) and thus the degree of contamination of the environment. The aim of this contribution is to use magnetic parameters in distinguishing dust from a wide range of sources of air pollution (power industry, cement, coke, ceramic industries and biomass combustion). We measured magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters and thermomagnetic curves. Our results suggest that predominant component in tested samples is magnetite, only dust from coking plant and the combustion of lignite contained also maghemite and/or hematite. Mixture of sizes, ranging from fine single-domain to coarse multi-domain grains, was detected. Our results indicate that industrial dusts from various sources of emissions have different specific magnetic properties and magnetic measurements may provide very helpful information.

  5. Application research on big data in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bingdong; Chen, Jing; Wang, Mei; Yao, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    In the context of big data age, the energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation is a natural big data industry. The planning, management, decision-making of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation and other aspects should be supported by the analysis and forecasting of large amounts of data. Now, with the development of information technology, such as intelligent city, sensor road and so on, information collection technology in the direction of the Internet of things gradually become popular. The 3G/4G network transmission technology develop rapidly, and a large number of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data is growing into a series with different ways. The government not only should be able to make good use of big data to solve the problem of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation, but also to explore and use a large amount of data behind the hidden value. Based on the analysis of the basic characteristics and application technology of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data, this paper carries out its application research in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry, so as to provide theoretical basis and reference value for low carbon management.

  6. Economic implications of reducing carbon emissions from energy use and industrial processes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-H Henry; Timilsina, Govinda R; Landis, Florian

    2013-11-30

    This study assesses the economy-wide impacts of cutting CO2 emissions on the Brazilian economy. It finds that in 2040, the business-as-usual CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes would be almost three times as high as those in 2010 and would account for more than half of total national CO2 emissions. The current policy aims to reduce deforestation by 70 percent by 2017 and lower emissions intensity of the overall economy by 36-39 percent by 2020. If the policy were implemented as planned and continued to 2040, there would be no need to cut CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes until 2035, as emissions reduction through controlling deforestation would be enough to meet the voluntary carbon mitigation target of Brazil. The study also finds that using the carbon tax revenue to subsidize wind power can effectively increase the country's wind power output if that is the policy priority. Further, it finds evidence supporting the double dividend hypothesis, i.e., using revenue from a hypothetical carbon tax to finance a cut in labor income tax can significantly lower the GDP impacts of the carbon tax. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A System of Tradable Permits to Control Emission of Greenhouse Gases in Norway. Challenges for the Petroleum Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, Per

    1998-07-01

    This presentation discusses the instruments of climate policy, comments on carbon taxes, outlines a tradable permits system, tradable permits and the petroleum industry, revenue from the offshore, and clarifies impact for the petroleum industry. Measures to reduce emissions are grouped into four: (1) Taxes on the emitted quantity, (2) Regulations that force companies to use certain processes or technologies, (3) Emission permits, (4) Information.

  8. Temporal and spatial characteristics of lead emissions from the lead-acid battery manufacturing industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Tian, Jinping; Chen, Lujun; Guo, Yang

    2017-01-01

    An inventory of lead emissions was established for the lead-acid battery (LAB) manufacturing industry in China from 2000 to 2014. The lead emissions from the LAB manufacturing industry increased from 133 t in 2000 to a peak at 281 t in 2010 with the rapid development of LAB industry. Since 2011, a mandatory national clean action on LAB industry and a series of retrofitting measures have been implemented in China. As a result, more than 80% of small and low-efficient LAB manufacturers were closed, and technical-environmental performance of the industry has been improved significantly. Thus the lead emissions from the industry declined to 113 t in 2014. Geographically, lead emissions were attributed to several provinces with intensive LAB manufacturers, including Zhejiang, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Hebei Province. Spatial transfer of the LAB manufacturing industry from developed areas to developing areas in China was manifest due to strict environmental regulation, posing potential environmental risks to the areas undertaking the industry transfer. In light of the effectiveness of the national clean action, the LAB manufacturing industry will reduce lead emissions further by implementing the entry criteria strictly, adopting policy of total lead emissions control, and establishing a long-term regulatory mechanism for LAB manufacturers. The local authorities in some developing areas should improve abilities of environmental supervision and environmental risk prevention to deal with the spillover of lead emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduction of EMC Emissions in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits with Embedded LIN Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hartl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes several methods for reduction of electromagnetic emissions (EME of mixed signal integrated circuits (IC. The focus is on the impact that a LIN bus communication block has on a complex IC which contains analog blocks, noisy digital block, micro-core (µC and several types of memories. It is used in an automotive environment, where EMC emission reduction is one of the key success factors. Several proposed methods for EME reduction are described and implemented on three test chips. These methods include current consumption reduction, internal on-chip decoupling, ground separation and different linear voltage regulator topologies. Measurement results of several fabricated test chips are shown and discussed.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Majid; Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Sharma, Benktesh Dash

    2014-10-01

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO2e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO2e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO2e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO2e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO2e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy from crop residues, and promotion of organic

  11. A STRATEGIC PROGRAM TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS PRODUCED FROM FOOD INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Kilic [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, University of Nigde, Nigde (Turkey); A. Midilli [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigde (Turkey); I. Dincer [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-09-30

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions are at every stage of conventional food production (planting, harvesting, irrigation, food production, transportation, and application of pesticides and fertilizers, etc.). In this study, a strategic program is proposed to reduce GHGs emissions resulting during conventional food production. The factors which form the basis of this strategic program are energy, environment and sustainability. The results show that the application of sustainable food processing technologies can significantly reduce GHGs emissions resulting from food industry. Moreover, minimizing the utilization of fossil-fuel energy sources and maximizing the utilization of renewable energy sources results in the reduction of GHGs emissions during food production, which in turn reduces the effect of global warming.

  12. EU energy-intensive industries and emissions trading: losers becoming winners?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettestad, Joergen

    2008-11-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) initially treated power producers and energy-intensive industries similarly, despite clear structural differences between these industries regarding pass through of costs and vulnerability to global competition. Hence, the energy-intensive industries could be seen as losing out in the internal distribution. In the January 2008 proposal for a reformed ETS post-2012, a differentiated system was proposed where the energy-intensive industries come out relatively much better. What is the explanation for the change taking place? Although power producers still have a dominant position in the system, the increasing consensus about windfall profits has weakened their standing. Conversely, the energy-intensive industries have become better organised and more active. This balance shift is first and foremost noticeable in several important EU-level stake holder consultation processes. Energy-intensive industries have, however, also successfully utilised the national pathway to exert influence on Brussels policy-making. Finally, growing fear of lax global climate policies and related carbon leakage has strengthened the case of these industries further. The latter dimension indicates that although energy-intensive industries have managed to reduce internal distribution anomalies, external challenges remain. (author). 9 refs

  13. Emissions Reductions Associated with the Use of Warm-Mix Asphalt as Compared to Hot-Mix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    processes generating greenhouse gases. The motivation was to meet strict emissions regulations set forth by the Kyoto Protocol (Prowell et al. 2012...estimating emissions during asphalt production, current protocols to measure and control emissions, and case studies where WMA emissions were measured and...Research Program (NCHRP) funded project 9-47a to update the Protocol for Documenting Emissions and Energy Reductions of WMA and Conventional HMA

  14. Curbing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Boilers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn K [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsen, Katherine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Xiangyang, Wei [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Yunpeng, Zhang [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Jian, Guan [China Special Equipment Inspection & Test Inst. (China); Rui, Hou [China Machinery Industry Conservation & Resource Utilization Center (China); Junfeng, Zhang [China National Offshore Oil Corp. (China); Yuqun, Zhuo [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Shumao, Xia [China Energy Conservation & Environmental Protection Group (China); Yafeng, Han [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China); Manzhi, Liu [China Univ. of Mining and Technology (China)

    2015-10-28

    China’s industrial boiler systems consume 700 million tons of coal annually, accounting for 18% of the nation’s total coal consumption. Together these boiler systems are one of the major sources of China’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 1.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. These boiler systems are also responsible for 33% and 27% of total soot and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, respectively, making a substantial contribution to China’s local environmental degradation. The Chinese government - at both the national and local level - is taking actions to mitigate the significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution related to the country’s extensive use of coal-fired industrial boilers. The United States and China are pursuing a collaborative effort under the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to conduct a comprehensive assessment of China’s coal-fired industrial boilers and to develop an implementation roadmap that will improve industrial boiler efficiency and maximize fuel-switching opportunities. Two Chinese cities – Ningbo and Xi’an – have been selected for the assessment. These cities represent coastal areas with access to liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and inland regions with access to interprovincial natural gas pipelines, respectively.

  15. The predicted impact of increased formaldehyde emissions from industrial flares on ozone concentrations in Houston, TX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. T.; Vizuete, W.

    2015-12-01

    Houston features one of the largest concentrations of the petrochemical industry in all of North America and flares are widely used there as the final treatment process for unwanted volatile organic compounds. These flares have the potential to produce formaldehyde as the result of incomplete combustion. Formaldehyde emissions are an important precursor to producing hydroxyl radicals and thus can impact atmospheric chemistry and the formation of ozone. Formaldehyde emissions from flares, however, are difficult to measure in situ. Recently, alternative measurement techniques have been developed, like open path optical methods, that allow the direct measurement of flare emissions from the facility's fence line (Johansson et al., 2014; Pikelnaya, Flynn, Tsai, & Stutz, 2013). This observational data indicates that the emission rate of formaldehyde from flares is about 10-20 times greater than those found in the regulatory models developed by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ). This research will use air quality models to quantify the impact that increased formaldehyde emission from flares will have on Houston ozone concentrations. This study relies on the CAMx model (version 6.1) and emission data developed by Alpine Geophysics LLC (AG) and Climate & Atmospheric Research Associates (CARA) based on the combined databases from TCEQ, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and National Emission Inventory (NEI2008). This model also used meteorology data from the results of WRF-ARW dynamics. The CAMx generated process analysis data will also be used to quantify changes in radical budgets and NOx budgets critical to ozone production.

  16. Mobile monitoring of fugitive methane emissions from natural gas consumer industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Albertson, J. D.; Gaylord, A.; von Fischer, J.; Rudek, J.; Thoma, E. D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas is used as a feedstock for major industrial processes, such as ammonia and fertilizer production. However, fugitive methane emissions from many major end-use sectors of the natural gas supply chain have not been quantified yet. This presentation introduces new tools for estimating emission rates from mobile methane measurements, and examines results from recent field measurements conducted downwind of several industrial plants using a specialized vehicle equipped with fast response methane sensor. Using these data along with local meteorological data measured by a 3-D sonic anemometer, a Bayesian approach is applied to probabilistically infer methane emission rates based on a modified Gaussian dispersion model. Source rates are updated recursively with repeated traversals of the downwind methane plume when the vehicle was circling around the targeted facilities. Data from controlled tracer release experiments are presented and used to validate the approach. With access via public roads, this mobile monitoring method is able to quickly assess the emission strength of facilities along the sensor path. This work is developing the capacity for efficient regional coverage of potential methane emission rates in support of leak detection and mitigation efforts.

  17. Emission of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs from metallurgy industries in S. Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Byeong-Woon; Jin, Guang-Zhu; Moon, Young-Hoon; Kim, Min-Kwan; Kyoung, Jong-Dai; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2006-01-01

    The metallurgy industry and municipal waste incinerators are considered the main sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in many countries. This study investigated the emission factors and total emissions of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) emitted from metallurgy industries (including ferrous and nonferrous foundries) in Korea. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) emission factor of PCDD/Fs was the highest for secondary copper production, at 24451 ng I-TEQ/ton. The total estimated emissions of PCDD/Fs from these sources were 35.259 g I-TEQ/yr, comprising 0.088 g I-TEQ/yr from ferrous foundries, 31.713 g I-TEQ/yr from copper production, 1.716 g I-TEQ/yr from lead production, 0.111 g I-TEQ/yr from zinc production, and 1.631 g I-TEQ/yr from aluminum production. The total estimated annual amounts of dioxin-like PCBs emitted from these sources were 13.260 g WHO-TEQ/yr, comprising 0.014 g WHO-TEQ/yr from ferrous foundries, 12.675 g WHO-TEQ/yr from copper production, 0.170 g WHO-TEQ/yr from lead production, 0.017 g WHO-TEQ/yr from zinc production, and 0.384 g WHO-TEQ/yr from aluminum production. The highest emission factor was found for secondary copper smelting, at 9770 ng WHO-TEQ/ton.

  18. Respirable Crystalline Silica (RCS) emissions from industrial plants - Results from measurement programmes in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, C.; Noll, G.; Wusterhausen, E.; Kalkoff, W.-D.; Remus, R.; Lehmann, C.

    2013-04-01

    Numerous research articles dealing with Respirable Crystalline Silica (RCS) in occupational health because epidemiological studies reveal an association between RCS-dust and the development of silicosis as well as an increased probability of developing lung cancer. Research activities about RCS in ambient air are known from US-measurements. However there is a lack of knowledge regarding RCS-emissions in several industrial sectors. Industrial sources of crystalline silica include construction, foundries, glass manufacturing, abrasive blasting or any industrial or commercial use of silica sand, and mining and rock crushing operations. This paper describes a RCS-emission measurement method for stack gases and report results from the German RCS-emission measurement programmes which were used to identify installations and types of industries with the highest concentration levels of RCS in stack gases. A two-stage cascade impactor was used for the measurements which separate particles into the following size fractions: >10 μm, 10-4 μm und plants are located in different German states such as Bavaria, North Rhine Westphalia, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saxony-Anhalt. The results of the measurements show that most of the investigated plants can achieve compliance with the newly developed German emission limit value (ELV) of 1 mg m-3. The ELV is expressed as the concentration of RCS in stack emissions. According to the German emission minimising principle and the precautionary principle it is assumed that by complying with the RCS-ELV there is no ambient air health risk for people living these plants. In the case of increased total dust concentration in the stack gas (more than 20 mg m-3) combined with increased percentage of crystalline silica in PM4 dust, a violation of the above mentioned ELV is more likely. This applies mostly to installations in the silica sand processing industry. To comply with the ELV of 1 mg m-3, efficient emission control

  19. Analysis of the Relationship between China’s IPPU CO2 Emissions and the Industrial Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Duan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC 2006 and based on the production technology and products, this paper has calculated CO2 emissions from industrial processes and product use (IPPU, which involves the individual and the summation of five major IPUU CO2 emissions industrial departments. As there is a classic environmental Kuznets curve between IPPU CO2 emissions and the economy, this paper discusses the relationship based on the calculation results and the actual situation. The results show that the overall emission level is indeed rising yearly, and that steel and iron alloy manufacturing and nonmetal manufacturing occupy about 80% of the total emissions. The IPPU CO2 emissions and the corresponding gross industrial output value do not present a classic Kuznets curve in most industrial sectors due to the increasing industrial employed population. The year 2002 appears to be the boundary instead, where prior to 2002, there is a relatively stable function-type growth curve and after 2002, gross industrial output value (GIOV per employed person remained within a certain interval while IPPU CO2 emissions per employed dipped slightly then increased again. Some, but not all, industrial departments and the combined emissions of per employed person reached maximum values in 2012.

  20. Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations on the U.S. Sugar Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Richard D; Koo, Won W.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the changes in U.S. sugar production and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from the sugar industry if the United States regulates GHG emissions from domestic sugar processing facilities. A spatial equilibrium model is developed to optimize sugar production in the United States under a base scenario and three different levels of CO2e taxes or prices of carbon offsets. This research focuses on U.S. sugar production, both beet and cane sugar. In the model ...

  1. Seed production of woody plants in conditions of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Gritzay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions on woody plants bearing parameters was examined. The results obtained show the decrease of bearing rate, diminution of seeds, fruits and seed cells sizes in woody plants affected by technogenic emissions. Attenuation of the 1000 seeds’ weight was established. Incresing the amount of fruits with development deviations was ascertained. It was found aplasia and abnormal form of the samara fruit of ash and ailanthus trees, arcuation and narrowing of some parts of the catalpa fruitcases. Practical recommendations on using seeds’ sensitive parameters in biomonitoring of woody phytocenoses under technogenic stressful conditions are proposed.

  2. Neutrino emissivity in the quark-hadron mixed phase of neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Spinella, William M; Contrera, Gustavo A; Orsaria, Milva G

    2015-01-01

    Numerous theoretical studies using various equation of state models have shown that quark matter may exist at the extreme densities in the cores of high-mass neutron stars. It has also been shown that a phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter would result in an extended mixed phase region that would segregate phases by net charge to minimize the total energy of the phase, leading to the formation of a crystalline lattice. The existence of quark matter in the core of a neutron star may have significant consequences for its thermal evolution, which for thousands of years is facilitated primarily by neutrino emission. In this work we investigate the effect a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase can have on the neutrino emissivity from the core. To this end we calculate the equation of state using the relativistic mean-field approximation to model hadronic matter and a nonlocal extension of the three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for quark matter. Next we determine the extent of the quark-hadron m...

  3. Superradiant cascade emissions in an atomic ensemble via four-wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jen, H.H., E-mail: sappyjen@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    We investigate superradiant cascade emissions from an atomic ensemble driven by two-color classical fields. The correlated pair of photons (signal and idler) is generated by adiabatically driving the system with large-detuned light fields via four-wave mixing. The signal photon from the upper transition of the diamond-type atomic levels is followed by the idler one which can be superradiant due to light-induced dipole–dipole interactions. We then calculate the cooperative Lamb shift (CLS) of the idler photon, which is a cumulative effect of interaction energy. We study its dependence on a cylindrical geometry, a conventional setup in cold atom experiments, and estimate the maximum CLS which can be significant and observable. Manipulating the CLS of cascade emissions enables frequency qubits that provide alternative robust elements in quantum network. - Highlights: • Superradiance from a cascade atomic transition. • Correlated photon pair generation via four-wave mixing. • Dynamical light–matter couplings in a phased symmetrical state. • Cooperative Lamb shift in a cylindrical atomic ensemble.

  4. Mixed Carbon Policies Based on Cooperation of Carbon Emission Reduction in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper established cooperation decision model for a mixed carbon policy of carbon trading-carbon tax (environmental tax in a two-stage S-M supply chain. For three different cooperative abatement situations, we considered the supplier driven model, the manufacturer driven model, and the equilibrium game model. We investigated the influence of mixed carbon policy with constraint of reduction targets on supply chain price, productivity, profits, carbon emissions reduction rate, and so on. The results showed that (1 high-strength carbon policies do not necessarily encourage enterprises to effectively reduce emissions, and increasing market acceptance of low carbon products or raising the price of carbon quota can promote the benign reduction; (2 perfect competitive carbon market has a higher carbon reduction efficiency than oligarch carbon market, but their optimal level of cooperation is the same and the realized reduction rate is in line with the intensity of carbon policy; (3 the policy sensitivity of the carbon trading mechanism is stronger than the carbon tax; “paid quota mechanism” can subsidize the cost of abatement and improve reduction initiative. Finally, we use a numerical example to solve the optimal decisions under different market situations, validating the effectiveness of model and the conclusions.

  5. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the industrial sector and identifies opportunities for non-GHG-emitting thermal energy sources to replace the most significant GHG-emitting U.S. industries based on targeted, process-level analysis of industrial heat requirements. The intent is to provide a basis for projecting opportunities for clean energy use. This provides a prospectus for small modular nuclear reactors (including nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems), solar industrial process heat, and geothermal energy. This report provides a complement to analysis of process-efficiency improvement by considering how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions.

  6. Observing entrainment mixing, photochemical ozone production, and regional methane emissions by aircraft using a simple mixed-layer framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousdell, Justin F.; Conley, Stephen A.; Post, Andy; Faloona, Ian C.

    2016-12-01

    In situ flight data from two distinct campaigns during winter and summer seasons in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California are used to calculate boundary-layer entrainment rates, ozone photochemical production rates, and regional methane emissions. Flights near Fresno, California, in January and February 2013 were conducted in concert with the NASA DISCOVER-AQ project. The second campaign (ArvinO3), consisting of 11 days of flights spanning June through September 2013 and 2014, focused on the southern end of the SJV between Bakersfield and the small town of Arvin, California - a region notorious for frequent violations of ozone air quality standards. Entrainment velocities, the parameterized rates at which free tropospheric air is incorporated into the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), are estimated from a detailed budget of the inversion base height. During the winter campaign near Fresno, we find an average midday entrainment velocity of 1.5 cm s-1, and a maximum of 2.4 cm s-1. The entrainment velocities derived during the summer months near Bakersfield averaged 3 cm s-1 (ranging from 0.9 to 6.5 cm s-1), consistent with stronger surface heating in the summer months. Using published data on boundary-layer heights we find that entrainment rates across the Central Valley of California have a bimodal annual distribution peaking in spring and fall when the lower tropospheric stability (LTS) is changing most rapidly.Applying the entrainment velocities to a simple mixed-layer model of three other scalars (O3, CH4, and H2O), we solve for ozone photochemical production rates and find wintertime ozone production (2.8 ± 0.7 ppb h-1) to be about one-third as large as in the summer months (8.2 ± 3.1 ppb h-1). Moreover, the summertime ozone production rates observed above Bakersfield-Arvin exhibit an inverse relationship to a proxy for the volatile organic compound (VOC) : NOx ratio (aircraft [CH4] divided by surface [NO2]), consistent with a NOx-limited photochemical

  7. Ecophysiological Response of Plants to Combined Pollution from Heavy-duty Vehicles and Industrial Emissions in Higher Humidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xia Cui; Gao-Ming Jiang; Shu-Li Niu; Chuang-Dao Jiang; Mei-Zhen Liu; Shun-Li Yu; Lei-Ming Gao

    2006-01-01

    Pollution can be aggravated in industrial areas if traffic exhausts are mixed with industrial emissions under high humidity conditions. Plants growing in such environments may suffer from severe stress. The impact of vehicle emissions on urban vegetation in an industrial area in Qingdao, China, was investigated by studying seven plant species at visible, physiological and chemical levels. The traits of plant species in certain environmental conditions were compared between a clear area, Badaguan (BDG), and polluted area,Roadside (RS). We found that foliar sulfur uptake for all species was not significantly high at RS compared with BDG, although the sulfur content of atmosphere and surface soils at RS were much higher than those at BDG. For Ailanthus altissima Swingle, the content of foliar pigment and net photosynthesis rate (PN)decreased by 20%. Meanwhile, leaves became incrassate and no visible leaf damage was noted, suggesting this species could adapt well to pollution. A 50% decrease in PN occurred in Hibiscus syriacus L., but there was no statistical change in content of chlorophyll a and b and water uptake. Also, thickened leaves may prevent the pollutant from permeation. Foliar water content was still at a low level, although a water compensation mechanism was established for Fraxinus chinensis Rosb. reflected by low water potential and high water use efficiency. More adversely, a 65% decrease in PN happened inevitably with the significant decomposition of photosynthetic pigments, which exhibited visible damage. We also noted in one evergreen species (Magnolia grandiflora L.) that water absorption driven by low water potential should be helpful to supply water loss induced by strong stomatal transpiration and maintain normal growth. Furthermore, photosynthetic pigment content did not decline statistically, but supported a stable net assimilation. Two herbaceous species, Poa annua L. and Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl., were very tolerant to adverse stress

  8. Industrial Responsibility in the Emission of Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo A.; Rodrigues, O. D.; Morimoto, T.; Garg, Vijayendra K.

    1998-12-01

    The present investigation consists of the application of several techniques such as Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption, electron probe micro analysis (EPMA), and thermo-gravimetric analysis, to the identification of the particulate matter in atmospheric aerosols in the metropolitan region of Vitória (MRV), ES, Brazil. The main sources of particulate matter and its emission characteristics within the steel industry have been studied to identify its contribution to air particles in Vitória region. The analysis reveals the total amount of industrial emission of the iron containing components in the atmosphere. The presence of goethite, hematite, magnetite, pyrite, silicates, marine chloride and total absence of heavy metals could be confirmed.

  9. Integration of water footprint accounting and costs for optimal pulp supply mix in paper industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Piantella, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    studies have focused on these aspects, but there have been no previous reports on the integrated application of raw material water footprint accounting and costs in the definition of the optimal supply mix of chemical pulps from different countries. The current models that have been applied specifically...... that minimizes the water footprint accounting results and costs of chemical pulp, thereby facilitating the assessment of the water footprint by accounting for different chemical pulps purchased from various suppliers, with a focus on the efficiency of the production process. Water footprint accounting......Chemical pulp is one of the most important raw materials used in the paper industry. This material is known to make a significant contribution to the water footprint and cost of final paper products; therefore, chemical pulp is crucial in determining the competitiveness of final products'. Several...

  10. Impact of diffuse light on isoprene and monoterpene emissions from a mixed temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffineur, Q.; Aubinet, M.; Schoon, N.; Amelynck, C.; Müller, J.-F.; Dewulf, J.; Steppe, K.; Heinesch, B.

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the impact of diffuse light on canopy scale emission of isoprene and monoterpenes measured continuously above a mixed temperate forest, using the disjunct eddy-covariance by mass scanning technique with a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) instrument. To assess this impact, the relationship between emissions/radiation and emissions/gross primary production (GPP) under clear sky and cloudy conditions were analysed. Under cloudy conditions (high proportion of diffuse radiation), the isoprene and monoterpene fluxes were enhanced compared to clear sky conditions (low proportion of diffuse radiation) at equivalent temperature and above-canopy total radiation. The whole-canopy enzymatic activity of the metabolic isoprene production pathway, however, was suggested to be lower under cloudy conditions than under clear sky conditions at equivalent temperature. The mechanisms behind these observations are probably linked to the better penetration of diffuse radiation in the canopy. Shade leaves/needles receive more radiation in cloudy conditions than in clear sky conditions, thereby inducing the observed effects.

  11. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  12. Decoupling and Decomposition Analysis of Carbon Emissions from Industry: A Case Study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China has overtaken the United States as the world’s largest producer of carbon dioxide, with industrial carbon emissions (ICE accounting for approximately 65% of the country’s total emissions. Understanding the ICE decoupling patterns and factors influencing the decoupling status is a prerequisite for balancing economic growth and carbon emissions. This paper provides an overview of ICE based on decoupling elasticity and the Tapio decoupling model. Furthermore, the study identifies the factors contributing to ICE changes in China, using the Kaya identity and Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI techniques. Based on the effects and contributions of ICE, we close with a number of recommendations. The results revealed a significant upward trend of ICE during the study period 1994 to 2013, with a total amount of 11,147 million tons. Analyzing the decoupling relationship indicates that “weak decoupling” and “expansive decoupling” were the main states during the study period. The decomposition analysis showed that per capita wealth associated with industrial outputs and energy intensity are the main driving force of ICE, while energy intensity of industrial output and energy structure are major determinants for ICE reduction. The largest contributing cumulative effect to ICE is per capita wealth, at 1.23 in 2013. This factor is followed by energy intensity, with a contributing cumulative effect of −0.32. The cumulative effects of energy structure and population are relatively small, at 0.01 and 0.08, respectively.

  13. The impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty: A case study of mobile phone industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Pourdehghan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In today's highly competitive markets, keeping customers and retaining their loyalty is considered crucial in maintaining business. Companies and retailers also need to look for various marketing strategies in order to improve their customers’ loyalty. Having knowledge and skills about marketing is one of the capabilities which is required for success in the competition. In consumable markets, brands are the main points of differentiation between the competitive presentations, thus, they are crucial for the success of the companies. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty. The present study is applicable in terms of objective and descriptive survey in terms of data collection. To evaluate the model and hypotheses, data collection was carried out through surveying 384 mobile phone users. For data analysis and verification of the model, structural equation modeling approach (SEM and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were used and based on the results of the path analysis, the relationship between the variables in the model is investigated. Results indicated the positive impact of products elements, distribution channels, and promotional activities on brand loyalty. Also, the findings showed that indexes of satisfaction and trust which are considered as mediating variables between marketing mix and brand loyalty had positive and significant impact on brand loyalty in the mobile phone industry.

  14. An investigation on marketing mix efforts on brand equity: An empirical investigation in mobile phone industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safaei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical study to investigate the effects of different marketing efforts on brand equity in mobile industry. The proposed study of this paper distributes a questionnaire consists of 26 questions including loyalty, quality perception, awareness, exclusiveness, word of mouth advertisement, brand name image, advertisement, price, distribution and guarantee. A sample 428 people are selected in a city of Tehran/Iran and they are asked to reply questions on Likert based. The results show that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between marketing mix efforts and brand equity. In other words, more advertisements could help better market exposure, which means customers will have more awareness on market characteristics. Among all mixed efforts, guarantee influences more on brand equity, which means consumers care more on product services than other features. Finally, among different characteristics of brand equity, product exclusiveness plays an important role. In other words, people are interested in having exclusive product, which is different from others.

  15. Control of VOC emissions from a flexographic printing facility using an industrial biotrickling filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempere, F; Martínez-Soria, V; Penya-Roja, J M; Waalkens, A; Gabaldón, C

    2012-01-01

    The study of an industrial unit of biotrickling filter for the treatment of the exhaust gases of a flexographic facility was investigated over a 2-year period with the objective to meet the volatile organic compound (VOC) regulatory emission limits. Increasing the water flow rate from 2 to 40 m(3) h(-1) improved the performance of the process, meeting the VOC regulation when 40 m(3) h(-1) were used. An empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 36 s was used when the inlet air temperature was 18.7 °C, and an EBRT as low as 26 s was set when the inlet temperature was 26.8 °C. During this long-term operation, the pressure drop over the column of the bioreactor was completely controlled avoiding clogging problems and the system could perfectly handle the non-working periods without VOC emission, demonstrating its robustness and feasibility to treat the emission of the flexographic sector.

  16. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  17. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Chang

    Full Text Available Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM. We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  18. Are Emissions Trading Policies Sustainable? A Study of the Petrochemical Industry in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongrok Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, Korea inaugurated an emissions trading scheme (ETS. In this regard, many studies have considered the sustainable performance and efficiency of industries that emit carbon; however, few have examined ETS at company level. This paper focuses on companies’ data related to Korean ETS in the petrochemical industry. Based on the non-radial, nonparametric directional distance function (DDF, the paper evaluates the governance factors related to ETS policies and sustainable performance in terms of carbon technical efficiency (CTE, the shadow price of carbon emissions, and Morishima elasticity between the input and undesirable output of carbon emissions. Using a dual model, the paper shows that Korean ETS has huge potential for participating companies to improve CTE. If all companies consider the production possibility frontier, they could potentially improve efficiency by 52.8%. Further, Morishima elasticity shows strong substitutability between capital and energy, implying that green technology investment should bring a higher degree of energy-saving performance. Unfortunately, however, the market price of carbon emissions is far too low compared with its shadow price, suggesting that the Korean government’s price-oriented market intervention has resulted in the ETS producing poor sustainable performance. As the title suggests, ETS of Korea is not sustainable at the current stage, but with more efforts on the transition period, all the developing countries should support the governance factors of the ETS in terms of the more effective green investment with easier access to the green technology.

  19. Safety in ready mixed concrete industry: descriptive analysis of injuries and development of preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akboğa, Özge; Baradan, Selim

    2017-02-07

    Ready mixed concrete (RMC) industry, one of the barebones of construction sector, has its distinctive occupational safety and health (OSH) risks. Employees experience risks that emerge during the fabrication of concrete, as well as its delivery to the construction site. Statistics show that usage and demand of RMC have been increasing along with the number of producers and workers. Unfortunately, adequate OSH measures to meet this rapid growth are not in place even in top RMC producing countries, such as Turkey. Moreover, lack of statistical data and academic research in this sector exacerbates this problem. This study aims to fill this gap by conducting data mining in Turkish Social Security Institution archives and performing univariate frequency and cross tabulation analysis on 71 incidents that RMC truck drivers were involved. Also, investigations and interviews were conducted in seven RMC plants in Turkey and Netherlands with OSH point of view. Based on the results of this research, problem areas were determined such as; cleaning truck mixer/pump is a hazardous activity where operators get injured frequently, and struck by falling objects is a major hazard at RMC industry. Finally, Job Safety Analyses were performed on these areas to suggest mitigation methods.

  20. Towards industrially feasible treatment of potato starch processing waste by mixed cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Li, Ying; Niu, Jia; Wang, Zhenyu; Yang, Qian

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed at reducing the pollution of the waste generated by the potato starch industry to the environment and transform the potato pulp and wastewater into single-cell protein (SCP) to be used as animal feed. The chemical oxygen demand of the wastewater was reduced from 26,700 to 9,100 mg/L by batch fermentation with mixed cultures in an aerated 10-L fermenter. The SCP products, with a crude protein content of 46.09 % (higher than soybean meal), were found palatable and safe for mice. During the treatment process, the microbial community was analyzed using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The results of the analysis suggested that Curacaobacter/Pseudoalteromonas and Paenibacillus/Bacillus were the main microorganisms in treating potato starch processing wastes. The 150-m(3)-scale fermentation demonstrated a potential for treatment in industrial applications. Fermentation of potato pulp and wastewater without adding an extra nitrogen source was a novel approach in treating the potato starch processing waste.

  1. Post-harvest carbon emissions and sequestration in southern United States forest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, C.

    1997-12-31

    Whether the forest industries in the southern United States are net emitters or sequesters of carbon from the atmosphere depends on one`s viewpoint. In the short-term, the solid-wood industries-lumber, plywood, and panels--appear to sequester more carbon than is in the fossil fuels they use for processing. The paper industries, however, emit more carbon from fossil fuels than they sequester in the pulp and paper they manufacture. This viewpoint is quite limited. If one considers the life-cycles of solid-wood and paper products from seedlings to landfill, these industries sequester more carbon than they emit from burning fossil fuels. These industries also generate large amounts of energy by replacing fossil fuels with biofuels from processing residues, and wood-based products produce more energy from incineration and landfill gases. Use of the carbon in these biofuels in effect keeps fossil fuel carbon in the ground, considering that at least that amount of carbon would be emitted in producing alternative materials. Another way of looking the emission balances is that wood-based materials, pound for pound or use for use, are the most {open_quotes}carbon efficient{close_quotes} group of major industrial materials. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Effect of ceramic industrial particulate emission control on key components of ambient PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Monfort, Eliseo; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Celades, Irina; Miró, José Vicente

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM(10) components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits are produced. The PM(10) emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000-2006, taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/EC, leading to a marked decrease in PM(10) emissions. By contrast, emissions from tile manufacture remained relatively constant because of the few changes in the implementation of corrective measures. On the other hand, ambient PM(10) levels and composition measurements were carried out from 2002 to 2006. A high correlation between PM(10) emissions from frit manufacture and ambient levels of Zn, As, Pb and Cs (R(2) from 0.61 to 0.98) was observed. On the basis of these results, the potential impact of the implementation of corrective measures to reduce emissions from tile manufacture was quantified, resulting in a possible decrease of 3-5 microg/m(3) and 2 microg/m(3) in ambient mineral PM(10) (on an annual basis) in urban and suburban areas, respectively. This relatively simple methodology allows us to estimate the direct effect of a reduction in primary particulate emissions on ambient levels of key particulate components, and to make a preliminary quantification of the possibilities of air quality improvement by means of further emission reduction. Therefore, it is a useful tool for developing future air quality plans in the study area and in other industrialised areas.

  3. Real-time monitoring of emissions from monoethanolamine-based industrial scale carbon capture facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Schade, Gunnar Wolfgang; Nielsen, Claus Jørgen

    2013-12-17

    We demonstrate the capabilities and properties of using Proton Transfer Reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) to real-time monitor gaseous emissions from industrial scale amine-based carbon capture processes. The benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) was used as an example of amines needing to be monitored from carbon capture facilities, and to describe how the measurements may be influenced by potentially interfering species in CO2 absorber stack discharges. On the basis of known or expected emission compositions, we investigated the PTR-ToF-MS MEA response as a function of sample flow humidity, ammonia, and CO2 abundances, and show that all can exhibit interferences, thus making accurate amine measurements difficult. This warrants a proper sample pretreatment, and we show an example using a dilution with bottled zero air of 1:20 to 1:10 to monitor stack gas concentrations at the CO2 Technology Center Mongstad (TCM), Norway. Observed emissions included many expected chemical species, dominantly ammonia and acetaldehyde, but also two new species previously not reported but emitted in significant quantities. With respect to concerns regarding amine emissions, we show that accurate amine quantifications in the presence of water vapor, ammonia, and CO2 become feasible after proper sample dilution, thus making PTR-ToF-MS a viable technique to monitor future carbon capture facility emissions, without conventional laborious sample pretreatment.

  4. [Atmospheric emission of PCDD/Fs from secondary aluminum metallurgy industry in the southwest area, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Guo, Zhi-Shun; Jian, Chuan; Zhu, Ming-Ji; Deng, Li; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Five secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises in the southwest area of China were measured for emissions of PCDD/Fs. The results indicated that the emission levels of PCDD/Fs (as TEQ) were 0.015-0.16 ng x m(-3), and the average was 0.093 ng x m(-3) from secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises. Emission factors of PCDD/Fs (as TEQ) from the five secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises varied between 0.041 and 4.68 microg x t(-1) aluminum, and the average was 2.01 microg x t(-1) aluminum; among them, PCDD/Fs emission factors from the crucible smelting furnace was the highest. Congener distribution of PCDD/F in stack gas from the five secondary aluminum metallurgies was very different from each other. Moreover, the R(PCDF/PCDD) was the lowest in the enterprise which was installed only with bag filters; the R(PCDF/PCDD) were 3.8-12.6 (the average, 7.7) in the others which were installed with water scrubbers. The results above indicated that the mechanism of PCDD/Fs formation was related to the types of exhaust gas treatment device. The results of this study can provide technical support for the formulation of PCDD/Fs emission standards and the best available techniques in the secondary aluminum metallurgy industry.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and complementary policies. Developing a smart mix for ambitious climate policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2010-06-15

    A debate has - most notably as a result of the introduction of fixed caps within the framework of emissions trading - been raised about the need for using additional instruments of climate and energy policy. A common line of argument is that the targets set within the emissions trading scheme are going to be met with a high degree of certainty, and flexibility among the regulated stakeholders will lead to market-based discovery processes. Additional instruments would only generate additional costs and would therefore have to be rejected. However, closer analysis of these fundamental arguments shows that they are constructed on a very high level of abstraction and sometimes rely on strongly simplifying or idealising assumptions. Their theoretical assumptions are, at least in part, very questionable and do not correspond to conditions in the real world for climate and energy policy. At the same time the debate about policy instruments cannot be held autonomously of the specific context of the problem at hand. In this sense the very extensive (complete) and above all effective decarbonisation of the economies of industrialised countries in a comparatively short time frame is the key basic condition for the analysis, assessment and design of the climate policy mix. Essentially, the question is what the best instruments are for purging the whole economic system almost entirely of CO{sub 2} emissions within a period of only forty years. The introduction of emissions trading schemes for greenhouse gases in an increasing number of OECD countries undoubtedly constitutes an important landmark of climate policy. They: - provide a high degree of certainty in terms of meeting targets; - create, on the basis of a standardised price signal, a clearing mechanism for the broad spectrum of emission reduction options close to the market, at least in the short to medium term; and - represent, by means of linking, an interesting option in terms of the globalisation of climate policy

  6. Contribution of Fugitive Emissions for PM10 Concentrations in an Industrial Area of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta Almeida, Susana; Viana Silva, Alexandra; Garcia, Silvia; Miranda, Ana Isabel

    2013-04-01

    Significant atmospheric dust arises from the mechanical disturbance of granular material exposed to the air. Dust generated from these open sources is termed "fugitive" because it is not discharged to the atmosphere in a confined flow stream. Common sources of fugitive dust include unpaved roads, agricultural tilling operations, aggregate storage piles, heavy construction and harbor operations. The objective of this work was to identify the likeliness and extend of the PM10 limit value exceedences due to fugitive emissions in a particularly zone where PM fugitive emissions are a core of environmental concerns - Mitrena, Portugal. Mitrena, is an industrial area that coexists with a high-density urban region (Setúbal) and areas with an important environmental concern (Sado Estuary and Arrábida which belongs to the protected area Natura 2000 Network). Due to the typology of industry sited in Mitrena (e.g. power plant, paper mill, cement, pesticides and fertilized productions), there are a large uncontrolled PM fugitive emissions, providing from heavy traffic and handling and storage of raw material on uncover stockyards in the harbor and industries. Dispersion modeling was performed with the software TAPM (The Air Pollution Model) and results were mapped over the study area, using GIS (Geographic Information Systems). Results showed that managing local particles concentrations can be a frustrating affair because the weight of fugitive sources is very high comparing with the local anthropogenic stationary sources. In order to ensure that the industry can continue to meet its commitments in protecting air quality, it is essential to warrant that the characteristics of releases from all fugitive sources are fully understood in order to target future investments in those areas where maximum benefit will be achieved.

  7. Detection and reduction of diffuse liquid and gas emissions in chemical and petrochemical industries; Ermittlung und Verminderung diffuser fluessiger und gasfoermiger Emissionen in der chemischen und petrochemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppke, K.E. [Witten-Herdecke Univ. gGmbH, Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Management; Cuhls, C. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik

    2002-09-01

    In order to improve environmental protection, VOC emissions from diffuse sources are of growing importance. For the first time in Germany the present research report gives a detailed presentation of: constructive measures for the avoidance and reduction of diffuse emissions, adequate assembling procedures for equipments and installations, technical possibilities of leak detection and, different methods for the estimation of total emissions from chemical and petrochemical production plants. On the basis of own investigations and monitoring measures taken at various plants of chemical and petrochemical industries different measuring techniques for leak detection as well as methods for the estimation of total emissions from diffuse sources are analysed and their limits are described. (orig.)

  8. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Filella, I.; Llusià, J.; Molowny-Horas, R.; Schallhart, S.; Metzger, A.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce. We conducted seasonal (winter and summer) measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l.) holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula). Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air. The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these polluted air masses receive additional biogenic

  9. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce.

    We conducted seasonal (winter and summer measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l. holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula. Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air.

    The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these

  10. Center for Corporate Climate Leadership: Direct Fugitive Emissions from Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, Fire Suppression, and Industrial Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance document focuses on several fugitive emissions sources that are common for organizations in many sectors: refrigeration and air conditioningsystems, fire suppression systems, and the purchase and release of industrial gases.

  11. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  12. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the liquid injection incineration of petrochemical industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, I-Ching; Chang, Juu-En; Lai, Soon-Onn; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-05

    This study investigated the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack flue gas and air pollution control device (APCD) effluent of the liquid injection incinerator (LII) disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater, and PAH removal efficiencies of wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) and wet scrubber (WSB). The PAH carcinogenic potency were investigated with the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP(eq)). The remarkably high total-BaP(eq) concentration (220 microgNm(-3)) in the stack flue gas was much higher than those of several published emission sources, and indicated the possible influence on its surrounding environment. The total-PAH emission factors of the WESP, WSB and stack flue gas were 78.9, 95.7 and 30,900 microgL(-1) wastewater, respectively. The removal efficiencies of total-PAHs were 0.254, 0.309 and 0.563% for WESP, WSB and overall, respectively, suggesting that the use of both WESP and WSB shows insignificant PAH removal efficiencies, and 99.4% of total-PAHs was directly emitted to the ambient air through the stack flue gas. This finding suggested that the better incineration efficiencies, and APCD removal efficiencies for disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater are necessary in future.

  13. A multi-model approach to constrain emissions from an urban-industrial complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Super, Ingrid; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Visschedijk, Antoon; Moerman, Marcel; Chen, Huilin; van der Molen, Michiel; Peters, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Greenhouse gas observations around cities can be used to independently quantify fossil fuel emissions and monitor the effectiveness of emission reduction policies. In this study we show that a relatively small network measuring CO2 and CO concentrations in combination with high-resolution modelling can constrain the emissions of a heterogeneous urban-industrial landscape. We apply a unique and promising combination of a plume and grid model. We use the WRF/Chem grid model to simulate concentrations at 1km horizontal resolution and to quantify biogenic CO2 fluxes. A Gaussian plume model is used to better represent the concentrations downwind of industrial stacks. Our network of (semi-)urban and rural sites detects fossil fuel signals from distinct source regions in the urban port area of Rotterdam. The impact of biogenic fluxes on the observed CO2 concentrations is in the order of several ppm due to the large fraction of grassland in the footprints of the measurement sites. We will also show that monitoring multiple combustion tracers helps to identify source regions, including the inner city, sea port, glasshouses and local biogenic activity.

  14. Prediction of pollutant emission through electricity consumption by the hotel industry in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, W.W. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, (China). School of Hotel and Tourism Management; Lam, J.C. [City University of Hong Kong (China). Department of Building and Construction

    2002-12-01

    This paper estimates the quantity of pollutants produced by the hotel industry through its electricity consumption. A survey of 17 hotels in Hong Kong was carried out to collect 3 years of energy consumption data. Regression analysis indicated that gross floor area was a major and statistically accepted factor in explaining the electricity consumption in hotels. It was found that the average electricity consumption was about 342 kW h/m{sup 2}/year. Then, based on some established pollutant emission factors of coal and natural gas, the amount of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, carbon dioxides and particulates created by the hotel industry's electricity usage during a 10-year period from 1988 to 1997 was estimated. The study further predicts the increase in these amounts in 1998 - 2003 accompanying the rise in the number of hotel properties. The findings indicate that the existing green measures and devices are inadequate to cope with the increase in pollution emission in the near future. We believe that the hotel industry should adopt a more proactive approach to reduce electricity usage and propose the inclusion of environmental reporting in trade journals. (author)

  15. Spatiotemporal Changes of Built-Up Land Expansion and Carbon Emissions Caused by the Chinese Construction Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuai, Xiaowei; Huang, Xianjin; Lu, Qinli; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Rongqin; Lu, Junyu

    2015-11-01

    China is undergoing rapid urbanization, enlarging the construction industry, greatly expanding built-up land, and generating substantial carbon emissions. We calculated both the direct and indirect carbon emissions from energy consumption (anthropogenic emissions) in the construction sector and analyzed built-up land expansion and carbon storage losses from the terrestrial ecosystem. According to our study, the total anthropogenic carbon emissions from the construction sector increased from 3,905×10(4) to 103,721.17×10(4) t from 1995 to 2010, representing 27.87%-34.31% of the total carbon emissions from energy consumption in China. Indirect carbon emissions from other industrial sectors induced by the construction sector represented approximately 97% of the total anthropogenic carbon emissions of the sector. These emissions were mainly concentrated in seven upstream industry sectors. Based on our assumptions, built-up land expansion caused 3704.84×10(4) t of carbon storage loss from vegetation between 1995 and 2010. Cropland was the main built-up land expansion type across all regions. The study shows great regional differences. Coastal regions showed dramatic built-up land expansion, greater carbon storage losses from vegetation, and greater anthropogenic carbon emissions. These regional differences were the most obvious in East China followed by Midsouth China. These regions are under pressure for strong carbon emissions reduction.

  16. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-08-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

  17. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics and control strategies for a petrochemical industrial area in middle Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Hsien; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated VOC emissions from the largest petrochemical industrial district in Taiwan and recommended some control measures to reduce VOC emissions. In addition to the petrochemical industry, the district encompasses a chemical and fiber industry, a plastics industry and a harbor, which together produce more than 95% of the VOC emissions in the area. The sequence of VOC emission was as follows: components (e.g., valves, flanges, and pumps) (47%) > tanks (29%) > stacks (15%) > wastewater treatment facility (6%) > loading (2%) > flares (1%). Other plants producing high-density polyethylene (HDPE), styrene, ethylene glycol (EG), gas oil, and iso-nonyl-alchol (INA) were measured to determine the VOC leaching in the district. The VOC emissions of these 35 plants (90% of all plants) were less than 100 tons/year. About 74% of the tanks were fixed-roof tanks that leached more VOCs than the other types of tanks. To reduce leaching, the components should be checked periodically, and companies should be required to follow the Taiwan EPA regulations. A VOC emission management system was developed in state implementation plans (SIPs) to inspect and reduce emissions in the industrial district.

  18. Control of solid tobacco emissions in industrial fact ories applying CDF tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Polanco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emission of light solid aromatic particles from any tobacco industry affects the surrounding inhabitants, commonly causing allergies and eye irritation and, of course, uncomfortable odours, therefore, these emissions to the air must be regulated. An increasing in production must be considered in the sizing of mechanisms used to achieve the precipitation and final filtration, before discharging to the atmosphere. A numerical tool was applied to study the internal behaviour of low velocity precipitation tunnel and discharge chimney of the refuses treatment system. The characterization of the two-phase flow streamlines allows determining the velocity gradient profiles across the whole tunnel; which is intimately related with the particle concentration, and deposition zones locations. The application of CFD techniques gives the bases to find new design parameters to improve the precipitation tunnel behaviour capability to manage the increment of the mass flow of particles, due to changes in mass cigarette production.

  19. Control of ammonia and urea emissions from urea manufacturing facilities of Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC), Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A R; Al-Awadi, L; Al-Rashidi, M S

    2016-06-01

    Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC) in Kuwait has mitigated the pollution problem of ammonia and urea dust by replacing the melting and prilling units of finished-product urea prills with an environmentally friendly granulation process. PIC has financed a research project conducted by the Coastal and Air Pollution Program's research staff at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research to assess the impact of pollution control strategies implemented to maintain a healthy productive environment in and around the manufacturing premises. The project was completed in three phases: the first phase included the pollution monitoring of the melting and prilling units in full operation, the second phase covered the complete shutdown period where production was halted completely and granulation units were installed, and the last phase encompassed the current modified status with granulation units in full operation. There was substantial decrease in ammonia emissions, about 72%, and a 52.7% decrease in urea emissions with the present upgrading of old melting and prilling units to a state-of-the-art technology "granulation process" for a final finished product. The other pollutants, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), have not shown any significant change, as the present modification has not affected the sources of these pollutants. Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC) in Kuwait has ammonia urea industries, and there were complaints about ammonia and urea dust pollution. PIC has resolved this problem by replacing "melting and prilling unit" of final product urea prills by more environmentally friendly "granulation unit." Environmental Pollution and Climate Program has been assigned the duty of assessing the outcome of this change and how that influenced ammonia and urea dust emissions from the urea manufacturing plant.

  20. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blas, Maite; Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC-MSD for a one-year period (2007-2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003-2005, 2010-2011, and 2014-2015years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120pptv) than in VNP (80-100pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources.

  1. 省域工业行业碳排放分解研究%Study on the Decomposition of Carbon Emissions of Province Industrial Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧元明; 周少甫

    2014-01-01

    基于 LMDI 方法的乘法形式对2003~2011年京晋滇三省及全国工业行业碳排放进行分解,发现:工业规模显著推动碳排放增加,能源强度抑制了碳排放增加,能源结构优化不明显。建议:依靠科技创新推动产业升级,降低能源强度;推动能源供给革命,优化能源结构;优化产业结构,控制高能耗工业发展规模,降低高能耗工业的比重。%Based on the multiplicative form of LMDI method to analyze the industrial industry carbon emissions from 2003 to 2011 of Beijing ,Shanxi ,Yunnan provinces and China ,we found that industrial scale significantly promote the increase of carbon emissions , en-ergy intensity inhibited the increase of carbon emissions ,the optimization of energy structure is not obvious .Thus recommends :promoting industrial upgrading with the help of scientific and technological innovation ,to reduce energy intensity ; pushing energy supply revolution , optimizing energy structure ;optimizing the industrial structure , controling high energy consumption industrial development scale ,reducing the proportion of high energy consumption industry .

  2. PHA production by mixed cultures: a way to valorize wastes from pulp industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Diogo; Rossetti, Simona; Serafim, Luísa S

    2014-04-01

    In this work, hardwood spent sulfite liquor (HSSL), a complex feedstock originating from the pulp industry, was tested for the first time as a substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by a mixed microbial culture (MMC) under aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) conditions. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with HSSL was operated for 67days and the selected MMC reached a maximum PHA content of 67.6%. The MMC demonstrated a differential utilization of the carbon sources present in HSSL. Acetic acid was fully consumed, while xylose and lignosulphonates were partially consumed (30% and 14%, respectively). The selected culture was characterized by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH). Bacteria belonging to the three main classes were identified: Alpha- (72.7±4.0%), Beta- (11.1±0.37%) and Gammaproteobacteria (10.3±0.3%). Within Alphaproteobacteria, a small amount of Paracoccus (4.2±0.51%) and Defluvicoccus related to Tetrad Forming Organisms (9.0±0.28%) were detected.

  3. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Maite de, E-mail: maite.deblas@ehu.eus [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Navazo, Marino [University College of Engineering of Vitoria-Gasteiz, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  4. Broadband spectroscopic sensor for real-time monitoring of industrial SO(2) emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Zhang, Yungang; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Wang, Huashan; Wu, Shaohua; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2007-05-01

    A spectroscopic system for continuous real-time monitoring of SO(2) concentrations in industrial emissions was developed. The sensor is well suited for field applications due to simple and compact instrumental design, and robust data evaluation based on ultraviolet broadband absorption without the use of any calibration cell. The sensor has a detection limit of 1 ppm, and was employed both for gas-flow simulations with and without suspended particles, and for in situ measurement of SO(2) concentrations in the flue gas emitted from an industrial coal-fired boiler. The price/performance ratio of the instrument is expected to be superior to other comparable real-time monitoring systems.

  5. Modern industrial engines. Emission calibration and engine management; Moderne Industriemotoren. Emissionsabstimmung und Motormanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Thorsten [IAV GmbH, Gifhorn (Germany). Bereich Elektronisches Motormanagement fuer Dieselmotoren; Weiskirch, Christian [IAV GmbH, Gifhorn (Germany). Fachbereich Nutzfahrzeuge; Lieske, Stefan [Volkswagen AG, Salzgitter (Germany). Geschaeftsfeld Motor; Manz, Holger [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany). Vertrieb Antriebssysteme, Bereiche Industriemotoren, Marinemotoren und Blockheizkraftwerke

    2010-09-15

    October 2009 saw the introduction of emission standard 99/96/EC Euro V in Europe for commercial vehicles larger 3.5 t. This concern also machines they are used in the municipal segment, for example road sweepers and snow plows. Quick in responding to the change, the Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft chose for her Euro V engine an aggregate that was already being used successfully in high-volume passenger-car production: the TDI 2.0 - 475 NE industrial engine with common-rail injection based on the 2.0 l CR 4V diesel engine from the Golf and Passat. (orig.)

  6. RE: Request for Correction, Technical Support Document, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Industrial Energy Consumers of America (IECA) joins the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in its request for correction of information developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a background technical support document titled Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

  7. Long-Term US Industrial Energy Use and CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Sinha, Paramita; Smith, Steven J.; Lurz, Joshua P.

    2007-12-03

    We present a description and scenario results from our recently-developed long-term model of United States industrial sector energy consumption, which we have incorporated as a module within the ObjECTS-MiniCAM integrated assessment model. This new industrial model focuses on energy technology and fuel choices over a 100 year period and allows examination of the industrial sector response to climate policies within a global modeling framework. A key challenge was to define a level of aggregation that would be able to represent the dynamics of industrial energy demand responses to prices and policies, but at a level that remains tractable over a long time frame. In our initial results, we find that electrification is an important response to a climate policy, although there are services where there are practical and economic limits to electrification, and the ability to switch to a low-carbon fuel becomes key. Cogeneration of heat and power using biomass may also play a role in reducing carbon emissions under a policy constraint.

  8. Emissions to air from the petroleum industry. Measures, cost and means; Utslipp til luft fra oljeindustrien. Tiltak, kostnader og virkemidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragsund, Egil; Aunan, Kristin; Godal, Odd; Haugom, Gerd Petra; Holtsmark, Bjart

    1999-08-01

    This report describes the development in the polluting emissions to air from the petroleum industry in Norway compared with the contribution from other sectors. It presents important measures that have been taken to reduce the emissions per unit produced. Costs and impacts of further measures within the petroleum industry, other sectors and other countries are compared. Several means of current interest are discussed in elucidation of these facts in order to contribute to a priority of measures that should be implemented to achieve specific targets for reduction of emissions at the smallest possible cost. 33 refs., 19 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. Emissions of isoprenoids and oxygenated biogenic volatile organic compounds from a New England mixed forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. McKinney

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds, including isoprene, monoterpenes, and oxygenated VOCs measured above a mixed forest canopy in central Massachusetts during the 2005 and 2007 growing seasons are reported. Mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS and fluxes computed by the disjunct eddy covariance technique. Isoprene was by far the predominant BVOC emitted at this site, with summer mid-day average fluxes of 5.3 and 4.4 mg m−2 hr−1 in 2005 and 2007, respectively. In comparison, mid-day average fluxes of monoterpenes were 0.21 and 0.15 mg m−2 hr−1 in each of these years. On short times scales (days, the diel pattern in emission rate compared well with a standard emission algorithm for isoprene. The general shape of the seasonal cycle and the observed decrease in isoprene emission rate in early September was, however, not well captured by the model. Monoterpene emission rates exhibited dependence on light as well as temperature, as determined from the improved fit to the observations obtained by including a light-dependent term in the model. The mid-day average flux of methanol from the canopy was 0.14 mg m−2 hr−1 in 2005 and 0.19 mg m−2 hr−1 in 2007, but the maximum flux was observed in spring (29 May 2007, when the flux reached 1.0 mg m−2 hr−1. This observation is consistent with enhanced methanol production during leaf expansion. Summer mid-day fluxes of acetone were 0.15 mg m−2 hr−1 during a short period in 2005, but only 0.03 mg m−2 h−1 averaged over 2007. Episodes of negative fluxes of oxygenated VOCs, particularly acetone, were observed periodically, especially in 2007. Thus, deposition within the canopy could help explain the low season-averaged flux of acetone in 2007. Fluxes of species of biogenic origin

  10. Inventory and Policy Reduction Potential of Greenhouse Gas and Pollutant Emissions of Road Transportation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, emissions from the road transportation industry in China have been increasing rapidly. To evaluate the reduction potential of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions of the industry in China, its emission inventory was calculated and scenario analysis was created for the period between 2012 and 2030 in this paper. Based on the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP model, the development of China’s road transportation industry in two scenarios (the business-as-usual (BAU scenario and the comprehensive-mitigation (CM scenario was simulated. In the Comprehensive Mitigation scenario, there are nine various measures which include Fuel Economy Standards, Auto Emission Standards, Energy-saving Technology, Tax Policy, Eco-driving, Logistics Informatization, Vehicle Liquidation, Electric Vehicles, and Alternative Fuels. The cumulative energy and emission reductions of these specific measures were evaluated. Our results demonstrate that China’s road transportation produced 881 million metric tons of CO2 and emitted 1420 thousand tons of CO, 2150 thousand tons of NOx, 148 thousand tons of PM10, and 745 thousand tons of HC in 2012. The reduction potential is quite large, and road freight transportation is the key mitigation subsector, accounting for 85%–92% of the total emission. For energy conservation and carbon emission mitigation, logistics informatization is the most effective method, potentially reducing 1.80 billion tons of coal equivalent and 3.83 billion tons of CO2 from 2012 to 2030. In terms of air pollutant emission mitigation, the auto emission standards measure performs best with respect to NOx, PM10, and HC emission mitigation, and logistic informatization measure is the best in CO emission reduction. In order to maximize the mitigation potential of China’s road transportation industry, the government needs to implement various measures in a timely and strict fashion.

  11. Deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions associated with fuelwood consumption of the brick making industry in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Syed Ashraful; Starr, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the role of the fired clay brick making industry (BMI) on deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Sudan. The BMI is based on numerous kilns that use biomass fuel, mainly wood which is largely harvested unsustainably. This results in potential deforestation and land degradation. Fuelwood consumption data was collected using interviews and questionnaires from 25 BMI enterprises in three administrative regions, namely Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. Annual fuelwood consumption data (t dm yr(-1)) was converted into harvested biomass (m(3)) using a wood density value of 0.65 t dm m(-3). For annual GHG estimations, the methodological approach outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used. According to our results, the annual deforestation associated with the BMI for the whole of Sudan is 508.4x10(3) m(3) of wood biomass, including 267.6x10(3) m(3) round wood and 240.8x10(3) m(3) branches and small trees. Total GHG emissions from the Sudanese BMI are estimated at 378028 t CO(2), 15554 t CO, 1778 t CH(4), 442 t NO(X), 288 t NO and 12 t N(2)O per annum. The combined CO(2)-equivalent (global warming potential for 100-year time horizon) of the GHG emissions (excluding NO(X) and NO) is 455666 t yr(-1). While these emissions form only a small part of Sudan's total GHG emissions, the associated deforestation and land degradation is of concern and effort should be made for greater use of sustainable forest resources and management.

  12. Deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions associated with fuelwood consumption of the brick making industry in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Syed Ashraful [Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 (Finland)], E-mail: ashraful.alam@helsinki.fi; Starr, Mike [Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 (Finland)

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the role of the fired clay brick making industry (BMI) on deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Sudan. The BMI is based on numerous kilns that use biomass fuel, mainly wood which is largely harvested unsustainably. This results in potential deforestation and land degradation. Fuelwood consumption data was collected using interviews and questionnaires from 25 BMI enterprises in three administrative regions, namely Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. Annual fuelwood consumption data (t dm yr{sup -1}) was converted into harvested biomass (m{sup 3}) using a wood density value of 0.65 t dm m{sup -3}. For annual GHG estimations, the methodological approach outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used. According to our results, the annual deforestation associated with the BMI for the whole of Sudan is 508.4 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of wood biomass, including 267.6 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} round wood and 240.8 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} branches and small trees. Total GHG emissions from the Sudanese BMI are estimated at 378 028 t CO{sub 2}, 15 554 t CO, 1778 t CH{sub 4}, 442 t NO{sub X}, 288 t NO and 12 t N{sub 2}O per annum. The combined CO{sub 2}-equivalent (global warming potential for 100-year time horizon) of the GHG emissions (excluding NO{sub X} and NO) is 455 666 t yr{sup -1}. While these emissions form only a small part of Sudan's total GHG emissions, the associated deforestation and land degradation is of concern and effort should be made for greater use of sustainable forest resources and management.

  13. Assessment of the impact of the European CO{sub 2} emissions trading scheme on the Portuguese chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, R.A.F. [Artenius Sines, Zona Industrial, 7520 Sines (Portugal); Ramoa Ribeiro, F.; Bordado, J.C.M. [Centro de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, IBB-Instituto de Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, V.M.S. [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, R. do Quelhas, 6, 1200-781 Lisboa (Portugal); Gomes, J.F.P. [Centro de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, IBB-Instituto de Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro 1949-014 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    This paper describes an assessment of the impact of the enforcement of the European carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions trading scheme on the Portuguese chemical industry, based on cost structure, CO{sub 2} emissions, electricity consumption and allocated allowances data from a survey to four Portuguese representative units of the chemical industry sector, and considering scenarios that allow the estimation of increases on both direct and indirect production costs. These estimated cost increases were also compared with similar data from other European Industries, found in the references and with conclusions from simulation studies. Thus, it was possible to ascertain the impact of buying extra CO{sub 2} emission permits, which could be considered as limited. It was also found that this impact is somewhat lower than the impacts for other industrial sectors. (author)

  14. Emerging biorefinery technologies for Indian forest industry to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naman; Nainwal, Shubham; Jain, Shivani; Jain, Siddharth

    2015-11-01

    The production of biofuels as alternative energy source over fossil fuels has gained immense interest over the years as it can contribute significantly to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and utilization. Also with rapidly increasing fuel price and fall in oil wells, the present scenario forces us to look for an alternative source of energy that will help us in the operation of industrial as well as the transportation sector. The pulp mills in India are one of the many options. The pulp mills in India can help us to produce bio-fuels by thermo-chemical/biochemical conversion of black liquor and wood residues. These technologies include extraction of hemi-cellulose from wooden chips and black liquor, lignin from black liquor, methanol from evaporator condensates, biogas production from waste sludge, syngas production from biomass using gasification and bio-oil production from biomass using pyrolysis. The objective of this paper is to overview these emerging bio-refinery technologies that can be implemented in Indian Forest Industry to get bio-fuels, bio-chemicals and bio-energy to reduce GHG emissions.

  15. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  16. Emissions from the copper-nickel industry on the Kola Peninsula and at Noril'sk, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Ron; Barnes, S.-J.; De Caritat, P.; Chekushin, V.A.; Melezhik, V.A.; Reimann, C.; Zientek, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Published estimates for base metal emissions from the copper-nickel industry on the Kola Peninsula are re-examined in the light of (a) chemical data on the composition of the ores; (b) official emission figures for 1994; and (c) modelled emissions based on dry and wet deposition estimates derived from data for snow and rain samples collected in 1994. The modelled emissions, official emission figures and chemical data are mutually compatible for Ni, Cu and Co and show that previously published figures underestimated the emissions of the major elements, Ni and Cu (though within the same order of magnitude) and overestimated the emissions of As, Pb, Sb and Zn by up to several orders of magnitude, in some cases exceeding the calculated total input to the plants. Published estimates have neglected information on the nature and chemistry of the ores processed in metallurgical industries in the Noril'sk area of Siberia and the Urals. Revised emission estimates for 1994, using knowledge of the chemistry of the ores, are proposed: taken with published information on total emissions up to 2000 these data give an indication of emission levels in more recent years. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers.

  18. Decomposition analysis of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in the iron and steel industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenqiang SUN; Jiuju CAI, Hai YU, Lei DAI

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to identify the main factors influencing the energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the iron and steel industry in China during the period of 1995-2007. The logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) technique was applied with period-wise analysis and time-series analysis. Changes in energy- related CO2 emissions were decomposed into four factors: emission factor effect, energy structure effect, energy consumption effect, and the steel production effect. The results show that steel production is the major factor responsible for the rise in CO2 emissions during the sampling period; on the other hand the energy consump- tion is the largest contributor to the decrease in C02 emissions. To a lesser extent, the emission factor and energy structure effects have both negative and positive contributions to C02 emissions, respectively. Policy implications are provided regarding the reduction of C02 emissions from the iron and steel industry in China, such as controlling the overgrowth of steel production, improving energy-saving technologies, and introducing low-carbon energy sources into the iron and steel industry.

  19. Fine-Scale Ecological and Genetic Population Structure of Two Whitefish (Coregoninae) Species in the Vicinity of Industrial Thermal Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Carly F; Eberts, Rebecca L; Morgan, Thomas D; Boreham, Douglas R; Lance, Stacey L; Manzon, Richard G; Martino, Jessica A; Rogers, Sean M; Wilson, Joanna Y; Somers, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Thermal pollution from industrial processes can have negative impacts on the spawning and development of cold-water fish. Point sources of thermal effluent may need to be managed to avoid affecting discrete populations. Correspondingly, we examined fine-scale ecological and genetic population structure of two whitefish species (Coregonus clupeaformis and Prosopium cylindraceum) on Lake Huron, Canada, in the immediate vicinity of thermal effluent from nuclear power generation. Niche metrics using δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes showed high levels of overlap (48.6 to 94.5%) in resource use by adult fish captured in areas affected by thermal effluent compared to nearby reference locations. Isotopic niche size, a metric of resource use diversity, was 1.3- to 2.8-fold higher than reference values in some thermally affected areas, indicative of fish mixing. Microsatellite analyses of genetic population structure (Fst, STRUCTURE and DAPC) indicated that fish captured at all locations in the vicinity of the power plant were part of a larger population extending beyond the study area. In concert, ecological and genetic markers do not support the presence of an evolutionarily significant unit in the vicinity of the power plant. Thus, future research should focus on the potential impacts of thermal emissions on development and recruitment.

  20. Fine-Scale Ecological and Genetic Population Structure of Two Whitefish (Coregoninae Species in the Vicinity of Industrial Thermal Emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly F Graham

    Full Text Available Thermal pollution from industrial processes can have negative impacts on the spawning and development of cold-water fish. Point sources of thermal effluent may need to be managed to avoid affecting discrete populations. Correspondingly, we examined fine-scale ecological and genetic population structure of two whitefish species (Coregonus clupeaformis and Prosopium cylindraceum on Lake Huron, Canada, in the immediate vicinity of thermal effluent from nuclear power generation. Niche metrics using δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes showed high levels of overlap (48.6 to 94.5% in resource use by adult fish captured in areas affected by thermal effluent compared to nearby reference locations. Isotopic niche size, a metric of resource use diversity, was 1.3- to 2.8-fold higher than reference values in some thermally affected areas, indicative of fish mixing. Microsatellite analyses of genetic population structure (Fst, STRUCTURE and DAPC indicated that fish captured at all locations in the vicinity of the power plant were part of a larger population extending beyond the study area. In concert, ecological and genetic markers do not support the presence of an evolutionarily significant unit in the vicinity of the power plant. Thus, future research should focus on the potential impacts of thermal emissions on development and recruitment.

  1. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Colin A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center; Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The industrial sector was the third-largest source of direct U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2014 behind electricity generation and transportation and accounted for roughly 20% of total emissions (EPA 2016). The Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that total U.S. energy consumption will grow to about 108 exajoules (1 EJ = 1018 J) or 102 quads (1 quad = 1015 British thermal units) in 2025, with nearly all of the growth coming from the industrial sector (DOE 2015b). Energy consumption in the industrial sector is forecast to increase to 39.5 EJ (37.4 quads)—a 22% increase, exceeding 36% of total energy consumption in the United States. Therefore, it is imperative that industrial GHG emissions be considered in any strategy intent on achieving deep decarbonization of the energy sector as a whole. It is important to note that unlike the transportation sector and electrical grid, energy use by industry often involves direct conversion of primary energy sources to thermal and electrical energy at the point of consumption. About 52% of U.S. industrial direct GHG emissions are the result of fuel combustion (EPA 2016) to produce hot gases and steam for process heating, process reactions, and process evaporation, concentration, and drying. The heterogeneity and variations in scale of U.S. industry and the complexity of modern industrial firms’ global supply chains are among the sector’s unique challenges to minimizing its GHG emissions. A combination of varied strategies—such as energy efficiency, material efficiency, and switching to low-carbon fuels—can help reduce absolute industrial GHG emissions. This report provides a complement to process-efficiency improvement to consider how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions. Specifically, it considers the possibility of replacing fossil-fuel combustion in industry with nuclear (specifically small modular reactors [SMRs]), solar thermal (referred to

  2. Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the impact (energy, emissions and economics) of United Fluid power (hydraulic and pneumatic actuation) is the generation, control, and application of pumped or compressed fluids when this power is used to provide force and motion to mechanisms. This form of mechanical power is an integral part of United States (U.S.) manufacturing and transportation. In 2008, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, sales of fluid power components exceeded $17.7B, sales of systems using fluid power exceeded $226B. As large as the industry is, it has had little fundamental research that could lead to improved efficiency since the late 1960s (prior to the 1970 energy crisis). While there have been some attempts to replace fluid powered components with electric systems, its performance and rugged operating condition limit the impact of simple part replacement. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) collaborated with 31 industrial partners to collect and consolidate energy specific measurements (consumption, emissions, efficiency) of deployed fluid power systems. The objective of this study was to establish a rudimentary order of magnitude estimate of the energy consumed by fluid powered systems. The analysis conducted in this study shows that fluid powered systems consumed between 2.0 and 2.9 Quadrillion (1015) Btus (Quads) of energy per year; producing between 310 and 380 million metric tons (MMT) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). In terms of efficiency, the study indicates that, across all industries, fluid power system efficiencies range from less than 9% to as high as 60% (depending upon the application), with an average efficiency of 22%. A review of case studies shows that there are many opportunities to impact energy savings in both the manufacturing and transportation sectors by the development and deployment of energy efficient fluid power components and systems.

  3. Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability, and Vehicle Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shapiro, Evan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-11

    With the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector, policy-makers are supporting a multitude of measures to increase electric vehicle adoption. The actual level of emission reduction associated with the electrification of the transport sector is dependent on the contexts that determine when and where drivers charge electric vehicles. This analysis contributes to our understanding of the degree to which a particular electricity grid profile, vehicle type, and charging patterns impact CO2 emissions from light-duty, plug-in electric vehicles. We present an analysis of emissions resulting from both battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles. A scenario that allows drivers to charge electric vehicles at the workplace yields the lowest level of emissions for the majority of electricity grid profiles. However, vehicle emissions are shown to be highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix, with different vehicle types and charging scenarios resulting in fewer emissions when the carbon intensity of the grid is above a defined level. Restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions for all vehicle types, as compared to other charging scenarios.

  4. Forecasting energy demand and CO{sub 2}-emissions from energy production in the forest industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to develops new energy forecasting methods for the forest industry energy use. The scenarios have been the most commonly used forecasts, but they require a lot of work. The recent scenarios, which are made for the forest industry, give a wide range of results; e.g. from 27,8 TWh to 38 TWh for electricity use in 2010. There is a need for more simple and accurate methods for forecasting. The time scale for the study is from 1975 to 2010, i.e. 36 years. The basic data for the study is collected from time period 1975 - 1995. It includes the wood use, production of main product categories and energy use in the forest industry. The factors affecting energy use at both industry level and at mill level are presented. The most probable technology trends, which can have an effect on energy production and use and CO{sub 2}-emissions are studied. Recent forecasts for the forest industry energy use till the year 2010 are referred and analysed. Three alternative forecasting methods are studied more closely. These methods are (a) Regression analysis, (b) Growth curves and (c) Delphi-method. Total electricity demand, share of purchased electricity, total fuel demand and share of process-based biofuels are estimated for the time period 1996 - 2010. The results from the different methods are compared to each other and to the recent scenarios. The comparison is made for the results concerning the energy use and the usefulness of the methods in practical work. The average energy consumption given by the forecasts for electricity was 31,6 TWh and for fuel 6,2 Mtoe in 2010. The share of purchased electricity totalled 73 % and process based fuels 77 %. The figures from 1995 are 22,8 TWh, 5,5 Mtoe, 64 % and 68 % respectively. All three methods were suitable for forecasting. All the methods required less working hours and were easier to use than scenarios. The methods gave results with a smaller deviation than scenarios, e.g. with electricity use in 2010 from

  5. Application of microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES) for environmental monitoring of industrially contaminated sites in Hyderabad city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala C T; Balaram V; Dharmendra V; Satyanarayanan M; Subramanyam K S V; Krishnaiah A

    2014-11-01

    Recently introduced microwave plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES) represents yet another and very important addition to the existing array of modern instrumental analytical techniques. In this study, an attempt is made to summarize the performance characteristics of MP-AES and its potential as an analytical tool for environmental studies with some practical examples from Patancheru and Uppal industrial sectors of Hyderabad city. A range of soil, sediment, water reference materials, particulate matter, and real-life samples were chosen to evaluate the performance of this new analytical technique. Analytical wavelengths were selected considering the interference effects of other concomitant elements present in different sample solutions. The detection limits for several elements were found to be in the range from 0.05 to 5 ng/g. The trace metals analyzed in both the sectors followed the topography with more pollution in the low-lying sites. The metal contents were found to be more in ground waters than surface waters. Since a decade, the pollutants are transfered from Patancheru industrial area to Musi River. After polluting Nakkavagu and turning huge tracts of agricultural lands barren besides making people residing along the rivulet impotent and sick, industrialists of Patancheru are shifting the effluents to downstream of Musi River through an 18-km pipeline from Patancheru. Since the effluent undergoes primary treatment at Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) at Patanchru and travels through pipeline and mixes with sewage, the organic effluents will be diluted. But the inorganic pollutants such as heavy and toxic metals tend to accumulate in the environmental segments near and downstreams of Musi River. The data generated by MP-AES of toxic metals like Zn, Cu, and Cr in the ground and surface waters can only be attributed to pollution from Patancheru since no other sources are available to Musi River.

  6. Dimension reduction of multivariable optical emission spectrometer datasets for industrial plasma processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; McArdle, Conor; Daniels, Stephen

    2013-12-19

    A new data dimension-reduction method, called Internal Information Redundancy Reduction (IIRR), is proposed for application to Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) datasets obtained from industrial plasma processes. For example in a semiconductor manufacturing environment, real-time spectral emission data is potentially very useful for inferring information about critical process parameters such as wafer etch rates, however, the relationship between the spectral sensor data gathered over the duration of an etching process step and the target process output parameters is complex. OES sensor data has high dimensionality (fine wavelength resolution is required in spectral emission measurements in order to capture data on all chemical species involved in plasma reactions) and full spectrum samples are taken at frequent time points, so that dynamic process changes can be captured. To maximise the utility of the gathered dataset, it is essential that information redundancy is minimised, but with the important requirement that the resulting reduced dataset remains in a form that is amenable to direct interpretation of the physical process. To meet this requirement and to achieve a high reduction in dimension with little information loss, the IIRR method proposed in this paper operates directly in the original variable space, identifying peak wavelength emissions and the correlative relationships between them. A new statistic, Mean Determination Ratio (MDR), is proposed to quantify the information loss after dimension reduction and the effectiveness of IIRR is demonstrated using an actual semiconductor manufacturing dataset. As an example of the application of IIRR in process monitoring/control, we also show how etch rates can be accurately predicted from IIRR dimension-reduced spectral data.

  7. Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-10-01

    Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH(4)) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH(4) production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt(-1)), while observed CO(2) production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH(4) emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha(-1)) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha(-1) application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH(4) emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH(4) production rates as well as total seasonal CH(4) flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH(4) emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity.

  8. Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn

    2005-06-01

    Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

  9. Emissions of isoprenoids and oxygenated biogenic volatile organic compounds from a New England mixed forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. McKinney

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds, including isoprene, monoterpenes, and oxygenated VOCs measured above a mixed forest canopy in western Massachusetts during the 2005 and 2007 growing seasons are reported. Measurements were made using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS and converted to fluxes using the disjunct eddy covariance technique. Isoprene was by far the predominant BVOC emitted at this site, with summer mid-day average fluxes of 5.3 and 4.4 mg m−2 h−1 in 2005 and 2007, respectively. In comparison, mid-day average fluxes of monoterpenes were 0.21 and 0.15 mg m−2 h−1 in each of these years. On short times scales (days, the diel pattern in emission rate compared well with a standard emission algorithm for isoprene. The general shape of the seasonal cycle and the observed decrease in isoprene emission rate in early September was, however, not well captured by the model. Monoterpene emission rates exhibited dependence on light as well as temperature, as determined from the improved fit to the observations obtained by including a light-dependent term in the model. The mid-day average flux of methanol from the canopy was 0.14 mg m−2 h−1 in 2005 and 0.19 mg m−2 h−1 in 2007, but the maximum flux was observed in spring (29 May 2007, when the flux reached 1.0 mg m−2 h−1. This observation is consistent with enhanced methanol production during leaf expansion. Summer mid-day fluxes of acetone were 0.15 mg m−2 h−1 during a short period in 2005, but only 0.03 mg m−2 h−1 averaged over 2007. Episodes of negative fluxes of oxygenated VOCs, particularly acetone, were observed periodically, especially in 2007. Thus, deposition within the canopy could help explain the low season-averaged flux of acetone in 2007. Fluxes of species of biogenic origin at

  10. Soil Protection in the EU According to the Directive on Industrial Emissions (IED and Croatian Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pilaš

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Soil protection against pollution in EU is mostly covered in a new Directive on industrial emissions (IED, adopted on November 24, 2010 as a follow up of the IPPC Directive. For all industrial facilities that fall under IED, the Directive obliges the establishment of a complex system of management of contaminated soil at the national level, in order to facilitate the implementation of the principle of “polluter pays” furthermore to reduce the risk of contamination of soil and groundwater. Material and Methods: This paper presents an overview of soil management system that should be established in each EU country to fulfil IED requirements. It consists of a meta-analysis of IED requirements and current state and drawbacks of soil protection in Croatia including present state of legislation, responsibility of authorities, soil surveys and remediation activities. Results and Conclusions: IED set the obligation on the industrial operator before the start of production to prepare a report on the initial state of soil as a necessary requirement for obtaining environmental permit. It set obligations for monitoring of soil and groundwater status in the location of industrial facility for a period of ten (soil and five years (groundwater. After the cessation of production, and in the case of exceeding critical limits of pollution, the operator is obliged to perform remediation or restitution of land in the state as it was at the beginning of production. Management of contaminated soil according to IED requirements obliges the Croatian government to establish a complex multi-level system. At first it requires better definition of responsibilities between two ministries; Ministry of Environmental and Nature protection and Ministry of Agriculture. IED requires enactment of adequate legal basis (i.e. Soil protection act and the establishment of operational instruments for the implementation of soil protection, such as a register

  11. White-light emission by phonon assisted coherent mixing of excitons in Au8-CdS hybrid nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, S.; Halder, O.; Pradhani, A.; Satpati, B.; Maity, A.; Chini, T. K.; Gogurla, N.; Ray, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    Gold cluster (Au8) coated CdS hybrid nanorods (HNRs), synthesized using a sonication assisted assembly route, exhibit phonon assisted coherent mixing of excitons. As observed from optical absorption, Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies, the Au8 modulates the crystal—and electronic—structure of the CdS nanorods, effecting enhancement of exciton-phonon (e-p) interactions. The e-p interaction and entropy effect mediated phase matching of the excitonic transitions, leading—via cooperative and coherent mixing of the excitons’ color—to the emission of white light, has been confirmed from room temperature and time resolved photoluminescence measurements.

  12. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES FROM MIXED DECIDUOUS AND CONIFEROUS FORESTS IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from forests play an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including global tropospheric ozone concentrations. However, more information is needed on VOC emission rates from different forest regio...

  13. Devlopment of Refractory Gunning Mixes and Their Applications in Iron & Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShouye; WANGZhanmin; 等

    1998-01-01

    The development and application of gunning mixes based on various material systems for repairing BOF,EAF,ladel and BF trough linings,using Chinese abundant natural refractory resources,have been reviewed,The effects of binders and additives on properties of different gunning mixes are discussed.Their application results are also introduced.

  14. Mixed integer (0-1) fractional programming for decision support in paper production industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, G.D.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an effective and efficient method for solving a special class of mixed integer fractional programming (FP) problems. We take a classical reformulation approach for continuous FP as a starting point and extend it for solving a more general class of mixed integer (0–1) fractional p

  15. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ding [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Wenying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  17. Low emissions combustor development for an industrial gas turbine to utilize LCV fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G.J.; Smith, M.A. (British Coal Corp., Glos (United Kingdom). Coal Research Establishment); Cannon, M.F. (European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom). Aero and Technology Products)

    1994-07-01

    Advanced coal-based power generation systems such as the British Coal Topping Cycle offer the potential for high-efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component of the Topping cycle program is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at a turbine inlet temperature of 1,260 C (2,300 F), with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key R and D issue. A phased combustor development program is underway burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6--4.1 MJ/m[sup 3]) with low emissions, particularly NO[sub x] derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first phase of the combustor development program has now been completed using a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor design. Tests were carried out at combustor loading and Mach numbers considerably greater than the initial design values. Combustor performance at these conditions was encouraging. The second phase of the program is currently in progress. This will assess, initially, an improved variant of the prototype combustor operating at conditions selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine. This combustor will also be capable of operating using natural gas as an auxiliary fuel, to suite the start-up procedure for the Topping Cycle. The paper presents the Phase 1 test program results for the prototype combustor. Design of the modified combustor for Phase 2 of the development program is discussed, together with preliminary combustor performance results.

  18. Environmental efficiency and regulatory standards. The case of CO{sub 2} emissions from OECD industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zofio, J.L. [Departamento de Analisis Economico: Teoria Economica e Historia Economica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Prieto, A.M. [I.R.N.A.-C.S.I.C., Cordel de Merinas 40-52, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2001-01-01

    It is generally accepted that production processes should take into account environmental sustainability principles. Hence, any attempt to measure the performance of these processes should highlight, as a reference standard, those processes that combine greater amounts of desirable production with lower levels of undesirable outputs, e.g. waste generation or emissions of greenhouse gases. Using this concept of environmental performance, it is possible to establish efficiency scores within a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) framework, and to calculate desirable output losses when specific environmental standards on undesirable production are set by the authority, i.e. legislative opportunity costs. This can be achieved by solving programming models that call for a reduction of undesirable outputs and that stress the weak disposability of such outputs. Once a standard is set, it congests or binds the technology if the reductions in undesirable production required to meet it imply lower desirable output levels, i.e. the regulation is costly. DEA enables us to simulate, for each producer, the effect of any regulatory standard on production, and the limits beyond which production is impossible - lower limits, or superfluous - upper limits, because the chosen standard does not bind production. The empirical implications of the DEA process are analyzed considering different regulatory scenarios on CO{sub 2} emissions for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)'s manufacturing industries.

  19. Model of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (Ghg's in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarildo da Cruz Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The warming of Earth's atmosphere is a natural phenomenon and necessary to sustain life on the planet, being caused by the balance between the electromagnetic radiation received by the Earth from the Sun and the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth back into space. Since the mid-eighteenth century, with the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the consequent increase in burning fossil fuels, changes in land use and agriculture, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O has increased significantly. By the year 2010, the concentrations of these three gases showed increments respectively in the order of 39%, 158% and 20% (WMO 2009, 2010 and 2011. Such increases in the concentrations of these gases are changing the Earth's radioactive balance, intensifying the natural greenhouse effect, which over millions of years has been essential to support life on the planet. The main objective of this paper is to present the development of a model based on the language of System Dynamics (SD, of how the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs is in complex installations Exploration and Production (E & P of oil and gas. To illustrate one of the results of this modeling process a computer simulation was performed involving emissions from production estimate for the Pilot Production System and Drainage Area Tupi - Tupi Pilot (ICF, 2008.

  20. Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P; Khalid, M

    2010-01-01

    Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG) emissions by saving energy to be used for the production of the same amount of industrial fertilizer N required for the growth of corn crop. Application of OFW at 10Mg solid ha(-1)y(-1) conserved 68 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) which ultimately saved 134 L diesel ha(-1)y(-1), which would otherwise be used for the production of fertilizer N as urea. Average fossil energy substitution value (FESV) of N conserved/recycled was calculated to be 93 US$ ha(-1)y(-1), which is about 13 million US$y(-1). Potential amount of GHG mitigation through the application of OFW to agricultural soils in Canada is estimated to be 57 Gg CO(2)Eq y(-1).

  1. Monitoring and evaluation of duct emission and stationary sources of ceramic industries by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Fonseca, Roney Jose, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de, E-mail: aesvives@unimep.b [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor and evaluate the emission of metals from ducts and stationary sources in ceramic industries in the region of the ceramic centre of Santa Gertrudes in the state of Sao Paulo. There has been a growth of this industrial sector in recent years. This reflected upon the environment in this region which is responsible for 60% of ceramic tile floor production. From 2005 to 2006, samples of gases emitted by several ceramic companies in that region were collected. Metal concentration was determined through X-ray Fluorescence by Total Reflection with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF) technique. The analyses were carried out in the National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light (NLSL) and used a polychromatic beam of light to stimulate the samples and a hyper pure Germanic detector for the characteristic X-ray detection. The following elements were detected: Al, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. High concentrations of elements such as Chromium, Nickel and Lead were observed in the samples analyzed which presented values of concentrations higher than the ones permitted by legislation. (author)

  2. Study of otoacoustic emissions in workers of various professional groups of the coal industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shydlovska T.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Noise influence takes one of the leading roles in the development of sensorineural hearing loss (SHL. At the same time professional deafness steadily occupies the 5th place in the structure of occupational diseases in Ukraine over the past few years. Of special importance is the problem of pre-clinical and early diagnosis of occupational hearing deterioration, in sense of timely prophylactic and rehabilitation measures in “risk group” workers. The objective research methods play an important role in the diagnosis of auditory analyzer state. Many scientific studies have shown the diagnostic effectiveness of method of otoacoustic emissions recording in the early diagnosis of lesions of receptor part of auditory analyzer. It is known that SHL of noise genesis largely affects the receptor part of the auditory analyzer, for which the OAE method has great practical diagnostic significance. Objective: to study informativity indicators of otoacoustic emission for the diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss in various occupational groups of coal workers in Ukrainian mines. Materials and Methods: Auditory function of 87 workers of the coal industry (drifters, miners and longwall miners with different levels of industrial noise and hygienic conditions in their workplaces was: 28 studied drifters (group 1, 25 miners (group 2 and 34 longwall miners (group 3. Work experience in noise in these groups was 17,9±1,0; 23,1±1,0 and 22,2±2,0 accordingly. Noise ratio in drifters was 93,6±4,9 dBA, in miners – 92,9±5,5 dBA and in longwall miners – 86,5±6,04 dBA accordingly, while the maximum permitted level is 80 dBA. The research was conducted on the analyzing system "Eclipse" "Interacoustics" (Denmark. All patients underwent registratiov of the caused OAE at frequency distortion product (DPOAE at frequencies 1-6 kHz. The results were rated using variation statistics Student's test. Results: The most prominent violation of the receptor part of the

  3. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  4. Geochemistry and migration of anthropogenic arsenic emissions in Yara Siilinjärvi industrial site, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Pasanen, Antti

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic is a problematic element due to its relatively high mobility over a wide range of redox-conditions and its toxicity to humans, animals and plants. In extractive and industrial minerals arsenic is a common element and cannot be eluded in mining and quarrying activities. Therefore, mining and industrial activities are one of the most serious arsenic polluters at local scale. In assessing environmental effects, it is important to compare anthropogenic arsenic load to geological background. The aim of this study was to characterize environmental effects and risks of the arsenic bearing calcinate tailings to the surrounding environment. Yara Finland industrial site in Siilinjärvi, Eastern Finland produces mainly fertilizers and phosphoric acid, but also 250 000 t/a iron calcinate is recovered as by-product at the sulphuric acid plant. The tailings area is located about 200 m from Lake Kuuslahti and surrounded by double ditches collecting runoff and seepage waters to seepage ponds. Some seepage water migrates to a bedrock fracture zone under the tailings area and contaminant transport from the fracture zone is controlled by pumping the water back to seepage ponds. The arsenic content (500 mg/kg) of the calcinate tailings is very high considering that the natural arsenic concentrations of the local bedrock and soil are low (6. In surface waters arsenic occurred mainly as arsenate-compounds regardless of the pH. Since the arsenic is mainly in form of less toxic arsenate and the concentrations in ditch waters and Lake Kuuslahti are low, it appears that arsenic concentration levels do not pose a risk to aquatic organisms. However, it is essential to control the environmental effects by minimizing the dust emissions from the tailings area and pumping the seepage water from the bedrock fracture zone.

  5. Carbon emissions due to deforestation for the production of charcoal used in Brazil’s steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, Laura J.; Barrett, Damian J.; Moran, Chris J.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2015-04-01

    Steel produced using coal generates 7% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions annually. Opportunities exist to substitute this coal with carbon-neutral charcoal sourced from plantation forests to mitigate project-scale emissions and obtain certified emission reduction credits under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism. This mitigation strategy has been implemented in Brazil and is one mechanism among many used globally to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions; however, its potential adverse impacts have been overlooked to date. Here, we report that total CO2 emitted from Brazilian steel production doubled (91 to 182 MtCO2) and specific emissions increased (3.3 to 5.2 MtCO2 per Mt steel) between 2000 and 2007, even though the proportion of coal used declined. Infrastructure upgrades and a national plantation shortage increased industry reliance on charcoal sourced from native forests, which emits up to nine times more CO2 per tonne of steel than coal. Preventing use of native forest charcoal could have avoided 79% of the CO2 emitted from steel production between 2000 and 2007; however, doing so by increasing plantation charcoal supply is limited by socio-economic costs and risks further indirect deforestation pressures and emissions. Effective climate change mitigation in Brazil’s steel industry must therefore minimize all direct and indirect carbon emissions generated from steel manufacture.

  6. Greenhouse gas penalty and incentive policies for a joint economic lot size model with industrial and transport emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Darma Wangsa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a joint economic lot size model for a single manufacturer-a single buyer. The purposed model involves the greenhouse gas emission from industrial and transport sectors. We divide the emission into two types, namely the direct and indirect emissions. In this paper, we consider the Government’s penalty and incentive policies to reduce the emission. We assume that the demand of the buyer is normally distributed and partially backordered. The objective is to minimize joint total cost incurred by a single manufacturer-a single buyer and involves the transportation costs of the freight forwarder. Transportation costs are the function of shipping weight, distance, fuel price and consumption with two transportation modes: truckload and less-than-truckload shipments. Finally, an algorithm procedure is proposed to determine the optimal order quantity, safety factor, actual shipping weight, total emission and frequency of deliveries. Numerical examples and analyses are given to illustrate the results.

  7. A new marketing mix model to rescue the hospitality industry: Evidence from Egypt after the Arab Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Salman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available After January 25th 2011 Egypt witnessed political, economic and social instability leading to drastic consequences in the hospitality and tourism industry. Thus unstable situation reflected on the deteriorated occupancy percentages that led to declined profit margins, higher employee layoffs and degraded quality of product and services. The objectives of this research is to examine how the Egyptian hospitality properties manage this dilemma through their marketing practices, and to propose a new marketing mix model that adds new layers of depth to the traditional marketing mix model. A methodological framework was designed to help in the assessment process of management practices pertaining to marketing initiatives during times of crisis. Results indicated the presence of tactical elements that assembled the traditional marketing mix model in the investigated hotels. However, these elements are not effectively used and the interaction between them not appears very clear. Results also indicated that the new proposed model would help in providing a framework for the Egyptian hospitality industry to maintain their competitive position during crisis time and avoiding undesired situations for labour force and decline of companies׳ revenues.

  8. Airborne observations of mercury emissions from the Chicago/Gary urban/industrial area during the 2013 NOMADSS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, L. E.; Ambrose, J. L.; Jaffe, D. A.; Knote, C.; Jaeglé, L.; Selin, N. E.; Campos, T.; Flocke, F. M.; Reeves, M.; Stechman, D.; Stell, M.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Mauldin, R. L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Blake, N. J.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric emissions from the Chicago/Gary urban/industrial area significantly enhance ambient mercury (Hg) concentrations and lead to increased levels of atmospheric Hg deposition within the Lake Michigan Basin. We use airborne observations collected over Lake Michigan during the 2013 Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) campaign to quantify the outflow of total Hg (THg) emissions from the Chicago/Gary urban/industrial area. We use concurrent airborne measurements of THg, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) to calculate measured enhancement ratios and to characterize Chicago/Gary emissions with respect to the 2011 U.S. EPA National Emissions Inventory. We determine the observed THg/CO enhancement ratio in outflow from Chicago/Gary to be 0.21 ± 0.09 × 10-6 mol mol-1 (ppqv/ppbv), which is comparable to observations reported for other major U.S. urban/industrial areas. We also employ the FLEXPART Lagrangian transport and dispersion model to simulate air mass transport during plume encounters and to compare our observations to inventoried emission ratios. We find that our observed THg/CO enhancement ratios are 63-67% greater than the transport-corrected emission ratios for the Chicago/Gary area. Our results suggest that there are many small emission sources that are not fully accounted for within the inventory, and/or that the re-emission of legacy Hg is a significant source of THg to the atmosphere in this region.

  9. Post Cyclone (PoC) : An innovative way to reduce the emission of fines from industrial cyclones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray - Bhowmick, Madhumita; Luning, P.E.; Hoffmann, A.C; Plomp, A.; Beumer, M.I.L.

    A novel approach for reducing the emission of industrial-scale cyclones of particles smaller than 10 mu m is presented. Utilizing the strong swirl already present in the vortex finder of a conventional cyclone, the escaped dust from the cyclone is collected in a so-called ''Post Cyclone'' (PoC),

  10. Post Cyclone (PoC) : An innovative way to reduce the emission of fines from industrial cyclones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray, MB; Luning, PE; Hoffmann, AC; Plomp, A; Beumer, MIL

    1997-01-01

    A novel approach for reducing the emission of industrial-scale cyclones of particles smaller than 10 mu m is presented. Utilizing the strong swirl already present in the vortex finder of a conventional cyclone, the escaped dust from the cyclone is collected in a so-called ''Post Cyclone'' (PoC), whi

  11. Integrated model for assessing the cost and CO2 emission (IMACC) for sustainable structural design in ready-mix concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Taehoon; Ji, Changyoon; Park, Hyoseon

    2012-07-30

    Cost has traditionally been considered the most important factor in the decision-making process. Recently, along with the consistent interest in environmental problems, environmental impact has also become a key factor. Accordingly, there is a need to develop a method that simultaneously reflects the cost and environmental impact in the decision-making process. This study proposed an integrated model for assessing the cost and CO(2) emission (IMACC) at the same time. IMACC is a model that assesses the cost and CO(2) emission of the various structural-design alternatives proposed in the structural-design process. To develop the IMACC, a standard on assessing the cost and CO(2) emission generated in the construction stage was proposed, along with the CO(2) emission factors in the structural materials, based on such materials' strengths. Moreover, using the economic and environmental scores that signify the cost and CO(2) emission reduction ratios, respectively, a method of selecting the best design alternative was proposed. To verify the applicability of IMACC, practical application was carried out. Structural designs were assessed, each of which used 21, 24, 27, and 30 MPa ready-mix concrete (RMC). The use of IMACC makes it easy to verify what the best design is. Results show the one that used 27 MPa RMC was the best design. Therefore, the proposed IMACC can be used as a tool for supporting the decision-making process in selecting the best design alternative.

  12. G346.6-0.2: The Mixed-Morphology Supernova Remnant with Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchettl, Katie; Slane, Patrick; Ng, Stephen C.-Y.; Wong, B. T. T.

    2016-07-01

    The detection of non-thermal X-ray emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) provides us with a unique window into studying particle acceleration at the shock-front. All of the 14 or so SNRs in which non-thermal X-ray synchrotron emission has been detected are shell-like in nature, and show no evidence of interaction with large nearby molecular clouds. Here we present a new X-ray study of the molecular cloud interacting mixed-morphology (MM) SNR G346.6-0.2 using XMM-Newton. We found that the X-ray emission arises from a cool recombining plasma with subsolar abundances, confirming previous Suzaku results. In addition, we identified an additional power-law component in the spectrum, with a photon index of ˜2. We investigated its possible origin and conclude that it most likely arises from synchrotron emission produced by particles accelerated at the shock. This makes G346.6-0.2 an important new object in the class of synchrotron emitting SNRs, as unlike shell type X-ray synchrotron SNRs, MM SNRs are usually thought to have shock velocities that are effectively too slow to accelerate electrons. The dense environment and nature of the remnant, provide conditions unseen in shell type X-ray synchrotron SNRs, providing a unique opportunity to study the effect that these properties have on the production of X-ray synchrotron emission.

  13. Vermicomposting of sugar industry waste (press mud) mixed with cow dung employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, P; Kaushik, C P; Garg, V K

    2010-01-01

    In India, millions of tons of press mud (PM) are generated by sugar mills every year. This paper reports the potential of vermitechnology to convert sugar industry waste PM mixed with cow dung (CD) into vermicompost, employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. A total of six different reactors were established having different ratios of PM and CD including one control (CD only). The growth and fecundity of E. fetida was monitored for 13 weeks. Maximum growth was recorded in 100% CD, but earthworms grew and reproduced favourably up to 1:1 PM and CD feed composition. However, greater percentages of PM in different reactors significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Vermicomposting resulted in a decrease in carbon concentration and an increase in nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium concentrations of the vermicompost. Investigations indicated that vermicomposting could be an alternative technology for the management of PM into useful fertilizing material, if mixed at maximum 50% with CD.

  14. Analytic network process (ANP approach for product mix planning in railway industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Pazoki Toroudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Given the competitive environment in the global market in recent years, organizations need to plan for increased profitability and optimize their performance. Planning for an appropriate product mix plays essential role for the success of most production units. This paper applies analytical network process (ANP approach for product mix planning for a part supplier in Iran. The proposed method uses four criteria including cost of production, sales figures, supply of raw materials and quality of products. In addition, the study proposes different set of products as alternatives for production planning. The preliminary results have indicated that that the proposed study of this paper could increase productivity, significantly.

  15. Center for the Polyurethanes Industry summary of unpublished industrial hygiene studies related to the evaluation of emissions of spray polyurethane foam insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard D

    2017-09-01

    Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation is used as thermal insulation for residential and commercial buildings. It has many advantages over other forms insulation; however, concerns have been raised related to chemical emissions during and after application. The American Chemistry Council's (ACC's) Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) has gathered previously unpublished industrial hygiene air sampling studies submitted by member companies that were completed during an eight-year period from 2007-2014. These studies address emissions from medium density closed cell and low density open cell formulations. This article summarizes the results of personal and area air samples collected during application and post application of SPF to interior building surfaces in both laboratory and field environments. Chemicals of interest included: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), flame retardants, amine catalysts, blowing agents, and aldehydes. Overall, the results indicate that SPF applicators and workers in close proximity to the application are potentially exposed to MDI in excess of recommended and governmental occupational exposure limits and should use personal protective equipment (PPE) consisting of air supplied respirators and full-body protective clothing to reduce exposure. Catalyst emissions can be reduced by using reactive catalysts in SPF formulations, and mechanical ventilation is important in controlling emissions during and after application.

  16. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xiao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CC14 measurements and a 3-dimensional chemical transport model to estimate the interannual regional industrial emissions and seasonal global oceanic uptake of CCl4 for the period of 1996–2004. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH, driven by offline National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, is used to simulate CCl4 mole fractions and calculate their sensitivities to regional sources and sinks using a finite difference approach. High frequency observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL and low frequency flask observations are together used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes, estimated as factors that multiply the a priori fluxes. Although industry data imply that the global industrial emissions were substantially declining with large interannual variations, the optimized results show only small interannual variations and a small decreasing trend. The global surface CCl4 mole fractions were declining in this period because the CCl4 oceanic and stratospheric sinks exceeded the industrial emissions. Compared to the a priori values, the inversion results indicate substantial increases in industrial emissions originating from the South Asian/Indian and Southeast Asian regions, and significant decreases in emissions from the European and North American regions.

  17. A Green Mixed Integer Linear Programming Model for Optimization of Byproduct Gases in Iron and Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-ning KONG

    2015-01-01

    Byproduct gas is an important secondary energy in iron and steel industry, and its optimization is vital to cost reduction. With the development of iron and steel industry to be more eco-friendly, it is necessary to construct an integrated optimized system, taking economics, energy consumption and environment into consideration. Therefore, the environmental cost caused by pollutants discharge should be factored in total cost when optimizing byproduct gas distribution. A green mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for the optimization of byproduct gases was established to reduce total cost, including both operation cost and environmental cost. The operation cost included penalty for gas deviation, costs of fuel and water consumption, holder booster trip penalty, and so forth; while the environmental cost consisted of penalties for both direct and indirect pollutants discharge. Case study showed that the proposed model brought an optimum solution and 2.2% of the total cost could be reduced compared with previous one.

  18. Effect of sporadic destratification, seasonal overturn, and artificial mixing on CH4 emissions from a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Frédéric; Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar; Labat, David; Pighini, Sylvie; Vongkhamsao, Axay; Guédant, Pierre; Rode, Wanidaporn; Godon, Arnaud; Chanudet, Vincent; Descloux, Stéphane; Serça, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    Inland waters in general and freshwater reservoirs specifically are recognized as a source of CH4 into the atmosphere. Although the diffusion at the air-water interface is the most studied pathway, its spatial and temporal variations are poorly documented. We measured temperature and O2 and CH4 concentrations every 2 weeks for 3.5 years at nine stations in a subtropical monomictic reservoir which was flooded in 2008 (Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, Lao PDR). Based on these results, we quantified CH4 storage in the water column and diffusive fluxes from June 2009 to December 2012. We compared diffusive emissions with ebullition from Deshmukh et al. (2014) and aerobic methane oxidation and downstream emissions from Deshmukh et al. (2016). In this monomictic reservoir, the seasonal variations of CH4 concentration and storage were highly dependent on the thermal stratification. Hypolimnic CH4 concentration and CH4 storage reached their maximum in the warm dry season (WD) when the reservoir was stratified. Concentration and storage decreased during the warm wet (WW) season and reached its minimum after the reservoir overturned in the cool dry (CD) season. The sharp decreases in CH4 storage were concomitant with extreme diffusive fluxes (up to 200 mmol m-2 d-1). These sporadic emissions occurred mostly in the inflow region in the WW season and during overturn in the CD season in the area of the reservoir that has the highest CH4 storage. Although they corresponded to less than 10 % of the observations, these extreme CH4 emissions (> 5 mmol m-2 d-1) contributed up to 50 % of total annual emissions by diffusion. During the transition between the WD and WW seasons, a new emission hotspot was identified upstream of the water intake where diffusive fluxes peaked at 600 mmol m-2 d-1 in 2010 down to 200 mmol m-2 d-1 in 2012. The hotspot was attributed to the mixing induced by the water intakes (artificial mixing). Emissions from this area contributed 15-25 % to total annual emissions

  19. Spatial and temporal variability of nitrous oxide emissions in a mixed farming landscape of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelde, Kirsten; Cellier, P; Bertolini, T;

    2012-01-01

    emissions, measured using static chambers. Measurements were made over a period of 20 months, and sampling was intensified during two weeks in spring 2009 when chambers were installed at ten locations or fields to cover different crops and topography and slurry was applied to three of the fields. N2O...... emissions during spring 2009 were relatively low, with maximum values below 20 ng N m−2 s−1. This applied to all land use types including winter grain crops, grasslands, meadows, and wetlands. Slurry application to wheat fields resulted in short-lived two-fold increases in emissions. The moderate N2O fluxes...

  20. 住宿业碳排放研究进展%Research progress on carbon emissions in accommodation industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭; 秦耀辰; 张丽君; 路超君

    2013-01-01

    住宿业作为旅游业的主要用能部门之一,其碳减排成为应对全球气候变化的一个重要部分,日益受到学术界重视.通过梳理和总结国内外相关文献,可以看出:国内外住宿业碳排放的研究内容集中在住宿业直接和间接用能碳排放的计算、碳减排影响因素、碳减排措施等方面;研究方法以定量的居多,各种统计分析法都有所涉及,国内住宿业碳排放的研究比国外相对滞后.总体上学术界对住宿业碳排放的研究内容由浅入深,研究方法由简单到复杂,为住宿业的节能减排提供了科学依据,也为低碳旅游发展研究奠定了基础.%Accommodation industry is one of the major energy-consuming sectors of the tourism industry. Reduction of carbon emission in accommodation industry has become an important part of the countermeasures to global climate change, and is increasingly getting attentions from the academia. In this paper, by combing through and summarizing the relevant literature at home and abroad, we found that studies of carbon emissions in accommodation industry have been centered around the topics such as the estimations of carbon emissions through direct and indirect energy consumptions, the factors impacting carbon emission, the steps to reduce carbon emissions, and so on. The majority of the research methods are quantitative, involving a variety of statistical analyses. The related studies in China have lagged behind in comparison to the ones abroad. Overall, the research topics on carbon emissions in accommodation industry have changed from superficial to in-depth, and the research methods from simple to complex. The research has provided a scientific basis for energy conservation and emission reduction in accommodation industry, and has laid a foundation for the research on low-carbon tourism development.

  1. Distribution modeling of hazardous airborne emissions from industrial campuses in Iraq via GIS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwan Al-Hasnawi, S.; Salam Bash AlMaliki, J.; Falih Nazal, Zainab

    2017-08-01

    The presence of considerable amounts of hazardous elements in air may represent prolonged lethal effects for the residential and/or commercial campuses and activities, especially those around the emission activities, hence it is so important to monitor and anticipate these concentrations and design an effective spatial forecasting models for that sake. Geographic information systems GIS were utilized to monitor, analyze and model the presence and concentrations for airborne Pb, Cr, and Zn elements in the atmosphere around certain industrial campuses at the northern part of Iraq. Diffusion patterns were determined for these elements via the adaptation of GIS extension; the geostatistical and spatial analysis that implement Kriging and inverse distance weighted (IDW) methods to interpolate a raster surface. The main determination factors like wind speed, ambient temperature and topographic distributions were considered in order to design a prediction model that serves as early alert of future possible accidents. Results of eight months observation program have proved that the concentrations of the three elements had significantly exceeded the Iraqi and WHO limits at most of the observed locations especially for summer times. Also, the predicted models were validated with the field measures and have proved close match especially for the geostatistical analysis map that had around 4% percentage error for the three tested elements.

  2. India's iron and steel industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1998-10-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's iron and steel sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both growth accounting and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that over the observed period from 1973--74 to 1993--94 productivity declined by 1.71{percent} as indicated by the Translog index. Calculations of the Kendrick and Solow indices support this finding. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's iron and steel sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protective policy regarding price and distribution of iron and steel as well as by large inefficiencies in public sector integrated steel plants. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? Most likely they will not. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with the liberalization of the iron and steel sector, the industry is rapidly moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use in existing and future plants.

  3. X-ray powder diffractometry of emissions from the cement industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, P. P.; Khan, A. R.; Davin, M. T.

    X-ray powder diffractometry has been found capable of identifying and distinguishing limestone and cement particles, the two important emissions of the cement industry. The limestone shows strong reflections principally at 1.87,1.91,2.09,2.28,2.49,3.03 and 3.83 Å from its main constituent, calcite, whereas cement shows reflections at 1.76, 2.18, 2.60, 2.64, a doublet at 2.73-2.77 and 3.02 Å from its main phases, the di-, and tri-calcium silicates. X-ray diffraction analysis of airborne particles collected on glass fibre filters in the vicinity of cement factories in Karachi, Pakistan and Ravena, New York State, revealed limestone but no cement particles. This observation was consistent with our earlier inference drawn from chemical and statistical methods for Karachi's ambient aerosols. The method can complement the selective leaching technique suggested earlier by us for source identification. On the basis of model calculations, a methodology has been worked out that would make the present technique adaptable to plant conditions.

  4. Impact of road traffic emissions on ambient air quality in an industrialized area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sílvia M; Domingues, Gonçalo; Gomes, Carla; Silva, Alexandra V; Almeida, S Marta

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies showed a correlation between airborne particulate matter(PM) and the incidence of several diseases in exposed populations. Consequently, the European Commission reinforced the need and obligation of member-states to monitor exposure levels of PM and adopt measures to reduce this exposure. However, in order to plan appropriate actions, it is necessary to understand the main sources of air pollution and their relative contributions to the formation of the ambient aerosol. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to assess the contribution of vehicles to the atmospheric aerosol,which may constitute a useful tool to assess the effectiveness of planned mitigation actions.This methodology is based on three main steps: (1) estimation of traffic emissions provided from the vehicles exhaust and resuspension; (2) use of the dispersion model TAPM (“The Air Pollution Model”) to estimate the contribution of traffic for the atmospheric aerosol; and(3) use of geographic information system (GIS) tools to map the PM10 concentrations provided from traffic in the surroundings of a target area. The methodology was applied to an industrial area, and results showed that the highest contribution of traffic for the PM10 concentrations resulted from dust resuspension and that heavy vehicles were the type that most contributed to the PM10 concentration.

  5. Lidar Characterization of Boundary Layer Transport and Mixing for Estimating Urban-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, R. Michael; Brewer, W. Alan; Sandberg, Scott P.; Weickmann, Ann M.; Shepson, Paul B.; Cambaliza, Maria; Heimburger, Alexie; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Miles, Natasha L.; Sarmiento, Daniel P.; Deng, A. J.; Gaudet, Brian; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Whetstone, James

    2016-06-01

    A compact commercial Doppler lidar has been deployed in Indianapolis for two years to measure wind profiles and mixing layer properties as part of project to improve greenhouse measurements from large area sources. The lidar uses vertical velocity variance and aerosol structure to measure mixing layer depth. Comparisons with aircraft and the NOAA HRDL lidar generally indicate good performance, although sensitivity might be an issue under low aerosol conditions.

  6. Lidar Characterization of Boundary Layer Transport and Mixing for Estimating Urban-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardesty R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact commercial Doppler lidar has been deployed in Indianapolis for two years to measure wind profiles and mixing layer properties as part of project to improve greenhouse measurements from large area sources. The lidar uses vertical velocity variance and aerosol structure to measure mixing layer depth. Comparisons with aircraft and the NOAA HRDL lidar generally indicate good performance, although sensitivity might be an issue under low aerosol conditions.

  7. Mixed reality system and objective ergonomics evaluation for designing work stations in manufacturing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhijn, J.W. van; Bosch, T.; Looze, M. de

    2011-01-01

    Due to shorter productlife cycles in manufacturing industry there is a lot of pressure on the process of designing new work systems. Early attention for human factors would lower the costs compared to changes at a later stage. Low cost tools for workstations design could help especially small to

  8. Optimal Dispatch of an Industrial Microgrid with a Mixed Portfolio of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Zong, Yi; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2014-01-01

    Local brownouts are a nuisance and have driven consumers to take greater responsibility for their electricity supply – particularly industries and communities with a critical need for reliable and safe power. By deploying a Microgrid on their own site, the consumers could benefit from having this...

  9. Mixed reality system and objective ergonomics evaluation for designing work stations in manufacturing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhijn, J.W. van; Bosch, T.; Looze, M. de

    2011-01-01

    Due to shorter productlife cycles in manufacturing industry there is a lot of pressure on the process of designing new work systems. Early attention for human factors would lower the costs compared to changes at a later stage. Low cost tools for workstations design could help especially small to med

  10. Application of a system dynamics approach for assessment and mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions from the cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalini Anand; Prem Vrat; R.P. Dahiya [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2006-06-15

    A system dynamics model based on the dynamic interactions among a number of system components is developed to estimate CO{sub 2} emissions from the cement industry in India. The CO{sub 2} emissions are projected to reach 396.89 million tonnes by the year 2020 if the existing cement making technological options are followed. Policy options of population growth stabilisation, energy conservation and structural management in cement manufacturing processes are incorporated for developing the CO{sub 2} mitigation scenarios. A 42% reduction in the CO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved in the year 2020 based on an integrated mitigation scenario. Indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport of raw materials to the cement plants and finished product to market are also estimated.

  11. Technical and cost assessment of energy efficiency improvement and greenhouse gas emission reduction potentials in Thai cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, A. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-uthit Rd, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok (Thailand); Menke, C. [Department of Building Engineering Services, Energy Technology Division, University of Applied Sciences, Schneidershof, 54293 Trier (Germany); Therdyothin, A. [The School of Energy, Environment, and Material, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-01-15

    The cement industry is one of the most energy-consuming industries in Thailand, with high associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The cement sector accounted for about 20.6 million tonnes of CO2 emissions in 2005. The fuel intensity of the Thai cement industry was about 3.11 gigajoules (GJ)/tonne cement; the electricity intensity was about 94.3 kWh/tonne cement, and the total primary energy intensity was about 4.09 GJ/tonne cement in 2005 with the clinker to cement ratio of around 82%. In this study, the potential application of 47 energy-efficiency measures is assessed for the Thai cement industry. Using a bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency improvement potential for the Thai cement industry is estimated to be about 265 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 8% of total electricity use in the cement industry in 2005. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 1,697 GWh, which accounts for 51% of total electricity use in the cement industry in 2005. The CO2 emission reduction potential associated with the cost-effective electricity savings is 159 kilotonne (kt) CO2, while the total technical potential for CO2 emission reductions is 902 ktonne CO2. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows a cost-effective fuel-efficiency improvement potential of 17,214 terajoules (TJ) and a total technical fuel efficiency improvement potential equal to 21,202 TJ, accounting for 16% and 19% of the total fuel use in the cement industry in 2005, respectively. CO2 emission reduction potentials associated with cost-effective and technical fuel-saving measures are 2,229 ktonne and 2,603 ktonne, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for discount rate, electricity and fuel prices, and exchange rate that showed the significant influence of these parameters on the results. Hence, the results of the study should be interpreted with caution.

  12. Reactivity-based industrial volatile organic compounds emission inventory and its implications for ozone control strategies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoming; Chen, Xiaofang; Zhang, Jiani; Shi, Tianli; Sun, Xibo; Fan, Liya; Wang, Liming; Ye, Daiqi

    2017-08-01

    Increasingly serious ozone (O3) pollution, along with decreasing NOx emission, is creating a big challenge in the control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in China. More efficient and effective measures are assuredly needed for controlling VOCs. In this study, a reactivity-based industrial VOCs emission inventory was established in China based on the concept of ozone formation potential (OFP). Key VOCs species, major VOCs sources, and dominant regions with high reactivity were identified. Our results show that the top 15 OFP-based species, including m/p-xylene, toluene, propene, o-xylene, and ethyl benzene, contribute 69% of the total OFP but only 30% of the total emission. The architectural decoration industry, oil refinery industry, storage and transport, and seven other sources constituted the top 10 OFP subsectors, together contributing a total of 85%. The provincial and spatial characteristics of OFP are generally consistent with those of mass-based inventory. The implications for O3 control strategies in China are discussed. We propose a reactivity-based national definition of VOCs and low-reactive substitution strategies, combined with evaluations of health risks. Priority should be given to the top 15 or more species with high reactivity through their major emission sources. Reactivity-based policies should be flexibly applied for O3 mitigation based on the sensitivity of O3 formation conditions.

  13. Water quality improvement of a lagoon containing mixed chemical industrial wastewater by micro-electrolysis-contact oxidization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-fei ZHOU; Mao LIU; Qiong WU

    2011-01-01

    A lagoon in the New Binhai District, a high-speed developing area, Tianjin, China, has long been receiving the mixed chemical industrial wastewater from a chemical industrial park. This lagoon contained complex hazardous substances such as heavy metals and accumulative pollutants which stayed over time with a poor biodegradability. According to the characteristics of wastewater in the lagoon, the micro-electrolysis process was applied to improve the biodegradability before the bioprocess treatment. By the orthogonal experimental study of main factors influencing the efficiency of the treatment method, the best control parameters were obtained, including pH=2.0, a volume ratio of Fe and reaction wastewater of 0.03750, a volume ratio of Fe and the granular activated carbon (GAC) of 2.0, a mixing speed of 200 r/min, and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.5 h. In the meantime, the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was up to 64.6%, and NH4-N and Pb in the influent were partly removed. After the micro-electrolysis process, the ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to COD (B/C ratio) was greater than 0.6, thus providing a favorable basis for bioprocess treatment.

  14. Energy footprint and carbon emission reduction using off-the-grid solar-powered mixing for lagoon treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuyuan; Bebee, Brian; Mendoza, Alvaro; Robinson, Alice K; Zhang, Xiaying; Rosso, Diego

    2017-09-30

    Mixing is the driver for the energy footprint of water resource recovery in lagoons. With the availability of solar-powered equipment, one potential measure to decrease the environmental impacts of treatment is to transition to an off-the-grid treatment. We studied the comparative scenarios of an existing grid-powered mixer and a solar-powered mixer. Testing was conducted to monitor the water quality, and to guarantee that the effluent concentrations were maintained equally between the two scenarios. Meanwhile, the energy consumption was recorded with the electrical energy monitor by the wastewater treatment utility, and the carbon emission changes were calculated using the emission intensity of the power utility. The results show that after the replacement, both energy usage and energy costs were significantly reduced, with the energy usage having decreased by 70% and its cost by 47%. Additionally, carbon-equivalent emission from electricity importation dropped by 64%, with an effect on the overall carbon emissions (i.e., including all other contributions from the process) decreasing from 3.8% to 1.5%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring the Total-Factor Carbon Emission Performance of Industrial Land Use in China Based on the Global Directional Distance Function and Non-Radial Luenberger Productivity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Industry is a major contributor to carbon emissions in China, and industrial land is an important input to industrial production. Therefore, a detailed analysis of the carbon emission performance of industrial land use is necessary for making reasonable carbon reduction policies that promote the sustainable use of industrial land. This paper aims to analyze the dynamic changes in the total-factor carbon emission performance of industrial land use (TCPIL in China by applying a global directional distance function (DDF and non-radial Luenberger productivity index. The empirical results show that the eastern region enjoys better TCPIL than the central and western regions, but the regional gaps in TCPIL are narrowing. The growth in NLCPILs (non-radial Luenberger carbon emission performance of industrial land use in the eastern and central regions is mainly driven by technological progress, whereas efficiency improvements contribute more to the growth of NLCPIL in the western region. The provinces in the eastern region have the most innovative and environmentally-friendly production technologies. The results of the analysis of the influencing factors show implications for improving the NLCPIL, including more investment in industrial research and development (R&D, the implementation of carbon emission reduction policies, reduction in the use of fossil energy, especially coal, in the process of industrial production, actively learning about foreign advanced technology, properly solving the problem of surplus labor in industry and the expansion of industrial development.

  16. Quantifying the uncertainties of China's emission inventory for industrial sources: From national to provincial and city scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Yaduan; Qiu, Liping; Zhang, Jie

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive uncertainty analysis was conducted on emission inventories for industrial sources at national (China), provincial (Jiangsu), and city (Nanjing) scales for 2012. Based on various methods and data sources, Monte-Carlo simulation was applied at sector level for national inventory, and at plant level (whenever possible) for provincial and city inventories. The uncertainties of national inventory were estimated at -17-37% (expressed as 95% confidence intervals, CIs), -21-35%, -19-34%, -29-40%, -22-47%, -21-54%, -33-84%, and -32-92% for SO2, NOX, CO, TSP (total suspended particles), PM10, PM2.5, black carbon (BC), and organic carbon (OC) emissions respectively for the whole country. At provincial and city levels, the uncertainties of corresponding pollutant emissions were estimated at -15-18%, -18-33%, -16-37%, -20-30%, -23-45%, -26-50%, -33-79%, and -33-71% for Jiangsu, and -17-22%, -10-33%, -23-75%, -19-36%, -23-41%, -28-48%, -45-82%, and -34-96% for Nanjing, respectively. Emission factors (or associated parameters) were identified as the biggest contributors to the uncertainties of emissions for most source categories except iron & steel production in the national inventory. Compared to national one, uncertainties of total emissions in the provincial and city-scale inventories were not significantly reduced for most species with an exception of SO2. For power and other industrial boilers, the uncertainties were reduced, and the plant-specific parameters played more important roles to the uncertainties. Much larger PM10 and PM2.5 emissions for Jiangsu were estimated in this provincial inventory than other studies, implying the big discrepancies on data sources of emission factors and activity data between local and national inventories. Although the uncertainty analysis of bottom-up emission inventories at national and local scales partly supported the ;top-down; estimates using observation and/or chemistry transport models, detailed investigations and

  17. Study on the Optimization of the Industrial Structure in a Mining Economic Region: Taking Carbon Emissions as a Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the first decade of the 21st century, as a typical coal province and mining economic region, Shanxi province made a great contribution to the national economic construction and reform. At the same time, coal mining has caused serious damage to the ecological environment, excessive use of resources, the deterioration of the ecological environment and a decline in the sustainable development capacity. Overreliance on a resource-based economy leads to problems such as a poorly developed economy and a single industrial structure. In this context, Shanxi province has to take actions to transform its industrial structure into a low-carbon development model as soon as possible. This paper measures the values of the consumption coefficients of capital investments, electric power and CO2 emissions by establishing a Grey Model (1, 1 using the data from 2007 to 2011 and designing the optimization scheme of the three industrial structures from 2015 to 2020 by establishing a grey dynamic linear programming model for Shanxi province. The results show that the industrial structure in Shanxi province needs to be improved. It is revealed that the proportion of three industries in Shanxi province should change from 6:46:48 in 2015 to 6:41:54 in 2020. At the same time, among the seven largest sectors in terms of carbon emissions in the secondary industry, Shanxi government may continue to promote the development of the coal-bed methane and the coal chemical industry in the coal industry, while the other six sectors should be limited.

  18. Evaluation of reusing alum sludge for the coagulation of industrial wastewater containing mixed anionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangkorn, Siriprapha; Kuhakaew, Sinchai; Theantanoo, Suwapee; Klinla-or, Harit; Sriwiriyarat, Tongchai

    2011-01-01

    A coagulation-flocculation process is typically employed to treat the industrial wastewater generated by the consumer products industry manufacturing detergents, soaps, and others. The expenditure of chemicals including coagulants and chemicals for pH adjustment is costly for treating this wastewater. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing the aluminum sulfate (alum) sludge as a coagulant or as a coagulation aid so that the fresh alum dosage can be minimized or the removal efficiency can be enhanced. The experiments were conducted in a jar-test apparatus simulating the coagulation-flocculation process for simultaneous removals of organic matters, anionic surfactants, suspended solids, and turbidity. At the optimum initial pH value of 10 and the fresh alum concentration of 400 mg/L, the total suspended solids (TSS), total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), total anionic surfactants, and turbidity removal efficiencies were 71.5%, 76.4%, 95.4%, and 98.2%, respectively. The addition of alum sludge as a coagulant alone without any fresh alum addition could significantly remove the turbidity, TCOD, and anionic surfactants. The TSS was left in the supernatants after the settling period, but would subsequently be removed by adding the fresh alum. The TSS, TCOD, and turbidity removal efficiencies were also enhanced when both the alum sludge and the fresh alum were employed. The TCOD removal efficiency over 80% has been accomplished, which has never fulfilled by using the fresh alum alone. It is concluded that the alum sludge could be reused for the treatment of industrial wastewater generated by the consumer products industry.

  19. Evaluation of reusing alum sludge for the coagulation of industrial wastewater containing mixed anionic surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siriprapha Jangkorn; Sinchai Kuhakaew; Suwapee Theantanoo; Harit Klinla-or; Tongchai Sriwiriyarat

    2011-01-01

    A coagulation-flocculation process is typically employed to treat the industrial wastewater generated by the consumer products industry manufacturing detergents, soaps, and others. The expenditure of chemicals including coagulants and chemicals for pH adjustment is costly for treating this wastewater. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing the aluminum sulfate (alum) sludge as a coagulant or as a coagulation aid so that the fresh alum dosage can be minimized or the removal efficiency can be enhanced. The experiments were conducted in a jar-test apparatus simulating the coagulation-fiocculation process for simultaneous removals of organic matters, anionic surfactants, suspended solids, and turbidity. At the optimum initial pH value of 10 and the fresh alum concentration of 400 mg/L, the total suspended solids (TSS), total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), total anionic surfactants,and turbidity removal efficiencies were 71.5%, 76.4%, 95.4%, and 98.2%, respectively. The addition of alum sludge as a coagulant alone without any fresh alum addition could significantly remove the turbidity, TCOD, and anionic surfactants. The TSS was left in the supernatants after the settling period, but would subsequently be removed by adding the fresh alum. The TSS, TCOD, and turbidity removal efficiencies were also enhanced when both the alum sludge and the fresh alum were employed. The TCOD removal efficiency over 80% has been accomplished, which has never fulfilled by using the fresh alum alone. It is concluded that the alum sludge could be reused for the treatment of industrial wastewater generated by the consumer products industry.

  20. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ..., beryllium, cadmium, lead, chromium, manganese, nickel, ethylene dioxide, and PCBs. In addition, the final..., arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, lead, chromium, manganese, nickel, POM, ethylene dioxide, and PCBs. In... emissions of harmful toxic air emissions from these combustion sources, improving air quality,...

  1. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration

  2. A Fe-C-Ca big cycle in modern carbon-intensive industries: toward emission reduction and resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2016-01-01

    Herein a big Fe-C-Ca cycle, clarifying the basic element flows and energy flows in modern carbon-intensive industries including the metallurgical industry and the cement industry, was proposed for the first time in the contexts of emission reduction and iron ore degradation nowadays. This big cycle was focused on three industrial elements of Fe, C and Ca and thus it mainly comprised three interdependent loops, i.e., a C-cycle, a Fe-cycle and a Ca-path. As exemplified, we started from the integrated disposal of hot steel slags, a man-made iron resource via char gasification and the employment of hematite, a natural iron resource greatly extended the application area of this idea. Accordingly, based on this concept, the theoretical potentials for energy saving, emission reduction and Fe resource recovery achieved in modern industry are estimated up to 7.66 Mt of standard coal, 63.9 Mt of CO2 and 25.2 Mt of pig iron, respectively. PMID:26923104

  3. A Fe-C-Ca big cycle in modern carbon-intensive industries: toward emission reduction and resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2016-02-01

    Herein a big Fe-C-Ca cycle, clarifying the basic element flows and energy flows in modern carbon-intensive industries including the metallurgical industry and the cement industry, was proposed for the first time in the contexts of emission reduction and iron ore degradation nowadays. This big cycle was focused on three industrial elements of Fe, C and Ca and thus it mainly comprised three interdependent loops, i.e., a C-cycle, a Fe-cycle and a Ca-path. As exemplified, we started from the integrated disposal of hot steel slags, a man-made iron resource via char gasification and the employment of hematite, a natural iron resource greatly extended the application area of this idea. Accordingly, based on this concept, the theoretical potentials for energy saving, emission reduction and Fe resource recovery achieved in modern industry are estimated up to 7.66 Mt of standard coal, 63.9 Mt of CO2 and 25.2 Mt of pig iron, respectively.

  4. 40 CFR 63.1586 - What are the emission points and control requirements for a non-industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are the emission points and control requirements for a non-industrial POTW treatment plant? There are no control requirements for an existing non-industrial POTW treatment plant. There are no control... control requirements for a non-industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1586 Section 63.1586 Protection...

  5. High sensitive gas detection and isotopic measurement for the applications of industrial emission online monitoring and air pollution source tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fengzhong; Zhang, Zhirong; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Pang, Tao; Wu, Bian; Chen, Weidong; Sigrist, Markus

    2015-04-01

    High sensitive gas detection and isotopic measurements have been widely employed in the industrial and safety production. The recent progress made by our group on high sensitive gas detection with technologies of TDLAS, off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) will be briefly summarized in this report. Some works for field applications of industrial emission online monitoring and gas leakage detection in oil tank farm with TDLAS are first presented, and then part of our most recent researches on isotopic gas detection with OA-ICOS and CRDS for tracking of pollution sources are also introduced.

  6. Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions Combustion Technology for Manufacturing Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atreya, Arvind

    2013-04-15

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a transformational combustion technology for high temperature furnaces to reduce the energy intensity and carbon footprint of U.S. manufacturing industries such as steel, aluminum, glass, metal casting, and petroleum refining. A new technology based on internal and/or external Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR) along with significant enhancement in flame radiation was developed. It produces "Radiative Flameless Combustion (RFC)" and offers tremendous energy efficiency and pollutant reduction benefits over and above the now popular "flameless combustion." It will reduce the energy intensity (or fuel consumption per unit system output) by more than 50% and double the furnace productivity while significantly reducing pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions (10^3 times reduction in NOx and 10 times reduction in CO & hydrocarbons and 3 times reduction in CO2). Product quality improvements are also expected due to uniform radiation, as well as, reduction in scale/dross formation is expected because of non-oxidative atmosphere. RFC is inexpensive, easy to implement, and it was successfully tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at the University of Michigan during the course of this work. A first-ever theory with gas and particulate radiation was also developed. Numerical programs were also written to design an industrial-scale furnace. Nine papers were published (or are in the process of publication). We believe that this early stage research adequately proves the concept through laboratory experiments, modeling and computational models. All this work is presented in the published papers. Important conclusions of this work are: (1) It was proved through experimental measurements that RFC is not only feasible but a very beneficial technology. (2) Theoretical analysis of RFC was done in (a) spatially uniform strain field and (b) a planar momentum jet where the strain rate is neither prescribed nor uniform. Four important non

  7. The effects of vegetation cover on soil nematode communities in various biotopes disturbed by industrial emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šalamún, Peter; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Šestinová, Oľga; Findoráková, Lenka; Kováčik, Peter

    2017-08-15

    Better understanding of interactions among belowground and aboveground components in biotopes may improve our knowledge about soil ecosystem, and is necessary in environment assessment using indigenous soil organisms. In this study, we proposed that in disturbed biotopes, vegetation play important role in the buffering of contamination impact on soil communities and decrease the ecological pressure on soil biota. To assess the effects of these interactions we compared nematode communities, known for their bioindication abilities, from four types of disturbed and undisturbed biotopes (coniferous forest, permanent grassland, agricultural field, clearings), where the main stress agent was represented by long-term acidic industrial emissions containing heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, and Pb). To understand the ecological interactions taking place in studied biotopes, we studied abiotic factors (soil properties) and biotic factors (vegetation, nematode communities). Except significant increase in metals total and mobile concentrations in disturbed biotopes soil, we found acidification of soil horizon, mainly in the clearings (pH=3.68), due to SO2 precipitation. These factors has caused in clearings degradation of native phytocoenoses and decrease in decomposition rate characterized by high amount of organic matter (Cox=4.29%). Nematodes reacts to these conditions by shifts in trophic structure (bacteriovores to fungal feeders), increase in c-p 2 genera (Aphelenchoides, Acrobeloides, and Cephalobus), absence of sensitive groups (c-p 3-5, omnivores, predators), and decrease in ecological indices (SI, MI, MI2-5, H'). Similar contamination was found in forest biotope, but the nematodes composition indicates more suitable conditions; more complex community structure (presence of sensitive trophic and higher c-p groups), higher abundance and indices values, comparable with less stressed field and grassland biotopes. As showed our results, the vegetation undoubtedly plays an

  8. Emission enhancement in chlorogallium phthalocyanine-N,N'-bis(neopentyl)-3,4,9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide) mixed films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Teodosio del; Saja, Jose Antonio de; Aroca, Ricardo

    2003-02-03

    The absorption, emission and film structure of co-evaporated mixed film of Chlorogallium phthalocyanine and N,N'-Bis(neopentyl)-3,4,9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide) are reported. Foerster type energy transfer from the BNPTCD to the ClGaPc molecule leads to a considerable enhancement of the phthalocyanine emission in the near infrared. Film structure and molecular organization in the mixed film are studied using transmission and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. A clear correlation between molecular organization and emission properties is established. The spectroscopic and topographical data show that thermal annealing of the mixed films increases phase separation that results in a reduction of the energy transfer efficiency and light emission.

  9. Geometry, mixing properties and hypocoercivity of a degenerate diffusion arising in technical textile industry

    CERN Document Server

    Grothaus, Martin; Maringer, Johannes; Stilgenbauer, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    We study a stochastic equation modeling the lay-down of fibers in the production process of nonwovens. The equation can be formulated as some manifold-valued Stratonovich stochastic differential equation. Especially, we study the long time behaviour of the stochastic process. Demanding mathematical difficulties arising due to the degeneracity of the lay-down equation and its associated generator. We prove strong mixing properties by making use of the hypoellipticity of the generator and a new version of Doob's theorem derived recently by Gerlach and Nittka. Moreover, we show convergence to equilibrium exponentially fast with explicitly computable rate of convergence. This analytic approach uses powerful modern Hilbert space methods from the theory of hypocoercivity developed by Dolbeault, Mouhot and Schmeiser. Summarizing, we give interesting mathematical applications of geometric stochastic analysis to real world problems.

  10. Rising critical emission of air pollutants from renewable biomass based cogeneration from the sugar industry in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S. K.; Ohara, T.; Beig, G.; Kurokawa, J.; Nagashima, T.

    2015-09-01

    In the recent past, the emerging India economy is highly dependent on conventional as well as renewable energy to deal with energy security. Keeping the potential of biomass and its plentiful availability, the Indian government has been encouraging various industrial sectors to generate their own energy from it. The Indian sugar industry has adopted and made impressive growth in bagasse (a renewable biomass, i.e. left after sugercane is crushed) based cogeneration power to fulfil their energy need, as well as to export a big chunk of energy to grid power. Like fossil fuel, bagasse combustion also generates various critical pollutants. This article provides the first ever estimation, current status and overview of magnitude of air pollutant emissions from rapidly growing bagasse based cogeneration technology in Indian sugar mills. The estimated emission from the world’s second largest sugar industry in India for particulate matter, NOX, SO2, CO and CO2 is estimated to be 444 ± 225 Gg yr-1, 188 ± 95 Gg yr-1, 43 ± 22 Gg yr-1, 463 ± 240 Gg yr-1 and 47.4 ± 9 Tg yr-1, respectively in 2014. The studies also analyze and identify potential hot spot regions across the country and explore the possible further potential growth for this sector. This first ever estimation not only improves the existing national emission inventory, but is also useful in chemical transport modeling studies, as well as for policy makers.

  11. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Arens, Marlene [Fraunhofer Inst. for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-31

    Iron and steel manufacturing is among the most energy-intensive industries and accounts for the largest share, approximately 27 percent, of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the manufacturing sector. The ongoing increase in world steel demand means that this industry’s energy use and CO2 emissions continue to grow, so there is significant incentive to develop, commercialize and adopt emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for steel production. Although studies from around the world have identified a wide range of energy-efficiency technologies applicable to the steel industry that have already been commercialized, information is limited and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on 56 emerging iron and steel industry technologies, with the intent of providing a well-structured database of information on these technologies for engineers, researchers, investors, steel companies, policy makers, and other interested parties. For each technology included, we provide information on energy savings and environmental and other benefits, costs, and commercialization status; we also identify references for more information.

  12. Trends of road dust emissions contributions on ambient air particulate levels at rural, urban and industrial sites in southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Pandolfi, M.; Lozano, A.; Contreras González, J.; Querol, X.

    2014-04-01

    The impact of road dust emissions on PM10 and PM2.5 (atmospheric particulate matter with diameteer road dust samples is used as a priori knowledge. Results indicate that road dust increased PM10 levels on average by 21-35% at traffic sites, 29-34% at urban background sites heavily affected by road traffic emissions, 17-22% at urban-industrial sites and 9-22% at rural sites. Road dust contributions to ambient PM levels show a marked seasonality with maxima in summer and minima in winter, likely due to the rainfall frequency. Decreasing concentration trends over the sampling years were found at some traffic and urban sites but in most cases the decreases were less significant than for vehicle exhaust emissions, while concentrations increased at industrial sites, probably due to local peculiarities. Concerning PM2.5, road dust contributions were lower than in PM10, as expected but still important (21-31%, 11-31%, 6-16% and 7% for traffic, urban background, urban-industrial and rural sites, respectively). In addition the three main sources of road dust (carbonaceous particles, brake wear and road wear/mineral) were identified and their contributions to road dust mass loadings estimated, supporting the idea that air quality managers should drive measures aimed at preventing the build-up of road dust particles on roads.

  13. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, III, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-03

    India’s cement industry is the second largest in the world behind China with annual cement production of 168 Mt in 2010 which accounted for slightly greater than six percent of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. To produce that amount of cement, the industry consumed roughly 700 PJ of fuel and 14.7 TWh of electricity. We identified and analyzed 22 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the Indian cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model and compared to an electricity price forecast the cumulative cost-effective plant-level electricity savings potential for the Indian cement industry for 2010- 2030 is estimated to be 83 TWh, and the cumulative plant-level technical electricity saving potential is 89 TWh during the same period. The grid-level CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 82 Mt CO2 and the electric grid-level CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 88 Mt CO2. Compared to a fuel price forecast, an estimated cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 1,029 PJ with associated CO2 emission reduction of 97 Mt CO2 during 2010-2030 is possible. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Indian cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost over the next twenty years.

  14. Structural, down- and phase selective up-conversion emission properties of mixed valent Pr doped into oxides with tetravalent cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiseanu, Carmen; Parvulescu, Vasile; Avram, Daniel; Cojocaru, Bogdan; Apostol, Nicoleta; Vela-Gonzalez, Andrea V; Sanchez-Dominguez, Margarita

    2014-03-28

    We report on structure-property relationships in Pr-doped CeO2 and ZrO2 using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, UV to Vis Diffuse Reflectance (DR-UV/Vis), X-ray Photoelectron (XPS), and luminescence (PL) spectroscopies. Both 3+ and 4+ valence states of Pr are evidenced, irrespective of the host and calcination temperature, T (T = 500 and 1000 °C) with consequences on absorption, surface, vibrational and luminescence properties. Only zirconia represents a suitable host for Pr(3+) luminescence. The distinct trivalent Pr centers and their excitation mechanism are identified in relation to the tetragonal and monoclinic phases of ZrO2. A near-infrared to visible up-conversion (UPC) emission of Pr(3+) is observed upon excitation at 959 nm which occurs, most probably, via a two-photon excited state process. By using a multi-wavelength, time-gated excitation, the UPC process is established as phase selective, i.e. only Pr(3+) located in the monoclinic sites of the mixed phase, monoclinic and tetragonal ZrO2 (T = 1000 °C) contribute to the UPC emission. We believe that, besides the local symmetry, a key role in phase selective UPC is played by the presence of Pr(3+) low-lying 4f 5d levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of phase selective up-conversion emission in a lanthanide doped multi-phase host.

  15. Mitigation of soil N2O emission by inoculation with a mixed culture of indigenous Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroko; Hoshino, Yuko Takada; Itakura, Manabu; Shimomura, Yumi; Wang, Yong; Yamamoto, Akinori; Tago, Kanako; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Hayatsu, Masahito

    2016-09-01

    Agricultural soil is the largest source of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas. Soybean is an important leguminous crop worldwide. Soybean hosts symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules. In soybean ecosystems, N2O emissions often increase during decomposition of the root nodules. Our previous study showed that N2O reductase can be used to mitigate N2O emission from soybean fields during nodule decomposition by inoculation with nosZ++ strains [mutants with increased N2O reductase (N2OR) activity] of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens. Here, we show that N2O emission can be reduced at the field scale by inoculation with a mixed culture of indigenous nosZ+ strains of B. diazoefficiens USDA110 group isolated from Japanese agricultural fields. Our results also suggested that nodule nitrogen is the main source of N2O production during nodule decomposition. Isolating nosZ+ strains from local soybean fields would be more applicable and feasible for many soybean-producing countries than generating mutants.

  16. A combined electrocoagulation-sorption process applied to mixed industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares-Hernandez, Ivonne [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon interseccion Paseo Tollocan S/N, C.P. 50120, Toluca (Mexico); Barrera-Diaz, Carlos [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon interseccion Paseo Tollocan S/N, C.P. 50120, Toluca (Mexico)]. E-mail: cbarrera@uaemex.mx; Roa-Morales, Gabriela [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon interseccion Paseo Tollocan S/N, C.P. 50120, Toluca (Mexico); Bilyeu, Bryan [University of North Texas, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 305310, Denton, TX 76203-5310 (United States); Urena-Nunez, Fernando [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, C.P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-06-01

    The removal of organic pollutants from a highly complex industrial wastewater by a aluminium electrocoagulation process coupled with biosorption was evaluated. Under optimal conditions of pH 8 and 45.45 A m{sup -2} current density, the electrochemical method yields a very effective reduction of all organic pollutants, this reduction was enhanced when the biosorption treatment was applied as a polishing step. Treatment reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 84%, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) by 78%, color by 97%, turbidity by 98% and fecal coliforms by 99%. The chemical species formed in aqueous solution were determined. The initial and final pollutant levels in the wastewater were monitored using UV-vis spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry. Finally, the morphology and elemental composition of the biosorbent was characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectra (EDS)

  17. Using a Mixed Model to Evaluate Job Satisfaction in High-Tech Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sang-Bing; Huang, Chih-Yao; Wang, Cheng-Kuang; Chen, Quan; Pan, Jingzhou; Wang, Ge; Wang, Jingan; Chin, Ta-Chia; Chang, Li-Chung

    2016-01-01

    R&D professionals are the impetus behind technological innovation, and their competitiveness and capability drive the growth of a company. However, high-tech industries have a chronic shortage of such indispensable professionals. Accordingly, reducing R&D personnel turnover has become a major human resource management challenge facing innovative companies. This study combined importance-performance analysis (IPA) with the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method to propose an IPA-DEMATEL model. Establishing this model involved three steps. First, an IPA was conducted to measure the importance of and satisfaction gained from job satisfaction criteria. Second, the DEMATEL method was used to determine the causal relationships of and interactive influence among the criteria. Third, a criteria model was constructed to evaluate job satisfaction of high-tech R&D personnel. On the basis of the findings, managerial suggestions are proposed.

  18. Industrial process data and estimating potential to emit (PTE): The effects of process chemistry on PTE and the emissions inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, R.C.; Podsiadlo, K. [URS Greiner, Inc., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Title V) requires facilities to perform an inventory of their air pollutant emissions to determine if a Title V air permit is required. Facilities emitting air pollutants below applicable Title V thresholds (i.e., particulates, oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)) still must show proof to the regulatory agencies that the Title V permitting requirements do not apply. Recently, the authors have performed several emissions inventories for some large industrial facilities in New York State with up to 250 air emissions sources. As a result, they have identified several reoccurring process/chemistry data issues that have impacted the estimation of PTE, the current New York State (NYS) point source permit compliance, and the potential Title V application status. Although there are many training courses that focus on how environmental managers should perform a comprehensive facility air emissions inventory and should prepare Title V applications, these courses generally assume that all emission source data are readily available. However, to the authors` knowledge, no one has communicated key process/chemistry issues and obstacles encountered in completing emissions inventories at large facilities or recommended potential solutions. The authors will highlight their experience with reoccurring facility emission data and data management shortfalls found during the performance of several large facility inventories. This includes their findings of apparently systemic loose practices, procedures, data management, and utilization of process data and chemistry for estimation of potential emissions needed for Title V compliance.

  19. Green house gas emissions reduction in Brazilian industry; Reducao das emissoes de gases causadores do efeito estufa na industria brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de [Programa GERBI - Reducao da Emissao de Gases Causadores do Efeito Estufa na Industria Brasileira, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The recent crisis in electricity supply raised in all Brazilians the necessity in improving energy resources. The expansion of generation capacity cannot be seen as the unique solution: optimise what is available already is at least so important than to expand. The rational use of energy resources brings additional benefits as reduced environmental impacts, replacement of equipment and following incentives to industry and employment. Promote coordinated actions has been challenging in several places. In Brazil, GERBI Program aims to address several market barriers, developing activities in different fronts: service suppliers' qualification, preparation of financial agents and, mainly, engage industrial end users for improved solutions. The paper presents GERBI Program structure as an incentive to rational energy use in industrial facilities, focused on GHG emissions reduction. The Program is structured in three main components: energy efficiency projects development, supporting industries to implement better practices and efficient technologies, development of CDM candidate projects, making use of 'carbon credits' resulted from reduced emissions, and training and qualification. (author)

  20. [Health and work: the case of the gas emissions at the Industrial Complex of Mayagüez].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Chaulissant, M

    1990-04-01

    This article describes the effects of gas emissions on the health of the workers (mostly women) of garment Industry at the Guanajibo Industrial Complex in Mayagüez. The persons affected show the following diseases and conditions: peripherial neuropathy, alteration of time and space orientation, damage to the pulmonary system and the respiratory tract, allergies, degenerative diseases, and even death. The agencies concerned have been negligent alleging that the problem is caused by stress of mass hysteria, this without performing the necessary studies. Having evaluated the problem, the Committee concludes that its roots are in the establishment in Puerto Rico of industries without considering the negative effects over health due to the contamination they generate, and which they do not control properly, all to maintain jobs that in the long run will not solve our problems, but will surely affect the health of the people.

  1. Toward better understanding and feasibility of controlling greenhouse gas emissions from treatment of industrial wastewater with activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Yang, Jun-Hong; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Yang, Ying-Hsien

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been recognized as important sources for anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The objective of the study was to thoroughly investigate a typical industrial WWTP in southern Taiwan in winter and summer which possesses the emission factors close to those reported values, with the analyses of emission factors, mass fluxes, fugacity, lab-scale in situ experiments, and impact assessment. The activated sludge was the important source in winter and summer, and nitrous oxide (N2O) was the main contributor (e.g., 57 to 91 % of total GHG emission in a unit of kg carbon dioxide-equivalent/kg chemical oxygen demand). Albeit important for the GHGs in the atmosphere, the fractional contribution of the GHG emission to the carbon or nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment was negligible (e.g., less than 1.5 %). In comparison with the sludge concentration or retention time, adjusting the aeration rate was more effective to diminish the GHG emission in the activated sludge without significantly affecting the treated water quality. When the aeration rate in the activated sludge simulation was reduced by 75 %, the mass flux of N2O could be diminished by up to 53 % (from 9.6 to 4.5 mg/m(2)-day). The total emission in the WWTP (including carbon dioxide, methane, and N2O) would decrease by 46 % (from 0.67 to 0.36 kg CO2-equiv/kg COD). However, the more important benefit of changing the aeration rate was lowering the energy consumption in operation of the WWTP, as the fractional contribution of pumping to the total emission from the WWTP ranged from 46 to 93 % within the range of the aeration rate tested. Under the circumstance in which reducing the burden of climate change is a global campaign, the findings provide insight regarding the GHG emission from treatment of industrial wastewater and the associated impact on the treatment performance and possible mitigation strategies by operational modifications.

  2. Use of biomass fuels in the brick-making industries of Sudan: Implications for deforestation and greenhouse gas emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, S.A.

    2006-07-01

    The study focuses on the potential roles of the brick making industries in Sudan in deforestation and greenhouse gas emission due to the consumption of biofuels. The results were based on the observation of 25 brick making industries from three administrative regions in Sudan namely, Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. The methodological approach followed the procedures outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For predicting a serious deforestation scenario, it was also assumed that all of wood use for this particular purpose is from unsustainable sources. The study revealed that the total annual quantity of fuelwood consumed by the surveyed brick making industries (25) was 2,381 t dm. Accordingly, the observed total potential deforested wood was 10,624 m3, in which the total deforested round wood was 3,664 m3 and deforested branches was 6,961 m3. The study observed that a total of 2,990 t biomass fuels (fuelwood and dung cake) consumed annually by the surveyed brick making industries for brick burning. Consequently, estimated total annual emissions of greenhouse gases were 4,832 t CO{sub 2}, 21 t CH{sub 4}, 184 t CO, 0.15 t N{sub 2}0, 5 t NO{sub x} and 3.5 t NO while the total carbon released in the atmosphere was 1,318 t. Altogether, the total annual greenhouse gases emissions from biomass fuels burning was 5,046 t; of which 4,104 t from fuelwood and 943 t from dung cake burning. According to the results, due to the consumption of fuelwood in the brick making industries (3,450 units) of Sudan, the amount of wood lost from the total growing stock of wood in forests and trees in Sudan annually would be 1,466,000 m3 encompassing 505,000 m3 round wood and 961,000 m3 branches annually. By considering all categories of biofuels (fuelwood and dung cake), it was estimated that, the total emissions from all the brick making industries of Sudan would be 663,000 t CO{sub 2}, 2,900 t CH{sub 4}, 25,300 t CO, 20 t N{sub 2}O, 720 t NO{sub x} and 470 t NO per

  3. Reporting from industries covered by the emissions trading scheme for emissions trading regulations. Guide to greenhouse gas emission reporting form 2012; Rapportering fra industri omfattet av kvoteplikt etter klimakvoteforskriften. Veileder til kvoterapporteringsskjema 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-01

    Tradable carbon emissions should be reported to the Climate and Pollution Agency (KLIF) by 1 March the following year that the emissions took place. Reporting of tradable carbon emissions will be achieved by the use of Klif reporting service.(eb)

  4. Application of commercial sensor manufacturing methods for NOx/NH3 mixed potential sensors for emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Mark A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sekhar, Praveen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williamson, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garzon, Fernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop a low cost on-board Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x})/Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) sensor that can not only be used for emissions control but has the potential to improve efficiency through better monitoring of the combustion process and feedback control in both vehicle and stationary systems. Over the past decade, Los AJamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a unique class of electrochemical gas sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and nitrogen oxides. These sensors are based on the mixed-potential phenomenon and are a modification of the existing automotive lambda (oxygen) sensor and have the potential to meet the stringent sensitivity, selectivity and stability requirements of an on-board emissions/engine control sensor system. The current state of the art LANL technology is based on the stabilization of the electrochemical interfaces and relies on an externally heated, hand-made, tape cast device. We are now poised to apply our patented sensing principles in a mass production sensor platform that is more suitable for real world engine-out testing such as on dynamometers for vehicle applications and for exhaust-out testing in heavy boilers/SCR systems in power plants. In this present work, our goal is to advance towards commercialization of this technology by packaging the unique LANL sensor design in a standard automotive sensor-type platform. This work is being performed with the help of a leading US technical ceramics firm, utilizing commercial manufacturing techniques. Initial tape cast platforms with screen printed metal oxide and Pt sensor electrodes have shown promising results but also clearly show the need for us to optimize the electrode and electrolyte compositions/morphologies and interfaces of these devices in order to demonstrate a sensitive, selective, and stable NO{sub x} sensor. Our previous methods and routes to preparing stable and reproducible mixed potential sensors

  5. Retrospective of CO{sub 2} emissions of the Mexican industrial sector; Retrospectiva de emisiones de CO{sub 2} del sector industrial mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Domingo; Martinez, Manuel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The carbon dioxide emissions of the Mexican Industrial Sector throughout the period of 1965-2003 are analyzed, in terms of 16 branches of the industrial economic activity, as it is marked by the proposed disintegration of the Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales of the Intituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) and the National Balance of Energy 2003 (BNE-2003). The CO{sub 2} emissions by the energy use have a behavior very similar to the one of the consumption of the final energy, which reflects that non significant changes in the composition of used fuels have existed. During this period the CO{sub 2} emissions increased 230%. The industrial branches that have shown significant changes in the CO{sub 2} emission are Construction, Bottled Water, Rubber, Cement, Beer and Malta and Chemistry. In order to evaluate the effects of the Activity, Structure, Power Intensity, fuel Mixture of final use and fuel Mixture used in electricity generation the decomposition model of CO{sub 2} is used based on the Laspeyres index. The calculated effects show that the main increase of total carbon dioxide of the SIM is referred to the Activity with an average rate of annual growth (TMCA) of 4.32%; whereas the effect that mitigates more the CO{sub 2} emission is the one described by the power Intensity and is equivalent to a TMCA of -0.85%. [Spanish] Se analizan las emisiones de bioxido de carbono del Sector Industrial Mexicano a lo largo del periodo de 1965-2003, en termino de 16 ramas de actividad economica industrial como lo marca la desagregacion propuesta por el Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales del Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) y el Balance Nacional de Energia 2003 (BNE-2003). Las emisiones de CO{sub 2} por el uso de energia tienen un comportamiento muy similar al de consumo de energia final, lo que refleja que no han existido cambios significativos en la composicion de los combustibles empleados. Durante este periodo las

  6. What is going up in smoke?——A study of emissions in the wood industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DilianHeNicholson

    2003-01-01

    The requirements that a business needs to consider when building a wood panels manufacturing plant are much the same as they have been for decades, but today there is also the need for multiple environmental studies and permits. These are costly and time consuming additional expenses that often are the longest lead-time items on any project. Most industrialized countries have legislation in place to limit and control the negative impact that emission of pollutants may have on the environ-ment. This paper discusses what is actually happening inside wood drying plants, and the prerequisite conditions for genesis of pyrolytic products relative to the operational parameters, such as choice of input raw materials, driers design and operational regime, choice of fuels for the heat generation and how these factors influence production of stack emission. The characteriza-tion of emission condensate by analytical methods is described, and survey of emission control system in use worldwide is de-scribed, and means of investigating what may be the optimum design for the control of emission is discussed. Alternate uses of utilizing the condensate, other than burning, are presented for consideration.

  7. Transition paths towards CO2 emission reduction in the steel industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniëls, Berend Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    Radiative forcing, better known as the Greenhouse Effect, is probably the major 21st century environmental problem. Its probable cause is the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, especially CO2. The Kyoto agreement enforces considerable reductions of the GHG emissions in 2010, with 6 to 8% of

  8. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat

    2015-12-01

    There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission reductions in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs emissions by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e) per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding) generated the highest GHGs emissions. By scope, the emission from purchased electricity (scope 2) is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR), vertical roller mills (VRM), gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies) that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 reduction of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and practice were

  9. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs emission reductions in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs emissions by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding generated the highest GHGs emissions. By scope, the emission from purchased electricity (scope 2 is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR, vertical roller mills (VRM, gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 reduction of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and

  10. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    China’s annual cement production (i.e., 1,868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese cement industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 279 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 144 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 161 Mt CO2. The fuel CSC model for the cement industry suggests cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 4,326 PJ which is equivalent to the total technical potential with associated CO2 emission reductions of 406 Mt CO2. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. We also developed a scenario in which instead of only implementing the international technologies in 2010-2030, we implement both international and Chinese domestic technologies during the analysis period and calculate the saving and cost of conserved energy accordingly. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  11. Analysis of Potential for HFC-23 Emission Reduction in China’s Fluorine Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hui; CUI Yong-Li; YANG Li-Rong

    2013-01-01

    China is one of the major producers of chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) in the world. A large amount of fluoroform (HFC-23) is emitted during the production of HCFC-22. Emission factors of HFC-23 were calculated in accordance with the monitoring reports of eleven HFC-23 clean development mechanism (CDM) projects in China and the HFC-23 emissions in 2000-2010 as well as that in 2011-2020 were estimated and projected, respectively. It is expected that, by the end of 2020, emissions of HFC-23 in China will be as much as 230 Mt CO2-eq. If HCFC-22 producers voluntarily reduced HFC-23 emissions, it would contribute 3.2%-3.6%to the national CO2 emission reduction target for 2020.

  12. Panel estimation for CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization of newly industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif Hossain, Md., E-mail: sharif@en.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Economic Engineering, Faculty of Economics, Kyushu University, 6-19-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    This paper empirically examines the dynamic causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization for the panel of newly industrialized countries (NIC) using the time series data for the period 1971-2007. Using four different panel unit root tests it is found that all panel variables are integrated of order 1. From the Johansen Fisher panel cointegration test it is found that there is a cointegration vector among the variables. The Granger causality test results support that there is no evidence of long-run causal relationship, but there is unidirectional short-run causal relationship from economic growth and trade openness to carbon dioxide emissions, from economic growth to energy consumption, from trade openness to economic growth, from urbanization to economic growth and from trade openness to urbanization. It is found that the long-run elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions with respect to energy consumption (1.2189) is higher than short run elasticity of 0.5984. This indicates that over time higher energy consumption in the newly industrialized countries gives rise to more carbon dioxide emissions as a result our environment will be polluted more. But in respect of economic growth, trade openness and urbanization the environmental quality is found to be normal good in the long-run. - Highlights: > Dynamic causal relationships are conducted for different panel variables of NIC. > Test results support only existence of unidirectional short-run causal relationships. > Environment will be polluted more due to energy consumption in the long-run. > But environmental quality is found to be normally good in respect of other variables. > NIC should use solar energy as the substitute of oil to control CO{sub 2} emissions.

  13. [Liver function of workers occupationally exposed to mixed organic solvents in a petrochemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Oroño-Osorio, A

    2001-06-01

    A descriptive and cross sectional study was conducted to determine whether hepatic function changes in workers occupationally exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, were due to the exposure or confusing factors. A non random sample of 77 workers, operators and supervisors of the Olefin Plant I and II of a petrochemical industry in Maracaibo, Venezuela, was used. Their mean age was 29 +/- 7 years, and had at least one year of exposure to the solvents. This sample was compared with a group of employees of the administrative offices or control panel workers, with a mean age of 36 +/- 8 year and with similar anthropometric characteristics. Workers with a known history of liver disease, blood transfusions and diabetes mellitus were excluded of the study. In addition to a complete occupational disease medical history and a physical examination, serum samples were obtained to determine the activity of the aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamiltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AF), the concentration of the total bile acids (BAS), the surface antigen of hepatitis B(HbsAg) and the hepatitis A virus antibodies: AntiHAV-IgG and the AntiHAV-IgM. An urine sample was taken and analyzed by standard methodology to determine urinary phenols. The air concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene were analyzed by gas chromathography. The serum activities of the liver enzymes, the concentration of bile acids and urinary phenols were not influenced by the exposure to the solvents. The increase of the activity of GGT was associated with obesity and alcohol consumption. The antibodies of the surface antigen of hepatitis A-IgM were normal in both groups and the antibodies for the antigen of hepatitis A-IgG presented a prevalence of 6% in the exposed group and 9% in the non exposed not being associated with liver abnormalities. The individual air concentrations of the solvents were below the environmentally permissible

  14. The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: an urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz Stephan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study applies the POETICs framework (population, organization, environment, technology, institutions and culture to an analysis of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japanese cities. The inclusion of institutional variables in the form of International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives membership, ISO 14001 implementation, and non-profit sector activity addresses the ecological limitations of the often used IPAT (impact = population × affluence × technology approach. Results Results suggest the weak existence of an environmental Kuznets curve, in which the wealthiest cities are reducing their emissions through increased efficiency. Significant institutional impacts are also found to hold in the predicted directions. Specifically, panel and cross-sectional regressions indicate that membership in the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives and non-profit organizational presence have negative effects on industrial carbon dioxide emissions. Conclusion The presence of institutional drivers at the city level provides empirical support for the POETICs rubric, which recasts the ecological framing of the IPAT identity in a more sociological mold. The results also indicate that Japanese civil society has a role to play in carbon mitigation. More refined studies need to take into consideration an expanded set of methods, drivers, and carbon budgets, as applied to a broader range of cases outside of Japan, to more accurately assess how civil society can bridge the issue of scale that separates local level policy concerns from global level climate dynamics.

  15. Extreme pollution of soils by emissions of the copper-nickel industrial complex in the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashulina, G. M.

    2017-07-01

    The distribution of the total Ni, Cu, Co, Cd, Pb, and Zn contents was studied in the soil profiles of six catenas in the zone subjected to emissions of the copper-nickel industrial complex, which is the largest source of SO2 and heavy metals in northern Europe. The results show that, at present, the concentrations of Ni and Cu in the upper organic soil horizons in the impact zone reach extreme levels of 9000 and 6000 mg/kg, respectively. Under conditions of the long-term intense multi-element industrial emissions, the modern levels of the accumulation of polluting substances in soils greatly depend on the indirect factors, such as the degree of the technogenic degradation of soils with the loss of a significant part of soil organic matter, the reaching of threshold saturation of the topsoil with polluting metals, and competitive relationships between chemical elements. The state of the ecosystems in the impact zone varied greatly and did not always agree with the contents of the main metals-pollutants in the soils. The moisture conditions determined by the landscape position affected significantly the resistance of the ecosystems to emissions.

  16. OMI-measured increasing SO2 emissions due to energy industry expansion and relocation in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zaili; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Yuan; Li, Jixiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Jinxiang; Lian, Lulu; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2017-07-01

    The rapid growth of economy makes China the largest energy consumer and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitter in the world. In this study, we estimated the trends and step changes in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) vertical column density (VCD) of SO2 from 2005 to 2015 over China measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We show that these trends and step change years coincide with the effective date and period of the national strategy for energy development and relocation in northwestern China and the regulations in the reduction of SO2 emissions. Under the national regulations for the reduction of SO2 emissions in eastern and southern China, SO2 VCD in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of southern China exhibited the largest decline during 2005-2015 at a rate of -7 % yr-1, followed by the North China Plain (NCP) (-6.7 % yr-1), Sichuan Basin (-6.3 % yr-1), and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) (-6 % yr-1). The Mann-Kendall (MK) test reveals the step change points of declining SO2 VCD in 2009 for the PRD and 2012-2013 for eastern China responding to the implementation of SO2 control regulation in these regions. In contrast, the MK test and regression analysis also revealed increasing trends of SO2 VCD in northwestern China, particularly for several hot spots featured by growing SO2 VCD in those large-scale energy industry bases in northwestern China. The enhanced SO2 VCD is potentially attributable to increasing SO2 emissions due to the development of large-scale energy industry bases in energy-abundant northwestern China under the national strategy for the energy safety of China in the 21st century. We show that these large-scale energy industry bases could overwhelm the trends and changes in provincial total SO2 emissions in northwestern China and contribute increasingly to the national total SO2 emissions in China. Given that northwestern China is more ecologically fragile and uniquely susceptible to atmospheric pollution than the rest of China, increasing SO2 emissions in

  17. Trace metal suites in Antarctic pre-industrial ice are consistent with emissions from quiescent degassing of volcanoes worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, A.; Hinkley, T.K.

    2001-01-01

    Trace metals are more abundant in atmospheric load and deposition material than can be due to rock and soil dusts and ocean salt. In pre-industrial ice from coastal west Antarctica, dust and salt account for only a few percent of the lead, cadmium, and indium that is present in most samples, less than half in any sample. For these trace metals, the deposition rate to the pre-industrial ice is approximately matched by the output rate to the atmosphere by quiescent (non-explosive) degassing of volcanoes worldwide, according to a new estimate. The basis of the match is the masses and proportions of the metals, and the proportions of Pb isotopes, in ice and in volcano emissions. The isotopic compositions of Pb in ice are similar to those of a suite of ocean island volcanoes, mostly in the southern hemisphere. The natural baseline values for pre-industrial atmospheric deposition fluxes of trace metal suites at Taylor Dome, and the worldwide quiescent volcano emissions fluxes to which they are linked, constitute a reasonably well-constrained baseline component for deposition fluxes of metals in modern times. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    Second World era international system (1945-1990) may not have done any good to ... wedge between the capitalist and socialist blocs, not only blurred Third World .... Politics and the Stages of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge ... complex industries producing mainly for export, but also producing for local.

  19. 77 FR 55698 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ..., Portland Cement Association v. Ruckelshaus, 486 F.2d 375 (D.C. Cir. 1973). Though intervening case law such..., systems or techniques that reduce the volume of or eliminate HAP emissions through process...

  20. 78 FR 7137 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... harmful toxic air emissions from these combustion sources. This will improve air quality and protect..., cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, nickel and selenium) as an alternative to the proposed PM...

  1. Performance and Emission Characteristics of an IDI Diesel Engine Fuelled Biodiesel (Rubber Seed Oil and Palm Oil Mix Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ibrahim K.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study crude rubber seed oil and palm oil were mixed at 50: 50 vol.feedstock’s blending methods is motivated by cost reduction and properties enhancement. Biodiesel was produced and thermo physical properties are studied. Blends of B5, B10 and B20 of biodiesel to diesel were prepared. Engine performance (torque, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, brake thermal efficiency (BTE and emission (CO, NOx and exhaust gas temperature were evaluated in a 4 cylinder, natural aspirated, indirect injection (IDI diesel engine. The results indicated that at rated engine speed of 2500 rpm torque obtained were 87, 86, 85.3 and 85 Nm for neat diesel, B5, B10 and B20 respectively. Torque in all blends case yield between 0 to 5% lower than neat diesel. BTE were 27.58, 28.52, and 26.45% for B5, B10 and B20 compared to neat diesel 26.99%. At lower blends ratio BSFC was found to be lower and increased proportional to the blends ratio. The CO emission reduced but the exhaust gas temperature and NOx increased as blends ratio increases.

  2. Towards a sustainable automotive industry : experiences from the development of emission control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bauner, David

    2007-01-01

    From the mid-1970s and on, the contribution to air pollution of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from gasoline passenger cars in the developed world has been reduced through co-evolution of regulation and commercial introduction of catalytic emission control technology, now part of hundreds of millions of cars, trucks and buses worldwide. This dissertation is a disaggregated study of the global introduction of catalytic emission control technology as a measure to reduce local...

  3. Development of Particulate Matter and Heavy Metal Emission Factors for Kerman Copper Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mansouri

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An emission factor is a tool that is used to estimate air pollutant emissions to the atmosphere. It relates the quantity of pollutants released from a source to some activities associated with those emissions. To determine the quantity of pollutant released from copper and its alloys smelting furnaces, 63 samples from emission gases were collected on cellulose ester membrane filters in three 8-hour-shifts within 24 hours during a week at three locations. Samples were weighed and analyzed to measure the heavy metal content by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The emission factors for location 1, without control equipment, for total particulate matter (TPM, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Cd were 87.689, 2.076, 37.071, 0.917, 0.023, 0.074, and 0.021 g/Mg of products respectively. Emission factors for location 3, with dedusting unit as control equipment, were 8.139, 0.152, 3.921, 0.055, 0.003, 0.008, and 0.007 g/Mg for the above-mentioned parameters respectively. Finally those were 95.828, 2.228, 40.992, 0.972, 0.026, 0.082, and 0.028 g/Mg as a whole set respectively. Samples of location 2 were collected from inlet of dedusting unit and their results were used only for dedusting unit efficiency calculation.

  4. Development of a non-radiological air emissions inventory for a nuclear industrial facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patnoe, C.A.; Porter, G.V.; Almquist, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the major issues that impacted the organization and structure of a project for developing a comprehensive non- radiological air emissions inventory for a nuclear weapons facility. The major issues addressed paralleled the development of the inventory project and fall into the following categories: (1) defining the scope of work, (2) developing and managing the air emission inventory project, and (3) field investigations and evaluating operations for air emissions. This paper also describes the lines of communication that were established with state regulators to resolve problems and develop a successful working relationship. This paper illustrates a means to complete a complex air emission inventory with proper organization and cooperation with regulatory agencies. Further, it indicates the need of critical evaluation of project tasks to evaluate their impact on project schedule; it provides a method for implementing a quality assurance program that audits all phases of the emission survey; and it demonstrates a way of effectively managing outside contractors to meet schedule requirements and assure a high quality product. This paper is of value to those undertaking a similar complex air emission survey. 2 refs.

  5. Combustion efficiency and emission factors for wildfire-season fires in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains, US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Urbanski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the US, wildfires and prescribed burning present significant challenges to air regulatory agencies attempting to achieve and maintain compliance with air quality regulations. Fire emission factors (EF are essential input for the emission models used to develop wildland fire emission inventories. Most previous studies quantifying wildland fire EF of temperate ecosystems have focused on emissions from prescribed burning conducted outside of the wildfire season. Little information is available on EF for wildfires in temperate forests of the conterminous US. The goal of this work is to provide information on emissions from wildfire-season forest fires in the northern Rocky Mountains, US. In August 2011, we deployed airborne chemistry instruments and sampled emissions over eight days from three wildfires and a prescribed fire that occurred in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. We measured the combustion efficiency, quantified as the modified combustion efficiency (MCE, and EF for CO2, CO, and CH4. Our study average values for MCE, EFCO2, EFCO, and EFCH4 were 0.883, 1596 g kg−1, 135 g kg−1, 7.30 g kg−1, respectively. Compared with previous field studies of prescribed fires in temperate forests, the fires sampled in our study had significantly lower MCE and EFCO2 and significantly higher EFCO and EFCH4. The fires sampled in this study burned in areas reported to have moderate to heavy components of standing dead trees and down dead wood due to insect activity and previous fire, but fuel consumption data was not available. However, an analysis of MCE and fuel consumption data from 18 prescribed fires reported in the literature indicates that the availability of coarse fuels and conditions favorable for the combustion of these fuels favors low MCE fires. This analysis suggests that fuel composition was an important factor contributing to the low MCE of the fires measured in this study. This study only measured EF for CO2, CO

  6. Chemistry of new particle growth in mixed urban and biogenic emissions – insights from CARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Setyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional new particle formation and growth events (NPE were observed on most days over the Sacramento and western Sierra Foothills area of California in June 2010 during the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effect Study (CARES. Simultaneous particle measurements at both the T0 (Sacramento, urban site and the T1 (Cool, rural site located ~40 km northeast of Sacramento sites of CARES indicate that the NPE usually occurred in the morning with the appearance of an ultrafine mode centered at ~15 nm (in mobility diameter, Dm, measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer operating in the range 10–858 nm followed by the growth of this mode to ~50 nm in the afternoon. These events were generally associated with southwesterly winds bringing urban plumes from Sacramento to the T1 site. The growth rate was on average higher at T0 (7.1 ± 2.7 nm h−1 than at T1 (6.2 ± 2.5 nm h−1, likely due to stronger anthropogenic influences at T0. Using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, we investigated the evolution of the size-resolved chemical composition of new particles at T1. Our results indicate that the growth of new particles was driven primarily by the condensation of oxygenated organic species and, to a lesser extent, ammonium sulfate. New particles appear to be fully neutralized during growth, consistent with high NH3 concentration in the region. Nitrogen-containing organic ions (i.e., CHN+, CH4N+, C2H3N+, and C2H4N+ that are indicative of the presence of alkyl-amine species in submicrometer particles enhanced significantly during the NPE days, suggesting that amines might have played a role in these events. Our results also indicate that the bulk composition of the ultrafine mode organics during NPE was very similar to that of anthropogenically-influenced secondary organic aerosol (SOA observed in transported urban plumes. In addition, the concentrations of species representative of urban emissions (e.g., black

  7. Economic modelling of the capture-transport-sink scenario of industrial CO2 emissions: The Estonian-Latvian cross-border case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shogenova, A.; Shogenov, K.; Pomeranceva, R.; Nulle, I.; Neele, F.; Hendriks, C.

    2011-01-01

    Industrial CO2 emissions and opportunities for CO2 geological storage in the Baltic Region were studied within the EU GeoCapacity project supported by the European Union Framework Programme 6. Estonia produces the largest amounts of CO2 emissions in the region, due to the combustion of Estonian oil

  8. Estimation of gaseous mercury emissions in Germany. Inverse modelling of source strengths at the contaminated industrial site BSL Werk Schkopau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, O.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kock, H.H.; Richter-Politz, I.; Geilhufe, C.

    1998-12-31

    Anthropogenic emission sources of gaseous mercury at the contaminated industrial site BSL Werk Schkopau have been determined by measurements and numerical modelling applying a local dispersion model. The investigations are based on measurements from several field campaigns in the period of time between December 1993 and June 1994. The estimation of the source strengths was performed by inverse modelling using measurements as constraints for the dispersion model. Model experiments confirmed the applicability of the inverse modelling procedure for the source strength estimation at BSL Werk Schkopau. At the factory premises investigated, the source strengths of four source areas, among them three closed chlor-alkali productions, one partly removed acetaldehyde factory and additionaly one still producing chlor-alkali factory have been identified with an approximate total gaseous mercury emission of lower than 2.5 kg/day. (orig.)

  9. Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se; Nyholm, N.E.I.

    2011-09-15

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition. - Highlights: {yields} Pied flycatchers were studied in a pollution gradient from a sulfide smelter. {yields} Metal emissions from the smelter have decreased substantially. {yields} Nestling birds still had high metal concentrations in tissues. {yields} Health and survival rates of nestlings were negatively affected. {yields} Recovery of birds is not expected in the near future.

  10. Tackling Carbon Emission with Nature: Effectiveness of Indigenous Microalgae Mixed Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chik M. Nazry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae species was isolated and identified from its native condition of sea water discharge canals at the TNB Janamanjung Sdn Bhd’s coal-fired power station. The species was expected to be a robust one based on the prevalent harsh upstream conditions and processes the survived ones endured. The isolation involves streaking-plating method as well as serial dilution and liquid media culture propagation. Morphological and molecular identification were both carried out before satisfactory identification of Chlorella sp. be made. This species was later mixed with marine Isochrysis sp. with varying volumetric proportions and cultured in five separate air-lift bubbling column photobioreactors, as part of the experiment to determine which optimum volumetric culture ratio is best to fix CO2 from the power plant. Results indicate that a more dominant ratio of Chlorella sp. 75% and Isochrysis sp. 25% by volume provide gives a better growth profile and indicates a better CO2 fixation rates.

  11. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the U.S. (U.S. EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the U.S. This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then

  12. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the US pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the US (US EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the US This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the

  13. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Iron and Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, III, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-03

    India’s 2010 annual crude steel production was 68 Mt which accounted for nearly five percent of the world’s annual steel production in the same year. In 2007, roughly 1600 PJ were consumed by India’s iron and steel industry to produce 53 Mt of steel. We identified and analyzed 25 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the Indian iron and steel industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model and compared to an electricity price forecast the cumulative plant-level cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Indian iron and steel industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 66 TWh, and the cumulative plant-level technical electricity saving potential is only slightly greater than 66 TWh for the same period. The primary energy related CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 65 Mt CO2. Compared to a fuel price forecast, an estimated cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 768 PJ with associated CO2 emission reduction of 67 Mt CO2 during 2010-2030 is possible. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Indian iron and steel industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  14. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: II. Residential, agricultural and informal industry sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Rao, Anand B.; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Dispersed traditional combustion technologies, characterized by inefficient combustion and significant emissions, are widely used in residential cooking and "informal industries" including brick production, food and agricultural product processing operations like drying and cooking operations related to sugarcane juice, milk, food-grain, jute, silk, tea and coffee. In addition, seasonal agricultural residue burning in field is a discontinuous source of significant emissions. Here we estimate fuel consumption in these sectors and agricultural residue burned using detailed technology divisions and survey-based primary data for 2010 and projected between 1996 and 2015. In the residential sector, a decline in the fraction of solid biomass users for cooking from 79% in 1996 to 65% in 2010 was offset by a growing population, leading to a nearly constant population of solid biomass users, with a corresponding increase in the population of LPG users. Emissions from agriculture followed the growth in agricultural production and diesel use by tractors and pumps. Trends in emissions from the informal industries sector followed those in coal combustion in brick kilns. Residential biomass cooking stoves were the largest contributors to emissions of PM2.5, OC, CO, NMVOC and CH4. Highest emitting technologies of BC were residential kerosene wick lamps. Emissions of SO2 were largely from coal combustion in Bull's trench kilns and other brick manufacturing technologies. Diesel use in tractors was the major source of NOx emissions. Uncertainties in emission estimates were principally from highly uncertain emission factors, particularly for technologies in the informal industries.

  15. Chemistry of new particle growth in mixed urban and biogenic emissions – insights from CARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setyan, Ari; Song, Chen; Merkel, M.; Knighton, M.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wiedensohler, A.; Shilling, John E.; Zhang, Qi

    2014-07-01

    plumes. In addition, the concentrations of species representative of urban emissions (e.g., black carbon,CO, NOx, and toluene) were significantly higher whereas thephoto-oxidation products of biogenic VOCs (volatile organic compounds) and the biogenically influenced SOA also increased moderately during the NPE days compared to the non-event days. These results indicate that the frequently occurring NPEs over the Sacramento and Sierra Nevada regions were mainly driven by urban plumes from Sacramento and the San Francisco Bay Area, and that the interaction of regional biogenic emissions with the urban plumes has enhanced the new particle growth. This finding has important implications for quantifying the climate impacts of NPEs on global scale.

  16. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PROCESSING AND RHEOLOGIC PARAMETERS DURING WHEAT DOUGH MIXING AND THEIR ASSETS FOR THE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Líšková; Zdenka Muchová; Ladislav Haris; Boris Žitný

    2011-01-01

    The wheat dough mixing process today, is not perceived only as the blending process of the input materials. During the wheat dough mixing there are many factors which affect the final quality and processiblity of wheat doughs. This study describe the rheologic behaviour of doughs mixed on the Diosna SP12 kneader in particular stages of their development in dependecy from the mixing settings. The processing parameters as mixing energy, temperature increase and spiral rotation was monitored wit...

  17. Condensing economizers for efficiency improvement and emissions control in industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Schulze, K.; Bailey, R. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States). Research and Development Div.

    1996-06-01

    Condensing economizers recover sensible and latent heat from boiler flue gas, leading to marked improvements in thermal efficiency. This paper summarizes the current commercial status and continuing development efforts with one type of condensing economizer. In this design Teflon{reg_sign} covered tubes and enclosure walls are used to handle the corrosive condensate. Flue gas flows around the tubes and feed water, being heated, flows through the inside. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers can also be used to reduce particulate emissions primarily by inertial impaction of particles on tube surfaces, water droplets, and added impactors. Collected particles are then removed with condensate. Water sprays directly on the tubes can be used to enhance particle capture. With coal-firing, tests have shown particle removal efficiencies as high as 98%. To enhance the emissions control potential of condensing economizer technology a two-stage economizer system concept has been developed. Two heat exchanger modules are used. The first is a downflow design and recovers primarily sensible heat from the flue gas. The second is upflow and recovers mostly latent heat. Condensate is collected in a transition plenum between the two stages. This configuration, termed the Integrated Flue Gas Treatment System, provides great flexibility for implementing emissions reduction strategies. Particulate emissions can be reduced without impacting sensible heat recovery by recirculating collected condensate to spray nozzles at the top of the second stage heat exchanger. In tests at BNL with heavy oil firing, particulate reductions over 90% and final emission rates on the order of.005 lb/MMBtu are achieved. Adding sorbents to the recirculated condensate reduces sulfur dioxide emissions and SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies over 95% are achieved. Also, condensing economizers show great potential for the removal of certain air toxics such as mercury and nickel.

  18. 旅游业碳排放研究进展%Research Progress on Carbon Emissions in Tourism Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐承财; 钟林生; 成升魁

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change and the issues of natural resource and environment have a great impact on the sustainable development of human beings, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and conserving energy has be- come imperative duties for safeguarding the global socio-economic and environmental sustainability. Scientific analysis on carbon emissions in tourism for tourism destination could contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and conserving energy and the sustainable development of tourism and its related industries. Research progress on carbon emissions in tourism was reviewed in detail based on the databases of Elsevier Science Di- rect and CNKI. Firstly, the research course of carbon emissions in tourism was summarized and the course ofthis research were divided into two phases, i.e., the phase of initial exploration and the stage of rapid develop- ment. The research methods were analyzed comprehensively which include Top-down Approach and Bottom-up Approach, Life cycle assessment method, field investigation, Questionnaire method, Scenario analysis. Second- ly, the major research contexts were reviewed from five aspects, which included measuring carbon emissions for regional tourism and tourism sectors, carbon footprint for tourism, the impacts of carbon emissions on tourism, and the measures for coping with carbon emissions in tourism. Finally, the research perspectives on carbon emis- sions in tourism in China were put forward in building deepening the research content. the theory research, improving the research methods, and%全球气候变化与资源环境问题对人类可持续发展带来了巨大冲击,节能减排已成为全球社会经济和环境可持续发展的必然要求。科学分析旅游业碳排放有助于推动旅游地的旅游业及其关联产业的节能减排与可持续发展。本文概述旅游业碳排放的研究历程,分析和评述了旅游业碳排放的研究方法,然后从区域旅游和旅游业各部门的

  19. EU Emission Allowances and the Stock Market: Evidence from the Electricity Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich (Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany))

    2008-07-01

    This paper constitutes the first econometric analysis on stock market effects of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. Our results suggest that EU Emissions Allowance (EUA) price changes and stock returns from electricity corporations covered by the ETS are positively related. Stock markets do not react differently to EUA appreciations in comparison to depreciations, and the EUA effect is modest compared to oil market effects. EUA price volatility affects electricity stock return volatility. Given this, volatility shocks from the EUA market may create economic risk to the ETS corporations and deteriorate the performance of the scheme compared to a tax regime

  20. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part I. Fresh wood and mixed wood industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews associations in literature between exposure to wood dust from fresh wood and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. The papers took into account smoking, and when dealing with lung function took age into consideration. A total of 25 papers concerning exposure to fresh wood and mixed wood formed the basis of this review. The results support an association between fresh wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between fresh wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis was seen across studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent was consistently disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected of being a major cause of wood dust induced asthma. Concurrent exposure to microorganisms and terpenes probably add to the inherent risk of wood dust exposure in the fresh wood industry.

  1. 76 FR 81327 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... inventory for the pulp and paper (subpart S) source category: cadmium compounds, lead compounds, mercury... 1995 URE Unit Risk Estimate VCS Voluntary Consensus Standards VOC Volatile Organic Compound WWW... Bulletin No. 973).\\6\\ Additionally, the largest HAP emission compound in the category, methanol,...

  2. 76 FR 80531 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... accounting for not less than 90 percent of the aggregate emissions of each of seven specified HAP are subject... for example: Clarify certain regulatory requirements, such as whether compliance is based on a value...) The equipment is attached to a foundation. (2) The boiler or a replacement remains at a location...

  3. 碳排放权交易下的班轮船队配置优化研究%Optimization of Liner Ship Fleet Mix Strategy under Emission Trading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱墨; 真虹; 甘爱平

    2016-01-01

    With the trend of imposing market-based mechanisms in shipping industry, this paper proposes an optimization model for liner ship fleet mix strategy under carbon emission trading system, which minimizes the total expected operational costs in multiple periods. The uncertain carbon emission allowance price is described by Geometric Brownian Motion. A numerical experiment with real industrial data is carried out to analyze optimized fleet mix strategy and carbon emission volume. Result shows that by involving liner companies into emission trading system, fleet carbon emissions can be reduced significantly, while companies need to pay for the allowances purchase. Another conclusion that based on sensitivity analysis of bunker prices shows:the impact of emission trading system on motivation to use energy-efficient ships and fleet carbon mitigation increases along with the rising of bunker price.%针对集装箱班轮运输企业建立考虑碳排放权交易机制的船队配置优化模型,以期实现船队营运成本最小化。采用几何布朗运动描述欧洲碳排放权交易价格的波动路径,以使决策根据变化的碳交易价格做出。收集班轮业营运数据设计案例,验证了模型能够应用于实例分析。算例结果显示,即使在近期较低的欧洲碳交易价格水平下,在集装箱班轮行业中实施碳交易机制仍能取得明显的减排效果,但企业也需付出一定的费用;针对燃油价格做敏感性分析得出,随着燃油价格的上升,碳交易机制对促进减排的效果也越加显著。

  4. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin McMillan; Richard Boardman; Michael McKellar; Piyush Sabharwall; Mark Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Changes are occurring throughout the U.S. economy, especially in regard to how energy is generated and used in the electricity, buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors. These changes are being driven by environmental and energy security concerns and by economics. The electric-sector market share of natural gas and variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV), continues to grow. The buildings sector is evolving to meet efficiency standards, the transportation sector is evolving to meet efficiency and renewable fuels standards, and the industrial sector is evolving to reduce emissions. Those changes are driving investment and utilization strategies for generation and other assets. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector’s evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are jointly investigating potential synergies between technologies exploiting nuclear and renewable energy sources. The two laboratories have held several joint workshops since 2011. Those workshops brought together experts in both areas to identify synergies and potential opportunities to work together. Workshop participants identified nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs) as one of the opportunities and recommended investigating whether N-R HESs could both generate dispatchable electricity without carbon emissions and provide clean energy to industrial processes. They also recommended analyzing the potential for N-R HESs to provide dispatchable capacity to a grid with high penetrations of non-dispatchable resources and to investigate whether real inertia provided by thermal power cycles within N-R HESs provides value to the grid. This report is one of a series of reports INL and NREL are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of N-R HESs. Previous reports

  5. Black carbon emission reduction strategies in healthcare industry for effective global climate change management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, Emilia Mmbando; Anderson, David O

    2017-04-01

    Climate change remains one of the biggest threats to life on earth to date with black carbon (BC) emissions or smoke being the strongest cause after carbon dioxide (CO2). Surprisingly, scientific evidence about black carbon emissions reduction in healthcare settings is sparse. This paper presents new research findings on the reduction of black carbon emissions from an observational study conducted at the UN Peacekeeping Operations (MINUSTAH) in Haiti in 2014. Researchers observed 20 incineration cycles, 30 minutes for each cycle of plastic and cardboard sharps healthcare waste (HCW) containers ranged from 3 to 14.6 kg. The primary aim was to determine if black carbon emissions from healthcare waste incineration can be lowered by mainstreaming the use of cardboard sharps healthcare waste containers instead of plastic sharps healthcare waste containers. Similarly, the study looks into whether burning temperature was associated with the smoke levels for each case or not. Independent samples t-tests demonstrated significantly lower black carbon emissions during the incineration of cardboard sharps containers (6.81 ± 4.79% smoke) than in plastic containers (17.77 ± 8.38% smoke); a statistically significant increase of 10.96% smoke (95% Confidence Interval ( CI) [4.4 to 17.5% smoke], p = 0.003). Correspondingly, lower bottom burner temperatures occurred during the incineration of cardboard sharps containers than in plastic (95% Cl [16 to 126°C], p = 0.014). Finally, we expect the application of the new quantitative evidence to form the basis for policy formulation, mainstream the use of cardboard sharps containers and opt for non-incineration disposal technologies as urgent steps for going green in healthcare waste management.

  6. Using a biological aerated filter to treat mixed water-borne volatile organic compounds and assessing its emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wen-Hsi

    2009-01-01

    A biological aerated filter (BAF) was evaluated as a fixed-biofilm processes to remove water-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a multiple layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) manufacturing plant in southern Taiwan.The components of VOC were identified to be toluene,1,2,4-trimethylbenzene,1,3,5-trimethylbenzene,bromodichloromethane and isopropanol (IPA).The full-scale BAF was constructed of two separate reactors in series,respectively using 10-cm and 15-cm diameter polypropylene balls as the packing materials and a successful preliminary bench-scale experiment was performed to feasibility.Performance results show that the BAF removed over 90% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the influent with (1188 ± 605) mg/L of COD.A total organic loading of 2.76 kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/(m~3 packing·d) was determined for the packed bed,in which the flow pattern approached that of a mixed flow.A limited VOC concentration of (0.97 ± 0.29) ppmv (as methane) was emitted from the BAF system.Moreover,the emission rate of VOC was calculated using the proposed formula,based on an air-water mass equilibrium relationship,and compared to the simulated results obtained using the Water 9 model.Both estimation approaches of calculation and model simulation using Water 9 evaluating VOC emissions reveal that 0.1% IPA (0.0031-0.0037 kg/d) was aerated into a gaseous phase,and 30% to 40% (0.006-0.008 kg/d) of the toluene was aerated.

  7. Factors influencing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions and control in major industrial sectors: case evidence from Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Mol, Arthur P J; Wang, Tieyu; Gosens, Jorrit; Ni, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Analyzing determinants that influence polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions is helpful for decision-makers to find effective and efficient ways to mitigate PCDD/F emissions. The PCDD/F emissions and the contributions of the scale effect, structure effect and technology effect to emissions from eight main industrial sectors in 2006, 2008 and 2010 in Shandong Province, were calculated in this article. Total PCDD/F emissions in Shandong increased by 52.8% in 2008 (614.1g I-TEQ) and 49.7% in 2010 (601.8 g I-TEQ) based on 2006 (401.9 g I-TEQ). According to the decomposition method, the largest influencing factor on PCDD/F emission changes was the composition effect (contributed 43.4% in 2008 and 120.6% in 2010 based on 2006), which was also an emission-increasing factor. In this case, the present industrial restructuring policy should be adjusted to control the proportion of production capacities with high emission factors, such as iron ore sintering and steel making and the secondary non-ferrous metal sector. The scale effect increased the emissions in 2008 (contributed 21.9%) and decreased the emissions in 2010 (contributed -28.0%). However, as a source control measure, the excess capacity control policy indeed had a significant role in emission reduction. The main reason for the technology effect (contributed 34.7% in 2008 and 7.4% in 2010 based on 2006) having an emission-increasing role was the weakness in implementing policies for restricting industries with outdated facilities. Some specific suggestions were proposed on PCDD/F reduction for local administrators at the end.

  8. Evaluating the dynamical characteristics of particle matter emissions in an open ore yard with industrial operation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, X C; Yang, G S; Qu, J H; Dai, M X

    2016-11-01

    A study to investigate the dynamical characteristics of particle matter emissions in a working open yard is conducted in Caofeidian Port of Hebei Province, China. The average diurnal concentrations of the total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and respirable particulate matter (PM10 and PM5) are monitored during the field measurement campaign. Sampling is performed at a regular interval at 8 monitoring stations in the yard with normal industrial activities. The average TSP, PM10 and PM5 concentrations range from 285 to 568, 198 to 423 and 189 to 330 μg.m-3 in the yard, respectively. The linear regression correlation coefficient of TSP/PM10 and TSP/PM5 is 0.95±0.01 and 0.88±0.02, respectively.By using the Spearman correlation method, the wind speed and relative humidity are both weakly correlated with the PM10 and PM5 concentrations according to the measurements. In addition, industrial operation activities, such as vehicular traffic in the yard and the loading time of stackers, are significantly positively correlated with the PM concentration. Using the multivariate regression method, the main parameters influencing the TSP concentration variations are integratedly analysed. The traffic volume is found to be a significant predictor of TSP concentration variation, with the smallest P value (Pindustrial activities in the yard is proposed. The dynamical emissions average 5.25x10(5) kg.year(-1) and EFD is evaluated to be 0.29 kg.(ton.day)(-1) during the measurement period. These outcomes have meaningful implications not only for understanding the dynamical characteristics of particle emissions in the working stockyard but also for implementing effective control measures at appropriate sites in the harbour area.

  9. Modelling and allocation of CO{sub 2} emissions in a multiproduct industry: The case of oil refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Pierru, Axel [IFP, Institut Francais du Petrole, 228 Avenue Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2007-07-15

    As oil refining is a multiproduct industrial activity, there are innumerable ways to allocate a refinery's CO{sub 2} emissions among the various refined products. The linear-programming models used to manage refineries may serve to compute the marginal contribution of each finished product to the CO{sub 2} emissions of the refinery. We show that, under some conditions, this marginal contribution is a relevant means of allocating all the refinery's CO{sub 2} emissions. The application of this allocation rule leads to interesting results which can be used in a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment. In fact, this allocation rule holds rigorously if the demand equations are the only binding constraints with a non-zero right-hand side coefficient. This is certainly not the case for short-run models with fixed capacity of processing units. To extend the application field of our approach, we therefore suggest three distinct solutions, inspired by economic theory: applying the Aumann-Shapley cost-sharing method, or adapting the Ramsey pricing-formula, or using proportionally-adjusted marginal contributions. A numerical application to a simplified refining model is presented. (author)

  10. Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, A M M; Nyholm, N E I

    2011-09-15

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition.

  11. Global model simulation of summertime U.S. ozone diurnal cycle and its sensitivity to PBL mixing, spatial resolution, and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Tai; Youn, Daeok; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    Simulation of summertime U.S. surface ozone diurnal cycle is influenced by the model representation of planetary boundary layer (PBL) mixing, spatial resolution, and precursor emissions. These factors are investigated here for five major regions (Northeast, Midwest, Southeast, California, and Southwest) by using the Model for Ozone And Related chemical Tracers version 2.4 (MOZART-2.4), with important modifications, to conduct sensitivity experiments for summer 1999 with three PBL mixing schemes, two horizontal resolutions and two emissions datasets. Among these factors, the PBL mixing is dominant. The default non-local scheme well reproduces the observed ozone diurnal variation, where the timing for the afternoon maximum and the morning minimum is within 1 h of the observed; biases for the minimum are less than 5 ppb except over the Southeast; and the ozone maximum-minimum contrast (OMMC) is within 10 ppb of observations except for the overprediction by 18.9 ppb over the Northeast. In contrast, the local scheme significantly overestimates the OMMC by 10-34 ppb over all regions as ozone and precursors are trapped too close to the ground. On the other hand, the full-mixing assumption underestimates the OMMC by 0-25 ppb, except over the Northeast, as the nighttime ozone decline is greatly underpredicted. As compared to PBL mixing, the effects of horizontal resolutions and precursor emissions being used are smaller but non-negligible. Overall, with the non-local mixing scheme, relatively high horizontal resolution (˜1.1°) and updated emissions data, the modified MOZART is capable of simulating the main features of the observed ozone diurnal cycle.

  12. Factor ten emission reductions : the key to sustainable development and economic prosperity for the cement and concrete industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, R. [Alchemix Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper proposes that the negative environmental effects of current cement/concrete production can be reduced by a factor of 10 by using cement blends with minimum portland cement and maximum pozzolanic loading. In addition to extending the longevity of concrete, such cement blends also avoid the huge cost of repairs and replacement cycles. Market forces will drive this transition toward sustainable development in the concrete and cement industry. The economic advantages of improving the quality of the concrete are great. Even if improving the concrete doubles the price of the highest quality cement, this would only add 2 per cent to the cost of the overall construction project, but the service life of the structure would give a many-fold return on this added investment. Also, regulations on carbon dioxide emissions in the near future will assume economic importance in the manufacturing of cement and concrete. While portland cements have dominated the construction industry for more than 150 years, new blended cements priced on a performance basis will become the standard in the twenty first century. Currently, the typical cement formulation in the United States, if it contains fly ash, contains 15 to 20 per cent fly ash by weight of the total cementitious material. This paper states that soon the number will be 50 to 60 per cent ash. Fly ash will be widely acknowledged for improving critical performance characteristics of concrete such as workability, impermeability and durability. Carbon dioxide credits will also be a major economic factor that will drive the cement industry toward a factor ten environmental improvement. The Kyoto Protocol calls for the trading of greenhouse gas credits which includes carbon dioxide credits. Under the new system, cement producers will be taxed on excess emissions, while those using pozzolans in their cements will earn credits to offset these penalties. 10 refs.

  13. EU Emission Allowances and the stock market Evidence from the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) P.O. Box 103443 68034 Mannheim (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    This paper constitutes - to our best knowledge - the first econometric analysis on stock market effects of the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Our results suggest that EU Emission Allowance (EUA) price developments matter to the stock performance of electricity firms: EUA price changes and stock returns of the most important European electricity corporations are shown to be positively related. This effect does not work asymmetrically, so that stock markets do not seem to react differently to EUA appreciations in comparison to depreciations. The carbon market effect is shown to be both time- and country-specific: It is particularly strong for the period of EUA market shock in early 2006, and differs with respect to the countries where the electricity corporations analysed are headquartered. Stock market reactions to EUA volatility could not be shown. (author)

  14. Impacts of the EU emissions trading scheme on the industrial competitiveness in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graichen, Verena; Schumacher, Katja; Matthes, Felix C.; Mohr, Lennart [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Duscha, Vicky; Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Diekmann, Jochen [DIW, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The authors of the contribution under consideration present a discussion of methods, and provide empirical results for the analysis of effects of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on product costs and subsequent impacts on international competitiveness. The discussion shows that the combination of intensity of trade indicators and value at stake indicators reveals meaningful results that allow assessing the potential for distortion in competitiveness by the EU Emissions Trading Schemes. The analysis of trade intensities and value at stake showed that a small number of sectors may in fact be exposed to distortions in competitiveness due to both high trade intensity and high value at stake. For Germany, these include 'basic iron and steel', 'fertilizers and nitrogen compounds', 'paper and paperboard', 'aluminium and aluminium products' and 'other basic inorganic chemicals'. A number of other sectors reveal a high intensity of trade but low value at stake which implies that the increase in product costs due to the EU Emissions Trading Scheme is relatively small and negative effects on competitiveness may not be likely. For the sectors that reveal high values at stake and high trade intensities, market positions are likely to change under the EU Emissions Trading system due to increased production costs and high exposure to international competition. When deciding on which sectors are highly exposed to possible distortions in competitiveness and which measures should be implemented to address competitiveness and leakage it should be kept in mind that CO{sub 2} costs are only one of multiple factors affecting companies' production and investment decisions. Other factors that may deserve detailed investigation include product differentiation and market segmentation within a sector (including specialty products), close cooperation with domestic/European partners and intrafirm trade, differences across countries in the

  15. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  16. Controlling of the gas emissions at high performance longwalls in the German hard coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J. [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In order to enhance productivity in German hard coal mining the total number of workings was reduced and at the same time the output per working point was increased considerably. The average output per working point rose to more than 10,000 t/d with top values of 18,000 t/d in single places. This was achieved by increasing the advance rate and lengthening the face to 450 m. At high performance faces, especially in seams with medium and high gas content rates, the gas inflow can easily become a safety risk and an obstacle to productivity. This paper gives an abstract about the tested techniques and introduces new approaches to the control of gas emission at high performance faces. Essential measures in the control of gas emission for high performance faces are: - pre-degasification of the working seam; optimization of conventional gas drainage; drilling of long deflected boreholes in the gas emission zone of workings (being currently tested); application of effective drilling techniques for rapid preparation of gas drainage boreholes (percussion drilling); selection of the optimal ventilation layout and; building a partially permeable roadside pack (gas windows). 8 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Evaluation of waste activated sludge as a coagulant aid for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing mixed surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwiriyarat, Tongchai; Jangkorn, Siriprapha

    2009-04-01

    Wastewater generated by the industry manufacturing detergents and various kinds of consumer products normally contains very high contents of mixed surfactants, organic matters expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD), and phosphates that must be treated prior to discharge to the aquatic environment. In this study, jar-test experiments were conducted to evaluate the waste activated sludge (WAS) as a coagulation aid in the coagulation-flocculation process with ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate as a coagulant for the treatment of wastewater collected from the aforementioned industry. The WAS was selected because of its adsorption capability of anionic surfactants and its availability from the wastage stream of biological wastewater treatment process. The effective dosages of both coagulants with and without the WAS additions were determined in this study. Without the WAS addition, the concentrations of 800 mg/L aluminum sulfate at the optimum pH value of 8 and 2208 mg/L ferric chloride at the optimum pH value of 12 were the optimum chemical dosages. It appears that aluminum sulfate was more effective than ferric chloride based on the chemical dosage and removal efficiency. The turbidity, suspended particles, anionic surfactants, COD, and phosphates removal efficiencies of aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride under the optimum dosage were 95.6, 88.2, 78.4, 73.5, 47.3% and 98.8, 92.0, 72.7, 67.5, 53.1%, respectively. The addition of 200 mg/L WAS was sufficient to reduce the optimum dosages of both chemicals by 200 mg/L. The cationic surfactant existing in the wastewater worked as a flocculating agent leading to the flocculation of waste activated sludge resulting in the enmeshment of the suspended particles and colloids on which the COD, anionic surfactants, and phosphates were adsorbed. However, the substances removal efficiencies of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate were slightly enhanced and reduced, respectively. It is possibly explained that the settling time

  18. Fluxes of oxidised and reduced nitrogen above a mixed coniferous forest exposed to various nitrogen emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neirynck, J. [Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Gaverstraat 4, B-9500 Geraardsbergen (Belgium)]. E-mail: johan.neirynck@inbo.be; Kowalski, A.S. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicida, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Calle Fuentenueva, SP-18071 Granada (Spain); Carrara, A. [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Technologico, Calle Charles H. Darwin 14, SP-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Genouw, G. [Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Gaverstraat 4, B-9500 Geraardsbergen (Belgium); Berghmans, P. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Ceulemans, R. [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Antwerp) (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    Concentrations of nitrogen gases (NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, NO, HONO and HNO{sub 3}) and particles (pNH{sub 4} and pNO{sub 3}) were measured over a mixed coniferous forest impacted by high nitrogen loads. Nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) represented the main nitrogen form, followed by nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}). A combination of gradient method (NH{sub 3} and NO {sub x} ) and resistance modelling techniques (HNO{sub 3}, HONO, pNH{sub 4} and pNO{sub 3}) was used to calculate dry deposition of nitrogen compounds. Net flux of NH{sub 3} amounted to -64 ng N m{sup -2} s{sup -1} over the measuring period. Net fluxes of NO {sub x} were upward (8.5 ng N m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) with highest emission in the morning. Fluxes of other gases or aerosols substantially contributed to dry deposition. Total nitrogen deposition was estimated at -48 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and consisted for almost 80% of NH {sub x} . Comparison of throughfall nitrogen with total deposition suggested substantial uptake of reduced N ({+-}15 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) within the canopy. - Reduced nitrogen was found to be the main contributor to total deposition which was predominantly governed by dry deposition.

  19. Stimulated Emission Pumping by Two-Color Resonant Four-Wave Mixing: Rotational Characterization of Vibrationally Excited HCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radi, P.P.; Tulej, M.; Knopp, G.; Beaud, P.; Gerber, T.

    2004-03-01

    Stimulated emission pumping by applying two-color resonant four-wave mixing is used to measure rotationally resolved spectra of the HCO (0,0,0) B {sup 2}A' - (0,3,1) X {sup 2}A' transition. The formyl radical is produced by photodissociation of formaldehyde at 31710.8 cm{sup -1} under thermalized conditions in a low pressure cell. In contrast to the highly congested one-color spectrum of HCO at room temperature, the doubleresonance method yields well isolated transitions which are assigned unambiguously due to intermediate level labeling. 89 rotational transitions have been assigned and yield accurate rotational constants for the vibrationally excited (0,3,1) band of the electronic ground state X {sup 2}A' of HCO. The determined rotational constant A = 25.84{+-}0.01 cm-1 is considerably higher than that for the vibrationless ground state and reflects the structural change due to excitation of the bending mode of the formyl radical. (author)

  20. Reduced dust emission industrial vacuum system. Final report/project accomplishments summary, CRADA Number KCP941001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerganian, S. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.; Wilson, S. [Billy Goat Industries, Lee`s Summit, MO (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this project was to modify the design of a Billy Goat Industries VQ series industrial litter vacuum cleaner currently in production to allow it to be effective in a dusty environment. Other desired results were that the new design be easily and economically manufacturable, safe and easy for the operator to use and maintain, and easily adaptable to the rest of the Billy Goat Industries product line. To meet these objectives, the project plan was divided into four main phases. The first phase consisted of design overview and concept development. The second phase consisted of developing a detailed design based on the lessons learned from the prototype built in the first phase. The third phase consisted of refinement of the detailed design based on testing and marketing review. The fourth phase consisted of final reporting on the activities of the CRADA. The project has been terminated due to technical difficulties and a lack of confidence that practical, marketable solutions to these problems could be found.

  1. Five tears of failure: federal and provincial government inaction on climate change during a period of rising industrial emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Results of two recent studies conducted by the Pembina Institute, an independent citizen-based organization involved in environmental education, research policy development and consulting, are presented. One of the studies reviews, measure-by-measure, what happened to the 88 measures recommended to Ministers of the Environment as part of the 1993-1994 national consultation process on climate change. Results show that only 33 per cent of the 88 measures have been implemented, some of them only partially. Most of the measures implemented at least partially, involved action of a voluntary, education or research nature; the implementation rate for measures that involve regulatory and financial incentives was only 15 per cent. The second study involved an examination on a company-by-company basis how Canada's industrial greenhouse gas emissions have changed over the years during which the Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program (VCR) has been in effect. Based on the analysis of the reports submitted to VCR by the companies themselves, greenhouse gas emissions of participating companies does not appear to be rising more slowly than the national trends. The combined conclusion of the two studies is that that governments largely failed to implement the measures recommended by the national public consultation process; similar conclusion was reached with respect to the the VCR program. Overall, it is clear that voluntary measures are wholly insufficient to meet Canada's climate change challenge. The Institute' best estimate is that if current policies and practices continue, Canadian greenhouse gas emissions by 2010 will be 35 per cent higher than that to which Canada committed under the Kyoto Protocol (i.e. 1990 emissions minus six per cent). Various recommendations on how the situation could be turned around, are offered. tabs., 2 appendices.

  2. Source fingerprint monitoring of air pollutants from petrochemical industry and the determination of their annual emission flux using open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yih-Shiaw Huang; Shih-Yi Chang; Tai-Ly Tso [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (China)

    1996-12-31

    Toxic air pollutants were investigated in several petrochemical industrial park in Taiwan using a movable open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the qualitative and quantitative analysis of emission gases from plants, and also provide the emission rates of various compounds. More than twenty compounds under usual operation were found from these industrial park. The concentration variation with time could be correlated exactly with the distances from the emission source along the wind direction. This means that by changing the measuring points the source of emission could be unambiguously identified. The point, area and line source (PAL) plume dispersion model has been applied to estimate the emission rate of either a point or an area source. The local atmospheric stability was determined by releasing an SF{sub 6} tracer. The origin of errors came mainly from the uncertainty of the source configuration and the variation of the meteorological condition. Through continuous measurement using a portable open-path Fourier transform infrared (POP-FTIR) spectrometer, the maximum value of the emission rate and the annual amount of emission could be derived. The emission rate of the measured toxic gases was derived by the model technique, and the results show that the emission amount is on the order of ten to hundred tons per year.

  3. A comprehensive emission inventory of multiple air pollutants from iron and steel industry in China: Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Tian, Hezhong; Hua, Shenbing; Zhu, Chuanyong; Gao, Jiajia; Xue, Yifeng; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Junrui

    2016-07-15

    China has become the largest producer of iron and steel throughout the world since 1996. However, as an energy-and-pollution intensive manufacturing sector, a detailed comprehensive emission inventory of air pollutants for iron and steel industry of China is still not available. To obtain and better understand the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of typical hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emissions from iron and steel production in China, a comprehensive emission inventory of multiple air pollutants, including size segregated particulate matter (TSP/PM10/PM2.5), gaseous pollutants (SO2, NOx, CO), heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni etc.), as well as the more dangerous PCDD/Fs, is established with the unit-based annual activity, specific dynamic emission factors for the historical period of 1978-2011, and the future potential trends till to 2050 are forecasted by using scenario analysis. Our results show that emissions of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter have experienced a gradual increase tendency since 2000, while emissions of priority-controlled heavy metals (Hg, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, and Ni) have exhibited a short-term fluctuation during the period of 1990 to 2005. With regard to the spatial distribution of HAPs emissions in base year 2011, Bohai economic circle is identified as the top emission intensity region where iron and steel smelting plants are densely built; within iron and steel industry, blast furnaces contribute the majority of PM emissions, sinter plants account for most of gaseous pollutants and the majority of PCDD/Fs, whereas steel making processes are responsible for the majority of heavy metal emissions. Moreover, comparisons of future emission trends under three scenarios indicate that advanced technologies and integrated whole process management strategies are in great need to further diminish various hazardous air pollutants from iron and steel industry in the future.

  4. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Christian

    2010-01-01

    biomass burning, so it could be a source of interference in some areas when using these tracers to estimate BB. Galactosan was the anhydrosugar most closely correlated with BB in this study. Fine particle antimony (Sb shows initial promise as a garbage burning tracer and suggests that this source could contribute a significant amount of the PM2.5 in the Mexico City metropolitan area. The fuel consumption and emissions due to industrial biofuel use are difficult to characterize regionally. This is partly because of the diverse range of fuels used and the very small profit margins of typical micro-enterprises. Brick making kilns produced low total EFPM2.5 (~1.6 g/kg, but very high EC/OC ratios (6.72. Previous literature on brick kilns is scarce but does document some severe local impacts. Coupling data from Mexico, Brazil, and Zambia, we find that charcoal making kilns can exhibit an 8-fold increase in VOC/CO over their approximately one-week lifetime. Acetic acid emission factors for charcoal kilns were much higher in Mexico than elsewhere. Our dirt charcoal kiln EFPM2.5 emission factor was ~1.1 g/kg, which is lower than previous recommendations intended for all types of kilns. We speculate that some PM2.5 is scavenged in the walls of dirt kilns.

  5. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Christian

    2009-04-01

    be a source of interference in some areas when using these tracers to estimate BB. Galactosan was the anhydrosugar most closely correlated with BB in this study. Fine particle antimony (Sb shows initial promise as a garbage burning tracer and suggests that this source could contribute a significant amount of the PM2.5 in the Mexico City metropolitan area. The fuel consumption and emissions due to industrial biofuel use are difficult to characterize regionally. This is partly because of the diverse range of fuels used and the thin margins of typical micro-enterprises. Brick making kilns produced low total EFPM2.5 (~1.6 g/kg, but very high EC/OC ratios (6.72. Previous literature on brick kilns is scarce but does document some severe local impacts. Coupling data from Mexico, Brazil, and Zambia, we find that charcoal making kilns can exhibit an 8-fold increase in VOC/CO over their approximately one-week lifetime. Acetic acid emission factors for charcoal kilns were much higher in Mexico than elsewhere, probably due to the use of tannin-rich oak fuel. Our dirt charcoal kiln EFPM2.5 emission factor was ~1.1 g/kg, which is lower than previous recommendations intended for all types of kilns. We speculate that some PM2.5 is scavenged in the walls of dirt kilns.

  6. 北京市工业能源消耗碳排放分析%Analysis of Carbon Emissions from Industrial Energy Consumption in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖清华; 柯水发

    2014-01-01

    T his article estimates the carbon emissions of Beijing industrial energy consumption from 2005 -2011 .T he research results indicate that the carbon emissions in Beijing increased first and then fell during this period ;the use of clean energy increased year by year ;manufacturing industry was still the major source of carbon emissions and the industrial carbon emissions intensity decreased over years .T he Beijing govern-menthaspaid more attention to energy conservation and emissions reduction work ,andactivelyadjuststhe in-dustrial energy structure and industrial structure .T herefore ,industrial carbon emissions are under effective control .In the end ,this article puts forward relevant policy suggestions for the Beijing industrial low carbon development according to its current situation .%对北京市2005~2011年工业能源消耗的碳排放量进行了估算,得出了北京市碳排放量先增后降、清洁能源使用量逐年提高、制造业仍是主要的碳排放来源及工业碳排放强度逐年下降的结论。基于北京市政府高度重视节能减排工作,主动调整工业能源结构及产业结构,使工业碳排放得到有效控制,结合北京市工业低碳发展的现状,对北京市工业低碳发展提出了相关建议。

  7. 2020年我国水泥行业CO2排放趋势与减排路径分析%Analysis on CO2 Emission Trend and Emission Reduction Path of China's Cement Industry in 2020

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋小谦; 康艳兵; 刘强; 赵盟

    2012-01-01

    我国水泥行业的CO2排放仅次于电力行业,约占全国排放总量的15%.分析水泥行业的CO2排放趋势和减排路径对实现我国温室气体排放控制目标有着重要的现实意义.本文从影响水泥行业排放的主要影响因素着手,分析了水泥产量和单耗的现状及未来发展趋势,计算了水泥行业的历史排放、发展趋势以及减排潜力,指出了实现减排潜力面临的挑战和障碍,以及相应的措施建议.%CO2 emission from China's cement industry is only second to power industry, accounted for 15% of total national emissions. Analysis on CO2 emission trend and emission reduction path of cement industry is significant to the realization of GHG emissions control target in China. From the perspective of major influencing factors, this paper analyzes the status and future trend of cement production and energy consumption per unit of product, calculates history and future emissions as well as emission reduction potentials, also analyzes challenges and obstacles, and proposes appropriate measures recommendations.

  8. Mixing states of aerosols over four environmentally distinct atmospheric regimes in Asia: coastal, urban, and industrial locations influenced by dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, S; Srivastava, Rohit

    2016-06-01

    Mixing can influence the optical, physical, and chemical characteristics of aerosols, which in turn can modify their life cycle and radiative effects. Assumptions on the mixing state can lead to uncertain estimates of aerosol radiative effects. To examine the effect of mixing on the aerosol characteristics, and their influence on radiative effects, aerosol mixing states are determined over four environmentally distinct locations (Karachi, Gwangju, Osaka, and Singapore) in Asia, an aerosol hot spot region, using measured spectral aerosol optical properties and optical properties model. Aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (g) exhibit spectral, spatial, and temporal variations. Aerosol mixing states exhibit large spatial and temporal variations consistent with aerosol characteristics and aerosol type over each location. External mixing of aerosol species is unable to reproduce measured SSA over Asia, thus providing a strong evidence that aerosols exist in mixed state. Mineral dust (MD) (core)-Black carbon (BC) (shell) is one of the most preferred aerosol mixing states. Over locations influenced by biomass burning aerosols, BC (core)-water soluble (WS, shell) is a preferred mixing state, while dust gets coated by anthropogenic aerosols (BC, WS) over urban regions influenced by dust. MD (core)-sea salt (shell) mixing is found over Gwangju corroborating the observations. Aerosol radiative forcing exhibits large seasonal and spatial variations consistent with features seen in aerosol optical properties and mixing states. TOA forcing is less negative/positive for external mixing scenario because of lower SSA. Aerosol radiative forcing in Karachi is a factor of 2 higher when compared to Gwangju, Osaka, and Singapore. The influence of g on aerosol radiative forcing is insignificant. Results emphasize that rather than prescribing one single aerosol mixing state in global climate models regionally and temporally varying aerosol

  9. [Characteristic of Mercury Emissions and Mass Balance of the Typical Iron and Steel Industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-hui; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Ding-yong; Luo, Cheng-zhong; Yang, Xi; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    To preliminarily discuss the mercury emission characteristics and its mass balance in each process of the iron and steel production, a typical iron and steel enterprise was chosen to study the total mercury in all employed materials and estimate the input and output of mercury during the steel production process. The results showed that the mercury concentrations of input materials in each technology ranged 2.93-159.11 µg · kg⁻¹ with the highest level observed in ore used in blast furnace, followed by coal of sintering and blast furnace. The mercury concentrations of output materials ranged 3.09-18.13 µg · kg⁻¹ and the mercury concentration of dust was the highest, followed by converter slag. The mercury input and the output in the coking plant were 1346.74 g · d⁻¹ ± 36.95 g · d⁻¹ and 177.42 g · d⁻¹ ± 13.73 g · d⁻¹, respectively. In coking process, mercury mainly came from the burning of coking coal. The sintering process was the biggest contributor for mercury input during the iron and steel production with the mercury input of 1075. 27 g · d⁻¹ ± 60.89 g · d⁻¹ accounting for 68.06% of the total mercury input during this production process, and the ore powder was considered as the main mercury source. For the solid output material, the output in the sintering process was 14.15 g · d⁻¹ ± 0.38 g · d⁻¹, accounting for 22.61% of the total solid output. The mercury emission amount from this studied iron and steel enterprise was estimated to be 553.83 kg in 2013 with the emission factor of 0.092 g · t⁻¹ steel production. Thus, to control the mercury emissions, iron and steel enterprises should combine with production practice, further reduce energy consumption of coking and sintering, or improve the quality of raw materials and reduce the input of mercury.

  10. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (MX)] (and others)

    2003-08-01

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measured at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO{sub 2}, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and

  11. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; López, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmerín, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper

  12. From emissions to ambient mixing ratios: on-line seasonal field measurements of volatile organic compounds over a Norway spruce dominated forest in central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsoukidis, E.; Williams, J.; Kesselmeier, J.; Jacobi, S.; Bonn, B.

    2013-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are substantial contributors to atmospheric chemistry and physics and demonstrate the close relationship between biosphere and atmosphere. Their emission rates are highly sensitive to meteorological and environmental changes with concomitant impacts on atmospheric chemistry. We have investigated seasonal isoprenoid and oxygenated VOC (oxVOC) fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) tree in Central Germany and explored the emission responses under various atmospheric conditions. Emission rates were quantified by using dynamic branch enclosure and Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) techniques. Additionally, ambient mixing ratios were derived through application of a new box model treatment on the dynamic chamber measurements. These are compared in terms of abundance and origin with the corresponding emissions. Isoprenoids govern the BVOC emissions from Norway spruce, with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes accounting for 50.8 ± 7.2% and 19.8 ± 8.1% respectively of the total emissions. Normalizing the VOC emission rates, we have observed a trend of reduction of carbon containing emissions from April to November, with an enhancement of oxVOC. Highest emission rates were observed in June for all measured species, with the exception of sesquiterpenes that were emitted most strongly in April. We exploit the wide range of conditions experienced at the site to filter the dataset with a combination of temperature, ozone and absolute humidity values in order to derive the emission potential and temperature dependency development for the major chemical species investigated. A profound reduction of monoterpene emission potential (E30) and temperature dependency (β) was found under low temperature regimes, combined with low ozone levels (E30MT, LTLO3=56 ± 9.1 ng g(dw)-1 h-1, βMT,LTLO3=0.03±0.01 K-1) while a combination of both stresses was found to alter their emissions responses with respect to temperature

  13. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  14. History of the development and industrial production of low thermal emissivity coatings for high heat insulating glass units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläser, Hans J

    2008-05-01

    Low-emissivity (low-E) coatings play a dominate role in high heat insulating multiple glass units with which an essential part of heat energy can be saved in buildings. With such coatings as the main part, and to a lesser part with low thermal conductive filling gases of the units' interspaces, their heat transmittance can be reduced from 6.0 W/m(2)? K for a single glazing--still glazed to a high degree--to 0.4 W/m(2) K for a triple insulating glass unit. This astonishing development is regarded as one of the most important innovations of the flat glass industry in the past century. The roots of low-E coatings in the 1960s, their startup for production in the 1970s, and, most important, further development steps accompanied by, and partly also codesigned actively by the author, are depicted.

  15. Atmospheric chemistry in the Arctic and subarctic - influence of natural fires, industrial emissions, and stratospheric inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wofsy, S.C.; Sachse, G.W.; Gregory, G.L.; Blake, D.R.; Bradshaw, J.D.; Sandholm, S.T.; Singh, H.B.; Barrick, J.A.; Harriss, R.C.; Talbot, R.W. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States) NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States) California Univ., Irvine (United States) Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta (United States) NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States) New Hampshire Univ., Durham (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Layers with enhanced concentrations of trace gases intercepted by the NASA Electra aircraft over Alaska during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) in July-August 1988 are discussed. Haze layers apparently associated with boreal fires were enriched in hydrocarbons and NO(y), with emission factors corresponding closely to laboratory data for smoldering combustion. It is argued that atmospheric composition was strongly modified by wildfires during several periods of the ABLE 3A mission. The associated enhancement of NO(y) was smaller than observed for most other combustion processes but was nonetheless significant in the context of very low background concentrations. Ozone production in fire plumes was negligible. Ambient O3 was supplied by the stratosphere, with little direct input from midlatitude source during summer. It is argued that NO(y) was supplied about equally by the stratosphere and by wildfires. Hydrocarbons and CO appear to derive from biomass fires and from human activities. 47 refs.

  16. Atmospheric chemistry in the Arctic and subarctic - Influence of natural fires, industrial emissions, and stratospheric inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofsy, S. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Gregory, G. L.; Blake, D. R.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Singh, H. B.; Barrick, J. A.; Harriss, R. C.; Talbot, R. W.

    1992-01-01

    Layers with enhanced concentrations of trace gases intercepted by the NASA Electra aircraft over Alaska during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) in July-August 1988 are discussed. Haze layers apparently associated with boreal fires were enriched in hydrocarbons and NO(y), with emission factors corresponding closely to laboratory data for smoldering combustion. It is argued that atmospheric composition was strongly modified by wildfires during several periods of the ABLE 3A mission. The associated enhancement of NO(y) was smaller than observed for most other combustion processes but was nonetheless significant in the context of very low background concentrations. Ozone production in fire plumes was negligible. Ambient O3 was supplied by the stratosphere, with little direct input from midlatitude source during summer. It is argued that NO(y) was supplied about equally by the stratosphere and by wildfires. Hydrocarbons and CO appear to derive from biomass fires and from human activities.

  17. Interaction of biochar and organic residues from sugarcane industry in soil chemical attributes and greenhouse gases emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernanda Abbruzzini, Thalita; Feola Conz, Rafaela; Pellegrino Cerri, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have highlighted the importance of providing soil quality in agricultural systems, besides mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere and increasing soil carbon sequestration. Therefore, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of biochar as a soil conditioner, both in relation to increased C sequestration and improvements in soil chemical, physical and biological attributes, resulting in better conditions for plant growth. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of applying biochar produced from sugarcane straw to soils in relation to changes in soil chemical attributes and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere. To do so, we conducted a laboratory incubation under controlled environmental conditions (ie temperature and humidity) with and without the application of filter cake and vinasse (ie organic residues from sugarcane industry) and rates of biochar application (0, 10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1). The fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4 of each incubation unity were measured periodically (in days 1, 2, 5, 9, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 30, 47, 60, 91, 105, 123, 130, 138 and 150). Each treatment consisted of eight replicates with destructive samples evaluated at 30, 60, 90 and 150 days after incubation to characterize the chemical attributes of the incubated soil, besides GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. In general, there was an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes over time due to the application of filter cake and vinasse and increasing dose of biochar. Regarding nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, there was an increase of 82.35% with the application of vinasse and filter cake compared to the control treatment. However, different doses of biochar (10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1) reduced N2O emissions by 29, 38.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The methane (CH4) flux was negligible in all treatments. We observed improvements in soil chemical attributes, such as higher pH, a substantial increase in the soil CEC, reduced exchangeable

  18. Fundamental properties of industrial hybrid cement: utilization in ready-mixed concretes and shrinkage-reducing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martauz, P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Utility properties of novel hybrid cement (H-Cement are influenced by pozzolanic reaction of fly ash, latent hydraulic reaction of metallurgical slag together with the alkali activation of inorganic geopolymer based on precipitated waste water coming from bauxite residues. Content of Portland cement clinker is at maximum of 20 mass %, the remaining portion consists of inorganic geopolymer. Up to 80% of CO2 emissions are saved by H-Cement manufacture compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC. No heat treatment or autoclaving is needed at H-Cement production. The field application of H-Cement is performed by the same way than that of common cements listed in EN 197-1, and is also connected with highly efficient recovery and safe disposal of red mud waste. H-Cement is suitable for ready-mixed concretes up to C30/37 strength class and is specified by beneficial shrinkage-reducing property of the concrete kept in long dry-air cure opposite to common cements.Las propiedades de un nuevo cemento híbrido (cemento-H vienen determinadas por la reaccion puzolánica de cenizas volantes, la hidráulica latente de las escorias metalúrgicas y la activación alcalina mediante las aguas residuales generadas por el tratamiento de la bauxita para dar un geopolímero inorgánico. La proporción máxima de clínker de cemento en este nuevo material es del 20%, y por ello, en su fabricación se emite hasta un 80% menos de CO2 que en la producción del cemento portland (OPC. El cemento-H se prepara sin necesidad de tratamiento térmico ni de estancia en autoclave y su aplicación es la misma que los cementos convencionales definidos en la norma EN 197-1. Por otra parte, su fabricación supone la recuperación y la valorización segura de los lodos rojos de bauxita. El cemento-H es apto para la preparación de hormigones premezclados hasta la categoría C30/37, presentando el nuevo material, además, una menor retracción que los cementos convencionales, por lo que su

  19. Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions of China’s Non-Metallic Mineral Products Industry: Present State, Prospects and Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available China is the largest non-metallic mineral producer in the world and one of the key consumers of four major non-metallic mineral products, including cement, refractories, plate glass and ceramics. The non-metallic mineral products industry’s rapid growth has brought about a large demand for energy. The present study provides an overview of China’s non-metallic mineral products industry in terms of production, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. In this industry, the energy efficiency is relatively low and the level of carbon dioxide emission is much higher than developed countries’ average. This study interprets the effects of some newly issued policies and analyses the influential factors in achieving energy conservation and emission reduction goals. It also discusses the prospects for saving energy and emission reduction in the industry. Retrofitting facilities and using new production technologies is imperative. Additionally, implementing market-based policies, promoting industrial transformation and effective international cooperation would help decrease carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption.

  20. Influence of biofuels on exhaust gas and noise emissions of small industrial diesel engines; Einfluss von Biokraftstoffen auf die Abgas- und Geraeuschemission kleiner Industriedieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spessert, B.M. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachgebiet Kraft- und Arbeitsmaschinen; Schleicher, A. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachgebiet Umweltmesstechnik

    2007-03-15

    At small industrial diesel engines, as they were brought in oftentimes on building sites, in the farming and forest industry and on boats, biofuels are increasingly used. In a research project of the University of Applied Sciences Jena, Germany, thus the changes of the exhaust gas pollutant and noise emissions of these diesel engines were investigated. Test fuels were diesel fuel, and also biofuels as biodiesel (RME), rape seed oil and sun flower oil. Depending on the operating point these biofuels increased or reduced the emissions of exhaust gas and noise of the investigated engines clearly. (orig.)

  1. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  2. [Emission characteristics and hazard assessment analysis of volatile organic compounds from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Song, Shuang; Xu, Zhi-Rong; Xu, Ming-Zhu; Xu, Wei-Li

    2014-10-01

    In this study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry in Taizhou, Zhejiang province were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was in the range of 14.9-308.6 mg · m(-3). Evaluation models of ozone formation potentials (OFP) and health risk assessment were adopted to preliminarily assess the environmental impact and health risk of VOCs. The results showed that the values of OFP of VOCs were in the range of 3.1-315.1 mg · m(-3), based on the maximum incremental reactivity, the main principal contribution was toluene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetic ether etc. The non-carcinogenic risk and the carcinogen risk fell in the ranges of 9.48 x 10(-7)-4.98 x 10(-4) a(-1) and 3.17 x 10(-5)- 6.33 x 10(-3). The principal contribution of VOCs was benzene, formaldehyde and methylene chloride.

  3. [Driving forces of carbon emission from energy consumption in China old industrial cities: a case study of Shenyang City, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wan-Xia; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing

    2012-10-01

    To quantitatively analyze the effects of anthropogenic factors on regional environmental quality is a hot topic in the field of sustainable development research. Taking the typical old industrial city Shenyang in Northeast China as a case, and by using the IPCC method for calculating carbon emission from energy consumption, this paper estimated the carbon emission from energy consumption in the city in 1978-2009, and a time series analysis on the anthropogenic factors driving this carbon emission was made by the STIRPAT model based upon Kaya equation and ridge regression. In 1978-2009, the carbon emission in the city had a slow increase first, slow decrease then, and a rapid increase thereafter. The total carbon emission in 2009 was 4.6 times of that in 1978. Population growth was the main factor driving the growth of the emission, and there existed an equal-proportional variation between the population growth and the carbon emission growth. Urbanization was another main driving factor followed by population growth, and the per capita GDP was positively correlated with the carbon emission. Kuznets curve did not exist for the relationship between economic development and carbon emission in Shenyang. Energy source intensity reduction (representing technology improvement) was the main factor driving the reduction of the total carbon emission.

  4. Chemical Industry Energy Saving and Emission Reduction Management%化工企业的节能减排管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋; 李文金; 杜建东

    2015-01-01

    The energy saving and emission reduction management should be a long-term strategic goals for chemical industry. Enterprise should encourage all the staffs participating actively in this management through internal promotion, training and variety of incentives. Through mass equilibrium analysis and cost analysis, the optimized direction and solve the emission issue from source could be fixed. By increasing automation controlling, the plant could also run more stability and reliability without more safety and environment incident happened. During the plant running and maintenance, we should continue to tap the potential benefits, standardize production management and catch all the details in order to do well for the energy saving and emission reduction management.%企业要做好节能减排管理,必须将其作为长期的战略目标,加强企业内部的宣传和培训,通过多种激励机制鼓励员工积极参与到节能减排管理中。生产装置要从源头进行节能减排,通过平衡分析和成本分析等手段,明确优化方向,通过提高装置运行的自动化程序,提高运行的稳定性和可靠性。在装置运行及停车检修过程中,不断挖掘潜在效益,规范生产管理,在细节上做好节能减排管理。

  5. Models for Initial Allocation of Emission Permits in a River Basin During Industrial Development: A Case Study of Huaihe River Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Shutong; Huang Xianjin; Cheng Xushui; Wan Yi; Ma Tianqi

    2010-01-01

    At present,water pollutant emission trading plays an increasingly important role in pollution control in many foreign countries,and its pilot studies and demonstration have also been started in China.In order to solve the problem of initial allocation of emission permits: premise and basis of emission trading in a river basin,basic principles on initial allocation of actual emission permits in China are put forward.And it is thought that local development stage of industry should be taken into full account for initial allocation model of emission permits.There are five different allocation models in different development stages of industry,including models like distribution according to needs,improved same-rate reduction,performance,integration and environmental capacity,etc.The initial allocation of emission permits in various basins should choose a suitable model in accordance with their respective development stages.It is suggested in this article that integrated allocation model should be a main choice for current development stage of industry in China.

  6. Limitations of ozone data assimilation with adjustment of NOx emissions: mixed effects on NO2 forecast over Beijing and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Zhu, J.; Wang, Z. F.; Gbaguidi, A.; Lin, C. Y.; Xin, J. Y.; Song, T.; Hu, B.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates a cross-variable ozone data assimilation (DA) method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that has been validated as an efficient approach for improving ozone forecasts. The main purpose is to delve into the impacts of the cross-variable adjustment of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forecasts over Beijing and surrounding regions during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A mixed effect on the NO2 forecasts was observed during the application of the cross-variable assimilation approach in real-data assimilation (RDA) experiments. The method improved the NO2 forecast over almost half of the urban sites with reductions of the root mean square errors (RMSEs) by 15-36 % in contrast to big increases of the RMSEs over other urban stations by 56-239 %. Over the urban stations with negative DA impacts, improvement of the NO2 forecasts with 7 % reduction of the RMSEs was noticed during the night and the morning vs. significant deterioration of the forecasts during daytime with 190 % increase of the RMSEs, suggesting the negative DA impacts mainly occurred during daytime. Ideal data assimilation (IDA) experiments with a box model and the same cross-variable assimilation method, as a further investigation, confirmed the mixed effects found in the RDA experiments. An improvement of the NOx emission estimation was obtained from the cross-variable assimilation under relatively small errors in the prior estimation of NOx emissions during daytime, while deterioration of the NOx emission estimation was found under large biases in the prior estimation of NOx emissions during daytime. However, the cross-variable assimilation improved the NOx emission estimations during the night and the morning even with large biases in the prior estimations. The mixed effects observed in the cross-variable assimilation, i.e., positive DA impacts on NO2 forecast over some urban sites, negative DA impacts over the other urban sites and weak DA

  7. Lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio; Andre, Iara R.; Garcia, Gilberto; Lopes, F. J. S.; Mariano, Glauber L.; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.

    2010-10-01

    Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of Sao Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of Sao Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol "echoes" and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatao) and others from urban sources (Sao Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to

  8. India's cement industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's cement sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the aluminum sector increased by 0.8% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's cement sector has been biased towards the use of energy and capital, while it has been material and labor saving. The increase in productivity was mainly driven by a period of progress between 1983 and 1991 following partial decontrol of the cement sector in 1982. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency in the sector. Their analysis shows that the Indian cement sector is moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use. However, substantial further energy savings and carbon reduction potentials still exist.

  9. 上海市工业氨排放清单研究%Study on Inventory List of Ammonia Industrial Emission in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓红; 李芳; 刘必寅

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of ammonia emission inventory list, the industrial emission source and its total emissions in Shanghai had been compiled statistics from the updated information of all kinds of emission source and the emission load calculated by different quantitative methods.The result showed that the main ammonia industrial emission sources in Shanghai were sewage treatment, solid waste disposal and oil refi-ning, accounting for 59.81%, 20.85%and 7.83%of the whole city ammonia industrial emissions respectively. The control of the odor pollutants such as ammonia may focus on these three industries.%为提高上海市氨排放清单的准确性,在资料更新的基础上,通过调查收集各类排放源信息和采用不同定量化方法获得排放量,对上海市氨工业排放源清单及其排放总量汇总统计。结果表明,该市工业源氨排放以城镇污水处理、固废处理、炼油行业为主,分别占全市工业源氨排放量的59.81%、20.85%和7.83%。这3大行业生产过程中氨等恶臭污染物的排放控制是上海市工业氨减排的重要方向。

  10. R and D levers for an abatement of industrial CO{sub 2} emissions by 2030 in the building industry sector; Leviers R and D pour une reduction des emissions industrielles de CO{sub 2} a l'echeance de 2030 dans le secteur du batiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capmas, A.

    2006-03-15

    This document presents in a series of transparencies: the regulatory framework of CO{sub 2} emissions (Kyoto protocol, CO{sub 2} trading market), the CO{sub 2} emissions in the cement industry and the actions implemented to limit them (energy conservation, fuel substitution, recycling of by-products from other industries), the life cycle analysis in the building industry (construction stage and entire life of the building), the energy saving potentialities in existing buildings (double-glazing, mineral wools, space heating system, thermal inertia, insulation etc..), the use of the thermal inertia of concrete and cement to save energy, and some examples of implementation in municipal buildings. (J.S.)

  11. Revised (Mixed-Effects) Estimation for Forest Burning Emissions of Gases and Smoke, Fire/Emission Factor Typology, and Potential Remote Sensing Classification of Types for Ozone and Black-Carbon Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Segal Rozenhaimer, M.

    2014-01-01

    We summarize recent progress (a) in correcting biomass burning emissions factors deduced from airborne sampling of forest fire plumes, (b) in understanding the variability in reactivity of the fresh plumes sampled in ARCTAS (2008), DC3 (2012), and SEAC4RS (2013) airborne missions, and (c) in a consequent search for remotely sensed quantities that help classify forest-fire plumes. Particle properties, chemical speciation, and smoke radiative properties are related and mutually informative, as pictures below suggest (slopes of lines of same color are similar). (a) Mixed-effects (random-effects) statistical modeling provides estimates of both emission factors and a reasonable description of carbon-burned simultaneously. Different fire plumes will have very different contributions to volatile organic carbon reactivity; this may help explain differences of free NOx(both gas- and particle-phase), and also of ozone production, that have been noted for forest-fire plumes in California. Our evaluations check or correct emission factors based on sequential measurements (e.g., the Normalized Ratio Enhancement and similar methods). We stress the dangers of methods relying on emission-ratios to CO. (b) This work confirms and extends many reports of great situational variability in emissions factors. VOCs vary in OH reactivity and NOx-binding. Reasons for variability are not only fuel composition, fuel condition, etc., but are confused somewhat by rapid transformation and mixing of emissions. We use "unmixing" (distinct from mixed-effects) statistics and compare briefly to approaches like neural nets. We focus on one particularly intense fire the notorious Yosemite Rim Fire of 2013. In some samples, NOx activity was not so suppressed by binding into nitrates as in other fires. While our fire-typing is evolving and subject to debate, the carbon-burned delta(CO2+CO) estimates that arise from mixed effects models, free of confusion by background-CO2 variation, should provide a

  12. Coal fires, industrial emissions and motor vehicles as sources of environmental carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawther, P J; Waller, R E

    1976-01-01

    One of the most widely studied carcinogenic agents in the environment is the polycyclic hydrocarbon, benzo(a) pyrene. As a component of soot from the inefficient combustion of coal, its association with cancer can be traced back 200 years, but its possible relevance to lung cancer as a widely distributed air relevance to lung cancer as a widely distributed air pollutant has been investigated only during the past 25 years. Domestic coal fires have been shown to be important sources, and smaller amounts come from industrial sources and from motor vehicles. There is evidence now that the concentration of benzo (a) pyrene in large towns in Britain has decreased by a factor of about ten during the last few decades, as a result of changing heating methods and smoke control. In view of the overwhelming effect of cigarette smoking, it is difficult to determine whether the benzo(a)pyrene content of the air has had any importnat effect on the development of lung cancer, but careful analysis of trends in mortality may now throw some light on this. Among other materials with carcinogenic properties that may be dispersed into the general air, asbestos is the one that has been investigated most thoroughly. The association between exposure to asbestos and the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma of the pleura has been clearly demonstrated among people occupationally exposed to the dust, but as far as the general public is concerned, any risk may be limited to the immediate vicinity of major sources. These and other hazards demonstrated among occupational gropus serve as a warning however to maintain careful scutiny of urban air pollutants in relation to the acetiology of cancer.

  13. Optimal fleetwide emissions reductions for passenger ferries: an application of a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model for the New York-New Jersey Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebrake, James J; Corbett, James J; Wang, Chengfeng; Farrell, Alexander E; Woods, Pippa

    2005-04-01

    Emissions from passenger ferries operating in urban harbors may contribute significantly to emissions inventories and commuter exposure to air pollution. In particular, ferries are problematic because of high emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from primarily unregulated diesel engines. This paper explores technical solutions to reduce pollution from passenger ferries operating in the New York-New Jersey Harbor. The paper discusses and demonstrates a mixed-integer, non-linear programming model used to identify optimal control strategies for meeting NOx and PM reduction targets for 45 privately owned commuter ferries in the harbor. Results from the model can be used by policy-makers to craft programs aimed at achieving least-cost reduction targets.

  14. Pb-210 and fly ash particles in ombrotrophic peat bogs as indicators of industrial emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Karu, Helen; Kiisk, Madis; Pensa, Margus; Isakar, Kadri; Realo, Enn; Alliksaar, Tiiu; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2017-08-01

    Peat cores were collected from a Sphagnum-dominated Selisoo bog, which is located about 40 km from the large oil shale-fired power plants (PPs) in Estonia. These PPs have been operational from the 1960's and had the largest negative impact on the surrounding environment during the 1970's and 1980's. Nearby ombrotrophic peatlands are good indicators of atmospheric pollution due to their properties of effectively adsorbing mineral matter and pollutants. Collected peat cores (S1 and S2) from Selisoo peat bog were sliced into 1 cm thick layers and measured gamma spectrometrically. In addition, spherical fly ash particles (SFAP) originating from the combustion of the PPs were counted. The maximum concentrations (particles per cm(3)) of the SFAP remained between 7 and 12 cm for core S1 and between 11 and 17 cm for core S2. The concentration profiles of the SFAP reflect the combustion and emission history of the PPs. Pb-210 activity concentrations have the maximum values up to 500 Bq kg(-1) and 413 Bq m(-2) for S1 and for the S2 the values are 441 Bq kg(-1) and 535 Bq m(-2) (dry weight). The unsupported (210)Pb inventory is around 4250 Bq m(-2). This represents a (210)Pb deposition flux of 133 Bq m(-2) y(-1). The estimated (210)Pb deposition via fly ash from the PPs at Selisoo area remains between 0.2 and 2.2 Bq m(-2) y(-1). Considering the annual (210)Pb deposition from the atmosphere (with a precipitation rate of 600 mm y(-1)) between 92 and 133 Bq m(-2), which is regarded as the natural background value, we show that the radiological burden due to the power plants at these distances is negligible. As the peat cores exhibit noticeable differences from each other (in terms of radionuclide concentration distribution), the SFAP can provide a good additional parameter to improve the validity of results obtained only from radiometric methods in the chronological studies. SFAP can also act as a possible tool to estimate the radionuclide deposition rate

  15. Long-term model-based projections of energy use and CO2emissions from the global steel and cement industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ruijven, Bas J.; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Boskaljon, Willem; Neelis, Maarten L.; Saygin, Deger|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314118101; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a global simulation-model for the steel and cement industries. The model covers the full modelling chain from economic activity, to materials consumption, trade, technology choice, production capacity, energy use and CO2emissions. Without climate policy, the future projections

  16. Integrated control of emission reductions, energy-saving, and cost-benefit using a multi-objective optimization technique in the pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zongguo; Xu, Chang; Zhang, Xueying

    2015-03-17

    Reduction of water pollutant emissions and energy consumption is regarded as a key environmental objective for the pulp and paper industry. The paper develops a bottom-up model called the Industrial Water Pollutant Control and Technology Policy (IWPCTP) based on an industrial technology simulation system and multiconstraint technological optimization. Five policy scenarios covering the business as usual (BAU) scenario, the structural adjustment (SA) scenario, the cleaner technology promotion (CT) scenario, the end-treatment of pollutants (EOP) scenario, and the coupling measures (CM) scenario have been set to describe future policy measures related to the development of the pulp and paper industry from 2010-2020. The outcome of this study indicates that the energy saving amount under the CT scenario is the largest, while that under the SA scenario is the smallest. Under the CT scenario, savings by 2020 include 70 kt/year of chemical oxygen demand (COD) emission reductions and savings of 7443 kt of standard coal, 539.7 ton/year of ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) emission reductions, and savings of 7444 kt of standard coal. Taking emission reductions, energy savings, and cost-benefit into consideration, cleaner technologies like highly efficient pulp washing, dry and wet feedstock preparation, and horizontal continuous cooking, medium and high consistency pulping and wood dry feedstock preparation are recommended.

  17. Long-term model-based projections of energy use and CO2emissions from the global steel and cement industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ruijven, Bas J.; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Boskaljon, Willem; Neelis, Maarten L.; Saygin, Deger; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a global simulation-model for the steel and cement industries. The model covers the full modelling chain from economic activity, to materials consumption, trade, technology choice, production capacity, energy use and CO2emissions. Without climate policy, the future projections ba

  18. The Role of Public and Private Protection in Disruptive Innovation: The Automotive Industry and the Emergence of Low-Emission Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.; Bohnsack, R.; Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the automotive industry, the need to move toward more sustainable trajectories of innovation has received much attention. Car manufacturers have started to develop lower emission alternatives for the internal combustion engine, particularly electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell vehicles. They face the

  19. The Role of Public and Private Protection in Disruptive Innovation: The Automotive Industry and the Emergence of Low-Emission Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.; Bohnsack, R.; Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the automotive industry, the need to move toward more sustainable trajectories of innovation has received much attention. Car manufacturers have started to develop lower emission alternatives for the internal combustion engine, particularly electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell vehicles. They face the

  20. The success of applying marketing mix 4Ps in Vietnamese dairy industry : Vinamilk – a typical case

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Truc

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on what Vinamilk has done and achieved by applying the concept of marketing mix 4Ps to become the biggest milk enterprise in Vietnamese dairy market at present. The literature is aggregated from textbooks, e-books, journals, and varieties of economics online webpages relating to the contents of the marketing mix 4Ps: product, price, place, and promotion. The secondary data of this thesis is mainly collected from online newspaper articles, as well as the Annual Report 20...

  1. The success of applying marketing mix 4Ps in Vietnamese dairy industry : Vinamilk – a typical case

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Truc

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on what Vinamilk has done and achieved by applying the concept of marketing mix 4Ps to become the biggest milk enterprise in Vietnamese dairy market at present. The literature is aggregated from textbooks, e-books, journals, and varieties of economics online webpages relating to the contents of the marketing mix 4Ps: product, price, place, and promotion. The secondary data of this thesis is mainly collected from online newspaper articles, as well as the Annual Report 20...

  2. Impact of functional mix and starter cultures on the sensory properties of permanent sausages produced in industrial conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzelov, Aco; Naseva, Dijana; Taskov, Nako; Saneva, Dusica; Spasova, Dragica; Andronikov, Darko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of their search is the impact little bit of functional mixed (composed of glukono delta lactate, ascorbic acid and vitamin C) and starter culture (commercial preparation F - SC111 Bactoferm product company Chr Hansen DK). This product contains a mixed culture composed of Lactobacilus sakei and Staphyococus Camosus frozen in dry form. In three varieties of tea and sausage: I - added a simple sugar sucrose which serve as a control sample, II - with the addition of starter culture, III -...

  3. How to Set the Allowance Benchmarking for Cement Industry in China’s Carbon Market: Marginal Analysis and the Case of the Hubei Emission Trading Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG benchmarking for allocation serves as rewards for early actions in mitigating GHG emissions by using more advanced technologies. China Hubei launched the carbon emission trading pilot in 2014, with the cement industry represented as a major contributor to the GHG emissions in Hubei. This article is set to establish a general benchmarking framework by describing and calculating the marginal abatement cost curve (MACC and marginal revenue and then comparing the different GHG benchmarking approaches for the cement industry in the Hubei Emission Trading Pilot (Hubei ETS case. Based on the comparison of three GHG benchmarking approaches, the Waxman-Markey standard, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS cement benchmarking, and the benchmarking approach applied in California Cap-and-Trade program, it is found that; (1 the Waxman-Markey benchmark is too loose to apply in Hubei as it provides little incentive for companies to mitigate; (2 the EU ETS benchmark approach fits the current cement industry in Hubei ETS; and (3 the GHG benchmarking standard in the California Cap-and-Trade Program is the most stringent standard and drives the direction of the future development for Hubei ETS.

  4. Effect of current emission abatement strategies on air quality improvement in China: A case study of Baotou, a typical industrial city in Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xionghui; Duan, Lei; Cai, Siyi; Yu, Qian; Wang, Shuxiao; Chai, Fahe; Gao, Jian; Li, Yanping; Xu, Zhaoming

    2017-07-01

    The national Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan required significant decreases in PM2.5 levels over China. To explore more effective emission abatement strategies in industrial cities, a case study was conducted in Baotou to evaluate the current national control measures. The total emissions of SO2, NOX, PM2.5 and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in Baotou were 211.2Gg, 156.1Gg, 28.8Gg, and 48.5Gg, respectively in 2013, and they would experience a reduction of 30.4%, 26.6%, 15.1%, and 8.7%, respectively in 2017 and 39.0%, 32.0%, 24.4%, and 12.9%, respectively in 2020. The SO2, NOX and PM2.5 emissions from the industrial sector would experience a greater decrease, with reductions of 37%, 32.7 and 24.3%, respectively. From 2013 to 2020, the concentrations of SO2, NO2, and PM2.5 are expected to decline by approximately 30%, 10% and 14.5%, respectively. The reduction rate of SNA (sulfate, nitrate and ammonium) concentrations was significantly higher than that of PM2.5 in 2017, implying that the current key strategy toward controlling air pollutants from the industrial sector is more powerful for SNA. Although air pollution control measures implemented in the industrial sector could greatly reduce total emissions, constraining the emissions from lower sources such as residential coal combustion would be more effective in decreasing the concentration of PM2.5 from 2017 to 2020. These results suggest that even for a typical industrial city, the reduction of PM2.5 concentrations not only requires decreases in emissions from the industrial sector, but also from the low emission sources. The seasonal variation in sulfate concentration also showed that emission from coal-burning is the key factor to control during the heating season. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Biological anoxic treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: A proof of concept study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Glittmann, Lina [Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Department of Supply Engineering, Wolfenbüttel (Germany); Pérez, Rebeca [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Quijano, Guillermo, E-mail: gquijano@iq.uva.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions can be done by means of denitrifying processes. •Toluene vapors were successfully removed under anoxic denitrifying conditions. • A high bacterial diversity was observed. • Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla. • The nature and number of metabolites accumulated varied with the toluene load -- Abstract: An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O{sub 2} supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ∼3 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}, while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m{sup −3} (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria.

  6. Game Analysis of Carbon Emission Reduction of China's Industrial Source%我国工业源碳减排的博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙瑞海

    2012-01-01

    碳排放量逐年上升、全球气候变暖等已成为不争的事实.人类进行工业活动被看作是主要原因.工业源在节能减排和碳汇决策中的行为方式关系到我国能否实现2020年单位GDP二氧化碳排放要比2005年下降40%~45%的目标.基于此,文章从博弈理论视角,建立博弈模型探究工业源碳减排,分析了完全信息下均作为“理性经济人”的工业协会与工业企业之间、工业源企业之间采取不同的策略对工业源碳减排的效果.研究结果表明:工业协会的监管、工业源之间的相互合作以及工业协会与工业源之间相互协作可以对工业源碳减排发挥很大的作用,实现效用最大化;其次,工业源生产收益越高、减排成本越小、减排获得的企业形象收益越高、工业协会对减排一方补贴越高、工业协会对不减排惩罚度越高时,工业源选择进行碳减排的概率很大.最后,基于研究结论提出促进工业源碳减排的政策建议,以期为相关部门提供现实意义的参者.%Carbon emissions' rising and global warming has become an indisputable fact in the world. Human industrial activities are looked as the main reason to cause them. And the behavior of industrial sources in the decision-making of energy conservation and carbon sequestration related to whether our ability to achieve the target of carbon dioxide emissions per unit GDP decreased by 40% to 45% in 2020 than in 2005 or not. Based on this, from the perspective of game theory, the research sets up game model to explore carbon emission reduction of the industrial source, and analyzes the effect of industrial associations and industrial enterprises, among industrial sources as "rational economic man" to adopt different strategy to reduce carbon emission. The results show that: the supervision of the Industry Association, the mutual cooperation between the industrial sources and their effective integration can play a

  7. Limitations of ozone data assimilation with adjustment of NOx emissions: mixed effects on NO2 forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, ZiFa; Gbaguidi, Alex; Lin, CaiYan; Xin, JinYuan; Song, Tao; Hu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates a cross-variable ozone data assimilation (DA) method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that has been used in the companion study to improve ozone forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas. The main purpose is to delve into the impacts of the cross-variable adjustment of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forecasts over this region during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A mixed effect on the NO2 forecasts was observed through application of the cross-variable assimilation approach in the real-data assimilation (RDA) experiments. The method improved the NO2 forecasts over almost half of the urban sites with reductions of the root mean square errors (RMSEs) by 15-36 % in contrast to big increases of the RMSEs over other urban stations by 56-239 %. Over the urban stations with negative DA impacts, improvement of the NO2 forecasts (with 7 % reduction of the RMSEs) was noticed at night and in the morning versus significant deterioration during daytime (with 190 % increase of the RMSEs), suggesting that the negative data assimilation impacts mainly occurred during daytime. Ideal-data assimilation (IDA) experiments with a box model and the same cross-variable assimilation method confirmed the mixed effects found in the RDA experiments. In the same way, NOx emission estimation was improved at night and in the morning even under large biases in the prior emission, while it deteriorated during daytime (except for the case of minor errors in the prior emission). The mixed effects observed in the cross-variable data assimilation, i.e., positive data assimilation impacts on NO2 forecasts over some urban sites, negative data assimilation impacts over the other urban sites, and weak data assimilation impacts over suburban sites, highlighted the limitations of the EnKF under strong nonlinear relationships between chemical variables. Under strong nonlinearity between daytime ozone concentrations and NOx emissions

  8. Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. F. Acton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs 4 m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and a proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (PTR-MS and eddy covariance (PTR-ToF-MS. Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean day-time flux of 1.9 mg m-2 h-1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4 m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2 ppbv over the 28 day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7 mg m-2 h-1 was calculated using the MEGAN isoprene emissions algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006. A detailed tree species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using GC-MS to be scaled up to produce a "bottom-up" canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the "top-down" canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.

  9. Relative impact of on-road vehicular and point-source industrial emissions of air pollutants in a medium-sized Andean city

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C. M.; Gómez, C. D.; Rojas, N. Y.; Acevedo, H.; Aristizábal, B. H.

    2017-03-01

    Cities in emerging countries are facing a fast growth and urbanization; however, the study of air pollutant emissions and its dynamics is scarce, making their populations vulnerable to potential effects of air pollution. This situation is critical in medium-sized urban areas built along the tropical Andean mountains. This work assesses the contribution of on-road vehicular and point-source industrial activities in the medium-sized Andean city of Manizales, Colombia. Annual fluxes of criteria pollutants, NMVOC, and greenhouse gases were estimated. Emissions were dominated by vehicular activity, with more than 90% of total estimated releases for the majority of air pollutants. On-road vehicular emissions for CO (43.4 Gg/yr) and NMVOC (9.6 Gg/yr) were mainly associated with the use of motorcycles (50% and 81% of total CO and NMVOC emissions respectively). Public transit buses were the main source of PM10 (47%) and NOx (48%). The per-capita emission index was significantly higher in Manizales than in other medium-sized cities, especially for NMVOC, CO, NOx and CO2. The unique mountainous terrain of Andean cities suggest that a methodology based on VSP model could give more realistic emission estimates, with additional model components that include slope and acceleration. Food and beverage facilities were the main contributors of point-source industrial emissions for PM10 (63%), SOx (55%) and NOx (45%), whereas scrap metal recycling had high emissions of CO (73%) and NMVOC (47%). Results provide the baseline for ongoing research in atmospheric modeling and urban air quality, in order to improve the understanding of air pollutant fluxes, transport and transformation in the atmosphere. In addition, this emission inventory could be used as a tool to identify areas of public health exposure and provide information for future decision makers.

  10. The effect of fuel form on trace element emissions in an industrial-scale coal fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.F.; Wincek, R.T.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Coal Utilization Lab.

    1998-12-31

    Eleven of the fourteen inorganic hazardous air pollutants identified in Title 3 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are present in the flue gas of pulverized coal-fired boilers. The designated elements include: antimony (Sb), beryllium (Be), chlorine (Cl), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), fluorine (F), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and phosphorus (P). Determining the risk of these elements in the environment is difficult at best. However, regulating their emission into the environment has some scientific basis and merit. Approximately 137.5 tons of mercury were emitted in the US by combustion sources in 1994--1995, with coal-fired utility boilers accounting for 37.4% (or 51.6 tons) of the total. Control of trace element emissions from coal-fired utility boilers requires an understanding of the manner in which they occur in coal, their behavior during and after combustion and their form in the stack gas. The multimedia behavior of trace elements during combustion can be traced to their volatility within the combustion and post-combustion environment. The temperature distribution within the combustion system, the mechanism of char and ash formation (e.g. duration of char burnout and char and cenosphere morphology) and the combustion efficiency determine the partitioning of trace elements during combustion. These factors can be affected by the form in which a fuel is fired, e.g., pulverized coal (PC) versus coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF). This paper presents preliminary results of emissions testing aimed at determining the effect of fuel form on the penetration and partitioning of trace elements in an industrial-scale boiler. The tests were conducted on a 2 MMBtu/hr research boiler, in which Middle Kittanning Seam coal (hvA bituminous) from Jefferson County, Pennsylvania was burned in pulverized form and as a CWSF. The tests were conducted in accordance with the procedure outlined in EPA Methods 5 and 29

  11. Designing Dual Emissions via Co-doping or Physical Mixing of Individually Doped ZnO and Their Implications in Optical Thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Subrata; Nanda, Karuna Kar

    2017-05-17

    Here, we report on the novel design of dual emission via defect state engineering in codoped oxide microstructures and its implication in fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) based optical temperature sensing. Eu- and Er-co-doped ZnO (EuEr:ZnO) microrods prepared by hydrothermal method. The emission peaks corresponding to Eu(3+) and Er(3+) are observed suggesting dual emission from codoped ZnO. Interestingly, Er(3+) peak intensity decreases and that of Eu(3+) increases with increase of temperature as is the case of individual doped cases and dual emission is also achieved via phyical mixing of the individual doped ZnO. The opposite trend is due to the electron transfer from the defect levels of host ZnO to Eu(3+) and not to Er(3+). Overall, our results pave the way in designing dual emission that can be exploited in FIR based temperature sensing. As an example, we probe temperature dependency of congo-red and polyvinyle alcohol (PVA) composite using EuEr:ZnO as optical probe for temperature sensing.

  12. Emission profiles of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from secondary metallurgy industries in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, a study of dioxin emissions from 10 siderurgies and metallurgies, secondary copper, aluminum and lead metallurgies, in Portugal. The study reports the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The congener patterns were characterized and are discussed. The results showed that the total amount of PCDFs is higher than PCDDs in flue gas of each industrial unit. The toxic equivalent emission factors of pollutants emitted are 3098-3338 ngI-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 597-659 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in siderurgies production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 3.9-4.5 g I-TEQyr(-1)), 50-152 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 24-121 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.0010-0.0016 g I-TEQyr(-1)) and 5.8-5715 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 0.49-259 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in non-ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.00014-0.12 g I-TEQyr(-1)). The HCB emission from siderurgies production is 0.94-3.2 mg t(-1) (total estimated emission amounts released 0.94-3.8 g yr(-1)), being much smaller, residual, in the emissions of the other types of plants (0.0012-0.026 mg t(-1) production and total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.013-1.7 mg yr(-1)).

  13. Ejecta patterns of Meteor Crater, Arizona derived from the linear un-mixing of TIMS data and laboratory thermal emission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Michael S.; Christensen, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Accurate interpretation of thermal infrared data depends upon the understanding and removal of complicating effects. These effects may include physical mixing of various mineralogies and particle sizes, atmospheric absorption and emission, surficial coatings, geometry effects, and differential surface temperatures. The focus is the examination of the linear spectral mixing of individual mineral or endmember spectra. Linear addition of spectra, for particles larger than the wavelength, allows for a straight-forward method of deconvolving the observed spectra, predicting a volume percent of each endmember. The 'forward analysis' of linear mixing (comparing the spectra of physical mixtures to numerical mixtures) has received much attention. The reverse approach of un-mixing thermal emission spectra was examined with remotely sensed data, but no laboratory verification exists. Understanding of the effects of spectral mixing on high resolution laboratory spectra allows for the extrapolation to lower resolution, and often more complicated, remotely gathered data. Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data for Meteor Crater, Arizona were acquired in Sep. 1987. The spectral un-mixing of these data gives a unique test of the laboratory results. Meteor Crater (1.2 km in diameter and 180 m deep) is located in north-central Arizona, west of Canyon Diablo. The arid environment, paucity of vegetation, and low relief make the region ideal for remote data acquisition. Within the horizontal sedimentary sequence that forms the upper Colorado Plateau, the oldest unit sampled by the impact crater was the Permian Coconino Sandstone. A thin bed of the Toroweap Formation, also of Permian age, conformably overlays the Coconino. Above the Toroweap lies the Permian Kiabab Limestone which, in turn, is covered by a thin veneer of the Moenkopi Formation. The Moenkopi is Triassic in age and has two distinct sub-units in the vicinity of the crater. The lower Wupatki member is a fine

  14. Structured model Consumer-based Brand Equity based on Promotional-mix elements(Case Study: Food Active Industries of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Rezvani

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to examine the relationships among Promotional-mix elements and Customer-based Brand Equity. Then, a model is developed to examine the relationships Promotional-mix elements and Customer-based brand equity in Food Industries of Tehran. The sample size is 240. Data are collected by questionnaire designed. The collected data is estimated using Lizrel and SEM method. The test results show that four dimensions of brand equity (brand awareness, perceived quality, and brand loyalty and brand Image positively affect on Customer-based brand equity and all promotional-mix elements (except sales promotion positively affect the Customer-based brand equity. In addition, among dimensions of brand equity, image brand has the most positive effect on brand equity and among elements of Promotional-mix, sell promotion has the most negative effect on brand equity. In the end, among the brands, Kalleh brand has the most Brand Equity and MiMas brand has the least Brand Equity.

  15. Detection of formaldehyde emissions from an industrial zone in the Yangtze River Delta region of China using a proton transfer reaction ion-drift chemical ionization mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Diao, Yiwei; Zhang, Bingjie; Wang, Weiwei; Ren, Xinrong; Yang, Dongsen; Wang, Ming; Shi, Xiaowen; Zheng, Jun

    2016-12-01

    A proton transfer reaction ion-drift chemical ionization mass spectrometer (PTR-ID-CIMS) equipped with a hydronium (H3+O) ion source was developed and deployed near an industrial zone in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China in spring 2015 to investigate industry-related emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Air pollutants including formaldehyde (HCHO), aromatics, and other trace gases (O3 and CO) were simultaneously measured. Humidity effects on the sensitivity of the PTR-ID-CIMS for HCHO detection were investigated and quantified. The performances of the PTR-ID-CIMS were also validated by intercomparing with offline HCHO measurement technique using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH) cartridges and the results showed fairly good agreement (slope = 0.81, R2 = 0.80). The PTR-ID-CIMS detection limit of HCHO (10 s, three-duty-cycle averages) was determined to be 0.9-2.4 (RH = 1-81.5 %) parts per billion by volume (ppbv) based on 3 times the standard deviations of the background signals. During the field study, observed HCHO concentrations ranged between 1.8 and 12.8 ppbv with a campaign average of 4.1 ± 1.6 ppbv, which was comparable with previous HCHO observations in other similar locations of China. However, HCHO diurnal profiles showed few features of secondary formation. In addition, time series of both HCHO and aromatic VOCs indicated strong influence from local emissions. Using a multiple linear regression fit model, on average the observed HCHO can be attributed to secondary formation (13.8 %), background level (27.0 %), and industry-related emissions, i.e., combustion sources (43.2 %) and chemical productions (16.0 %). Moreover, within the plumes the industry-related emissions can account for up to 69.2 % of the observed HCHO. This work has provided direct evidence of strong primary emissions of HCHO from industry-related activities. These primary HCHO sources can potentially have a strong impact on local and regional air pollution formation

  16. Lobbying during the revision of the European emissions trading system: Easier for Swedish industrial insiders than for Norwegian outsiders?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miard, Kadri

    2011-07-01

    This report examines and compares the lobbying routes taken by Swedish and Norwegian energy-intensive industry firms during the revision of the European Emissions Trading System. Two key explanatory factors are in focus here - whether the company has its origin in the EU member state Sweden or in non-member Norway; and the size of the company. Six companies are chosen as cases: Norsk Hydro, Norcem and Norske Skog from Norway; and SSAB, Cementa and Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget from Sweden. A key finding is the extensive use of European associations by all these firms in lobbying EU institutions. Also prevalent is the use of national associations, which would indicate benefits in the form of better institutional response to collective lobbying and resource-sharing aspects. Although Norwegian firms seem to have struggled more than Swedish firms when it comes to lobbying EU institutions, due to lack of access to the EU, not all differences can be explained by the fact of originating in an EU member state Sweden or non-member Norway. While company size has a positive effect on the number of available lobbying routes, this appears to depend on cross-border production and possibly other influences as well.(auth)

  17. Adsorption, X-ray Diffraction, Photoelectron, and Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Benchmark Studies for the Eighth Industrial Fluid Properties Simulation Challenge*+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Richard B.; Aeschliman, David B.; Ahmad, Riaz; Brennan, John K.; Brostrom, Myles L.; Frankel, Kevin A.; Moore, Jonathan D.; Moore, Joshua D.; Mountain, Raymond D.; Poirier, Derrick M.; Thommes, Matthias; Shen, Vincent K.; Schultz, Nathan E.; Siderius, Daniel W.; Smith, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the eighth industrial fluid properties simulation challenge was to test the ability of molecular simulation methods to predict the adsorption of organic adsorbates in activated carbon materials. The challenge focused on the adsorption of perfluorohexane in the activated carbon standard BAM-P109 (Panne and Thünemann 2010). Entrants were challenged to predict the adsorption of perfluorohexane in the activated carbon at a temperature of 273 K and at relative pressures of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6. The relative pressure (P/Po) is defined as that relative to the bulk saturation pressure predicted by the fluid model at a given temperature (273 K in this case). The predictions were judged by comparison to a set of experimentally determined values, which are published here for the first time and were not disclosed to the entrants prior to the challenge. Benchmark experimental studies, described herein, were also carried out and provided to entrants in order to aid in the development of new force fields and simulation methods to be employed in the challenge. These studies included argon, carbon dioxide, and water adsorption in the BAM-P109 activated carbon as well as X-ray diffraction, X-ray microtomography, photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic emission spectroscopy studies of BAM-P109. Several concurrent studies were carried out for the BAM-P108 activated carbon (Panne and Thünemann 2010). These are included in the current manuscript for comparison. PMID:27840543

  18. A Statistical Method for Estimating Missing GHG Emissions in Bottom-Up Inventories: The Case of Fossil Fuel Combustion in Industry in the Bogota Region, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Rojas, A. M.; Pulido-Guio, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    The development of environmentally, socially and financially suitable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation portfolios requires detailed disaggregation of emissions by activity sector, preferably at the regional level. Bottom-up (BU) emission inventories are intrinsically disaggregated, but although detailed, they are frequently incomplete. Missing and erroneous activity data are rather common in emission inventories of GHG, criteria and toxic pollutants, even in developed countries. The fraction of missing and erroneous data can be rather large in developing country inventories. In addition, the cost and time for obtaining or correcting this information can be prohibitive or can delay the inventory development. This is particularly true for regional BU inventories in the developing world. Moreover, a rather common practice is to disregard or to arbitrarily impute low default activity or emission values to missing data, which typically leads to significant underestimation of the total emissions. Our investigation focuses on GHG emissions by fossil fuel combustion in industry in the Bogota Region, composed by Bogota and its adjacent, semi-rural area of influence, the Province of Cundinamarca. We found that the BU inventories for this sub-category substantially underestimate emissions when compared to top-down (TD) estimations based on sub-sector specific national fuel consumption data and regional energy intensities. Although both BU inventories have a substantial number of missing and evidently erroneous entries, i.e. information on fuel consumption per combustion unit per company, the validated energy use and emission data display clear and smooth frequency distributions, which can be adequately fitted to bimodal log-normal distributions. This is not unexpected as industrial plant sizes are typically log-normally distributed. Moreover, our statistical tests suggest that industrial sub-sectors, as classified by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC

  19. Local source identification of trace metals in urban/industrial mixed land-use areas with daily PM10 limit value exceedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Andecochea, Carlos; Ruiz, Sara; Fernández-Ferreras, José Antonio; Irabien, Angel

    2016-05-01

    This study presents the analysis of the concentration levels, inter-site variation and source identification of trace metals at three urban/industrial mixed land-use sites of the Cantabria region (northern Spain), where local air quality plans were recently approved because the number of exceedances of the daily PM10 limit value according to the Directive 2008/50/EC had been relatively high in the last decade (more than 35 instances per year). PM10 samples were collected for over three years at the Torrelavega (TORR) and Los Corrales (CORR) sites and for over two years at the Camargo (GUAR) site and analysed for the presence of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), antimony (Sb) and zinc (Zn). Analysis of enrichment factors revealed an anthropogenic origin of most of the studied elements; Zn, Cd, Mo, Pb and Cu were the most enriched elements at the three sites, with Fe and V as the least enriched elements. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) and pollutant roses (Cu at TORR, Zn at CORR and Mn at GUAR) were used to identify the local sources of the studied metals. Analysis of PMF results revealed the main sources of trace metals at each site as road traffic at the TORR site, iron foundry and casting industry at the CORR site and a ferro-manganese alloy industry at the GUAR site. Other sources were also identified at these sites, but with much lower contributions, such as minor industrial sources, combustion and traffic mixed with the previous sources.

  20. Fundamental properties of industrial hybrid cement: utilization in ready-mixed concretes and shrinkage-reducing applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martauz, P; Janotka, I; Strigáč, J; Bačuvčík, M

    2016-01-01

    .... H-Cement is suitable for ready-mixed concretes up to C30/37 strength class and is specified by beneficial shrinkage-reducing property of the concrete kept in long dry-air cure opposite to common cements.

  1. 我国石化行业温室气体排放源识别%Identification of Greenhouse Gas Emission Sources in Chinese Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; 赵婧

    2013-01-01

    According to IPCC Guidelines and Green House Gas Protocol,the greenhouse gas emission sources in Chinese petrochemical industry are identified individually.Combined with the results of two division methods for greenhouse gas emission sources,the greenhouse gas emission sources inventories for the main sections in petrochemical industry,such as oil and gas producing,oil refining and processing,petrochemical raw materials and products manufacturing,are presented.Also,the accounting methods for greenhouse gas emission quantity in petrochemical industry are introduced.These will lay a foundation for constructing an accounting system of greenhouse gas emission in Chinese petrochemical industry.%依据《2006年IPCC(政府间气候变化专门委员会)国家温室气体清单指南》及《温室气体协议》,对我国石化行业温室气体排放源进行了识别.结合温室气体排放源范围的两种划分方法,为石化行业的主要生产部门——油气开采、原油炼制与加工、石化原料与制品制造编制了初步的温室气体排放源清单,并简要介绍了石化行业温室气体排放量的核算方法,为石化行业温室气体排放量核算体系的构建奠定基础.

  2. Odor assessment tools and odor emissions in industrial processes = Ferramentas para avaliação de emissões odorantes em processos industriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gersina Nobre da Rocha Carmo Junior

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental odors are an inherent part of any given process and can frequently be a cause of public environmental discomfort. Brazilian regulations are now characterizing odors as a form of air pollution and state that odor discomfort on surrounding populations must be avoided by industries. No olfactometry-related technology is standardized or even recognized. This makes it vital to create a federal reference, at least methodological, on the subject. Thus, thepresent work had the objective to apply, adjust, and evaluate the results of different olfactometric techniques in three types of industries which are known as odorous. The points of most significant odor emission to wastewater treatment plants were located at the system inputs. The techniques that were used are based on international standards and regulations. In all case studies, the applied odor assessment methods (odor intensity, quality, hedonic character and concentration were found to be satisfactory for representing the odor situation. The method presented in this paper for evaluating the hedonic tone proved to be very convenient. Thesemethodologies allowed for the results to be presented in a numerical form, providing with objective results from subjective analyses.Os odores ambientais sempre fazem parte de uma situação ou processo, provocando as mais diversas reações, e por vezes caracterizam situações de desconforto ambiental em uma toda população. A legislação brasileira, em âmbito nacional (alguns Estados, apresenta os odores como uma forma de poluição ambiental, onde o desconforto à população vizinha de potenciais emissores deve ser evitado. Atualmente, no Brasil, nenhuma metodologia relacionada à Olfatometria (medida da resposta de um júri a um estímulo olfativo é padronizada ou mesmo reconhecida. Nesse sentido, o presente trabalho tem como objetivos aplicar, adequar e avaliar resultados de diferentes metodologias olfatométricas (baseadas em normas

  3. Experimental investigation on NOx emission characteristics of a new solid fuel made from sewage sludge mixed with coal in combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yunbo; Zhu, Lu; Chen, Hongmei; Xu, Bibo; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-02-01

    In this article, a new briquette fuel (SC), which was produced by the mixture of coal fines (25.9%), sewage sludge (60.6%), lignin (4.5%), tannic acid (4.5%) and elemental silicon (4.5%), was provided. Then, in a high temperature electric resistance tubular furnace, the total emissions of NO2 and NO, effects of combustion temperature, air flow rate and heating rate on NOx (NO, NO2) emissions of SC were studied during the combustion of SC; furthermore, effects of additives on hardness were also analysed, and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was applied to investigate the reduced NOx emission mechanism. The research results showed that, compared with the characteristics of briquette fuel (SC0) produced only by the mixture of coal and sewage sludge (the ratio of coal to sewage sludge was the same as that of SC), the Meyer hardness of SC was 12.6% higher than that of SC0 and the emissions of NOx were 27.83% less than that of SC0 under the same combustion conditions. The NOx emissions of SC decreased with the adding of heating rate and increased with the rise of air flow rate. When the temperature was below 1000 °C, the emissions of NOx increased with the elevated temperature, however, further temperature extension will result in a decreasing in emissions of NOx. Furthermore, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results proposed that the possible mechanism for the reduction of NOx emissions was nitrogen and silicon in SC to form the compounds of silicon and nitrogen at high temperatures.

  4. Two-state semiconductor laser self-mixing velocimetry exploiting coupled quantum-dot emission-states: experiment, simulation and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioannini, Mariangela; Dommermuth, Marius; Drzewietzki, Lukas; Krestnikov, Igor; Livshits, Daniil; Krakowski, Michel; Breuer, Stefan

    2014-09-22

    We exploit the coupled emission-states of a single-chip semiconductor InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser emitting simultaneously on ground-state (λ(GS) = 1245 nm) and excited-state (λ(ES) = 1175 nm) to demonstrate coupled-two-state self-mixing velocimetry for a moving diffuse reflector. A 13 Hz-narrow Doppler beat frequency signal at 317 Hz is obtained for a reflector velocity of 3 mm/s, which exemplifies a 66-fold improvement in width as compared to single-wavelength self-mixing velocimetry. Simulation results reveal the physical origin of this signal, the coupling of excited-state and ground-state photons via the carriers, which is unique for quantum-dot lasers and reproduce the experimental results with excellent agreement.

  5. Investigations of the cathode region of an argon arc plasma by degenerate four-wave mixing laser spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzierzega, K [Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Pokrzywka, B [Mt. Suhora Observatory, Cracow Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorazych 2, 30-083 Cracow (Poland); Pellerin, S [LASEP, Universite d' Orleans-Centre Universitaire de Bourges, Rue Gaston Berger BP 4043, 18028 Bourges (France)

    2004-07-07

    Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) laser spectroscopy was used in local studies of atmospheric pressure argon plasma generated in a free-burning arc. The results of plasma diagnostics using the DFWM method were compared to the results obtained with optical emission measurements. In the cathode region of the arc the maxima of both the DFWM signal and the emission coefficient for the 696.5 nm Ar I line depend on the distance from the cathode tip. This effect proves the departure of the plasma state from local thermal equilibrium (LTE) as it has been reported by many authors. On the other hand the Stark shifts of the 696.5 nm Ar I line determined by the DFWM method in relation to plasma diagnostic results show no deviations from LTE on the arc axis down to 1.0 mm from the cathode tip.

  6. The impact of industrial emissions of copper-nickel smelter complex on the status of populations and communities of small mammals in the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy D. Kataev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The population status of the small mammals, Micromammalia, was studied in the central mountain and taiga part of the Kola Peninsula in the Lapland Biosphere Reserve and its buffer zone. For this purpose, control groups of animals were selected at a different distance from the Severonikel' industrial complex which is considered as the largest metallurgical company in Europe. It produces nickel, copper and other non-ferrous metals. The study sites were located at 4–30 km from the local source of industrial pollution. The analysis of population dynamics, faunistic structure and biological parameters of mass species of Soricidae, Myomorpha has revealed the differences in habitats depending on the distance to the industrial complex. The results of the chemical analysis of organs and tissue samples of small rodents, their morpho-physiological and genetic characteristics within emission plume were analysed. The abundance of the studied Mammalia species was the lowest at 5 km north and 7 km south of the metallurgical industrial complex. According to our results, animals in a zone of increased industrial emission (sulfur dioxide, compounds of heavy metals concentrations had more deviations from the biological norms in comparison with the same species from less polluted areas. Long-term (1936–2014 abundance dynamics of Clethrionomys glareolus was presented due to the new ecological situation in the region and reduction of the volume of sulfur dioxide emission by the Severonikel' industrial complex. This biotesting method using mammals as study objects may be applied for the definition of ecologically safe level criteria of heavy metal production and it may be used in studies of similar ecological situations.

  7. Emission reduction in industrial gas turbines; Rolls-Royce modified a jet engine. Emissionssenkung bei Industriegasturbinen; Rolls-Royce modifizierte ein Flugtriebwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsh, D.

    1993-06-01

    Rolls Royce decided in 1989 to use its environmentally carefully technique of steam/water injection in the development of a new type of combustion process for its RB211 industrial gas turbine. This takes into account the ever stricter worldwide environment protection laws, which demand a reduction of the harmful waste gases from gas turbines used in the field of natural gas pumps and energy generation - an important market sector for Rolls Royce. The solution to this problem developed by this British firm aims at modifying the engine, which is known as a dry low emission system, and a simultaneous reduction of the NO[sub x] and CO emission. (orig.)

  8. G346.6-0.2: A Rare Mixed-Morphology Supernova Remnant with Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchettl, Katie Amanda; Wong, B. T. T.; Ng, Chi Yung; Slane, Patrick O.

    2016-04-01

    The detection of non-thermal X-ray emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) provides us with a unique window into studying particle acceleration at the shock-front of an SNR. All of the 14 or so SNRs in which non-thermal X-ray synchrotron emission has been detected are shell-like in nature, and show no evidence of interaction with large nearby molecular clouds. Here we present a new X-ray study of the molecular cloud interacting mixed-morphology SNR G346.6-0.2 using XMM-Newton. We found that the X-ray emission arises from a cool recombining plasma with subsolar abundance, confirming previous Suzaku results. In addition, we identified an additional power-law component in the spectrum, with a photon index of ~2. We investigated its possible origin and conclude that this is most likely synchrotron emission produced by particles accelerated at the shock. We also derive the age of the remnant to be 1.8-2.3 kyrs assuming a distance of 8.3 kpc, which is much younger than previously suggested, while based on its morphology, Galactic location and the density of its environment as derived from our X-ray analysis, the progenitor of G346.6-0.2 was most likely a massive star.

  9. The effects of quality and environmental management on competitive advantage: A mixed methods study in the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Azorín, José F.; Tarí, Juan-José; Pereira-Moliner, Jorge; López Gamero, María Dolores; Pertusa-Ortega, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports results derived from a mixed methods study where 13 hotel managers were initially interviewed, followed by a quantitative study of 355 additional managers. Data were analysed using partial least squares path modelling. The research question related to the relationship between quality and environmental management and the competitive advantage sought by hotels. The results indicate that quality management and environmental management permit the improvement of competitive adva...

  10. Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, W. Joe F.; Schallhart, Simon; Langford, Ben; Valach, Amy; Rantala, Pekka; Fares, Silvano; Carriero, Giulia; Tillmann, Ralf; Tomlinson, Sam J.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Gianelle, Damiano; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Nemitz, Eiko

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) 4 m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS) and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS). Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9 mg m-2 h-1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4 m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2 ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7 mg m-2 h-1 was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006). A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.

  11. Combustion of a fuel mix containing animal waste, industry and household waste in FB-boilers; Foerbraenning av en braenslemix bestaaende av animaliskt avfall, industri- och hushaallsavfall i FB-pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Anita; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Moradian, Farzad

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this project is to evaluate how the operation conditions and the combustion chemistry is changed in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) Boiler when adding approx. 20 wt-% Biomal into the fuel mixture. The following issues were addressed in the project: 1. How does the new chemical composition of the fuel mix influence bed agglomeration, deposit growth, ash flows, flue gases and particle size distribution? 2. Is it possible to run the boiler at a reduced bed temperature of about 750 deg C due to the increased moisture content originating from the biomal fuel? The project is based on combustion tests in the two Waste to Energy boilers at 20 MWth each owned by Boraas Energy and Environment AB (BEM). Furthermore, results from the Waste Refinery Project 'Reduced bed temperature in FB-boilers burning waste - part II' has been used as reference in some cases. At normal conditions the boilers are run on a fuel mixture containing 80 % sorted industrial waste and 20 % household waste. This fuel mixture consists mainly of paper, plastics and wood. In Boraas the organic part of the household waste is sorted out and used for biogas production. With the addition of biomal, which consists of animal by-products crushed to a pumpable fuel, the chemical composition of the fuel mixture is changed to some extent. The results from the combustion tests shows that biomal influences the chemical fuel composition, but also that there are large variations in the ordinary waste fuel composition as well. The most evident changes with addition of biomal are: 1. Increased moisture. 2. Reduced heat value. 3. Increased amount nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. 4. Decreased amount lead due to the low concentration in biomal. However, there were no changes in sodium, potassium, sulphur and chlorine, elements important for increased/reduced fuel related problems, derived from biomal. The increase of calcium and phosphorus with biomal derive from bone and the calcium

  12. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Phillip

    2014-11-01

    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications.” The Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) includes a Task 4f in which a Decision Point shall be reached, necessitating a review of Tasks 2-5 with an emphasis on Task 4f. This Topical Report constitutes the Decision Point Application pertaining to Task 4f. The SOPO under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 is aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). It is anticipated that the completion of the current SOPO will advance the technology significantly along a pathway towards enabling the design and construction of the ODF. Development progress on several fronts is critical before an ODF project can commence; this Topical Report serves as an early update on the progress in critical development areas. Progress was made under all tasks, including Materials Development, Ceramic Processing Development, Engineering Development, and Performance Testing. Under Task 4f, Air Products carried out a cost and performance study in which several process design and cost parameters were varied and assessed with a process model and budgetary costing exercise. The results show that the major variables include ceramic module reliability, ITM operating temperature, module production yield, and heat addition strategy. High-temperature compact heat exchangers are shown to contribute significant cost benefits, while directly firing into the feed stream to an ITM are even a mild improvement on the high-temperature recuperation approach. Based on the findings to-date, Air Products recommends no changes to the content or emphasis in the current SOPO and recommends its completion prior to another formal assessment of these factors.

  13. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogash, Kevin [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Air Products carried out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications” with subcontractors Ceramatec, Penn State, and WorleyParsons. The scope of work under this award was aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration-scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). Specific activities will help to enable design and construction of the ODF through advancement of a number of challenging technical elements that are required to manage risk in the initial deployment of ITM technology. Major objectives of the work included developing ITM Oxygen ceramic membrane materials with improved performance and reliability, optimizing ceramic module geometry and fabrication methods, testing module performance, trialing the improved fabrication process at commercial scale in the Ceramic Membrane Module Fabrication Facility (CerFab), and advancing engineering development of the ITM oxygen production process, including vessel design and contaminant control measures to prepare for deployment of the ODF. The comprehensive report that follows details the team’s work, which includes several notable accomplishments: 1) compressive creep, a likely limiter of ceramic module lifetime in service, was demonstrated to be retarded by an order of magnitude by changes in material formulation, module joining dimensions, and internal wafer geometry; 2) two promising new materials were shown to be superior to the incumbent ITM material in a key material parameter related to oxygen flux; 3) module degradation mechanisms were identified following operation in large pilot-scale equipment; 4) options for utilizing ITM in a coal-to-liquids (CTL) facility to enable liquids production with carbon capture were identified and studied; and 5) the benefits of potential improvements to the technology

  14. Methodology for the free allocation of emission allowances in the EU ETS post 2012. Sector report for the mineral wool industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    In 2013, the third trading period of the EU emission trading scheme (EU ETS) will start. With a few exceptions, no free allocation of emission allowances is foreseen in this third trading period for the emissions related to the production of electricity. These emission allowances will be auctioned. For other emissions, transitional free allocation of emission allowances is envisioned. This free allocation will be based on Community wide allocation rules that will, to the extent feasible, be based on ex-ante benchmarks. In 2013, the free allocation is 80% of the quantity determined via these rules, going down to 30% in 2020. An exception is made for activities that are deemed to be exposed to a significant risk of carbon leakage. These activities will receive an allocation of 100% of the quantity determined via the rules. The benchmarks should in principle be calculated for products, i.e. a specific performance per unit productive output, to ensure that they maximize greenhouse gas reductions throughout each production process of the sectors concerned. In this study for the European Commission, a blueprint for a methodology based on benchmarking is developed to determine the allocation rules in the EU ETS from 2013 onwards. In case where benchmarking is not regarded feasible, alternative approaches are suggested. The methodology allows determining the allocation for each EU ETS installation eligible for free allocation of emission allowances. The focus of this study is on preparing a first blueprint of an allocation methodology for free allocation of emission allowances under the EU Emission Trading Scheme for the period 2013-2020 for installations in the mineral wool industry. The report should be read in conjunction with the report on the project approach and general issues.

  15. Effect of shipping emissions on European ground-level ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, Ioannis; -Eleni Sotiropoulou, Rafaella; Tagaris, Efthimios

    2017-04-01

    Shipping emissions contribution to the global nitrogen oxides emissions is about 15%, affecting ozone formation and the chemical composition of the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of shipping emissions on ozone levels over Europe suggesting regions where air quality degradation due to shipping emissions dominates against the rest of the anthropogenic source emissions. Ranking the importance of the Standard Nomenclature for Air Pollution (SNAP) categories on ozone mixing ratio, road transport has the major impact followed by other mobile sources, power generation, and industrial combustion sectors. All other sectors have a minor impact, therefor, our analysis is focused on these four emission categories. Results suggest that shipping emissions seem to play an important role on ozone levels compared to road transport sector near the coastal zone, while they could partly offset the benefits from the emissions reduction of other mobile sources, power generation and industrial combustion sources, over a great part of the European land.

  16. A special reactor design for investigations of mixing time effects in a scaled-down industrial L-lysine fed-batch fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling; Pfefferle; Bachmann; Leuchtenberger; Deckwer

    1999-09-01

    A specially designed model reactor based on a 42-L laboratory fermentor was equipped with six stirrers (Rushton turbines) and five cylindrical disks. In this model reactor, the mixing time, Theta(90), turned out to be 13 times longer compared with the 42-L standard laboratory fermentor fitted with two Rushton turbines and four wall-fixed longitudinal baffles. To prove the suitability of the model reactor for scaledown studies of mixing-time-dependent processes, parallel exponential fed-batch cultivations were carried out with the leucine-auxotrophic strain, Corynebacterium glutamicum DSM 5715, serving as a microbial test system. L&HYPHEN;Leucine, the process-limiting substrate, was fed onto the liquid surface of both reactors. Cultivations were conducted using the same inoculum material and equal oxygen supply. The model reactor showed reduced sugar consumption (-14%), reduced ammonium consumption (-19%), and reduced biomass formation (-7%), which resulted in a decrease in L-lysine formation (-12%). These findings were reflected in less specific enzyme activity, which was determined for citrate synthase (CS), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-C), and aspartate kinase (AK). The reduced specific activity of CS correlated with lower CO(2) evolution (-36%) during cultivation. The model reactor represents a valuable tool to simulate the conditions of poor mixing and inhomogeneous substrate distribution in bioreactors of industrial scale. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris for lipid production from industrial wastes and its use as biodiesel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Suwannarat, Warangkana; Niyomdecha, Rujira

    2011-07-01

    A mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris was performed to enhance lipid production from industrial wastes. These included effluent from seafood processing plant and molasses from sugar cane plant. In the mixed culture, the yeast grew faster and the lipid production was higher than that in the pure cultures. This could be because microalga acted as an oxygen generator for yeast, while yeast provided CO(2) to microalga and both carried out the production of lipids. The optimal conditions for lipid production by the mixed culture were as follows: ratio of yeast to microalga at 1:1; initial pH at 5.0; molasses concentration at 1%; shaking speed at 200 rpm; and light intensity at 5.0 klux under 16:8 hours light and dark cycles. Under these conditions, the highest biomass of 4.63±0.15 g/L and lipid production of 2.88±0.16 g/L were obtained after five days of cultivation. In addition, the plant oil-like fatty acid composition of yeast and microalgal lipids suggested their high potential for use as biodiesel feedstock.

  18. Identification of emission sources of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovčić Nataša S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in ambient air accessed at selected locations in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, have been presented and analyzed in order to determine seasonal and spatial variations and to identify emission sources of particle-bound PAHs. Previous studies have demonstrated that the major contributors of PAHs in urban areas are the emissions from vehicle exhaust, and emissions releases from industrial processes like aluminium production, creosote and wood preservation, waste incineration, cement manufacture, petrochemical and related industries, commercial heat/power production etc. The sampling campaigns have been conducted at three sampling sites, during the two 14-day periods. The first site was situated near industrial area, with a refinery, power plant and heavy-traffic road in the vicinity. The second site was located nearby the heavy traffic area, especially busy during the rush hour. The third site was residential district. Summer sampling period lasted from June 26th to July 10th 2008, while sampling of ambient air during the winter was undertaken from January 22nd to February 5th 2009. Eighty-four (84 air samples were collected using a high volume air sampler TCR Tecora H0649010/ECHO. 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in all samples using a gas chromatographer with a mass spectrometer as a detector (Shimatzu MDGC/GCMS-2010. The total average concentrations of PAHs ranged from 1.21 to 1.77 ng/m3 during the summer period and from 6.31 to 7.25 ng/m3 in the winter. Various techniques, including diagnostic ratio (DR and principal component analysis (PCA, have been used to define and evaluate potential emission sources of PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis indicated that vehicles, diesel or/and gasoline, industrial and combustion emissions were sources of PAHs in the vicinity of the industrial zone. Additionally, principal component analysis was used

  19. Variability of BVOC emissions from a Mediterranean mixed forest in southern France with a focus on Quercus pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-C. Genard-Zielinski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at quantifying Biogenic Volatiles Organic Compounds (BVOC emissions in June from three Mediterranean species located at the O3HP site (Southern France: Quercus pubescens, Acer monspessulanum and C. coggygria (for isoprene only. As Q. pubescens was shown to be the main BVOC emitter with isoprene representing ≈ 99% of the carbon emitted as BVOC, we mainly focused on this species. C. coggygria was found to be a non-isoprene emitter (no other BVOC were investigated. To fully understand both the canopy effect on Q. pubescens isoprene emission and the inter-individual variability (tree to tree and within canopy, diurnal variations of isoprene were investigated from nine branches (seven branches located to the top of canopy at ≈ 4 m Above Ground Level, and two inside the canopy at ≈ 2 m a.g.l.. Q. pubescens daily mean isoprene emission rates (ERd fluctuated between 23.1 and 97.7 μg C gDM−1 h−1 and were exponentially correlated with net assimilation (Pn. Q. pubescens daily mean Pn ranged between 5.4 and 13.8, and 2.8 and 6.4 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1 for sunlit and shaded branches respectively. Both ERd and isoprene emission factors (Is assessed according to Guenther et al. (1993 algorithm, varied by a factor of 4 among the sunlit branches. While sunlit branches ERm was clearly higher than for shaded branches, there was an non-significant variability on Is (58.5 to 76.5 μg C gDM−1 h−1. Diurnal variations of isoprene emission rates (ER for sunlit branches were also investigated. ER were detected at dawn 2 h after Pn became positive and, exponentially dependent on Pn. Diurnal variations of ER were not equally well described along the day by temperature (CT and light (CL parameters according to G93 algorithm. Temperature had more impact than PAR in the morning emission increase. ER was no more correlated to CL × CT between solar noon (maximum ER and mid-afternoon, possibly due to thermal stress of the plant. A comparison between

  20. Potential Analysis of Industrial Waste Gas Recycling in CO2 Emission Reduction%工业废气再利用的碳减排潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都基峻; 田刚; 谭玉玲; 龙红艳; 张凡; 石应杰

    2015-01-01

    There was significant correlation between China′s industrial waste gas emission and carbon emission, and it is necessary to further study the waste gas emission reduction which is the important approach and key breakthrough point to realize carbon emission reduction.A carbon emission reduction calculation method was set up for the waste heat utilization, the waste pressure utilization and the recycling of waste gas with heat value based on the energy balance principle.The current technologies of waste gas recycling of sintering machine, cement kiln cooperative treatment of domestic wastes and municipal sludge, and exhaust gas cascade utilization of electrolytic aluminum industry to coal-fired power plants were introduced.The corresponding carbon emission reductions by waste gas recycling in these industries were calculated and analyzed.The results showed that the industrial waste gas recycling technologies could reduce emission of waste gas volume and thus reduce emission of CO2 , contributing to almost 25%of the total carbon emission reduction in China.The technologies should play an important role in waste gas emission and CO2 emission reduction, and be the important approach to realize carbon emission reduction target in 2020.Therefore, the development of the waste gas recycling technologies should be strengthened.%中国CO2排放量与工业废气排放量之间具有很高的相关性,废气量减排是实现CO2减排的重要手段和切入点,有必要开展深入研究。根据能量平衡的原理,建立了余热利用、余压利用和含热值气体再利用等碳减排计算方法,简述了现有的钢铁烧结机烟气循环技术、水泥窑协同处理生活垃圾和市政污泥技术以及电解铝烟气阶梯利用于火电厂技术,并对以上主要行业废气再利用的碳减排量进行了计算和分析。结果表明,主要工业行业的废气再利用技术可以减少废气量排放,进而减少CO2

  1. Development of a tunable diode laser absorption sensor for online monitoring of industrial gas total emissions based on optical scintillation cross-correlation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhirong; Pang, Tao; Yang, Yang; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Sun, Pengshuai; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-05-16

    We report the first application of gas total emission using a DFB diode laser for gas concentration measurements combined with two LEDs for gas velocity measurements. In situ gas total emissions and particle density measurements in an industrial pipeline using simultaneous tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and optical scintillation cross-correlation technique (OSCC) are presented. Velocity mean values obtained are 7.59 m/s (OSCC, standard deviation is 1.37 m/s) and 8.20 m/s (Pitot tube, standard deviation is 1.47 m/s) in a steel plant pipeline for comparison. Our experiments demonstrate that the combined system of TDLAS and OSCC provides a new versatile tool for accurate measurements of total gas emissions.

  2. Effects of Hydrogen-bonding Interaction and Polarity on Emission Spectrum of Naphthalene-Triethylamine in Mixed Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guo-bin; Yoshimi Sueishi; Shunzo Yamamoto

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the protic and aprotic polar solvents on the emission spectrum of the naphthalene-triethylamine system in THF were studied under conditions of steady-state illumination. The fluorescence spectrum of the naphthalene-triethylamine system consists of two emission bands, the fluorescence band of naphthalene (band A, 329 nm) and the emission band of the exciplex(band B, 468 nm). The intensities of both the emission bands decrease with increasing the solvent polarity. The intensity of band B also decreases due to the hydrogen-bonding interaction between triethylamine and protic solvent, while that of band A increases. It is thus suggested that the quenching of naphthalene fluorescence by triethylamine in THF occurs through the charge transfer and electron transfer reactions. The spectral changes upon the increase of solvent polarity can be explained by the dependences of the equilibrium constant between exciplex and ion-pair and the rate constant for the electron transfer reaction from triethylamine to the excited naphthalene on the relative permittivity of solvent. It is shown that the formation of intermolecular hydrogen-bonding between triethylamine and protic solvent suppresses the quenching reaction by the decrease in free amine. Acetonitrile has only a polar effect and trichloroacetic acid only a hydrogen-bonding(or protonation) effect, while alcohols have both the effects. The effects of alcohols could be separated into the effects of solvent polarity and intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interaction quantitatively.

  3. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China: a case study on an industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jieyun; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Ying; Pu, Li

    2013-08-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction, also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders. The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China, Xuanwei in Yunnan Province, was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system. First, our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10. Second, after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015, ambient concentration of SO2, NOx and PM10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated, and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented. Last but not least, a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation. However, there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future. In spatial allocation, reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx. These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy.

  4. Application of AERMOD on near future air quality simulation under the latest national emission control policy of China:A case study on an industrial city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jieyun Ma; Honghong Yi; Xiaolong Tang; Yan Zhang; Ying Xiang; Li Pu

    2013-01-01

    Air quality model can be an adequate tool for future air quality prediction,also atmospheric observations supporting and emission control strategies responders.The influence of emission control policy (emission reduction targets in the national "China's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)") on the air quality in the near future over an important industrial city of China,Xuanwei in Yunnan Province,was studied by applying the AERMOD modeling system.First,our analysis demonstrated that the AERMOD modeling system could be used in the air quality simulation in the near future for SO2 and NOx under average meteorology but not for PM10.Second,after evaluating the simulation results in 2008 and 2015,ambient concentration of SO2,NOx and PM 10 (only 2008) were all centered in the middle of simulation area where the emission sources concentrated,and it is probably because the air pollutions were source oriented.Last but not least,a better air quality condition will happen under the hypothesis that the average meteorological data can be used in near future simulation.However,there are still heavy polluted areas where ambient concentrations will exceed the air quality standard in near future.In spatial allocation,reduction effect of SO2 is more significant than NOx in 2015 as the contribution of SO2 from industry is more than NOx.These results inspired the regulatory applications of AERMOD modeling system in evaluating environmental pollutant control policy

  5. Generation of electricity from industrial waste heat in the context of European emissions trading. A missed opportunity; Stromgewinnung aus industrieller Abwaerme im europaeischen Zertifikatehandel. Eine vertane Chance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehler, Dirk [Landgericht Muenster (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) poses a major financial burden for many branches of industry in Europe. While its role as a model for the world and its great significance in the struggle against global warming are undisputed, at least in the short term it is in the immediate interest of the industry to keep this burden as small as possible. The decision of the European Commission on the free allocation of emission permits (referred to as the benchmarking decision) in the scheme's third phase starting in 2013 offers a number of options to this end. Not all of these are explicitly named in the official ETS legislation, some having only been later accepted by the Commission's Directorate General for Climate Action (DG CLIMA), upon pressure from the industry, as a permissible interpretation of the existing rules. One especially complicated and unhappy example of European management policy under the ETS regime is the promotion of electricity generation from industrial waste heat from the production of ferrosilicon.

  6. Effect of the air-fuel mixing on the NOx yield in a low-emission gas-turbine plant combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, V. D.; Bulysova, L. A.; Berne, A. L.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with construction of a simplified model of inhibition of nitric oxides formed in the combustors of the gas-turbine plants (GTPs) operating on natural gas. A combustor in which premixed, lean air-fuel mixtures are burnt is studied theoretically and experimentally. The research was carried out using a full-scale combustor that had parameters characteristic of modern GTPs. The article presents the results computed by the FlowVision software and the results of the experiments carried out on the test bench of the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute. The calculations and the tests were conducted under the following conditions: a flow rate of approximately 4.6 kg/s, a pressure to 450 kPa, an air temperature at the combustor inlet of approximately 400°C, the outlet temperature t 3 ≤ 1200°C, and natural gas as the fuel. The comparison of the simulated parameters with the experimental results underlies the constructed correlation dependence of the experimental NO x emission on the calculated parameter of nonuniform fuel concentration at the premixing zone outlet. The postulate about a weak dependence of the emission of NO x formed upon combustion of a perfectly mixed air-fuel mixture—when the methane concentration in air is constant at any point of the air-fuel mixture, i.e., constant in the mixture bulk—on the pressure in the combustor has been experimentally proven. The correctness and the practicability of the stationary mathematical model of the mixing process used to assess the NO x emission by the calculated amount of the air-fuel mixture generated in the premixing zone has been validated. This eliminates some difficulties that arise in the course of calculation of combustion and formation of NO x .

  7. Energy efficiency and emissions of arc furnaces in the steel industry; Energieeffizienz und Emissionen der Lichtbogenoefen in der Stahlindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschen, M.

    2007-07-01

    The operation of the electric arc furnace obeys economic constraints that require cost optimal use of the resources scrap, scrap substitutes, alloys, direct reduced iron, pig iron, oxygen, fuel gas, and energy. On the other hand, legal restrictions for minimum emissions must be observed. Comprehensive process models and strategies to optimize the EAF steel production require detailed knowledge about both energy flow rates and emissions. However, this data is often not available in the meltshop due to technical problems or high effort for maintenance of on-line off-gas analysis systems at the EAF. The Institute for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering of RWTH Aachen University performed off-gas measurements at various EAFs during steel production. In some plant trials off-gas measurements were conducted simultaneously at two points in the dedusting system in order to determine the otherwise unknown volume flow rate of air at the gap between the EAF elbow and the hot gas duct. In this work, state-of-the-art off-gas analysis systems are presented. First hints for process development of particular EAFs are derived from off-gas data. Off-gas data complement the meltshop data, that are required for complete mass and energy balances. From recent energy balances, the EAF process is evaluated with respect to off-gas energy and energy efficiency. Recent energy balances from our measurements and from the literature of the last decade show total energy demand between 600 kWh/t and 850 kWh/t and energy efficiency values up to 70%. EAFs with scrap pre-heating technologies achieve highest energy efficiency values up to 70%. Measurements of off-gas and air volume flow rates monitor the efficiency of the EAF dedusting plant in combination with the EAF. With direct exhaust control based on furnace pressure measurement, the specific off-gas mass and energy is decreased significantly. Improvement of the analysis equipment for off-gas measurements at the EAF with focus on very

  8. Post-2012 climate regime. How industrial and developing nations can help to reduce emissions - assessing emission trends, reduction potentials, incentive systems and negotiation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duscha, Vicki; Graichen, Jakob; Healy, Sean; Schleich, Joachim; Schumacher, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This report analyses the emissions reduction targets submitted under the Copenhagen Accord by developed and developing countries in matters of four key questions: - Do the pledges add up to the emission reductions required necessary by science? - What are the costs associated with meeting the given targets? - Are the proposed emission reduction efforts of Annex I parties comparable? - What would comparable efforts look like taking country-specific socio-economic indicators into account? Secondary to these questions this report explores the economic and environmental implications of the submitted pledges and NAMAs. Furthermore, we analyze and assess the comparability of efforts of Annex I mitigation pledges compared to a range of socio-economic indicators that may provide a basis for a ''fair'' effort sharing agreement to achieve a given target. (orig.)

  9. Effect of Jet Injection Angle and Number of Jets on Mixing and Emissions From a Reacting Crossflow at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.John, D.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    The mixing of air jets into hot, fuel-rich products of a gas turbine primary zone is an important step in staged combustion. Often referred to as "quick quench," the mixing occurs with chemical conversion and substantial heat release. An experiment has been designed to simulate and study this process, and the effect of varying the entry angle (0 deg, 22.5 deg and 45 deg from normal) and number of the air jets (7, 9, and 11) into the main flow, while holding the jet-to-crossflow mass-low ratio, MR, and momentum-flux ratio, J, constant (MR = 2.5;J = 25). The geometry is a crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct with side-wall injection of jets issuing from orifices equally spaced around the perimeter. A specially designed reactor, operating on propane, presents a uniform mixture to a module containing air jet injection tubes that can be changed to vary orifice geometry. Species concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, NO(x) and HC were obtained one duct diameter upstream (in the rich zone), and primarily one duct radius downstream. From this information, penetration of the jet, the spatial extent of chemical reaction, mixing, and the optimum jet injection angle and number of jets can be deduced.

  10. Recent Warming, Rather than Industrial Emissions of Bioavailable Nutrients, Is the Dominant Driver of Lake Primary Production Shifts across the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie C Summers

    Full Text Available Freshwaters in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR are vulnerable to the atmospheric emissions and land disturbances caused by the local oil sands industry; however, they are also affected by climate change. Recent observations of increases in aquatic primary production near the main development area have prompted questions about the principal drivers of these limnological changes. Is the enhanced primary production due to deposition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus from local industry or from recent climatic changes? Here, we use downcore, spectrally-inferred chlorophyll-a (VRS-chla profiles (including diagenetic products from 23 limnologically-diverse lakes with undisturbed catchments to characterize the pattern of primary production increases in the AOSR. Our aim is to better understand the relative roles of the local oil sands industry versus climate change in driving aquatic primary production trends. Nutrient deposition maps, generated using geostatistical interpolations of spring-time snowpack measurements from a grid pattern across the AOSR, demonstrate patterns of elevated total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and bioavailable nitrogen deposition around the main area of industrial activity. However, this pattern is not observed for bioavailable phosphorus. Our paleolimnological findings demonstrate consistently greater VRS-chla concentrations compared to pre-oil sands development levels, regardless of morphological and limnological characteristics, landscape position, bioavailable nutrient deposition, and dibenzothiophene (DBT-inferred industrial impacts. Furthermore, breakpoint analyses on VRS-chla concentrations across a gradient of DBT-inferred industrial impact show limited evidence of a contemporaneous change among lakes. Despite the contribution of bioavailable nitrogen to the landscape from industrial activities, we find no consistency in the spatial pattern and timing of VRS-chla shifts with an industrial fertilizing signal

  11. Emissions control of volatile organic compounds in petroleum industry; Controle de emissoes de compostos organicos volateis na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierres, Ricardo; Moreira, Andrea Cristina de Castro Araujo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). P e D de Energia e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel (PDEDS)

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds are among the most common pollutants emitted by refining processes. The sources of these emissions should be controlled for preserving the ambient air quality. This article outlines the main factors to be considered for defining an effective emissions control strategy and compares the major characteristics of the available control technologies. (author)

  12. Decomposing Industrial Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Yunnan Province, China: Switching to Low-Carbon Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiang Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a less-developed province that has been chosen to be part of a low-carbon pilot project, Yunnan faces the challenge of maintaining rapid economic growth while reducing CO2 emissions. Understanding the drivers behind CO2 emission changes can help decouple economic growth from CO2 emissions. However, previous studies on the drivers of CO2 emissions in less-developed regions that focus on both production and final demand have been seldom conducted. In this study, a structural decomposition analysis-logarithmic mean Divisia index (SDA-LMDI model was developed to find the drivers behind the CO2 emission changes during 1997–2012 in Yunnan, based on times series energy consumption and input-output data. The results demonstrated that the sharp rise in exports of high-carbon products from the metal processing and electricity sectors increased CO2 emissions, during 2002–2007. Although increased investments in the construction sector also increased CO2 emissions, during 2007–2012, the carbon intensity of Yunnan’s economy decreased substantially because the province vigorously developed hydropower and improved energy efficiency in energy-intensive sectors. Construction investments not only carbonized the GDP composition, but also formed a carbon-intensive production structure because of high-carbon supply chains. To further mitigate CO2 emissions in Yunnan, measures should promote the development and application of clean energy and the formation of consumption-based economic growth.

  13. Flux Emissions of SO2 and NO2 Measured at the Tula Industrial Complex (Mexico) during MCMA 2006 Field Campaign using a Mini-DOAS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G.; Rivera, C.; Wöhrnschimmel, H.; de Foy, B.; Johansson, M.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-05-01

    The Tula industrial zone is located 60 km northeast from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), in the Hidalgo State in México. This region is known as the Tula-Vito-Apasco industrial corridor, where a number of industries are located. According to the latest information from the environmental authority, about 313,000 ton/year of SO2 and 40,000 ton/year of NOx are released in this region. The Miguel Hidalgo refinery (MHR) and the Francisco Pérez Ríos power plant (FPRPP) are the main emitters, contributing almost 90% of SO2 and 80% of NOx from the total emission inside the Hidalgo State. Other industries such as cement plants, open-sky mines and agricultural activities are also responsible for important emissions of particulat matter (PM) into the atmosphere and soil erosion. This highly industrialized region is thought to influence the air quality in the MCMA, where in some occasions SO2 concentrations in the north part of the city have exceeded the Mexican air quality standard (130 ppb as a 24 hour average), which could not be attributed to irregular operations of industries located in the surrounding area. To address the question of emissions from the refinery and the power plant, the total fluxes of SO2 and NO2 were determined by measurements of their respective integrated vertical column in the neighborhood of the Tula industrial zone, using a Mini-DOAS system. These measurements were carried out as part of the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO Field Campaign, from March 24th to April 18th 2006. Meteorological measurements at the height of the plume dispersion were also determined using pilot balloons and radiosondes techniques. The experimental data were complemented by model simulations. Forward Lagrangian stochastic trajectories were calculated to simulate the plume using FLEXPART in combination with meso-scale meteorological simulations with MM5. The experimental data set was used to evaluate model performance. The simulations were used as an additional estimate of

  14. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-15

    China’s annual crude steel production in 2010 was 638.7 Mt accounting for nearly half of the world’s annual crude steel production in the same year. Around 461 TWh of electricity and 14,872 PJ of fuel were consumed to produce this quantity of steel in 2010. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the iron and steel industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese iron and steel industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 416 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 139 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 237 Mt CO2. The FCSC model for the iron and steel industry shows cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 11,999 PJ, and the total technical fuel saving potential is 12,139. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective and technical fuel savings is 1,191 Mt CO2 and 1,205 Mt CO2, respectively. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese iron and steel industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  15. Stimulated emission pumping of NH in flames by using two-color resonant four-wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radi, P.P.; Frey, H.M.; Mischler, B.; Tzannis, A.P.; Beaud, P.; Gerber, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In this work we examine the analytical potential of two-color resonant four-wave mixing for t