WorldWideScience

Sample records for mitch triggers deadly

  1. Landslides triggered by Hurricane Mitch in Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Edwin L.; Castaneda, Mario; Held, Matthew D.

    2002-01-01

    The arrival of Hurricane Mitch in Honduras in the latter part of the 1998 hurricane season produced effects that were unprecedented in their widespread nature throughout Central America. After winds from the storm had blown down more than 70 percent of the conifer forest on the Bay Island of Guanaja, the hurricane turned inland and stalled over the mainland of Honduras for 3 days. The resulting deluge of rainfall produced devastating flooding and landslides that resulted in more than 9,000 fatalities and 3 million people displaced. Although the eye of Hurricane Mitch passed through the northern part of Honduras, the greatest rainfall totals and intensities occurred in the southern part of the country near Choluteca. For the three days October 29-31, 1998, total rainfall at Choluteca exceeded 900 mm. Not surprisingly, it was in this area that the highest landslide concentrations occurred.

  2. Digital inventory of landslides and related deposits in Honduras triggered by Hurricane Mitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Edwin L.; Hagaman, Kirk W.; Held, Matthew D.; McKenna, Jonathan P.

    2002-01-01

    Intense rainfall from Hurricane Mitch from October 27-31, 1998, exceeded 900 mm in places in Honduras and triggered in excess of 500,000 landslides throughout the country. Landslides damaged an estimated 70% of the road network in Honduras based on estimates by the U. S Army Corps of Engineers. Numbers of fatalities due to landslides are not accurately known due to the fact that numerous small villages throughout Honduras lost residents to landslides without an official count being recorded. A conservative estimate would place the number at near 1,000. Debris flows accounted for over 95% of the landslides and ranged in thickness from 1 to 15 m. Flow path lengths of these failures ranged from several meters to 7.5 km. The highest concentrations of debris flows occurred in the mountains near the town of Choluteca where over 900 mm of rain fell in three days. Although landslides other than debris flows were few, several deep-seated landslides in the city of Tegucigalpa severely impacted people and property. The 'El Berrinche' rotational slump/earth flow of approximately six million cubic meters volume destroyed the entire neighborhood of Colonia Soto near the center of the city. The landslide also dammed the Rio Choluteca and created a lagoon behind the landslide dam, which immediately posed a health problem for the city, because raw, untreated sewage was emptying into the Rio Choluteca. Several areas of highly concentrated landslides have been responsible for much of the flooding problem as well. Huge sediment influxes from landslide source areas near La Ceiba, La Libertad, Marale, and in several arms of El Cajon Reservoir have reduced stream capacities to practically nothing and have exacerbated flooding conditions in even the moderate rainfall seasons since Hurricane Mitch. The ongoing hazard to communities from landslides triggered during Hurricane Mitch are being analyzed using aerial photography taken by the U.S. Air Force and by supplemental photography taken

  3. Live/Dead Bacterial Spore Assay Using DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    A method of measuring the fraction of bacterial spores in a sample that remain viable exploits DPA-triggered luminescence of Tb(3+) and is based partly on the same principles as those described earlier. Unlike prior methods for performing such live/dead assays of bacterial spores, this method does not involve counting colonies formed by cultivation (which can take days), or counting of spores under a microscope, and works whether or not bacterial spores are attached to other small particles (i.e., dust), and can be implemented on a time scale of about 20 minutes.

  4. Exposition Mitch Epstein : American Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Fasentieux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photo reproduite avec l’aimable autorisation de la Fondation HCBEn 2003, le documentariste américain Mitch Epstein reçoit une commande du New York Times, qui lui demande de photographier la destruction de Cheshire, un village d’environ 300 habitants dans l’Ohio. Le village, contaminé par la centrale thermique voisine doit être abandonné et rayé de la carte en raison d’une catastrophe écologique. L’AEP (American Electric Power, propriétaire de la centrale, dédommage les habitants afin que ceu...

  5. Translational control by the DEAD Box RNA helicase belle regulates ecdysone-triggered transcriptional cascades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Ihry

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones act, through their respective nuclear receptors, to regulate target gene expression. Despite their critical role in development, physiology, and disease, however, it is still unclear how these systemic cues are refined into tissue-specific responses. We identified a mutation in the evolutionarily conserved DEAD box RNA helicase belle/DDX3 that disrupts a subset of responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. We demonstrate that belle directly regulates translation of E74A, an ets transcription factor and critical component of the ecdysone-induced transcriptional cascade. Although E74A mRNA accumulates to abnormally high levels in belle mutant tissues, no E74A protein is detectable, resulting in misregulation of E74A-dependent ecdysone response genes. The accumulation of E74A mRNA in belle mutant salivary glands is a result of auto-regulation, fulfilling a prediction made by Ashburner nearly 40 years ago. In this model, Ashburner postulates that, in addition to regulating secondary response genes, protein products of primary response genes like E74A also inhibit their own ecdysone-induced transcription. Moreover, although ecdysone-triggered transcription of E74A appears to be ubiquitous during metamorphosis, belle-dependent translation of E74A mRNA is spatially restricted. These results demonstrate that translational control plays a critical, and previously unknown, role in refining transcriptional responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone.

  6. Translational control by the DEAD Box RNA helicase belle regulates ecdysone-triggered transcriptional cascades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Ihry

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones act, through their respective nuclear receptors, to regulate target gene expression. Despite their critical role in development, physiology, and disease, however, it is still unclear how these systemic cues are refined into tissue-specific responses. We identified a mutation in the evolutionarily conserved DEAD box RNA helicase belle/DDX3 that disrupts a subset of responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. We demonstrate that belle directly regulates translation of E74A, an ets transcription factor and critical component of the ecdysone-induced transcriptional cascade. Although E74A mRNA accumulates to abnormally high levels in belle mutant tissues, no E74A protein is detectable, resulting in misregulation of E74A-dependent ecdysone response genes. The accumulation of E74A mRNA in belle mutant salivary glands is a result of auto-regulation, fulfilling a prediction made by Ashburner nearly 40 years ago. In this model, Ashburner postulates that, in addition to regulating secondary response genes, protein products of primary response genes like E74A also inhibit their own ecdysone-induced transcription. Moreover, although ecdysone-triggered transcription of E74A appears to be ubiquitous during metamorphosis, belle-dependent translation of E74A mRNA is spatially restricted. These results demonstrate that translational control plays a critical, and previously unknown, role in refining transcriptional responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone.

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  10. Bleeding Mud: The Testimonial Poetry of Hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S Finzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with Rubén Darío, Nicaragua has long prided itself in being a country of poets. During the Sandinista Revolution, popular poetry workshops dispatched by Minister of Culture Ernesto Cardenal taught peasants and soldiers to write poetry about everyday life and to use poetry as a way to work through trauma from the civil war. When Hurricane Mitch--one of the first superstorms that heralded climate change--brought extreme flooding to Nicaragua in 1998, poetry again served as a way for victims to process the devastation. Examining testimonial poetry from Hurricane Mitch, this article shows how the mud and despair of this environmental disaster function as palimpsests of conquest and imperial oppression.

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  13. Mitch Epstein, « American Power»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Béade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La fondation Henri Cartier-Bresson a eu la primeur d’exposer du 4 mai au 24 juillet l’intégralité de la série « American Power » de Mitch Epstein, troisième volet d’une trilogie amorcée au milieu des années 1990. Cette série, publiée par Steidl en 2009, a reçu le prix Pictet (prix international de photographie sur la durabilité environnementale quelques jours après la catastrophe de Fukushima. Il est encore possible de voir certains clichés à la Tate Modern à Londres jusqu’au 31 mars 2012 da...

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  20. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  5. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  12. Uncertainty estimation of simulated water levels for the Mitch flood event in Tegucigalpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes Andino, Diana Carolina; Halldin, Sven; Keith, Beven; Chong-Yu, Xu

    2013-04-01

    Hurricane Mitch in 1998 left a devastating flood in Tegucigalpa, the capital city of Honduras. Due to the extremely large magnitude of the Mitch flood, hydrometric measurements were not taken during the event. However, post-event indirect measurements of the discharge were obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and post-event surveyed high water marks were obtained by the Japan International Cooperation agency (JICA). This work proposes a methodology to simulate the water level during the Mitch event when the available data is associated with large uncertainty. The results of the two-dimensional hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP will be evaluated using the Generalized Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) framework. The main challenge in the proposed methodology is to formulate an approach to evaluate the model results when there are large uncertainties coming from both the model parameters and the evaluation data.

  13. Uncertainty estimation of water levels for the Mitch flood event in Tegucigalpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes Andino, D. C.; Halldin, S.; Lundin, L.; Xu, C.

    2012-12-01

    Hurricane Mitch in 1998 left a devastating flood in Tegucigalpa, the capital city of Honduras. Simulation of elevated water surfaces provides a good way to understand the hydraulic mechanism of large flood events. In this study the one-dimensional HEC-RAS model for steady flow conditions together with the two-dimensional Lisflood-fp model were used to estimate the water level for the Mitch event in the river reaches at Tegucigalpa. Parameters uncertainty of the model was investigated using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) framework. Because of the extremely large magnitude of the Mitch flood, no hydrometric measurements were taken during the event. However, post-event indirect measurements of discharge and observed water levels were obtained in previous works by JICA and USGS. To overcome the problem of lacking direct hydrometric measurement data, uncertainty in the discharge was estimated. Both models could well define the value for channel roughness, though more dispersion resulted from the floodplain value. Analysis of the data interaction showed that there was a tradeoff between discharge at the outlet and floodplain roughness for the 1D model. The estimated discharge range at the outlet of the study area encompassed the value indirectly estimated by JICA, however the indirect method used by the USGS overestimated the value. If behavioral parameter sets can well reproduce water surface levels for past events such as Mitch, more reliable predictions for future events can be expected. The results acquired in this research will provide guidelines to deal with the problem of modeling past floods when no direct data was measured during the event, and to predict future large events taking uncertainty into account. The obtained range of the uncertain flood extension will be an outcome useful for decision makers.

  14. Disasters and development in agricultural input markets: bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainville, Denise Y

    2003-06-01

    The bulk of developing countries' populations and poor depend on agriculture for food and income. While rural economies and people are generally the most severely affected by natural disasters, little is known about how disasters and subsequent relief activities affect agricultural markets with differing levels of development. The article addresses this gap, drawing evidence from bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch. Case studies are used to address hypotheses about a disaster's effects on supply and demand in seed markets, farmers' responses and the performance of relief interventions in markets showing differing levels of development. The results show the importance of tailoring relief interventions to the markets that they will affect and to the specific effects of a disaster; the potential to use local and emerging seed distribution channels in a relief intervention; and opportunities for relief activities to strengthen community seed systems.

  15. Zombie Vortex Instability. II. Thresholds to Trigger Instability and the Properties of Zombie Turbulence in the Dead Zones of Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Philip S; Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Barranco, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    In Zombie Vortex Instability (ZVI), perturbations excite critical layers in stratified, rotating shear flow (as in protoplanetary disks), causing them to generate vortex layers, which roll-up into anticyclonic zombie vortices and cyclonic vortex sheets. The process is self-sustaining as zombie vortices perturb new critical layers, spawning a next generation of zombie vortices. Here, we focus on two issues: the minimum threshold of perturbations that trigger self-sustaining vortex generation, and the properties of the late-time zombie turbulence on large and small scales. The critical parameter that determines whether ZVI is triggered is the magnitude of the vorticity on the small scales (and not velocity), the minimum Rossby number needed for instability is $Ro_{crit}\\sim0.2$ for $\\beta\\equiv N/\\Omega = 2$, where $N$ is the Brunt-V\\"ais\\"al\\"a frequency. While the threshold is set by vorticity, it is useful to infer a criterion on the Mach number, for Kolmogorov noise, the critical Mach number scales with Rey...

  16. Dead Man or Dead Hand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    and potential takeover bids. Recent Delaware case-law suggests that the most extreme, ‘dead hand’ version of such clauses might violate directors’ fiduciary duties. This short article develops some initial thoughts on the phenomenon and evaluates how the new poison pills would be handled under European takeover...

  17. Zombie Vortex Instability. II. Thresholds to Trigger Instability and the Properties of Zombie Turbulence in the Dead Zones of Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Philip S.; Pei, Suyang; Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Barranco, Joseph A.

    2016-12-01

    In Zombie Vortex Instability (ZVI), perturbations excite critical layers in stratified, rotating shear flow (as in protoplanetary disks (PPDs)), causing them to generate vortex layers, which roll up into anticyclonic zombie vortices and cyclonic vortex sheets. The process is self-sustaining as zombie vortices perturb new critical layers, spawning a next generation of zombie vortices. Here, we focus on two issues: the minimum threshold of perturbations that trigger self-sustaining vortex generation, and the properties of the late-time zombie turbulence on large and small scales. The critical parameter that determines whether ZVI is triggered is the magnitude of the vorticity on the small scales (and not velocity); the minimum Rossby number needed for instability is {{Ro}}{crit}˜ 0.2 for β \\equiv N/{{Ω }}=2, where N is the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. While the threshold is set by vorticity, it is useful to infer a criterion on the Mach number; for Kolmogorov noise, the critical Mach number scales with Reynolds number: {{Ma}}{crit}˜ {{Ro}}{crit}{{Re}}-1/2. In PPDs, this is {{Ma}}{crit}˜ {10}-6. On large scales, zombie turbulence is characterized by anticyclones and cyclonic sheets with typical Rossby number ˜0.3. The spacing of the cyclonic sheets and anticyclones appears to have a “memory” of the spacing of the critical layers. On small scales, zombie turbulence has no memory of the initial conditions and has a Kolmogorov-like energy spectrum. While our earlier work was in the limit of uniform stratification, we have demonstrated that ZVI works for non-uniform Brunt-Väisälä frequency profiles that may be found in PPDs.

  18. Hurricane Mitch: Landscape Analysis of Damaged Forest Resources of the Bay Islands and Caribbean Coast of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Michot, Thomas C.; Roetker, Fred; Sullivan, Jason; Melder, Marcus; Handley, Benjamin; Balmat, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    The advent of analog and digital video has provided amateur photographers with professional-like technology to capture dynamic images with ease and clarity. Videography is also rapidly changing traditional business and scientific applications. In the natural sciences, camcorders are being used largely to record timely observations of plant and animal behavior or consequence of some catastrophic event. Spectacular video of dynamic events such as hurricanes, volcanic eruptions and wildfire document the active process and aftermath. Scientists can analyze video images to quantify aspects of a given event, behavior, or response, temporally and spatially. In this study we demonstrate the simple use of an aerial application of videography to record the spatial extent and damage expression of mangrove forest in the Bay Islands and mainland coast of northern Honduras from wind damage following Hurricane Mitch (1998). In this study, we conducted a video overflight of coastal forests of the Bay Islands and mainland coast of northern Honduras 14 months after impact by Hurricane Mitch (1998). Coastal areas were identified where damage was evident and described relative to damage extent to forest cover, windfall orientation, and height of downed trees. The variability and spatial extent of impact on coastal forest resources is related to reconstructed wind profiles based on model simulations of Mitch's path, strength, and circulation during landfall.

  19. Phytochemical studies on Azolla pinnata R. Br., Marsilea minuta L. and Salvinia molesta Mitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johnson Marimuthu Antonisamy; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical properties of Azolla pinnata R. Br., Marsilea minuta L. and Salvinia molesta Mitch. Methods: The dried and powered leaves materials (50 g) were extracted successively with 250 mL of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, chloroform, acetone, benzene and water by using Soxhlet extractor for 8 h at a temperature not exceeding the boiling point of the solvent. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out according to the standard methods. Results: Out of eighteen tested extracts, eighteen extracts showed the presence of phenolics. Next to that, fourteen extracts were illustrated their existence of tannin. Ten extracts showed the occurrence of carbohydrates in the crude extracts of the selected plants. Steroid and saponin are present in eight extracts, next to that xanthoprotein is present in six extracts, followed by flavonoid and protein which are present in five extracts. Carboxylic acid showed its presence only in two extracts. Conclusions: From the results, it can be concluded that the three plants extracts show the presence of many bioactive compounds after extensive investigation. We recommend further research on these plants to quantify the concentration of these compounds. Further work will accentuate the isolation and characterization of active principles responsible for bio-efficacy and bioactivity.

  20. Deadly Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Casualties mount in Chongqing landslide as questions arise over what triggered it At least nine people have died and 63 are still missing from a massive June 5 landslide in southwest China’s Chongqing Municipality. A local gov- ernment spokesman said the landslide buried

  1. Flood-hazard mapping in Honduras in response to Hurricane Mitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The devastation in Honduras due to flooding from Hurricane Mitch in 1998 prompted the U.S. Agency for International Development, through the U.S. Geological Survey, to develop a country-wide systematic approach of flood-hazard mapping and a demonstration of the method at selected sites as part of a reconstruction effort. The design discharge chosen for flood-hazard mapping was the flood with an average return interval of 50 years, and this selection was based on discussions with the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Honduran Public Works and Transportation Ministry. A regression equation for estimating the 50-year flood discharge using drainage area and annual precipitation as the explanatory variables was developed, based on data from 34 long-term gaging sites. This equation, which has a standard error of prediction of 71.3 percent, was used in a geographic information system to estimate the 50-year flood discharge at any location for any river in the country. The flood-hazard mapping method was demonstrated at 15 selected municipalities. High-resolution digital-elevation models of the floodplain were obtained using an airborne laser-terrain mapping system. Field verification of the digital elevation models showed that the digital-elevation models had mean absolute errors ranging from -0.57 to 0.14 meter in the vertical dimension. From these models, water-surface elevation cross sections were obtained and used in a numerical, one-dimensional, steady-flow stepbackwater model to estimate water-surface profiles corresponding to the 50-year flood discharge. From these water-surface profiles, maps of area and depth of inundation were created at the 13 of the 15 selected municipalities. At La Lima only, the area and depth of inundation of the channel capacity in the city was mapped. At Santa Rose de Aguan, no numerical model was created. The 50-year flood and the maps of area and depth of inundation are based on the estimated 50-year storm tide.

  2. Live and Dead Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide a q...

  3. Fungal life in the dead sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem.

  4. Producción de semilla de frijol, posterior al huracán Mitch, en Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N\\u00E9stor Bonilla

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En octubre de 1999, la agricultura nicaragüense fue afectada por los efectos del huracán Mitch. 5,000 personas perdieron la vida y 61,376 familias fueron afectadas, en los departamentos de la zona nor-central y suroeste de Nicaragua. Organismos gubernamentales y El Proyecto de Mejoramiento de Semillas, PROMESA-USAID se plantearon el objetivo de producir semilla durante la siembra de apante comprendida del mes de noviembre a marzo en las zonas de alta humedad. Se realizaron acciones con la organización de productores de semilla, en asociaciones regionales de cara a enfrentar situaciones de emergencia en el abastecimiento, producción de semilla y promoción de nuevas variedades. Bajo este plan se pudieron obtener un total de 9.750 quintales de semilla, categoría apta, con la participación de 654 productores, el rendimiento promedio obtenido fue de 1,3 t/ha (20 qq /7.000 m2. Se estableció un programa de cooperación con la Cruz Roja Nicaragüense y la Federación Internacional de Sociedades de la Cruz Roja y la Media Luna Roja. Se logró dar cobertura a 8.970 familias con el paquete de ayuda agrícola, consistiendo en semilla, fertilizante y $30.00 US en efectivo. El paquete de apoyo agrícola es una estrategia esencial para salir de la dependencia sobre distribuciones alimentarias, y su meta fue ayudar a los agricultores para lograr buenas cosechas en la siembra de primera de 1999. El abastecimiento de semilla recurriendo a la compra de grano, cuya calidad es dudosa por la falta de conocimientos técnicos sobre semilla, conlleva a perjudicar a los agricultores

  5. The Dead State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Gaggioli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance for the selection of the dead state for exergy analysis, guidance that is especially important in applications to energy-conversion and materials processing plant engineering, and to ecology. First, the general definition of the dead state is provided, based on the concept of ‘the available energy of a body’ as originally presented by Gibbs. Gibbs ‘body’ can be any overall system, no matter how complex and a crucial point is that there is no need to include or have a ‘reference environment.’ On this groundwork, criteria underlying the selection of the appropriate dead state for a variety of practical engineering systems are referred to; while these cases are not exhaustive, they provide examples of the rationale for selection of an appropriate dead state for any case. Finally, the implications and relevance of the dead state on applications of exergy considerations to the issues of ecology and sustainability are discussed.

  6. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Kötlujökull transports considerable amounts of supraglacial debris at its snout because of frontal oscillations with frequent ice advances followed by ice-margin stagnation. Kötlujökull provides suitable conditions of studying dead-ice melting and landscape formation in a debris-charged lowland...... glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...... and conclusions on dead-ice melting and landscape formation from Kötlujökull. Processes and landform-sediment associations are linked to the current climate and glacier–volcano interaction....

  7. Dead sea water intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Khademi, Floris; Brooks, Rebecca; Maayan, Channa; Tenenbaum, Ariel; Wexler, Isaiah D

    2012-08-01

    Near drowning in the Dead Sea is associated with both respiratory manifestations and severe electrolyte abnormalities. It is often difficult to distinguish between the contributions of sea water aspiration or ingestion to clinical manifestations. We present a unique case of accidental ingestion of a large amount of Dead Sea water through a gastrostomy tube in which a patient with familial dysautonomia presented with severe electrolyte disturbances. Forced diuresis with large amounts of intravenous fluids resulted in clinical and biochemical improvement. Full recovery was achieved after 2 days of treatment.

  8. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  9. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  10. Dynamic triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  11. Seven deadly radiometry mistakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyak, Paul R.

    2012-10-01

    Radiometry mistakes are made throughout industry and academia with many of them being a result of misapplication of fundamental principles. Since we are all, in one way or another, students of Professor Bill Wolfe, this paper continues his example to educate at every opportunity and mitigate propagation of these errors. Based on the author's observations, the top "seven deadly" radiometry mistakes are described with explanations and examples of the proper applications and interjections of Bill's teaching concepts and wit.

  12. Dead Sea rhodopsins revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodaker, Idan; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Oren, Aharon; Béjà, Oded

    2012-12-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique hypersaline ecosystem with near toxic magnesium levels (∼2 M), dominance of divalent cations and a slightly acidic pH. Previously, we reported a haloarchaeon related to Halobacterium salinarum to dominate in a microbial bloom that developed in 1992 in the upper water layers of the lake following massive freshwater runoff. Whether this clade also dominated an earlier bloom in 1980-1982 cannot be ascertained as no samples for cultivation-independent analysis were preserved. The presence of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin was reported in the 1980-1982 bloom of prokaryotes that had developed in the Dead Sea. To test the hypothesis that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping may play a major role in determining what type of haloarchaea may dominate in specific bloom conditions, we compared rhodopsin genes recovered from Dead Sea biomass collected in different periods with genes coding for retinal proteins in isolated haloarchaea. Novel bacteriorhodopsin and sensory rhodopsin genes were found in samples collected in 2007 and 2010. The fact that no rhodopsin genes were recovered from samples collected during the 1992 bloom, which was dominated by a single species, suggests that different clades were present in the 1980-1982 and 1992 blooms, and that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping did not necessarily play a determinative role in the dominance of specific halophiles in the blooms.

  13. The Dead Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Phillips

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Monsters have always enjoyed a significant presence in the human imagination, and religion was instrumental in replacing the physical horror they engendered with that of a moral threat. Zombies, however, are amoral – their motivation purely instinctive and arbitrary, yet they are, perhaps, the most loathed of all contemporary monsters. One explanation for this lies in the theory of the uncanny valley, proposed by robotics engineer Masahiro Mori. According to the theory, we reserve our greatest fears for those things which seem most human, yet are not – such as dead bodies. Such a reaction is most likely a survival mechanism to protect us from danger and disease – a mechanism even more essential when the dead rise up and walk. From their beginnings zombies have reflected western societies’ greatest fears – be they of revolutionary Haitians, women, or communists. In recent years the rise in the popularity of the zombie in films, books and television series reflects our fears for the planet, the economy, and of death itself

  14. Extreme flood events in the Dead Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborn, Marieke; Ben Dor, Yoav; Schwab, Markus J.; Neugebauer, Ina; Plessen, Birgit; Tjallingii, Rik; Erel, Yigal; Enzel, Yehouda; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a hypersaline, terminal lake located within the Dead Sea basin at the lowest continental elevation on Earth (~425 m below mean sea level). Extreme hydro-meteorological events in terms of flash floods occur regularly during the wet season in the Dead Sea basin and adjacent mountain ranges. However, little is known about the impact of these extreme floods on the sedimentary dynamics in the Dead Sea and possible links to long-term climate changes. The trilateral research project PALEX (Paleoclimate in the Eastern Mediterranean Region - Levante: Paleohydrology and Extreme Flood Events) was recently initiated within the framework of the DFG priority program 1006 ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) to investigate extreme flood events in the Dead Sea basin during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Within the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) the ~455 m long sediment core 5017-1 was recovered from the northern Dead Sea basin. Previously published results (Neugebauer et al., 2014, 2015) have demonstrated the occurrence of extreme flood events represented in the sediments as thick graded detrital layers during Late Holocene dry phases. Based on these results we will apply a comprehensive analytical approach including microfacies analyses, μXRF element scanning, and stable isotope geochemistry to different time intervals of core 5017-1. Particularly, we aim to investigate the structure and composition of detrital layers in order to decipher sediment transport mechanisms and the provenance of the flood-triggered sediments. The overarching goal is to establish a high-resolution extreme flood time series for the Dead Sea basin on the basis of a previously established radiocarbon and U-Th chronology (Torfstein et al., 2015; Neugebauer et al., 2014) and to study a possible link between the frequency and magnitude of extreme flood events and the long-term climate trend. Neugebauer I, Brauer A, Schwab MJ, et al. (2014) Lithology of

  15. Triggering Klystrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  16. The Right to be Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Troyer, John Eric

    2017-01-01

    of argument by simultaneously examining how dead body disposal and digital data disposal increasingly overlaps. In November 2015 the Future Cemetery announced its first international design competition: Future Dead: Designing Disposal for Both Dead Bodies and Digital Data (www.futurecemetery.org) and we...... illustrate our essay design arguments through the competition’s history and results. In our paper we argue that designing future cemeteries should focus on how spaces such as Arnos Vale represent a transitional hybrid space. A merger of the Victorian past with the digital present, in order to create a new......-mortem handling of their exponentially increased digital data. The European Union Court of Justice ruled that a person has a Right to be Forgotten on the world wide web. The Future Cemetery asks: Does a person have the Right to be Dead on this information superhighway? Our essay pursues these specific lines...

  17. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  18. Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.

    1978-05-01

    Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea asphalts probably have been documented over a longer period of time than any other hydrocarbon deposit--from antiquity to the 19th century. Major uses of asphalt from the Dead Sea have been as an ingredient in the embalming process, for medicinal purposes, for fumigation, and for agriculture. The first known war for control of a hydrocarbon deposit was in the Dead Sea area in 312 B.C. between the Seleucid Syrians and the Nabatean Arabs who lived around the lake. Surface manifestations of asphalt are linked closely to tectonic activity. In the lake itself, the asphalt is associated with diapirs During certain historic periods, tectonic and diapiric activity caused frequent liberation to the Dead Sea surface of semiliquid asphalt associated with large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas. When the tectonic activity was attenuated, as in the 19th and 20th centuries, the rate of asphalt seepage to the bottom sediments of the Dead Sea was much slower and the asphalt solidified on the lake bottom. The release of asphalt to the surface became much more sporadic, and may have resulted in part from earthquakes. Thus, future asphalt prospecting in the Dead Sea area should be conducted along the boundaries of diapirs or their associated faults.

  19. Resurrecting Dead-water Phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Mercier, Matthieu; Dauxois, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    We revisit experimental studies performed by Ekman on dead-water using modern techniques in order to present new insights on this peculiar phenomenon. We extend its description to more general situations such as a three-layer fluid or a linearly stratified fluid in presence of a pycnocline, showing the robustness of dead-water phenomenon. We observe large amplitude nonlinear internal waves which are coupled to the boat dynamics, and we emphasize that the modeling of the wave-induced drag requires more analysis, taking into account nonlinear effects.

  20. Estudio de un brote de leptospirosis en Honduras tras el paso del huracán Mitch y potencialidad profiláctica de vax-SPIRAL®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Naranjo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En Honduras, uno de los países de Centroamérica más afectados por el huracán Mitch, debido a las fuertes lluvias e inundaciones, se crearon las condiciones idóneas para el desarrollo de un brote de leptospirosis. Un grupo de especialistas cubanos realizamos un estudio a 68 pacientes con un cuadro clínico epidemiológico sospechoso de leptospirosis entre los pobladores del Departamento de Puerto Cortés, una las regiones más comprometidas. A todos los pacientes se les tomó una muestra de sangre para hemocultivo y obtención de suero. Se empleó la técnica de aglutinación microscópica (MAT para la identificación de las cepas de leptospira y para evaluar la protección conferida por vax-SPIRAL® (vacuna antileptospirósica cubana frente al reto con la cepa aislada y se verificó la prevalencia de leptospiras en los riñones e hígado. Se observó un predominio de pacientes del sexo masculino, en un grupo entre 15-49 años. Los municipios de este Departamento con un mayor número de casos fueron San Pedro Sula, La Lima y Chamelecón. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre, cefalea, mialgias, malestar general, entre otros. Más del 80% de los individuos manifestaron la presencia de roedores en sus viviendas y que tuvieron contacto con aguas estancadas y animales domésticos. La cepa aislada del hemocultivo positivo fue del serogrupo Icterohaemorrhagiae, muy virulento en el modelo animal empleado. Se evidenció el 100% de protección de los hámsteres inmunizados con vax-SPIRAL® y retados con la cepa de Honduras. El análisis macroscópico de los órganos de los animales inmunizados que sobrevivieron al reto al 100%, reveló la ausencia de signos característicos de la infección.

  1. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  2. Global risk of deadly heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Dousset, Bénédicte; Caldwell, Iain R.; Powell, Farrah E.; Geronimo, Rollan C.; Bielecki, Coral R.; Counsell, Chelsie W. W.; Dietrich, Bonnie S.; Johnston, Emily T.; Louis, Leo V.; Lucas, Matthew P.; McKenzie, Marie M.; Shea, Alessandra G.; Tseng, Han; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Leon, Lisa R.; Hawkins, Ed; Trauernicht, Clay

    2017-07-01

    Climate change can increase the risk of conditions that exceed human thermoregulatory capacity. Although numerous studies report increased mortality associated with extreme heat events, quantifying the global risk of heat-related mortality remains challenging due to a lack of comparable data on heat-related deaths. Here we conducted a global analysis of documented lethal heat events to identify the climatic conditions associated with human death and then quantified the current and projected occurrence of such deadly climatic conditions worldwide. We reviewed papers published between 1980 and 2014, and found 783 cases of excess human mortality associated with heat from 164 cities in 36 countries. Based on the climatic conditions of those lethal heat events, we identified a global threshold beyond which daily mean surface air temperature and relative humidity become deadly. Around 30% of the world's population is currently exposed to climatic conditions exceeding this deadly threshold for at least 20 days a year. By 2100, this percentage is projected to increase to ~48% under a scenario with drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and ~74% under a scenario of growing emissions. An increasing threat to human life from excess heat now seems almost inevitable, but will be greatly aggravated if greenhouse gases are not considerably reduced.

  3. On the significance of mechanisms of disastrous rainfall triggered landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema; Garnica-Peña, Ricardo Javier; Borja-Baeza, Roberto Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall triggered landslides have caused major disasters worldwide. As such, human and economic losses have had a considerable impact in different regions of the planet, but they have been particularly severe in developing countries. During the fall of 1998, due to the intense rainfall caused by hurricane Mitch, a complex mass movement -rock fall-avalanche- took place in the South flank of Casita Volcano, in Nicaragua; the towns of El Porvenir and Rolando Rodríguez were completely swept away and around 1600 people died. A year later, in the Sierra Norte de Puebla, Mexico, dozens of landslides triggered by an extreme rainfall event caused approximately 200 victims. A month after, in December, 1999, Northern Venezuela suffered the loss of more than 10,000 people as a result of flash floods and debris flows. In 2006, the village of Guinsaugon in St. Bernard, Southern Leyte, Philippines, was buried by a mudslide that killed about 1,000 inhabitants, among which there were 246 students and 7 teachers of an elementary school. In this paper, a review of both, landslides mechanisms -hazards-, and conditions of the exposed populations -vulnerability- was undertaken in order to analyse the factors that control the occurrence of disasters and their associated magnitude and impact. Preliminary results indicated that while magnitude is derived by landslides mechanisms, impact of disasters associated to rainfall induced landslides is determined by the vulnerability of the population groups. It is suggested that in order to prevent disasters, findings from vulnerability analysis need to be always considered for risk assessment and management. Key words: Landslides mechanisms, rainfall triggered, vulnerability, disasters.

  4. Una propuesta metodológica para medir la vulnerabilidad de un territorio ante los peligros naturales: el caso de Honduras tras el paso del huracán Mitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamdanech Zarco, Ismael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available When some kind of humanitarian disaster happens, one question comes to our mind. Would it have been possible to avoid the disaster? Other questions also seem reasonable: would it have been possible lighten the consequences?, would the disaster have been so destructive in a developed zone? The vulnerability concept arises related to these questions, as an approach of a disaster effects on populations and territories with different characteristics. Along this work, we develop a methodology to measure the vulnerability concept. This methodology is applied to the Mitch hurricane in Honduras case.

    [es] Cuando sucede alguna catástrofe humanitaria de cualquier tipo siempre surge, o al menos debería hacerlo, una pregunta: ¿se podría haber evitado?, e inmediatamente aparecen otras, ¿en cualquier caso, se podrían haber atenuado sus consecuencias?, ¿habría causado los mismos daños en una zona desarrollada? Relacionado con estas preguntas aparece el concepto de vulnerabilidad, como una aproximación al efecto de una misma catástrofe sobre poblaciones y territorios con diferentes características. En este trabajo se desarrolla una metodología para medir dicho concepto de vulnerabilidad y se aplica al caso del huracán Mitch en Honduras. [fr] Quand un certain genre de désastre humanitaire se produit, une question vient à notre esprit. Il aurait été possible d'éviter le désastre? D'autres questions semblent également raisonnables : il aurait été possible éclairent les conséquences?, le désastre aurait été si destructif dans une zone développée? Le concept de vulnérabilité surgit connexe à ces questions, comme approche des effets d'un désastre sur des populations et des territoires avec différentes caractéristiques. Le long de ce travail, nous développons une méthodologie pour mesurer le concept de vulnérabilité. Cette méthodologie est appliquée à l'ouragan de Mitch dans le cas du Honduras.

  5. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  6. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Common Asthma Triggers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... t avoid the triggers. Some of the most common triggers are: Tobacco Smoke Tobacco smoke is unhealthy ...

  7. Tracks, intersections and dead ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Skjeie, Hege

    2008-01-01

    of organisations of civil society in political power. The second part explores the framing of the hijab as a political issue of "intersections" of gender equality versus religious belongings. The third part investigates what we see as a "dead end" in policy making to prevent violations of women's rights......The article discusses multicultural challenges to state feminism in Denmark and Norway focusing both on similarities and differences in the two countries policy responses.  In spite of important differences, we point towards similar problems and dilemmas in the public responses to multiculturalism......; that is the general, age based, restrictions on family unification as a means to combat forced marriages. Finally, in the conclusion, we emphasise the importance of participatory women-friendly politics that include all who are affected by political decisions.    ...

  8. More Dead than Dead: Perceptions of Persons in the Persistent Vegetative State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kurt; Knickman, T. Anne; Wegner, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients in persistent vegetative state (PVS) may be biologically alive, but these experiments indicate that people see PVS as a state curiously more dead than dead. Experiment 1 found that PVS patients were perceived to have less mental capacity than the dead. Experiment 2 explained this effect as an outgrowth of afterlife beliefs, and the…

  9. 49 CFR 236.798 - Section, dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Section, dead. 236.798 Section 236.798 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Section, dead. A section of track, either within a track circuit or between two track circuits, the rails...

  10. The UA1 trigger processor

    CERN Document Server

    Grayer, G H

    1981-01-01

    Experiment UA1 is a large multipurpose spectrometer at the CERN proton-antiproton collider. The principal trigger is formed on the basis of the energy deposition in calorimeters. A trigger decision taken in under 2.4 microseconds can avoid dead-time losses due to the bunched nature of the beam. To achieve this fast 8-bit charge to digital converters have been built followed by two identical digital processors tailored to the experiment. The outputs of groups of the 2440 photomultipliers in the calorimeters are summed to form a total of 288 input channels to the ADCs. A look-up table in RAM is used to convert the digitised photomultiplier signals to energy in one processor, and to transverse energy in the other. Each processor forms four sums from a chosen combination of input channels, and also counts the number of clusters with electromagnetic or hadronic energy above pre-determined levels. Up to twelve combinations of these conditions, together with external information, may be combined in coincidence or in...

  11. Identifying asthma triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Justin C; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2014-02-01

    Asthma has many triggers including rhinosinusitis; allergy; irritants; medications (aspirin in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease); and obesity. Paradoxic vocal fold dysfunction mimics asthma and may be present along with asthma. This article reviews each of these triggers, outlining methods of recognizing the trigger and then its management. In many patients more than one trigger may be present. Full appreciation of the complexity of these relationships and targeted therapy to the trigger is needed to best care for the patient with asthma.

  12. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  13. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2011-04-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr-1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  14. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  15. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr−1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  16. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  17. Measurement of the Dead-Time in a Multichannel Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L.; Olsen, J.

    1973-01-01

    By means of two simple measurements three different dead-times are determined: the normal dead-time, a dead-time coming from the pile-up, and a dead-time due to the finite width of the timing pulses.......By means of two simple measurements three different dead-times are determined: the normal dead-time, a dead-time coming from the pile-up, and a dead-time due to the finite width of the timing pulses....

  18. Extreme Heat in Southwest a Deadly Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166797.html Extreme Heat in Southwest a Deadly Threat Here's how to ... t take off in Phoenix on Tuesday, the heat wave scorching the Southwest for the next week ...

  19. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  20. Asthma triggers (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... things make your asthma worse. These are called asthma "triggers". Avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. The most common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors ...

  1. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Asthma Contact Us Share Asthma Triggers: Gain Control Breathing Freely: Controlling Asthma Triggers This video features ... Air Quality: Biological Pollutants Help Your Child Gain Control Over Asthma Top of Page Molds About Molds ...

  2. The KLOE trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Andryakov, A.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Bacci, C.; Bankamp, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellini, F.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Calcaterra, A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; Conticelli, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, E.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Drago, E.; Elia, V.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Golovatyuk, V.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grandegger, W.; Graziani, E.; Guarnaccia, P.; Hagel, U. von; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Jang, Y.Y.; Kim, W.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, F.; Luisi, C.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moalem, A.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Panareo, M.; Pacciani, L.; Pages, P.; Palutan, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passaseo, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, G.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pistillo, C.; Pollack, M.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schwick, C.; Sciascia, B. E-mail: barbara.sciascia@romal.infn.it; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shan, J.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiriti, E.; Stanescu, C.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, E.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhou, Y

    2001-04-01

    A double-level trigger system has been developed for the KLOE experiment. Custom electronics asserts a trigger in a 2 {mu}s decision time. The decision is based on the combined information of the electromagnetic calorimeter and the drift chamber. The entire trigger system is continuously monitored, and data flowing from the trigger system have allowed both an efficient online monitoring of the detector and an online luminosity measurement.

  3. The Dead Zones of Protoplanetary Disks are Not Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanzadeh Pedram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that the “dead” zone of a protoplanetary disk fills with robust 3D vortices from a purely hydrodynamic instability. This new instability is not linear and requires a weak finite-amplitude initial perturbation. The instability was not seen previously either due to a lack of numerical spatial resolution, or because many previous simulations either ignored vertical gravity or had initial flows with constant density. Our new finite-amplitude instability is due to a family of previously-unknown critical layers that form in rotating, shearing, vertically stratified flows like those in protoplanetary disks. Initial perturbations of white noise (with Mach numbers much less than unity, waves, or vortices can trigger the instability. A small-volume, small-amplitude initial vortex confined to one part of the disk can fill the disk with vortices by exciting a nearby critical layer. The critical layer produces an intense vortex layer that rolls-up to form vortices with large-amplitudes and volumes. This 1st generation of vortices then sheds waves that excite nearby critical layers, which in turn, create a 2nd generation of vortices with large amplitudes and volumes. The mechanism of exciting nearby critical layers and turning them into large vortices self-similarly, self-replicates until large vortices fill the disk at all radii.

  4. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo; Truini, Andrea; Cruccu, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification, triggered pain is an essential criterion for the diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia but no study to date has been designed to address this issue directly. In this study, we set out to determine, in patients with trigeminal neuralgia, how frequently triggers are present, which manoeuvres activate them and where cutaneous and mucosal trigger zones are located. Methods Clinical characteristics focusing on trigger factors were collected from 140 patients with trigeminal neuralgia, in a cross-sectional study design. Results Provocation of paroxysmal pain by various trigger manoeuvres was reported by 136 of the 140 patients. The most frequent manoeuvres were gentle touching of the face (79%) and talking (54%). Trigger zones were predominantly reported in the perioral and nasal region. Conclusion This study confirms that in trigeminal neuralgia, paroxysmal pain is associated with triggers in virtually all patients and supports the use of triggers as an essential diagnostic feature of trigeminal neuralgia.

  5. Virtually Dead: Digital Public Mortuary Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, the ethics, politics and public engagements of mortuary archaeology have received sustained scrutiny, including how we handle, write about and display the archaeological dead. Yet the burgeoning use of digital media to engage different audiences in the archaeology of death and burial have so far escaped attention. This article explores categories and strategies by which digital media create virtual communities engaging with mortuary archaeology. Considering digital public mortuary archaeology (DPMA as a distinctive theme linking archaeology, mortality and material culture, we discuss blogs, vlogs and Twitter as case studies to illustrate the variety of strategies by which digital media can promote, educate and engage public audiences with archaeological projects and research relating to death and the dead in the human past. The article then explores a selection of key critical concerns regarding how the digital dead are currently portrayed, identifying the need for further investigation and critical reflection on DPMA’s aims, objectives and aspired outcomes.

  6. Dead sea transform fault system reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Garfunkel, Zvi; Kagan, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea transform is an active plate boundary connecting the Red Sea seafloor spreading system to the Arabian-Eurasian continental collision zone. Its geology and geophysics provide a natural laboratory for investigation of the surficial, crustal and mantle processes occurring along transtensional and transpressional transform fault domains on a lithospheric scale and related to continental breakup. There have been many detailed and disciplinary studies of the Dead Sea transform fault zone during the last?20 years and this book brings them together.This book is an updated comprehensive coverage of the knowledge, based on recent studies of the tectonics, structure, geophysics, volcanism, active tectonics, sedimentology and paleo and modern climate of the Dead Sea transform fault zone. It puts together all this new information and knowledge in a coherent fashion.

  7. Study of a theoretical model for the measured gate moments resulting from correlated detection events and an extending dead time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Danielle K., E-mail: hauck@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Favalli, Andrea; Santi, Peter A.; Dowell, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-08-11

    Neutron emissions from fissioning nuclear material are temporally correlated. The detection of these correlated neutrons is frequently used to quantify plutonium (Pu) and other fissile materials for international nuclear safeguards and related activities. However, detector dead time affects the observed rates of correlated neutrons in a non-trivial manner, and must be accounted for to obtain accurate results. A major simplification made in the most widely used dead time corrections is that the neutron detections are occurring randomly in time. A few previous attempts at providing a dead time model for correlated neutrons have been limited in scope, have made simplifying assumptions early in the derivation, and have, in general, not been implemented in the broader safeguards community. This paper provides an exact dead time model for correlated neutron detections in a single channel system assuming an updating dead time, and therefore a paralyzable system. This dead time model includes the assumption that a single exponential, with one characteristic decay constant, can describe the system neutron die-away profile. An exact model for the effects of dead time on measured gate moments is derived which is extendable to an arbitrary order of neutron correlation. This dead time model predicts the measured gate moments based on the dead time and underlying detection rates, including the effects from detection rates with an arbitrarily high order of correlation. The effects of dead time on the apparent singles, doubles, triples and quadruples rates using either event triggered, random or mixed gate structure is also derived. Either the equations for the measured gate moments or the apparent multiplicity rates can be numerically inverted to find the dead time corrected multiplicity rates. Although the model has been explicitly solved for rates up to and including quadruples, it is directly extendable to any order of correlation. This model is presented from the perspective

  8. AMY trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yoshihide [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  9. Mapping of hazard from rainfall-triggered landslides in developing countries: Examples from Honduras and Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, E.L.; Reid, M.E.; McKenna, J.P.; Michael, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of life and property caused by landslides triggered by extreme rainfall events demonstrates the need for landslide-hazard assessment in developing countries where recovery from such events often exceeds the country's resources. Mapping landslide hazards in developing countries where the need for landslide-hazard mitigation is great but the resources are few is a challenging, but not intractable problem. The minimum requirements for constructing a physically based landslide-hazard map from a landslide-triggering storm, using the simple methods we discuss, are: (1) an accurate mapped landslide inventory, (2) a slope map derived from a digital elevation model (DEM) or topographic map, and (3) material strength properties of the slopes involved. Provided that the landslide distribution from a triggering event can be documented and mapped, it is often possible to glean enough topographic and geologic information from existing databases to produce a reliable map that depicts landslide hazards from an extreme event. Most areas of the world have enough topographic information to provide digital elevation models from which to construct slope maps. In the likely event that engineering properties of slope materials are not available, reasonable estimates can be made with detailed field examination by engineering geologists or geotechnical engineers. Resulting landslide hazard maps can be used as tools to guide relocation and redevelopment, or, more likely, temporary relocation efforts during severe storm events such as hurricanes/typhoons to minimize loss of life and property. We illustrate these methods in two case studies of lethal landslides in developing countries: Tegucigalpa, Honduras (during Hurricane Mitch in 1998) and the Chuuk Islands, Micronesia (during Typhoon Chata'an in 2002).

  10. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  11. Unethical and Deadly Symbiosis in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbley, D. Larry; Flinn, Ronald; Reichelt, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    As administrators are pressured to increase retention rates in accounting departments, and higher education in general, a deadly symbiosis is occurring. Most students and parents only wish for high grades, so year after year many educators engage in unethical grade inflation and course work deflation. Since administrators use the students to audit…

  12. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit...

  13. Research on seismic stress triggering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万永革; 吴忠良; 周公威; 黄静; 秦立新

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews basic theory of seismic stress triggering. Recent development on seismic stress triggering has been reviewed in the views of seismic static and dynamic stress triggering, application of viscoelastic model in seismic stress triggering, the relation between earthquake triggering and volcanic eruption or explosion, other explanation of earthquake triggering, etc. And some suggestions for further study on seismic stress triggering in near future are given.

  14. Operation of the Upgraded ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Glatzer, Julian Maximilian Volker; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking and has undergone a major upgrade for Run 2 of the LHC, in order to cope with the expected increase of instantaneous luminosity of a factor of 2 with respect to Run 1. The upgraded hardware offers more flexibility in the trigger decisions due to the double amount of trigger inputs and usable trigger channels. It also provides an interface to the new topological trigger system. Operationally - particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs - it allows concurrent running of up to 3 different sub-detector combinations. In this contribution, we give an overview of the operational software framework of the L1CT system with particular emphasis of the configuration, controls and monitoring aspects. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition. Trigger and dead-time rates are m...

  15. Operation of the Upgraded ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Glatzer, Julian Maximilian Volker; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking and has undergone a major upgrade for Run 2 of the LHC, in order to cope with the expected increase of instantaneous luminosity of a factor of 2 with respect to Run 1. The upgraded hardware offers more flexibility in the trigger decisions due to the double amount of trigger inputs and usable trigger channels. It also provides an interface to the new topological trigger system. Operationally - particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs - it allows concurrent running of up to 3 different subdetector combinations. An overview of the operational software framework of the L1CT system with particular emphasis of the configuration, controls and monitoring aspects is given. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition. Trigger and dead-time rates are monitored coherently at...

  16. Exploring challenges to TTO utilities: valuing states worse than dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Angela; Spencer, Anne

    2006-04-01

    The conventional time trade off (TTO) method relies on fundamentally different procedures to assess states better than and worse than dead. Arbitrary transformation mechanisms are then applied to worse than dead scores in order to achieve symmetry with those rated as better than dead. We use a 'life profile' approach along with a ranking procedure in order to show how states rated worse than dead may be assessed in exactly the same manner as better than dead scores. We then explore a common issue associated with states worse than dead that has received some attention recently: maximal endurable time. Our results showed that, although the severe health state was commonly rated as worse than dead, there were relatively few respondents that exhibited MET preferences. We discuss the implications of our findings for the use of the TTO method in deriving values for states that are worse than dead.

  17. The prevalence and challenges of abandoned dead neonates in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children and adults in this subregion, dead neonates are deposited and preserved ... The abandonment and the denial of formal burial for dead neonates could be .... physicians to refer sick babies early for treatment and to modify the present.

  18. Simulating psychophysical tuning curves in listeners with dead regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnaar, Bastiaan; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the relation between diagnosis of dead regions based on the off-frequency psychophysical tuning curve (PTC) tip and the frequency and level of the probe tone. Design: A previously developed functional model of auditory processing was used to simulate the complete...... the outcome of dead region diagnosis using PTCs. Supplementary to PTC dead region diagnostic information, model results may provide additional information regarding the edge frequency of a dead region and OHC function....

  19. Survival of filamentous fungi in hypersaline Dead Sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Papo, T; Oren, A; Wasser, S P; Nevo, E

    2003-02-01

    A variety of filamentous fungi have recently been isolated from the Dead Sea (340 g/L total dissolved salts). To assess the extent to which such fungi can survive for prolonged periods in Dead Sea water, we examined the survival of both spores and mycelia in undiluted Dead Sea water and in Dead Sea water diluted to different degrees with distilled water. Mycelia of Aspergillus versicolor and Chaetomium globosum strains isolated from the Dead Sea remained viable for up to 8 weeks in undiluted Dead Sea water. Four Dead Sea isolates (A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Gymnascella marismortui, and C. globosum) retained their viability in Dead Sea water diluted to 80% during the 12 weeks of the experiment. Mycelia of all species survived for the full term of the experiment in Dead Sea water diluted to 50% and 10% of its original salinity. Comparison of the survival of Dead Sea species and closely related isolates obtained from other locations showed prolonged viability of the strains obtained from the Dead Sea. Spores of isolates obtained from the terrestrial shore of the Dead Sea generally proved less tolerant to suspension in undiluted Dead Sea water than spores of species isolated from the water column. Spores of the species isolated from the control sites had lost their viability in undiluted Dead Sea water within 12 weeks. However, with the exception of Emericella spores, which showed poor survival, a substantial fraction of the spores of Dead Sea fungal isolates remained viable for that period. The difference in survival rate between spores and mycelia of isolates of the same species points to the existence of adapted halotolerant and/or halophilic fungi in the Dead Sea.

  20. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  1. Aspartame-Triggered Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    Two patients with known aspartame-triggered and rizatriptan-responsive migraine had their headaches worsened following use of an aspartame-containing formulation of rizatriptan (Maxalt-MLT), in a report from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

  2. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Alexandre, G; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bee, C; Behera, P; Bell, P; Bendel, M; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I, P; Brelier, B; Brooks, W; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Casadei, D; Casado, P; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; De Santo, A; Degenhardt, J; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Diaz, M; Djilkibaev, R; Dobson, E; Dova, M, T; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Faulkner, P J W; Ferland, J; Flacher, H; Fleckner, J E; Flowerdew, M; Fonseca-Martin, T; Fratina, S; Fhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Gallacher, M P; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gee, C N P; George, S; Gillman, A R; Goncalo, R; Grabowska-Bold, I; Groll, M; Gringer, C; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hauser, R; Hellman, S; Hidvgi, A; Hillier, S J; Hryn'ova, T; Idarraga, J; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Kalinowski, A; Khoriauli, G; Kirk, J; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Koeneke, K; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kwee, R; Landon, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit, F; Lei, X; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Losada, M; Maettig, S; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Maltrana, D; Marino, C; Masik, J; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Mincer, A; Moa, T; Monticelli, F; Moreno, D; Morris, J D; Mller, F; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nemethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Oltmann, B; Olvito, D; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Parodi, F; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Perez Reale, V; Petersen, B; Pinzon, G; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Prokishin, F; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reinsch, A; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Rodriguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Rhr, F; Saavedra, A; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Schiavi, C; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schfer, U; Segura, E; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S; Sivoklokov, S; Sjlin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strom, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Torrence, E; Tripiana, M; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Vachon, B; Vercesi, V; Vorwerk, V; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Weidberg, T; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Whiteson, D; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wildt, M; Winklmeier, F; Wu, X; Xella, S; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; de Seixas, J M; dos Anjos, A; Asman, B; Özcan, E

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 105 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  3. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  4. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section 1203b.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly...

  5. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  6. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  7. Potential Evaporite Biomarkers from the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Penny A.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie; Allen, Carlton C.; McKay, David S.

    2001-01-01

    The Dead Sea is located on the northern branch of the African-Levant Rift systems. The rift system, according to one model, was formed by a series of strike slip faults, initially forming approximately two million years ago. The Dead Sea is an evaporite basin that receives freshwater from springs and from the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is different from other evaporite basins, such as the Great Salt Lake, in that it possesses high concentrations of magnesium and has an average pH of 6.1. The dominant cation in the Great Salt Lake is sodium, and the pH is 7.7. Calcium concentrations are also higher in the Dead Sea than in the Great Salt Lake. Both basins are similar in that the dominant anion is chlorine and the salinity levels are approximately 20 %. Other common cations that have been identified from the waters of the Dead Sea and the Great Salt Lake include sodium and potassium. A variety of Archea, Bacteria, and a single genus of a green algal, Dunaliella, has been described from the Dead Sea. Earlier studies concentrated on microbial identification and analysis of their unique physiology that allows them to survive in this type of extreme environment. Potential microbial fossilization processes, microbial fossils, and the metallic ions associated with fossilization have not been studied thoroughly. The present study is restricted to identifying probable microbial morphologies and associated metallic ions. XRD (X Ray Diffraction) analysis indicates the presence of halite, quartz, and orthoclase feldspar. In addition to these minerals, other workers have reported potassium chloride, magnesium bromide, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and calcium sulfate. Halite, calcium sulfate, and orthoclase were examined in this report for the presence of microbes, microbially induced deposits or microbial alteration. Neither the gypsum nor the orthoclase surfaces possesses any obvious indications of microbial life or fossilization. The sand-sized orthoclase particles are

  8. Dead Sea Minerals loaded polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, Alberto; Kubowicz, Stephan; Alderighi, Michele; Bartoli, Cristina; Piras, Anna Maria; Schmid, Ruth; Chiellini, Federica

    2011-10-15

    Therapeutic properties of Dead Sea Water (DSW) in the treatment of skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and photo aging UV damaged skin have been well established. DSW is in fact rich in minerals such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc and strontium which are known to exploit anti-inflammatory effects and to promote skin barrier recovery. In order to develop a Dead Sea Minerals (DSM) based drug delivery system for topical therapy of skin diseases, polymeric nanoparticles based on Poly (maleic anhydride-alt-butyl vinyl ether) 5% grafted with monomethoxy poly(ethyleneglycol) 2000 MW (PEG) and 95% grafted with 2-methoxyethanol (VAM41-PEG) loaded with DSM were prepared by means of a combined miniemulsion/solvent evaporation process. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized in terms of dimension, morphology, biocompatibility, salt content and release. Cytocompatible spherical nanoparticles possessing an average diameter of about 300 nm, a time controlled drug release profile and a high formulation yield were obtained.

  9. Floating asphalt blocks of the Dead Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Aizenshtat, Z.; Goldberg, M.

    1980-01-01

    Large blocks of mineral matter free (less than 0.1%) asphalt are occasionally found floating on the surface of the Dead Sea. Chemical, spectroscopic and isotopic data are given for the asphalt. The source of the asphalt is not accurately known, but presumably it represents mobilization of heavy viscous asphaltic masses at depth below the lake bottom into the floor of the lake. It may be released to the surface by earth tremors.

  10. Electromagnetic calorimeter trigger at Belle

    CERN Document Server

    Cheon, B G; Lee, S H; Won, E; Park, I C; Hur, T W; Park, C S; Kim, S K; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Chu, T H; Usov, Y V; Aulchenko, V M; Kuzmin, A S; Bondar, A E; Shwartz, B A; Eidelman, S; Krokovnyi, P P; Hayashii, H; Sagawa, H; Fukushima, M

    2002-01-01

    The performance of CsI(Tl) electromagnetic calorimeter trigger system in the Belle experiment is described. Two kinds of trigger schemes have been taken into account, namely a total energy trigger and a cluster counting trigger which are complementary to each other. In addition, the system has provided the online/offline luminosity information using the Bhabha event trigger scheme. An upgrade of the trigger is discussed.

  11. A facial mask comprising Dead Sea mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Mohameed, Hazim A

    2006-01-01

    Many investigators have proved that Dead Sea salt and mud are useful in treating skin disorders and skin diseases. Therefore, the black mud has been extensively used as a base for the preparation of soaps, creams, and unguents for skin care. This study concerns a facial mask made mainly of Dead Sea mud. The effects of temperature and shearing conditions on the rheological behavior of the facial mask were investigated. The mud facial mask exhibited a shear thinning behavior with a yield stress. It was found that the apparent viscosity of the mask has a strong dependence on the shear rate as well as on the temperature. The facial mask exhibited a maximum yield stress and very shear thinning behavior at 40 degrees C, which is attributed to the gelatinization of the polysaccharide used to stabilize the mud particles. On the other hand, the mud mask exhibited a time-independent behavior at low temperatures and shear rates and changed to a thixotropic behavior upon increasing both the temperature and the shear rate. The shear thinning and thixotropic behaviors have a significant importance in the ability of the facial mask to spread on the skin: the Dead Sea mud mask can break down for easy spreading, and the applied film can gain viscosity instantaneously to resist running. Moreover, particle sedimentation, which in this case would negatively affect consumer acceptance of the product, occurs slowly due to high viscosity at rest conditions.

  12. Caring for the Dead Ritually in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Clifford Holt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Buddhist conceptions of the after-life, and prescribed rites in relation to the dead, were modified adaptations of brahman ical patterns of religious culture in ancient India. In this article, I demonstrate how Buddhist conceptions, rites and dispositions have been sustained and transformed in a contemporary annual ritual of rising importance in Cambodia, pchum ben. I analyze phcum ben to determine its fundamental importance to the sustenance and coherence of the Khmer family and national identity. Pchum ben is a 15-day ritual celebrated toward the end of the three-month monastic rain retreat season each year. During these 15 days, Buddhist laity attend ritually to the dead, providing special care for their immediately departed kin and other more recently deceased ancestors. The basic aim of pchum ben involves making a successful transaction of karma transfer to one’s dead kin, in order to help assuage their experiences of suffering. The proximate catalyst for pchum ben’s current popularity is recent social and political history in Southeast Asia, especially the traumatic events that occurred nationally in Cambodia during the early 1970s through the 1980s when the country experienced a series of convulsions. Transformations in religious culture often stand in reflexive relationship to social and political change.

  13. Surviving deadness in the analytic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koritar, Endre

    2014-12-01

    The transference/countertransference (third space) analysis is considered to be central in the therapeutic effectiveness of the analytic process. Less emphasis has been placed on the actual experiences of analyst and analysand in the conflictual reenactment of third space experience and its resolution. This paper recounts the shared experience of a patient who was silent throughout most of the analysis, and my reaction, in fantasy and enactment, to this disturbing experience-both for him and for myself. I argue that it is the affective re-experiencing of past repressed trauma in the analytic space that has a therapeutic impact, leading to growth in the patient and also the therapist. I contrast Freud's emphasis on insight, making the unconscious conscious, with Ferenczi's suggestion that the therapeutic impact lies in the repetition of past traumatic experience in the analysis but with the possibility of a different outcome with a more benign object, leading to symbolic representation of repressed trauma. Re-experiencing and symbolization, in the third space, of past traumatic experience can be an exit point from the endless repetition of trauma in internal and external object relations, leading to a new beginning in the patient's life. Immersed in the experience of deadness in the analysis, which had become a dead womb, the struggle to remain alive and thinking led to a rupture out of the dead womb, like the Caesura of birth, into aliveness and the ability to mentalize what had previously remained unmentalized.

  14. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota

    2012-12-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vertical Mixing in the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertman, Isaac; Ozer, Tal; Katsenelson, Boris; Lensky, Nadav

    2015-04-01

    For hundreds of years, the Dead Sea was characterized by a stable haline stratification, supported by runoff. The penetration of the winter convection was limited to an upper mixed layer (UML) of about 30-50 m. Below the UML, a stable halocline prevented the mixing. As a result of the runoff reduction, the UML salinity increased and the gravitational stability diminished. During the winter of 1978-1979, the sea water overturned, ending the long-term stable hydrological regime. Since 1979, the haline stratification structure reoccurred twice after extremely rainy winters, in 1980-82 and 1992-1995. In other years, the sea was entirely mixed by winter thermal convection ( which occurs from November to March ) and had a seasonal pycnocline beneath the UML during summer. Profiles of temperature and quasi-salinity (density anomaly from 1000 kg/m3 for the chosen reference temperature of 32° C) during the last 19 years, show the formation of summer ``overturning halocline'' beneath the UML, and the thermocline that supports the stable stratification. Another warm and saline layer is formed also during the summer period near the bottom. This layer spreads from the southern part of the sea, where end-brine is discharged to the sea from the Israeli and Jordanian salt plants' evaporation ponds. The end-brine has extremely high salinity (˜ 350 g/kg) and, in spite of the high temperatures ( ˜ 45° C), high density (1350 kg/m^3), it therefore spreads as a gravitational current in the Dead Sea deep basin. Estimation of the density ratio (Rρ) for the Dead Sea water (where measurements of water salinity is quite difficult) was done using quasi-salinity (σ32) and potential temperature (θ): Rρ= [α(partialθ/partial z)]/[β(partial σ32/partial z)], where α and β are temperature expansion and quasi-salinity contraction coefficients respectively. The values of α and β for the Dead Sea water were defined from water samples collected during 2008. The Rρ values confirm that

  16. Normal grief and complicated bereavement among traumatized Cambodian refugees: cultural context and the central role of dreams of the dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Peou, Sonith; Joshi, Siddharth; Nickerson, Angela; Simon, Naomi M

    2013-09-01

    This article profiles bereavement among traumatized Cambodian refugees and explores the validity of a model of how grief and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) interact in this group to form a unique bereavement ontology, a model in which dreams of the dead play a crucial role. Several studies were conducted at a psychiatric clinic treating Cambodian refugees who survived the Pol Pot genocide. Key findings included that Pol Pot deaths were made even more deeply disturbing owing to cultural ideas about "bad death" and the consequences of not performing mortuary rites; that pained recall of the dead in the last month was common (76 % of patients) and usually caused great emotional and somatic distress; that severity of pained recall of the dead was strongly associated with PTSD severity (r = .62); that pained recall was very often triggered by dreaming about the dead, usually of someone who died in the Pol Pot period; and that Cambodians have a complex system of interpretation of dreams of the deceased that frequently causes those dreams to give rise to great distress. Cases are provided that further illustrate the centrality of dreams of the dead in the Cambodian experiencing of grief and PTSD. The article shows that not assessing dreams and concerns about the spiritual status of the deceased in the evaluation of bereavement results in "category truncation," i.e., a lack of content validity, a form of category fallacy.

  17. Normal Grief and Complicated Bereavement among Traumatized Cambodian Refugees: Cultural Context and the Central Role of Dreams of the Dead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E.; Peou, Sonith; Joshi, Siddharth; Nickerson, Angela; Simon, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    This article profiles bereavement among traumatized Cambodian refugees and explores the validity of a model of how grief and PTSD interact in this group to form a unique bereavement ontology, a model in which dreams of the dead play a crucial role. Several studies were conducted at a psychiatric clinic treating Cambodian refugees who survived the Pol Pot genocide. Key findings included that Pol Pot deaths were made even more deeply disturbing owing to cultural ideas about “bad death” and the consequences of not performing mortuary rites; that pained recall of the dead in the last month was common (76% of patients) and usually caused great emotional and somatic distress; that severity of pained recall of the dead was strongly associated with PTSD severity (r = .62); that pained recall was very often triggered by dreaming about the dead, usually of someone who died in the Pol Pot period; and that Cambodians have a complex system of interpretation of dreams of the deceased that frequently causes those dreams to give rise to great distress. Cases are provided that further illustrate the centrality of dreams of the dead in the Cambodian experiencing of grief and PTSD. The article shows that not assessing dreams and concerns about the spiritual status of the deceased in the evaluation of bereavement results in “category truncation,” i.e., a lack of content validity, a form of category fallacy. PMID:23868080

  18. The CMS trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-09-08

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  19. The CMS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; El Sawy, Mai; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, $\\tau$ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  20. Cygnus Trigger System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two radiographic sources (Cygnus 1, Cygnus 2) each with a dose rating of 4 rads at 1 m, and a 1-mm diameter spot size. The electrical specifications are: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This facility is located in an underground environment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for subcritical tests, which are single-shot, high-value events. In such an application there is an emphasis on reliability and reproducibility. A robust, low-jitter trigger system is a key element for meeting these goals. The trigger system was developed with both commercial and project-specific equipment. In addition to the traditional functions of a trigger system there are novel features added to protect the investment of a high-value shot. Details of the trigger system, including elements designed specifically for a subcritical test application, will be presented. The individual electronic components have their nominal throughput, and when assembled have a system throughput with a measured range of jitter. The shot-to-shot jitter will be assessed both individually and in combination. Trigger reliability and reproducibility results will be presented for a substantial number of shots executed at the NTS.

  1. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Physics processes involving tau leptons play a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the high energy frontier. The ability to efficiently trigger on events containing hadronic tau decays is therefore of particular importance to the ATLAS experiment. During the 2012 run, the Large Hadronic Collder (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with bunch crossings occurring every $50 ns$. This resulted in a huge event rate and a high probability of overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). With this in mind it was necessary to design an ATLAS tau trigger system that could reduce the event rate to a manageable level, while efficiently extracting the most interesting physics events in a pile-up robust manner. In this poster the ATLAS tau trigger is described, its performance during 2012 is presented, and the outlook for the LHC Run II is briefly summarized.

  2. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  3. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  4. Dead time optimization method for power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deselaers, C.; Bergmann, U.; Gronwald, F.

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a method for dead time optimization in variable speed motor drive systems. The aim of this method is to reduce the conduction time of the freewheeling diode to a minimum without generation of cross conduction. This results in lower losses, improved EMC, and less overshooting of the phase voltage. The principle of the method is to detect beginning cross currents without adding additional components in the half bridge like resistors or inductances. Only the wave shape of the phase voltage needs to be monitored during switching. This is illustrated by an application of the method to a real power converter.

  5. SUNSETTING THE ICC: IS IT REALLY DEAD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Stone

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC was created in 1887 to regulate railroads. By the mid-1970’s it had grown into the premier independent agency in the federal government, regulating all domestic transport modes except air. But starting in the ‘70’s, the Commission began to shrink in both size and power. By 1995’s end, it disappeared, and was replaced by the Surface Transportation Board (STB that regulates only railroads, although to a lesser extent than the ICC had. There remains the question of whether the ICC is really dead or just renamed.

  6. Disambiguating Syntactic Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakas, William Gregory; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2012-01-01

    We present data from an artificial language domain that suggest new contributions to the theory of syntactic triggers. Whether a learning algorithm is capable of matching the achievements of child learners depends in part on how much parametric ambiguity there is in the input. For practical reasons this cannot be established for the domain of all…

  7. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... irritants include perfumes and aerosol (say: AIR-uh-sol) sprays, such as hair spray and cleaners. Other irritants include wood and tobacco smoke, the smell given off by paint or gas, and air pollution. If you notice that an irritant triggers your ...

  8. The ALFA Trigger Simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Dziedzic B

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents basic information about ALFA detectors used in the ATLAS experiment, and the structure of currently developed device used to test a new ALFA trigger interface. It discusses the block diagram of the device, principle of its operation, implementation details and future plans for developing the Simulator.

  9. When the dead are alive! The influence of the living dead in the letter of Jude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan J. Joubert

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the impact of the deceased on  the audience to which the letter of Jude was originally addressed. A construct of the influence of the “living dead” in ancient Babylon, Israel, the Graeco-Roman world and in African tradition serves as a basic cognitive map to come to terms with Jude’s views on the dead. It is argued that, since the wicked dead, who are being physically punished in  the underworld,  are kept alive  in the collective memory of Jude’s community and since their deeds are re-enacted in the sinful behavior  of intruders in their midst, their lives are influenced by  the “presence” of these living dead. On the other hand and, although Jude does not deal with the physical whereabouts of the righteous death, he and his readers know that their postmortem honour is still intact. The righteous in this community is assured that God protects the integrity of the faithful dead.

  10. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  11. Method for effective dead time measurement in counting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinagre, F.L.R. E-mail: fleonor@saturno.fis.uc.pt; Conde, C.A.N

    2001-04-21

    The counting losses introduced by the dead time of a counting system are a limiting factor in counting measurements. The purpose of this work is to report an efficient method for the measurement of the effective dead time of a counting system and to characterize its dead time behavior, providing a way to investigate each experimental situation. The method, which we designate as Delayed and Mixed Pulses method, is based on the artificial piling-up of detector pulses with electronic pulses delayed by a specific time interval. It is applicable to the measurement of the effective dead time of a counting system, including both pile-up effects and the dead time characteristics of the elements of the counting chain. With counting systems relying on gaseous radiation detectors, we achieved a standard uncertainty of about 5-10% in the dead times measured.

  12. Modelling chemistry over the Dead Sea: bromine and ozone chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smoydzin, L.; Glasow, R

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of O3 and BrO concentrations over the Dead Sea indicate that Ozone Depletion Events (ODEs), widely known to happen in polar regions, are also likely to occur over the Dead Sea due to the very high bromine content of the Dead Sea water. However, we show that BrO and O3 levels as they are detected cannot solely be explained by high Br levels in the Dead Sea water and the release of gas phase halogen...

  13. Resources of dead wood in the municipal forests in Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skwarek Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood plays an important role for the biodiversity of forest ecosystems and influences their proper development. This study assessed the amount of coarse woody debris in municipal forests in Warsaw (central Poland. Based on the forest site type, dominant tree species and age class, we stratified all complexes of the Warsaw urban forests in order to allocate 55 sample plots. For these plots, we determined the volume of dead wood including standing dead trees, coarse woody debris and broken branches as well as uprooted trees. We calculated the amount of dead wood in the distinguished site-species-age layers and for individual complexes. The volume of dead matter in municipal forests in Warsaw amounted to 38,761 m3, i.e. 13.7 m3/ha. The obtained results correspond to the current regulations concerning the amount of dead organic matter to be left in forests. Only in the Las Bielański complex (northern Warsaw volume of dead wood is comparable to the level observed in Polish national parks or nature reserves, which is still far lower than the values found for natural forests. In general, municipal forests in Warsaw stand out positively in terms of dead wood quantity and a high degree of variation in the forms and dimensions of dead wood.

  14. The ecosystem service value of living versus dead biogenic reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, E. V.; Bridger, D.; Attrill, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Mixed maerl beds (corralline red algae) comprise dead thalli with varying amounts of live maerl fragments, but previously it was not known whether the presence of the live maerl increases the ecosystem service 'habitat provision' of the dead maerl for the associated epibenthos. A 'flying array' towed sled with high definition video was used to film transects of the epibenthos in dead maerl and mixed maerl beds in two locations to the north and south of the English Channel (Falmouth and Jersey). Mixed maerl beds supported greater number of taxa and abundance than dead beds in Falmouth, while in Jersey, mixed and dead beds supported similar number of taxa and dead beds had a greater abundance of epifauna. Scallops tended to be more abundant on mixed beds than dead beds. Tube worms were more abundant on mixed beds in Falmouth and dead beds in Jersey. An increasing percentage occurrence of live maerl thalli correlated with increasing number of taxa in Falmouth but not Jersey. It was concluded that while live thalli can increase the functional role of dead maerl beds for the epibenthos, this is dependent on location and response variable. As a result of this work, maerl habitat in SE Jersey has been protected from towed demersal fishing gear.

  15. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101).

  16. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (Wʹ′ and Zʹ′), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this poster, and the latest performance measurements are presented.

  17. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (Wʹ and Zʹ), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this paper, and the results of the latest performance measurements are presented.

  18. Neural networks for triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denby, B. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Campbell, M. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA)); Bedeschi, F. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)); Chriss, N.; Bowers, C. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA)); Nesti, F. (Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The ARGUS vertex trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, N; Kolanoski, H; Siegmund, T; Bergter, J; Eckstein, P; Schubert, Klaus R; Waldi, R; Imhof, M; Ressing, D; Weiss, U; Weseler, S

    1995-01-01

    A fast second level trigger has been developed for the ARGUS experiment which recognizes tracks originating from the interaction region. The processor compares the hits in the ARGUS Micro Vertex Drift Chamber to 245760 masks stored in random access memories. The masks which are fully defined in three dimensions are able to reject tracks originating in the wall of the narrow beampipe of 10.5\\,mm radius.

  20. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding

  1. Stealth and mimicry by deadly bacterial toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, S.P.; Jørgensen, Rene; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2006-01-01

    of the Pseudomonas toxin with an NAD+ analogue and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 have provided new insights into the mechanism of inactivation of protein synthesis caused by these protein factors.  Concomitantly, rigorous steady-state and stopped flow kinetic analyses of the toxin-catalyzed reaction, in combination......Diphtheria toxin and exotoxin A are well-characterized members of the ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin family that serve as virulence factors in the pathogenic bacteria, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  New high-resolution structural data of the Michaelis complex...... with inhibitor studies, has resulted in a quantum leap in our understanding of the mechanistic details of this deadly enzyme mechanism.  Furthermore, it is now apparent that these toxins use stealth and molecular mimicry in unleashing their toxic strategy within the infected host eukaryotic cell....

  2. The dead donor rule: lessons from linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmon, D Alan

    2004-09-01

    American society traditionally has assumed a univocal notion of "death," largely because we have only one word for it and, until recently, have not needed a more nuanced notion. The reality of death-processes does not preclude the reality of death events. Linguistically, "death" can be understood only as an event; there are other words for the process. Our death vocabulary should expand to reflect multiple events along the process from sickness to decomposition. Depending on context, some death-related events may constitute a more obvious discontinuity than others and more justifiably may be considered "death" within that context. There is no reason to assume a priori that there must be an overarching, unitary concept of death from which all diagnostic criteria must derive. Regarding organ transplantation, the relevant question is not "Is the patient dead?" but rather "Can organs X, Y, Z ... be removed without causing or hastening death or harming the patient?"

  3. Day of the Dead: A Mexican-American Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane

    This children's book describes how a Mexican-American family celebrates the traditional Mexican holiday, Day of the Dead (Dia de Muertos). The book centers on 10-year-old twins, Ximena and Azucena, who live in Sacramento, California, with their two brothers, older sister, and parents. The Day of the Dead takes place on the first and second day of…

  4. Turbulence, Transport and Waves in Ohmic Dead Zones

    CERN Document Server

    Gole, Daniel; Lubow, Stephen H; Armitage, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We use local numerical simulations to study a vertically stratified accretion disk with a resistive mid-plane that damps magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. This is an idealized model for the dead zones that may be present at some radii in protoplanetary and dwarf novae disks. We vary the relative thickness of the dead and active zones to quantify how forced fluid motions in the dead zone change. We find that the residual Reynolds stress near the mid-plane decreases with increasing dead zone thickness, becoming negligible in cases where the active to dead mass ratio is less than a few percent. This implies that purely Ohmic dead zones would be vulnerable to episodic accretion outbursts via the mechanism of Martin & Lubow (2011). We show that even thick dead zones support a large amount of kinetic energy, but this energy is largely in fluid motions that are inefficient at angular momentum transport. Confirming results from Oishi & Mac Low (2009), the perturbed velocity field in the dead zone is domin...

  5. Modelling chemistry over the Dead Sea: bromine and ozone chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of O3 and BrO concentrations over the Dead Sea indicate that Ozone Depletion Events (ODEs, widely known to happen in polar regions, are also occuring over the Dead Sea due to the very high bromine content of the Dead Sea water. However, we show that BrO and O3 levels as they are detected cannot solely be explained by high Br levels in the Dead Sea water and the release of gas phase halogen species out of sea borne aerosol particles and their conversion to reactive halogen species. It is likely that other sources for reactive halogen compounds are needed to explain the observed concentrations for BrO and O3. To explain the chemical mechanism taking place over the Dead Sea leading to BrO levels of several pmol/mol we used the one-dimensional model MISTRA which calculates microphysics, meteorology, gas and aerosol phase chemistry. We performed pseudo Lagrangian studies by letting the model column first move over the desert which surrounds the Dead Sea region and then let it move over the Dead Sea itself. To include an additional source for gas phase halogen compounds, gas exchange between the Dead Sea water and the atmosphere is treated explicitly. Model calculations indicate that this process has to be included to explain the measurements.

  6. Day of the Dead: A Mexican-American Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane

    This children's book describes how a Mexican-American family celebrates the traditional Mexican holiday, Day of the Dead (Dia de Muertos). The book centers on 10-year-old twins, Ximena and Azucena, who live in Sacramento, California, with their two brothers, older sister, and parents. The Day of the Dead takes place on the first and second day of…

  7. 37 CFR 1.42 - When the inventor is dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1... for A Patent § 1.42 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of the inventor, the legal representative (executor, administrator, etc.) of the deceased inventor may make the necessary oath...

  8. 37 CFR 1.422 - When the inventor is dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When the inventor is dead. 1... File An International Application § 1.422 When the inventor is dead. In case of the death of the inventor, the legal representative (executor, administrator, etc.) of the deceased inventor may file...

  9. Speaking to the dead: images of the dead in contemporary art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mary

    2011-05-01

    In this article I explore works by three artists in which we can see images that relate to bereavement. In the work of the first two, Araya Rasdjarmrearnsook and Andres Serrano, we can see photographic images (still and moving) of human corpses, which have been criticized as morbid and unhealthy. However I argue that it is not in fact images of death or the dead that are problematic but those images which present or evoke evidence of the emotions associated with death, and create a situation where we imagine the circumstances of our own deaths or the death of those we love. Images of the dead are acceptable as long as they do not cause pain to the living, as in a video game fantasy or a fiction, or are seen as other and distant. In the second group of works, by Gustgav Metzger, The Absent Dead: The Surrogate Body, the body is not present either because the death has taken place at a distance, either in time or geographically, or both, and a new site must be created. In this section, I discuss Metzger's auto-destructive art and argue that these works, through their ephemerality, embody a form of 'meaning making' and a possibility of the benefits of grief as described by Parkes.

  10. Triggering filamentation using turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Eeltink, D; Marchiando, N; Hermelin, S; Gateau, J; Brunetti, M; Wolf, J P; Kasparian, J

    2016-01-01

    We study the triggering of single filaments due to turbulence in the beam path for a laser of power below the filamenting threshold. Turbulence can act as a switch between the beam not filamenting and producing single filaments. This 'positive' effect of turbulence on the filament probability, combined with our observation of off-axis filaments suggests the underlying mechanism is modulation instability caused by transverse perturbations. We hereby experimentally explore the interaction of modulation instability and turbulence, commonly associated with multiple-filaments, in the single-filament regime.

  11. The NA48 trigger supervisor

    CERN Document Server

    Arcidiacono, R; Berotto, F; Bertolino, F; Govi, G; Menichetti, E; Sozzi, M

    2000-01-01

    The NA48 experiment aims to measure direct CP violation in the K/sub L//sup 0/ decays system with an accuracy of 2*10/sup -4/. High performances are required to the trigger and acquisition systems. This paper describes the NA48 Trigger Supervisor, a 40 MHz pipelined hardware system which correlates and processes trigger informations from local trigger sources, searching for interesting patterns. The trigger packet include a timestamp information used by the readout systems to retrieve detector data. The design architecture and functionality during 98 data taking are described. (5 refs).

  12. The ATLAS tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuno, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS tau trigger has three levels: the first one (L1) is hardware based and uses FPGAs, while the second (L2) and third levels (EF -Event Filter-) are software based and use commodity computers (2 x Intel Harpertown quad-core 2.5 GHz), running scientific linux 4. In this contribution we discuss both the physics characteristics of tau leptons and the technical solutions to quick data access and fast algorithms. We show that L1 selects narrow jets in the calorimeter with an overall rejection against QCD jets of 300, whilst L2 and EF (referred together as High Level Trigger -HLT-) use all the detectors with full granularity and apply a typical rejection of 15 within the stringent timing requirements of the LHC. In the HLT there are two complementary approaches: specialized, fast algorithms are used at L2, while more refined and sophisticated algorithms, imported from the offline, are utilized in the EF.

  13. ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger-Champagne, C; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Casado, MP; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    Moving to the high energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons will become a necessary and very powerful tool, allowing a discovery of physics beyond Standard Model. Many models, among them light SM Higgs and various SUSY models, predict an abundant production of taus with respect to other leptons. The reconstruction of hadronic tau decays, although a very challenging task in hadronic enviroments, allows to increase a signal efficiency by at least of factor 2, and provides an independent control sample to disantangle lepton tau decays from prompt electrons and muons. Thanks to the advanced calorimetry and tracking, the ATLAS experiment has developed tools to efficiently identify hadronic taus at the trigger level. In this presentation we will review the characteristics of taus and the methods to suppress low-multiplicity, low-energy jets contributions as well as we will address the tau trigger chain which provide a rejection rate of 10^5. We will further present plans for commissioning the ATLA...

  14. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp-collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.09 < |eta| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presen...

  15. Micro-facies of Dead Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Ina; Schwab, Markus J.; Brauer, Achim; Frank, Ute; Dulski, Peter; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Enzel, Yehouda; Waldmann, Nicolas; Ariztegui, Daniel; Drilling Party, Dsddp

    2013-04-01

    Lacustrine sediments infilling the Dead Sea basin (DSB) provide a rare opportunity to trace changing climates in the eastern Mediterranean-Levant region throughout the Pleistocene and Holocene. In this context, high-resolution investigation of changes in sediment micro- facies allow deciphering short-term climatic fluctuations and changing environmental conditions in the Levant. The Dead Sea is a terminal lake with one of the largest drainage areas in the Levant, located in the Mediterranean climate zone and influenced also by the Saharo-Arabian deserts. Due to drastic climatic changes in this region, an exceptionally large variety of lacustrine sediments has been deposited in the DSB. These sediments, partially the results of changing lake levels, primarily represent changes in precipitation (e.g. Enzel et al., 2008). Evaporites (halite and gypsum) reflect dry climatic conditions during interglacials, while alternated aragonite-detritus (AAD) is deposited during glacial lake level high-stands. Here we present the first micro-facies inventory of a ~450 m long sediment profile from the deepest part of the northern DSB (ICDP site 5017-1, ~300 m water depth). The sediment record comprises the last two glacial-interglacial cycles, with mainly AAD facies in the upper part of the Amora Formation (penultimate glacial) and the last glacial Lisan Formation. The last interglacial Samra and the Holocene Zeelim Formations are predominantly characterized by thick bedded halite deposits, intercalated by partly laminated detrital marl sequences. Representative sections of the different facies types have been analyzed for micro-facies on petrographic thin sections, supported by high-resolution µXRF element scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements and microscopic fluorescence analysis. Furthermore, Holocene sediments retrieved at the deep basin core site have been compared to their shallow-water counterpart at the western margin of the lake (core DSEn; Migowski et al., 2004

  16. Personal Identity and Resurrection from the Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparov Igor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines arguments of the “Christian materialist” Trenton Merricks that he provided in support of the claim that the Christian doctrine of resurrection from the dead is compatible with the materialist understanding of the nature of human beings. In his paper The Resurrection of the Body, Merricks discussed two aspects of the materialist interpretation of the traditional religious doctrine of the bodily resurrection. On the one hand, he analyses and tries to overcome objections against the possibility of the general resurrection in case the materialist understanding of the nature of human personality should be true (mainly the problem of the temporal gap. On the other hand, he provides some reasons why the materialist understanding of human nature is more relevant than its dualist counterpart to the doctrine of the bodily resurrection. The present paper evaluates his arguments and discusses the suggestion that the doctrine of resurrection is not only compatible with materialism, but is also tenable if human beings are identical with their physical bodies. The conclusion of the paper is that Merricks’ apologetic arguments achieve their aims in defending the doctrine of resurrection only partially; the resurrection doctrine appears more tenable if we accept the dualistic conception of human nature.

  17. Autopsies of the real: Resurrecting the dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valis, Noël

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sense of the real, or the material—the dead body—as an inextricable part of the sacred does not disappear in the secular environment of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article analyzes specific humanitarian narratives centered on the practice of autopsy and mummification, in which the traces of Catholicism act as a kind of spectral discourse of the imagination, where the real is configured in forms of the uncanny, the monstrous or the sacred.

    El sentido de lo real, de lo material —el cuerpo sin vida— como una inextricable parte de lo sagrado, no desaparece del ambiente secular de los siglos XIX y XX. En los relatos analizados en este artículo se estudia cómo en determinadas narrativas humanitarias centradas en la práctica de la autopsia y la momificación, las huellas del catolicismo actúan como una suerte de discurso espectral de la imaginación, en que lo real se configura en formas de lo siniestro, lo monstruoso o lo sagrado.

  18. Organic geochemistry of Dead Sea sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.; Baedecker, M.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1972-01-01

    Four stations in the Dead Sea (representing two shallow oxidizing and two deep reducing environments) were analyzed. The total organic carbon content of the sediment ranged from 0.23 to 0.40 percent. Hydrocarbons, fatty acids, amino acids, humic acids and chlorins were separated and characterized. Of special significance were the following findings: (1) the presence of the isoprenoid hydrocarbons (phytane and pristane) as well as phytanic acid, phytol and dihydrophytol, all thought to be derived from a phosphatidyl glycerophosphate lipid present in halophilic bacteria which populate the water column; (2) a high abundance of unsaturated C-18 fatty acids; (3) presence of apparently unaltered chlorophyll a in the chlorins isolated, but absence of chlorophyll b; and (4) low concentration of humic and fulvic acids in the oxidizing shallow sediments as compared to their concentration in the deeper reducing sediments. It is apparent that the hypersaline environment is conducive for preservation of the organic matter under reducing conditions but not under oxidizing conditions. In the latter case, the organic matter of the sediment is rapidly converted into an insoluble, non-extractable complex.

  19. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  20. The Study of TVS Trigger Geometry and Triggered Vacuum Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Wung-Hoa; Son, Yoon-Kyoo; Frank, Klaus; Lee, Byung-Joon

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the optimization of the trigger unit of a six-rod TVS. The different configurations of the trigger pin and of the trigger electrode have been considered to study the electric field distribution at the triple points of the unit embedded in the cathode. To optimize the field enhancement, electric field simulations with a planar and a circular heads of the trigger pin in combinations with a convex and a concave shaped trigger electrodes have been done. The simulations were done with an applied trigger pulse voltage of Utrigger = 5 kV and with a discharge voltage the main switch of Uswitch = 20 kV. The experimental values had been Utrigger = 40 kV and Uswitch = 5 kV. The simulation results show that the combination of a circular trigger pin head and a concave trigger electrode yields the highest electric field of 9.6 .106 V/m at the triple point. In-parallel experiments have been performed with those four trigger configurations. The results of the experiments however cannot yet clearl...

  1. Dead-Time Generation in Six-Phase Frequency Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Pitrėnas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper control of multi-phase induction drives is discussed. Structure of six-phase frequency inverter is examined. The article deals with dead-time generation circuits in six-phase frequency inverter for transistor control signals. Computer models of dead-time circuits is created using LTspice software package. Simulation results are compared with experimental results of the tested dead-time circuits. Parameters obtained in simulation results are close to the parameters obtained in experimental results.

  2. Ramses II Helps the Dead: an Interpretation of Book of the Dead Supplementary Chapter 166

    OpenAIRE

    Dahms, Jan; Pehal, Martin; Willems, Harco

    2014-01-01

    As opposed to other studies, the authors approach the interpretation of Book of the Dead supplementary chapter 166 by taking the introductory part of the text—stating that it has been found ‘on the neck of king Ramses II’—at face value. This has the implication that the text was found on the king’s mummy, something that could only have happened on one of the several occasions it was reburied after the initial robbings around the end of the New Kingdom. The authors argue that the o...

  3. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Deldicque, C; Ero, J; Frühwirth, R; Jeitler, Manfred; Kastner, K; Köstner, S; Neumeister, N; Porth, M; Padrta P; Rohringer, H; Sakulinb, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Walzel, G; Wulz, C E; Lowette, S; Van De Vyver, B; De Lentdecker, G; Vanlaer, P; Delaere, C; Lemaître, V; Ninane, A; van der Aa, O; Damgov, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampen, T; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lehti, S; Nysten, J; Tuominiemi, J; Busson, P; Todorov, T; Schwering, G; Gras, P; Daskalakis, G; Sfyrla, A; Barone, M; Geralis, T; Markou, C; Zachariadou, K; Hidas, P; Banerjee, S; Mazumdara, K; Abbrescia, M; Colaleoa, A; D'Amato, N; De Filippis, N; Giordano, D; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Silvestris, L; Zito, G; Arcelli, S; Bonacorsi, D; Capiluppi, P; Dallavalle, G M; Fanfani, A; Grandi, C; Marcellini, S; Montanari, A; Odorici, F; Travaglini, R; Costa, S; Tricomi, A; Ciulli, a V; Magini, N; Ranieri, R; Berti, L; Biasotto, M; Gulminia, M; Maron, G; Toniolo, N; Zangrando, L; Bellato, M; Gasparini, U; Lacaprara, S; Parenti, A; Ronchese, P; Vanini, S; Zotto, S; Ventura P L; Perugia; Benedetti, D; Biasini, M; Fano, L; Servoli, L; Bagliesi, a G; Boccali, T; Dutta, S; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Palla, F; Segneri, G; Starodumov, A; Tenchini, R; Meridiani, P; Organtini, G; Amapane, a N; Bertolino, F; Cirio, R; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Pac, Y; Joo, K; Kim, S B; Suwon; Choi, Y I; Yu, I T; Cho, K; Chung, J; Ham, S W; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, W; CKim, J; Oh, S K; Park, H; Ro, S R; Son, D C; Suh, J S; Aftab, Z; Hoorani, H; Osmana, A; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, K; Kazana, M; Królikowski, J; Kudla, I; Pietrusinski, M; Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Zabolotny, W M; Zalipska, J; Zych, P; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Almeida, C; Almeida, N; Da Silva, J C; Santos, M; Teixeira, I; Teixeira, J P; Varelaa, J; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Konoplyanikov, V F; Urkinbaev, A R; Toropin, A; Gavrilov, V; Kolosov, V; Krokhotin, A; Oulianov, A; Stepanov, N; Kodolova, O L; Vardanyan, I; Ilic, J; Skoro, G P; Albajar, C; De Troconiz, J F; Calderón, A; López-Virto, M A; Marco, R; Martínez-Rivero, C; Matorras, F; Vila, I; Cucciarelli, S; Konecki, M; Ashby, S; Barney, D; Bartalini, P; Benetta, R; Brigljevic, V; Bruno, G; Cano, E; Cittolin, S; Della Negra, M; de Roeck, A; Favre, P; Frey, A; Funk, W; Futyan, D; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Innocente, V; Jacobs, C; Jank, W; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Larsen, H; Lenzi, M; Magrans, I; Mannelli, M; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Mirabito, L; Murray, S J; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Palomares-Espiga, C; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Reynaud, S; Samyn, D; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schwick, C; Sguazzoni, G; Sinanis, N; Sphicas, P; Spiropulu, M; Strandlie, A; Taylor, B G; Van Vulpen, I; Wellisch, J P; Winkler, M; Villigen; Kotlinski, D; Zurich; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Dumanoglu, I; Bristol; Bailey, S; Brooke, J J; Cussans, D; Heath, G P; Machin, D; Nash, S J; Newbold, D; Didcot; Coughlan, A; Halsall, R; Haynes, W J; Tomalin, I R; Marinelli, N; Nikitenko, A; Rutherford, S; Seeza, C; Sharif, O; Antchev, G; Hazen, E; Rohlf, J; Wu, S; Breedon, R; Cox, P T; Murray, P; Tripathi, M; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Kreuzer, P; Lindgren, M; Mumford, J; Schlein, P E; Shi, Y; Tannenbaum, B; Valuev, V; Von der Mey, M; Andreevaa, I; Clare, R; Villa, S; Bhattacharya, S; Branson, J G; Fisk, I; Letts, J; Mojaver, M; Paar, H P; Trepagnier, E; Litvine, V; Shevchenko, S; Singh, S; Wilkinson, R; Aziz, S; Bowden, M; Elias, J E; Graham, G; Green, D; Litmaath, M; Los, S; O'Dell, V; Ratnikova, N; Suzuki, I; Wenzel, H; Acosta, D; Bourilkov, D; Korytov, A; Madorsky, A; Mitselmakher, G; Rodríguez, J L; Scurlock, B; Abdullin, S; Baden, D; Eno, S; Grassi, T; Kunori, S; Pavlon, S; Sumorok, K; Tether, S; Cremaldi, L M; Sanders, D; Summers, D; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Fisher,W C; Mans6, J; Stickland, D P; Tully, C; Wildish, T; Wynhoff, S; Padley, B P; Chumney, P; Dasu, S; Smith, W H; CMS Trigger Data Acquisition Group

    2006-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider at CERN the proton bunches cross at a rate of 40MHz. At the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment the original collision rate is reduced by a factor of O (1000) using a Level-1 hardware trigger. A subsequent factor of O(1000) data reduction is obtained by a software-implemented High Level Trigger (HLT) selection that is executed on a multi-processor farm. In this review we present in detail prototype CMS HLT physics selection algorithms, expected trigger rates and trigger performance in terms of both physics efficiency and timing.

  4. Communicating the deadly consequences of global warming for human heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Tom K R; Wilby, Robert L; Murphy, Conor

    2017-04-11

    In December of 2015, the international community pledged to limit global warming to below 2 °C above preindustrial (PI) to prevent dangerous climate change. However, to what extent, and for whom, is danger avoided if this ambitious target is realized? We address these questions by scrutinizing heat stress, because the frequency of extremely hot weather is expected to continue to rise in the approach to the 2 °C limit. We use analogs and the extreme South Asian heat of 2015 as a focusing event to help interpret the increasing frequency of deadly heat under specified amounts of global warming. Using a large ensemble of climate models, our results confirm that global mean air temperature is nonlinearly related to heat stress, meaning that the same future warming as realized to date could trigger larger increases in societal impacts than historically experienced. This nonlinearity is higher for heat stress metrics that integrate the effect of rising humidity. We show that, even in a climate held to 2 °C above PI, Karachi (Pakistan) and Kolkata (India) could expect conditions equivalent to their deadly 2015 heatwaves every year. With only 1.5 °C of global warming, twice as many megacities (such as Lagos, Nigeria, and Shanghai, China) could become heat stressed, exposing more than 350 million more people to deadly heat by 2050 under a midrange population growth scenario. The results underscore that, even if the Paris targets are realized, there could still be a significant adaptation imperative for vulnerable urban populations.

  5. Communicating the deadly consequences of global warming for human heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Tom K. R.; Wilby, Robert L.; Murphy, Conor

    2017-04-01

    In December of 2015, the international community pledged to limit global warming to below 2 °C above preindustrial (PI) to prevent dangerous climate change. However, to what extent, and for whom, is danger avoided if this ambitious target is realized? We address these questions by scrutinizing heat stress, because the frequency of extremely hot weather is expected to continue to rise in the approach to the 2 °C limit. We use analogs and the extreme South Asian heat of 2015 as a focusing event to help interpret the increasing frequency of deadly heat under specified amounts of global warming. Using a large ensemble of climate models, our results confirm that global mean air temperature is nonlinearly related to heat stress, meaning that the same future warming as realized to date could trigger larger increases in societal impacts than historically experienced. This nonlinearity is higher for heat stress metrics that integrate the effect of rising humidity. We show that, even in a climate held to 2 °C above PI, Karachi (Pakistan) and Kolkata (India) could expect conditions equivalent to their deadly 2015 heatwaves every year. With only 1.5 °C of global warming, twice as many megacities (such as Lagos, Nigeria, and Shanghai, China) could become heat stressed, exposing more than 350 million more people to deadly heat by 2050 under a midrange population growth scenario. The results underscore that, even if the Paris targets are realized, there could still be a significant adaptation imperative for vulnerable urban populations.

  6. The PHENIX Muon Trigger Upgrade Level-1 Trigger System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, John; Kempel, Todd

    2010-02-01

    The PHENIX Muon Trigger Upgrade adds a set of Level-1 trigger detectors to the existing muon spectrometers and will enhance the ability of the experiment to pursue a rich program of spin physics in polarized proton collisions. The upgrade will allow the experiment to select high momentum muons from the decay of W bosons and reject both beam-associated and low-momentum collision background, enabling the study of quark and antiquark polarization in the proton. The Muon Trigger Upgrade will add momentum and timing information to the present muon Level-1 trigger, which only makes use of tracking in the PHENIX muon identifier (MuID) panels. Signals from new Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) and re-instrumented planes in the existing muon tracking (MuTr) chambers will provide momentum and timing information for the new Level-1 trigger. An RPC timing resolution of ˜2 ns will permit rejection of beam related backgrounds while tracking information from the RPCs and MuTr station will be used by the trigger to select events with high momentum muon candidates. The RPC and MuTr hit information will be sent by optical fibers to a set of Level-1 trigger processors that will make use of cutting edge FPGA technology to provide very high data densities in a compact form factor. The layout of the upgrade, details of the Level-1 electronics and trigger algorithm development will be presented. )

  7. Exposing the dead cone effect with jet substructure techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, Fabio; Selvaggi, Michele; Thaler, Jesse

    2016-09-01

    The dead cone is a well-known effect in gauge theories, where radiation from a charged particle of mass m and energy E is suppressed within an angular size of m /E . This effect is universal as it does not depend on the spin of the particle nor on the nature of the gauge interaction. It is challenging to directly measure the dead cone at colliders, however, since the region of suppressed radiation either is too small to be resolved or is filled by the decay products of the massive particle. In this paper, we propose to use jet substructure techniques to expose the dead cone effect in the strong-force radiation pattern around boosted top quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. Our study shows that with 300 /fb of 13-14 TeV collision data, ATLAS and CMS could obtain the first direct evidence of the dead cone effect and test its basic features.

  8. The dead and gone: Preparations and final repose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The relations between the living and the dead are sanctioned by specific departure ceremonies and a series of maintenance operations that vary in their elaboration...

  9. Common Viruses a Deadly Threat At Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163048.html Common Viruses a Deadly Threat at Nursing Homes RSV and human metapneumovirus need to be ... News) -- Common viruses pose a serious threat in nursing homes, often sabotaging standard infection control measures, a ...

  10. Dead zone area at the downstream flow of barrages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Sauida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flow separation is a natural phenomenon encountered at some cases downstream of barrages. The main flow is divided into current and dead zone flows. The percentage area of dead zone flow must be taken into consideration downstream of barrages, due to its negative effect on flow characteristics. Experimental studies were conducted in the Hydraulic Research Institute (HRI, on a physical regulator model with five vents. Theoretically the separation zone is described as a part of an ellipse which is practically verified by plotting velocity vectors. The results show that the percentage area of dead zone to the area through length of separation depends mainly on the expansion ratio [channel width to width of opened vents], with maximum value of 81% for operated side gates. A statistical analysis was derived, to predict the percentage area of dead zone flow to the area through length of separation.

  11. Dark Skin No Shield from Deadly Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166194.html Dark Skin No Shield From Deadly Skin Cancer Death rates from melanoma are higher for people of color, skin expert says To use the sharing features on ...

  12. Daily Living Movement Recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinelli, Alessio; Morosi, Simone; Del Re, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    .... By focusing on the latter, in particular Pedestrian Dead Reckoning navigation systems, activity recognition is generally exploited to get landmarks on the map of the buildings in order to permit...

  13. Dead Crow Density and West Nile Virus Monitoring, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Kate; Hagiwara, Yoichiro; Anand, Madhu; Backenson, P. Bryon; Gotham, Ivan; Kramer, Laura

    2005-01-01

    New York State used the health commerce system to monitor the number of West Nile virus (WNV) human disease cases and the density of dead crows. In each year from 2001 to 2003 and for the 3 years combined, persons living in New York counties (excluding New York City) with elevated weekly dead crow densities (above a threshold value of 0.1 dead crows per square mile) had higher risk (2.0–8.6 times) for disease caused by WNV within the next 2 weeks than residents of counties reporting fewer dead crows per square mile. This type of index can offer a real-time, relatively inexpensive window into viral activity in time for prevention and control. Changes in reporting, bird populations, and immunity may require that thresholds other than 0.1 be used in later years or in other areas. PMID:16229764

  14. Seven deadly clicks essential lessons for online safety and success

    CERN Document Server

    Strupeck, Margo

    2013-01-01

    Pulling examples from high-profile pop culture cases, Seven Deadly Clicks explains the very real dangers behind common online activities, and offers advice on how to not only stay safe, but also thrive.

  15. Assessment and Management of Dead-Wood Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is in the process of revising its resource management plans for six districts in western and southern Oregon as the result of the settlement of a lawsuit brought by the American Forest Resource Council. A range of management alternatives is being considered and evaluated including at least one that will minimize reserves on O&C lands. In order to develop the bases for evaluating management alternatives, the agency needs to derive a reasonable range of objectives for key issues and resources. Dead-wood habitat for wildlife has been identified as a key resource for which decision-making tools and techniques need to be refined and clarified. Under the Northwest Forest Plan, reserves were to play an important role in providing habitat for species associated with dead wood (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, 1994). Thus, the BLM needs to: 1) address the question of how dead wood will be provided if reserves are not included as a management strategy in the revised Resource Management Plan, and 2) be able to evaluate the effects of alternative land management approaches. Dead wood has become an increasingly important conservation issue in managed forests, as awareness of its function in providing wildlife habitat and in basic ecological processes has dramatically increased over the last several decades (Laudenslayer et al., 2002). A major concern of forest managers is providing dead wood habitat for terrestrial wildlife. Wildlife in Pacific Northwest forests have evolved with disturbances that create large amounts of dead wood; so, it is not surprising that many species are closely associated with standing (snags) or down, dead wood. In general, the occurrence or abundance of one-quarter to one-third of forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species, is strongly associated with availability of suitable dead-wood habitat (Bunnell et al., 1999; Rose et al

  16. Smart City Planning Can Cut Deadly Diseases, Improve Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161133.html Smart City Planning Can Cut Deadly Diseases, Improve Air ... to shop; availability and safety of bike paths; parking costs; and access to public transportation. Specifically, the ...

  17. Assessment of biofuel potential of dead neem leaves (Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TIZE

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... energy supply), and reduce the ecological destruction ... Energy potential of the dead neem leaves biomass ..... Valorization of agricultural and other organic wastes ... Modernization strategies of wood chain energy value.

  18. Dead time effects in laser Doppler anemometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Buchhave, Preben; George, William K.

    2014-01-01

    We present velocity power spectra computed by the so-called direct method from burst-type laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) data, both measured in a turbulent round jet and generated in a computer. Using today’s powerful computers, we have been able to study more properties of the computed spectra...... frequency range, starting around the cutoff frequency due to the finite size of the MV. Using computer-generated data mimicking the LDA data, these effects have previously been shown to appear due to the effect of dead time, i.e., the finite time during which the system is not able to acquire new...... measurements. These dead times can be traced back to the fact that the burst-mode LDA cannot measure more than one signal burst at a time. Since the dead time is approximately equal to the residence time for a particle traversing a measurement volume, we are dealing with widely varying dead times, which...

  19. An Analysis on the Theme of The Dead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢盈盈

    2010-01-01

    By analyzing the plot and the characters,this essay is to draw the themes of in this story-mortality and spiritual paralysis.Everything in the world as people's life is perceived to be marching inexorably into death,and the dead assume great power over the living;people are spiritually paralyzed by self-consciousness and conservative thoughts,and their inability to grow mentally makes them fossilized,dead like those sleep in the coffin.

  20. Experimental dead-time distortions of poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraci, G.; Pennisi, A. R.

    1983-07-01

    In order to check the distortions, introduced by a non-extended dead time on the Poisson statistics, accurate experiments have been made in single channel counting. At a given measuring time, the dependence on the choice of the time origin and on the width of the dead time has been verified. An excellent agreement has been found between the theoretical expressions and the experimental curves.

  1. Experimental dead-time distortions of Poisson processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraci, G.; Pennisi, A.R. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Catania (Italy). Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura della Materia)

    1983-07-01

    In order to check the distortions, introduced by a non-extended dead time on the Poisson statistics, accurate experiments have been made in single channel counting. At a given measuring time, the dependence on the choice of the time origin and on the width of the dead time has been verified. An excellent agreement has been found between the theoretical expressions and the experimental curves.

  2. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Elizabeth J; Zentner, Andrew R; Bullock, James S; Wechsler, Risa H

    2007-01-01

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to ``field'' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than ``field'' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N=2 halos) and a control sample of isolated galaxies (N=1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M_Bj ~ 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxi...

  3. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah

    2011-06-01

    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  4. Memorial service: A means of communication with the dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Barišić Milina M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A specific relationship toward the dead characterizes the traditional Serbian culture; this cult exists even today, in somewhat changed form. A death is always followed by the appropriate, traditional, ritual obligations that served to regulate behavior of a family, or even wider community members that has lost one of its members. The relationship with the dead does not cease after the funeral, but it continues to be maintained during general holidays dedicated to the dead-memorial service. These are the days dedicated to all dead, and when offerings were made especially for the deceased. The memorial services take place in particular days of the year: most often on Saturdays, on Saturdays before another holiday, the Spirits, and on Saturdays before the holiday Mitrovdan; memorial services are also connected with some other holidays during the year. In addition to the general memorial service dedicated to all dead, there are so-called special memorial services, which take place only in special occasions (on holidays like Petrovdan, Saint Ilija, Velika Gospojina, Trojice and more. Many different rituals performed during memorial services, as well as ritual objects used should provide the deceased with a safe residence in their new environment. The most important rituals that enabled the communication with the dead include: preparing and sharing food and drinks, visits to a cemetery, lighting candles, incense of graves, vine spilling, decoration with flowers and basilica. The most important ritual objects are: graves, food, drinks, candles, incense, vine, flowers and basilica.

  5. Teleseismic traveltimes residuals across the Dead Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.

    2014-12-01

    New findings of the structure of the Dead Sea sedimentary basin and its eastern and western bordering regions are obtained by P and PKP wave relative traveltime residuals of 644 teleseisms, as recorded by the Dead Sea Integrated Research portable seismic network in the Dead Sea basin and its neighboring regions. The Lisan Peninsula is characterized by relatively small teleseismic traveltime residuals of about 0.14 s, in the latitude range of 31.22°-31.37° and at the longitude of 35.50°, slowly decreasing toward the west. The largest teleseismic traveltime residuals are in the southern Dead Sea basin, south of the Lisan Peninsula in the latitude range of 31.05°-31.15° and along longitude 35.45° and continuing southward toward the Amaziahu Fault, reaching values of 0.4-0.5 s. There is a small positive residual at the Amaziahu Fault and a small negative residual south of it probably marking the southern end of the Dead Sea basin. East and west of the Dead Sea basin the mean teleseismic traveltime residuals are negative with overall averages of -0.35 s and -0.45 s, respectively. Using the teleseismic residuals, we estimate the horizontal dimensions of the Lisan salt diapir to be 23 km × 13 km at its widest and a maximal thickness of about 7.2 km. The thickness of the Mount Sodom salt diapir is estimated as 6.2 km.

  6. Prototyping an Early-warning System for Rainfall-triggered Landslides on a Regional Scale Using a Physically-based Model and Remote Sensing Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z.; Hong, Y.; Kirschbaum, D. B.; Fukuoka, H.; Sassa, K.; Karnawati, D.; Fathani, F.

    2010-12-01

    Recent advancements in the availability of remotely sensed datasets provide an opportunity to advance the predictability of rainfall-triggered landslides at larger spatial scales. An early-warning system based on a physical landslide model and remote sensing information is used to simulate the dynamical response of the soil water content to the spatiotemporal variability of rainfall in complex terrain. The system utilizes geomorphologic datasets including a 30-meter ASTER DEM, a 1-km downscaled FAO soil map, and satellite-based Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation. The applied physical model SLIDE (SLope-Infiltration-Distributed Equilibrium) defines a direct relationship between a factor of safety and the rainfall depth on an infinite slope. This prototype model is applied to a case study in Honduras during Hurricane Mitch in 1998 and a secondary case of typhoon-induced shallow landslides over Java Island, Indonesia. In Honduras, two study areas were selected which cover approximately 1,200 square kilometers and where a high density of shallow landslides occurred. The results were quantitatively evaluated using landslide inventory data compiled by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) following Hurricane Mitch, and show a good agreement between the modeling results and observations. The success rate for accurately estimating slope failure locations reached as high as 78% and 75%, while the error indices were 35% and 49%, respectively for each of the two selected study areas. Advantages and limitations of this application are discussed with respect to future assessment and challenges of performing a slope-stability estimation using coarse data at 1200 square kilometers. In Indonesia, the system has been applied over the whole Java Island. The prototyped early-warning system has been enhanced by integration of a susceptibility mapping and a precipitation forecasting model (i.e. Weather Research Forecast). The performance has been evaluated

  7. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  8. GnRH agonist triggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Humaidan, Peter; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2013-01-01

    The concept that a bolus of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) can replace human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) as a trigger of final oocyte maturation was introduced several years ago. Recent developments in the area strengthen this premise. GnRHa trigger offers important advantages...... triggering concept should be challenged and that the GnRHa trigger is the way to move forward with thoughtful consideration of the needs, safety and comfort of our patients. Routinely, human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is used to induce ovulation in fertility treatments. This approach deviates...... significantly from physiology and often results in insufficient hormonal support in early pregnancy and in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). An alternative approach is to use a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist which allows a more physiological trigger of ovulation and, most importantly...

  9. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  10. The CMS High Level Trigger: Commissioning and First Operation with LHC Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Felcini, Marta

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics. The High Level Trigger is implemented on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Filter Farm. Trigger menus have been developed for detector calibration and for fulfilment of the CMS physics program, at start-up of LHC operations, as well as for operations with higher luminosities. A complete multipurpose trigger menu developed for an early instantaneous luminosity of 10^{32}cm{-2}s{-1} has been tested in the HLT system under realistic online running conditions. The required computing power needed to process with no dead time a maximum HLT input rate of 50 kHz, as expected at startup, has been measured, us...

  11. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  12. Magnetized Accretion and Dead Zones in Protostellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Henning, Thomas; Kley, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    The edges of magnetically-dead zones in protostellar disks have been proposed as locations where density bumps may arise, trapping planetesimals and helping form planets. Magneto-rotational turbulence in magnetically-active zones provides both accretion of gas on the star and transport of mass to the dead zone. We investigate the location of the magnetically-active regions in a protostellar disk around a solar-type star, varying the disk temperature, surface density profile, and dust-to-gas ratio. We also consider stellar masses between 0.4 and 2 $M_\\odot$, with corresponding adjustments in the disk mass and temperature. The dead zone's size and shape are found using the Elsasser number criterion with conductivities including the contributions from ions, electrons, and charged fractal dust aggregates. The charged species' abundances are found using the approach proposed by S. Okuzumi. The dead zone is in most cases defined by the ambipolar diffusion. In our maps, the dead zone takes a variety of shapes, inclu...

  13. Planet formation bursts at the borders of the dead zone in 2D numerical simulations of circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Lyra, W; Zsom, A; Klahr, H; Piskunov, N

    2009-01-01

    As accretion in protoplanetary disks is enabled by turbulent viscosity, the border between active and inactive (dead) zones constitutes a location where there is an abrupt change in the accretion flow. The gas accumulation that ensues triggers the Rossby wave instability, that in turn saturates into anticyclonic vortices. It was suggested that the trapping of solids within them leads to a burst of planet formation on very short timescales. We perform two-dimensional global simulations of the dynamics of gas and solids in a non-magnetized thin protoplanetary disk with the Pencil Code. We use multiple particle species of radius 1, 10, 30, and 100 cm, solving for the particles' gravitational interaction by a particle-mesh method. The dead zone is modeled as a region of low viscosity. Adiabatic and locally isothermal equations of state are used. We find that the Rossby wave instability is triggered under a variety of conditions, thus making vortex formation a robust process. Inside the vortices, fast accumulation...

  14. FERMIGTRIG - Fermi GBM Trigger Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This table lists all of the triggers observed by one or more of the 14 GBM detectors (12 NaI and 2 BGO). Note that there are two Browse catalogs resulting from GBM...

  15. Fast Digital Trigger Systems For Experiments In High- Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Marciniewski, P J

    2001-01-01

    The data acquisition in high energy physics experiments is typically started by a pulse from a fast coincidence- based trigger system. It is essential that such a system can identify an event in a shortest possible time and with as good selectivity as possible. In order to meet these requirements, several new techniques and developments in the domain of signal discrimination and rapid hittopology analysis are presented. Two digital rise-time compensation methods were developed to improve the time resolution of the comparatively slow signals from inorganic scintillators. Both methods utilize double threshold analog comparators and digital processing logic. A unique adaptive threshold discrimination method was developed to reject after-pulses. The method was found to give the best timing, the smallest dead time and a complete rejection of noise pulses without missing physically significant pulses. Algorithms for fast multiplicity calculations of clusters of hits in two- dimensional matrices, in strings and in p...

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine including regenerator dead volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puech, Pascal; Tishkova, Victoria [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CNRS, CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-02-15

    This paper provides a theoretical investigation on the thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine with linear and sinusoidal variations of the volume. The regenerator in a Stirling engine is an internal heat exchanger allowing to reach high efficiency. We used an isothermal model to analyse the net work and the heat stored in the regenerator during a complete cycle. We show that the engine efficiency with perfect regeneration doesn't depend on the regenerator dead volume but this dead volume strongly amplifies the imperfect regeneration effect. An analytical expression to estimate the improvement due to the regenerator has been proposed including the combined effects of dead volume and imperfect regeneration. This could be used at the very preliminary stage of the engine design process. (author)

  17. Love letters to the dead: resurrecting an epistolary art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Dorothy A; Graham-Pole, John R

    This article explores the art of letter-writing, specifically to our beloved dead, as a form of autoethnographic research, pedagogy, and care work. As university teachers and qualitative researchers in palliative and end-of-life care, we review the literature and history of epistolary communications with the deceased, as a prelude to writing our own letters. John writes to his long-dead mother and Dorothy to her recently deceased spouse Patrick, each letter followed by a reflective dialogue between us. Through this dialogue, we highlight the potential application of this art, or handcraft, to formal and informal palliative care, and the implications for practice, pedagogy, policy, and research. We propose that such direct, non-mediated, communications can offer a valuable form of healing for bereaved people. The therapeutic potential of letter writing and the abundance of literary and popular culture exemplars of responses from the dead are also largely unexplored in death education and research.

  18. Stellar winds, dead zones, and coronal mass ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Keppens, R

    1999-01-01

    Axisymmetric stellar wind solutions are presented, obtained by numerically solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Stationary solutions are critically analysed using the knowledge of the flux functions. These flux functions enter in the general variational principle governing all axisymmetric stationary ideal MHD equilibria. The magnetized wind solutions for (differentially) rotating stars contain both a `wind' and a `dead' zone. We illustrate the influence of the magnetic field topology on the wind acceleration pattern, by varying the coronal field strength and the extent of the dead zone. This is evident from the resulting variations in the location and appearance of the critical curves where the wind speed equals the slow, Alfven, and fast speed. Larger dead zones cause effective, fairly isotropic acceleration to super-Alfvenic velocities as the polar, open field lines are forced to fan out rapidly with radial distance. A higher field strength moves the Alfven transition outwards. In the ecl...

  19. Turbulent Torques on Protoplanets in a Dead Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Oishi, J S; Menou, K; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Menou, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Migration of protoplanets in their gaseous host disks may be largely responsible for the observed orbital distribution of extrasolar planets. Recent simulations have shown that the magnetorotational turbulence thought to drive accretion in protoplanetary disks can affect migration by turning it into an orbital random walk. However, these simulations neglected the disk's ionization structure. Low ionization fraction near the midplane of the disk can decouple the magnetic field from the gas, forming a dead zone with reduced or no turbulence. Here, to understand the effect of dead zones on protoplanetary migration, we perform numerical simulations of a small region of a stratified disk with magnetorotational turbulence confined to thin active layers above and below the midplane. Turbulence in the active layers exerts decreased, but still measurable, gravitational torques on a protoplanet located at the disk midplane. We find a decrease of two orders of magnitude in the diffusion coefficient for dead zones with d...

  20. Asymmetry and basin migration in the dead sea rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, I.; Freund, R.

    1981-12-01

    The Dead Sea depression sensu stricto, forms the deepest continental part of the Dead Sea rift, a transfer which separates the Levanthine and Arabian plates. It is occupied by three distinct sedimentary bodies, deposited in basins whose depocenters are displaced northward with time. They are: the continental red beds of the Hazeva Formation (Miocene), the Bira-Lido-Gesher marls and the exceptionally thick rocksalt of the Sedom Formation (Pliocene—Early Pleistocene), and the successive Amora, Lisan and Dead Sea evaporites and clastics (Early Pleistocene—Recent). Lengthwise and crosswise asymmetries of these sedimentary basins and their respective depocenters are due to: leftlateral shear combined with anticlockwise rotation of the Arabian (eastern) plate; steeper faulting of the crustal eastern margin than of the western sedimentary margin, and modification of depositional pattern by twice filling up of basins, by Hazeva red beds during Late Miocene pause of shear and by Sedom rocksalt during Pliocene marine ingression.

  1. Design of dead reckoning system for mobile robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-xia; CAI Zi-xing; DUAN Zhuo-hua; ZOU Xiao-bing

    2006-01-01

    A dead reckoning system for a wheeled mobile robot was designed, and the method for robot's pose estimation in the 3D environments was presented on the basis of its rigid-body kinematic equations. After analyzing the locomotion architecture of mobile robot and the principle of proprioceptive sensors, the kinematics model of mobile robot was built to realize the relative localization. Considering that the research on dead reckoning of mobile robot was confined to the 2 dimensional planes, the locomotion of mobile robot in the 3 coordinate axis direction was thought over in order to estimate its pose on uneven terrain. Because the computing method in a plane is rather mature, the calculation in height direction is emphatically represented as a key issue. With experimental results obtained by simulation program and robot platform, the position of mobile robot can be reliably estimated and the localization precision can be effectively improved, so the effectiveness of this dead reckoning system is demonstrated.

  2. The ATLAS Trigger Muon "Vertical Slice"

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoti, A; Biglietti, M; Carlino, G; Cataldi, G; Conventi, F; Del Prete, T; Di Mattia, A; Falciano, S; Gorini, S; Kanaya, N; Kohno, T; Krasznahorkay, A; Lagouri, T; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Marzano, F; Nagano, K; Nisati, A; Panikashvili, N; Pasqualucci, E; Primavera, M; Scannicchio, D A; Spagnolo, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Tokushuku, K; Usai, G; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Yamazaki, Y; 10th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors : Frontier Detectors For Frontier Physics

    2007-01-01

    The muon trigger system is a fundamental component of the ATLAS detector at the LHC collider. In this paper we describe the ATLAS multi-level trigger selecting events with muons: the Muon Trigger Slice.

  3. Monitoring the Dead Sea Region by Multi-Parameter Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Asch, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians living in the Dead Sea region are exposed to severe earthquake hazard. Repeatedly large earthquakes (e.g. 1927, magnitude 6.0; (Ambraseys, 2009)) shook the whole Dead Sea region proving that earthquake hazard knows no borders and damaging seismic events can strike anytime. Combined with the high vulnerability of cities in the region and with the enormous concentration of historical values this natural hazard results in an extreme earthquake risk. Thus, an integration of earthquake parameters at all scales (size and time) and their combination with data of infrastructure are needed with the specific aim of providing a state-of-the-art seismic hazard assessment for the Dead Sea region as well as a first quantitative estimate of vulnerability and risk. A strong motivation for our research is the lack of reliable multi-parameter ground-based geophysical information on earthquakes in the Dead Sea region. The proposed set up of a number of observatories with on-line data access will enable to derive the present-day seismicity and deformation pattern in the Dead Sea region. The first multi-parameter stations were installed in Jordan, Israel and Palestine for long-time monitoring. All partners will jointly use these locations. All stations will have an open data policy, with the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) providing the hard and software for real-time data transmission via satellite to Germany, where all partners can access the data via standard data protocols.

  4. Deadly Choices empowering Indigenous Australians through social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; Appo, Nathan; Haymes, Alana; Bond, Chelsea; Brough, Mark; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2017-04-05

    The potential for health promotion through social networking sites (SNSs) is widely recognized. However, while health promotion prides itself in focusing on the social determinants of health, its partiality for persuading individuals to comply with health behaviours dominates the way health promotion utilizes SNSs. This paper contributes to an understanding of collaborative ways SNSs can work for health promotion agendas of self-determination and empowerment in an Indigenous Australia context. An ethnographic study was undertaken with Deadly Choices, an Indigenous-led health promotion initiative. The study involved participant observation of interactions on Deadly Choices SNSs between Deadly Choices and its online community members. Deadly Choices provides an example of SNSs providing a powerful tool to create a safe, inclusive and positive space for Indigenous people and communities to profile their healthy choices, according to Indigenous notions of health and identity. The study found five principles that underpin Deadly Choices' use of SNSs for health promotion. These are: create a dialogue; build community online and offline; incentivise healthy online engagement; celebrate Indigenous identity and culture; and prioritize partnerships. Deadly Choices SNSs empowers Indigenous people and communities to be health promoters themselves, which represents a power shift from health promotion practitioner to Indigenous people and communities and more broadly, an enactment of Indigenous self-determination on SNSs. Mainstream health promotion can learn from Indigenous health promotion practice regarding the use of SNSs for health promotion agendas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Best tracking performance for integrator and dead time plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The optimal tracking performance for integrator and dead time plant in the case where plant uncertainty and control energy constraints axe to be considered jointly is inrestigated.Firstly,an average cost function of the tracking error and the plant input energy over a class of stochastic model errors are defined.Then,we obtain an internal model controller design method that minimizes the average performance and further studies optimal tracking performance for integrator and dead time plant in the simultaneous presence of plant uncertainty and control energy constraint.The results can be used to evaluate optimal tracking performance and control energy in practical designs.

  6. Homer and the cult of the dead in Helladic times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odysseus Tsagarakis

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Homeric bothros (Odyssey X 517 ff. as a possible source of information for the ritual and function of various bothroi (grave pits which are considered to be an important archaeological source. It seems that the bothroi were, by their nature, best suited to a cult of the dead and served as altars. The paper also discusses the possible reasons for the existence of the cult and argues against the view that fear of the dead motivated the cult in Helladic times.

  7. Dead-time effects in microchannel-plate imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zombeck, Martin V.; Fraser, George W.

    1991-01-01

    The observed counting rates of microchannel plate (MCP) based detectors for high resolution observations of celestial EUV and X-ray sources vary over many orders of magnitude; the counting capability of an individual channel, however, is not high, and is associated with dead-times ranging from 0.1 msec to 1 sec. The dead-time increases with the area illuminated; attention is presently given to laboratory determinations of the count rate characteristics of a MCP detector as a function of illuminated area, and a model is developed for these results' use in the interpretation of space observations.

  8. Song of Solomon-A Journey of Milkman Dead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫枫

    2014-01-01

    American Scholar Joseph Camp-bell puts forward a more detailed model of heroes in which a successful journey usually contains three major phases:“separation”“initia-tion” and “return” . In Song of Solomon written by Toni Morrison, the hero, Milkman Dead leaves his family to the south to find his family’s lost tradition and memory and the journey of Milkman Dead turns out to be a journey of un-derstanding himself, his ancestry and African heritage. The journey also fits into the legendary model of hero’s journey “Separation-Initia-tion-Return” model.

  9. Tourism development challenges on the Dead Sea shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendt Jan A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dead Sea along with Jerusalem belongs to one of the most well-known spots visited by tourists in Israel. Because of many factors, such as the water level of the Dead Sea at a depth of 430 m b.s.l. (in 2015, average salinity of 26%, hot springs and many healing salts located there, it is a unique tourist attraction on a global level. Its attractiveness is heightened by its proximity to other sites of interest, such as the Jewish fortress at Masada, Jericho, Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found, as well as Petra, Madaba and Al-Karak on the Jordanian side of the Dead Sea. High salinity and a microclimate create perfect conditions for the development of health resorts and medical tourism. Extracting healing salts from its waters for the needs of the chemical industry is important for both the economy and medical tourism. However, as a consequence of the agricultural and urban use of the waters of the River Jordan, which flows into the Dead Sea, a persistent decrease in the lake water level has been observed over the last century. This has created a number of economic and political issues. The problems which still have to be resolved are associated with the Red Sea-Dead Sea Conduit (Canal, the division of Jordan’s water resources, conservation of the unique reservoir of the Dead Sea and the threat of hindering the development of tourism within the region. The presentation of these issues is the main aim of this research paper. The study is based on the analysis of changes in tourism flows, results of research studies and the prognosis of changes in the water level of the Dead Sea. It presents an assessment of the effects of this phenomenon on the tourist economy. At the current level of tourism flows within the region, the tourist capacity of local beaches will be exceeded in areas where the most popular tourist resorts are located. Increased expenditure on development of tourism infrastructure in the coastal zone can also be observed

  10. Comprehensive Measurements of Wind Systems at the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jutta; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Kalthoff, Norbert; Wieser, Andreas; Alpert, Pinhas; Lati, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on earth. It is located at the lowest point of the Jordan Rift valley and its water level is currently at -429 m above mean sea level (amsl). To the West the Judean Mountains (up to 1000 m amsl) and to the East the Moab mountains (up to 1300 m amsl) confine the north-south oriented valley. The whole region is located in a transition zone of semi-arid to arid climate conditions and together with the steep orography, this forms a quite complex and unique environment. The Virtual Institute DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE) is an international project funded by the German Helmholtz Association and was established to study coupled atmospheric, hydrological, and lithospheric processes in the changing environment of the Dead Sea. Previous studies showed that the valley's atmosphere is often governed by periodic wind systems (Bitan, 1974), but most of the studies were limited to ground measurements and could therefore not resolve the three dimensional development and evolution of these wind systems. Performed airborne measurements found three distinct layers above the Dead Sea (Levin, 2005). Two layers are directly affected by the Dead Sea and the third is the commonly observed marine boundary layer over Israel. In the framework of DESERVE a field campaign with the mobile observatory KITcube was conducted to study the three dimensional structure of atmospheric processes at the Dead Sea in 2014. The combination of several in-situ and remote sensing instruments allows temporally and spatially high-resolution measurements in an atmospheric volume of about 10x10x10 km3. With this data set, the development and evolution of typical local wind systems, as well as the impact of regional scale wind conditions on the valley's atmosphere could be analyzed. The frequent development of a nocturnal drainage flow with wind velocities of over 10 m s-1, the typical lake breeze during the day, its onset and vertical extension as well as strong downslope winds

  11. Cl-37 in the Dead Sea system - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiller, M.; Nissenbaum, A. [Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Kaufmann, R.S. [Department of Geology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Long, A. [Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AR (United States)

    1998-11-01

    This study presents the first set of {delta}{sup 37}Cl measurements in the Dead Sea environment. {delta}{sup 37}Cl values for the meromictic (long term stratified) Dead Sea water column prior to its complete overturn in 1979 were -0.47per thousand SMOC for the UWM (Upper Water Mass) and +0.55per thousand SMOC for the LWM (Lower Water Mass). The {delta}{sup 37}Cl values for the pre-overturn Dead Sea cannot be explained by the prevailing model on the evolution of the Dead Sea during the last few centuries and require corroboration by more measurements. The 1979 overturn wiped out almost completely the isotopic differences between the UWM and LWM. Even so, Cl isotope data could be used to decipher physical processes related to the overturn such as incomplete homogenization of the deep water mass. Inputs into the lake, comprising freshwaters (springs and the Jordan River) and saline springs gave a range of -0.37per thousand to +1.0per thousand with the freshwater sources being more enriched in {delta}{sup 37}Cl. Based on the {delta}{sup 37}Cl measurements of the End-Brine (the effluent from Dead Sea evaporation ponds) and of recent Dead Sea halite, the Cl isotopic composition of the originating brines have been estimated. They gave a narrow isotopic spread, +0.01per thousand and +0.07per thousand and fall within the same range with Dead Sea pore water (+0.13per thousand) and with the post-overturn Dead Sea (-0.03per thousand and +0.16per thousand). Rock salt from Mount Sdom gave a value of -0.59per thousand indicating its formation at the last stages of halite deposition from evaporating sea water. The hypersaline En Ashlag spring gave a depleted {delta}{sup 37}Cl value of -0.32per thousand, corresponding to a residual brine formed in the very latest stages (including bishofite deposition) of seawater evaporation. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. SlDEAD31, a Putative DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Gene, Regulates Salt and Drought Tolerance and Stress-Related Genes in Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Mingku Zhu; Guoping Chen; Tingting Dong; Lingling Wang; Jianling Zhang; Zhiping Zhao; Zongli Hu

    2015-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicases are involved in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with diverse cellular functions including plant growth and development, and their importance in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is only beginning to emerge. However, none of DEAD-box genes was well characterized in tomato so far. In this study, we reported on the identification and characterization of two putative DEAD-box RNA helicase genes, SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 from tomato, which were class...

  13. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41~fb$^{-1}$ with a peak luminosity of 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS \\mbox{Level-1} trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implemen...

  14. Living with the Dead or Communicating with the dead: media practices of continuing bonds among bereaved parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    John Durham Peters argues that media as communicational tools not only enables dialogues with the living, but also with the dead. He argues that “every new medium is a machine for the production of ghosts”; the recordings of people who have passed away fixed in photographs, sound tapes, film...... and in all kinds of digitized formats for registering and archiving, thus overcoming time and space is a one of the “key existential facts about modern media”: the possibilities for the living to interact with “the communicable traces of the dead” (Peters 1999:149). This argument will make a starting point...... for this paper analyzing bereaved parent’ communicational practices in order to create continuing bonds (Klass et.al. 1996) to their dead children. The use of media and materialities ascribed with media qualities allows us to “deal with and come to terms with death without being dead ourselves” (Christensen...

  15. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-26

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  16. Review Document: Full Software Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Raven, G

    2014-01-01

    This document presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. This document serves as input for the internal review towards the "DAQ, online and trigger TDR". The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. In this document we show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic $pp$-collision rate, without prior event selections implemented in custom hardware and without relying upon a partial event reconstruction. A track nding eciency of 98.8 % relative to oine can be achieved for tracks with $p_T >$ 500 MeV/$c$. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is about 40 % of the available budget. Proof-of-principle selections are presented which demonstrate that excellent performance is achievable using an inclusive beauty trigger, in addition to exclusive beauty and charm triggers. Finally, it is shown that exclusive beauty and charm selections that do not intr...

  17. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  18. Formation of circumbinary planets in a dead zone

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Rebecca G; Alexander, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Circumbinary planets have been observed at orbital radii where binary perturbations may have significant effects on the gas disk structure, on planetesimal velocity dispersion, and on the coupling between turbulence and planetesimals. Here, we note that the impact of all of these effects on planet formation is qualitatively altered if the circumbinary disk structure is layered, with a non-turbulent midplane layer (dead zone) and strongly turbulent surface layers. For close binaries, we find that the dead zone typically extends from a radius close to the inner disk edge up to a radius of around 10-20 au from the centre of mass of the binary. The peak in the surface density occurs within the dead zone, far from the inner disk edge, close to the snow line, and may act as a trap for aerodynamically coupled solids. We suggest that circumbinary planet formation may be easier near this preferential location than for disks around single stars. However, dead zones around wide binaries are less likely and hence planet ...

  19. New Testament Textual Criticism is dead! Long live New Testament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Bible Societies, the latest being the 4th revised edition (UBSGNT 4 rev or UBS4 .... New Testament somewhere out there, there are also other theories like that of Trobish ... Testament was created in a single sweep, thus making the postulation of an .... In that sense textual criticism is dead indeed. .... London: British Library.

  20. Syntactic Reconstruction and Reanalysis, Semantic Dead Ends, and Prefrontal Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2010-01-01

    have been to Paris than […] to Oslo), using pseudo-elliptical structures (‘dead ends’) as control (More people have been to Paris than I have). (ii) Reanalysis in the face of structural ambiguity in syntactic ‘garden paths’, where the parser initially assigns an incorrect structure and is forced...

  1. Brought in Dead: An Avoidable Delay in Maternal Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aruna; Agrawal, Neha

    2016-10-01

    Maternal brought in dead are the patient who dies in the need of adequate medical care. These deaths are often not analyzed sincerely as they are not institutional deaths. Our aim is to find out actual life threatening cause of delay leading to death. Patients brought dead to casualty were seen by the doctors on duty in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal round the clock. Cause of death was analyzed by verbal autopsy of attendants and referral letter from the institute. In this analytical study a complete evaluation of brought deaths from January 2011 to Decmeber 2014 was done. A total of 64 brought in deaths were reported in this 4 year duration. Most common cause of death was postpartum hemorrhage (54.68 %) followed by hypertension (15.62 %) and the most common cause of delay was delay in getting adequate treatment (56.25 %). The brought in dead are the indicator of the three delays in getting health care. Challenges appear to be enormous to be tackled. Timely management proves to be critical in preventing maternal death. Thus it appears that community education about pregnancy and its complications, EmOC training at FRU and strict adherence to referral protocol may help us to reduce the brought dead burden.

  2. Gastric necrosis four years after fundoplication causing a dead foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Skovsen, Anders Peter; Kildsig, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    A 31-year-old pregnant woman was admitted and treated for diabetic ketoacidosis. As the patient deteriorated and the viability of the foetus was uncertain a CT scan was done which showed free fluid and air intraabdominally. Surgery was performed. A dead foetus was delivered and a 2 × 5 cm necrotic...

  3. Remembering Important People On The Day Of The Dead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a project that can help students learn more about historic figures-or remember lost loved ones--with this Day of the Dead project from Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera. The purpose is to remember the wonderful things the person did, and to celebrate his or her life. Directions for construction, as well as a suggested list of…

  4. A preliminary study on dead geostationary satellite removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The collision between satellites IRIDIUM 33 and COSMOS 2251 indicated that the clash of two on-orbit satellites was becoming an inevitable reality. Our calculation with the two-line orbit element by NORAD showed that some two geostationary satellites had approached very close in July 2009. Therefore, more attention should be given to avoid such collisions. This paper analyzes the orbital long-term variation of a dead satellite drifting in the geostationary orbit. Also, the negative effects posed by dead satellites upon the on-orbit operational geostationary satellites are studied. Then the paper proposes a novel idea to launch a satellite sweeper whose purpose is to collect the on-orbit dead satellites and help them de-orbit to a "graveyard". The satellite sweeper consists of a parent satellite and a child satellite. The child satellite collects a dead satellite and transfers it to a higher orbit. The parent satellite stationed in the geostationary orbit is in charge of refueling the child satellite. The strategy of maneuver and rendezvous is presented and a series of formulas are derived. The analysis results show that our method to clean the geostationary orbital zone is practical and fuel-saving. With the help of just a few satellite sweepers, we can gain a clean environment of geostationary orbit environment again.

  5. Pablo Remembers: The Fiesta of the Day of the Dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, George

    This children's book describes how Pablo, a young Mexican boy, and his family celebrate the Day of the Dead (El Dia de Los Muertos). This holiday takes place on the first and second day of November and honors relatives and friends who have died. The holiday celebrates their spiritual return to Earth to share a special feast with the living, and…

  6. Piecing Together the Past: The Dead Sea Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Eugene; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Illustrates the astonishing coordination of archaeological and scholarly activities surrounding the Dead Sea Scrolls. First discovered by Bedouin nomads in 1947, the Scrolls consist of a few complete manuscripts and over 80,000 fragments. Discusses the early Christian sect that produced the Scrolls, and provides current perspectives on the…

  7. Remembering Important People On The Day Of The Dead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a project that can help students learn more about historic figures-or remember lost loved ones--with this Day of the Dead project from Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera. The purpose is to remember the wonderful things the person did, and to celebrate his or her life. Directions for construction, as well as a suggested list of…

  8. Fooling LC: Michael Crichton and "Eaters of the Dead."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, David

    1998-01-01

    Chronicles the variety of means with which the novelist Michael Crichton has attempted to give his works the appearance of nonfiction. Specific and successful techniques utilized in "Eaters of the Dead" are noted, and the resulting erroneous classifications by the Library of Congress and subsequent catalogers are discussed. (Author)

  9. Can dead zones create transition disk like structures?

    CERN Document Server

    Pinilla, Paola; Ovelar, Maria de Juan; Birnstiel, Til

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] Regions of low ionisation where the activity of the magneto-rotational instability is suppressed, the so called dead zones, have been suggested to explain gaps and asymmetries of transition disks. We investigate the gas and dust evolution simultaneously assuming simplified prescriptions for a dead zone and a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind acting on the disk. We explore whether or not the resulting gas and dust distribution can create signatures similar to the ones observed in transition disks. For the dust evolution, we include the transport, growth, and fragmentation of dust particles. To compare with observations, we produce synthetic images in scattered optical light and in thermal emission at mm wavelengths. In all models with a dead zone, a bump in the gas surface density is produced, which is able to efficiently trap large particles ($\\gtrsim1$ mm) at the outer edge of the dead zone. The gas bump reaches an amplitude of a factor of $\\sim5$, which can be enhanced by the presence of a MHD wind ...

  10. Reduced Order Dead-Beat Observers for a Bioreactor

    CERN Document Server

    Karafyllis, Iasson

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the strong observability property and the reduced-order dead-beat observer design problem for a continuous bioreactor. New relationships between coexistence and strong observability, and checkable sufficient conditions for strong observability, are established for a chemostat with two competing microbial species. Furthermore, the dynamic output feedback stabilization problem is solved for the case of one species.

  11. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  12. Pablo Remembers: The Fiesta of the Day of the Dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, George

    This children's book describes how Pablo, a young Mexican boy, and his family celebrate the Day of the Dead (El Dia de Los Muertos). This holiday takes place on the first and second day of November and honors relatives and friends who have died. The holiday celebrates their spiritual return to Earth to share a special feast with the living, and…

  13. Are RNAi and miRNA therapeutics truly dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, João; Artzi, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Only a few years ago pharmaceutical companies were excited about the potential of RNA interference (RNAi). Now, financial volatility and subsequent dissolutions of in-house facilities by pharmaceutical companies have had media channels pronouncing that RNAi therapeutics are dead. However, advances in nanomedicine may now help the vast potential of RNAi therapeutics to be fulfilled. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cowboys and zombies: destabilizing patriarchal discourse in The Walking Dead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler-Forest, D.

    2012-01-01

    The serialized comic book The Walking Dead, written by Robert Kirkman and drawn by Charlie Adlard, has been published by Image Comics from October 2003, and is still being released in monthly instalments as of this writing. It has won numerous awards, including the prestigious Eisner Award for Best

  15. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  16. Stress tensor and focal mechanisms in the Dead Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.; Dorbath, L.; Braeuer, B.; Weber, M.

    2016-04-01

    We use the recorded seismicity, confined to the Dead Sea basin and its boundaries, by the Dead Sea Integrated Research (DESIRE) portable seismic network and the Israel and Jordan permanent seismic networks for studying the mechanisms of earthquakes in the Dead Sea basin. The observed seismicity in the Dead Sea basin is divided into nine regions according to the spatial distribution of the earthquakes and the known tectonic features. The large number of recording stations and the adequate station distribution allowed the reliable determinations of 494 earthquake focal mechanisms. For each region, based on the inversion of the observed polarities of the earthquakes, we determine the focal mechanisms and the associated stress tensor. For 159 earthquakes, out of the 494 focal mechanisms, we could determine compatible fault planes. On the eastern side, the focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip mechanism with nodal planes in the N-S and E-W directions. The azimuths of the stress axes are well constrained presenting minimal variability in the inversion of the data, which is in agreement with the Eastern Boundary fault on the east side of the Dead Sea basin and what we had expected from the regional geodynamics. However, larger variabilities of the azimuthal and dip angles are observed on the western side of the basin. Due to the wider range of azimuths of the fault planes, we observe the switching of σ1 and σ2 or the switching of σ2 and σ3 as major horizontal stress directions. This observed switching of stress axes allows having dip-slip and normal mechanisms in a region that is dominated by strike-slip motion.

  17. Water input requirements of the rapidly shrinking Dead Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ghazleh, Shahrazad; Hartmann, Jens; Jansen, Nils; Kempe, Stephan

    2009-05-01

    The deepest point on Earth, the Dead Sea level, has been dropping alarmingly since 1978 by 0.7 m/a on average due to the accelerating water consumption in the Jordan catchment and stood in 2008 at 420 m below sea level. In this study, a terrain model of the surface area and water volume of the Dead Sea was developed from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data using ArcGIS. The model shows that the lake shrinks on average by 4 km(2)/a in area and by 0.47 km(3)/a in volume, amounting to a cumulative loss of 14 km(3) in the last 30 years. The receding level leaves almost annually erosional terraces, recorded here for the first time by Differential Global Positioning System field surveys. The terrace altitudes were correlated among the different profiles and dated to specific years of the lake level regression, illustrating the tight correlation between the morphology of the terrace sequence and the receding lake level. Our volume-level model described here and previous work on groundwater inflow suggest that the projected Dead Sea-Red Sea channel or the Mediterranean-Dead Sea channel must have a carrying capacity of >0.9 km(3)/a in order to slowly re-fill the lake to its former level and to create a sustainable system of electricity generation and freshwater production by desalinization. Moreover, such a channel will maintain tourism and potash industry on both sides of the Dead Sea and reduce the natural hazard caused by the recession.

  18. Upgrade trigger: Bandwidth strategy proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Thomas Julian; Meloni, Simone; Whitehead, Mark Peter; Williams, Mark Richard James

    2017-01-01

    This document describes a proposed selection strategy for the upgrade trigger using charm signals as a benchmark. The Upgrade trigger uses a 'Run2-like' sequence consisting of a first and second stage, in between which the calibration and alignment is performed. The first stage, HLT1, uses an inclusive strategy to select beauty and charm, while the second stage uses offline-quality exclusive selections. A novel genetic algorithm-based bandwidth division is performed at the second stage to maximise the output of useful physics events, and a range of possible signal efficiencies are presented as a function of the available bandwidth.

  19. ATLAS FTK Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept signal to enable the software-based higher level trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). Motivation and the architecture of the FTK system will be presented, and the status of hardware and simulation will be following.

  20. Upgrade trigger: Bandwidth strategy proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Conor; Meloni, Simone; Boettcher, Thomas Julian; Whitehead, Mark Peter; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Vesterinen, Mika Anton

    2017-01-01

    This document describes a selection strategy for the upgrade trigger using charm signals as a benchmark. The Upgrade trigger uses a 'Run 2-like' sequence consisting of a first and second stage, in between which the calibration and alignment is performed. The first stage, HLT1, uses an inclusive strategy to select beauty and charm decays, while the second stage uses offline-quality exclusive selections. A novel genetic algorithm-based bandwidth division is performed at the second stage to distribute the output bandwidth among different physics channels, maximising the efficiency for useful physics events. The performance is then studied as a function of the available output bandwidth.

  1. LHCb Run 2 Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Sciascia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    During the first long shutdown of the LHC (2013-2014, LS1), the LHCb detector remained essentially unchanged, while the trigger system has been completely revisited. Upgrades to the LHCb computing infrastructure have allowed for high quality decay information to be calculated by the software trigger making a separate offline event reconstruction unnecessary. Reaching the ultimate precision of the LHCb experiment already in real time as the data arrive has the power to transform the experimental approach to processing large quantities of data

  2. Possible connection between large volcanic eruptions and level rise episodes in the Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookman, R.; Filin, S.; Avni, Y.; Rosenfeld, D.; Marco, S.

    2014-12-01

    The June 1991 Pinatubo volcanic eruption perturbed the atmosphere, triggering short-term worldwide changes in climate. The following winter was anomalously wet in the Levant, with a ~2-meter increase in the Dead Sea level that created a morphological terrace along the lake's shore. Given the global effects of volcanogenic aerosols, we tested the hypothesis that the 1991-92 shore terrace is a modern analogue to the linkage between past volcanic eruptions and a sequence of shore terraces in the Dead Sea Basin. Analysis of precipitation series from Jerusalem showed a significant positive correlation between the Dust Veil Index (DVI) of the modern eruptions and annual rainfall. The DVI was found to explain nearly 50% of the variability in the annual rainfall, such that greater DVI means more rainfall. Other factors that may affect the annual rainfall in the region as the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and the North Atlantic oscillations (NAO) were incorporated along with the DVI in a linear multiple regression model. It was found that the NAO did not contribute anything except for increased noise, but the added SOI increased the explained variability of rainfall to more than 60%. Volcanic eruptions with a VEI of 6, as in the Pinatubo, occurred about once a century during the Holocene and the last glacial-interglacial cycle. This occurrence is similar to the frequency of shore terrace build-up during the Lake Lisan desiccation. Sixteen shore terraces, detected using airborne laser scanning data, were interpreted as indicating short-term level rises due to episodes of enhanced precipitation and runoff during the dramatic drop in Lake Lisan's (palaeo-Dead Sea) level at the end of the LGM. The terraces were compared with a time series of volcanogenic sulfate from the GISP2 record, and similar numbers of sulfate concentration peaks and terraces were found. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between SO4 concentration peaks and the terraces heights. This

  3. Geophysical analysis of the recent sinkhole trend at Ghor-Haditha (Dead Sea, Jordan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlynck, Christian; Bodet, Ludovic; Galibert, Pierre-Yves; Boucher, Marie; Al-Zoubi, Abdallah

    2013-04-01

    For essentially the last 30 year the water level of the Dead Sea has highly dropped. One of the major associated facts is sinkhole occurrences along the shoreline both in Jordan and Israel. As the principal invoked mechanism, many studies have concluded that sinkhole formation results from the dissolution of a previously immersed salt layer, progressively in contact with fresh to brackish water. In Jordan, the triggering of this phenomenon could also be the result of particular tectonic settings, associated with the Jordan-Dead Sea transform fault system. At Ghor Haditha (south-est Jordan), the consequences have been dramatic for farmers with the shrinking of temporary available lands and industry with the closing of at least one factory. The shallow material in this area is heterogeneous and composed of intercalated sand and clay layers of alluvial-colluvial origin, over a salty substratum, whose precise depth and thickness are yet partially hypothesized. Between 2005 and 2008, a multi-method high-resolution geophysical survey was performed, approximately over a 1 km2 area at Ghor Haditha, associating mainly electromagnetic soundings, magnetic resonance soundings (MRS), and seismic profiling, ground-penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography. At the same time, this specific area was the location of a dramatic evolution of sinkhole occurences, regularly followed by geodetic measurements. Over the 3 years period, about 120 TEM (Transient ElectroMagnetic) soundings allow to map precisely the depth of the conductive layers below the resistive overburden. Two conductive layer are then revealed, the latter showing the lowest resistivity below 1 Ohm.m corresponding to the saline substratum. Several MRS (3 in 2005, repeated in 2007 and 12 additional soundings) show an east-west hydraulic gradient towards the Dead. However, the main sinkhole trend coincides with both: - a clear low transmissivity axis determined from MRS measurements; - the western side of a

  4. Fast digital trigger systems for experiments in high- energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniewski, Pawel Jerzy

    The data acquisition in high energy physics experiments is typically started by a pulse from a fast coincidence- based trigger system. It is essential that such a system can identify an event in a shortest possible time and with as good selectivity as possible. In order to meet these requirements, several new techniques and developments in the domain of signal discrimination and rapid hittopology analysis are presented. Two digital rise-time compensation methods were developed to improve the time resolution of the comparatively slow signals from inorganic scintillators. Both methods utilize double threshold analog comparators and digital processing logic. A unique adaptive threshold discrimination method was developed to reject after-pulses. The method was found to give the best timing, the smallest dead time and a complete rejection of noise pulses without missing physically significant pulses. Algorithms for fast multiplicity calculations of clusters of hits in two- dimensional matrices, in strings and in planar detector configurations were evaluated. All techniques described in this thesis were implemented and verified in the trigger systems built for the experiments WASA (Wide Angle Shower Apparatus) at TSL, Uppsala, Sweden and the AMANDA (Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array) at the South Pole.

  5. SlDEAD31, a Putative DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Gene, Regulates Salt and Drought Tolerance and Stress-Related Genes in Tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingku Zhu

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box RNA helicases are involved in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with diverse cellular functions including plant growth and development, and their importance in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is only beginning to emerge. However, none of DEAD-box genes was well characterized in tomato so far. In this study, we reported on the identification and characterization of two putative DEAD-box RNA helicase genes, SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 from tomato, which were classified into stress-related DEAD-box proteins by phylogenetic analysis. Expression analysis indicated that SlDEAD30 was highly expressed in roots and mature leaves, while SlDEAD31 was constantly expressed in various tissues. Furthermore, the expression of both genes was induced mainly in roots under NaCl stress, and SlDEAD31 mRNA was also increased by heat, cold, and dehydration. In stress assays, transgenic tomato plants overexpressing SlDEAD31 exhibited dramatically enhanced salt tolerance and slightly improved drought resistance, which were simultaneously demonstrated by significantly enhanced expression of multiple biotic and abiotic stress-related genes, higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC and chlorophyll content, and lower water loss rate and malondialdehyde (MDA production compared to wild-type plants. Collectively, these results provide a preliminary characterization of SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 genes in tomato, and suggest that stress-responsive SlDEAD31 is essential for salt and drought tolerance and stress-related gene regulation in plants.

  6. SlDEAD31, a Putative DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Gene, Regulates Salt and Drought Tolerance and Stress-Related Genes in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingku; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Jianling; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

    2015-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicases are involved in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with diverse cellular functions including plant growth and development, and their importance in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is only beginning to emerge. However, none of DEAD-box genes was well characterized in tomato so far. In this study, we reported on the identification and characterization of two putative DEAD-box RNA helicase genes, SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 from tomato, which were classified into stress-related DEAD-box proteins by phylogenetic analysis. Expression analysis indicated that SlDEAD30 was highly expressed in roots and mature leaves, while SlDEAD31 was constantly expressed in various tissues. Furthermore, the expression of both genes was induced mainly in roots under NaCl stress, and SlDEAD31 mRNA was also increased by heat, cold, and dehydration. In stress assays, transgenic tomato plants overexpressing SlDEAD31 exhibited dramatically enhanced salt tolerance and slightly improved drought resistance, which were simultaneously demonstrated by significantly enhanced expression of multiple biotic and abiotic stress-related genes, higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll content, and lower water loss rate and malondialdehyde (MDA) production compared to wild-type plants. Collectively, these results provide a preliminary characterization of SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 genes in tomato, and suggest that stress-responsive SlDEAD31 is essential for salt and drought tolerance and stress-related gene regulation in plants.

  7. Unraveling a three-step spatiotemporal mechanism of triggering of receptor-induced Nipah virus fusion and cell entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    Full Text Available Membrane fusion is essential for entry of the biomedically-important paramyxoviruses into their host cells (viral-cell fusion, and for syncytia formation (cell-cell fusion, often induced by paramyxoviral infections [e.g. those of the deadly Nipah virus (NiV]. For most paramyxoviruses, membrane fusion requires two viral glycoproteins. Upon receptor binding, the attachment glycoprotein (HN/H/G triggers the fusion glycoprotein (F to undergo conformational changes that merge viral and/or cell membranes. However, a significant knowledge gap remains on how HN/H/G couples cell receptor binding to F-triggering. Via interdisciplinary approaches we report the first comprehensive mechanism of NiV membrane fusion triggering, involving three spatiotemporally sequential cell receptor-induced conformational steps in NiV-G: two in the head and one in the stalk. Interestingly, a headless NiV-G mutant was able to trigger NiV-F, and the two head conformational steps were required for the exposure of the stalk domain. Moreover, the headless NiV-G prematurely triggered NiV-F on virions, indicating that the NiV-G head prevents premature triggering of NiV-F on virions by concealing a F-triggering stalk domain until the correct time and place: receptor-binding. Based on these and recent paramyxovirus findings, we present a comprehensive and fundamentally conserved mechanistic model of paramyxovirus membrane fusion triggering and cell entry.

  8. Fast asynchronous level 1 pre-trigger for electrons at L = 10/sup 33 cm-2 sec-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, M. J.

    1983-04-01

    Asynchronous Triggers which have long been used at fixed target accelerators and the CW High Luminosity CERM ISR are discussed. Bunched beam colliders tend to use triggers which are synchronized with the time of the beam crossing. The CDF trigger scheme has 3.5 micro psec between such crossings to decide whether to further process any events which occurred during the crossing. The level 1 trigger can accept a rate of 50 kHz without appreciable dead time. The level 2 trigger uses fast bit slice processors to select event topologies in 10 micro sec and thus can accept a trigger rate of 5 KHz. Readout of the system which takes 1/2 msec is required for level 3, thus limiting the triggering rate at level 3 to approximately 100 Hz. It is shown that this same trigger scheme would work at a CW luminosity of 10 to the 33th power sq cm sec to -1 power by the addition of a conventional hard wired asynchronous pretrigger.

  9. Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community Disparities in Lung Health Series "Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community" is part of the American Lung Association's ...

  10. The ATLAS Hadronic Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Brost, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    As proton-proton collisions at the LHC reach luminosities close to 10$^{\\mathrm{34}}$ cm$^{\\mathrm{-2}}$ s $^{\\mathrm{-1}}$, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analyses. Simplistic single tau lepton triggers suffer from severe rate limitation, despite the sophisticated algorithms used in the tau identification. The development of further fast algorithms and the design of topological selections are the main challenges to allow a large program of physics analysis. The tau triggers provide many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model, and to get precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs boson decaying to tau-leptons. We present the performance of the hadronic tau trigger taken in Run 1 data with the ATLAS detector at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV pp collision. One of the major challenges is to sustain high efficiencies in events with multiple interactions. To do this we introduced faster tracking methods, multivariate selection techniques, and new t...

  11. Etiology of myofascial trigger points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.; Dommerholt, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TrPs). Knowing the potential causes of TrPs is important to prevent their development and recurrence, but also to inactivate and eliminate existing TrPs. There is general

  12. Etiology of myofascial trigger points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.; Dommerholt, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TrPs). Knowing the potential causes of TrPs is important to prevent their development and recurrence, but also to inactivate and eliminate existing TrPs. There is general ag

  13. Suicide Triggers Described by Herodotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchincloss, Stephane; Ahmadi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand the triggers of suicide, particularly among the ancient Greek and Persian soldiers and commanders. Method: ‘Herodotus:TheHistories’ is a history of the rulers and soldiery who participated in the Greco-Persian wars (492-449 BCE). A new translation (2013) of this manuscript was studied. Accounts of suicide were collected and collated, with descriptions of circumstances, methods, and probable triggers. Results: Nine accounts of suicide were identified. Eight of these were named individuals (4 Greeks and 4 Persians); of whom, seven were male. Only one (not the female) appeared to act in response to a mental disorder. Other triggers of suicide included guilt, avoidance of dishonour/punishment and altruism. Cutting/ stabbing was the most common method; others included hanging, jumping, poison, and burning (the single female). Conclusion: While soldiers at a time of war do not reflect the general community, they are nevertheless members of their society. Thus, this evidence demonstrates that suicide triggered by burdensome circumstances (in addition to mental disorder) was known to the Greek and Persian people more than two millennia ago. PMID:27437010

  14. El Dia de los Muertos -- Libreto. (The Day of the Dead -- Notebook.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Delia; Lopez, Santiago, III

    On November 2, all Mexican Americans remember their dead as Mexico does on that same day. Called "El Dia de los Muertos" (Day of the Dead), the dead are remembered posthumously with flowers, candles, music, prayers, chants, and wreaths. The people go to cemeteries to clean tombs, lay fresh or artificial flowers on them, and pray for…

  15. Dead space and slope indices from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension-volume curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Kars (Alice); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); Th. Stijnen (Theo); J. de Vries; A.F.M. Verbraak (Anton); C. Hilvering

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe slope of phase 3 and three noninvasively determined dead space estimates derived from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) versus volume curve, including the Bohr dead space (VD,Bohr), the Fowler dead space (VD,Fowler) and pre-interface expirate

  16. 77 FR 64373 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times,'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times... the exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice...

  17. 78 FR 24462 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times... the exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice...

  18. 78 FR 62354 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times'' ACTION... exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice was corrected...

  19. 78 FR 16565 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times'' Formerly Titled ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times'' ACTION... exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Biblical Times.'' The referenced notice was corrected...

  20. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected from...

  1. Trigger electronics for the ALICE PHOS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H; Musa, L; Yin, Z; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Sibiryak, Yu; Budnikov, D L

    2004-01-01

    The Photon Spectrometer of ALICE consists of 5 identical modules of 56 multiplied by 64 PWO crystals with a total of 100 degree azimuthal coverage of the barrel. The electronics required for implementing both the L0 trigger for high luminosity p-p physics and the L1 trigger for high p//T Pb+Pb physics has been studied. A full integration of the trigger logic into the detector's enclosure is based on analog transmission of fast trigger sums between stacks of front-end boards and trigger-router units. The latter contain 112 digitizer channels of 10bit, which are mapped into a single FPGA per trigger unit, covering areas of 24 multiplied by 16 crystals. The running modes allow for Level-0 trigger at 800ns and Level-1 at 6200ns trigger latencies. The design and status of the PHOS trigger electronics are outlined.

  2. The death effect in literary evaluation: reverence for the dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joseph P; Mohler, Eric W

    It is commonly believed that the value of art and other creative works increases after the death of the artist. In an attempt to examine this so-called death effect we presented a short story to N = 431 undergraduate students asking how much money they would hypothetically spend to purchase a literary work. We experimentally manipulated: 1) whether the author died or moved after publishing a short story, and, 2) the gender of the author. Participants randomly received one of four possible biographical descriptions about the author. We predicted that participants would offer higher purchase prices and subjectively evaluate the work more positively when they believed the author was dead. Results were consistent with this hypothesis perhaps reflecting a certain reverence for the dead. We also found that evaluations of the story were more favorable when the purported gender of the author matched that of the participant.

  3. Not to declare dead someone still alive: Case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diagnosing death represents an activity that carries a great deal of public responsibility for medical professionals and is continually exposed to the control of citizens and media. Although this is a taboo subject in medical circles, unfortunately in medical practice there are situations when the physician issues a death diagnosis form without even examining the person or for an already buried person. Such physician’s action is impermissible and it leads to the possibility of professional and criminal law punishment. Case Outline. By giving examples from practice, we wish to point out the need for exceptional caution when confirming and diagnosing death in order to diagnose the true, i.e. rule out apparent death and consequently avoid the mistake of declaring dead someone still alive. Conclusion. When confirming and declaring death, exceptional caution of the physician is necessary so as not to declare dead someone still alive!

  4. Physical and chemical characterization of Dead Sea mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khlaifat, Abdelaziz, E-mail: abdelaziz.khlaifat@me.weatherford.com [Weatherford Oil Tool Middle East Ltd., P.O. Box 4627, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Al-Khashman, Omar [Department of Environmental Engineering, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma' an, P.O. Box 20 (Jordan); Qutob, Hani [Weatherford Oil Tool Middle East Ltd., P.O. Box 4627, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-05-15

    A laboratory analysis was performed to determine the physical and chemical properties of 24 Dead Sea mud samples collected from three different locations on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. Several analytical techniques were used to determine the chemical and mineralogical compositions of those samples including atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Physical parameters such as specific gravity, Atterberg limits, grain size, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, pH and electrical conductivity were also studied. The main focus of the work was to document mud characteristics and to study the interrelation between physical and chemical properties. The mud samples were quite rich in minerals. Strontium was the most abundant trace element in the samples (range: 410-810 ppm) followed by barium (range: 155-380 ppm), vanadium (range: 209-264 ppm) and lead (range: 108-114 ppm). There were significant differences in the elemental contents of mud samples collected from different locations.

  5. Awakening the "Walking Dead": Zombie Pedagogy for Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Dawn Wadsworth

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article lays out the pedagogical benefits of using popular zombie productions, particularly AMC's The Walking Dead, to teach a critical introduction to modern political theory. Based on my undergraduate course: "Political Theory, Climate Change, and the Zombie Apocalypse," the article outlines how The Walking Dead can be used to critique the mythic assumptions built into modern social contract theory; to introduce other political ideologies, including conservatism, anarchism, fascism, and communism; and to consider the political challenges raised by a global problem such as climate change in an increasingly neoliberal environment. Zombie productions are offered as a particularly salient pedagogical tool that can help awaken critical political analysis for the Millennial Generation.

  6. The Dead Mother, the Uncanny, and the Holy Ghost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Ventura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent portrayals of dead mothers frequently appeared in French art from 1800 to 1850. This essay focuses on one of the latest manifestations of this image, namely, the French Realist Jules Breton's (1827-1906 painting The Hunger of 1850, in order to examine the psycho-historical elements associated with the mother's death. Through an analysis of the "Uncanny" as formulated by both Ernst Jentsch and Sigmund Freud, we will address the undissolvable link between the structuralization of "homeliness" in the late eighteenth century and the dread it evoked in the early nineteenth century, as two sides of the same coin. We will simultaneously consider the inherent conflictuality embodied by the dead mother according to the French psychoanalyst André Green, who dealt with the experience of "nothingness" that characterizes children of mothers-who-refuse-to-die.

  7. Turbulent Mixing and the Dead Zone in Protostellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, N J; Dziourkevitch, N

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the conditions for the presence of a magnetically inactive dead zone in protostellar disks, using 3-D shearing-box MHD calculations including vertical stratification, Ohmic resistivity and time-dependent ionization chemistry. Activity driven by the magnetorotational instability fills the whole thickness of the disk at 5 AU, provided cosmic ray ionization is present, small grains are absent and the gas-phase metal abundance is sufficiently high. At 1 AU the larger column density of 1700 g/cm^2 means the midplane is shielded from ionizing particles and remains magnetorotationally stable even under the most favorable conditions considered. Nevertheless the dead zone is effectively eliminated. Turbulence mixes free charges into the interior as they recombine, leading to a slight coupling of the midplane gas to the magnetic fields. Weak, large-scale radial fields diffuse to the midplane where they are sheared out to produce stronger azimuthal fields. The resulting midplane accretion stresses are jus...

  8. A Rhetorical Analysis of the Film Dead Poets Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗春燕

    2014-01-01

    The movie Dead Poets Society is a blockbuster and attracts different researches from different perspective, such as the image and personality of characters, or the linguistic features. However, few of the researchers conduct this study by using rheto-rics. Thus, this study analyze the movie based on the theories of rhetorics, hoping to give some implications to those who are in-terested in rhetorical analysis.

  9. Spina bifida in a dead stillbirth mongrel dog

    OpenAIRE

    Selwyn Arlington Headley; Claudia Russo; Gustavo José von Glehn dos Santos; Eduardo Alcântara Ribeiro; Ewaldo de Mattos Junior

    2007-01-01

    Spina bifida is a congenital spinal deformity that is characterized by an incomplete closure of the dorsal portion of the vertebrate. This report describes the radiological and pathological findings of this abnormality in a dead still birth mongrel. The dog demonstrated a cleft at the dorsal region of the thoracic vertebrate column, which resulted in exposition and protrusion of the spinal cord and the meninges. Plain radiographs of the ventral-dorsal of the vertebrate column revealed a defec...

  10. A data-acquisition card without dead time

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, J Z; Bottyan, L

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of the ion beam profile in a storage ring is vital and it is measured by a position-sensitive detector. Co-ordinates of hit locations on the anodes of two multi-channel plate (MCP) detectors (one in horizontal and the other in vertical direction) are collected. Task sharing between software and hardware, including dual-buffer memory-management as implemented in the data-acquisition card described here, eliminates acquisition dead time.

  11. [Serotonin dysfunctions in the background of the seven deadly sins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Zoltán

    2003-11-20

    The symbolic characters of the Seven Deadly Sins can be traced from time to time in the cultural history of human mankind, being directly specified in certain artistic products. Such are, among others, the painting entitled "The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Lost Things" by Hieronymus Bosch and the poems Divina Commedia and The Foerie Queene by Dante Alighieri and Edmund Spenser, respectively. However, there are several paragraphs referring to these behaviours of the Seven Deadly Sins in the Bible and in the dramas of William Shakespeare. The objective of the present review is to propose that dysfunctions in the central serotonergic system might be involved in the neurobiology of these 'sinful' behaviour patterns. Evidences indicate that behaviour traits such as Accidia (Sloth), Luxuria (Lust, Lechery), Superbia (Pride), Ira (Wrath, Anger), Invidia (Envy), Avaritia (Greed, Avarice), and Gula (Gluttony) can relate to the functional alterations of serotonin in the brain. Results of biochemical and molecular genetic (polymorphism) studies on the human serotonergic system (receptor, transporter, enzyme), findings of functional imaging techniques, effects of depletion (or supplementation) of the serotonin precursor tryptophan, data of challenge probe investigations directed to testing central serotonergic functions, alterations in the peripheral serotonin measures (platelet), and the changes in the CSF 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid content indicate such serotonergic involvement. Furthermore, results of animal experiments on behaviour change (aggressive, dominant or submissive, appetite, alcohol preference) attributed to serotonin status modification and the clinically evidenced therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological interventions, based on the modulation and perturbation of the serotonergic system (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), in treating the 'sinful' behaviour forms and analogous pathological states reaching the severity of psychiatric disorders

  12. The therapeutic effects of Dead Sea mineral-based skincare

    OpenAIRE

    Mallia, Alistair

    2010-01-01

    Dead Sea mineral-based skincare can be considered a unique part of the 'Sea' cosmetic trend. The sea as a natural source of healing is quite an old concept. In 1750 Richard Russel presented his thesis on the Therapeutic effect of seawater at Oxford. And in 1869 the term thalassotherapy or 'bringing together the sea and medicine' was coined by the French physican La Bonardier d'Arachon

  13. Landscapes of the Dead: an Argument for Conservation Burial

    OpenAIRE

    Harker, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The American funeral industry has long influenced how and where we bury the dead. Current industry-standard burial practices harm the environment through the use of embalming and hardwood caskets. This article argues for a different model for burials, one which will preserve open space, incorporate cultural landscapes into cities and regions, and increase the ecological sensitivity of burial practices and social acceptance of death as a natural process. Conservation burials support ecological...

  14. Strong tracking adaptive Kalman filters for underwater vehicle dead reckoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Kun; FANG Shao-ji; PANG Yong-jie

    2007-01-01

    To improve underwater vehicle dead reckoning, a developed strong tracking adaptive kalman filter is proposed. The filter is improved with an additional adaptive factor and an estimator of measurement noise covariance. Since the magnitude of fading factor is changed adaptively, the tracking ability of the filter is still enhanced in low velocity condition of underwater vehicles. The results of simulation tests prove the presented filter effective.

  15. Organ donation in the Philippines: should the dead do more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Leonardo D

    2014-01-01

    This paper asks whether the Philippines should focus on ways of dealing with end-stage renal disease by getting more transplantable kidneys from the dead. Would it be more ethical to put the burden to donate on the dead (who have already lost their chance to consent) than on the living (who can consent)? Given the risks involved in undergoing nephrectomy and the lack of benefits arising from the procedure to donors, the dead should be the first to put their kidneys on the line. In the Philippines, unfortunately, living donors have had to bear the greater burden in this regard. Starting with a brief account of developments surrounding the impact of the Declaration of Istanbul on the situation in the Philippines as well as in other countries, the paper examines what the living have been expected to do, what they have actually done, and what lessons the experience with living donors offers for the understanding of cadaver transplants. The paper then looks at possible ways of increasing the sources of kidneys for transplantation and asks if these ways could be implemented successfully and ethically in the Philippines.

  16. A receiver function study across the Dead Sea Basin (DSB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A.; Asch, G.; Hofstetter, R.; Kind, R.; Weber, M.

    2008-12-01

    Beginning in September 2006, a temporary network of 30 broadband and 45 short-period seismic stations has been set up on both sides of the Dead Sea Basin (DSB). During one and a half year of successful operation, data were continuously recorded in the field at 100 Hz and 200 Hz sample frequency for the broadband and short-period seismic stations, respectively. The raw data were converted to miniseed format and archived as full seed volume in the GEOFON data center of the GFZ. In the present work, the Receiver Function Method has been applied to the three component passive source data to investigate seismic discontinuities from the crust down to the upper mantle. Unusual negative phases at about 1s delay time have been observed at several stations in the Dead Sea region on the top of the assumed salt diapir. First preliminary receiver function analysis reveals a crustal thickness of about 30 -35 km in the investigated area and possibly low-velocity layer beneath the Moho. It also shows a basin which is possibly filled with salt about 10 km thick beneath the Lisan peninsula (Dead Sea).

  17. Dead-reckoning/vision integrated navigation for mobile robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德波

    2003-01-01

    A dead reckoning system and a vision navigation system are proposed for use in a new integrated sys-tem for robot navigation. Since the dead reckoning system uses a recurrence algorithm to determine the position,the position will be divergent in two horizontal directions with time increasing. In order to overcome this defect,a vision navigation system is used to periodically correct the dead reckoning system, and a kalman filter is usedto estimate the errors of navigation and the unknown biases of sensors, and precise position and heading estima-tions are obtained by updating navigation errors and sensors' biases. It is concluded from the simulation resultsthat all the navigation parameters can be obtained through kalman filtering, and the integrated navigation systemproposed for robot navigation can be used in an actual robot working in a laboratory. The measurement noise a-nalysis shows that with the distance between beacon and robot increasing, the measurement noise will increase,and in order to achieve a proper estimation accuracy, the distance should not be too great.

  18. The trigger system of the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Altegoer, J; Boyd, S; Cardini, A; Farthouat, Philippe; Ferrari, R; Geppert, D; Gössling, C; Huta, W; Hyett, N; Koch, N; Lanza, A; Long, J; Moorhead, G F; Poolmann, D; Poulsen, C; Rubbia, André; Schmidt, B; Soler, F J P; Steele, D; Varvell, K E; Weisse, T; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Voullieme, A

    1999-01-01

    The NOMAD trigger system is described in the present paper. It is made up of a largearea plastic scintillator veto system, two trigger scintillator planes inside a 0.4~Tmagnetic field and their associated trigger electronics. Special features of the systemconsist of the use of proximity mesh photomultipliers which allow the trigger scintillators to operate in the magnetic field, and the use of custom-built VME moduleswhich perform the trigger logic decisions, the signal synchronisation and gate generation,event counting and livetime calculations. This paper also includes a description of each of the NOMAD triggers, with their calculated and measured rates, efficiencies and livetimes.

  19. The ALICE high level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Vik, T.; Wiebalck, A.; the ALICE Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s-1. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  20. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the ATLAS Fast Tracker processor is presented, reporting the design of the system, its expected performance, and the integration status. The next LHC runs, with a significant increase in instantaneous luminosity, will provide a big challenge to the trigger and data acquisition systems of all the experiments. An intensive use of the tracking information at the trigger level will be important to keep high efficiency in interesting events, despite the increase in multiple p-p collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). In order to increase the use of tracks within the High Level Trigger (HLT), the ATLAS experiment planned the installation of an hardware processor dedicated to tracking: the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor. The FTK is designed to perform full scan track reconstruction at every Level-1 accept. To achieve this goal, the FTK uses a fully parallel architecture, with algorithms designed to exploit the computing power of custom VLSI chips, the Associative Memory, as well as modern FPGAs. The FT...

  1. Development of autonomous triggering instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Steve E.; Swift, Theresa M.; Fonda, James W.

    2008-03-01

    Triggering instrumentation for autonomous monitoring of load-induced strain is described for economical, fast bridge inspection. The development addresses one aspect for the management of transportation infrastructure - bridge monitoring and inspection. The objectives are to provide quantitative performance information from a load test, to minimize the setup time at the bridge, and to minimize the closure time to traffic. Multiple or networked measurements can be made for a prescribed loading sequence. The proposed smart system consists of in-situ strain sensors, an embedded data acquisition module, and a measurement triggering system. A companion control unit is mounted on the truck serving as the load. As the truck moves to the proper position, the desired measurement is automatically relayed back to the control unit. In this work, the testing protocol is developed and the performance parameters for the triggering and data acquisition are measured. The test system uses a dedicated wireless sensor mote and an infrared positioning system. The electronic procedure offers improvements in available information and economics.

  2. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  3. Diabetic Dead-in-Bed Syndrome: A Possible Link to a Cardiac Ion Channelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Skinner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden unexpected nocturnal death among patients with diabetes occurs approximately ten times more commonly than in the general population. Malignant ventricular arrhythmia due to Brugada syndrome has been postulated as a cause, since a glucose-insulin bolus can unmask the Brugada electrocardiographic signature in genetically predisposed individuals. In this report we present a 16-year-old male with insulin-dependent diabetes who died suddenly at night. His diabetes had been well controlled, without significant hypoglycaemia. At autopsy, he had a full stomach and a glucose level of 7 mmol/L in vitreous humor, excluding hypoglycaemia. Genetic analysis of autopsy DNA revealed a missense mutation, c.370A>G (p.Ile124Val, in the GPD1L gene. A parent carried the same mutation and has QT prolongation. Mutations in this gene have been linked to Brugada syndrome and sudden infant death. The patient may have died from a ventricular arrhythmia, secondary to occult Brugada syndrome, triggered by a full stomach and insulin. The data suggest that molecular autopsies are warranted to investigate other cases of the diabetic dead-in-bed syndrome.

  4. Investigation of the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers in mainland China by simulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Li, Qingguang; Hou, Bo; Hu, Wuyang; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Dead pigs are a major waste by-product of pig farming. Thus, safe disposal of dead pigs is important to the protection of consumer health and the ecological environment by preventing marketing of slaughtered and processed dead pigs and improper dumping of dead pigs. In this study, a probability model was constructed for the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by selecting factors affecting disposal. To that end, we drew on the definition and meaning of behavior probability based on survey data collected from 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. Moreover, the role of influencing factors in pig farmers' behavioral choices regarding the disposal of dead pigs was simulated by simulation experiment. The results indicated that years of farming had a positive impact on pig farmers' choice of negative disposal of dead pigs. Moreover, there was not a simple linear relationship between scale of farming and pig farmers' behavioral choices related to the disposal of dead pigs. The probability for farmers to choose the safe disposal of dead pigs increased with the improvement of their knowledge of government policies and relevant laws and regulations. Pig farmers' behavioral choice about the disposal of dead pigs was also affected by government subsidy policies, regulation, and punishment. Government regulation and punishment were more effective than subsidy. The findings of our simulation experiment provide important decision-making support for the governance in preventing the marketing of dead pigs at the source.

  5. Comparative growth and development of spiders reared on live and dead prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Zhang, Fan; Gui, Shaolan; Qiao, Huping; Hose, Grant C

    2013-01-01

    Scavenging (feeding on dead prey) has been demonstrated across a number of spider families, yet the implications of feeding on dead prey for the growth and development of individuals and population is unknown. In this study we compare the growth, development, and predatory activity of two species of spiders that were fed on live and dead prey. Pardosa astrigera (Lycosidae) and Hylyphantes graminicola (Lyniphiidae) were fed live or dead fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. The survival of P. astrigera and H. graminicola was not affected by prey type. The duration of late instars of P. astrigera fed dead prey were longer and mature spiders had less protein content than those fed live prey, whereas there were no differences in the rate of H. graminicola development, but the mass of mature spiders fed dead prey was greater than those fed live prey. Predation rates by P. astrigera did not differ between the two prey types, but H. graminicola had a higher rate of predation on dead than alive prey, presumably because the dead flies were easier to catch and handle. Overall, the growth, development and reproduction of H. graminicola reared with dead flies was better than those reared on live flies, yet for the larger P. astrigera, dead prey may suit smaller instars but mature spiders may be best maintained with live prey. We have clearly demonstrated that dead prey may be suitable for rearing spiders, although the success of the spiders fed such prey appears size- and species specific.

  6. Macrophages transfer antigens to dendritic cells by releasing exosomes containing dead-cell-associated antigens partially through a ceramide-dependent pathway to enhance CD4(+) T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingping; Liu, Yi; Yang, Chunqing; Kang, Li; Wang, Meixiang; Hu, Jingxia; He, Hao; Song, Wengang; Tang, Hua

    2016-10-01

    Defects in rapid clearance of apoptotic cells lead to an accumulation of dead cells (late apoptotic or secondary necrotic cells), which results in an aberrant immune response. However, little is known about whether and how macrophages (Mφs) cooperate with dendritic cells (DCs) in the presentation of dead-cell-associated antigens in this process. By transferring high numbers of dead cells to mimic a failure of apoptotic cell clearance in vivo, we found that Mφs and neutrophils were the predominant phagocytes in the uptake of dead cells in the spleen. Moreover, both Mφs and DCs were required for an optimal CD4(+) T-cell response triggered by dead-cell-associated antigens. Importantly, although Mφs alone had a poor capacity for antigen presentation, they could transfer phagocytosed antigens to DCs for potent antigen presentation to enhance T-cell responses. Finally, we found that exosomes released from Mφs acted as a transmitter to convey antigens to DCs partially in a ceramide-dependent manner, since treatment with the neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor GW4869 and spiroepoxide resulted in a significant reduction of T-cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. These findings point to a novel pathway of cross-talk between Mφs and DCs, which will be helpful to explain possible mechanisms for autoimmune diseases characterized by increased rates of apoptosis.

  7. Air chemistry over the Dead Sea: Observations and Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, M.; Tas, E.; Obrist, D.; Marveev, V.; Peleg, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Dead Sea which lies between Israel and Jordan is the deepest place on the planet with a negative elevation of 424 m below sea level. Because it is situated in isolated water shed with much higher evaporation rates relative to water inflow, its salinity is 10 times greater (numbers??) than normal ocean water. Emissions of bromine into the air in the form of reactive bromine species (RBS) are responsible for unique chemistry found only during the spring season over the Arctic Ocean and the stratosphere over Antarctica. Measurements of chemical and meteorological parameters took place at the Dead Sea during a series of studies between 1997 and 2010. Initially, the sensitivity of RBS formation to both meteorological and anthropogenic parameters was investigated using measurement-based simulations. The results show that RBS formation at the Dead Sea occurs efficiently via both aerosol-induced chemistry and direct bromine release from the Dead Sea water. Aerosol-induced RBS formation was found to be active when the measured relative humidity (RH) was higher than ~30%. Direct release of bromine from the seawater appears to occur efficiently only when wind speeds are below ~2m/s. Anthropogenic NO2 and sulfate aerosols significantly enhance RBS formation at the Dead Sea at times when aerosol chemistry is active. This appears to occur via the heterogeneous decomposition of BrONO2 on sulfate aerosols. However, above a threshold level of NO2, inhibition of RBS production can occur. This threshold NO2 level is highly dependent on several variables, including RBS levels and concentrations of sulfate aerosols. Overall, direct bromine release from the seawater appears to be more efficient than aerosol-induced RBS formation, but at times when measured RH exceed ~30%, extremely high BrO formation can occur via aerosol-induced chemistry. The second part of the study included simulations to examine the effects of RBS on atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) that occur in

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine including dead volumes of hot space, cold space and regenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongtragool, Bancha; Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Laboratory (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Suksawas 48, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2006-03-01

    This paper provides a theoretical investigation on the thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine. An isothermal model is developed for an imperfect regeneration Stirling engine with dead volumes of hot space, cold space and regenerator that the regenerator effective temperature is an arithmetic mean of the heater and cooler temperature. Numerical simulation is performed and the effects of the regenerator effectiveness and dead volumes are studied. Results from this study indicate that the engine net work is affected by only the dead volumes while the heat input and engine efficiency are affected by both the regenerator effectiveness and dead volumes. The engine net work decreases with increasing dead volume. The heat input increases with increasing dead volume and decreasing regenerator effectiveness. The engine efficiency decreases with increasing dead volume and decreasing regenerator effectiveness. (author)

  9. Novel Proresolving Aspirin-Triggered DHA Pathway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serhan, Charles N; Fredman, Gabrielle; Yang, Rong; Karamnov, Sergey; Belayev, Ludmila S; Bazan, Nicolas G; Zhu, Min; Winkler, Jeremy W; Petasis, Nicos A

    2011-01-01

    .... We report an aspirin-triggered DHA metabolome that biosynthesizes a potent product in inflammatory exudates and human leukocytes, namely aspirin-triggered Neuroprotectin D1/Protectin D1 [AT-(NPD1/PD1...

  10. Triggers for a high sensitivity charm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, D.C.

    1994-07-01

    Any future charm experiment clearly should implement an E{sub T} trigger and a {mu} trigger. In order to reach the 10{sup 8} reconstructed charm level for hadronic final states, a high quality vertex trigger will almost certainly also be necessary. The best hope for the development of an offline quality vertex trigger lies in further development of the ideas of data-driven processing pioneered by the Nevis/U. Mass. group.

  11. Infrasonic Observations from Triggered Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    We measured acoustic signals during both triggered and natural lightning. A comparative analysis of simultaneous data from the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), acoustic measurements and digital high-speed photography operating in the same area was made. Acoustic emissions, providing quantitative estimates of acoustic power and spectral content, will complement coincident investigations, such as X-ray emissions. Most cloud-to-ground lightning flashes lower negative charge to ground, but flashes that lower positive charge to ground are often unusually destructive and are less understood. The New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) locates the sources of impulsive RF radiation produced by lightning flashes in three spatial dimensions and time, operating in the 60 - 66 MHz television band. However, positive breakdown is rarely detected by the LMA and positive leader channels are outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped (or partially mapped because they may have recoil events). Acoustic and electric field instruments are a good complement to the LMA, since they can detect both negative and positive leaders. An array of five stations was deployed during the Summer of 2009 (July 20 to August 13) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The stations were located at close (57 m), medium (303 and 537 m) and far (1403 and 2556 m) distances surrounding the triggering site. Each station consisted of five sensors, one infrasonic and one in the audio range at the center, and three infrasonic in a triangular configuration. This research will provide a more complete picture, and provide further insight into the nature of lightning.

  12. The ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Grastveit, G [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Helstrup, H [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Lindenstruth, V [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Loizides, C [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Roehrich, D [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Skaali, B [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Steinbeck, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Stock, R [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Tilsner, H [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Ullaland, K [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Vestboe, A [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Vik, T [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Wiebalck, A [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s{sup -1}. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  13. Trigger efficiencies at BES III

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, N; Liu, Z A; Jin, D P; Xu, H; Gong, W X; Wang, K; Cao, G F

    2010-01-01

    Trigger efficiencies at BES III were determined for both the J/psi and psi' data taking of 2009. Both dedicated runs and physics datasets are used; efficiencies are presented for Bhabha-scattering events, generic hadronic decay events involving charged tracks, dimuon events and psi' -> pi+pi-J/psi, J/psi -> l+l- events (l an electron or muon). The efficiencies are found to lie well above 99% for all relevant physics cases, thus fulfilling the BES III design specifications.

  14. Space Radar Image of Jerusalem and the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image shows the area surrounding the Dead Sea along the West Bank between Israel and Jordan. This region is of major cultural and historical importance to millions of Muslims, Jews and Christians who consider it the Holy Land. The yellow area at the top of the image is the city of Jericho. A portion of the Dead Sea is shown as the large black area at the top right side of the image. The Jordan River is the white line at the top of the image which flows into the Dead Sea. Jerusalem, which lies in the Judaean Hill Country, is the bright, yellowish area shown along the left center of the image. Just below and to the right of Jerusalem is the town of Bethlehem. The city of Hebron is the white, yellowish area near the bottom of the image. The area around Jerusalem has a history of more than 2,000 years of settlement and scientists are hoping to use these data to unveil more about this region's past. The Jordan River Valley is part of an active fault and rift system that extends from southern Turkey and connects with the east African rift zone. This fault system has produced major earthquakes throughout history and some scientists theorize that an earthquake may have caused the fall of Jericho's walls. The Dead Sea basin is formed by active earthquake faulting and contains the lowest place on the Earth's surface at about 400 meters (1,300 feet) below sea level. It was in caves along the northern shore of the Dead Sea that the Dead Sea Scrolls were found in 1947. The blue and green areas are generally regions of undeveloped hills and the dark green areas are the smooth lowlands of the Jordan River valley. This image is 73 kilometers by 45 kilometers (45 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 31.7 degrees north latitude, 35.4 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; green is L-band, horizontally

  15. Seismic zonation of the Dead Sea Transform Fault area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Papadimitriou

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dead Sea Transform Fault constitutes the northwestern boundary of the Arabian plate, accommodating the plate’s lateral movement relative to the African plate. A complete and homogeneous catalogue of historical earthquakes has been compiled and used in the subdivision of the fault area into the following segments: 1 Araba segment, which extends along Wadi Araba and the southernmost part of the Dead Sea (29.5°-31.3°N and trends SSW-NNE with scarce historical and instrumental seismicity; 2 Jordan-valley segment, which extends along the central and northern parts of the Dead Sea and the Jordan valley to the Huleh depression (31.3°-33.1° N and trends S-N with moderate historical seismicity; 3 Beqa’a segment, which extends along the western margin of the Beqa’a valley in Lebanon (33.1°-34.5°N and trends SSW-NNE with strong historical seismicity; 4 El-Ghab segment, which extends along the eastern flank of the coastal mountain range of Syria (34.5°-35.8°N and trends S-N with moderate historical seismicity; 5 Karasu segment, which extends along the Karasu valley in SE Turkey (35.8°-37.3°N and trends SSW-NNE, exhibiting the strongest historical seismicity of the area. Probabilities for the generation of strong (M > 6.0 earthquakes in these segments during the next decade are given, by the application of the regional time and magnitude predictable model.

  16. Advances in the research of DEAD box 1 gene and tumor%DEAD box1基因与相关肿瘤的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹巍; 金焰; 傅松滨

    2011-01-01

    DEAD box gene, DEAD box 1 ( DDX1 ) ,a gene mapping to the 2p24 region, was identified to be overexpressed in retinoblastoma and co-amplified with MYCN in neuroblastoma cell lines as well as in primary tumor specimens. DEAD box proteins are found in most organisms. As expected from the presence of the helicase domain, DDX 1 shows in vitro ATPase and RNA helicase activities. The exact function of DDX 1 and its role in the pathogenesis of cancer are still under investigation. Here, we review the DEAD box proteins family and the relationships with between DEAD box1 gene and tumor.%DEAD box基因,DEAD box 1(DDX1),位于染色体2p24,过表达于视网膜母细胞瘤(retinoblastoma,RB)中,并与MYCN基因共同扩增在神经母细胞瘤(neuroblastoma,NB)和原发性肿瘤的细胞系中.最近研究发现在鼠的子宫内膜癌细胞中DDX1基因与MYCN基因共同扩增.经研究发现在多数生物体中都存在DEAD box蛋白.正如我们所意料,DDX1存在解旋酶区域,在体外DDX1蛋白表现有ATP酶和解旋酶的活性.目前,DDX1确切的功能和在肿瘤中的作用还在进一步的研究当中.现将DEAD box蛋白家族和DEAD box 1基因与肿瘤的关系进行综述.

  17. Acoustical dead zones and the spatial aggregation of whale strandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Bala; Poje, Andrew C; Veit, Richard R; Nganguia, Herve

    2006-02-21

    Cetacean strandings display a marked geographical clustering. We propose a simple, two-dimensional ray-dynamics model of cetacean echolocation to examine the role played by coastline topography in influencing the location and clustering of stranding sites. We find that a number of coastlines known to attract cetacean strandings produce acoustical "Dead Zones" where echolocation signals are severely distorted by purely geometric effects. Using available cetacean stranding data bases from four disparate areas, we show that the geographical clusters in the observations correlate strongly with the regions of distorted echolocation signals as predicted by the model.

  18. The microbiology and biogeochemistry of the Dead Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, A

    1975-06-01

    The Dead Sea is a hypersaline water body. Its total dissolved salts content is on the average 322.6 gm/liter. The dominant cation is Mg (40.7 gm/liter), followed by Na (39.2 gm/liter), Ca (17 gm/liter) and K (7 gm/liter). The major anion is Cl (212 gm/liter), followed by Br (5 gm/liter); SO4 and HCO3, are very minor. The lake contains a limited variety of microorganisms and no higher organisms. The number of recorded species is very low, but the total biomass is reasonably high (about 10(5) bacteria/ml and 10(4) algal cells/ml). The indigenous flora is comprised mainly of obligate halophylic bacteria, such as the pink, pleomorphicHalobacterium sp., aSarcina-like coccus, and the facultative halophilic green alga,Dunaliella. Sulfate reducers can be isolated from bottom sediments. Recently a unique obligate magnesiophile bacteria was isolated from Dead Sea sediment. Several of the Dead Sea organisms possess unusual properties. TheHalobacterium sp. has extremely high intercellular K(+) concentration (up to 4.8M) and extraordinary specificity for K(+) over Na. TheDunaliella has very high intracellular concentration of glycerol (up to 2.1M). The microorganisms exert marked influence on some biogeochemical processes occurring in the lake, such as the control of the sulfur cycle and the formation and diagenesis of organic matter in the sediments. The Dead Sea is an excellent example of the development of two different mechanisms for adjusting to a hostile environment. The algae adjust to the high salinity by developing a mechanism for the exclusion of salts from the intracellular fluid and using glycerol for osmotic regulation. On the other hand, the bacteria adapt to the environment by adjusting their internal inorganic ionic strength, but not composition, to that of the medium. The problem of population dynamics and limiting factors for algal and bacterial productivity are discussed in view of the total absence of zooplankton and other consumers other than bacteria.

  19. The Database Driven ATLAS Trigger Configuration System

    CERN Document Server

    Martyniuk, Alex; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This contribution describes the trigger selection configuration system of the ATLAS low- and high-level trigger (HLT) and the upgrades it received in preparation for LHC Run 2. The ATLAS trigger configuration system is responsible for applying the physics selection parameters for the online data taking at both trigger levels and the proper connection of the trigger lines across those levels. Here the low-level trigger consists of the already existing central trigger (CT) and the new Level-1 Topological trigger (L1Topo), which has been added for Run 2. In detail the tasks of the configuration system during the online data taking are Application of the selection criteria, e.g. energy cuts, minimum multiplicities, trigger object correlation, at the three trigger components L1Topo, CT, and HLT On-the-fly, e.g. rate-dependent, generation and application of prescale factors to the CT and HLT to adjust the trigger rates to the data taking conditions, such as falling luminosity or rate spikes in the detector readout ...

  20. Triggering with the ALICE TRD

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    We discuss how a level-1 trigger, about 8 us after a hadron-hadron collision, can be derived from the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) in A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) at the LHC. Chamber-wise track segments from fast on-detector reconstruction are read out with position, angle and electron likelihood. In the Global Tracking Unit up to 6 tracklets from a particle traversing the detector layers are matched and used for the reconstruction of transverse momentum and electron identification. Such tracks form the basis for versatile and flexible trigger conditions, e.g. single high-pt hadron, single high-pt electron, di-electron (J/Psi, Upsilon) and at least n close high-pt tracks (jet). The need for low-latency on-line reconstruction poses challenges on the detector operation. The calibration for gain (pad-by-pad) and drift velocity must be applied already in the front-end electronics. Due to changes in pressure and gas composition an on-line monitoring and feedback loop for these parameters is requi...

  1. Embryos grown in the dead zone: Assembling the first protoplanetary cores in low mass self-gravitating circumstellar disks of gas and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Lyra, W; Klahr, H; Piskunov, N

    2008-01-01

    In the borders of the dead zones of protoplanetary disks, the inflow of gas produces a local density maximum that triggers the Rossby wave instability. The vortices that form are efficient in trapping solids. We aim to assess the possibility of gravitational collapse of the solids within the Rossby vortices. We perform global simulations of the dynamics of gas and solids in a low mass non-magnetized self-gravitating thin protoplanetary disk with the Pencil code. We use multiple particle species of radius 1, 10, 30, and 100 cm. The dead zone is modelled as a region of low viscosity. The Rossby vortices excited in the edges of the dead zone are very efficient particle traps. Within 5 orbits after their appearance, the solids achieve critical density and undergo gravitational collapse into Mars sized objects. The velocity dispersions are of the order of 10 m/s for newly formed embryos, later lowering to less than 1 m/s by drag force cooling. After 200 orbits, 38 gravitationally bound embryos were formed inside t...

  2. Hadronic triggers and trigger object-level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous event rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors, such as storage and computing requirements...

  3. Hadronic Triggers and trigger-object level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program, and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors to more deeply probing for new physics, such as storage and computing requirements f...

  4. Radiative Energy Loss of Heavy Quark and Dead Cone Effect in Ultra-relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Wen-Chang; DING Heng-Tong; ZHOU Dai-Cui

    2005-01-01

    @@ The lowest-order heavy quark radiative energy loss has been analysed to quantify the dead cone effect. The medium-induced gluon radiation is found to fill the dead cone, it is reduced at large gluon energies compared to the radiation of light quarks. We calculate the radiative energy loss of heavy quarks in the condition of dead cone effect. It is found that the radiative energy loss with dead cone effect is smaller than that without the dead cone effect.

  5. Remotely Triggered Scaffolds for Controlled Release of Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Hoskins

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4-Au hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs have shown increasing potential for biomedical applications such as image guided stimuli responsive drug delivery. Incorporation of the unique properties of HNPs into thermally responsive scaffolds holds great potential for future biomedical applications. Here we successfully fabricated smart scaffolds based on thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (pNiPAM. Nanoparticles providing localized trigger of heating when irradiated with a short laser burst were found to give rise to remote control of bulk polymer shrinkage. Gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using wet chemical precipitation methods followed by electrochemical coating. After subsequent functionalization of particles with allyl methyl sulfide, mercaptodecane, cysteamine and poly(ethylene glycol thiol to enhance stability, detailed biological safety was determined using live/dead staining and cell membrane integrity studies through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH quantification. The PEG coated HNPs did not show significant cytotoxic effect or adverse cellular response on exposure to 7F2 cells (p < 0.05 and were carried forward for scaffold incorporation. The pNiPAM-HNP composite scaffolds were investigated for their potential as thermally triggered systems using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. These studies show that incorporation of HNPs resulted in scaffold deformation after very short irradiation times (seconds due to internal structural heating. Our data highlights the potential of these hybrid-scaffold constructs for exploitation in drug delivery, using methylene blue as a model drug being released during remote structural change of the scaffold.

  6. Contests with deadly weapons: telson sparring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, P A; Patek, S N

    2015-09-01

    Mantis shrimp strike with extreme impact forces that are deadly to prey. They also strike conspecifics during territorial contests, yet theoretical and empirical findings in aggressive behaviour research suggest competitors should resolve conflicts using signals before escalating to dangerous combat. We tested how Neogonodactylus bredini uses two ritualized behaviours to resolve size-matched contests: meral spread visual displays and telson (tailplate) strikes. We predicted that (i) most contests would be resolved by meral spreads, (ii) meral spreads would reliably signal strike force and (iii) strike force would predict contest success. The results were unexpected for each prediction. Contests were not resolved by meral spreads, instead escalating to striking in 33 of 34 experiments. The size of meral spread components did not strongly correlate with strike force. Strike force did not predict contest success; instead, winners delivered more strikes. Size-matched N. bredini avoid deadly combat not by visual displays, but by ritualistically and repeatedly striking each other's telsons until the loser retreats. We term this behaviour 'telson sparring', analogous to sparring in other weapon systems. We present an alternative framework for mantis shrimp contests in which the fight itself is the signal, serving as a non-lethal indicator of aggressive persistence or endurance. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. "Dead in hot bathtub" phenomenon: accidental drowning or natural disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Fumiko; Osawa, Motoki; Hasegawa, Iwao; Seto, Yoshihisa; Tsuboi, Akio

    2013-06-01

    Sudden death in a hot bathtub occurs frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. This retrospective report describes the epidemiologic circumstances and physical findings at autopsy. In total, 268 victims were found unconscious or dead during tub bathing. After postmortem examination, the manner of death was judged as natural cause in 191 (71.2%) and accidental drowning in 63 (23.5%) cases. Mean age (SD) was 72.1 (15.2) years with no significant difference between males and females. A seasonal difference was evident: the winter displayed the highest frequency. Drowning water inhalation, which was confirmed in 72% of victims, was absent in the others. The most common observations on postmortem examination were cardiac ischemic changes and cardiomegaly. Water inhalation signs were evident in a significantly fewer victims exhibiting these factors. In contrast, inhalational findings were observed more frequently in victims with other backgrounds such as alcohol intake, mobility disturbance, and history of epilepsy. Annual mortality in Japan from accidental drowning in persons aged older than 75 years is 33 deaths per 100,000 population. However, this number may be considerably underestimated as pathologists tend to regard lack of water inhalation as indicating a natural cause of death. Confusion in diagnosis remains consequent to the accidental and natural aspects of "dead in hot bathtub" phenomenon.

  8. Daily Living Movement Recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Martinelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, activity recognition is a central topic in numerous applications such as patient and sport activity monitoring, surveillance, and navigation. By focusing on the latter, in particular Pedestrian Dead Reckoning navigation systems, activity recognition is generally exploited to get landmarks on the map of the buildings in order to permit the calibration of the navigation routines. The present work aims to provide a contribution to the definition of a more effective movement recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning applications. The signal acquired by a belt-mounted triaxial accelerometer is considered as the input to the movement segmentation procedure which exploits Continuous Wavelet Transform to detect and segment cyclic movements such as walking. Furthermore, the segmented movements are provided to a supervised learning classifier in order to distinguish between activities such as walking and walking downstairs and upstairs. In particular, four supervised learning classification families are tested: decision tree, Support Vector Machine, k-nearest neighbour, and Ensemble Learner. Finally, the accuracy of the considered classification models is evaluated and the relative confusion matrices are presented.

  9. Currents in the Dead Sea: Lagrangian and Eulerian observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Tal; Gertman, Isaac; Katsenelson, Boris; Bodzin, Raanan; Lensly, Nadav

    2015-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a terminal hypersaline lake located in the lowest surface on Earth (currently -429 m bsl). The physical properties of the brine are significantly different than in common marine systems: the DS brine density is ~1.24 gr/cc and its viscosity ~3 times higher than marine systems. We present observational data on wind and currents in the Dead Sea. The observation setup includes a few fixed (Eulerian) stations which are equipped with wind meter and current meter profiler that covers the entire water column (ADCP). Thermal stratification is continuously measured in some of the stations using a thermistor chain. Lagrangian drifters that record the shallow water currents were released in liner array of single drifters between the fixed stations, and also in triplets (15 m triangle). The results include the measured time series data of wind (atmospheric forcing) and the measured current profiles from the fixed stations. Data of the Lagrangian drifters is presented as trajectories along with vector time series. Quality control check included comparison of drifter data and ADCP data whenever the drifters passed by the fixed stations; a very good agreement was found between the different measuring approaches. We discuss the following issues : (i) the relation between the wind and current data, (ii) the Lagrangian trajectories and transport aspects.

  10. Measurement of dead time by time interval distribution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkani, Mohammad; Raisali, Gholamreza

    2015-02-01

    Non-random event losses due to dead time effect in nuclear radiation detection systems distort the original Poisson process into a new type of distribution. As the characteristics of the distribution depend on physical properties of the detection system, it is possible to estimate the dead time parameters based on time interval analysis, this is the problem investigated in this work. A BF3 ionization chamber is taken as a case study to check the validity of the method in experiment. The results are compared with the data estimated by power rising experiment performed in Esfahan Heavy Water Zero Power Reactor (EHWZPR). Using Monte Carlo simulation, the problem is elaborately studied and useful range for counting rates of the detector is determined. The proposed method is accurate and applicable for all kinds of radiation detectors with no potential difficulty and no need for any especial nuclear facility. This is not a time consuming method and advanced capability of online examination during normal operation of the detection system is possible.

  11. Seasonal variations of halite saturation in the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, Ido; Arnon, Ali; Lensky, Nadav G.

    2016-09-01

    Hypersaline lakes and seas were common in the past, precipitating thick evaporitic salt deposits. The only modern analogue for the paleolimnology of deep salt-saturated aquatic environments exists in the Dead Sea. In this study, we present new insights from the Dead Sea on the role of seasonal thermohaline stratification and water balance on the seasonal and depth variations of the degree of saturation of halite (salt) and the rate of halite growth along the water column. We developed methodologies to accurately determine the empirical degree of halite saturation of the lake based on high accuracy densitometry, and to quantify halite growth rate along the water column. During summer, the epilimnion is undersaturated and halite is dissolved, whereas during winter the entire water column is supersaturated and crystallizes halite. This result is not trivial because the variations in the water balance suggest the opposite; summer is associated with higher loss of water by evaporation from the lake compared to the winter. Hence, the thermal effect overcomes the hydrological balance effect and thus governs the seasonal saturation cycle. The hypolimnion is supersaturated with respect to halite and crystallizes throughout the year, with higher super saturation and higher crystallization rates during winter. During summer, simultaneous opposing environments coexist—an undersaturated epilimnion that dissolves halite and a supersaturated hypolimnion that crystallizes halite, which results in focusing of halite deposits in the deep hypolimnetic parts of the evaporitic basins and thinning the shallow epilimnetic deposits.

  12. Management of the dead in Tacloban City after Typhoon Haiyan

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; De Guzman, Alethea; Sy, Luis; Zapanta, Ma Justina; Avelino, Ferchito; Feliciano, Joselito; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The post-disaster management of the dead involves a series of steps including on-site identification, transfer, storage and examination of bodies and delivery to families for burial. Two weeks after Typhoon Haiyan, a team from the Department of Health (DOH) was tasked with identifying the dead in Tacloban City. Methods A suitable site for the collection of bodies was identified and an algorithm and standard data collection form developed. The retrieval of bodies was coordinated with the Bureau of Fire Protection personnel. Upon receipt of a body, two team members conducted a systematic external examination. Findings were documented, photos were taken and each body was assigned a unique number. Results The DOH team examined 128 bodies. Of these, the majority (86%) were complete bodies; 95% were decomposed and two were skeletonized. Two thirds (66%) were adults, sex was identifiable for 92%, and the male to female ratio was 1:1.4. The majority of adults were females. Only 11% were presumptively identified from documents in clothing; 89% remained unidentified. Conclusion From the limited setting of this study, we describe the process of rapid body processing post-Haiyan. We prioritized rapid processing over more technically complicated means of identification, including DNA testing. Our protocol showed a dignified and efficient way of identifying corpses. As local and regional laboratory capacity increases in the Philippines, the collection of DNA specimens may become part of the identification algorithm. PMID:26767135

  13. Dead Zones in protoplanetary disks : accumulation and coagulation of dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnoz, S.; Taillifet, E.

    2011-10-01

    The growth of micronic dust to macroscopical sizes (>meter) in a turbulent protoplanetary disk is still largely debated. In particular the dust coagulation process must go through two barriers imposed by their coupling with the gas: the "meter" barrier due to an efficient radial migration of dust when their Stokes number is about one and the "fragmentation barrier" implied by the critical fragmentation velocity (around cm/s) preventing any further growth of particle when they reach a macroscopic size due to the two fast relative velocities of particles. So, paradoxically, a protoplanetary disks may seem quite a hostile place for dust-growth, despite the frequent detection of exoplanets showing that planetary formation is in fact an efficient process. We then explore a new possibility suggested by the stratified nature of a protoplanetary disk. Protoplanetary disks are expected to harbour nonionized regions in their mid-plane, the so called "dead zone" inside which the gas flow should be laminar. Dust coagulation in these regions could be quite effective and in addition, since they are regions of low diffusivity, they are expected to be able to accumulate efficiently dust. Using hybrid numerical simulations, coupling dustgrowth and dust dynamics, we explore how dust penetrate a dead-zone and how dust coagulate up to macroscopic sizes and compare it to coagulation efficiency in the active layers of the disk, subject to turbulence. Different disk structures will be explored and discussed. Implication for observations by ALMA will be also presented.

  14. Using and respecting the dead human body: an anatomist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth

    2014-09-01

    In his stimulating article enquiring into what the living owe the dead, Wilkinson (2013, Clin. Anat. DOI: 10.1002/ca.22263) sought to unpack a range of ethical questions of considerable interest to anatomists. In this, he looked closely at the extent to which we are or are not to respect all the prior wishes of the deceased, and the implications of this for the role of the family in providing consent, the use of unclaimed bodies, and the public display of bodies. Some of his conclusions challenge widely encountered views by anatomists. In this response I have re-visited these topics in an attempt to ground his arguments in the experience of anatomists, by emphasizing the many intimate connections that exist between each of these areas. The following emerge as issues for further debate. I accept that the wishes of the deceased are preeminent, so that authorities should make every effort to abide by these. This reiterates the importance of body bequests over against unclaimed bodies, and provides a context for assessing the role of family consent. This has repercussions for all activities employing dead bodies, from the dissecting room to public plastination exhibitions. In determining the extent to which the wishes of the deceased are followed the input of other interested parties is a relevant consideration. An ethical assessment of the public display of bodies needs to take into account the nature of the plastination process.

  15. Tetrapyrroles and associated compounds in Dead Sea asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizenshtat, Z. (Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Israel); Dinur, D.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1979-01-01

    Metallo- and free porphyrins (1000 to 1500 ppM) isolated from asphalts occurring as huge blocks floating in the northern part of the Dead Sea, have been analyzed by visible-uv (v-uv) spectrophotometry and by mass spectrometry. The concentration of vanadyl porphyrins in the asphalts exceeds by far that of the Ni-porphyrins, despite the l:3 V/Ni ratio found in the total asphalt sample. The free porphyrins resemble those from the Uinta Basin (USA) gilsonite and contain a mixture of homologous Aetio- and deoxyphyllo-erythroaetioporphyrins (DPEP). The non-porphyrin fraction of the asphalt showed an identical aliphatic, hydrocarbon distribution with that of heavy crude oil from the same area. The more polar fraction associated with the porphyrins was compared with the polar fraction of the previously described ozokerite from the Dead Sea area. From high-resolution MS, IR, v-uv and NMR spectra, combined with hydrolysis and GLC analysis, it is suggested that even-numbered (C/sub 12/, C/sub 16/, C/sub 18/, C/sub 18/ /sub 1/, C/sub 22/) fatty acids are associated with the asphaltic porphyrins, probably in the triglyceride form.

  16. Dead zones in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: evidence and implications

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2010-09-01

    In order to fabricate photovoltaic (PV) cells incorporating light-trapping electrodes, flexible foil substrates, or more than one junction, illumination through the top-contact (i.e.: non-substrate) side of a photovoltaic device is desirable. We investigate the relative collection efficiency for illumination through the top vs. bottom of PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) PV devices. The external quantum efficiency spectra of FTO/TiO2/PbS CQD/ITO PV devices with various PbS layer thicknesses were measured for illumination through either the top (ITO) or bottom (FTO) contacts. By comparing the relative shapes and intensities of these spectra with those calculated from an estimation of the carrier generation profile and the internal quantum efficiency as a function of distance from the TiO2 interface in the devices, a substantial dead zone, where carrier extraction is dramatically reduced, is identified near the ITO top contact. The implications for device design, and possible means of avoiding the formation of such a dead zone, are discussed.

  17. Dead regions in the cochlea: Implications for speech recognition and applicability of articulation index theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David

    2003-01-01

    Dead regions in the cochlea have been suggested to be responsible for failure by hearing aid users to benefit front apparently increased audibility in terms of speech intelligibility. As an alternative to the more cumbersome psychoacoustic tuning curve measurement, threshold-equalizing noise (TEN......-pass-filtered speech items. Data were collected from 22 hearing-impaired subjects with moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing losses. The results showed that 11 subjects exhibited abnormal psychoacoustic behaviour in the TEN test, indicative of a possible dead region. Estimates of audibility were used to assess...... the possible connection between dead-region candidacy and ability to recognize low-pass-filtered speech. Large variability was observed with regard to the ability of audibility to predict recognition scores for both dead-region and no-dead-region subjects. Furthermore, the results indicate that dead...

  18. Dead regions in the cochlea: Implications for speech recognition and applicability of articulation index theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David

    2003-01-01

    the possible connection between dead-region candidacy and ability to recognize low-pass-filtered speech. Large variability was observed with regard to the ability of audibility to predict recognition scores for both dead-region and no-dead-region subjects. Furthermore, the results indicate that dead......Dead regions in the cochlea have been suggested to be responsible for failure by hearing aid users to benefit front apparently increased audibility in terms of speech intelligibility. As an alternative to the more cumbersome psychoacoustic tuning curve measurement, threshold-equalizing noise (TEN......-pass-filtered speech items. Data were collected from 22 hearing-impaired subjects with moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing losses. The results showed that 11 subjects exhibited abnormal psychoacoustic behaviour in the TEN test, indicative of a possible dead region. Estimates of audibility were used to assess...

  19. Infectious triggers of pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F

    2003-06-01

    Respiratory infections can cause wheezing illnesses in children of all ages and also can influence the causation and disease activity of asthma. For years it has been recognized that respiratory syncytial virus infections often produce the first episode of wheezing in children who go on to develop chronic asthma. More recently, it has been proposed that repeated infections with other common childhood viral pathogens might help the immune system develop in such a way as to prevent the onset of allergic diseases and possibly asthma. In addition to the effects of viral infections, infections with certain intracellular pathogens, such as chlamydia and mycoplasma, may cause acute and chronic wheezing in some individuals, whereas common cold and acute sinus infections can trigger acute symptoms of asthma. In this article, the epidemiologic, mechanistic, and treatment implications of the association between respiratory infections and asthma are discussed.

  20. Infectious Agents Trigger Trophic Cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Julia C; Ripple, William J

    2017-09-01

    Most demonstrated trophic cascades originate with predators, but infectious agents can also cause top-down indirect effects in ecosystems. Here we synthesize the literature on trophic cascades initiated by infectious agents including parasitoids, pathogens, parasitic castrators, macroparasites, and trophically transmitted parasites. Like predators, infectious agents can cause density-mediated and trait-mediated indirect effects through their direct consumptive and nonconsumptive effects respectively. Unlike most predators, however, infectious agents are not fully and immediately lethal to their victims, so their consumptive effects can also trigger trait-mediated indirect effects. We find that the frequency of trophic cascades reported for different consumer types scales with consumer lethality. Furthermore, we emphasize the value of uniting predator-prey and parasite-host theory under a general consumer-resource framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Episodic tremor triggers small earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that episodic tremor and slip (ETS), the weak shaking not associated with measurable earthquakes, could trigger nearby earthquakes. However, this had not been confirmed until recently. Vidale et al. monitored seismicity in the 4-month period around a 16-day episode of episodic tremor and slip in March 2010 in the Cascadia region. They observed five small earthquakes within the subducting slab during the ETS episode. They found that the timing and locations of earthquakes near the tremor suggest that the tremor and earthquakes are related. Furthermore, they observed that the rate of earthquakes across the area was several times higher within 2 days of tremor activity than at other times, adding to evidence of a connection between tremor and earthquakes. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10.1029/2011GC003559, 2011)

  2. A Reanimated Dead Metaphor or a Parody of Dead Metaphor?---The Understanding and Interpretation of a Revived Dead metaphor and a Parody of Dead Metaphor%是死喻复活还是死喻仿拟?--死喻复活与死喻仿拟对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石本俊

    2013-01-01

    国内死喻复活研究存在将死喻仿拟与死喻复活相提并论的观点,其原因在于曲解或混淆了死喻复活与死喻仿拟的本质差异。文章从认知语义学视角对这两类语言现象做了对比分析,指出死喻需要在保留其固有形式和语义结构的前提下,通过语境激活才能再度成为活隐喻。死喻仿拟是以死喻为本体,通过改变其固有形式和语义结构而拟创的死喻仿体,因此不能将这种死喻变体视为死喻复活。%As for the research results of dead metaphors at home , there exist some misinterpretation of the mechanism of the re-vival of dead metaphors.It is assumed that a dead metaphor can be brought back to life by extending its structure , replacing its words or imitating its pronunciation.This obviously fails to distinguish the differences between a revived dead metaphor and a parody of dead metaphor.This paper, from the perspective of cognitive semantics , makes a contrastive analysis of the different characteristics of a dead metaphor revival and a parody of dead metaphor , arguing that a dead metaphor can be revived only by maintaining its original lit -eral form and in an appropriate context .In contrast, a parody of dead metaphor can be composed only by altering the form and seman-tic structures of the dead metaphor .Therefore, a parody of dead metaphor cannot be perceived as a revived dead metaphor .

  3. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  4. Understanding of myofascial trigger points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Xiaoqiang; Tan Shusheng; Huang Qiangmin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current practice of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) including current epidemiology,pathology,diagnosis and treatment.Data sources The data analyzed in this review were mainly from relevant articles without restriction on the publication date reported in PubMed,MedSci,Google scholar.The terms "myofasial trigger points" and "myofacial pain syndrome" were used for the literature search.Study selection Original articles with no limitation of research design and critical reviews containing data relevant to myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and MPS were retrieved,reviewed,analyzed and summarized.Results Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is characterized by painful taut band,referred pain,and local response twitch with a prevalence of 85% to 95% of incidence.Several factors link to the etiology of MTrPs,such as the chronic injury and overload of muscles.Other factors,such as certain nutrient and hormone insufficiency,comorbidities,and muscle imbalance may also maintain the MTrP in an active status and induce recurrent pain.The current pathology is that an extra leakage acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction induces persistent contracture knots,relative to some hypotheses of integration,muscle spindle discharges,spinal segment sensitization,ect.MTrPs can be diagnosed and localized based on a few subjective criteria.Several approaches,including both direct and supplementary treatments,can inactivate MTrPs.Direct treatments are categorized into invasive and conservative.Conclusion This review provides a clear understanding of MTrP pain and introduces the most useful treatment approaches in China.

  5. Mdm2 ligase dead mutants did not act in a dominant negative manner to re-activate p53, but promoted tumor cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaroop, Manju; Sun, Yi

    2003-01-01

    Mdm2 (murine double minute 2) is an oncogene, first identified in BALB/c 3T3 cells. Over-expression and gene amplification of Mdm2 were found in a variety of human cancers. Recently, Mdm2 was found to be an E3 ubiquitin ligase that promotes degradation of p53, which contributes significantly to its oncogenic activity. In this study, we test a hypothesis that Mdm2 ligase dead mutants, which retained p53 binding activity but lost degradation activity, would act in a dominant negative manner to re-activate p53, especially upon stressed conditions. Five Mdm2 constructs expressing wild-type and E3 ligase-dead Mdm2 proteins were generated in a Tet-Off system and transfected into MCF-7 breast cancer cells (p53+/+ with Mdm2 overexpression) as well as MCF10A immortalized breast cells (p53+/+ without Mdm2 overexpression) as a normal control. We found that expression of Mdm2 mutants were tightly regulated by doxycycline. Withdrawal of doxycycline in culture medium triggered overexpression of Mdm2 mutants. However, expression of ligase dead mutants in MCF7 and MCF10A cells did not reactivate p53 as shown by a luciferase-reporter transcription assay and Western blot of p53 and its downstream target p21 under either unstressed condition or after exposure to DNA damaging agents. Biologically, over-expression of Mdm2 mutants had no effect on p53-induced apoptosis following DNA damage. Interestingly, over-expression of Mdm2 mutants promoted growth of MCF7 tumor cells probably via a p53-independent mechanism. Over-expression of Mdm2 mutants, however, had no effect on the growth of normal MCF10A cells and did not cause their transformation. Thus, ligase dead mutants of Mdm2 did not act in a dominant negative manner to reactivate p53 and they are not oncogenes in MCF10A cells.

  6. Comparison between morphological and staining characteristics of live and dead eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Sarvel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni eggs are classified, according to morphological characteristics, as follows: viable mature and immature eggs; dead mature and immature eggs, shells and granulomas. The scope of this study was to compare the staining characteristics of different morphological types of eggs in the presence of fluorescent labels and vital dyes, aiming at differentiating live and dead eggs. The eggs were obtained from the intestines of infected mice, and put into saline 0.85%. The fluorescent labels were Hoechst 33258 and Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide and vital dyes (Trypan Blue 0.4% and Neutral Red 1%. When labelled with the probe Hoechst 33258, some immature eggs, morphologically considered viable, presented fluorescence (a staining characteristic detected only in dead eggs; mature eggs did not present fluorescence, and the other types of dead eggs, morphologically defined, showed fluorescence. As far as Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide are concerned, either the eggs considered to be live, or the dead ones, presented staining with green color, and only the hatched and motionless miracidium was stained with an orange color. Trypan Blue was not able to stain the eggs, considered to be dead but only dead miracidia which had emerged out of the shell. Neutral Red stained both live and dead eggs. Only the fluorescent Hoechst 33258 can be considered a useful tool for differentiation between dead and live eggs.

  7. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    Abstract—Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  8. The Role of Dead Wood in Maintaining Arthropod Diversity on the Forest Floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, James L. [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station; Horn, Scott [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station; Wade, Dale D. [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station

    2006-08-01

    Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. Finally, the results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  9. PI tuning for large dead-time processes with a new robustness specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐江华; 邵惠鹤

    2004-01-01

    A simple PI controller tuning method for large dead-time processes is presented. First, a first-order plus dead-time model is identified on the basis of relay feedback experiments, which Nyquist curve is very close to that of large dead-time processes over a wide frequency range. With the model available, PI controller is designed with a new robust specification. Simulation examples show the effectiveness and feasibility of the presented PI tuning method for large dead-time processes.

  10. "Dead in bed": a tragic complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, M

    2010-12-01

    "Dead in bed" is a tragic description of a particular type of sudden death in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients are typically found dead in the early morning, lying in an undisturbed bed, having been well the previous evening. The incidence of "dead in bed" syndrome is not known but studies suggest figures of between 4.7 and 27.3% of all unexplained deaths in type 1 DM. The pathogenesis is unclear but patients typically have a preceding history of recurrent severe hypoglycaemia. We describe two cases of "dead in bed" syndrome which occurred at our institution within a 12-month period.

  11. Disaster triggers disaster: Earthquake triggering by tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Tsukanov, I.

    2011-12-01

    Three recent devastating earthquakes, the 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi (Taiwan), 2010 M=7.0 Leogane (Haiti), 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung (Taiwan), and additional three moderate size earthquakes (6cyclones (hurricane or typhoon) hit the very same area. The most familiar example is Haiti, which was hit during the late summer of 2008 by two hurricanes and two tropical storms (Fay, Gustav, Hanna and Ike) within 25 days. A year an a half after this very wet hurricane season, the 2010 Leogane earthquake occurred in the mountainous Haiti's southern peninsula and caused the death of more than 300,000 people. The other cases are from Taiwan, which is characterized by a high seismicity level and frequent typhoon landfall. The three wettest typhoons in Taiwan's past 50 years were Morakot (in 2009, with 2885 mm or rain), Flossie (1969, 2162 mm) and Herb (1996, 1987 mm)[Lin et al., 2010]. Each of this three very wet storms was followed by one or two main-shock M>6 earthquake that occurred in the central mountainous area of Taiwan within three years after the typhoon. The 2009 Morakot typhoon was followed by 2009 M=6.2 Nantou and 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung earthquakes; the 1969 Flossie typhoon was followed by an M=6.3 earthquake in 1972; and the 1996 Herb typhoon by the 1998 M=6.2 Rueyli and 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquakes. The earthquake catalog of Taiwan lists only two other M>6 main-shocks that occurred in Taiwan's central mountainous belt, one of them was in 1964 only four months after the wet Typhoon Gloria poured heavy rain in the same area. We suggest that the close proximity in time and space between wet tropical cyclones and earthquakes reflects a physical link between the two hazard types in which these earthquakes were triggered by rapid erosion induced by tropical cyclone's heavy rain. Based on remote sensing observations, meshfree finite element modeling, and Coulomb failure stress analysis, we show that the erosion induced by very wet cyclones increased the failure stresses at the

  12. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  13. Tracking triggers for the upgraded DOe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, S. [California Univ., Davis (United States); Bloom, P. [California Univ., Davis (United States); Mani, S. [California Univ., Davis (United States); Pellett, D. [California Univ., Davis (United States); Costa, J. [CBPF/LAFEX, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moreira, L. [CBPF/LAFEX, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Baumbaugh, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Blazey, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Borcherding, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Wilcox, J. [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The high luminosity environment of the upgraded Tevatron will require not only the upgrade of various DOe subdetectors, but the trigger system as well. With respect to the present system, the upgraded trigger system must operate faster and provide a higher degree of background rejection while extending the physics acceptance beyond that of the current system. This will be accomplished in part by incorporating the scintillating fiber tracker and the preshower detector into the Level 1 trigger. Track logic, implemented in commercial FPGAs, will be used to identify tracks in the scintillating fiber tracker with P{sub T}>1.5 GeV/c and electron candidates in the preshower detector. Integration of the trigger logic and readout electronics permits the identification of all tracks in a few hundred nanoseconds. Here, preliminary designs for the readout and trigger electronics are presented along with simulation results for trigger efficiencies and rejection factors. (orig.).

  14. Importance of direct and indirect triggered seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Helmstetter, A; Helmstetter, Agnes; Sornette, Didier

    2003-01-01

    Using the simple ETAS branching model of seismicity, which assumes that each earthquake can trigger other earthquakes, we quantify the role played by the cascade of triggered seismicity in controlling the rate of aftershock decay as well as in the overall level of seismicity in the presence of a constant external seismicity source. We show that, in this model, the proportion of triggered seismicity is equal to the proportion of secondary plus later-generation aftershocks, and is given by the average number of triggered events per earthquake. Based on these results and on the observation that a large fraction of seismicity are triggered earthquakes, we conclude that similarly a large fraction of aftershocks occurring a few hours or days after a mainshock are triggered indirectly by the mainshock.

  15. The ATLAS b-jet Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira de Lima, D E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS b-jet Trigger The online event selection is crucial to reject most of the events containing uninteresting background collisions while preserving as much as possible the interesting physical signals. The b-jet selection is part of the trigger strategy of the ATLAS experiment and a set of dedicated triggers is presently contributing to the event selection for the 2011 running. The b-jets acceptance is increased and the background reduced by lowering jet transverse energy thresholds at the first trigger level and applying b-tagging techniques at the subsequent levels. Different physics channels, especially topologies containing more than one b-jet where higher rejection factors are achieved, benefit from requesting this trigger to be fired. An overview of the status-of-art of the b-jet trigger menu and performance on real data is presented in this poster.

  16. Online software trigger at PANDA/FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Donghee [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility will employ a novel trigger-less readout concept. PANDA will have no first level hardware trigger and apply a high level software trigger to do fast event selection based on the physics properties of reconstructed events. A trigger-less data stream implies that an event selection requires track reconstruction and pattern recognition to be performed online, analysing data under real time condition at the event rates up to 40 MHz. A significant event rate reduction is required to reject effectively background events, while retaining the interesting events at the same time. The projected reduction factor is 10{sup -3}. Real time event selection in this environment is very challenging and rely on sophisticated algorithms in the software trigger. This presentation shows the implementation and performance tests of the online high level physics trigger algorithms. The impact of parameters such as momentum, mass resolution, and PID probability for the event filtering are presented.

  17. How the Seven Deadly Sins can Lead to Project Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Kerzner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than forty years, the project management landscape has seen textbooks, journal articles and presented papers discussing the causes of project failures. Unfortunately, many of the failure analyses seem to look at failure superficially rather than in depth. When trying to discover the root cause of a failure, we usually look first in the contractor’s company for someone to blame rather than in our own company. If that doesn’t work, then we begin climbing the organizational hierarchy in our own company by focusing on the project team, followed by the project manager. Once we find someone to blame, the search seems to end and we feel comfortable that we have discovered the cause of the failure. It is human nature to begin finger-pointing at the bottom of the organizational hierarchy first, rather than at the top. Yet, more often than not, the real cause of failure is the result of actions (or inactions and decisions made at the top of the organizational chart than at the bottom. It is also human nature to make decisions based upon how we are affected by the Seven Deadly Sins, namely: envy, anger, pride, greed, sloth, lust and gluttony. Decisions made based upon the Seven Deadly Sins, whether they are made at the top or bottom of the organization, can have dire consequences on projects. Sometimes the sins are hidden and not easily recognized by ourselves or others. We simply do not see or feel that were are committing a sin. The Seven Deadly Sins affect all of us sooner or later, even though we refuse to admit it. Some of us may be impacted by just one or two of the sins, whereas others may succumb to all seven. What is unfortunate is that the greatest damage can occur on projects when the sins influence the way that senior levels of management must interface with projects, whether as a project sponsor or as a member of a governance group. Bad decisions at the top, especially if based upon emotions rather than practicality, can place the

  18. Efficient Distribution of Triggered Synchronous Block Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    called a trigger. At a given synchronous step, if the trigger is true , the block fires normally; otherwise, the block stutters , that is, keeps its...outputs have the same value as in the previous step, but they are still transmitted to downstream blocks. In this paper we present an implementation...optimizations that apply to general Triggered SBDs, we also present further optimizations for the case of Timed SBDs. 1.1 Motivating Examples Fig. 1

  19. The first-level trigger of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Haller, J; Aielli, G; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Aprodu, V; Ask, S; Barnett, B M; Bartos, D; Bauss, B; Belkin, A; Benhammou, Ya; Bocci, V; Booth, J R A; Brambilla, Elena; Brawn, I P; Bressler, S; Buda, S; Bohm, C; Canale, V; Caracinha, D; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Cataldi, G; Charlton, D G; Chiodi, G; Ciapetti, G; Constantin, S; Conventi, F; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Seixas, J M; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Simone, A; Distante, L; Dogaru, M; Edwards, J; Eisenhandler, E F; Ellis, Nick; Etzion, E; Farthouat, P; Fukunaga, C; Föhlisch, F; Gee, C N P; Gennari, E; Geweniger, C; Gillman, A R; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Gällnö, P; Haas, S; Hanke, P; Harel, A; Hasegawa, Y; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Ichimiya, R; Iengo, P; Ikeno, M; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Kagawa, S; Kanaya, N; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kiyamura, H; Kluge, E -E; Kobayashi, T; Krasznahorkay, A; Kurashige, H; Kuwabara, T; Landon, M; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Lifshitz, R; Luci, C; Lupu, N; Magureanu, C; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Meier, K; Migliaccio, A; Mikenberg, G; Mirea, A; Moye, T H; Nagano, K; Nisati, A; Nomachi, M; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Ochi, A; Ogata, T; Omachi, C; Oshita, H; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Pectu, M; Perantoni, M; Perera, V J O; Perrino, R; Pessoa-Lima, H; Petrolo, E; Primavera, M; Prodan, L; Qian, W; Rieke, S; Rusu, A; Rühr, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamon, A; Sankey, D P C; Santonico, R; Sasaki, O; Schmitt, K; Schuler, G; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schäfer, U; Sekhniaidze, G; Silverstein, S; Spagnolo, S; Spila, F; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Thomas, J P; Trefzger, T; Typaldos, D; Uroseviteanu, C; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, G A; Weber, P; Wengler, T; Woerling, E E; Yamaguchi, Y; Yasu, Y; Zanello, L

    2006-01-01

    Due to the huge interaction rates and the tough experimental environment of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy sqrt(s)=14 TeV and luminosities of up to 10^34cm^-2s^-1, one of the experimental challenges at the LHC is the triggering of interesting events. In the ATLAS experiment a three-level trigger system is foreseen for this purpose. The first-level trigger is implemented in custom hardware and has been designed to reduce the data rate from the initial bunch-crossing rate of 40MHz to around 75 kHz. Its event selection is based on information from the calorimeters and dedicated muon detectors. This article gives an overview over the full first-level trigger system including the Calorimeter Trigger, the Muon Trigger and the Central Trigger Processor. In addition, recent results are reported that have been obtained from test-beam studies performed at CERN where the full first-level trigger chain was established successfully for the first time and used to trigger the read-out of up to nine ATLAS sub-detec...

  20. Data analysis at Level-1 Trigger level

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Johannes; Aradi, Gregor; Bergauer, Herbert; Jeitler, Manfred; Wulz, Claudia; Apanasevich, Leonard; Winer, Brian; Puigh, Darren Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is getting more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others - ATLAS and CMS - will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and High-Level Trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. This paper illustrates how the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the Global Trigger, take up this challenge.

  1. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Martínez, A.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in up to five times higher rates of processes of interest. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event processing farm. A few examples will be shown, such as the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy. Finally, the status of the commissioning of the trigger system and its performance during the 2015 run will be presented.

  2. CSC Trigger Primitive Rates in ORCA

    CERN Document Server

    Cousins, Robert; Valuev, S

    2002-01-01

    Recent work in ORCA has prompted us to make a new estimate of the background rates in the Level-1 CSC Trigger Primitives. We report our findings for SimHit, digi, and LCT rates, as well as the input LCT rates in the Muon Port Cards. We compare our estimates with two earlier results (Level-1 Trigger TDR, and ``Background LCT Rates by CSC Type Using the Forward Muon Trigger Simulation in CMS100'' by Breedon, Fisyak, Ko and Rowe), and observe some differences attributed to geometry changes, improved shielding, and improved CSC and Level-1 Trigger simulation. % and larger statistics in the present study.

  3. [Hydrolytic activity of microorganisms of the Dead Sea coastal ecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbanets', L D; Matseliukh, O V; Avdiiuk, K V; Hudzenko, O V; Nidialkova, N A; Romanovs'ka, V O; Tashirev, O B

    2014-01-01

    All strains tested are characterized by proteolytic (caseinolytic) activity, while elastase one was revealed only in two Gracilibacillus strains 6T2 and 7Tl. The activity was high enough (23.1 and 34.7 E/Ml, respectively). These values are at the level of bacterial producers which are described in literature: Bacillus mesentericus 316 M (6 E/Ml), Bacillus thuringiensis IMB B-7324 (50-55 E/Ml). The ability of two strains tested to synthesize enzyme, active against elastine, is important, so far as microbial enzyme may be perspective for using in medicine: elastases are able to dissociation of elastin fibres of connective tissues. These two strains display also fibrinolytic activity, however it was insignificant. Six of eight strains studied manifested alpha-amylase activity (0.01 - 1.173 E/Ml). It was shown that no strains, isolated from the Dead Sea costal ecosystems are able to manifest alpha-L-rhamnosidase activity.

  4. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in AMPKa2 kinase dead mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Stride, Nis

    2012-01-01

    ) was studied. METHODS: In tibialis anterior (almost exclusively type 2 fibers) muscle from young (12-17 weeks, n = 7) and mature (25-27 weeks, n = 12) KD and wild type (WT) (12-17 weeks, n = 9; 25-27 weeks, n = 11) littermates JO(2) was quantified in permeabilized fibers ex vivo by respirometry, using......AIM: To study if the phenotypical characteristics (exercise intolerance; reduced spontaneous activity) of the AMPKa2 kinase-dead (KD) mice can be explained by a reduced mitochondrial respiratory flux rates (JO(2) ) in skeletal muscle. Secondly, the effect of the maturation process on JO(2...... was highest in young WT animals, and lower in KD animals compared with age-matched WT. JO(2) per mg tissue was lower (P...

  5. Recurrent neural network for vehicle dead-reckoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Haibo; Zhang Liguo; Chen Yangzhou

    2008-01-01

    For vehicle integrated navigation systems, real-time estimating states of the dead reckoning (DR) unit is much more difficult than that of the other measuring sensors under indefinite noises and nonlinear characteristics.Compared with the well known, extended Kalman filter (EKF), a recurrent neural network is proposed for the solution, which not only improves the location precision and the adaptive ability of resisting disturbances, but also avoids calculating the analytic derivation and Jacobiaa matrices of the nonlinear system model. To test the performances of the recurrent neural network, these two methods are used to estimate the state of the vehicle's DR navigation system. Simulation results show that the recurrent neural network is superior to the EKF and is a more ideal filtering method for vehicle DR navigation.

  6. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  7. Seasonal variations in composting process of dead poultry birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, K; Saravana Kumar, V Ramesh; Jagatheesan, P N Richard; Viswanathan, K; Chandrasekaran, D

    2008-06-01

    Composting of dead birds with caged layer manure (CLM) and farm yard manure (FYM) was carried out to study the feasibility of composting as an alternative for disposal in Tamil Nadu State, India. The dead birds were sequentially layered with manure substrate and carbon source as per recipes formulated in mini-compost bins (4 x 4 x 4 feet). The temperature profile of both CLM and FYM group reached the peak by second week of composting and started declining steadily. The temperature profile was better during summer and monsoon and bins were able to maintain temperature above 60 degrees C (thermophilic) for 3-4 weeks. Season had no influence on attainment of peak temperature and it ranged between 51.8 and 70.4 degrees C. The persistency of thermophilic temperature (above 55 degrees C) was prolonged during summer (17.5-65 days) followed by monsoon (24-39 days) and winter (15.5-21.5 days). No putrefied or obnoxious odour or fly menace was observed during all the seasons of composting. The composting process took 107-127.5 days to finish during summer, 84.5-91 days in monsoon and 61.5-73.5 days in winter. The FYM was able to retain moisture higher (41-54% at the end of primary stage and 27.5-48.2% at the end of secondary stage) than CLM group (17.5-39.3% at primary stage and 20.4-33.5% in secondary stage). Weight reduction was more in FYM group (31.8-58.7%) than CLM group (19.3-48.6%). The volume reduction was uniform in all the seasons, it ranged between 39% and 59.3%.

  8. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knuth, Matthew W [WISCONSIN; Kaproth, Bryan M [PENN STATE; Carpenter, Brett [PENN STATE; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daub, Eric G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marone, Chris [PENN STATE

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  9. Intrasaccadic perception triggers pupillary constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Mathôt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that vision is impaired during saccadic eye movements. However, here we report that some visual stimuli are clearly visible during saccades, and trigger a constriction of the eye’s pupil. Participants viewed sinusoid gratings that changed polarity 150 times per second (every 6.67 ms. At this rate of flicker, the gratings were perceived as homogeneous surfaces while participants fixated. However, the flickering gratings contained ambiguous motion: rightward and leftward motion for vertical gratings; upward and downward motion for horizontal gratings. When participants made a saccade perpendicular to the gratings’ orientation (e.g., a leftward saccade for a vertical grating, the eye’s peak velocity matched the gratings’ motion. As a result, the retinal image was approximately stable for a brief moment during the saccade, and this gave rise to an intrasaccadic percept: A normally invisible stimulus became visible when eye velocity was maximal. Our results confirm and extend previous studies by demonstrating intrasaccadic perception using a reflexive measure (pupillometry that does not rely on subjective report. Our results further show that intrasaccadic perception affects all stages of visual processing, from the pupillary response to visual awareness.

  10. Safety evaluation of traces of nickel and chrome in cosmetics: The case of Dead Sea mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'or, Ze'evi; Halicz, Ludwik; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Russo, Matteo Zanotti; Robino, Federica; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2015-12-01

    Metal impurities such as nickel and chrome are present in natural ingredients-containing cosmetic products. These traces are unavoidable due to the ubiquitous nature of these elements. Dead Sea mud is a popular natural ingredient of cosmetic products in which nickel and chrome residues are likely to occur. To analyze the potential systemic and local toxicity of Dead Sea mud taking into consideration Dead Sea muds' natural content of nickel and chrome. The following endpoints were evaluated: (Regulation No. 1223/20, 21/12/2009) systemic and (SCCS's Notes of Guidance) local toxicity of topical application of Dead Sea mud; health reports during the last five years of commercial marketing of Dead Sea mud. Following exposure to Dead Sea mud, MoS (margin of safety) calculations for nickel and chrome indicate no toxicological concern for systemic toxicity. Skin sensitization is also not to be expected by exposure of normal healthy skin to Dead Sea mud. Topical application, however, is not recommended for already nickel-or chrome-sensitized persons. As risk assessment of impurities present in cosmetics may be a difficult exercise, the case of Dead Sea mud is taken here as an example of a natural material that may contain traces of unavoidable metals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 7536 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Words That... hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Words...

  12. 77 FR 36329 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Dead Sea Scrolls & The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Dead Sea Scrolls & The Bible Ancient... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Dead Sea...

  13. Climatotherapy at the dead sea for pediatric-onset psoriasis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Amitai, Dan; David, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Climatotherapy at the Dead Sea is highly effective and safe for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris in adults. We examine the efficacy and safety of climatotherapy at the Dead Sea in children with psoriasis vulgaris. More than 75% improvement in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index was noted in 35.3% of the patients. None of the patients had side effects.

  14. Live-timer method of automatic dead-time correction for precision counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porges, K. G.; Rudnick, S. J.

    1969-01-01

    Automatic correction for dead time losses in nuclear counting experiments is implemented by a simple live timer arrangement in which each counting interval is extended for compensation for the dead time during that interval. this method eliminates repetitious manual calculations, source of error, and dependence upon paralysis shifts.

  15. Alternaria alternata, causal agent of dead (dormant) flower bud disease of pear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Tjou-Tam-Sin, L.T.; Bruggen, van A.S.; Vink, P.

    2006-01-01

    Dead (dormant) flower buds of pear are an important phenomenon in pear production in the Netherlands. Vigourous or unbalanced tree growth and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae are mentioned as likely causes of dead flower buds. Several tree growth control treatments including ethephon, Regalis (Proh

  16. 10 CFR 1049.6 - Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of arrest authority-Use of non-deadly force. 1049... OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS OF THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 1049.6 Exercise of arrest... for additional guidance on the use of non-deadly force in the exercise of arrest authority, as...

  17. Changes in down dead wood volume across a chronosequence of silvicultural openings in southern Indiana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Jenkins; George R. Parker

    1997-01-01

    The volume and decay stages of down dead wood were evaluated across a chronosequence of 46 silvicultural openings and 10 uncut control stands to determine how down dead wood volume changes with stand development. Openings ranged in age from 8 to 26 years and were divided into three age groups: (1) 16 years. Individual logs...

  18. Postfire Succession of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nesting in Dead Wood of Northern Boreal Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Philippe; Hébert, Christian; Francoeur, André; Sirois, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Dead wood decomposition begins immediately after tree death and involves a large array of invertebrates. Ecological successions are still poorly known for saproxylic organisms, particularly in boreal forests. We investigated the use of dead wood as nesting sites for ants along a 60-yr postfire chronosequence in northeastern coniferous forests. We sampled a total of 1,625 pieces of dead wood, in which 263 ant nests were found. Overall, ant abundance increased during the first 30 yr after wildfire, and then declined. Leptothorax cf. canadensis Provancher, the most abundant species in our study, was absent during the first 2 yr postfire, but increased steadily until 30 yr after fire, whereas Myrmica alaskensis Wheeler, second in abundance, was found at all stages of succession in the chronosequence. Six other species were less frequently found, among which Camponotus herculeanus (Linné), Formica neorufibarbis Emery, and Formica aserva Forel were locally abundant, but more scarcely distributed. Dead wood lying on the ground and showing numerous woodborer holes had a higher probability of being colonized by ants. The C:N ratio was lower for dead wood colonized by ants than for noncolonized dead wood, showing that the continuous occupation of dead wood by ants influences the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of dead wood after wildfire in northern boreal forests. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Prediction of equine risk of West Nile virus infection based on dead bird surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rhonda Sue; Foppa, Ivo M

    2006-01-01

    Since the introduction of West Nile Virus (WNV) to the United States in 1999, the efficacy of dead bird surveillance for the prediction of human and veterinary WNV infection has been an issue of debate. We utilized South Carolina's Department of Health and Environmental Control surveillance data from 2003 to determine whether dead bird surveillance accurately predicts equine WNV infection on a county level. We adjusted for human population density as a potential confounder of an association between WNV-positive dead bird counts and mammalian WNV risk. We found a strong positive association between avian risk of WNV death and subsequent equine mortality due to WNV in South Carolina even after adjusting for human population density. Sensitivity of dead bird surveillance as a predictor of future equine WNV risk was far superior to mosquito surveillance (95% vs. 9.5%, respectively). A Poisson regression model of the equine WNV rate as a function of WNV-positive dead bird rate, adjusting for population density and taking into account effect modification by population density shows a good fit with the data. Unlike most previous studies, we control for potential confounding of the dead, WNVpositive bird-equine WNV infection association by human population density. Yet, the positive association between dead bird surveillance and equine WNV risk remains strong and statistically significant, indicating that dead bird surveillance remains a valuable tool of WNV surveillance.

  20. Application of Optical Flow Sensors for Dead Reckoning, Heading Reference, Obstacle Detection, and Obstacle Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    OPTICAL FLOW SENSORS FOR DEAD RECKONING, HEADING REFERENCE, OBSTACLE DETECTION, AND OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE by Tarek M. Nejah September 2015... SENSORS FOR DEAD RECKONING, HEADING REFERENCE, OBSTACLE DETECTION, AND OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Nejah, Tarek M. 7...avoidance using only one optical mouse sensor was presented in this thesis. Odometry, position tracking, and obstacle avoidance are important issues in

  1. Diversity of dead wood inhabiting fungal and bryophytes in semi-natural beech forests in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ódor, P.; Heilmann-Clausen, J.; Christensen, M.; Aude, E.; Dort, van K.W.; Piltaver, A.; Siller, I.; Veerkamp, M.T.; Walleyn, R.; Standovár, T.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Kosec, J.; Matocec, N.; Kraigher, H.; Grebenc, T.

    2006-01-01

    Saproxylic organisms are among the most threatened species in Europe and constitute a major conservation problem because they depend on the most important forestry product - dead wood. Diversity of fungal and bryophyte communities occurring on dead beech trees was analyzed in five European countries

  2. Contact with the Dead, Religion, and Death Anxiety among Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if contact with the dead is associated with lower death anxiety among older Mexican Americans. The data come from a nationwide survey of older Mexican Americans (N = 1,005). The study model specifies that (a) older Mexican Americans who have experienced contact with the dead are more likely to see the…

  3. Targeting complement activation in brain-dead donors improves renal function after transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, Jeffrey; Hoeger, Simone; Boneschansker, Leo; Theruvath, Ashok; Waldherr, Ruediger; Leuvenink, Henri G.; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Yard, Benito A.; Seelen, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Kidneys recovered from brain-dead donors have inferior outcomes after transplantation compared to kidneys from living donors. Since complement activation plays an important role in renal transplant related injury, targeting complement activation in brain-dead donors might improve renal function afte

  4. Intelligent trigger processor for the crystal box

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, G H; Cooper, M D; Hart, G W; Hoffman, C M; Hogan, G E; Hughes, E B; Matis, H S; Rolfe, J; Sandberg, V D; Williams, R A; Wilson, S; Zeman, H

    1981-01-01

    A large solid angle angular modular NaI(Tl) detector with 432 phototubes and 88 trigger scintillators is being used to search simultaneously for three lepton flavor-changing decays of the muon. A beam of up to 10/sup 6/ muons stopping per second with a 6% duty factor would yield up to 1000 triggers per second from random triple coincidences. A reduction of the trigger rate to 10 Hz is required from a hardwired primary trigger processor. Further reduction to <1 Hz is achieved by a microprocessor-based secondary trigger processor. The primary trigger hardware imposes voter coincidence logic, stringent timing requirements, and a non-adjacency requirement in the trigger scintillators defined by hardwired circuits. Sophisticated geometric requirements are imposed by a PROM-based matrix logic, and energy and vector-momentum cuts are imposed by a hardwired processor using LSI flash ADC's and digital arithmetic logic. The secondary trigger employs four satellite microprocessors to do a sparse data scan, multiplex ...

  5. The LVL2 trigger goes online

    CERN Document Server

    David Berge

    On Friday, the 9th of February, the ATLAS TDAQ community reached an important milestone. In a successful integration test, cosmic-ray muons were recorded with parts of the muon spectrometer, the central-trigger system and a second-level trigger algorithm. This was actually the first time that a full trigger slice all the way from the first-level trigger muon chambers up to event building after event selection by the second-level trigger ran online with cosmic rays. The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system has a three-tier structure that is designed to cope with the enormous demands of proton-proton collisions at a bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz, with a typical event size of 1-2 MB. The online event selection has to reduce the incoming rate by a factor of roughly 200,000 to 200 Hz, a rate digestible by the archival-storage and offline-processing facilities. ATLAS has a mixed system: the first-level trigger (LVL1) is in hardware, while the other two consecutive levels, the second-level trigger (LVL2)...

  6. The ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371751; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC will collide protons in the ATLAS detector with increasing luminosity through 2016, placing stringent operational and physical requirements to the ATLAS trigger system in order to reduce the 40 MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1 kHz, while not rejecting interesting physics events. The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency smaller than 2.5 μs. It consists of a calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and a central trigger processor. During the LHC shutdown after the Run 1 finished in 2013, the Level-1 trigger system was upgraded including hardware, firmware and software updates. In particular, new electronics modules were introduced in the real-time data processing path: the Topological Processor System (L1Topo). It consists of a single AdvancedCTA shelf equipped with two Level-1 topological processor blades. They receive real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, which...

  7. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. We will briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. At hand of a few examples, we will show the ...

  8. Trigger factors for familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Ashina, Messoud

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample.......The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample....

  9. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Pauly, T; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Maeno, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Spiwoks, R; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T; 14th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference 2005

    2005-01-01

    ATLAS is a multi-purpose particle physics detector at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider where two pulsed beams of protons are brought to collision at very high energy. There are collisions every 25 ns, corresponding to a rate of 40 MHz. A three-level trigger system reduces this rate to about 200 Hz while keeping bunch crossings which potentially contain interesting processes. The Level-1 trigger, implemented in electronics and firmware, makes an initial selection in under 2.5 us with an output rate of less than 100 kHz. A key element of this is the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) which combines trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors to make the final Level-1 accept decision in under 100 ns on the basis of lists of selection criteria, implemented as a trigger menu. Timing and trigger signals are fanned out to all sub-detectors, while busy signals from all sub-detector read-out systems are collected and fed into the CTP in order to throttle the generation of Level-1 triggers.

  10. Do episodes of anger trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, J; Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn

    1999-01-01

    Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility.......Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility....

  11. Trigger factors for familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Ashina, Messoud

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample.......The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample....

  12. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. A ...

  13. Corticosteroid injection for trigger finger in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Veluthamaningal, Cyriac; van der Windt, Danielle A. W. M.; Winters, Jan C.; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Background Trigger finger is a disease of the tendons of the hand leading to triggering (locking) of affected fingers, dysfunction and pain. Available treatments include local injection with corticosteroids, surgery, or splinting. Objectives To summarize the evidence on the efficacy and safety of

  14. A Novel in situ Trigger Combination Method

    CERN Document Server

    Buzatu, Adrian; Krumnack, Nils; Yao, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and their performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding of the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, to be combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a W boson at the Collider Detector at F...

  15. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziurda, A.

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  16. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  17. Concept of the CMS Trigger Supervisor

    CERN Document Server

    Magrans de Abril, Ildefons; Varela, Joao

    2006-01-01

    The Trigger Supervisor is an online software system designed for the CMS experiment at CERN. Its purpose is to provide a framework to set up, test, operate and monitor the trigger components on one hand and to manage their interplay and the information exchange with the run control part of the data acquisition system on the other. The Trigger Supervisor is conceived to provide a simple and homogeneous client interface to the online software infrastructure of the trigger subsystems. This document specifies the functional and non-functional requirements, design and operational details, and the components that will be delivered in order to facilitate a smooth integration of the trigger software in the context of CMS.

  18. The ATLAS b-Jet Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson Adrian, Per

    2011-01-01

    The online event selection is crucial to reject most of the events containing uninteresting background collisions while preserving as much as possible the interesting physical signals. The b-jet selection is part of the trigger strategy of the ATLAS experiment and a set of dedicated triggers was contributing to the event selection for the 2011 running. The b-jets acceptance is increased and the background reduced by lowering jet transverse energy thresholds at the first trigger level and applying b-tagging techniques at the subsequent levels. Different physics channels, especially topologies containing more than one b-jet where higher rejection factors are achieved, benefit from using the b-jet trigger. An overview of the b-jet trigger menu and performance on data is presented.

  19. The ATLAS b-jet Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson Adrian, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The online event selection is crucial to reject most of the events containing uninteresting background collisions while preserving as much as possible the interesting physical signals. The b-jet selection is part of the trigger strategy of the ATLAS experiment and a set of dedicated triggers is presently contributing to the event selection for the 2011 running. The b-jets acceptance is increased and the background reduced by lowering jet transverse energy thresholds at the first trigger level and applying b-tagging techniques at the subsequent levels. Different physics channels, especially topologies containing more than one b-jet where higher rejection factors are achieved, benefit from requesting this trigger to be fired. An overview of the status-of-art of the b-jet trigger menu and performance on real data is presented in this contribution.

  20. The LHCb Trigger: Present and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R

    2012-01-01

    LHCb is a single arm spectrometer covering the pseudo-rapidity range between 1.9 and 4.9, and has been optimised to perform flavour physics measurements at the LHC. The present two stage trigger system is able to select charm and beauty decay products with high efficiency due the highly inclusive approach of triggering on partially reconstructed decays and the use of a novel multivariate classifier at the second stage. The trigger can select both leptonic and purely hadronic decays. The performance of the trigger is determined from the data itself without having to rely on Monte-Carlo simulation and is presented. LHCb has recently submitted their upgrade LOI, which mainly aims at profiting from much larger luminosities by moving towards a single fully software based trigger. The upgrade strategy and expected performance are presented.

  1. ATLAS jet trigger performance in 2015 data

    CERN Document Server

    Herwig, Theodor Christian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a two-level trigger system to preferentially select events with a predefined topology of interest for future analysis. The hadronic jet trigger is used to select several different topologies containing different types and multiplicities of hadronic jets, thus supporting many different physics searches and measurements. The hadronic jet trigger efficiency for proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is presented. The efficient selection of events containing hadronic jets requires the characteristics of trigger-level jets and offline jets to be very similar. A comparison of relevant characteristics demonstrates that trigger-level jets and offline jets are in excellent agreement.

  2. ATLAS jet trigger performance in 2016 data

    CERN Document Server

    Herwig, Theodor Christian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a two-level trigger system to preferentially select events with a predefined topology of interest for future analysis. The hadronic jet trigger is used to select several different topologies containing different types and multiplicities of hadronic jets, thus supporting many different physics searches and measurements. The hadronic jet trigger efficiency for proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is presented. The efficient selection of events containing hadronic jets requires the characteristics of trigger-level jets and offline jets to be very similar. A comparison of relevant characteristics demonstrates that trigger-level jets and offline jets are in excellent agreement.

  3. FRIT for Systems with Dead-Zone and Its Application to Ultrasonic Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasa, Yuji; Kanagawa, Shinji; Tanaka, Kanya; Nishimura, Yuki

    Ultrasonic motors (USMs) intrinsically have a dead-zone property which is sensitive to load changes. This paper proposes a fictitious reference iterative tuning (FRIT) method for systems with a dead-zone property such as USMs. The standard FRIT method is basically developed for linear systems and may not give a satisfactory control performance for noninvertible nonlinear systems including USMs. In contrast, the proposed FRIT method can achieve such a performance by introducing a right inverse of a dead-zone function as a dead-zone compensator. In the optimization process of FRIT, the so-called covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES) is used for simultaneously searching a dead-zone parameter as well as controller parameters. CMA-ES is a kind of stochastic multi-point search techniques and is effective for nondifferentiable and nonconvex optimization problems. Experimental results for a USM are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Hydrologic investigation of Powell Marsh and its relation to Dead Pike Lake, Vilas County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohelski, James T.; Rose, William J.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2002-01-01

    An analytic element ground-water-flow model was constructed to help understand the ground- and surface-water hydrology in the vicinity of Dead Pike Lake and Powell Marsh, Vilas County, Wisconsin. The model was used to simulate the effect of removing Powell Marsh control structures (ditches and Vista Pond) on the hydrology of Dead Pike Lake. Measurements and model simulation results show that ground water in the vicinity of Powell Marsh moves to the northwest and west. If Powell Marsh structures are removed from the simulation, it does not affect the general direction of ground-water flow nor the total flow to Dead Pike Lake. Without the simulated structures, slightly more ground-water flow enters Dead Pike Lake and slightly less surface-water flows at the Dead Pike Lake inlet than with the simulated structures.

  5. Designing signal-enriched triggers for boosted jets.

    CERN Document Server

    Toumazou, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Triggers designed to favour the selection of hadronically decaying massive particles have been studied. Both triggers using solely ET and mass cuts (similar to new 2017 triggers) and triggers exploiting polarization information have been studied. The mass cut triggers show substantial gains in rate reduction, while the benefits of polarization triggers are less obvious. The final conclusion is that it is more useful to identify and trigger on generic boosted decays, irrespective of the polarization of the decaying particle

  6. GnRHa trigger for final oocyte maturation: is HCG trigger history?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger. Early trials showed a severe luteal phase insufficiency after GnRHa trigger despite the application of standard luteal phase support protocols. Subsequent research has led to modifications of the luteal phase support, resulting in reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after...... HCG trigger in normal- and high-responders. GnRHa trigger facilitates a tailored approach to subsequent luteal phase support, taking into account the ovarian response to stimulation. In the future, GnRHa is likely to be used for trigger in all women co-treated with GnRH antagonists....

  7. Local earthquake tomography model for the southern Dead Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeuer, B.; Asch, G.; Hofstetter, R.; Haberland, Ch.; Jaser, D.; El-Kelani, R.; Weber, M.

    2012-04-01

    Local earthquake data from a dense temporary seismological network in the southern Dead Sea area have been analyzed within the project DESIRE (Dead Sea Integrated Research Project). Local earthquakes are used for the first precise image of the distribution of the P velocity and the vp/vs ratios. 65 stations registered 655 local events within 18 months of observation time. A subset of 530 well locatable events with 26,730 P- and S-arrival times was used to calculate a tomographic model for the vp and vp/vs distribution. Since the study area is at first order two-dimensional, a gradual approach was chosen, which compromised a 2-D inversion followed by a 3-D inversion. The sedimentary basin fill, clearly imaged through high vp/vs ratios and low vp, shows an asymmetric structure with a vertical eastern boundary and an inclined western boundary. Within the basin fill the Lisan salt diapir is imaged through low vp/vs ratios. Below the basin fill the pre-basin sediments and the reworked crust, indicated by low P velocities and low vp/vs ratios, form a 10 km wide body between 12 and 18 km depth with vertical boundaries. No indications are found for a significant change of the P velocity structure in NS direction. Meanwhile, the change of the vp/vs ratios from high to low values varies in NS direction. This change, interpreted as the lower boundary of the basin fill, is reached already at 10 km depth in the area of the Boqeq fault, but not until 14 km depth below the Lisan peninsula. This difference is most likely related to different amounts of faulting at the transverse normal faults. North of the Boqeq fault the seismic activity between 3 and 15 km depth is mostly related to the fluid containing basin sediments. South of the Boqeq fault the seismic events occur between 12 and 18 km depth, and thus within the pre-basin sediments and the underlying crust.

  8. Analysis of the November 1999 Dead Sea Calibration Shots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A J; Myers, S; Mayeda, K; Walter, W

    2000-07-21

    In November 1999 three chemical explosions were conducted in the Dead Sea for the purposes of calibrating the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These shots were organized and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII). Large chemical explosions are the most valuable form of ground truth as the location, depth and origin time are very well known. We focus on the two largest shots (M{sub w} {ge} 3.6) and performed several types of analysis of the regional recordings and travel times of these shots. These data provide valuable new information about the region and offer an opportunity to test monitoring strategies. A crustal and uppermost mantle velocity model was inferred from the travel times of the regional phases: Pn, Pg and Sg. This effort utilized a grid search method to find suitable models of the structure. Results indicate that the crust is relatively thin (32 km) with lower than average crustal velocities (mean V{sub P} = 6.1-6.2 km/s). We located each shot treating the other shot as a calibration explosion. Locations were computed using both station static corrections and kriged correction surfaces. Results show that the locations with static corrections can be better or worse than the locations without corrections. However, the locations with kriged correction surfaces are consistently better than those without corrections or with static corrections because kriging properly accounts for residual statistics. Measures of the S-wave coda for regional events provide a stable estimate of event size (moment magnitude, M{sub w}) and the event source spectrum. S-wave coda envelope amplitudes were calibrated to moments estimated from long-period waveform modeling. We measured moment and body-wave magnitudes and source spectra for many events in the region. The Dead Sea shots show spectral peaking associated with shallow events. Finally, analysis of regional broadband recordings from the Saudi

  9. Climatic triggers for peatland initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul J.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Valdes, Paul J.; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Gregoire, Lauren J.; Smith, Mark W.; Tarasov, Lev; Haywood, Alan M.; Bacon, Karen L.

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands are carbon-dense wetlands characterised by waterlogged, organic-rich soils. Modern-day peatlands have formed mainly since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and despite covering only 3 % of the Earth's land surface are thought to store more than a third of all global soil carbon in the form of poorly decomposed plant detritus. Concern exists that this globally important carbon store may be vulnerable to near-future warming and changes in precipitation patterns, although the links between peatland development and climate are contested. The climatic and other environmental conditions that facilitate the initiation of peat are particularly poorly understood. We present the results of a novel, global study into the climate space of peat initiation since the LGM. We compiled a catalogue of radiocarbon dates of peat initiation from 942 sites that span a range of latitudes and biomes. We used the locations and ages of these peatlands to interrogate downscaled climate hindcasts at 500-yr intervals from a coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation general circulation model, HadCM3. This powerful combination of modelling and observational data provides a globally-consistent, temporally-extensive estimate of the climate spaces of peat initiation. In particular, it allows us to identify local and regional climatic changes that may have acted as triggers for peat formation. Peatlands in mid- and high-latitudes of both hemispheres, particularly in maritime locations, developed shortly after local increases in the time integral of growing season temperatures, and were seemingly not influenced by rainfall regime. Peat initiation at such sites appears to have been stimulated by temperature-driven increases in plant productivity in cold, postglacial landscapes, and was not water limited. The exception is the large peatland complex of the Western Siberian Lowlands, which was not glaciated during the last glacial period, and which appears to have been prompted instead by a strong

  10. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Lingemann, Joschka; Sakulin, Hannes; Jeitler, Manfred; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider pose new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run 1, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new microTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (GMT) which combines information from the muon trigger sub-systems and assigns the isolation variable. The upgraded GMT will be implemented using a Master Processor 7 card, built by Imperial College, that features a large Xilinx Virtex 7 FPGA. Up to 72 optical links at...

  11. The Uses of Dynamic Earthquake Triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Emily E.; van der Elst, Nicholas J.

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic triggering of earthquakes by seismic waves is a robustly observed phenomenon with well-documented examples from over 30 major earthquakes. We are now in a position to use dynamic triggering as a natural experiment to probe the reaction of faults to the known stresses from seismic waves. We show here that dynamic triggering can be used to investigate the distribution of stresses required for failure on faults. In some regions, faults appear to be uniformly distributed over their loading cycles with equal numbers at all possible stresses from failure. Regions under tectonic extension, at the interface between locked and creeping faults, or subject to anthropogenic forcing are most prone to triggered failure. Predictions of future seismicity rates based on seismic wave amplitudes are theoretically possible and may provide similar results to purely stochastic prediction schemes. The underlying mechanisms of dynamic triggering are still unknown. The prolonged triggered sequences require a multistage process such as shear failure from rate-state friction coupled to aseismic creep or continued triggering through a secondary cascade. Permeability enhancement leading to drainage or pore pressure redistribution on faults is an alternative possibility.

  12. The ATLAS Trigger Menu: Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger is a three-tiered system designed to select events of interest for the diverse ATLAS physics program such as Higgs Boson decays. At the same time the rate of events has to be reduced in order to stay within the limitations of available resources such as the output bandwidth, processing power and recording rate. At design capacity, the LHC has a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz whereas ATLAS detector has an average recording rate of about 300Hz. The decision to record an event is based on physics signatures found in the event such as energetic jets, leptons or large missing energy. The ATLAS trigger menu consists of several hundred trigger chains which are used during data taking. Each chain defines the selection criteria at each of the three trigger levels for a single physics signature. Additionally, the trigger menu specifies, depending on the physics purpose of the trigger, at which given rate the trigger is running. The continuously increasing luminosities together with optimisations of alg...

  13. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jeitler, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Sakulin, Hannes; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run-II of the Large Hadron Collider poses new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run-I, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new μTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT) which sorts and removes duplicates from boundaries of the muon trigger sub-systems. Furthermore, it determines how isolated the muon candidates are based on calorimetric energy deposits. The μGMT will be implemented using a processing board that features a larg...

  14. Intraplate triggered earthquakes: Observations and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three 1811-1812 New Madrid, central United States, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake triggered earthquakes at regional distances. In addition to previously published evidence for triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region in 1812, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and near Charleston, South Carolina. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky within seconds of the passage of surface waves from the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Notwithstanding the uncertainty associated with analysis of historical accounts, there is evidence that at least three out of the four known Mw 7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes at distances beyond the typically assumed aftershock zone of 1-2 mainshock fault lengths. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low-strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low-strain-rate environment, permanent, nonelastic deformation might play a more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than do faults in high-strain-rate regions. Our results further suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults are at a critical stress state in only some areas. Remotely triggered earthquakes may thus serve as beacons that identify regions of

  15. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  16. Trigger tracking for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Dungs, K

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. We show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic pp-collision rate. A track finding efficiency of 98.8% relative to offline can be achieved for good trigger tracks. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is less than 60% of the available budget.

  17. Is Earthquake Triggering Driven by Small Earthquakes?

    CERN Document Server

    Helmstetter, A

    2002-01-01

    Using a catalog of seismicity for Southern California, we measure how the number of triggered earthquakes increases with the earthquake magnitude. The trade-off between this scaling and the distribution of earthquake magnitudes controls the relative role of small compared to large earthquakes. We show that seismicity triggering is driven by the smallest earthquakes, which trigger fewer aftershocks than larger earthquakes, but which are much more numerous. We propose that the non-trivial scaling of the number of aftershocks emerges from the fractal spatial distribution of aftershocks.

  18. The upgrade of the CMS Global Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Bernhard; Jeitler, Manfred; Matsushita, Takashi; Rabady, Dinyar Sebastian; Rahbaran, Babak; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger. Previously implemented in VME, it has been redesigned and completely rebuilt in microTCA technology, using the Virtex-7 FPGA chip family. It will allow to implement trigger algorithms close to the final physics selection. The new system is presented, together with performance tests undertaken in parallel operation with the legacy system during the initial months of Run II of the LHC at a beam energy of 13 TeV.

  19. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, James; Lowe, Brian; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry.

  20. The LHCb trigger in Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Michielin, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb trigger system has been upgraded to allow alignment, calibration and physics analysis to be performed in real time. An increased CPU capacity and improvements in the software have allowed lifetime unbiased selections of beauty and charm decays in the high level trigger. Thanks to offline quality event reconstruction already available online, physics analyses can be performed directly on this information and for the majority of charm physics selections a reduced event format can be written out. Beauty hadron decays are more efficiently triggered by re-optimised inclusive selections, and the HLT2 output event rate is increased by a factor of three.

  1. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs.

  2. ATP and potassium ions: a deadly combination for astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David G.; Wang, Junjie; Keane, Robert W.; Scemes, Eliana; Dahl, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    The ATP release channel Pannexin1 (Panx1) is self-regulated, i.e. the permeant ATP inhibits the channel from the extracellular space. The affinity of the ATP binding site is lower than that of the purinergic P2X7 receptor allowing a transient activation of Panx1 by ATP through P2X7R. Here we show that the inhibition of Panx1 by ATP is abrogated by increased extracellular potassium ion concentration ([K+]o) in a dose-dependent manner. Since increased [K+]o is also a stimulus for Panx1 channels, it can be expected that a combination of ATP and increased [K+]o would be deadly for cells. Indeed, astrocytes did not survive exposure to these combined stimuli. The death mechanism, although involving P2X7R, does not appear to strictly follow a pyroptotic pathway. Instead, caspase-3 was activated, a process inhibited by Panx1 inhibitors. These data suggest that Panx1 plays an early role in the cell death signaling pathway involving ATP and K+ ions. Additionally, Panx1 may play a second role once cells are committed to apoptosis, since Panx1 is also a substrate of caspase-3.

  3. Dead calm areas in the very quiet Sun

    CERN Document Server

    González, M J Martínez; Ramos, A Asensio; Hijano, E

    2012-01-01

    We analyze two regions of the quiet Sun (35.6 x 35.6 Mm^2) observed at high spatial resolution (~100 km) in polarized light by the IMaX spectropolarimeter onboard the Sunrise balloon. We identify 497 small-scale (~400 km) magnetic loops, appearing at an effective rate of 0.25 loop h^{-1} arcsec^{-2}; further, we argue that this number and rate are underestimated by ~30%. However, we find that these small dipoles do not appear uniformly on the solar surface: their spatial distribution is rather filamentary and clumpy, creating dead calm areas, characterized by a very low magnetic signal and a lack of organized loop-like structures at the detection level of our instruments, that cannot be explained as just statistical fluctuations of a Poisson spatial process. We argue that this is an intrinsic characteristic of the mechanism that generates the magnetic fields in the very quiet Sun. The spatio-temporal coherences and the clumpy structure of the phenomenon suggest a recurrent, intermittent mechanism for the gene...

  4. Sarcopenia and critical illness: a deadly combination in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Joseph S

    2015-03-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of lean skeletal muscle mass. It is the result of multiple physiologic derangements, ultimately resulting in an insidious functional decline. Frailty, the clinical manifestation of sarcopenia and physical infirmity, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. The underlying pathology results in a disruption of the individual's ability to tolerate internal and external stressors such as injury or illness. This infirmity results in a markedly increased risk of falls and subsequent morbidity and mortality from the resulting traumatic injury, as well as an inability to recover from medical insults, resulting in critical illness. The increasing prevalence of sarcopenia and critical illness in the elderly has resulted in a deadly intersection of disease processes. The lethality of this combination appears to be the result of altered muscle metabolism, decreased mitochondrial energetics needed to survive critical illness, and a chronically activated catabolic state likely mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, these underlying derangements are independently associated with an increased incidence of critical illness, resulting in a progressive downward spiral. Considerable evidence has been gathered supporting the role of aggressive nutrition support and physical therapy in improving outcomes. Critical care practitioners must consider sarcopenia and the resulting frailty phenotype a comorbid condition so that the targeted interventions can be instituted and research efforts focused.

  5. Vector Graph Assisted Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Using an Unconstrained Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuchao Qian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts.

  6. Vector graph assisted pedestrian dead reckoning using an unconstrained smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiuchao; Pei, Ling; Ma, Jiabin; Ying, Rendong; Liu, Peilin

    2015-03-02

    The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA) of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts.

  7. Presumed consent for transplantation: a dead issue after Alder Hey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, V; Sommerville, A

    2003-01-01

    In the wake of scandals about the unauthorised retention of organs following postmortem examination, the issue of valid consent (or the lack of it) has returned to the forefront. Emphasis is put on obtaining explicit authorisation from the patient or family prior to any medical intervention, including those involving the dead. Although the controversies in the UK arose from the retention of human material for education or research rather than therapy, concern has been expressed that public mistrust could also adversely affect organ donation for transplantation. At the same time, however, the British Medical Association (BMA) continues to call for a shift to a system of presumed consent for organ transplantation. This apparent inconsistency can be justified because valid distinctions exist between the reasons requiring explicit consent for retention and the acceptability of presumed consent for transplantation. This paper argues for introducing a system of presumed consent for organ donation, given the overwhelming expressions of public support for transplantation. Ongoing legislative review in the UK provides an ideal chance to alter the default position to one where potential donors can simply acquiesce or opt out of donation. Combined with consultation with their relatives, this could be a much better method of realising individuals' wishes. It would also achieve a better balance between the duties owed to the deceased and those owed to people awaiting a transplant. PMID:12796433

  8. Sexual Masochism Disorder with Asphyxiophilia: A Deadly yet Underrecognized Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbrielli, Mario; Gualtieri, Giacomo; Ferretti, Fabio; Pozza, Andrea; Fagiolini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    DSM-5 distinguishes between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders. Paraphilias are defined as atypical, yet not necessarily disordered, sexual practices. Paraphilic disorders are instead diseases, which include distress, impairment in functioning, or entail risk of harm one's self or others. Hence, DSM-5 new approach to paraphilias demedicalizes and destigmatizes unusual sexual behaviors, provided they are not distressing or detrimental to self or others. Asphyxiophilia, a dangerous and potentially deadly form of sexual masochism involving sexual arousal by oxygen deprivation, are clearly described as disorders. Although autoerotic asphyxia has been associated with estimated mortality rates ranging from 250 to 1000 deaths per year in the United States, in Italy, knowledge on this condition is very poor. Episodes of death caused by autoerotic asphyxia seem to be underestimated because it often can be confounded with suicide cases, particularly in the Italian context where family members of the victim often try to disguise autoerotic behaviors of the victims. The current paper provides a review on sexual masochism disorder with asphyxiophilia and discusses one specific case as an example to examine those conditions that may or may not influence the likelihood that death from autoerotic asphyxia be erroneously reported as suicide or accidental injury. PMID:27747123

  9. Land Vehicle Positioning Using GPS and Dead Reckoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Dong-kai; C. L. Law; N. Nagarajan; Xu Ai-gong

    2003-01-01

    To ensure reliable land vehicle positioning, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is one of the best techniques commonly used in present-day positioning systems. However, GPS signals are not available if line of sight with the satellites is lost. In this respect, the addition of the Dead Reckoning (DR) method to complement the GPS unit would enhance the reliability of land vehicle positioning system. For implementing the DR method, the magnetic sensor and accelerometer are used for obtaining heading and velocity or distance information. Calibration of two sensors' dynamic model and DR algorithm are also introduced in this paper. The test result utilizing the GPS and DR methods is analyzed in this paper. It utilize spositioning information from GPS receiver when GPSsignal is available, otherwise DR is started to compensate GPS outage with the GPS output as the original point. The results showed that the error in east and north produced by the DR algorithm for a short time interval can be limitedwithin an acceptable range.

  10. Rheology of Dead Sea shampoo containing the antidandruff climbazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, B; Mohameed, H A

    2004-12-01

    In this study, the effect of the antidandruff climbazole on the rheology of hair shampoo containing Dead Sea (DS) salt was investigated. The presence of either DS salt or the climbazole led to increase in the shampoo viscosity. An optimum concentration was found where the viscosity of shampoo was maximum. In the absence of DS salt, the viscosity of hair shampoo increased with increasing the climbazole concentration to reach a maximum value at 1.0 wt%. Further addition of climbazole decreased the viscosity of shampoo. Adjusting the pH of the shampoo at 5.5 and 5.0 shifted the optimum climbazole concentration (corresponds to maximum viscosity) to 0.8 wt% and led to increase in the viscosity of shampoo. On the other hand, the addition of climbazole to the shampoo containing DS salt resulted in a decrease in shampoo viscosity. This decrease of shampoo viscosity became more pronounced with increasing the climbazole and/or DS salt concentrations. By controlling the pH of shampoo, an optimum formula of shampoo comprising both climbazole and DS salt and having maximum viscosity was obtained.

  11. Deadly Fire in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An explosive fire in Kruger National Park in the northern Republic of South Africa has killed at least 21 people and injured several others, perhaps fatally. This true-color image from NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the location of that fire and several others in the region indicated in red. Kruger National Park runs along the border of The Republic of South Africa, which takes up most of the western half of the image, and Mozambique, which takes up most of the eastern half. The deadly fire started on Tuesday, September 4, and burned just to the right of the center of this image, near the town of Skukuza. The fire spread rapidly in the winds that blow across South Africa at the end of the region's dry season. This image, made from MODIS data acquired on September 5, shows the perimeter of the fire burning and emitting heavy smoke. An irregularly shaped burn scar stands out in dark brown against the landscape, indicating the extent of the fire. What appears to be another large burn scar can be seen just to the southeast. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Sexual Masochism Disorder with Asphyxiophilia: A Deadly yet Underrecognized Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Coluccia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DSM-5 distinguishes between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders. Paraphilias are defined as atypical, yet not necessarily disordered, sexual practices. Paraphilic disorders are instead diseases, which include distress, impairment in functioning, or entail risk of harm one’s self or others. Hence, DSM-5 new approach to paraphilias demedicalizes and destigmatizes unusual sexual behaviors, provided they are not distressing or detrimental to self or others. Asphyxiophilia, a dangerous and potentially deadly form of sexual masochism involving sexual arousal by oxygen deprivation, are clearly described as disorders. Although autoerotic asphyxia has been associated with estimated mortality rates ranging from 250 to 1000 deaths per year in the United States, in Italy, knowledge on this condition is very poor. Episodes of death caused by autoerotic asphyxia seem to be underestimated because it often can be confounded with suicide cases, particularly in the Italian context where family members of the victim often try to disguise autoerotic behaviors of the victims. The current paper provides a review on sexual masochism disorder with asphyxiophilia and discusses one specific case as an example to examine those conditions that may or may not influence the likelihood that death from autoerotic asphyxia be erroneously reported as suicide or accidental injury.

  13. Blastopirellula cremea sp. nov., isolated from a dead ark clam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Won; Roh, Seong Woon; Shin, Na-Ri; Lee, Jina; Whon, Tae Woong; Jung, Mi-Ja; Yun, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Min-Soo; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Kim, Daekyung; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2013-06-01

    Strain LHWP2(T), a novel, aerobic, budding, motile and ovoid bacterium belonging to the phylum Planctomycetes, was isolated from a dead ark clam (Scapharca broughtonii) from the south coast of Korea. Strain LHWP2(T) grew optimally at 30 °C, in the presence of 4% (w/v) NaCl, and at pH 7. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1ω7c and/or C18:1ω6c (summed feature 8) and C18:1ω9c. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). The dominant polar lipid was identified as phosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the novel strain was most closely related to Blastopirellula marina DSM 3645(T), with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 94.1%. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain LHWP2(T) was 49.5 mol%. Strain LHWP2(T) was distinguished from B. marina DSM 3645(T) based on its optimum salinity, acid production from substrates, assimilation of substrates and DNA G+C content. Overall, these phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic data suggest that strain LHWP2(T) should be classified as a novel species belonging to the genus Blastopirellula, for which the name Blastopirellula cremea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LHWP2(T) (=KACC 15559(T)=JCM 17758(T)).

  14. Ornithinibacillus scapharcae sp. nov., isolated from a dead ark clam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na-Ri; Whon, Tae Woong; Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Jung, Mi-Ja; Kim, Young-Ok; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2012-01-01

    A novel Gram-positive, aerobic, motile, hemolytic, endospore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium TW25(T) was isolated from a dead ark clam during a mass mortality event on the South coast of Korea. The strain grew optimally at 30°C, at pH 8-9, and with 1% (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain TW25(T) was associated with the genus Ornithinibacillus and that it was most closely related to the type strain of Ornithinibacillus californiensis (98.5% similarity). The dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and C16:0. The peptidoglycan amino acid type was A4β, containing L: -ornithine and D: -aspartic acid. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, four unidentified phospholipids, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The G + C content of genomic DNA was 36.7 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with related strains revealed lower than 11 ± 3% relatedness. Based on this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain TW25(T) represents a novel species in the genus Ornithinibacillus, for which the name Ornithinibacillus scapharcae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TW25(T) (=KACC 15116(T) = JCM 17314(T)).

  15. Dead discs, unstable discs and the stars they surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Angelo Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong stellar magnetic fields significantly alter the behaviour of surrounding accretion discs. Recent work has demonstrated that at low accretion rates a large amount of mass can remain confined in the disc, contrary to the standard assumption that the magnetic field will expel the disc in an outflow (the “propeller regime”. These “dead discs” often become unstable, causing cycles of accretion onto the central star. Here I present the main predictions of this model, and argue that it provides a good explanation for the peculiar behaviour seen in several accreting sources with strong magnetic fields. I will focus in particular on three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars: SAX J1808.4-3658, NGC 6440 X-2 and IGR J00291+5934. These sources all show low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations consistent with a variable accretion rate, as well as unusual outburst patterns that suggest gas is confined in the inner disc regions during quiescence.

  16. Exotic primitivism of death in classical Hollywood living dead films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Hakola

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n62p219 The classical Hollywood horror exhibited the undead monsters, such as mummies, zombies and vampires, at the time when cultural practices of death and dying were changing in the United States. Consequently, the way death is handled in these films is connected to the ongoing marginalization of death. In the classical films, heroes represent modern, medicalized, scientific and marginalized death. In contrast, the undead represent traditional, or irrational and magical, death. When the heroes hunt down and kill the monsters, they also claim the superiority of modern death. Furthermore, the exclusion of traditional death is highlighted by using (postcolonial tensions. The non-western monsters and realm of the world stand for traditional death and the past whereas western heroes represent modern death and the future. This article concentrates on how the classical living dead films narrate the cultural tension between the waning (traditional and emerging (modern practices of death.

  17. Improving IMES Localization Accuracy by Integrating Dead Reckoning Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Fujii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning remains an open problem, because it is difficult to achieve satisfactory accuracy within an indoor environment using current radio-based localization technology. In this study, we investigate the use of Indoor Messaging System (IMES radio for high-accuracy indoor positioning. A hybrid positioning method combining IMES radio strength information and pedestrian dead reckoning information is proposed in order to improve IMES localization accuracy. For understanding the carrier noise ratio versus distance relation for IMES radio, the signal propagation of IMES radio is modeled and identified. Then, trilateration and extended Kalman filtering methods using the radio propagation model are developed for position estimation. These methods are evaluated through robot localization and pedestrian localization experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid positioning method achieved average estimation errors of 217 and 1846 mm in robot localization and pedestrian localization, respectively. In addition, in order to examine the reason for the positioning accuracy of pedestrian localization being much lower than that of robot localization, the influence of the human body on the radio propagation is experimentally evaluated. The result suggests that the influence of the human body can be modeled.

  18. Cytokines: The Good, the Bad, and the Deadly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Thulasi; Auletta, Carol S; Weinstock, Daniel; Mounho-Zamora, Barbara; Ryan, Patricia C; Salcedo, Theodora W; Bannish, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the world of pharmaceutical toxicology has seen an explosion in the area of cytokines. An overview of the many aspects of cytokine safety evaluation currently in progress and evolving strategies for evaluating these important entities was presented at this symposium. Cytokines play a broad role to help the immune system respond to diseases, and drugs which modulate their effect have led to some amazing therapies. Cytokines may be "good" when stimulating the immune system to fight a foreign pathogen or attack tumors. Other "good" cytokine effects include reduction of an immune response, for example interferon β reduction of neuron inflammation in patients with multiple sclerosis. They may be "bad" when their expression causes inflammatory diseases, such as the role of tumor necrosis factor α in rheumatoid arthritis or asthma and Crohn's disease. Therapeutic modulation of cytokine expression can help the "good" cytokines to generate or quench the immune system and block the "bad" cytokines to prevent damaging inflammatory events. However, care must be exercised, as some antibody therapeutics can cause "ugly" cytokine release which can be deadly. Well-designed toxicology studies should incorporate careful assessment of cytokine modulation that will allow effective therapies to treat unmet needs. This symposium discussed lessons learned in cytokine toxicology using case studies and suggested future directions.

  19. Effect of detector dead time on the performance of optical direct-detection communication links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-C.

    1988-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in the Geiger mode can provide a significantly improved single-photon detection sensitivity over conventional photodiodes. However, the quenching circuit required to remove the excess charge carriers after each photon event can introduce an undesirable dead time into the detection process. The effect of this detector dead time on the performance of a binary pulse-position-modulated (PPM) channel is studied by analyzing the error probability. It is shown that, when background noise is negligible, the performance of the detector with dead time is similar to that of a quantum-limited receiver. For systems with increasing background intensities, the error rate of the receiver starts to degrade rapidly with increasing dead time. The power penalty due to detector dead time is also evaluated and shown to depend critically on badkground intensity as well as dead time. Given the expected background strength in an optical channel, therefore, a constraint must be placed on the bandwidth of the receiver to limit the amount of power penalty due to detector dead time.

  20. Effect of Detector Dead Time on the Performance of Optical Direct-Detection Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-C.

    1988-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in the Geiger mode can provide a significantly improved single-photon detect ion sensitivity over conventional photodiodes. However, the quenching circuit required to remove the excess charge carriers after each photon event can introduce an undesirable dead time into the detection process. The effect of this detector dead time on the performance of a binary pulse-position-modulted (PPM) channel is studied by analyzing the error probability. It is shown that, when back- ground noise is negligible, the performance of the detector with dead time is similar to that o f a quantum-limited receiver. For systems with increasing background intensities, the error rate of the receiver starts to degrade rapidly with increasing dead time. The power penalty due to detector dead time is also evaluated and shown to depend critically on background intensity as well as dead time. Given the expected background strength in an optical channel, therefore, a constraint must be placed on the bandwidth of the receiver to limit the amount of power penalty due to detector dead time.

  1. Analysis of dead zone sources in a closed-loop fiber optic gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kyoung-Ho; Choi, Woo-Seok; Chong, Kil-To

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the dead zone is among the intensive studies in a closed-loop fiber optic gyroscope. In a dead zone, a gyroscope cannot detect any rotation and produces a zero bias. In this study, an analysis of dead zone sources is performed in simulation and experiments. In general, the problem is mainly due to electrical cross coupling and phase modulation drift. Electrical cross coupling is caused by interference between modulation voltage and the photodetector. The cross-coupled signal produces spurious gyro bias and leads to a dead zone if it is larger than the input rate. Phase modulation drift as another dead zone source is due to the electrode contamination, the piezoelectric effect of the LiNbO3 substrate, or to organic fouling. This modulation drift lasts for a short or long period of time like a lead-lag filter response and produces gyro bias error, noise spikes, or dead zone. For a more detailed analysis, the cross-coupling effect and modulation phase drift are modeled as a filter and are simulated in both the open-loop and closed-loop modes. The sources of dead zone are more clearly analyzed in the simulation and experimental results.

  2. Dead time effects in turbulence spectra measured by burst-mode LDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velte, Clara; Buchhave, Preben; George, William

    2014-11-01

    Dead time effects in laser Doppler measurements have not so far been considered a major problem. We show how dead time occurs in burst-mode laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) when using a so-called burst-mode LDA processor and describe their effects on the measured power spectra. We show how dead time effects may be caused by more than one seed particle being present in the measurement volume at the same time and explain analytically how dead time causes a reduction in the power in the spectrum at low frequencies and an oscillation in the spectrum at the high frequency end. We also present a realistic model for the data sampled from a processor with dead time and use this model to generate turbulence velocity data in a computer. Finally we compare the spectrum computed from realistic values of dead time and sample rate in the computer generated data and compare this spectrum to a measured spectrum in a free turbulent jet with similar parameters. The excellent agreement between the features of these spectra show that our model and explanation of the dead time effect is a valid one.

  3. THE QUANTITY AND TURNOVER OF DEAD WOOD IN PERMANENT FOREST PLOTS IN SIX LIFE ZONES OF VENEZUELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dead wood can be an important component of the carbon pool in many forests, but few measurements have been made of this pool in tropical forests. To fill this gap, we determined the quantity of dead wood (downed and standing dead) in 25 long-term (up to 30 yr) permanent forest pl...

  4. Synthesis of regional wildlife and vegetation field studies to guide management of standing and down dead trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Janet L. Ohmann; Kim L. Mellen-McLean; Karen L. Waddell

    2010-01-01

    We used novel methods for combining information from wildlife and vegetation field studies to develop guidelines for managing dead wood for wildlife and biodiversity. The DecAID Decayed Wood Adviser presents data on wildlife use of standing and down dead trees (snags and down wood) and summaries of regional vegetation plot data depicting dead wood conditions, for...

  5. Identification of quantitative trait loci for the dead leaf rate and the seedling dead rate under alkaline stress in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongling Qi; Guizhen Guo; Myung-chul Lee; Junguo Zhang; Guilan Cao; Sanyuan Zhang; Seok-cheol Suh; Qingyang Zhou; Longzhi Han

    2008-01-01

    The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the dead leaf rate (DLR) and the dead seedling rate (DSR) at the different rice growing periods after transplanting under alkaline stress were identified using an F2:3 population, which included 200 individuals and lines derived from a cross betweea two japonica rice cultivars Gaochan 106 and Changbai 9 with microsatellite markers. The DLR detected at 20 days to 62 days after transplanting under alkaline stress showed continuous normal or near normal distributions in F3 lines, which was the quantita-tive trait controlled by multiple genes. The DSR showed a continuous distribution with 3 or 4 peaks and was the quantitative trait con-trolled by main and multiple genes when rice was grown for 62 days after transplanting under alkaline stress. Thirteen QTLs associated with DLR were detected at 20 days to 62 days after transplanting under alkaline stress. Among these, qDLR9-2 located in RM5786-RMI60 on chromosome 9 was detected at 34 days, 41 days, 48 days, 55 days, and 62 days, respectively; qDLR4 located in RM3524-RM3866 on chromosome 4 was detected at 34 days, 41 days, and 48 days, respectively; qDLR7-1 located in RM3859-RM320 on chromosome 7 was detected at 20 days and 27 days; and qDLR6-2 in RM1340-RM5957 on chromosome 6 was detected at 55 days and 62 days, respectively. The alleles of both qDLR9-2 and qDLR4 were derived from alkaline sensitive parent "Gaochan 106". The alleles of both qDLR7-1 and qDLR6-2 were from alkaline tolerant parent Changbai 9. These geue actions showed dominance and over dominance primarily. Six QTLs associated with DSR were detected at 62 days after transplanting under alkaline stress. Among these, qDSR6-2 and qDSR8 were located in RM1340-RM5957 on chromosome 6 and in RM3752-RM404 on chromosome 8, respectively, which were asso-ciated with DSR and accounted for 20.32% and 18.86% of the observed phenotypic variation, respectively; qDSR11-2 and qDSR11-3 were located in RM536-RM479 and RM2596-RM286 on

  6. The Trigger Processor and Trigger Processor Algorithms for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lazovich, Tomo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) is an upgrade to the ATLAS muon endcap detectors that will be installed during the next long shutdown of the LHC. Comprising both MicroMegas (MMs) and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGCs), this system will drastically improve the performance of the muon system in a high cavern background environment. The NSW trigger, in particular, will significantly reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from track segments in the endcap not originating from the interaction point. We will present an overview of the trigger, the proposed sTGC and MM trigger algorithms, and the hardware implementation of the trigger. In particular, we will discuss both the heart of the trigger, an ATCA system with FPGA-based trigger processors (using the same hardware platform for both MM and sTGC triggers), as well as the full trigger electronics chain, including dedicated cards for transmission of data via GBT optical links. Finally, we will detail the challenges of ensuring that the trigger electronics can ...

  7. A hypothesis for delayed dynamic earthquake triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T.

    2005-01-01

    It's uncertain whether more near-field earthquakes are triggered by static or dynamic stress changes. This ratio matters because static earthquake interactions are increasingly incorporated into probabilistic forecasts. Recent studies were unable to demonstrate all predictions from the static-stress-change hypothesis, particularly seismicity rate reductions. However, current dynamic stress change hypotheses do not explain delayed earthquake triggering and Omori's law. Here I show numerically that if seismic waves can alter some frictional contacts in neighboring fault zones, then dynamic triggering might cause delayed triggering and an Omori-law response. The hypothesis depends on faults following a rate/state friction law, and on seismic waves changing the mean critical slip distance (Dc) at nucleation zones.

  8. Timing in the ALICE trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Lietava, Roman; Evans, D; Jones, G T; Jovanovic, P; Jusko, A; Králik, I; Krivda, M; Pastircák, B; Sándor, L; Urbán, J; Villalobos Baillie, O

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss trigger signals synchronisation and trigger input alignment in the ALICE trigger system. The synchronisation procedure adjusts the phase of the input signals with respect to the local Bunch Crossing (BC) clock and, indirectly, with respect to the LHC bunch crossing instant. The synchronisation delays are within one clock period: 0-25 ns. The alignment assures that the trigger signals originating from the same bunch crossing reach the processor logic in the same clock cycle. It is achieved by delaying signals by an appropriate number of full clock periods. We propose a procedure which will allow us to nd alignment delays during the system con guration, and to monitor them during the data taking.

  9. Developments of the ATLAS Jet Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    There have been a lot of recent changes in the ATLAS jet trigger. The standard strategy, based on Regions Of Interest, is not well-suited for multi-jet events since it leads to pathologies and efficiency losses. This philosophy has been changed for the jet trigger, and we now have the possibility of unpacking the full calorimeter at Event Filter and (even for a small subset of the events) at an intermediate level between Level-1 and Level-2. We also moved to the use of calibrated scale at trigger level, and to the application of noise cuts to reduce rate spikes. We will present the performance of the jet trigger in 2011, when most of these changes were operational

  10. New Fast Interaction Trigger for ALICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk

    2017-02-01

    The LHC heavy-ion luminosity and collision rate from 2021 onwards will considerably exceed the design parameters of the present ALICE forward trigger detectors and the introduction of the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) will significantly reduce the space available for the new trigger detectors. To comply with these conditions a new Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) will be built. FIT will be the main forward trigger, luminometer, and interaction-time detector. It will also determine multiplicity, centrality, and reaction plane of heavy-ion collisions. FIT will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov quartz radiators with MCP-PMT sensors and of a plastic scintillator ring. By increasing the overall acceptance of FIT, the scintillator will improve centrality and event plane resolution. It will also add sensitivity for the detection of beam-gas events and provide some degree of redundancy. FIT is currently undergoing an intense R&D and prototyping period. It is scheduled for installation in ALICE during 2020.

  11. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented in this pa......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... in this paper should be regarded as a further documentation of the technique. The key point in Random Decrement estimation is the formulation of a triggering condition. If the triggering condition is fulfilled a time segment from each measurement is picked out and averaged with previous time segments. The final...

  12. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented in this pa......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... in this paper should be regarded as a further documentation of the technique. The key point in Random Decrement estimation is the formulation of a triggering condition. If the triggering condition is fulfilled a time segment from each measurement is picked out and averaged with previous time segments. The final...

  13. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-07-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  14. The dangers of being trigger--happy

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, J E; Bressert, E

    2015-01-01

    We examine the evidence offered for triggered star formation against the backdrop provided by recent numerical simulations of feedback from massive stars at or below giant molecular cloud sizescales. We compile a catalogue of sixty--seven observational papers, mostly published over the last decade, and examine the signposts most commonly used to infer the presence of triggered star formation. We then determine how well these signposts perform in a recent suite of hydrodynamic simulations of star formation including feedback from O--type stars performed by Dale et al (2012a, b, 2013a, b, 2014). We find that none of the observational markers improve the chances of correctly identifying a given star as triggered by more than factors of two at most. This limits the fidelity of these techniques in interpreting star formation histories. We therefore urge caution in interpreting observations of star formation near feedback--driven structures in terms of triggering.

  15. The second level trigger system of FAST

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez,G; Berdugo, J; Casaus, J; Casella, V; De Laere, D; Deiters, K; Dick, P; Kirkby, J; Malgeri, L; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Pohl, M; Petitjean, C; Sánchez, E; Willmott, C

    2009-01-01

    The Fibre Active Scintillator Target (FAST) experiment is a novel imaging particle detector currently operating in a high-intensity π+ beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. The detector is designed to perform a high precision measurement of the μ+ lifetime, in order to determine the Fermi constant, Gf, to 1 ppm precision. A dedicated second level (LV2) hardware trigger system has been developed for the experiment. It performs an online analysis of the π/μ decay chain by identifying the stopping position of each beam particle and detecting the subsequent appearance of the muon. The LV2 trigger then records the muon stop pixel and selectively triggers the Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) in the vicinity. A detailed description of the trigger system is presented in this paper.

  16. Triggering on W, Z Boson Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Fehr, Armin

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger performs well for the hadronisation of isolated quarks or gluons, but is not optimised for $\\text{W}^\\pm$ and $\\text{Z}^0$ jets. This can be done with substructure techniques. As the W and Z bosons are highly boosted, the pair of quarks from their decay is heavily collimated and cannot be separated. The result is one single large jet with substructure. As it has two regions in the jet with high energy density (cores), while quarks have only one and gluons have two but a low mass, the existence of two cores plus a mass cut can be used to trigger on the hadronic decay of W and Z. In this project, it was investigated whether an offline tagger for W and Z bosons can be used as a trigger. Trimming, calibration and a tighter mass cut were applied to the jets and the trigger and offline reconstruction performance were compared.

  17. Trigger factors in migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, A W; Hauge, Anne Werner; Kirchmann, M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify trigger factors in migraine with aura (MA). A total of 629 MA patients representative of the Danish population were sent a questionnaire listing 16 trigger factors thought to be relevant as well as space for free text. Distinction was made between...... attacks with or without aura within each patient. The questionnaire was returned by 522 patients of whom 347 had current MA attacks. In total 80% with current attacks (278/347) indicated that at least one factor triggered their migraine, and 67% (187/278) in this group indicated that they were aware...... of at least one factor often or always giving rise to an attack of MA. Forty-one per cent (113/278) had co-occurring attacks of migraine without aura (MO). Stress (following stress), bright light, intense emotional influences, stress (during stress) and sleeping too much or too little were the trigger factors...

  18. Pulling the trigger on LHC electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The conditions at CERN's Large Hadron Collider pose severe challenges for the designers and builders of front-end, trigger and data acquisition electronics. A recent workshop reviewed the encouraging progress so far and discussed what remains to be done. The LHC experiments have addressed level one trigger systems with a variety of high-speed hardware. The CMS Calorimeter Level One Regional Trigger uses 160 MHz logic boards plugged into the front and back of a custom backplane, which provides point-to-point links between the cards. Much of the processing in this system is performed by five types of 160 MHz digital applications-specific integrated circuits designed using Vitesse submicron high-integration gallium arsenide gate array technology. The LHC experiments make extensive use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These offer programmable reconfigurable logic, which has the flexibility that trigger designers need to be able to alter algorithms so that they can follow the physics and detector perform...

  19. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bauce, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Biagioni, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Fantechi, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Fiorini, M. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Giagu, S. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Gianoli, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lamanna, G., E-mail: gianluca.lamanna@cern.ch [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Lonardo, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Messina, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); and others

    2016-07-11

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  20. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton iso...

  1. A New Historicism Interpretation of Is He Living or Is He Dead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xia

    2016-01-01

    Is He Living or Is He Dead is mainly about an outstanding painter Francois Millet who pretend to be dead in order to get reputation and money ,because at that time a great artist has never been acknowledged until after he was starved and dead. Based on the critic approach of New Historicism, this thesis have analyzed how Millet subvert power and be contained by power, the capitalism and market, which criticized the phenomenon that the value of art is not decided by itself , but by power. No matter it is good or bad, if it is denied by power , it is valueless.

  2. Dynamic optimum dead time in piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Andersen, Thomas; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

    2016-01-01

    Soft switching is required to attain high efficiency in high-frequency power converters. Piezoelectric transformerbased converters can benefit from soft switching in terms of significantly diminished switching losses and stresses. Adequate dead time is needed in order to deliver sufficient energy...... to charge and discharge the input capacitance of piezoelectric transformers in order to achieve zero-voltage switching. This paper proposes a method for detecting the optimum dead time in piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies. The provision of sufficient dead time in every cycle...

  3. Modelling of ultrasonic motor with dead-zone based on Hammerstein model structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The ultrasonic motor (USM) possesses heavy nonlinearities which vary with driving conditions and load-dependent characteristics such as the dead-zone. In this paper, an identification method for the rotary travelling-wave type ultrasonic motor (RTWUSM) with dead-zone is proposed based on a modified Hammerstein model structure. The driving voltage contributing effect on the nonlinearities of the RTWUSM was transformed to the change of dynamic parameters against the driving voltage.The dead-zone of the RTWUSM is identified based upon the above transformation. Experiment results showed good agreement between the output of the proposed model and actual measured output.

  4. ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF FLEXIBLE BEAM WITH UNKNOWN DEAD-ZONE IN THE DRIVING MOTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xingsong; Hong Henry; Su Chunyi

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive control of a flexible beam system preceded by an unknown dead-zone in the driving motor is investigated in state space form. By introducing an important lemma for simplifying error equation between the flexible beam model and the matching reference model, a robust adaptive control scheme is developed by involving the dead-zone inverse terms. The new adaptive control law ensures global stability of the entire system and achieves desired tracking precision even when the slopes of the dead-zone are not equal. Simulations performed on a typical flexible beam system illustrate and clarify the validity of this approach.

  5. Empirical formulae for excess noise factor with dead space for single carrier multiplication

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.

    2011-09-01

    In this letter, two empirical equations are presented for the calculation of the excess noise factor of an avalanche photodiode for single carrier multiplication including the dead space effect. The first is an equation for calculating the excess noise factor when the multiplication approaches infinity as a function of parameters that describe the degree of the dead space effect. The second equation can be used to find the minimum value of the excess noise factor for any multiplication when the dead space effect is completely dominant, the so called "deterministic" limit. This agrees with the theoretically known equation for multiplications less than or equal to two. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  6. The trigger system of the CHORUS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuzekom, M.G. van [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boes, J.C. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Born, E.A. van den [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jaspers, M.J.F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Konijn, J. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldeman, R.G.C. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Poel, C.A.F.J. van der [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reen, T. van [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stolte, J. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uiterwijk, J.W.E. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Visschers, J.L. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pesen, E. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Zeyrek, M.T. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Dewulf, J.P. [Inter-University Institute for High Energies (ULB-VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Bal, F. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Beyer, R. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gorbunov, P. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ferreira, R. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Friend, B. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Jong, M. de [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ludovici, L. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Panman, J. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Bonnet, L. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Gregoire, G. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1999-05-01

    A new apparatus for detection of {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation has been successfully constructed and operated by the CHORUS Collaboration for the CERN-WA95 experiment. The design, implementation and performance of the electronic trigger system is described. A trigger efficiency of 99% was measured for {nu}{sub {mu}} charged-current events and 90% for neutral-current events.

  7. Control And Configuration Of The ATLAS Trigger And Data Acquisition System During Data Taking Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, R M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN relies on a complex and highly distributed Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system to gather and select particle collision data at unprecedented energy and rates. The control and configuration (CC) system is responsible for all the software required to configure and control the ATLAS data taking. This ranges from high level applications, such as the graphical user interfaces and the desktops used within the ATLAS control room, to low level packages, such as access, process and resource management. Currently the CC system is required to supervise more than 15000 processes running on more than 1500 computers. At these scales, issues such as access, process and resource management, distribution of configuration data and access to them, run control, diagnostic and especially error recovery become predominant to guarantee a high availability of the TDAQ system and minimize the dead time of the experiment. And it is indeed during the data taking activitie...

  8. Deciphering The Fall And Rise Of The Dead Sea In Relation To Solar Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Shahinaz M.

    2005-03-01

    Solar Forcing on closed seas and Lakes is space time dependent. The Cipher of the Dead Sea level variation since 1200 BC is solved in the context of millenium and Wolf-Gleissberg solar cycles time scales. It is found that the pattern of Dead Sea level variation follows the pattern of major millenium solar cycles. The 70 m rise of Dead Sea around 1AD is due to the forcing of the maximum millenium major solar cycle. Although the pattern of the Dead Sea level variation is almost identical to major solar cycles pattern between 1100 and 1980 AD, there is a dating problem of the Dead Sea time series around 1100-1300 AD that time. A discrepancy that should be corrected for the solar and Dead Sea series to fit. Detailed level variations of the Dead Sea level for the past 200 years are solved in terms of the 80-120 years solar Wolf-Gliessberg magnetic cycles. Solar induced climate changes do happen at the turning points of those cycles. Those end-start and maximum turning points are coincident with the change in the solar rotation rate due to the presence of weak solar cycles. Such weak cycles occur in series of few cycles between the end and start of those Wolf-Gleissberg cycles. Another one or two weak r solar cycle occur following the maximum of those Wolf-Gleissberg cycles. Weak cycles induce drop in the energy budget emitted from the sun and reaching the Earth thus causing solar induced climate change. An 8 meter sudden rise of Dead Sea occur prior 1900 AD due to positive solar forcing of the second cycle of the weak cycles series on the Dead Sea. The same second weak cycle induced negative solar forcing on Lake Chad. The first weak solar cycle forced Lake Victoria to rise abruptly in 1878. The maximum turning point of the solar Wolf-Gleissberg cycle induced negative forcing on both the Aral Sea and the Dead Sea causing their shrinkage to an alarming reduced area ever since. On the other hand, few years delayed positive forcing caused Lake Chad and the Equatorial

  9. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Agostino, Lorenzo; Beccati, Barbara; Behrens, Ulf; Berryhil, Jeffrey; Biery, Kurt; Bose, Tulika; Brett, Angela; Branson, James; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Dahmes, Bryan; Deldicque, Christian; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Gutleber, Johannes; Hatton, Derek; Laurens, Jean-Francois; Loizides, Constantin; Ma, Frank; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Meyer, Andreas; Mommsen, Remigius K; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Patras, Vaios; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdeckerd, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Serrano Margaleff, Josep Francesc; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Sean; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sungho Yoon, Andre; Wittich, Peter; Zanetti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  10. Progress on the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Eric Eisenhandler

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) has recently passed a number of major hurdles. The various electronic modules that make up the trigger are either in full production or are about to be, and preparations in the ATLAS pit are well advanced. L1Calo has three main subsystems. The PreProcessor converts analogue calorimeter signals to digital, associates the rather broad trigger pulses with the correct proton-proton bunch crossing, and does a final calibration in transverse energy before sending digital data streams to the two algorithmic trigger processors. The Cluster Processor identifies and counts electrons, photons and taus, and the Jet/Energy-sum Processor looks for jets and also sums missing and total transverse energy. Readout drivers allow the performance of the trigger to be monitored online and offline, and also send region-of-interest information to the Level-2 Trigger. The PreProcessor (Heidelberg) is the L1Calo subsystem with the largest number of electronic modules (124), and most of its fu...

  11. Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger starts firing

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Hillier

    2007-01-01

    L1Calo is one of the major components of ATLAS First Level trigger, along with the Muon Trigger and Central Trigger Processor. It forms all of the first-level calorimeter-based triggers, including electron, jet, tau and missing ET. The final system consists of over 250 custom designed 9U VME boards, most containing a dense array of FPGAs or ASICs. It is subdivided into a PreProcessor, which digitises the incoming trigger signals from the Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters, and two separate processor systems, which perform the physics algorithms. All of these are highly flexible, allowing the possibility to adapt to beam conditions and luminosity. All parts of the system are read out through Read-Out Drivers, which provide monitoring data and Region of Interest (RoI) information for the Level-2 trigger. Production of the modules is now essentially complete, and enough modules exist to populate the full scale system in USA15. Installation is proceeding rapidly - approximately 90% of the final modules are insta...

  12. The LHCb trigger and data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Dufey, J P; Harris, F; Harvey, J; Jost, B; Mato, P; Müller, E

    2000-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is the most recently approved of the 4 experiments under construction at CERNs LHC accelerator. It is a special purpose experiment designed to precisely measure the CP violation parameters in the B-B system. Triggering poses special problems since the interesting events containing B-mesons are immersed in a large background of inelastic p-p reactions. We therefore decided to implement a 4 level triggering scheme. The LHCb Data Acquisition (DAQ) system will have to cope with an average trigger rate of ~40 kHz, after two levels of hardware triggers, and an average event size of ~100 kB. Thus an event-building network which can sustain an average bandwidth of 4 GB/s is required. A powerful software trigger farm will have to be installed to reduce the rate from the 40 kHz to ~100 Hz of events written to permanent storage. In this paper we outline the general architecture of the Trigger and DAQ system and the readout protocols we plan to implement. First results of simulations of the behavior o...

  13. Level-1 Jets and Sums Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the first long shutdown, the LHC has restarted at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The LHC is expected to achieve an instantaneous luminosity larger than $10^{34} \\rm{cm}^{-2} \\rm{s}^{-1}$ and an average number of pile-up interactions of at least 40. The CMS Level-1 trigger architecture has undergone a full upgrade in order to maintain and improve the trigger performance under these new conditions. It will allow CMS to keep the trigger rate under control and to avoid a significant increase in trigger thresholds that would have a negative impact on the CMS physics programme. First studies of the performance of the calorimeter trigger upgrade for jets and energy sums are shown. Details of the algorithms and commissioning may be found in CMS-DP-2015-051 and the CMS Technical Design Report for the Level-1 Trigger upgrade: CERN-LHCC-2013-011, CMS-TDR-12 (2013)

  14. The ATLAS Trigger Commissioning with cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Abolins, M; Adragna, P; Aielli, G; Aleksandrov, E; Aleksandrov, I; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Antonelli, S; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Asquith, L; Avolio, G; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Bahat Treidel, O; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Barria, P; Bartoldus, R; Batreanu, S; Bauss, B; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Ya; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Berger, N; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R R; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Bressler, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buttar, C; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Chiodini, G; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Clements, D; Coccaro, A; Coluccia, M R; Conde-Muíño, P; Constantin, S; Conventi, F; Corso-Radu, A; Costa, M J; Coura Torres, R; Cranfield, R; Cranmer, K; Crone, G; Curtis, C J; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; Dawson, I; Dawson, J; De Almeida Simoes, J; De Cecco, S; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; DeAsmundis, R; DellaPietra, M; DellaVolpe, D; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Girolamo, A; Dionisi, C; Djilkibaev, R; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dogaru, M; Dotti, A; Dova, M; Drake, G; Dufour, M -A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E F; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Eschrich, I; Etzion, E; Facius, K; Falciano, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner, P J W F; Feng, E; Ferland, J; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fischer, G; Fonseca-Martin, T; Francis, D; Fukunaga, C; Föhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gaumer, O; Gee, C N P; George, S; Geweniger, C; Giagu, S; Gillman, A R; Giusti, P; Goncalo, R; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Gowdy, S; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grancagnolo, F; Grancagnolo, S; Green, B; Galllno, P; Haas, S; Haberichter, W; Hadavand, H; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, Y; Hauschild, M; Hauser, R; Head, S; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Höcker, A; Hrynóva, T; Hughes-Jones, R; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Idarraga, J; Iengo, P; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Inada, M; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jain, V; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Joos, M; Kadosaka, T; Kajomovitz, E; Kama, S; Kanaya, N; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kilvington, G; Kirk, J; Kiyamura, H; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E E; Kobayashi, T; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kuhn, D; Kurashige, H; Kurasige, H; Kuwabara, T; Kwee, R; Landon, M; Lankford, A; LeCompte, T; Leahu, L; Leahu, M; Ledroit, F; Lehmann-Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Lendermann, V; Levinson, L; Leyton, M; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lifshitz, R; Lim, H; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lupu, N; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martínez, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; McMahon, T; McPherson, R; Medinnis, M; Meessen, C; Meier, K; Meirosu, C; Messina, A; Migliaccio, A; Mikenberg, G; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Mönig, K; Monticelli, F; Moraes, A; Moreno, D; Morettini, P; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Némethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Nisati, A; Niwa, T; Nomachi, M; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Ochi, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Pectu, M; Perantoni, M; Perera, V; Perera, V J O; Pérez, E; Pérez-Réale, V; Perrino, R; Pessoa Lima Junior, H; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Piegaia, R; Pilcher, J E; Pinto, F; Pinzon, G; Polini, A; Pope, B; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Primavera, M; Qian, W; Radescu, V; Rajagopalan, S; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Risler, C; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Roda, C; Rodríguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Rosati, S; Ryabov, Yu; Ryan, P; Rühr, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamon, A; Salvatore, D; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Santonico, R; Sasaki, O; Scannicchio, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J L; Schmitt, K; Scholtes, I; Schooltz, D; Schuler, G; Schultz-Coulon, H -C; Schäfer, U; Scott, W; Segura, E; Sekhniaidze, G; Shimbo, N; Sidoti, A; Silva, L; Silverstein, S; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sloper, J E; Smizanska, M; Solfaroli, E; Soloviev, I; Soluk, R; Spagnolo, S; Spila, F; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stradling, A; Strom, D; Strong, J; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Szymocha, T; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Tokoshuku, K; Tomoto, M; Torrence, E; Touchard, F

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. At the design luminosity there are roughly 23 collisions per bunch crossing. ATLAS has designed a three-level trigger system to select potentially interesting events. The first-level trigger, implemented in custom-built electronics, reduces the incoming rate to less than 100 kHz with a total latency of less than 2.5$\\mu$s. The next two trigger levels run in software on commercial PC farms. They reduce the output rate to 100-200 Hz. In preparation for collision data-taking which is scheduled to commence in May 2008, several cosmic-ray commissioning runs have been performed. Among the first sub-detectors available for commissioning runs are parts of the barrel muon detector including the RPC detectors that are used in the first-level trigger. Data have been taken with a full slice of the muon trigger and readout chain, from the detectors in one sector of the RPC system, to the second-level trigger algorit...

  15. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  16. Upgrade of the trigger system of CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jeitler, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Various parts of the CMS trigger and in particular the Level-1 hardware trigger will be upgraded to cope with increasing luminosity, using more selective trigger conditions at Level-1 and improving the reliability of the system. Many trigger subsystems use FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the electronics and will benefit from developments in this technology, allowing much more logic into a single FPGA chip, thus reducing the number of chips, electronic boards and interconnections and in this way improving reliability. A number of subsystems plan to switch from the old VME bus to the new microTCA crate standard. Using similar approaches, identical modules and common software whereever possible will reduce costs and manpower requirements and improve the serviceability of the whole trigger system. The computer-farm based High-Level Trigger will not only be extended by using increasing numbers of more powerful PCs but there are also concepts for making it more robust and the software easier to maintain, ...

  17. Trigger finger, tendinosis, and intratendinous gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, A-C; Aspenberg, P; Eliasson, P

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of trigger finger has generally been ascribed to primary changes in the first annular ligament. In contrast, we recently found histological changes in the tendons, similar to the findings in Achilles tendinosis or tendinopathy. We therefore hypothesized that trigger finger tendons would show differences in gene expression in comparison to normal tendons in a pattern similar to what is published for Achilles tendinosis. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on biopsies from finger flexor tendons, 13 trigger fingers and 13 apparently healthy control tendons, to assess the expression of 10 genes which have been described to be differently expressed in tendinosis (collagen type 1a1, collagen 3a1, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, TIMP-3, aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, and versican). In trigger finger tendons, collagen types 1a1 and 3a1, aggrecan and biglycan were all up-regulated, and MMP-3and TIMP-3 were down-regulated. These changes were statistically significant and have been previously described for Achilles tendinosis. The remaining four genes were not significantly altered. The changes in gene expression support the hypothesis that trigger finger is a form of tendinosis. Because trigger finger is a common condition, often treated surgically, it could provide opportunities for clinical research on tendinosis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. ATLAS triggers for B-physics

    CERN Document Server

    George, S

    2000-01-01

    The LHC will produce bb events at an unprecedented rate. The number of events recorded by ATLAS will be limited by the rate at which they can be stored offline and subsequently analysed. Despite the huge number of events, the small branching ratios mean that analysis of many of the most interesting channels for CP violation and other measurements will be limited by statistics. The challenge for the Trigger and Data Acquisition (DAQ) system is therefore to maximise the fraction of interesting B decays in the B-physics data stream. The ATLAS Trigger/DAQ system is split into three levels. The initial B-physics selection is made in the first-level trigger by an inclusive low-p/sub t/ muon trigger (~6 GeV). The second-level trigger strategy is based on identifying classes of final states by their partial reconstruction. The muon trigger is confirmed before proceeding to a track search. Electron/hadron separation is given by the transition radiation tracking detector and the electromagnetic calorimeter. Muon identi...

  19. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  20. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  1. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-07-24

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles ({theta}{sub 12}, {theta}{sub 23}, {theta}{sub 13}) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, {theta}{sub 13} is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of {proportional_to}80% from the currently allowed {theta}{sub 13} region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at {proportional_to}150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse {beta}-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of

  2. Sinkhole formation and subsidence along the Dead Sea coast, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechieli, Yoseph; Abelson, Meir; Baer, Gideon

    2016-05-01

    More than 4,000 sinkholes have formed since the 1980s within a 60-km-long and 1-km-wide strip along the western coast of the Dead Sea (DS) in Israel. Their formation rate accelerated in recent years to >400 sinkholes per year. They cluster mostly in specific sites up to 1,000 m long and 200 m wide, which align parallel to the general direction of the fault systems associated with the DS Rift. The abrupt appearance of the sinkholes reflects changes to the groundwater regime around the shrinking DS. The eastward retreat of the shoreline and the lake-level drop (1 m/year in recent years) cause an eastward and downward migration of the fresh/saline groundwater interface. Consequently, a subsurface salt layer, which was previously enveloped by saline groundwater, is gradually being invaded and submerged by relatively fresh groundwater, and cavities form due to the rapid dissolution of the salt. Collapse of the overlying sediments into these cavities results in sinkholes at the surface. An association between sinkhole sites and land subsidence is revealed by interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) measurements. On a broad scale (hundreds of meters), subsidence occurs due to compaction of fine-grained sediments as groundwater levels decline along the retreating DS shoreline. At smaller scales (tens of meters), subsidence appears above subsurface cavities in association with the sinkholes, serving in many cases as sinkhole precursors, a few weeks to more than a year before their actual appearance at the surface. This paper overviews the processes of sinkhole formation and their relation to land subsidence.

  3. Haloactinomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from Dead Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hangxian; Jiang, Yingying; Chen, Xiu; Li, Qinyuan; Jiang, Chenglin; Jiang, Yi; Wei, Xiaomin

    2017-01-10

    A novel halophilic, filamentous actinomycete strain, designated AFM 10258T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Dead Sea of Israel. The isolate grew with 10-35% NaCl and did not grow without NaCl. The isolate formed white aerial mycelium and long spore chains, and two spores were separated by sterile mycelium. The spores were non-motile, spherical and rugose-surfaced. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and galactose and arabinose as the major whole-cell sugars. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and three unknown phospholipids. Major fatty acids were anteiso-C17:0, iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. MK-9(H4) was the predominant menaquinone and the DNA G+C content was 62.8 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain AFM 10258T shared low sequence similarity with the closely related representatives of the families Pseudonocardiaceae (below 94.47%) and Actinopolysporaceae (below 93.76%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain AFM 10258T formed a robust clade with members of the family Actinopolysporaceae. On the basis of analysis of phenotypic, chemical and molecular characteristics, strain AFM 10258T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus , for which the name Haloactinomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is AFM 10258T (=DSM 45977T = CGMCC 4.7115T).

  4. First-Level Trigger Systems for LHC Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    Staley, R; Leake, J; Corre, A; Hoelscher, A; Rensch, B; Bodo, J P; Sundblad, R; Svensson, C; Yuan, Jiren; Pentney, M; Lackey, J; Piccinelli, G; Cardarelli, R; Appelquist, G; Prytz, K; Zhao, Xing

    2002-01-01

    % RD27 \\\\ \\\\ We have carried out a broad-based programme of R\\&D on level-1 trigger systems for LHC experiments, including subtrigger processors for muon and calorimeter triggers, the central trigger processor, and the interaction with the level-2 trigger. The R\\&D included detailed design studies for the whole level-1 trigger system and prototyping of key components. Beam tests have been made with prototype calorimeter and muon trigger processors.

  5. Water quality modeling in the dead end sections of drinking water (Supplement)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to...

  6. Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Preconcentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. has demonstrated feasibility in Phase I and now proposes a Phase II effort to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume...

  7. MOOCs are dead! Open Education and the Quality of Online Courses Towards a Common QRF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Paper Presentation at the 25th EDEN Annual Conference 2016, Budapest, Hungary, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 16 June): "MOOCs are dead! Open Education and the Quality of Online Courses Towards a Common QRF"

  8. Effect of dead carbon on the 14C dating of the speleothem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yanjun; Warren Beck; PENG Zicheng; ZHANG Zhaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Based on the comparison of dating results among high-precision TIMS U-series and AMS 14C as well as the published 14C dating results and their band counting ages (i.e. calendar ages), this paper discusses the effect of dead carbon on the speleothem 14C dating. The result shows that the fraction of incorporated dead carbon during the formation of speleothem varies. The change in the fraction of dead carbon would result in big deviation in the 14C age of the speleothem. It is indispensable to take the dead carbon into consideration when dating the speleothem using the 14C method or studying the atmospheric 14C concentration during the past with the speleothem.

  9. A grateful dead analysis: the relationship between concert and listening behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gintautas, Vadas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pepe, Alberto [U.OF CA AT LA

    2008-01-01

    The Grateful Dead was an American band born out of the 1960s San Francisco, California psychedelic movement, that played music together from 1965 to 1995. Despite relatively little popular radio airtime, while on tour the Grateful Dead enjoyed a cult-like following from a fan base that numbered in the millions. Still today, some ten years after dissolution, the band remains popular according to online music services, such as last.fm. This article presents a comparative analysis between 1,590 of the Grateful Dead's live concert set lists from 1972 to 1995 and 2,616,990 Grateful Dead listening events by last.fm users from August 2005 to October 2007. While there is a strong correlation between how songs were played in concert and how they were listened to by last.fm members, the outlying songs in this trend identify interesting aspects of the band and their present-day fans.

  10. A cluster of tularaemia after contact with a dead hare in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, D.; dos Santos, C. Oliveira; Wagelaar, M.; de Kleuver, M.; Koene, M. G. J.; Roest, H. I. J.; Sinha, B.; Tomaso, H.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Stienstra, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Tularemia is thought to be rare in the Netherlands. Here we describe a cluster of two patients who contracted tularaemia after field dressing of a hare found dead. Additionally, infection from the same source is suggested in three animals.

  11. A grateful dead analysis: the relationship between concert and listening behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gintautas, Vadas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pepe, Alberto [U.OF CA AT LA

    2008-01-01

    The Grateful Dead was an American band born out of the 1960s San Francisco, California psychedelic movement, that played music together from 1965 to 1995. Despite relatively little popular radio airtime, while on tour the Grateful Dead enjoyed a cult-like following from a fan base that numbered in the millions. Still today, some ten years after dissolution, the band remains popular according to online music services, such as last.fm. This article presents a comparative analysis between 1,590 of the Grateful Dead's live concert set lists from 1972 to 1995 and 2,616,990 Grateful Dead listening events by last.fm users from August 2005 to October 2007. While there is a strong correlation between how songs were played in concert and how they were listened to by last.fm members, the outlying songs in this trend identify interesting aspects of the band and their present-day fans.

  12. Experimentally estimated dead space for GaAs and InP based planar Gunn diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaeel Maricar, Mohamed; Khalid, A.; Dunn, G.; Cumming, D.; Oxley, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental method has been used to estimate the dead space of planar Gunn diodes which were fabricated using GaAs and InP based materials, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the dead space was approximately 0.23 μm and the saturation domain velocity 0.96 × 105 m s-1 for an Al0.23Ga0.77As based device, while for an In0.53Ga0.47As based device, the dead space was approximately 0.21 μm and the saturation domain velocity 1.93 × 105 m s-1. Further, the results suggest that the saturation domain velocity is reduced or there is an increase in the dead-space due to local field distortions when the active channel length of the planar Gunn diode is less than 1 micron.

  13. Design and Implementation of Pedestrian Dead Reckoning System on a Mobile Phone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KAMISAKA, Daisuke; MURAMATSU, Shigeki; IWAMOTO, Takeshi; YOKOYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) based on human gait locomotion is a promising solution for indoor location services, which independently determine the relative position of the user using multiple sensors...

  14. ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF COPPER RECYCLING OF DEAD COPPER-CONTAINING CATALYSTS

    OpenAIRE

    O. S. Komarov; I. V. Provorova; V. I. Volosatikov; D. O. Komarov; N. I. Urbanovich

    2009-01-01

    The technology of processing of copper-bearing dead catalysts, which includes leaching and deposition of copper by means of electrolysis and also their application in composition of the mixture for alloy doping is offered.

  15. ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF COPPER RECYCLING OF DEAD COPPER-CONTAINING CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of processing of copper-bearing dead catalysts, which includes leaching and deposition of copper by means of electrolysis and also their application in composition of the mixture for alloy doping is offered.

  16. Children, death, and the dead: the Mebengokré-Xikrin case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Cohn

    Full Text Available This article approaches the relations children entertain with the dead, as well as with their own death risk, among the Mebenkogré-Xikrin, an indigenous Jê-speaking Indigenous group living in the North of Brazil. These themes are developed by analyzing the fabrication of the body, the formation of the self and the person, and the relations with the dead, with a special focus on children. Mebengokré-Xikrin notions of childhood are therefore discussed in an innovative manner through the formation of the self and the child's relations with the cosmos and the dead, by looking at the eventuality of caputre by the spirits of the dead, their adoption in the after-life, the mourning of children, their bodily adornments and painting, how they should be taken care of in life in order to prevent death, and their bodies and social interactions.

  17. QoS-enabled ANFIS Dead Reckoning Algorithm for Distributed Interactive Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hakiri, Akram

    2010-01-01

    Dead Reckoning mechanisms are usually used to estimate the position of simulated entity in virtual environment. However, this technique often ignores available contextual information that may be influential to the state of an entity, sacrificing remote predictive accuracy in favor of low computational complexity. A novel extension of Dead Reckoning is suggested in this paper to increase the network availability and fulfill the required Quality of Service in large scale distributed simulation application. The proposed algorithm is referred to as ANFIS Dead Reckoning, which stands for Adaptive Neuro-based Fuzzy Inference System Dead Reckoning is based on a fuzzy inference system which is trained by the learning algorithm derived from the neuronal networks and fuzzy inference theory. The proposed mechanism takes its based on the optimization approach to calculate the error threshold violation in networking games. Our model shows it primary benefits especially in the decision making of the behavior of simulated e...

  18. Natural versus human control on subsurface salt dissolution and development of thousands of sinkholes along the Dead Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Meir; Yechieli, Yoseph; Baer, Gidon; Lapid, Gil; Behar, Nicole; Calvo, Ran; Rosensaft, Marcelo

    2017-06-01

    One of the most hazardous results of the human-induced Dead Sea (DS) shrinkage is the formation of more than 6000 sinkholes over the last 25 years. The DS shrinkage caused eastward retreat of underground brine replaced by fresh groundwater, which in turn dissolved a subsurface salt layer, to generate cavities and collapse sinkholes. The areal growth rate of sinkhole clusters is considered the most pertinent proxy for sinkholes development. Analysis of light detection and ranging, digital elevation models, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar allows translation of the areal growth rate to a salt dissolution rate of the salt layer, revealing two peaks in the history of the salt dissolution rate. These peaks cannot be attributed to the decline of the DS level. Instead, we show that they are related to long-term variations of precipitation in the groundwater source region, the Judea Mountains, and the delayed response of the aquifer system between the mountains and the DS rift. This response is documented by groundwater levels and salinity variations. We thus conclude that while the DS level decline is the major trigger for sinkholes formation, the rainfall variations more than 30 km to the west dominate their evolution rate. The influence of increasing rainfall in the Judea Mountains reaches the DS at a typical time lag of 4 years, and the resulting increase in the salt dissolution rate lags by a total time of 5-6 years.

  19. What makes Maurice Ravel's deadly craniotomy interesting? Concerns of one of the most famous craniotomies in history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanat, Ayhan; Kayaci, Selim; Yazar, Ugur; Yilmaz, Adem

    2010-04-01

    Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), the great impressionist-classicist composer of many popular compositions, such as the Boléro, suffered from a progressive disease and died following an exploratory craniotomy by Clovis Vincent. The history of his progressive dementia and the contribution of a car accident, following which he was unable to function, have received a certain amount of interest in the neurological literature previously, but his deadly craniotomy was not evaluated from a neurosurgery perspective. The car accident in 1932, with the probable consequence of a mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury, could be the key event in his life, triggering the loss of his ability to compose. It is clear that he never recovered from his injury and within a year he became completely unable to function. His dementia progressed dramatically. This event needs to be kept in mind. In 1937, Ravel died after the craniotomy performed by Vincent, but only a speculative, retrospective diagnosis is possible since an autopsy was not undertaken.

  20. Sedimentary and structural controls on seismogenic slumping within mass transport deposits from the Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, G. I.; Marco, S.; Weinberger, R.; Levi, T.

    2016-10-01

    Comparatively little work has been undertaken on how sedimentary environments and facies changes can influence detailed structural development in slump sheets associated with mass transport deposits (MTDs). The nature of downslope deformation at the leading edge of MTDs is currently debated in terms of frontally emergent, frontally confined and open-toed models. An opportunity to study and address these issues occurs within the Dead Sea Basin, where six individual slump sheets (S1-S6) form MTDs in the Late Pleistocene Lisan Formation. All six slumps, which are separated from one another by undeformed beds, are traced towards the NE for up to 1 km, and each shows a change in sedimentary facies from detrital-rich in the SW, to more aragonite-rich in the NE. The detrital-rich facies is sourced predominantly from the rift margin 1.5 km further SW, while the aragonite-rich facies represents evaporitic precipitation in the hyper saline Lake Lisan. The stacked system of MTDs translates downslope towards the NE and follows a pre-determined sequence controlled by the sedimentary facies. Each individual slump roots downwards into underlying detrital-rich layers and displays a greater detrital content towards the SW, which is marked by increasing folding, while increasing aragonite content towards the NE is associated with more discrete thrusts. The MTDs thin downslope towards the NE, until they pass laterally into undeformed beds at the toe. The amount of contraction also reduces downslope from a maximum of 50% to < 10% at the toe, where upright folds form diffuse 'open-toed' systems. We suggest that MTDs are triggered by seismic events, facilitated by detrital-rich horizons, and controlled by palaeoslope orientation. The frequency of individual failures is partially controlled by local environmental influences linked to detrital input and should therefore be used with some caution in more general palaeoseismic studies. We demonstrate that MTDs display 'open toes' where

  1. When the Zombies Came for Our Children: Exploring Posthumanism in Robert Kirkman's The Walking Dead

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Through the theoretical lens of cultural posthumanism, this essay offers a reading of writer Robert Kirkman’s 'The Walking Dead' comics series (2003 ongoing). By referring to specific passages of Kirkman’s script, this essay explores 'The Walking Dead'’s psychologization of childhood as its narrative moves away from a satirical construction of the zombie apocalypse into the inquiry of contemporary (in)humanity.

  2. Retranslation Studies on Three Chinese Versions of The Dead from the Perspective of Literary Stylistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lei

    2015-01-01

    Literary stylistics, based on linguistics and literary criticism has developed into a new discipline, which is one important method to analyze the fiction translation. The study on retranslation in the perspective of literary stylistics is new. The Dead is the final and best-known story of Dubliners. This paper aims to analyze three Chinese versions of The Dead in the perspective of liter⁃ary stylistics in order to test the validity of retranslation hypothesis.

  3. Dead wood quality influences species diversity of rare cryptogams in temperate broadleaved forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preikša Z

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood is one of the most important indicators of forest naturalness and the most important manageable habitat for biodiversity in forests. Standing and lying dead wood, and especially coarse woody debris, plays an important part in creating habitats for many highly specialized organisms, e.g., insects, fungi, lichens and bacteria. Temperate mixed deciduous forests, rich in species, have been studied only to a small extent from the point of view of the ecology of wood-related cryptogams. Our study aimed at the reduction of the gap in knowledge about the ecological characteristics of dead wood-dependent organisms by focusing on species of cryptogams developing on various dead wood structures typical of temperate non-beech forests. Studies were performed in forests located in Lithuania, Poland, Belarus and Russia. We recorded 48 species of cryptogams: 18 species of bryophytes, 24 species of fungi and 6 species of lichens developing on dead wood. Our study stresses the importance of all types of dead wood as a substrate for the development of rare cryptogam species. Logs were the most important substratum type for cryptogams, followed by snags, dead trees and stumps. The cryptogam species richness on logs was several times higher than on the three other types of substrata. Coarse logs of intermediate decay stages hosted the highest number of cryptogams, followed by freshly fallen logs and, finally, well decayed logs. Assessing the importance of dead wood quality for the studied cryptogams, we found that intermediate decay stages are extremely important for fungi, while bryophytes or lichens do not show a clear preference. The highest number of cryptogams was found on Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur and Picea abies, while other tree species had less than half cryptogam species.

  4. When the Zombies Came for Our Children: Exploring Posthumanism in Robert Kirkman's The Walking Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Michael Sommers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the theoretical lens of cultural posthumanism, this essay offers a reading of writer Robert Kirkman’s 'The Walking Dead' comics series (2003 ongoing. By referring to specific passages of Kirkman’s script, this essay explores 'The Walking Dead'’s psychologization of childhood as its narrative moves away from a satirical construction of the zombie apocalypse into the inquiry of contemporary (inhumanity.

  5. Detector dead-time effects and paralyzability in high-speed quantum key distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Daniel J.; Bienfang, Joshua C.; Nakassis, Anastase; Xu,Hai; Clark, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum key distribution (QKD) have given rise to systems that operate at transmission periods significantly shorter than the dead times of their component single-photon detectors. As systems continue to increase in transmission rate, security concerns associated with detector dead times can limit the production rate of sifted bits. We present a model of high-speed QKD in this limit that identifies an optimum transmission rate for a system with given link loss and detector ...

  6. A First Record of Obligate Halophilic Aspergilli from the Dead Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Nazareth, Sarita; Gonsalves, Valerie; Nayak, Shweta

    2011-01-01

    The isolation of obligate halophilic aspergilli from the Dead Sea and the range of salt tolerance of halophilic fungi isolated, are reported here for the first time. The mycobiota of the Dead Sea isolated in this study, was dominated by Aspergillus and Penicillium species; Cladosporium were found in lesser numbers. All three genera were obtained from the water sample; however, Aspergillus was the only genus obtained from the sediment. There was significant difference in growth of each isolate...

  7. Comparative study on presentation of biliary ascariasis with dead and living worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Shahinul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Ascariasis is a common parasitic infestation in Asia and Latin America. The most serious presentation is biliary and pancreatic ascariasis (BPA. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical presentation of BPA with dead worms with that with living worms. Materials and Methods: We included 138 consecutive cases of BPA that occured during the period January 2005 to July 2009. All the patients had endoscopically proven BPA consisting of living or dead worms. Comparison was done by chi-square and independent t tests. Results: The age (mean ± SD of the patients was 36.8 ± 16.1 years. Prevalence ratio between male and female patients was 1:5. Ninety eight patients contained living worms and 40 had dead worms. Males were more prone to develop dead worm BPA. The commonest presentation was biliary colic (131; 94.9%; others were acute cholangitis (30; 21.7%, obstructive jaundice (19; 13.8%, choledocholithiasis (20; 14.5%, acute pancreatitis (10; 7.2%, acute cholecystitis (6; 4.3%, liver abscess (2; 1.4%, hepatolithiasis (3; 2.2%, stricture of common bile duct (2; 1.4%, pancreatic abscess (1; 0.7% and cirrhosis of liver (1; 0.7%. Choledocholithiasis, hepatolithiasis, liver abscess and cirrhosis were associated only with dead worms. We could successfully remove all the worms with endoscopic interventions, but 5 patients required surgical intervention as there were strictures and stones within the biliary tree or Ascaris were in gallbladder. Recurrences of stone and cholangitis occurred only in those with dead worms. Conclusion: Biliary ascariasis with dead worms is more dangerous than that with living worms. Endoscopic or surgical intervention may be required repeatedly in those with dead worms.

  8. Mechanical Analysis of Dead Load Crown and Structure Parameter of Hydraulic Elastic Bulging Roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chang-cai; LI Wei-min; LIU Zhu-bai

    2003-01-01

    The dead load crown of hydraulic elastic bulging roll was discussed using the theory of elastically supported beam, and the dead load experiment was carried out. The theoretical calculation is consistent with the experimental result. The structure parameters for the thickness of roll sleeve, the length of the oil groove and the crown of roll were discussed. The fundamental principle of determining the parameters was put forward. The theoretical basis of the application of the hydraulic elastic bulging roll was established.

  9. Microbial and Chemical Characterization of Underwater Fresh Water Springs in the Dead Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Ionescu; Christian Siebert; Lubos Polerecky; Yaniv Y Munwes; Christian Lott; Stefan Häusler; Mina Bižić-Ionescu; Christian Quast; Jörg Peplies; Frank Oliver Glöckner; Alban Ramette; Tino Rödiger; Thorsten Dittmar; Aharon Oren; Stefan Geyer

    2012-01-01

    Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16...

  10. Dead wood quality influences species diversity of rare cryptogams in temperate broadleaved forests

    OpenAIRE

    Preikša Z; Brazaitis G; Marozas V; Jaroszewicz B

    2016-01-01

    Dead wood is one of the most important indicators of forest naturalness and the most important manageable habitat for biodiversity in forests. Standing and lying dead wood, and especially coarse woody debris, plays an important part in creating habitats for many highly specialized organisms, e.g., insects, fungi, lichens and bacteria. Temperate mixed deciduous forests, rich in species, have been studied only to a small extent from the point of view of the ecology of wood-related cryptogams. O...

  11. Determination of Dead Time of Neutron Counting System for Use of Reactor Start up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOYu-sen; ZHAOPeng-yu

    2003-01-01

    The dead time is important parameter of neutron counting system for use of reactor start up. It is relative to accurate determination of critical mass and the safety during reactor start up. So, it is important that dear time is measured accurately. There are many methods for measuring the dead time, but they are rare to be suitable for neutron counting system, which has wide variant range.

  12. Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

    2009-05-01

    The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

  13. Amino acid signatures of salinity on an environmental scale with a focus on the Dead Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Matthew E; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel T; Oren, Aharon; House, Christopher H

    2010-09-01

    The increase of the acidic nature of proteins as an adaptation to hypersalinity has been well documented within halophile isolates. Here we explore the effect of salinity on amino acid preference on an environmental scale. Via pyrosequencing, we have obtained two distinct metagenomic data sets from the Dead Sea, one from a 1992 archaeal bloom and one from the modern Dead Sea. Our data, along with metagenomes from environments representing a range of salinities, show a strong linear correlation (R(2) = 0.97) between the salinity of an environment and the ratio of acidic to basic amino acids encoded by its inhabitants. Using the amino acid composition of putative protein-encoding reads and the results of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we differentiate recovered sequences representing microorganisms indigenous to the Dead Sea from lateral gene transfer events and foreign DNA. Our methods demonstrate lateral gene transfer events between a halophilic archaeon and relatives of the thermophilic bacterial genus Thermotoga and suggest the presence of indigenous Dead Sea representatives from 10 traditionally non-hyperhalophilic bacterial lineages. The work suggests the possibility that amino acid bias of hypersaline environments might be preservable in fossil DNA or fossil amino acids, serving as a proxy for the salinity of an ancient environment. Finally, both the amino acid profile of the 2007 Dead Sea metagenome and the V9 amplicon library support the conclusion that the dominant microorganism inhabiting the Dead Sea is most closely related to a thus far uncultured relative of an alkaliphilic haloarchaeon.

  14. Natural Oxidation of Bromide to Bromine in Evaporated Dead Sea Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Golan, Rotem; Lazar, Boaz; Baer, Gidi; Zakon, Yevgeni; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2016-04-01

    Highly evaporated Dead Sea brines are found in isolated sinkholes along the Dead Sea. Many of these brines reach densities of over 1.3 kg/L and pHDead Sea brine that drain into the sinkholes. The low pH and the reddish to brownish hue of these brines were an enigma until recently. Despite the rather high total alkalinity (TA) of the Dead Sea (3.826 mmol/kg) the pH of the Dead Sea brine is known to be slightly acidic with a value of ~6.3. In comparison, seawater with the same alkalinity would have a pH value well above 8.3, meaning that H+ activity is 100 fold lower than that of Dead Sea brine. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (K`B) for the Dead Sea brine and use it to explain the brine's low pH value. We then show that pH decreases further as the brine evaporates and salinity increases. Finally we explain the reddish hue of the hypersaline brines in the sinkholes as due to the presence of dissolved bromine. The latter is the product of oxidation of dissolved bromide, a process that is enabled by the low pH of the hypersaline brines and their high bromide concentration.

  15. Displacement of polymer solution on residual oil trapped in dead ends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立娟; 岳湘安

    2008-01-01

    For waterflooding reservoir,oil trapped in pore’s dead ends is hardly flushed out,and usually becomes one typical type of residual oil.The microscopic displacement characteristics of polymer solution with varied viscoelastic property were studied by numerical and experimental method.According to main pore structure characteristics and rheological property of polymer solution through porous media,displacement models for residual oil trapped in dead ends were proposed,and upper-convected Maxwell rheological model was used as polymer solution’s constitutive equation.The flow and stress field was given and displacement characteristic was quantified by introducing a parameter of micro swept coefficient.The calculated and experimental results show that micro swept coefficient rises with the increase of viscoelasticity;for greater viscoelasticity of polymer solution,vortices in the dead end have greater swept volume and displacing force on oil,and consequently entraining the swept oil in time.In addition,micro swept coefficient in dead end is function of the inclination angle(θ) between pore and dead end.The smaller of θ and 180-θ,the flow field of viscoelastic fluid is developed in dead ends more deeply,resulting in more contact with oil and larger swept coefficient.

  16. Analog sensitive chemical inhibition of the DEAD-box protein DDX3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floor, Stephen N; Barkovich, Krister J; Condon, Kendall J; Shokat, Kevan M; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2016-03-01

    Proper maintenance of RNA structure and dynamics is essential to maintain cellular health. Multiple families of RNA chaperones exist in cells to modulate RNA structure, RNA-protein complexes, and RNA granules. The largest of these families is the DEAD-box proteins, named after their catalytic Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp motif. The human DEAD-box protein DDX3 is implicated in diverse biological processes including translation initiation and is mutated in numerous cancers. Like many DEAD-box proteins, DDX3 is essential to cellular health and exhibits dosage sensitivity, such that both decreases and increases in protein levels can be lethal. Therefore, chemical inhibition would be an ideal tool to probe the function of DDX3. However, most DEAD-box protein active sites are extremely similar, complicating the design of specific inhibitors. Here, we show that a chemical genetic approach best characterized in protein kinases, known as analog-sensitive chemical inhibition, is viable for DDX3 and possibly other DEAD-box proteins. We present an expanded active-site mutant that is tolerated in vitro and in vivo, and is sensitive to chemical inhibition by a novel bulky inhibitor. Our results highlight a course towards analog sensitive chemical inhibition of DDX3 and potentially the entire DEAD-box protein family.

  17. Quantification of dead vegetation fraction in mixed pastures using AisaFENIX imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, G.; Yule, I. J.

    2017-06-01

    New Zealand farming relies heavily on grazed pasture for feeding livestock; therefore it is important to provide high quality palatable grass in order to maintain profitable and sustainable grassland management. The presence of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) such as dead vegetation in pastures severely limits the quality and productivity of pastures. Quantifying the fraction of dead vegetation in mixed pastures is a great challenge even with remote sensing approaches. In this study, a high spatial resolution with pixel resolution of 1 m and spectral resolution of 3.5-5.6 nm imaging spectroscopy data from AisaFENIX (380-2500 nm) was used to assess the fraction of dead vegetation component in mixed pastures on a hill country farm in New Zealand. We used different methods to retrieve dead vegetation fraction from the spectra; narrow band vegetation indices, full spectrum based partial least squares (PLS) regression and feature selection based PLS regression. Among all approaches, feature selection based PLS model exhibited better performance in terms of prediction accuracy (R2CV = 0.73, RMSECV = 6.05, RPDCV = 2.25). The results were consistent with validation data, and also performed well on the external test data (R2 = 0.62, RMSE = 8.06, RPD = 2.06). In addition, statistical tests were conducted to ascertain the effect of topographical variables such as slope and aspect on the accumulation of the dead vegetation fraction. Steep slopes (>25°) had a significantly (p tool for mapping the dead vegetation fraction accurately.

  18. Rate Predictions and Trigger/DAQ Resource Monitoring in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, D M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Since starting in 2010, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has pro- duced collisions at an ever increasing rate. The ATLAS experiment successfully records the collision data with high eciency and excel- lent data quality. Events are selected using a three-level trigger system, where each level makes a more re ned selection. The level-1 trigger (L1) consists of a custom-designed hardware trigger which seeds two higher software based trigger levels. Over 300 triggers compose a trig- ger menu which selects physics signatures such as electrons, muons, particle jets, etc. Each trigger consumes computing resources of the ATLAS trigger system and oine storage. The LHC instantaneous luminosity conditions, desired physics goals of the collaboration, and the limits of the trigger infrastructure determine the composition of the ATLAS trigger menu. We describe a trigger monitoring frame- work for computing the costs of individual trigger algorithms such as data request rates and CPU consumption. This framework has been used...

  19. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, N; Eifert, T; Fischer, G; George, S; Haller, J; Höcker, A; Masik, J; Zur Nedden, M; Pérez-Réale, V; Risler, C; Schiavi, C; Stelzer, J; Wu, X; International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2008-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several powerful new features for commissioning and operation have been added: co...

  20. Online software trigger at PANDA/FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Donghee; Kliemt, Ralf; Nerling, Frank [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Denig, Achim [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Goetzen, Klaus; Peters, Klaus [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR will employ a novel trigger-less read-out system. Since a conventional hardware trigger concept is not suitable for PANDA, a high level online event filter will be applied to perform fast event selection based on physics properties of the reconstructed events. A trigger-less data stream implies an event selection with track reconstruction and pattern recognition to be performed online, and thus analysing data under real time conditions at event rates of up to 40 MHz.The projected data rate reduction of about three orders of magnitude requires an effective background rejection, while retaining interesting signal events. Real time event selection in the environment of hadronic reactions is rather challenging and relies on sophisticated algorithms for the software trigger. The implementation and the performance of physics trigger algorithms presently studied with realistic Monte Carlo simulations is discussed. The impact of parameters such as momentum or mass resolution, PID probability, vertex reconstruction and a multivariate analysis using the TMVA package for event filtering is presented.