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Sample records for mismatch general architecture

  1. A Bulky Rhodium Complex Bound to an Adenosine-Adenosine DNA Mismatch: General Architecture of the Metalloinsertion Binding Mode†

    Zeglis, Brian M.; Pierre, Valérie C.; Kaiser, Jens T.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2009-01-01

    Two crystal structures are determined for Δ-Rh(bpy)2(chrysi)3+ (chrysi = 5,6-chrysenequinone diimine) bound to the oligonucleotide duplex 5′-CGGAAATTACCG-3′ containing two adenosine-adenosine mismatches (italics) through metalloinsertion. Diffraction quality crystals with two different space groups (P3221 and P43212) were obtained under very similar crystallization conditions. In both structures, the bulky rhodium complex inserts into the two mismatched sites from the minor groove side, ejecting the mismatched bases into the major groove. The conformational changes are localized to the mismatched site; the metal complex replaces the mismatched base pair without an increase in base pair rise. The expansive metal complex is accommodated in the duplex by a slight opening in the phosphodiester backbone; all sugars retain a C2′-endo puckering, and flanking base pairs neither stretch nor shear. The structures differ, however, in that in one of the structures, an additional metal complex is bound by intercalation from the major groove at the central 5′-AT-3′ step. We conclude that this additional metal complex is intercalated into this central step because of crystal packing forces. The structures described here of Δ-Rh(bpy)2(chrysi)3+ bound to thermodynamically destabilized AA mismatches share critical features with binding by metalloinsertion in two other oligonucleotides containing different single base mismatches. These results underscore the generality of the metalloinsertion as a new mode of non-covalent binding by small molecules with a DNA duplex. PMID:19374348

  2. Architectural mismatch issues in identity management deployment

    Andersen, Mads Schaarup

    2010-01-01

    Integrating Commercial Off-The-Shelf products in a company's software product portfolio offers business value, but introduces challenges from a software architecture perspective. In this paper, the research challenges in relation to identity management in the Danish municipality administration...... system called Opus, are outlined. Opus BRS is the identity management part of Opus. Opus integrates SAP, legacy mainframe systems, and other third party systems of the individual municipality. Each of these systems define their own software architecture and access control model, leading to architectural...... mismatch with an impact on security, usability, and maintainability. The research project is discussed and access control and identity provisioning are recognized as the major areas of interest in relation to the mismatch challenges. The project is carried out in close cooperation with KMD, one...

  3. A Generalized DRM Architectural Framework

    PATRICIU, V. V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Online digital goods distribution environment lead to the need for a system to protect digital intellectual property. Digital Rights Management (DRM is the system born to protect and control distribution and use of those digital assets. The present paper is a review of the current state of DRM, focusing on architectural design, security technologies, and important DRM deployments. The paper primarily synthesizes DRM architectures within a general framework. We also present DRM ecosystem as providing a better understanding of what is currently happening to content rights management from a technological point of view. This paper includes conclusions of several DRM initiative studies, related to rights management systems with the purpose of identifying and describing the most significant DRM architectural models. The basic functions and processes of the DRM solutions are identified.

  4. Generalized synchronization induced by noise and parameter mismatching in Hindmarsh-Rose neurons

    Wu Ying; Xu Jianxue; He Daihai; Earn, David J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Synchronization of two simple neuron models has been investigated in many studies. Thresholds for complete synchronization (CS) and phase synchronization (PS) have been obtained for coupling by diffusion or noise. In addition, it has been shown that it is possible for directional diffusion to induce generalized synchronization (GS) in a pair of neuron models even if the neurons are not identical (and differ in a single parameter). We study a system of two uncoupled, nonidentical Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) neurons and show that GS can be achieved by a combination of noise and changing the value of a second parameter in one of the neurons (the second parameter mismatch cancels the first). The significance of this approach will be the greatest in situations where the parameter that is originally mismatched cannot be controlled, but a suitable controllable parameter can be identified

  5. From coherent to incoherent mismatched interfaces: A generalized continuum formulation of surface stresses

    Dingreville, Rémi; Hallil, Abdelmalek; Berbenni, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    The equilibrium of coherent and incoherent mismatched interfaces is reformulated in the context of continuum mechanics based on the Gibbs dividing surface concept. Two surface stresses are introduced: a coherent surface stress and an incoherent surface stress, as well as a transverse excess strain. The coherent surface stress and the transverse excess strain represent the thermodynamic driving forces of stretching the interface while the incoherent surface stress represents the driving force of stretching one crystal while holding the other fixed and thereby altering the structure of the interface. These three quantities fully characterize the elastic behavior of coherent and incoherent interfaces as a function of the in-plane strain, the transverse stress and the mismatch strain. The isotropic case is developed in detail and particular attention is paid to the case of interfacial thermo-elasticity. This exercise provides an insight on the physical significance of the interfacial elastic constants introduced in the formulation and illustrates the obvious coupling between the interface structure and its associated thermodynamics quantities. Finally, an example based on atomistic simulations of Cu/Cu2O interfaces is given to demonstrate the relevance of the generalized interfacial formulation and to emphasize the dependence of the interfacial thermodynamic quantities on the incoherency strain with an actual material system.

  6. Loop transfer recovery for general observer architecture

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Søgaard-Andersen, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    A general and concise formulation is given of the loop transfer recovery (LTR) design problem based on recovery errors. Three types of recovery errors are treated: open loop recovery, sensitivity recovery and input-output recovery errors. The three corresponding versions of the asymptotic recovery...... recovery cases. This general recovery formulation covers all known observer based compensator types as special cases. The conditions given in this setting are effectively the aim of all known LTR design methods. The recovery formulation is interpreted in terms of a modelmatching problem as well, which...... is examined by means of the Q-parametrization. It is shown how the general controller obtained by the Q-parametrization can be written as a Luenberger observer based controller. In all cases, n controller states suffice to achieve recovery. The compensators are characterized for errors both on the input...

  7. SOAR: An Architecture for General Intelligence

    1987-12-01

    AN ARCIlrcI’rURE FOR GENERAL INTELIGIENCE problem space. The initial state is determined by the current goal and the problem space. Production define...in the trenches". AI Magazine 5 (1984). 4. Balzer, R., Erman, L. D., London, R. & Williams, C. HEARSAY-1I1: A domain-independent framework for expert...Acquisition: Validating an AI -Based Theory. Xerox Palo Alto Reserch Center, November, 1983. 78. Waterman, D. A. & Hayes-Roth, F., (Eds.). Pattern Directed

  8. Self-organization and mismatch tolerance in protein folding: General theory and an application

    Fernández, Ariel; Berry, R. Stephen

    2000-03-01

    The folding of a protein is a process both expeditious and robust. The analysis of this process presented here uses a coarse, discretized representation of the evolving form of the backbone chain, based on its torsional states. This coarse description consists of discretizing the torsional coordinates modulo the Ramachandran basins in the local softmode dynamics. Whenever the representation exhibits "contact patterns" that correspond to topological compatibilities with particular structural forms, secondary and then tertiary, the elements constituting the pattern are effectively entrained by a reduction of their rates of exploration of their discretized configuration space. The properties "expeditious and robust" imply that the folding protein must have some tolerance to both torsional "frustrated" and side-chain contact mismatches which may occur during the folding process. The energy-entropy consequences of the staircase or funnel topography of the potential surface should allow the folding protein to correct these mismatches, eventually. This tolerance lends itself to an iterative pattern-recognition-and-feedback description of the folding process that reflects mismatched local torsional states and hydrophobic/polar contacts. The predictive potential of our algorithm is tested by application to the folding of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), a protein whose ability to form its active structure is contingent upon its frustration tolerance.

  9. Using a cognitive architecture for general purpose service robot control

    Puigbo, Jordi-Ysard; Pumarola, Albert; Angulo, Cecilio; Tellez, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    A humanoid service robot equipped with a set of simple action skills including navigating, grasping, recognising objects or people, among others, is considered in this paper. By using those skills the robot should complete a voice command expressed in natural language encoding a complex task (defined as the concatenation of a number of those basic skills). As a main feature, no traditional planner has been used to decide skills to be activated, as well as in which sequence. Instead, the SOAR cognitive architecture acts as the reasoner by selecting which action the robot should complete, addressing it towards the goal. Our proposal allows to include new goals for the robot just by adding new skills (without the need to encode new plans). The proposed architecture has been tested on a human-sized humanoid robot, REEM, acting as a general purpose service robot.

  10. The architecture of Newton, a general-purpose dynamics simulator

    Cremer, James F.; Stewart, A. James

    1989-01-01

    The architecture for Newton, a general-purpose system for simulating the dynamics of complex physical objects, is described. The system automatically formulates and analyzes equations of motion, and performs automatic modification of this system equations when necessitated by changes in kinematic relationships between objects. Impact and temporary contact are handled, although only using simple models. User-directed influence of simulations is achieved using Newton's module, which can be used to experiment with the control of many-degree-of-freedom articulated objects.

  11. Splice site mutations in mismatch repair genes and risk of cancer in the general population

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that splice site variations in MSH2 and MLH1 are associated with increased risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and of cancer in general in the general population. In a cohort of 154 HNPCC patients with sequenced MSH2 and MLH1, we identified four...... possible splice-site mutations, which we subsequently genotyped in more than 9,000 individuals from the general population. Allele frequencies in the general population were 0 % for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 0.05 % for 307-19A>G, 0.005 % for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca);ins(attt), and 4.4 % for 1039-8T>A in MLH1. Odds...... ratios for HNPCC in a case-control design were 419 (95 % CI: 53-18,900) for 942+3A>T in MSH2, 19 (5-72) for 307-19A>G, 194 (21-1,768) for 1,667+(2-8)del(taaatca); ins(attt), and 0.3 (0.1-0.7) for 1,039-8T>A in MLH1. In the general population, incidence rate ratios for 1,039-8T>A carriers versus...

  12. Unit 1A: General Approach to the Teaching of Architecture

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    An ideal course Ever since the founding of the Aar- hus School of Architecture in 1965 there has been a tradition for lively discussion surrounding the content of the architecture program. The discussion has often been con- ducted from ideological or norma- tive positions, with the tendency to st...

  13. Cloud Computing Security in Openstack Architecture: General Overview

    Gleb Igorevich Shakulo

    2015-01-01

    The subject of article is cloud computing security. Article begins with author analyzing cloud computing advantages and disadvantages, factors of growth, both positive and negative. Among latter, security is deemed one of the most prominent. Furthermore, author takes architecture of OpenStack project as an example for study: describes its essential components and their interconnection. As conclusion, author raises series of questions as possible areas of further research to resolve security c...

  14. Cloud Computing Security in Openstack Architecture: General Overview

    Gleb Igorevich Shakulo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of article is cloud computing security. Article begins with author analyzing cloud computing advantages and disadvantages, factors of growth, both positive and negative. Among latter, security is deemed one of the most prominent. Furthermore, author takes architecture of OpenStack project as an example for study: describes its essential components and their interconnection. As conclusion, author raises series of questions as possible areas of further research to resolve security concerns, thus making cloud computing more secure technology.

  15. Solving the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem using tile algorithms on multicore architectures

    Ltaief, Hatem; Luszczek, Piotr R.; Haidar, Azzam; Dongarra, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient implementation of the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem on multicore architecture. Based on a four-stage approach and tile algorithms, the original problem is first transformed into a standard symmetric

  16. Architecture

    Clear, Nic

    2014-01-01

    When discussing science fiction’s relationship with architecture, the usual practice is to look at the architecture “in” science fiction—in particular, the architecture in SF films (see Kuhn 75-143) since the spaces of literary SF present obvious difficulties as they have to be imagined. In this essay, that relationship will be reversed: I will instead discuss science fiction “in” architecture, mapping out a number of architectural movements and projects that can be viewed explicitly as scien...

  17. General architecture of the alpha-helical globule.

    Murzin, A G; Finkelstein, A V

    1988-12-05

    A model is presented for the arrangement of alpha-helices in globular proteins. In the model, helices are placed on certain ribs of "quasi-spherical" polyhedra. The polyhedra are chosen so as to allow the close packing of helices around a hydrophobic core and to stress the collective interactions of the individual helices. The model predicts a small set of stable architectures for alpha-helices in globular proteins and describes the geometries of the helix packings. Some of the predicted helix arrangements have already been observed in known protein structures; others are new. An analysis of the three-dimensional structures of all proteins for which co-ordinates are available shows that the model closely approximates the arrangements and packing of helices actually observed. The average deviations of the real helix axes from those in the model polyhedra is +/- 20 degrees in orientation and +/- 2 A in position (1 A = 0.1 nm). We also show that for proteins that are not homologous, but whose helix arrangements are described by the same polyhedron, the root-mean-square difference in the position of the C alpha atoms in the helices is 1.6 to 3.0 A.

  18. The Best of Intentions. Interior Architecture: Massachusetts General Hospital

    Ryder, Sharon Lee

    1974-01-01

    The Massachusetts General Hospital/Surgical and Special Services study, an information processing system for redesigning an outmoded existing hospital, structured information into small-scale elements that could be analyzed, reassembled into different solutions, and the solution selected that best accommodates all of the complex requirements. (MF)

  19. An Efficient VLSI Architecture for Multi-Channel Spike Sorting Using a Generalized Hebbian Algorithm

    Chen, Ying-Lun; Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Ke, Chi-En

    2015-01-01

    A novel VLSI architecture for multi-channel online spike sorting is presented in this paper. In the architecture, the spike detection is based on nonlinear energy operator (NEO), and the feature extraction is carried out by the generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA). To lower the power consumption and area costs of the circuits, all of the channels share the same core for spike detection and feature extraction operations. Each channel has dedicated buffers for storing the detected spikes and the principal components of that channel. The proposed circuit also contains a clock gating system supplying the clock to only the buffers of channels currently using the computation core to further reduce the power consumption. The architecture has been implemented by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with 90-nm technology. Comparisons to the existing works show that the proposed architecture has lower power consumption and hardware area costs for real-time multi-channel spike detection and feature extraction. PMID:26287193

  20. An Efficient VLSI Architecture for Multi-Channel Spike Sorting Using a Generalized Hebbian Algorithm.

    Chen, Ying-Lun; Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Ke, Chi-En

    2015-08-13

    A novel VLSI architecture for multi-channel online spike sorting is presented in this paper. In the architecture, the spike detection is based on nonlinear energy operator (NEO), and the feature extraction is carried out by the generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA). To lower the power consumption and area costs of the circuits, all of the channels share the same core for spike detection and feature extraction operations. Each channel has dedicated buffers for storing the detected spikes and the principal components of that channel. The proposed circuit also contains a clock gating system supplying the clock to only the buffers of channels currently using the computation core to further reduce the power consumption. The architecture has been implemented by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with 90-nm technology. Comparisons to the existing works show that the proposed architecture has lower power consumption and hardware area costs for real-time multi-channel spike detection and feature extraction.

  1. Efficient network-matrix architecture for general flow transport inspired by natural pinnate leaves.

    Hu, Liguo; Zhou, Han; Zhu, Hanxing; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2014-11-14

    Networks embedded in three dimensional matrices are beneficial to deliver physical flows to the matrices. Leaf architectures, pervasive natural network-matrix architectures, endow leaves with high transpiration rates and low water pressure drops, providing inspiration for efficient network-matrix architectures. In this study, the network-matrix model for general flow transport inspired by natural pinnate leaves is investigated analytically. The results indicate that the optimal network structure inspired by natural pinnate leaves can greatly reduce the maximum potential drop and the total potential drop caused by the flow through the network while maximizing the total flow rate through the matrix. These results can be used to design efficient networks in network-matrix architectures for a variety of practical applications, such as tissue engineering, cell culture, photovoltaic devices and heat transfer.

  2. Generalized Information Architecture for Managing Requirements in IBM?s Rational DOORS(r) Application.

    Aragon, Kathryn M.; Eaton, Shelley M.; McCornack, Marjorie Turner; Shannon, Sharon A.

    2014-12-01

    When a requirements engineering effort fails to meet expectations, often times the requirements management tool is blamed. Working with numerous project teams at Sandia National Laboratories over the last fifteen years has shown us that the tool is rarely the culprit; usually it is the lack of a viable information architecture with well- designed processes to support requirements engineering. This document illustrates design concepts with rationale, as well as a proven information architecture to structure and manage information in support of requirements engineering activities for any size or type of project. This generalized information architecture is specific to IBM's Rational DOORS (Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System) software application, which is the requirements management tool in Sandia's CEE (Common Engineering Environment). This generalized information architecture can be used as presented or as a foundation for designing a tailored information architecture for project-specific needs. It may also be tailored for another software tool. Version 1.0 4 November 201

  3. Arquitectura empresarial: una visión general Enterprise architecture: a general scope

    Martín Darío Arango Serna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente las empresas son más complejas y requieren procesos de negocio flexibles que sean soportados efectivamente en toda la empresa por sistemas de tecnologías de la información (TI. La implantación de una arquitectura empresarial parte del establecimiento de un conjunto de directrices arquitectónicas que permitan asegurar un desarrollo armónico entre los modelos y necesidades de la empresa, con los procesos de negocio y las tecnologías de información. Este conjunto de directrices estratégicas de TI debe partir de la misión de la empresa y del reconocimiento de las estrategias y actividades de negocio que soportan dicha misión, y derivan en la información necesaria para la operación de la organización, las tecnologías requeridas para soportar la operación y los procesos para implementar nuevas tecnologías como respuesta a los cambios y necesidades de la empresa, en la medida en que las prioridades cambian. En este artículo se hace referencia a los orígenes del concepto de arquitectura empresarial, a los dominios de arquitectura que representan las vistas del negocio y a los beneficios que representa la arquitectura empresarial para una organización.Currenlty, companies are more complex and require flexible business processes, which are actually supported by IT systems. The introduction of an enterprise architecture starts on the establishment of a set of architectural guidelines, which henceforth ensure a harmonious development between models and business needs, with business processes and information technologies. This set of strategic directions of IT, should be based on the company's mission and the recognition of the strategies and business activities which support this mission and result in the necessary information for the operation of the organization, technologies required to support the operation, and processes to implement new technologies in response to changes and needs of the company, to the extent

  4. Unaccusative Mismatches in Japanese.

    Tsujimura, Natsuko

    Two instances of unaccusative verb mismatches in Japanese are examined. An unaccusative mismatch is the situation in which a different accusative diagnostic singles out different classes of intransitive verbs within and across languages. One type of unaccusative mismatch has to do with group C verbs, or verbs of manner with protagonist control.…

  5. An Efficient VLSI Architecture for Multi-Channel Spike Sorting Using a Generalized Hebbian Algorithm

    Ying-Lun Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel VLSI architecture for multi-channel online spike sorting is presented in this paper. In the architecture, the spike detection is based on nonlinear energy operator (NEO, and the feature extraction is carried out by the generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA. To lower the power consumption and area costs of the circuits, all of the channels share the same core for spike detection and feature extraction operations. Each channel has dedicated buffers for storing the detected spikes and the principal components of that channel. The proposed circuit also contains a clock gating system supplying the clock to only the buffers of channels currently using the computation core to further reduce the power consumption. The architecture has been implemented by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC with 90-nm technology. Comparisons to the existing works show that the proposed architecture has lower power consumption and hardware area costs for real-time multi-channel spike detection and feature extraction.

  6. Towards Implementation of a Generalized Architecture for High-Level Quantum Programming Language

    Ameen, El-Mahdy M.; Ali, Hesham A.; Salem, Mofreh M.; Badawy, Mahmoud

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates a novel architecture to the problem of quantum computer programming. A generalized architecture for a high-level quantum programming language has been proposed. Therefore, the programming evolution from the complicated quantum-based programming to the high-level quantum independent programming will be achieved. The proposed architecture receives the high-level source code and, automatically transforms it into the equivalent quantum representation. This architecture involves two layers which are the programmer layer and the compilation layer. These layers have been implemented in the state of the art of three main stages; pre-classification, classification, and post-classification stages respectively. The basic building block of each stage has been divided into subsequent phases. Each phase has been implemented to perform the required transformations from one representation to another. A verification process was exposed using a case study to investigate the ability of the compiler to perform all transformation processes. Experimental results showed that the efficacy of the proposed compiler achieves a correspondence correlation coefficient about R ≈ 1 between outputs and the targets. Also, an obvious achievement has been utilized with respect to the consumed time in the optimization process compared to other techniques. In the online optimization process, the consumed time has increased exponentially against the amount of accuracy needed. However, in the proposed offline optimization process has increased gradually.

  7. A teleofunctional account of evolutionary mismatch.

    Cofnas, Nathan

    When the environment in which an organism lives deviates in some essential way from that to which it is adapted, this is described as "evolutionary mismatch," or "evolutionary novelty." The notion of mismatch plays an important role, explicitly or implicitly, in evolution-informed cognitive psychology, clinical psychology, and medicine. The evolutionary novelty of our contemporary environment is thought to have significant implications for our health and well-being. However, scientists have generally been working without a clear definition of mismatch. This paper defines mismatch as deviations in the environment that render biological traits unable, or impaired in their ability, to produce their selected effects (i.e., to perform their proper functions in Neander's sense). The machinery developed by Millikan in connection with her account of proper function, and with her related teleosemantic account of representation, is used to identify four major types, and several subtypes, of evolutionary mismatch. While the taxonomy offered here does not in itself resolve any scientific debates, the hope is that it can be used to better formulate empirical hypotheses concerning the effects of mismatch. To illustrate, it is used to show that the controversial hypothesis that general intelligence evolved as an adaptation to handle evolutionary novelty can, contra some critics, be formulated in a conceptually coherent way.

  8. An integrative architecture for general intelligence and executive function revealed by lesion mapping

    Colom, Roberto; Solomon, Jeffrey; Krueger, Frank; Forbes, Chad; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Although cognitive neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in executive control, the broader functional networks that support high-level cognition and give rise to general intelligence remain to be well characterized. Here, we investigated the neural substrates of the general factor of intelligence (g) and executive function in 182 patients with focal brain damage using voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System were used to derive measures of g and executive function, respectively. Impaired performance on these measures was associated with damage to a distributed network of left lateralized brain areas, including regions of frontal and parietal cortex and white matter association tracts, which bind these areas into a coordinated system. The observed findings support an integrative framework for understanding the architecture of general intelligence and executive function, supporting their reliance upon a shared fronto-parietal network for the integration and control of cognitive representations and making specific recommendations for the application of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System to the study of high-level cognition in health and disease. PMID:22396393

  9. Currency Mismatch, Balance-sheet effect and Monetary Policy

    Nakamura, Chikafumi

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of the currency mismatch between assets and liabilities on monetary policy. The currency mismatch causes macroeconomic instability through balance-sheet effects. To analyze the problem, we apply a small open economy dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with international credit-market imperfections. As a result, despitethe currency mismatch and high trade openness, a targeting rule to address the terms of trade is not efficient. This result depends on...

  10. Approach to design neural cryptography: a generalized architecture and a heuristic rule.

    Mu, Nankun; Liao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Tingwen

    2013-06-01

    Neural cryptography, a type of public key exchange protocol, is widely considered as an effective method for sharing a common secret key between two neural networks on public channels. How to design neural cryptography remains a great challenge. In this paper, in order to provide an approach to solve this challenge, a generalized network architecture and a significant heuristic rule are designed. The proposed generic framework is named as tree state classification machine (TSCM), which extends and unifies the existing structures, i.e., tree parity machine (TPM) and tree committee machine (TCM). Furthermore, we carefully study and find that the heuristic rule can improve the security of TSCM-based neural cryptography. Therefore, TSCM and the heuristic rule can guide us to designing a great deal of effective neural cryptography candidates, in which it is possible to achieve the more secure instances. Significantly, in the light of TSCM and the heuristic rule, we further expound that our designed neural cryptography outperforms TPM (the most secure model at present) on security. Finally, a series of numerical simulation experiments are provided to verify validity and applicability of our results.

  11. Solving the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem using tile algorithms on multicore architectures

    Ltaief, Hatem

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient implementation of the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem on multicore architecture. Based on a four-stage approach and tile algorithms, the original problem is first transformed into a standard symmetric eigenvalue problem by computing the Cholesky factorization of the right hand side symmetric definite positive matrix (first stage), and applying the inverse of the freshly computed triangular Cholesky factors to the original dense symmetric matrix of the problem (second stage). Calculating the eigenpairs of the resulting problem is then equivalent to the eigenpairs of the original problem. The computation proceeds by reducing the updated dense symmetric matrix to symmetric band form (third stage). The band structure is further reduced by applying a bulge chasing procedure, which annihilates the extra off-diagonal entries using orthogonal transformations (fourth stage). More details on the third and fourth stage can be found in Haidar et al. [Accepted at SC\\'11, November 2011]. The eigenvalues are then calculated from the tridiagonal form using the standard LAPACK QR algorithm (i.e., DTSEQR routine), while the complex and challenging eigenvector computations will be addressed in a companion paper. The tasks from the various stages can concurrently run in an out-of-order fashion. The data dependencies are cautiously tracked by the dynamic runtime system environment QUARK, which ensures the dependencies are not violated for numerical correctness purposes. The obtained tile four-stage generalized symmetric eigenvalue solver significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art numerical libraries (up to 21-fold speed up against multithreaded LAPACK with optimized multithreaded MKL BLAS and up to 4-fold speed up against the corresponding routine from the commercial numerical software Intel MKL) on four sockets twelve cores AMD system with a 24000×24000 matrix size. © 2012 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Addressing the Resource Requirements Mismatch

    Braun, William

    2003-01-01

    ... on the other, appear to be developing a requirements-resource mismatch. The goals and objectives of the transformation rhetoric intuitively resonate with the military's increasingly technologic culture...

  13. Passion fruit-like nano-architectures: a general synthesis route

    Cassano, D.; David, J.; Luin, S.; Voliani, V.

    2017-03-01

    Noble metal nanostructures have demonstrated a number of intriguing features for both medicine and catalysis. However, accumulation issues have prevented their clinical translation, while their use in catalysis has shown serious efficiency and stability hurdles. Here we introduce a simple and robust synthetic protocol for passion fruit-like nano-architectures composed by a silica shell embedding polymeric arrays of ultrasmall noble metal nanoparticles. These nano-architectures show interesting features for both oncology and catalysis. They avoid the issue of persistence in organism thanks to their fast biodegradation in renal clearable building blocks. Furthermore, their calcination results in yolk-shell structures composed by naked metal or alloy nanospheres shielded from aggregation by a silica shell.

  14. Transportable GPU (General Processor Units) chip set technology for standard computer architectures

    Fosdick, R. E.; Denison, H. C.

    1982-11-01

    The USAFR-developed GPU Chip Set has been utilized by Tracor to implement both USAF and Navy Standard 16-Bit Airborne Computer Architectures. Both configurations are currently being delivered into DOD full-scale development programs. Leadless Hermetic Chip Carrier packaging has facilitated implementation of both architectures on single 41/2 x 5 substrates. The CMOS and CMOS/SOS implementations of the GPU Chip Set have allowed both CPU implementations to use less than 3 watts of power each. Recent efforts by Tracor for USAF have included the definition of a next-generation GPU Chip Set that will retain the application-proven architecture of the current chip set while offering the added cost advantages of transportability across ISO-CMOS and CMOS/SOS processes and across numerous semiconductor manufacturers using a newly-defined set of common design rules. The Enhanced GPU Chip Set will increase speed by an approximate factor of 3 while significantly reducing chip counts and costs of standard CPU implementations.

  15. Prosthesis-patient mismatch

    Philippe Pibarot

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM is present when the effective orifice area of the inserted prosthetic valve is too small in relation to body size. Its main hemodynamic consequence is to generate higher than expected gradients through normally functioning prosthetic valves. The purpose of this review is to present an update on the present state of knowledge with regards to diagnosis, prognosis and prevention of PPM. PPM is a frequent occurrence (20%–70% of aortic valve replacements that has been shown to be associated with worse hemodynamics, less regression of left ventricular hypertrophy, more cardiac events, and lower survival. Moreover, as opposed to most other risk factors, PPM can largely be prevented by using a prospective strategy at the time of operation.

  16. [Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome

    Jongmans, M.C.J.; Gidding, C.E.M.; Loeffen, J.; Wesseling, P.; Mensenkamp, A.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 8-year-old

  17. The nature of the transition mismatches with Watson-Crick architecture: the G*·T or G·T* DNA base mispair or both? A QM/QTAIM perspective for the biological problem.

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first accurate investigation of the tautomerization of the biologically important guanine*·thymine (G*·T) DNA base mispair with Watson-Crick geometry, involving the enol mutagenic tautomer of the G and the keto tautomer of the T, into the G·T* mispair (∆G = .99 kcal mol(-1), population = 15.8% obtained at the MP2 level of quantum-mechanical theory in the continuum with ε = 4), formed by the keto tautomer of the G and the enol mutagenic tautomer of the T base, using DFT and MP2 methods in vacuum and in the weakly polar medium (ε = 4), characteristic for the hydrophobic interfaces of specific protein-nucleic acid interactions. We were first able to show that the G*·T↔G·T* tautomerization occurs through the asynchronous concerted double proton transfer along two antiparallel O6H···O4 and N1···HN3 H-bonds and is assisted by the third N2H···O2 H-bond, that exists along the entire reaction pathway. The obtained results indicate that the G·T* base mispair is stable from the thermodynamic point of view complex, while it is dynamically unstable structure in vacuum and dynamically stable structure in the continuum with ε = 4 with lifetime of 6.4·10(-12) s, that, on the one side, makes it possible to develop all six low-frequency intermolecular vibrations, but, on the other side, it is by three orders less than the time (several ns) required for the replication machinery to forcibly dissociate a base pair into the monomers during DNA replication. One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that the short-lived G·T* base mispair, which electronic interaction energy between the bases (-23.76 kcal mol(-1)) exceeds the analogical value for the G·C Watson-Crick nucleobase pair (-20.38 kcal mol(-1)), "escapes from the hands" of the DNA replication machinery by fast transforming into the G*·T mismatch playing an indirect role of its supplier during the DNA replication. So

  18. Reveal, A General Reverse Engineering Algorithm for Inference of Genetic Network Architectures

    Liang, Shoudan; Fuhrman, Stefanie; Somogyi, Roland

    1998-01-01

    Given the immanent gene expression mapping covering whole genomes during development, health and disease, we seek computational methods to maximize functional inference from such large data sets. Is it possible, in principle, to completely infer a complex regulatory network architecture from input/output patterns of its variables? We investigated this possibility using binary models of genetic networks. Trajectories, or state transition tables of Boolean nets, resemble time series of gene expression. By systematically analyzing the mutual information between input states and output states, one is able to infer the sets of input elements controlling each element or gene in the network. This process is unequivocal and exact for complete state transition tables. We implemented this REVerse Engineering ALgorithm (REVEAL) in a C program, and found the problem to be tractable within the conditions tested so far. For n = 50 (elements) and k = 3 (inputs per element), the analysis of incomplete state transition tables (100 state transition pairs out of a possible 10(exp 15)) reliably produced the original rule and wiring sets. While this study is limited to synchronous Boolean networks, the algorithm is generalizable to include multi-state models, essentially allowing direct application to realistic biological data sets. The ability to adequately solve the inverse problem may enable in-depth analysis of complex dynamic systems in biology and other fields.

  19. Architecture of the human and yeast general transcription and DNA repair factor TFIIH

    Luo, Jie; Cimermancic, Peter; Viswanath, Shruthi; Ebmeier, Christopher C.; Kim, Bong; Dehecq, Marine; Raman, Vishnu; Greenberg, Charles H.; Pellarin, Riccardo; Sali, Andrej; Taatjes, Dylan J.; Hahn, Steven; Ranish, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Summary TFIIH is essential for both RNA polymerase II transcription and DNA repair, and mutations in TFIIH can result in human disease. Here, we determine the molecular architecture of human and yeast TFIIH by an integrative approach using chemical crosslinking/mass spectrometry (CXMS) data, biochemical analyses, and previously published electron microscopy maps. We identified four new conserved “topological regions” that function as hubs for TFIIH assembly and more than 35 conserved topological features within TFIIH, illuminating a network of interactions involved in TFIIH assembly and regulation of its activities. We show that one of these conserved regions, the p62/Tfb1 Anchor region, directly interacts with the DNA helicase subunit XPD/Rad3 in native TFIIH and is required for the integrity and function of TFIIH. We also reveal the structural basis for defects in patients with Xeroderma pigmentosum and Trichothiodystrophy, with mutations found at the interface between the p62 Anchor region and the XPD subunit. PMID:26340423

  20. Algorithm/Architecture Co-design of the Generalized Sampling Theorem Based De-Interlacer.

    Beric, A.; Haan, de G.; Sethuraman, R.; Meerbergen, van J.

    2005-01-01

    De-interlacing is a major determinant of image quality in a modern display processing chain. The de-interlacing method based on the generalized sampling theorem (GST)applied to motion estimation and motion compensation provides the best de-interlacing results. With HDTV interlaced input material

  1. Towards a Standard Architecture for Digital Voting Systems - Defining a Generalized Ballot Schema

    Cochran, Dermot Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many electoral jurisdictions have their own distinctive voting schemes. There is no clear consensus about the ideal voting scheme for fair elections. Various systems for electronic and online voting have been either proposed or developed, but these systems tend to be aimed at particular vote...... counting schemes e.g. plurality. This paper proposes a way to decouple the ballot casting process from the vote counting scheme, using a generalized ballot schema....

  2. Generalized Software Architecture Applied to the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process and the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier

    Perusich, Stephen; Moos, Thomas; Muscatello, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides the user with autonomous on-screen monitoring, embedded computations, and tabulated output for two new processes. The software was originally written for the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process (CLWSP), but was found to be general enough to be applicable to the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier (LGA) as well, with minor alterations. The resultant program should have general applicability to many laboratory processes (see figure). The objective for these programs was to create a software application that would provide both autonomous monitoring and data storage, along with manual manipulation. The software also allows operators the ability to input experimental changes and comments in real time without modifying the code itself. Common process elements, such as thermocouples, pressure transducers, and relative humidity sensors, are easily incorporated into the program in various configurations, along with specialized devices such as photodiode sensors. The goal of the CLWSP research project is to design, build, and test a new method to continuously separate, capture, and quantify water from a gas stream. The application is any In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) process that desires to extract or produce water from lunar or planetary regolith. The present work is aimed at circumventing current problems and ultimately producing a system capable of continuous operation at moderate temperatures that can be scaled over a large capacity range depending on the ISRU process. The goal of the LGA research project is to design, build, and test a new type of greenhouse that could be used on the moon or Mars. The LGA uses super greenhouse gases (SGGs) to absorb long-wavelength radiation, thus creating a highly efficient greenhouse at a future lunar or Mars outpost. Silica-based glass, although highly efficient at trapping heat, is heavy, fragile, and not suitable for space greenhouse applications. Plastics are much lighter and resilient, but are not

  3. A generalized architecture of quantum secure direct communication for N disjointed users with authentication

    Farouk, Ahmed; Zakaria, Magdy; Megahed, Adel; Omara, Fatma A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we generalize a secured direct communication process between N users with partial and full cooperation of quantum server. So, N - 1 disjointed users u1, u2, …, uN-1 can transmit a secret message of classical bits to a remote user uN by utilizing the property of dense coding and Pauli unitary transformations. The authentication process between the quantum server and the users are validated by EPR entangled pair and CNOT gate. Afterwards, the remained EPR will generate shared GHZ states which are used for directly transmitting the secret message. The partial cooperation process indicates that N - 1 users can transmit a secret message directly to a remote user uN through a quantum channel. Furthermore, N - 1 users and a remote user uN can communicate without an established quantum channel among them by a full cooperation process. The security analysis of authentication and communication processes against many types of attacks proved that the attacker cannot gain any information during intercepting either authentication or communication processes. Hence, the security of transmitted message among N users is ensured as the attacker introduces an error probability irrespective of the sequence of measurement.

  4. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement.

    Broadwater, D W Bo; Kim, Harold D

    2016-04-12

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single basepair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage time approach to quantitatively explain the salient features of the observed relationship. We also introduce the concept of splitting probabilities to justify that the concurrent model can be simplified into a three-step sequential model in the presence of an invader mismatch. We expect our model to become a powerful tool to design DNA-based reaction schemes with broad functionality. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients

  6. Architecture of a general purpose embedded Slow-Control Adapter ASIC for future high-energy physics experiments

    Gabrielli, Alessandro; Loddo, Flavio; Ranieri, Antonio; De Robertis, Giuseppe

    2008-10-01

    This work is aimed at defining the architecture of a new digital ASIC, namely Slow-Control Adapter (SCA), which will be designed in a commercial 130-nm CMOS technology. This chip will be embedded within a high-speed data acquisition optical link (GBT) to control and monitor the front-end electronics in future high-energy physics experiments. The GBT link provides a transparent transport layer between the SCA and control electronics in the counting room. The proposed SCA supports a variety of common bus protocols to interface with end-user general-purpose electronics. Between the GBT and the SCA a standard 100 Mb/s IEEE-802.3 compatible protocol will be implemented. This standard protocol allows off-line tests of the prototypes using commercial components that support the same standard. The project is justified because embedded applications in modern large HEP experiments require particular care to assure the lowest possible power consumption, still offering the highest reliability demanded by very large particle detectors.

  7. Architecture of a general purpose embedded Slow-Control Adapter ASIC for future high-energy physics experiments

    Gabrielli, Alessandro; Loddo, Flavio; Ranieri, Antonio; De Robertis, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    This work is aimed at defining the architecture of a new digital ASIC, namely Slow-Control Adapter (SCA), which will be designed in a commercial 130-nm CMOS technology. This chip will be embedded within a high-speed data acquisition optical link (GBT) to control and monitor the front-end electronics in future high-energy physics experiments. The GBT link provides a transparent transport layer between the SCA and control electronics in the counting room. The proposed SCA supports a variety of common bus protocols to interface with end-user general-purpose electronics. Between the GBT and the SCA a standard 100 Mb/s IEEE-802.3 compatible protocol will be implemented. This standard protocol allows off-line tests of the prototypes using commercial components that support the same standard. The project is justified because embedded applications in modern large HEP experiments require particular care to assure the lowest possible power consumption, still offering the highest reliability demanded by very large particle detectors.

  8. Educational Mismatch and Self-Employment

    Bender, Keith A.; Roche, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on educational mismatch concentrates on estimating its labor market consequences but with a focus on wage and salary workers. This paper examines the far less studied influence of mismatch on the self-employed. Using a sample of workers in science and engineering fields, results show larger earnings penalties for mismatch among…

  9. Seed-mediated co-reduction in a large lattice mismatch system: synthesis of Pd-Cu nanostructures.

    Kunz, Meredith R; McClain, Sophia M; Chen, Dennis P; Koczkur, Kallum M; Weiner, Rebecca G; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2017-06-08

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) are of interest for applications in catalysis, electronics, chemical sensing, and more. Their utility is dictated by their composition and physical parameters such as particle size, particle shape, and overall architecture (e.g., hollow vs. solid). Interestingly, the addition of a second metal to create bimetallic NPs adds multifunctionality, with new emergent properties common. However, synthesizing structurally defined bimetallic NPs remains a great challenge. One synthetic pathway to architecturally controlled bimetallic NPs is seed-mediated co-reduction (SMCR) in which two metal precursors are simultaneously co-reduced to deposit metal onto shape-controlled metal seeds, which direct the overgrowth. Previously demonstrated in a Au-Pd system, here SMCR is applied to a system with a larger lattice mismatch between the depositing metals: Pd and Cu (7% mismatch for Pd-Cu vs. 4% for Au-Pd). Through manipulation of precursor reduction kinetics, the morphology and bimetallic distribution of the resultant NPs can be tuned to achieve eight-branched Pd-Cu heterostructures with Cu localized at the tips of the Pd nanocubes as well as branched Pd-Cu alloyed nanostructures and polyhedra. Significantly, the symmetry of the seeds can be transferred to the final nanostructures. This study expands our understanding of SMCR as a route to structurally defined bimetallic nanostructures and the synthesis of multicomponent nanomaterials more generally.

  10. Implementing BosonSampling with time-bin encoding: Analysis of loss, mode mismatch, and time jitter

    Motes, Keith R.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Gilchrist, Alexei; Rohde, Peter P.

    2015-11-01

    It was recently shown by Motes, Gilchrist, Dowling, and Rohde [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120501 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.120501] that a time-bin encoded fiber-loop architecture can implement an arbitrary passive linear optics transformation. This was shown in the case of an ideal scheme whereby the architecture has no sources of error. In any realistic implementation, however, physical errors are present, which corrupt the output of the transformation. We investigate the dominant sources of error in this architecture—loss and mode mismatch—and consider how it affects the BosonSampling protocol, a key application for passive linear optics. For our loss analysis we consider two major components that contribute to loss—fiber and switches—and calculate how this affects the success probability and fidelity of the device. Interestingly, we find that errors due to loss are not uniform (unique to time-bin encoding), which asymmetrically biases the implemented unitary. Thus loss necessarily limits the class of unitaries that may be implemented, and therefore future implementations must prioritize minimizing loss rates if arbitrary unitaries are to be implemented. Our formalism for mode mismatch is generalized to account for various phenomenon that may cause mode mismatch, but we focus on two—errors in fiber-loop lengths and time jitter of the photon source. These results provide a guideline for how well future experimental implementations might perform in light of these error mechanisms.

  11. [Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome].

    Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Gidding, Corrie E; Loeffen, Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Mensenkamp, Arjen; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2015-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. An 8-year-old girl was diagnosed with CMMR-D syndrome after she developed a brain tumour at the age of 4 and a T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma at the age of 6. She had multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and died of myelodysplastic syndrome at the age of 11. In children with cancer CMMR-D syndrome can be recognized particularly if there are multiple primary malignancies and skin hyperpigmentations and hypopigmentations. The parents of these children are at high risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer (Lynch syndrome), amongst others.

  12. Hierarchically organized architecture of potassium hydrogen phthalate and poly(acrylic acid): toward a general strategy for biomimetic crystal design.

    Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2005-12-28

    A hierarchically organized architecture in multiple scales was generated from potassium hydrogen phthalate crystals and poly(acrylic acid) based on our novel biomimetic approach with an exquisite association of polymers on crystallization.

  13. A new general model for predicting melting thermodynamics of complementary and mismatched B-form duplexes containing locked nucleic acids: application to probe design for digital PCR detection of somatic mutations.

    Hughesman, Curtis; Fakhfakh, Kareem; Bidshahri, Roza; Lund, H Louise; Haynes, Charles

    2015-02-17

    Advances in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as well as the emergence of digital PCR (dPCR) and useful modified nucleotide chemistries, including locked nucleic acids (LNAs), have created the potential to improve and expand clinical applications of PCR through their ability to better quantify and differentiate amplification products, but fully realizing this potential will require robust methods for designing dual-labeled hydrolysis probes and predicting their hybridization thermodynamics as a function of their sequence, chemistry, and template complementarity. We present here a nearest-neighbor thermodynamic model that accurately predicts the melting thermodynamics of a short oligonucleotide duplexed either to its perfect complement or to a template containing mismatched base pairs. The model may be applied to pure-DNA duplexes or to duplexes for which one strand contains any number and pattern of LNA substitutions. Perturbations to duplex stability arising from mismatched DNA:DNA or LNA:DNA base pairs are treated at the Gibbs energy level to maintain statistical significance in the regressed model parameters. This approach, when combined with the model's accounting of the temperature dependencies of the melting enthalpy and entropy, permits accurate prediction of T(m) values for pure-DNA homoduplexes or LNA-substituted heteroduplexes containing one or two independent mismatched base pairs. Terms accounting for changes in solution conditions and terminal addition of fluorescent dyes and quenchers are then introduced so that the model may be used to accurately predict and thereby tailor the T(m) of a pure-DNA or LNA-substituted hydrolysis probe when duplexed either to its perfect-match template or to a template harboring a noncomplementary base. The model, which builds on classic nearest-neighbor thermodynamics, should therefore be of use to clinicians and biologists who require probes that distinguish and quantify two closely related alleles in either a

  14. Imagery mismatch negativity in musicians.

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise.

  15. Using Low-Level Architectural Features for Configuration InfoSec in a General-Purpose Self-Configurable System

    Nicholas J. Macias; Peter M. Athanas

    2009-01-01

    Unique characteristics of biological systems are described, and similarities are made to certain computing architectures. The security challenges posed by these characteristics are discussed. A method of securely isolating portions of a design using introspective capabilities of a fine-grain self-configurable device is presented. Experimental results are discussed, and plans for future work are given.

  16. Measurement of mismatch loss in CPV modul

    Liu, Mingguo; Kinsey, Geoffrey S.; Bagienski, Will; Nayak, Adi; Garboushian, Vahan

    2012-10-01

    A setup capable of simultaneously measuring I-V curves of a full string and its individual cells has been developed. This setup enables us to measure mismatch loss from individual cells in concert with various string combinations under varying field conditions. Mismatch loss from cells to plates at different off-track angles and mismatch from plates to strings in Amonix system during normal operation have been investigated.

  17. Architectural prototyping

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders...

  18. Architecture on Architecture

    Olesen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    that is not scientific or academic but is more like a latent body of data that we find embedded in existing works of architecture. This information, it is argued, is not limited by the historical context of the work. It can be thought of as a virtual capacity – a reservoir of spatial configurations that can...... correlation between the study of existing architectures and the training of competences to design for present-day realities.......This paper will discuss the challenges faced by architectural education today. It takes as its starting point the double commitment of any school of architecture: on the one hand the task of preserving the particular knowledge that belongs to the discipline of architecture, and on the other hand...

  19. Spatial Mismatch: A Third Generation Survey.

    Eagan, J. Vincent

    1999-01-01

    The spatial mismatch argument hypothesizes that racial discrimination in the housing market, together with the suburbanization of low skilled jobs, contributes significantly to the high unemployment and/or low wages of inner city minority workers. Surveys recent spatial mismatch literature and discusses policy alternatives, focusing on areas…

  20. Selective nanoscale growth of lattice mismatched materials

    Lee, Seung-Chang; Brueck, Steven R. J.

    2017-06-20

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods of forming high-quality semiconductor devices using lattice-mismatched materials. In one embodiment, a composite film including one or more substantially-single-particle-thick nanoparticle layers can be deposited over a substrate as a nanoscale selective growth mask for epitaxially growing lattice-mismatched materials over the substrate.

  1. Zero energy buildings and mismatch compensation factors

    Lund, Henrik; Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes an overall energy system approach to analysing the mismatch problem of zero energy and zero emission buildings (ZEBs). The mismatch arises from hourly differences in energy production and consumption at the building level and results in the need for exchange of electricity via...... the public grid even though the building has an annual net-exchange of zero. This paper argues that, when looked upon from the viewpoint of the overall electricity supply system, a mismatch can be both negative and positive. Moreover, there are often both an element of levelling out mismatches between...... of the energy production unit. Based on historical data for the electricity supply area in western Denmark, this paper makes a first attempt to quantify mismatch compensation factors. The results indicate that such compensation factors are a little below one for buildings with photovoltaics (PV) and a little...

  2. Entanglement verification with detection efficiency mismatch

    Zhang, Yanbao; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    Entanglement is a necessary condition for secure quantum key distribution (QKD). When there is an efficiency mismatch between various detectors used in the QKD system, it is still an open problem how to verify entanglement. Here we present a method to address this problem, given that the detection efficiency mismatch is characterized and known. The method works without assuming an upper bound on the number of photons going to each threshold detector. Our results suggest that the efficiency mismatch affects the ability to verify entanglement: the larger the efficiency mismatch is, the smaller the set of entangled states that can be verified becomes. When there is no mismatch, our method can verify entanglement even if the method based on squashing maps [PRL 101, 093601 (2008)] fails.

  3. Impact of Material and Architecture Model Parameters on the Failure of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) via the Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells

    Liu, Kuang C.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that failure of a material is a locally driven event. In the case of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), significant variations in the microstructure of the composite exist and their significance on both deformation and life response need to be assessed. Examples of these variations include changes in the fiber tow shape, tow shifting/nesting and voids within and between tows. In the present work, the effects of many of these architectural parameters and material scatter of woven ceramic composite properties at the macroscale (woven RUC) will be studied to assess their sensitivity. The recently developed Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells methodology is used to determine the overall deformation response, proportional elastic limit (first matrix cracking), and failure under tensile loading conditions. The macroscale responses investigated illustrate the effect of architectural and material parameters on a single RUC representing a five harness satin weave fabric. Results shows that the most critical architectural parameter is weave void shape and content with other parameters being less in severity. Variation of the matrix material properties was also studied to illustrate the influence of the material variability on the overall features of the composite stress-strain response.

  4. SKILLS MISMATCH OF THE YOUNG PEOPLE AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Hatos Roxana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transition from school to work is a main issue with many fields of study. Studies on transition from school to work, have highlight the importance of two categories of factors at the level of the individual formal proceedings which may affect how easy it is to graduate to integrate into the labor market: 1 so far as the educational systems are transmitting specific competences as compared with those general and 2 so far as there are direct links between employers and the education system. In this way, are reduced the costs of selection and allocation for employers. A poor articulation between educational institutions and the labor market produce a high level of unmatched competences of assimilated by formal education and competencies required of the labor market (skill mismatch (Parodi et al., 2012. The surveys with European employers reflect particular difficulties that they are experiencing in employment vacancies. Investigation on the European companies in the spring of 2013 found that 40% of the firms in the EU have difficulty in finding employees with suitable qualification (CEDEFOP-European Center for the Development of the Vocational Training, 2014. Skills mismatch is a generic term that refers to various types of imbalances between skills and competences offered and those required in the labor market. Concept has become one intensely discussed and submitted to measurement in international research on the background concerns the under-utilization human resource. Numerous opinion polls with employers come to the same unexpected conclusion - that despite high unemployment many posts can't find occupants satisfactorily prepared and identify the causes: most of them criticized the lack of skills of the candidates or the absence of skills specific to the workplace. Based on the latest studies on international databases have built a set of questions that, through secondary analysis, we tried to find answers. Questions that we try to give answer

  5. The Ragnarok Architectural Software Configuration Management Model

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    1999-01-01

    The architecture is the fundamental framework for designing and implementing large scale software, and the ability to trace and control its evolution is essential. However, many traditional software configuration management tools view 'software' merely as a set of files, not as an architecture....... This introduces an unfortunate impedance mismatch between the design domain (architecture level) and configuration management domain (file level.) This paper presents a software configuration management model that allows tight version control and configuration management of the architecture of a software system...

  6. Architectural slicing

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context...... of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given...... a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java....

  7. Adaptive Architectural Envelope

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    . The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two...

  8. Web 2.0 systems supporting childhood chronic disease management: a pattern language representation of a general architecture.

    Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Henrik; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ekberg, Joakim; Nordfeldt, Sam; Hanberger, Lena

    2008-11-28

    -to-peer communication, and systematic accreditation and evaluation of materials and processes. The use of design patterns allows representing the core design elements of a Web 2.0 system upon which an 'ecological' development of content respecting these constraints can be built. Future research should include evaluations of Web 2.0 systems implemented according to the architecture in practice settings.

  9. Web 2.0 systems supporting childhood chronic disease management: A pattern language representation of a general architecture

    Ekberg Joakim

    2008-11-01

    settings, endorsement of self-learning through online peer-to-peer communication, and systematic accreditation and evaluation of materials and processes. Conclusion The use of design patterns allows representing the core design elements of a Web 2.0 system upon which an 'ecological' development of content respecting these constraints can be built. Future research should include evaluations of Web 2.0 systems implemented according to the architecture in practice settings.

  10. JOB MISMATCH – EFFECTS ON WORK PRODUCTIVITY

    Magdalena Velciu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Job matching and finding the best person to the right job inside the right company has become one of the most important and actual challenges of productivity. Not only full employment but the match between the employee and the job, in terms of educational level or field of activity, qualifications and skills of workforce; all have been the new gain of work productivity. Present article synthesizes the theoretical and empirical findings on effects of job mismatch by selecting the main findings about influence of job mismatches on work productivity including both employees and companies sides. on short term overeducation and overqualification could have a positive effect on productivity for one company, but on long term, mismatched worker would be affected by decreasing job satisfaction and lower wages. Also, at macroeconomic level, from a perspective of economy as a whole, job mismatches mean a loss of resources and human capital and could have negative effects on overall productivity. The opposite effects stay at the crossing between the employees, companies, policies and future development. In fact the effects of skill mismatch and productivity is a lost of work potential through inefficient resource (reallocation.

  11. A General Design Methodology for Synchronous Early-Completion-Prediction Adders in Nano-CMOS DSP Architectures

    Mauro Olivieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous early-completion-prediction adders (ECPAs are used for high clock rate and high-precision DSP datapaths, as they allow a dominant amount of single-cycle operations even if the worst-case carry propagation delay is longer than the clock period. Previous works have also demonstrated ECPA advantages for average leakage reduction and NBTI effects reduction in nanoscale CMOS technologies. This paper illustrates a general systematic methodology to design ECPA units, targeting nanoscale CMOS technologies, which is not available in the current literature yet. The method is fully compatible with standard VLSI macrocell design tools and standard adder structures and includes automatic definition of critical test patterns for postlayout verification. A design example is included, reporting speed and power data superior to previous works.

  12. Organizational architecture of multinational company

    Vrbová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The Bachelor's Thesis ,,Organizational architecture of multinational company" sets the target to analyse organizational structures used in multinational companies at present. In the teoretical section is briefly described development of this subject, basic concepts associated with organizational architecture such as globalization, multinational companies and organizational architecture. I also generalized main characteristics of organizational forms and describe their pros and cons. The pract...

  13. Visual-perceptual mismatch in robotic surgery.

    Abiri, Ahmad; Tao, Anna; LaRocca, Meg; Guan, Xingmin; Askari, Syed J; Bisley, James W; Dutson, Erik P; Grundfest, Warren S

    2017-08-01

    The principal objective of the experiment was to analyze the effects of the clutch operation of robotic surgical systems on the performance of the operator. The relative coordinate system introduced by the clutch operation can introduce a visual-perceptual mismatch which can potentially have negative impact on a surgeon's performance. We also assess the impact of the introduction of additional tactile sensory information on reducing the impact of visual-perceptual mismatch on the performance of the operator. We asked 45 novice subjects to complete peg transfers using the da Vinci IS 1200 system with grasper-mounted, normal force sensors. The task involves picking up a peg with one of the robotic arms, passing it to the other arm, and then placing it on the opposite side of the view. Subjects were divided into three groups: aligned group (no mismatch), the misaligned group (10 cm z axis mismatch), and the haptics-misaligned group (haptic feedback and z axis mismatch). Each subject performed the task five times, during which the grip force, time of completion, and number of faults were recorded. Compared to the subjects that performed the tasks using a properly aligned controller/arm configuration, subjects with a single-axis misalignment showed significantly more peg drops (p = 0.011) and longer time to completion (p sensors showed no difference between the different groups. The visual-perceptual mismatch created by the misalignment of the robotic controls relative to the robotic arms has a negative impact on the operator of a robotic surgical system. Introduction of other sensory information and haptic feedback systems can help in potentially reducing this effect.

  14. Detecting mismatches of bird migration stopover and tree phenology in response to changing climate

    Kellermann, Jherime L.; van Riper, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds exploit seasonal variation in resources across latitudes, timing migration to coincide with the phenology of food at stopover sites. Differential responses to climate in phenology across trophic levels can result in phenological mismatch; however, detecting mismatch is sensitive to methodology. We examined patterns of migrant abundance and tree flowering, phenological mismatch, and the influence of climate during spring migration from 2009 to 2011 across five habitat types of the Madrean Sky Islands in southeastern Arizona, USA. We used two metrics to assess phenological mismatch: synchrony and overlap. We also examined whether phenological overlap declined with increasing difference in mean event date of phenophases. Migrant abundance and tree flowering generally increased with minimum spring temperature but depended on annual climate by habitat interactions. Migrant abundance was lowest and flowering was highest under cold, snowy conditions in high elevation montane conifer habitat while bird abundance was greatest and flowering was lowest in low elevation riparian habitat under the driest conditions. Phenological synchrony and overlap were unique and complementary metrics and should both be used when assessing mismatch. Overlap declined due to asynchronous phenologies but also due to reduced migrant abundance or flowering when synchrony was actually maintained. Overlap declined with increasing difference in event date and this trend was strongest in riparian areas. Montane habitat specialists may be at greatest risk of mismatch while riparian habitat could provide refugia during dry years for phenotypically plastic species. Interannual climate patterns that we observed match climate change projections for the arid southwest, altering stopover habitat condition.

  15. Mismatch and noise in modern IC processes

    Marshall, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Component variability, mismatch, and various noise effects are major contributors to design limitations in most modern IC processes. Mismatch and Noise in Modern IC Processes examines these related effects and how they affect the building block circuits of modern integrated circuits, from the perspective of a circuit designer.Variability usually refers to a large scale variation that can occur on a wafer to wafer and lot to lot basis, and over long distances on a wafer. This phenomenon is well understood and the effects of variability are included in most integrated circuit design with the use

  16. Correlation of volumetric mismatch and mismatch of Alberta Stroke program Early CT scores on CT perfusion maps

    Lin, Ke; Rapalino, Otto; Lee, Benjamin; Do, Kinh G.; Sussmann, Amado R.; Pramanik, Bidyut K.; Law, Meng

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine if volumetric mismatch between tissue at risk and tissue destined to infarct on computed tomography perfusion (CTP) can be described by the mismatch of Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). Forty patients with nonlacunar middle cerebral artery infarct 6 s and <2.0 mL per 100 g, respectively. Two other raters assigned ASPECTS to the same MTT and CBV maps while blinded to the volumetric data. Volumetric mismatch was deemed present if ≥20%. ASPECTS mismatch (=CBV ASPECTS - MTT ASPECTS) was deemed present if ≥1. Correlation between the two types of mismatches was assessed by Spearman's coefficient (ρ). ROC curve analyses were performed to determine the optimal ASPECTS mismatch cut point for volumetric mismatch ≥20%, ≥50%, ≥100%, and ≥150%. Median volumetric mismatch was 130% (range 10.9-2,031%) with 31 (77.5%) being ≥20%. Median ASPECTS mismatch was 2 (range 0-6) with 26 (65%) being ≥1. ASPECTS mismatch correlated strongly with volumetric mismatch with ρ = 0.763 [95% CI 0.585-0.870], p < 0.0001. Sensitivity and specificity for volumetric mismatch ≥20% was 83.9% [95% CI 65.5-93.5] and 100% [95% CI 65.9-100], respectively, using ASPECTS mismatch ≥1. Volumetric mismatch ≥50%, ≥100%, and ≥150% were optimally identified using ASPECTS mismatch ≥1, ≥2, and ≥2, respectively. On CTP, ASPECTS mismatch showed strong correlation to volumetric mismatch. ASPECTS mismatch ≥1 was the optimal cut point for volumetric mismatch ≥20%. (orig.)

  17. Robotic architectures

    Mtshali, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...

  18. Architecture & Environment

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  19. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    Bharti, Vineet [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Wasan, Ajay [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Natarajan, Vasant [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-07-15

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch—near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers. - Highlights: • Wavelength mismatch effect is investigated in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). • An experimental realization of 4-level vee + ladder system using energy levels of rubidium atom is presented. • EIA resonances are studied under different conditions of wavelength mismatch. • Possibility of observation of EIA using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  20. Educational Mismatch and the Careers of Scientists

    Bender, Keith A.; Heywood, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research confirms that many employees work in jobs not well matched to their skills and education, resulting in lower pay and job satisfaction. While this literature typically uses cross-sectional data, we examine the evolution of mismatch and its consequences over a career, by using a panel data set of scientists in the USA. The results…

  1. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    Bharti, Vineet; Wasan, Ajay; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch—near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers. - Highlights: • Wavelength mismatch effect is investigated in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). • An experimental realization of 4-level vee + ladder system using energy levels of rubidium atom is presented. • EIA resonances are studied under different conditions of wavelength mismatch. • Possibility of observation of EIA using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  2. Product Architecture Modularity Strategies

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures...... and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and propositions are drawn from various academic literature sources. Based on the literature review......, the following key elements of product architecture are identified: components (standard and new-to-the-firm), interfaces (standardization and specification), degree of coupling, and substitutability. A mathematical function, termed modularization function, is introduced to measure the degree of modularization...

  3. Circuit mismatch influence on performance of paralleling silicon carbide MOSFETs

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Pham, Cam

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on circuit mismatch influence on performance of paralleling SiC MOSFETs. Power circuit mismatch and gate driver mismatch influences are analyzed in detail. Simulation and experiment results show the influence of circuit mismatch and verify the analysis. This paper aims to give...... suggestions on paralleling discrete SiC MOSFETs and designing layout of power modules with paralleled SiC MOSFETs dies....

  4. Essential software architecture

    Gorton, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Job titles like ""Technical Architect"" and ""Chief Architect"" nowadays abound in software industry, yet many people suspect that ""architecture"" is one of the most overused and least understood terms in professional software development. Gorton's book tries to resolve this dilemma. It concisely describes the essential elements of knowledge and key skills required to be a software architect. The explanations encompass the essentials of architecture thinking, practices, and supporting technologies. They range from a general understanding of structure and quality attributes through technical i

  5. Multiuser Random Coding Techniques for Mismatched Decoding

    Scarlett, Jonathan; Martinez, Alfonso; Guillén i Fàbregas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies multiuser random coding techniques for channel coding with a given (possibly suboptimal) decoding rule. For the mismatched discrete memoryless multiple-access channel, an error exponent is obtained that is tight with respect to the ensemble average, and positive within the interior of Lapidoth's achievable rate region. This exponent proves the ensemble tightness of the exponent of Liu and Hughes in the case of maximum-likelihood decoding. An equivalent dual form of Lapidoth...

  6. Correction for spectral mismatch effects on the calibration of a solar cell when using a solar simulator

    Seaman, C.H.

    1981-01-15

    A general expression has been derived to enable calculation of the calibration error resulting from simulator-solar AMX spectral mismatch and from reference cell-test cell spectral mismatch. The information required includes the relative spectral response of the reference cell, the relative spectral response of the cell under test, and the relative spectral irradiance of the simulator (over the spectral range defined by cell response). The spectral irradiance of the solar AMX is assumed to be known.

  7. Interaural Place-Mismatch Estimation With Two-Formant Vowels in Unilateral Cochlear- Implant Users

    Guérit, François; Santurette, Sébastien; Chalupper, Josef

    stimulation, with listeners showing either basal or apical shifts, or generally-poor vowel discrimination. Conclusion The two-formant-vowel method is a fast and clinic-friendly candidate to derive interaural place mismatches from a simple vowel-recognition task. However, it remains unclear whether...

  8. Thermodynamic characterization of tandem mismatches found in naturally occurring RNA

    Christiansen, Martha E.; Znosko, Brent M.

    2009-01-01

    Although all sequence symmetric tandem mismatches and some sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches have been thermodynamically characterized and a model has been proposed to predict the stability of previously unmeasured sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches [Christiansen,M.E. and Znosko,B.M. (2008) Biochemistry, 47, 4329–4336], experimental thermodynamic data for frequently occurring tandem mismatches is lacking. Since experimental data is preferred over a predictive model, the thermodynamic parameters for 25 frequently occurring tandem mismatches were determined. These new experimental values, on average, are 1.0 kcal/mol different from the values predicted for these mismatches using the previous model. The data for the sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches reported here were then combined with the data for 72 sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches that were published previously, and the parameters used to predict the thermodynamics of previously unmeasured sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches were updated. The average absolute difference between the measured values and the values predicted using these updated parameters is 0.5 kcal/mol. This updated model improves the prediction for tandem mismatches that were predicted rather poorly by the previous model. This new experimental data and updated predictive model allow for more accurate calculations of the free energy of RNA duplexes containing tandem mismatches, and, furthermore, should allow for improved prediction of secondary structure from sequence. PMID:19509311

  9. Architectural Contestation

    Merle, J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the reductive reading of Georges Bataille's work done within the field of architectural criticism and theory which tends to set aside the fundamental ‘broken’ totality of Bataille's oeuvre and also to narrowly interpret it as a mere critique of architectural form,

  10. Architecture Sustainability

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  11. Memory architecture

    2012-01-01

    A memory architecture is presented. The memory architecture comprises a first memory and a second memory. The first memory has at least a bank with a first width addressable by a single address. The second memory has a plurality of banks of a second width, said banks being addressable by components

  12. Architectural Narratives

    Kiib, Hans

    2010-01-01

    a functional framework for these concepts, but tries increasingly to endow the main idea of the cultural project with a spatially aesthetic expression - a shift towards “experience architecture.” A great number of these projects typically recycle and reinterpret narratives related to historical buildings......In this essay, I focus on the combination of programs and the architecture of cultural projects that have emerged within the last few years. These projects are characterized as “hybrid cultural projects,” because they intend to combine experience with entertainment, play, and learning. This essay...... and architectural heritage; another group tries to embed new performative technologies in expressive architectural representation. Finally, this essay provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of the political rationales of these projects and for the architectural representation bridges the gap between...

  13. Indeterminacy and Architectural History: Deterritorializing Cosimo Fanzago

    Hills, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This article is a critique of architectural history’s tendency to overdetermine in thinking about practice and theory in general, and in thinking the relationship between architecture and spirituality in post-Tridentine ecclesiastical architecture in particular. It first demonstrates what is meant both by over-determination and resistance to interdisciplinarity within mainstream architectural history before critically exploring in relation to this how post-Tridentine architecture and spiritua...

  14. Toward maximum transmittance into absorption layers in solar cells: investigation of lossy-film-induced mismatches between reflectance and transmittance extrema.

    Chang, Yin-Jung; Lai, Chi-Sheng

    2013-09-01

    The mismatch in film thickness and incident angle between reflectance and transmittance extrema due to the presence of lossy film(s) is investigated toward the maximum transmittance design in the active region of solar cells. Using a planar air/lossy film/silicon double-interface geometry illustrates important and quite opposite mismatch behaviors associated with TE and TM waves. In a typical thin-film CIGS solar cell, mismatches contributed by TM waves in general dominate. The angular mismatch is at least 10° in about 37%-53% of the spectrum, depending on the thickness combination of all lossy interlayers. The largest thickness mismatch of a specific interlayer generally increases with the thickness of the layer itself. Antireflection coating designs for solar cells should therefore be optimized in terms of the maximum transmittance into the active region, even if the corresponding reflectance is not at its minimum.

  15. Opinion on the examination of the control-command general architecture of the Flamanville 3 EPR reactor and of its associated platforms

    2009-06-01

    This report first recalls the different technical and hardware elements and components discussed by the ISRN (Nuclear Radioprotection and Safety Institute) in front of the Expert Permanent Group for nuclear reactors. These elements and components are concerning the control-command architecture as a whole, and the technical ability of networks, computers, and robots. It outlines the main principles which the control-and-command must comply with: compliance of each component of the retained technological solution with the design requirements corresponding to the safety classification, robustness of the whole control-command architecture. Then, it comments and sometimes criticizes the status of the various components of the control-command platforms with respect to this compliance. Eight recommendations are given for the SPPA T2000 control-command platform and for the robustness of the control-command architecture

  16. Architectural technology

    2005-01-01

    The booklet offers an overall introduction to the Institute of Architectural Technology and its projects and activities, and an invitation to the reader to contact the institute or the individual researcher for further information. The research, which takes place at the Institute of Architectural...... Technology at the Roayl Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, reflects a spread between strategic, goal-oriented pilot projects, commissioned by a ministry, a fund or a private company, and on the other hand projects which originate from strong personal interests and enthusiasm of individual...

  17. Systemic Architecture

    Poletto, Marco; Pasquero, Claudia

    -up or tactical design, behavioural space and the boundary of the natural and the artificial realms within the city and architecture. A new kind of "real-time world-city" is illustrated in the form of an operational design manual for the assemblage of proto-architectures, the incubation of proto-gardens...... and the coding of proto-interfaces. These prototypes of machinic architecture materialize as synthetic hybrids embedded with biological life (proto-gardens), computational power, behavioural responsiveness (cyber-gardens), spatial articulation (coMachines and fibrous structures), remote sensing (FUNclouds...

  18. Humanizing Architecture

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  19. Diagnostic criteria for constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome

    Wimmer, Katharina; Kratz, Christian P; Vasen, Hans F A

    2014-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a distinct childhood cancer predisposition syndrome that results from biallelic germline mutations in one of the four MMR genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. The tumour spectrum is very broad, including mainly haematological, brain....... They include multiple hyperpigmented and hypopigmented skin areas, brain malformations, pilomatricomas, a second childhood malignancy, a Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated tumour in a relative and parental consanguinity. According to the scoring system, CMMRD should be suspected in any cancer patient who reaches...... patient. Tumours highly specific for CMMRD syndrome are assigned three points, malignancies overrepresented in CMMRD two points and all other malignancies one point. According to their specificity for CMMRD and their frequency in the general population, additional features are weighted with 1-2 points...

  20. Heterogenous mismatch-repair status in colorectal cancer

    Joost, Patrick; Veurink, Nynke; Holck, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunohistochemical staining for mismatch repair proteins is efficient and widely used to identify mismatch repair defective tumors. The tumors typically show uniform and widespread loss of MMR protein staining. We identified and characterized colorectal cancers with alternative......, heterogenous mismatch repair protein staining in order to delineate expression patterns and underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Heterogenous staining patterns that affected at least one of the mismatch repair proteins MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6 were identified in 14 colorectal cancers. Based on alternative....... CONCLUSIONS: Heterogenous mismatch repair status can be demonstrated in colorectal cancer. Though rare, attention to this phenomenon is recommended since it corresponds to differences in mismatch repair status that are relevant for correct classification. VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article...

  1. Architectural Theatricality

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    environments and a knowledge gap therefore exists in present hospital designs. Consequently, the purpose of this thesis has been to investigate if any research-based knowledge exist supporting the hypothesis that the interior architectural qualities of eating environments influence patient food intake, health...... and well-being, as well as outline a set of basic design principles ‘predicting’ the future interior architectural qualities of patient eating environments. Methodologically the thesis is based on an explorative study employing an abductive approach and hermeneutic-interpretative strategy utilizing tactics...... and food intake, as well as a series of references exist linking the interior architectural qualities of healthcare environments with the health and wellbeing of patients. On the basis of these findings, the thesis presents the concept of Architectural Theatricality as well as a set of design principles...

  2. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Drafting and Design Technology (Program CIP: 48.0102--Architectural Drafting Technology) (Program CIP: 48.0101--General Drafting). Postsecondary Programs.

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the two course sequences of the state's postsecondary-level drafting and design technology program: architectural drafting technology and drafting and design technology. Presented first are a program description and…

  3. Possible roles for mismatch negativity in neuropsychiatry.

    Gené-Cos, N; Ring, H A; Pottinger, R C; Barrett, G

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews research on the main characteristics of mismatch negativity (MMN) and its applications in neuropsychiatry. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to study many aspects of information processing. Mismatch negativity is an early auditory ERP that has been identified as an index of an automatic (preconscious) alerting mechanism stimulating an individual to attend to unexpected environmental events. Disturbances of MMN may relate to abnormalities of auditory information processing contributing to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric conditions. The authors review (1) studies that have evaluated the electrophysiological aspects of MMN and (2) studies that have investigated the different applications of MMN in neuropsychiatry. The first part of this article describes the characteristics of MMN, its cerebral origins, and electrophysiological parameters. We then discuss the role of "echoic memory" as well as that of attention and vigilance. In the second part of the article, disturbances in MMN associated with schizophrenia, depressive illness, dementing processes, and other neuropsychiatric states are discussed. MMN is a preconscious cognitive ERP, the main generators and functions of which are well defined. Observations relating to the origins of MMN and its role in early auditory information processing together with its possible behavioral significance, combined with observations of MMN aberrations in psychiatric conditions, may provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric states.

  4. Mismatch removal via coherent spatial relations

    Chen, Jun; Ma, Jiayi; Yang, Changcai; Tian, Jinwen

    2014-07-01

    We propose a method for removing mismatches from the given putative point correspondences in image pairs based on "coherent spatial relations." Under the Bayesian framework, we formulate our approach as a maximum likelihood problem and solve a coherent spatial relation between the putative point correspondences using an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Our approach associates each point correspondence with a latent variable indicating it as being either an inlier or an outlier, and alternatively estimates the inlier set and recovers the coherent spatial relation. It can handle not only the case of image pairs with rigid motions but also the case of image pairs with nonrigid motions. To parameterize the coherent spatial relation, we choose two-view geometry and thin-plate spline as models for rigid and nonrigid cases, respectively. The mismatches could be successfully removed via the coherent spatial relations after the EM algorithm converges. The quantitative results on various experimental data demonstrate that our method outperforms many state-of-the-art methods, it is not affected by low initial correct match percentages, and is robust to most geometric transformations including a large viewing angle, image rotation, and affine transformation.

  5. Scale Mismatches in Management of Urban Landscapes

    Sara T. Borgström

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes constitute the future environment for most of the world's human population. An increased understanding of the urbanization process and of the effects of urbanization at multiple scales is, therefore, key to ensuring human well-being. In many conventional natural resource management regimes, incomplete knowledge of ecosystem dynamics and institutional constraints often leads to institutional management frameworks that do not match the scale of ecological patterns and processes. In this paper, we argue that scale mismatches are particularly pronounced in urban landscapes. Urban green spaces provide numerous important ecosystem services to urban citizens, and the management of these urban green spaces, including recognition of scales, is crucial to the well-being of the citizens. From a qualitative study of the current management practices in five urban green spaces within the Greater Stockholm Metropolitan Area, Sweden, we found that 1 several spatial, temporal, and functional scales are recognized, but the cross-scale interactions are often neglected, and 2 spatial and temporal meso-scales are seldom given priority. One potential effect of the neglect of ecological cross-scale interactions in these highly fragmented landscapes is a gradual reduction in the capacity of the ecosystems to provide ecosystem services. Two important strategies for overcoming urban scale mismatches are suggested: 1 development of an integrative view of the whole urban social-ecological landscape, and 2 creation of adaptive governance systems to support practical management.

  6. Identification of a mismatch-specific endonuclease in hyperthermophilic Archaea

    Ishino, Sonoko; Nishi, Yuki; Oda, Soichiro; Uemori, Takashi; Sagara, Takehiro; Takatsu, Nariaki; Yamagami, Takeshi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2016-01-01

    The common mismatch repair system processed by MutS and MutL and their homologs was identified in Bacteria and Eukarya. However, no evidence of a functional MutS/L homolog has been reported for archaeal organisms, and it is not known whether the mismatch repair system is conserved in Archaea. Here, we describe an endonuclease that cleaves double-stranded DNA containing a mismatched base pair, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The corresponding gene revealed that the act...

  7. Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performing expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have...... proportions, to organize the process on site choosing either one room wall components or several rooms wall components – either horizontally or vertically. Combined with the seamless joint the playing with these possibilities the new industrialized architecture can deliver variations in choice of solutions...... for retrofit design. If we add the question of the installations e.g. ventilation to this systematic thinking of building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture, thereby creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind architectural expression....

  8. Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performing expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have...... expression in the specific housing area. It is the aim of this article to expand the different design strategies which architects can use – to give the individual project attitudes and designs with architectural quality. Through the customized component production it is possible to choose different...... for retrofit design. If we add the question of the installations e.g. ventilation to this systematic thinking of building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture, thereby creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind architectural expression....

  9. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l inge.vestergaard@aarch.dk Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performed expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have in Denmark been focusing a more sustainable and low energy building technique, which also include...... to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...

  10. PICNIC Architecture.

    Saranummi, Niilo

    2005-01-01

    The PICNIC architecture aims at supporting inter-enterprise integration and the facilitation of collaboration between healthcare organisations. The concept of a Regional Health Economy (RHE) is introduced to illustrate the varying nature of inter-enterprise collaboration between healthcare organisations collaborating in providing health services to citizens and patients in a regional setting. The PICNIC architecture comprises a number of PICNIC IT Services, the interfaces between them and presents a way to assemble these into a functioning Regional Health Care Network meeting the needs and concerns of its stakeholders. The PICNIC architecture is presented through a number of views relevant to different stakeholder groups. The stakeholders of the first view are national and regional health authorities and policy makers. The view describes how the architecture enables the implementation of national and regional health policies, strategies and organisational structures. The stakeholders of the second view, the service viewpoint, are the care providers, health professionals, patients and citizens. The view describes how the architecture supports and enables regional care delivery and process management including continuity of care (shared care) and citizen-centred health services. The stakeholders of the third view, the engineering view, are those that design, build and implement the RHCN. The view comprises four sub views: software engineering, IT services engineering, security and data. The proposed architecture is founded into the main stream of how distributed computing environments are evolving. The architecture is realised using the web services approach. A number of well established technology platforms and generic standards exist that can be used to implement the software components. The software components that are specified in PICNIC are implemented in Open Source.

  11. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...... to this systematic thinking of the building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture. Creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind the architectural expression....

  12. Iraqi architecture in mogul period

    Hasan Shatha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Iraqi architecture have many periods passed through it until now, each on from these periods have it is architectural style, also through time these styles interacted among us, to creating kind of space forming, space relationships, and architectural elements (detailed treatments, the research problem being from the multi interacted architectural styles causing some of confused of general characteristic to every style, that we could distinguish by it. Research tries to study architecture style through Mogul Conquest to Baghdad. Aim of research follow main characteristic for this architectural style in the Mogul periods on the level of form, elements, and treatments. Research depending on descriptive and analytical all buildings belong to this period, so from analyzing there style by, general form for building, architectural elements, and it architectural treatment, therefore; repeating this procedures to every building we get some similarities, from these similarities we can making conclusion about pure characteristic of the style of these period. Other side, we also discover some Dissimilar in the building periods, these will lead research to make what interacting among styles in this period, after all that we can drew clearly main characteristic of Architectural Style for Mogul Conquest in Baghdad

  13. Architectural geometry

    Pottmann, Helmut; Eigensatz, Michael; Vaxman, Amir; Wallner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  14. Architectural geometry

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-11-26

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  15. Mismatch negativity: clinical and other applications.

    Näätänen, R; Escera, C

    2000-01-01

    The perspectives of application of the mismatch negativity (MMN), generated by the brain's automatic response to change in auditory stimulation, are discussed. In light of the fact that the MMN (and its magnetic equivalent MMNm) currently provides the only objective measure of the accuracy of the central auditory function, these perspectives appear very promising. The MMN can be measured in the absence of attention and task requirements, which makes it particularly suitable for testing different clinical populations and infants. Furthermore, the MMN enables one to evaluate the accuracy of auditory discrimination separately for any acoustic feature, such as frequency, intensity and duration, and for learned categories, such as the phonemes of a particular language. In addition, by measuring the decay of the MMN amplitude as a function of the interstimulus interval, it is possible to estimate the duration of sensory (echoic) memory. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Mismatch Negativity in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Aleš Urban

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficit is considered to be a part of core dysfuncions in schizophrenia. It is associated with social impairment and influences the long-term course of the disorder. In addition to neuropsychological methods, event-related potentials can be used to study cognitive functions. In patients with schizophrenia an association was found between amplitude changes in slow negative component of evoked responses and infrequent deviations in a series of uniform stimuli. This amplitude change is known as „mismatch negativity“ (MMN. It is supposed to be independent of the focused attention and effort that otherwise interfere with neuropsychological testing. Recently accumulated knowledge on MMN as a possible preattentive measure of cognition supports its potential significance for neuropsychological assessment. It may be helpful in more precise diagnosis and functional evaluation of schizophrenia.

  17. Relational Architecture

    Reeh, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    in a scholarly institution (element #3), as well as the certified PhD scholar (element #4) and the architectural profession, notably its labour market (element #5). This first layer outlines the contemporary context which allows architectural research to take place in a dynamic relationship to doctoral education...... a human and institutional development going on since around 1990 when the present PhD institution was first implemented in Denmark. To be sure, the model is centred around the PhD dissertation (element #1). But it involves four more components: the PhD candidate (element #2), his or her supervisor...... and interrelated fields in which history, place, and sound come to emphasize architecture’s relational qualities rather than the apparent three-dimensional solidity of constructed space. A third layer of relational architecture is at stake in the professional experiences after the defence of the authors...

  18. Architectural Anthropology

    Stender, Marie

    Architecture and anthropology have always had a common focus on dwelling, housing, urban life and spatial organisation. Current developments in both disciplines make it even more relevant to explore their boundaries and overlaps. Architects are inspired by anthropological insights and methods......, while recent material and spatial turns in anthropology have also brought an increasing interest in design, architecture and the built environment. Understanding the relationship between the social and the physical is at the heart of both disciplines, and they can obviously benefit from further...... collaboration: How can qualitative anthropological approaches contribute to contemporary architecture? And just as importantly: What can anthropologists learn from architects’ understanding of spatial and material surroundings? Recent theoretical developments in anthropology stress the role of materials...

  19. Architectural Engineers

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  20. Constitutioneel ‘mismatch repair’-deficiëntiesyndroom

    Jongmans, Marjolijn C.; Gidding, Corrie E.; Loeffen, Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Mensenkamp, Arjen; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2015-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. Case description An 8yearold girl was

  1. Speaking Self-Assessment: Mismatches between Learners' and Teachers' Criteria

    Babaii, Esmat; Taghaddomi, Shahin; Pashmforoosh, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual (mis)matches between teachers and learners are said to affect learning success or failure. Self-assessment, as a formative assessment tool, may, inter alia, be considered a means to minimize such mismatches. Therefore, the present study investigated the extent to which learners' assessment of their own speaking performance, before and…

  2. Mismatch-Shaping Serial Digital-to-Analog Converter

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper; Moon, Un-Ku; Temes, Gabor C.

    1999-01-01

    A simple but accurate pseudo-passive mismatch-shaping D/A converter is described. A digital state machine is used to control the switching sequence of a symmetric two-capacitor network that performs the D/A conversion. The error caused by capacitor mismatch is uncorrelated with the input signal...

  3. Alignment to natural and imposed mismatches between the senses

    van der Kooij, K.; Brenner, E.; van Beers, R.J.; Schot, W.D.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Does the nervous system continuously realign the senses so that objects are seen and felt in the same place? Conflicting answers to this question have been given. Research imposing a sensory mismatch has provided evidence that the nervous system realigns the senses to reduce the mismatch. Other

  4. Mismatch Repair Balances Leading and Lagging Strand DNA Replication Fidelity

    2012-10-11

    Rev Mol Cell Biol 7: 335–346. 7. Li GM (2008) Mechanisms and functions of DNA mismatch repair. Cell Res 18: 85–98. 8. Pavlov YI, Mian IM, Kunkel TA...11: 165–170. 41. Li F, Tian L, Gu L, Li GM (2009) Evidence that nucleosomes inhibit mismatch repair in eukaryotic cells. J Biol Chem 284: 33056–33061

  5. Mismatch-Shaped Pseudo-Passive Two-Capacitor DAC

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper; Moon, Un-Ku; Temes, Gabor C.

    1999-01-01

    A simple mismatch-shaping scheme is proposed for a two-capacitor DAC. Unlike in other mismatch-shaping systems, the shaped error is generated by direct filtering of a well-defined bounded signal, which can be generated as white noise. The operation is closely related to a specific digital...

  6. Influence of halo doping profiles on MOS transistor mismatch

    Andricciola, P.; Tuinhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    Halo implants are used in modern CMOS technology to reduce the short channel effect. However, the lateral non-uniformity of the channel doping has been proven to degenerate the mismatch performance. With this paper we want to discuss the influence of the halo profile on MOS transistor mismatch. The

  7. Reframing Architecture

    Riis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    I would like to thank Prof. Stephen Read (2011) and Prof. Andrew Benjamin (2011) for both giving inspiring and elaborate comments on my article “Dwelling in-between walls: the architectural surround”. As I will try to demonstrate below, their two different responses not only supplement my article...... focuses on how the absence of an initial distinction might threaten the endeavour of my paper. In my reply to Read and Benjamin, I will discuss their suggestions and arguments, while at the same time hopefully clarifying the postphenomenological approach to architecture....

  8. Enterprise architecture evaluation using architecture framework and UML stereotypes

    Narges Shahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for enterprise architecture in numerous organizations with complicated systems with various processes. Support for information technology, organizational units whose elements maintain complex relationships increases. Enterprise architecture is so effective that its non-use in organizations is regarded as their institutional inability in efficient information technology management. The enterprise architecture process generally consists of three phases including strategic programing of information technology, enterprise architecture programing and enterprise architecture implementation. Each phase must be implemented sequentially and one single flaw in each phase may result in a flaw in the whole architecture and, consequently, in extra costs and time. If a model is mapped for the issue and then it is evaluated before enterprise architecture implementation in the second phase, the possible flaws in implementation process are prevented. In this study, the processes of enterprise architecture are illustrated through UML diagrams, and the architecture is evaluated in programming phase through transforming the UML diagrams to Petri nets. The results indicate that the high costs of the implementation phase will be reduced.

  9. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks. Three “higher order” dimensions frame the review’s conceptual organization, facilitating the organization of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis. Comparative analysis of the literature suggests an uneven clustering of discipline-related subject matter across the literature’s “higher order” dimensions, with a much smaller body of literature related to landscape architecture confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of literature is associated with other fields of study, but inferentially related to landscape architecture. The review offers separate references and bibliographies for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically.

  10. Textile Architecture

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen

    2010-01-01

    Textiles can be used as building skins, adding new aesthetic and functional qualities to architecture. Just like we as humans can put on a coat, buildings can also get dressed. Depending on our mood, or on the weather, we can change coat, and so can the building. But the idea of using textiles...

  11. From green architecture to architectural green

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  12. DNA Mismatch Binding and Antiproliferative Activity of Rhodium Metalloinsertors

    Ernst, Russell J.; Song, Hang; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2009-01-01

    Deficiencies in mismatch repair (MMR) are associated with carcinogenesis. Rhodium metalloinsertors bind to DNA base mismatches with high specificity and inhibit cellular proliferation preferentially in MMR-deficient cells versus MMR-proficient cells. A family of chrysenequinone diimine complexes of rhodium with varying ancillary ligands that serve as DNA metalloinsertors has been synthesized, and both DNA mismatch binding affinities and antiproliferative activities against the human colorectal carcinoma cell lines HCT116N and HCT116O, an isogenic model system for MMR deficiency, have been determined. DNA photocleavage experiments reveal that all complexes bind to the mismatch sites with high specificities; DNA binding affinities to oligonucleotides containing single base CA and CC mismatches, obtained through photocleavage titration or competition, vary from 104 to 108 M−1 for the series of complexes. Significantly, binding affinities are found to be inversely related to ancillary ligand size and directly related to differential inhibition of the HCT116 cell lines. The observed trend in binding affinity is consistent with the metalloinsertion mode where the complex binds from the minor groove with ejection of mismatched base pairs. The correlation between binding affinity and targeting of the MMR-deficient cell line suggests that rhodium metalloinsertors exert their selective biological effects on MMR-deficient cells through mismatch binding in vivo. PMID:19175313

  13. MUF architecture /art London

    Svenningsen Kajita, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Om MUF architecture samt interview med Liza Fior og Katherine Clarke, partnere i muf architecture/art......Om MUF architecture samt interview med Liza Fior og Katherine Clarke, partnere i muf architecture/art...

  14. Architectural fragments

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    I have created a large collection of plaster models: a collection of Obstructions, errors and opportunities that may develop into architecture. The models are fragments of different complex shapes as well as more simple circular models with different profiling and diameters. In this contect I have....... I try to invent the ways of drawing the models - that decode and unfold them into architectural fragments- into future buildings or constructions in the landscape. [1] Luigi Moretti: Italian architect, 1907 - 1973 [2] Man Ray: American artist, 1890 - 1976. in 2015, I saw the wonderful exhibition...... "Man Ray - Human Equations" at the Glyptotek in Copenhagen, organized by the Philips Collection in Washington D.C. and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem (in 2013). See also: "Man Ray - Human Equations" catalogue published by Hatje Cantz Verlag, Germany, 2014....

  15. Kosmos = architecture

    Tine Kurent

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available The old Greek word "kosmos" means not only "cosmos", but also "the beautiful order", "the way of building", "building", "scenography", "mankind", and, in the time of the New Testament, also "pagans". The word "arhitekton", meaning first the "master of theatrical scenography", acquired the meaning of "builder", when the words "kosmos" and ~kosmetes" became pejorative. The fear that architecture was not considered one of the arts before Renaissance, since none of the Muses supervised the art of building, results from the misunderstanding of the word "kosmos". Urania was the Goddes of the activity implied in the verb "kosmein", meaning "to put in the beautiful order" - everything, from the universe to the man-made space, i. e. the architecture.

  16. Metabolistic Architecture

    2013-01-01

    Textile Spaces presents different approaches to using textile as a spatial definer and artistic medium. The publication collages images and text, art and architecture, science, philosophy and literature, process and product, past, present and future. It forms an insight into soft materials' funct......' functional and poetic potentials, linking the disciplines through fragments that aim to inspire a further look into the artists' and architects' practices, while simultaneously framing these textile visions in a wider context.......Textile Spaces presents different approaches to using textile as a spatial definer and artistic medium. The publication collages images and text, art and architecture, science, philosophy and literature, process and product, past, present and future. It forms an insight into soft materials...

  17. Enterprise Architecture beyond the Enterprise:Extended Enterprise Architecture Revisited

    Tambo, Torben

    2017-01-01

    As the most enterprises are relying on relations to other enterprises, it is relevant to consider enterprise architecture for inter-organisational relations particularly those relations involving technology. This has been conceptualised as Extended Enterprise Architecture, and a systematic review of this discipline is the topic of this paper. This paper is taking a point of departure in general theories of business-to-business relationships along with inter-organisational information systems,...

  18. Enterprise Architecture beyond the Enterprise

    Tambo, Torben

    2017-01-01

    of this discipline is the topic of this paper. This paper is taking a point of departure in general theories of business-to-business relationships along with inter-organisational information systems, interoperability and business ecosystems. The general theories are applied to the Extended Enterprise Architecture...... organisational boundaries. A case is presented of an enterprise engaging in technology-based business process integration that in turn is explicated as enterprise architecture initiatives with both more and less powerful partners. This paper underlines the necessity to be able to have EA spanning initiatives......As the most enterprises are relying on relations to other enterprises, it is relevant to consider enterprise architecture for inter-organisational relations particularly those relations involving technology. This has been conceptualised as Extended Enterprise Architecture, and a systematic review...

  19. Interobserver variability in the evaluation of mismatch repair protein immunostaining

    Klarskov, Louise Laurberg; Ladelund, Steen; Holck, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Immunohistochemical staining for mismatch repair proteins has during recent years been established as a routine analysis in many pathology laboratories with the aim to identify tumors linked to the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. Despite widespread application, data on reliabi......Immunohistochemical staining for mismatch repair proteins has during recent years been established as a routine analysis in many pathology laboratories with the aim to identify tumors linked to the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. Despite widespread application, data...... on reliability are lacking. We therefore evaluated interobserver variability among 6 pathologists, 3 experienced gastrointestinal pathologists and 3 residents. In total, 225 immunohistochemically stained colorectal cancers were evaluated as having normal, weak, loss of, or nonevaluable mismatch repair protein...... variability was considerable, though experienced pathologists and residents reached the same level of consensus. Because results from immunohistochemical mismatch repair protein stainings are used for decisions on mutation analysis and as an aid in the interpretation of gene variants of unknown significance...

  20. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...

  1. Identification of a mismatch-specific endonuclease in hyperthermophilic Archaea.

    Ishino, Sonoko; Nishi, Yuki; Oda, Soichiro; Uemori, Takashi; Sagara, Takehiro; Takatsu, Nariaki; Yamagami, Takeshi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2016-04-20

    The common mismatch repair system processed by MutS and MutL and their homologs was identified in Bacteria and Eukarya. However, no evidence of a functional MutS/L homolog has been reported for archaeal organisms, and it is not known whether the mismatch repair system is conserved in Archaea. Here, we describe an endonuclease that cleaves double-stranded DNA containing a mismatched base pair, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus The corresponding gene revealed that the activity originates from PF0012, and we named this enzyme Endonuclease MS (EndoMS) as the mismatch-specific Endonuclease. The sequence similarity suggested that EndoMS is the ortholog of NucS isolated from Pyrococcus abyssi, published previously. Biochemical characterizations of the EndoMS homolog from Thermococcus kodakarensis clearly showed that EndoMS specifically cleaves both strands of double-stranded DNA into 5'-protruding forms, with the mismatched base pair in the central position. EndoMS cleaves G/T, G/G, T/T, T/C and A/G mismatches, with a more preference for G/T, G/G and T/T, but has very little or no effect on C/C, A/C and A/A mismatches. The discovery of this endonuclease suggests the existence of a novel mismatch repair process, initiated by the double-strand break generated by the EndoMS endonuclease, in Archaea and some Bacteria. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Mismatch characteristics of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    Novák, Ondřej; Turčičová, Hana; Divoký, Martin; Huynh, Jaroslav; Straka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2014), 1-7 ISSN 1612-2011 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0814; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : phase matching * phase mismatch * beam mismatch * broadband amplification * parametric amplifiers * OPCPA * iodine laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.458, year: 2014

  3. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement

    Broadwater, D.?W.?Bo; Kim, Harold?D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied si...

  4. Replication infidelity via a mismatch with Watson-Crick geometry.

    Bebenek, Katarzyna; Pedersen, Lars C; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2011-02-01

    In describing the DNA double helix, Watson and Crick suggested that "spontaneous mutation may be due to a base occasionally occurring in one of its less likely tautomeric forms." Indeed, among many mispairing possibilities, either tautomerization or ionization of bases might allow a DNA polymerase to insert a mismatch with correct Watson-Crick geometry. However, despite substantial progress in understanding the structural basis of error prevention during polymerization, no DNA polymerase has yet been shown to form a natural base-base mismatch with Watson-Crick-like geometry. Here we provide such evidence, in the form of a crystal structure of a human DNA polymerase λ variant poised to misinsert dGTP opposite a template T. All atoms needed for catalysis are present at the active site and in positions that overlay with those for a correct base pair. The mismatch has Watson-Crick geometry consistent with a tautomeric or ionized base pair, with the pH dependence of misinsertion consistent with the latter. The results support the original idea that a base substitution can originate from a mismatch having Watson-Crick geometry, and they suggest a common catalytic mechanism for inserting a correct and an incorrect nucleotide. A second structure indicates that after misinsertion, the now primer-terminal G • T mismatch is also poised for catalysis but in the wobble conformation seen in other studies, indicating the dynamic nature of the pathway required to create a mismatch in fully duplex DNA.

  5. Replication infidelity via a mismatch with Watson–Crick geometry

    Bebenek, Katarzyna; Pedersen, Lars C.; Kunkel, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    In describing the DNA double helix, Watson and Crick suggested that “spontaneous mutation may be due to a base occasionally occurring in one of its less likely tautomeric forms.” Indeed, among many mispairing possibilities, either tautomerization or ionization of bases might allow a DNA polymerase to insert a mismatch with correct Watson–Crick geometry. However, despite substantial progress in understanding the structural basis of error prevention during polymerization, no DNA polymerase has yet been shown to form a natural base–base mismatch with Watson–Crick-like geometry. Here we provide such evidence, in the form of a crystal structure of a human DNA polymerase λ variant poised to misinsert dGTP opposite a template T. All atoms needed for catalysis are present at the active site and in positions that overlay with those for a correct base pair. The mismatch has Watson–Crick geometry consistent with a tautomeric or ionized base pair, with the pH dependence of misinsertion consistent with the latter. The results support the original idea that a base substitution can originate from a mismatch having Watson–Crick geometry, and they suggest a common catalytic mechanism for inserting a correct and an incorrect nucleotide. A second structure indicates that after misinsertion, the now primer-terminal G•T mismatch is also poised for catalysis but in the wobble conformation seen in other studies, indicating the dynamic nature of the pathway required to create a mismatch in fully duplex DNA. PMID:21233421

  6. Connecting Architecture and Implementation

    Buchgeher, Georg; Weinreich, Rainer

    Software architectures are still typically defined and described independently from implementation. To avoid architectural erosion and drift, architectural representation needs to be continuously updated and synchronized with system implementation. Existing approaches for architecture representation like informal architecture documentation, UML diagrams, and Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) provide only limited support for connecting architecture descriptions and implementations. Architecture management tools like Lattix, SonarJ, and Sotoarc and UML-tools tackle this problem by extracting architecture information directly from code. This approach works for low-level architectural abstractions like classes and interfaces in object-oriented systems but fails to support architectural abstractions not found in programming languages. In this paper we present an approach for linking and continuously synchronizing a formalized architecture representation to an implementation. The approach is a synthesis of functionality provided by code-centric architecture management and UML tools and higher-level architecture analysis approaches like ADLs.

  7. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  8. Evolution and Adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Driven by Mismatch Repair System-Deficient Mutators

    Luján, Adela M.; Maciá, María D.; Yang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    , which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS)], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic...... infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition...... diversification, evidenced by biofilm architecture features and by a wider range and proportion of morphotypic colony variants, respectively. Additionally, morphotypic variants generated in mutator biofilms showed increased competitiveness, providing further evidence for mutator-driven adaptive evolution...

  9. HLA-DQ Mismatching and Kidney Transplant Outcomes.

    Leeaphorn, Napat; Pena, Jeremy Ryan A; Thamcharoen, Natanong; Khankin, Eliyahu V; Pavlakis, Martha; Cardarelli, Francesca

    2018-05-07

    Recent evidence suggests that HLA epitope-mismatching at HLA-DQ loci is associated with the development of anti-DQ donor-specific antibodies and adverse graft outcomes. However, the clinical significance of broad antigen HLA-DQ mismatching for graft outcomes is not well examined. Using the United Network Organ Sharing/the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (UNOS/OPTN) data, patients with primary kidney transplants performed between 2005 and 2014 were included. Patients were classified as having either zero HLA-DQ mismatches, or one or two HLA-DQ mismatches. Primary outcomes were death-censored graft survival and incidence of acute rejection. A total of 93,782 patients were included. Of these, 22,730 (24%) and 71,052 (76%) received zero and one or two HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys, respectively. After adjusting for variables including HLA-ABDR, HLA-DQ mismatching was associated with a higher risk of graft loss in living kidney donor recipients with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.18 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.07 to 1.30; P HLA-DQ mismatching was associated with a higher risk of graft loss in deceased kidney donor recipients with cold ischemic time ≤17 hours (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.27; P =0.002), but not in deceased kidney donor recipients with cold ischemic time >17 hours (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.06; P =0.49) ( P value for interaction HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys had a higher incidence of acute rejection at 1 year, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.23; P transplant recipients. Specific donor-DQ mismatches seemed to be associated with the risk of acute rejection and graft failure, whereas others did not. HLA-DQ mismatching is associated with lower graft survival independent of HLA-ABDR in living donor kidney transplants and deceased donor kidney transplants with cold ischemia time ≤17 hours, and a higher 1-year risk of acute rejection in living and deceased donor kidney transplants. Copyright © 2018 by the American

  10. Architectural Drawing

    Steinø, Nicolai

    2018-01-01

    In a time of computer aided design, computer graphics and parametric design tools, the art of architectural drawing is in a state of neglect. But design and drawing are inseparably linked in ways which often go unnoticed. Essentially, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to conceive of a design...... is that computers can represent graphic ideas both faster and better than most medium-skilled draftsmen, drawing in design is not only about representing final designs. In fact, several steps involving the capacity to draw lie before the representation of a final design. Not only is drawing skills an important...... prerequisite for learning about the nature of existing objects and spaces, and thus to build a vocabulary of design. It is also a prerequisite for both reflecting and communicating about design ideas. In this paper, a taxonomy of notation, reflection, communication and presentation drawing is presented...

  11. Architectural Theatricality

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    In the attempt to improve patient treatment and recovery, researchers focus on applying concepts of hospitality to hospitals. Often these concepts are dominated by hotel-metaphors focusing on host–guest relationships or concierge services. Motivated by a project trying to improve patient treatment...... is known for his writings on theatricality, understood as a holistic design approach emphasizing the contextual, cultural, ritual and social meanings rooted in architecture. Relative hereto, the International Food Design Society recently argued, in a similar holistic manner, that the methodology used...... to provide an aesthetic eating experience includes knowledge on both food and design. Based on a hermeneutic reading of Semper’s theory, our thesis is that this holistic design approach is important when debating concepts of hospitality in hospitals. We use this approach to argue for how ‘food design...

  12. Lab architecture

    Crease, Robert P.

    2008-04-01

    There are few more dramatic illustrations of the vicissitudes of laboratory architecturethan the contrast between Building 20 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its replacement, the Ray and Maria Stata Center. Building 20 was built hurriedly in 1943 as temporary housing for MIT's famous Rad Lab, the site of wartime radar research, and it remained a productive laboratory space for over half a century. A decade ago it was demolished to make way for the Stata Center, an architecturally striking building designed by Frank Gehry to house MIT's computer science and artificial intelligence labs (above). But in 2004 - just two years after the Stata Center officially opened - the building was criticized for being unsuitable for research and became the subject of still ongoing lawsuits alleging design and construction failures.

  13. Processes influencing model-data mismatch in drought-stressed, fire-disturbed eddy flux sites

    Mitchell, Stephen; Beven, Keith; Freer, Jim; Law, Beverly

    2011-06-01

    Semiarid forests are very sensitive to climatic change and among the most difficult ecosystems to accurately model. We tested the performance of the Biome-BGC model against eddy flux data taken from young (years 2004-2008), mature (years 2002-2008), and old-growth (year 2000) ponderosa pine stands at Metolius, Oregon, and subsequently examined several potential causes for model-data mismatch. We used the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation methodology, which involved 500,000 model runs for each stand (1,500,000 total). Each simulation was run with randomly generated parameter values from a uniform distribution based on published parameter ranges, resulting in modeled estimates of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) that were compared to measured eddy flux data. Simulations for the young stand exhibited the highest level of performance, though they overestimated ecosystem C accumulation (-NEE) 99% of the time. Among the simulations for the mature and old-growth stands, 100% and 99% of the simulations underestimated ecosystem C accumulation. One obvious area of model-data mismatch is soil moisture, which was overestimated by the model in the young and old-growth stands yet underestimated in the mature stand. However, modeled estimates of soil water content and associated water deficits did not appear to be the primary cause of model-data mismatch; our analysis indicated that gross primary production can be accurately modeled even if soil moisture content is not. Instead, difficulties in adequately modeling ecosystem respiration, mainly autotrophic respiration, appeared to be the fundamental cause of model-data mismatch.

  14. Homozygous germ-line mutation of the PMS2 mismatch repair gene: a unique case report of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD)

    Ramchander, N. C.; Ryan, N. A. J.; Crosbie, E. J.; Evans, D. G.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundConstitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome results from bi-allelic inheritance of mutations affecting the key DNA mismatch repair genes: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Individuals with bi-allelic mutations have a dysfunctional mismatch repair system from birth; as a result, constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome is characterised by early onset malignancies. Fewer than 150 cases have been reported in the literature over the past 20 years. This is the first report of th...

  15. Log-layer mismatch and modeling of the fluctuating wall stress in wall-modeled large-eddy simulations

    Yang, Xiang I. A.; Park, George Ilhwan; Moin, Parviz

    2017-10-01

    Log-layer mismatch refers to a chronic problem found in wall-modeled large-eddy simulation (WMLES) or detached-eddy simulation, where the modeled wall-shear stress deviates from the true one by approximately 15 % . Many efforts have been made to resolve this mismatch. The often-used fixes, which are generally ad hoc, include modifying subgrid-scale stress models, adding a stochastic forcing, and moving the LES-wall-model matching location away from the wall. An analysis motivated by the integral wall-model formalism suggests that log-layer mismatch is resolved by the built-in physics-based temporal filtering. In this work we investigate in detail the effects of local filtering on log-layer mismatch. We show that both local temporal filtering and local wall-parallel filtering resolve log-layer mismatch without moving the LES-wall-model matching location away from the wall. Additionally, we look into the momentum balance in the near-wall region to provide an alternative explanation of how LLM occurs, which does not necessarily rely on the numerical-error argument. While filtering resolves log-layer mismatch, the quality of the wall-shear stress fluctuations predicted by WMLES does not improve with our remedy. The wall-shear stress fluctuations are highly underpredicted due to the implied use of LES filtering. However, good agreement can be found when the WMLES data are compared to the direct numerical simulation data filtered at the corresponding WMLES resolutions.

  16. Executable Architecture Research at Old Dominion University

    Tolk, Andreas; Shuman, Edwin A.; Garcia, Johnny J.

    2011-01-01

    Executable Architectures allow the evaluation of system architectures not only regarding their static, but also their dynamic behavior. However, the systems engineering community do not agree on a common formal specification of executable architectures. To close this gap and identify necessary elements of an executable architecture, a modeling language, and a modeling formalism is topic of ongoing PhD research. In addition, systems are generally defined and applied in an operational context to provide capabilities and enable missions. To maximize the benefits of executable architectures, a second PhD effort introduces the idea of creating an executable context in addition to the executable architecture. The results move the validation of architectures from the current information domain into the knowledge domain and improve the reliability of such validation efforts. The paper presents research and results of both doctoral research efforts and puts them into a common context of state-of-the-art of systems engineering methods supporting more agility.

  17. Theatre and Cinema Architecture: A Guide to Information Sources.

    Stoddard, Richard

    This annotated bibliography cites works related to theatres, movie houses, opera houses, and dance facilities. It is divided into three parts: general references, theatre architecture, and cinema architecture. The part on general references includes bibliographies and periodicals. The second and main part of the guide, on theatre architecture,…

  18. Direct Mismatch Characterization of femto-Farad Capacitors

    Omran, Hesham

    2015-08-17

    Reducing the capacitance of programmable capacitor arrays, commonly used in analog integrated circuits, is necessary for low-energy applications. However, limited mismatch data is available for small capacitors. We report mismatch measurement for a 2fF poly-insulator-poly (PIP) capacitor, which is the smallest reported PIP capacitor to the best of the authors’ knowledge. Instead of using complicated custom onchip circuitry, direct mismatch measurement is demonstrated and verified using Monte Carlo Simulations and experimental measurements. Capacitive test structures composed of 9 bit programmable capacitor arrays (PCAs) are implemented in a low-cost 0:35m CMOS process. Measured data is compared to mismatch of large PIP capacitors, theoretical models, and recently published data. Measurement results indicate an estimated average relative standard deviation of 0.43% for the 2fF unit capacitor, which is better than the reported mismatch of metal-oxide-metal (MOM) fringing capacitors implemented in an advanced 32nm CMOS process.

  19. The Effect of Codon Mismatch on the Protein Translation System.

    Dinglin Zhang

    Full Text Available Incorrect protein translation, caused by codon mismatch, is an important problem of living cells. In this work, a computational model was introduced to quantify the effects of codon mismatch and the model was used to study the protein translation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. According to simulation results, the probability of codon mismatch will increase when the supply of amino acids is unbalanced, and the longer is the codon sequence, the larger is the probability for incorrect translation to occur, making the synthesis of long peptide chain difficult. By comparing to simulation results without codon mismatch effects taken into account, the fraction of mRNAs with bound ribosome decrease faster along the mRNAs, making the 5' ramp phenomenon more obvious. It was also found in our work that the premature mechanism resulted from codon mismatch can reduce the proportion of incorrect translation when the amino acid supply is extremely unbalanced, which is one possible source of high fidelity protein synthesis after peptidyl transfer.

  20. The Effect of Codon Mismatch on the Protein Translation System.

    Zhang, Dinglin; Chen, Danfeng; Cao, Liaoran; Li, Guohui; Cheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Incorrect protein translation, caused by codon mismatch, is an important problem of living cells. In this work, a computational model was introduced to quantify the effects of codon mismatch and the model was used to study the protein translation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. According to simulation results, the probability of codon mismatch will increase when the supply of amino acids is unbalanced, and the longer is the codon sequence, the larger is the probability for incorrect translation to occur, making the synthesis of long peptide chain difficult. By comparing to simulation results without codon mismatch effects taken into account, the fraction of mRNAs with bound ribosome decrease faster along the mRNAs, making the 5' ramp phenomenon more obvious. It was also found in our work that the premature mechanism resulted from codon mismatch can reduce the proportion of incorrect translation when the amino acid supply is extremely unbalanced, which is one possible source of high fidelity protein synthesis after peptidyl transfer.

  1. Direct Mismatch Characterization of femto-Farad Capacitors

    Omran, Hesham; Elafandy, Rami T.; Arsalan, Muhammad; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the capacitance of programmable capacitor arrays, commonly used in analog integrated circuits, is necessary for low-energy applications. However, limited mismatch data is available for small capacitors. We report mismatch measurement for a 2fF poly-insulator-poly (PIP) capacitor, which is the smallest reported PIP capacitor to the best of the authors’ knowledge. Instead of using complicated custom onchip circuitry, direct mismatch measurement is demonstrated and verified using Monte Carlo Simulations and experimental measurements. Capacitive test structures composed of 9 􀀀 bit programmable capacitor arrays (PCAs) are implemented in a low-cost 0:35m CMOS process. Measured data is compared to mismatch of large PIP capacitors, theoretical models, and recently published data. Measurement results indicate an estimated average relative standard deviation of 0.43% for the 2fF unit capacitor, which is better than the reported mismatch of metal-oxide-metal (MOM) fringing capacitors implemented in an advanced 32nm CMOS process.

  2. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE : WHAT ARCHITECTURE STUDENTS THINK

    SATWIKO, PRASASTO

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable architecture has become a hot issue lately as the impacts of climate change become more intense. Architecture educations have responded by integrating knowledge of sustainable design in their curriculum. However, in the real life, new buildings keep coming with designs that completely ignore sustainable principles. This paper discusses the results of two national competitions on sustainable architecture targeted for architecture students (conducted in 2012 and 2013). The results a...

  3. Architecture for autonomy

    Broten, Gregory S.; Monckton, Simon P.; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared

    2006-05-01

    In 2002 Defence R&D Canada changed research direction from pure tele-operated land vehicles to general autonomy for land, air, and sea craft. The unique constraints of the military environment coupled with the complexity of autonomous systems drove DRDC to carefully plan a research and development infrastructure that would provide state of the art tools without restricting research scope. DRDC's long term objectives for its autonomy program address disparate unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), unattended ground sensor (UGS), air (UAV), and subsea and surface (UUV and USV) vehicles operating together with minimal human oversight. Individually, these systems will range in complexity from simple reconnaissance mini-UAVs streaming video to sophisticated autonomous combat UGVs exploiting embedded and remote sensing. Together, these systems can provide low risk, long endurance, battlefield services assuming they can communicate and cooperate with manned and unmanned systems. A key enabling technology for this new research is a software architecture capable of meeting both DRDC's current and future requirements. DRDC built upon recent advances in the computing science field while developing its software architecture know as the Architecture for Autonomy (AFA). Although a well established practice in computing science, frameworks have only recently entered common use by unmanned vehicles. For industry and government, the complexity, cost, and time to re-implement stable systems often exceeds the perceived benefits of adopting a modern software infrastructure. Thus, most persevere with legacy software, adapting and modifying software when and wherever possible or necessary -- adopting strategic software frameworks only when no justifiable legacy exists. Conversely, academic programs with short one or two year projects frequently exploit strategic software frameworks but with little enduring impact. The open-source movement radically changes this picture. Academic frameworks

  4. An Architecture for Health Information Exchange in Pervasive Healthcare Environment

    Cardoso de Moraes, J.L.; Lopes de Souza, Wanderley; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Francisco do Prado, Antonio; Hammoudi, S.; Cordeiro, J.; Maciaszek, L.A.; Filipe, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for health information exchange in pervasive healthcare environments meant to be generally applicable to different applications in the healthcare domain. Our architecture has been designed for message exchange by integrating ubiquitous computing technologies,

  5. Measurement of MOS current mismatch in the weak inversion region

    Forti, F.; Wright, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The MOS transistor matching properties in the weak inversion region have not received, in the past, the attention that the mismatch in the strong inversion region has. The importance of weak inversion biased transistors in low power CMOS analog systems calls for more extensive data on the mismatch in this region of operation. The study presented in this paper was motivated by the need of controlling the threshold matching in a low power, low noise amplifier discriminator circuit used in a silicon radiation detector read-out, where both the transistor dimensions and the currents had to be kept to a minimum. The authors have measured the current matching properties of MOS transistors operated in the weak inversion region. They measured a total of about 1,400 PMOS and NMOS transistors produced in four different processes and report here the results in terms of mismatch dependence on current density, device dimensions, and substrate voltage, without using any specific model for the transistor

  6. High fitness costs of climate change-induced camouflage mismatch.

    Zimova, Marketa; Mills, L Scott; Nowak, J Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has created myriad stressors that threaten to cause local extinctions if wild populations fail to adapt to novel conditions. We studied individual and population-level fitness costs of a climate change-induced stressor: camouflage mismatch in seasonally colour molting species confronting decreasing snow cover duration. Based on field measurements of radiocollared snowshoe hares, we found strong selection on coat colour molt phenology, such that animals mismatched with the colour of their background experienced weekly survival decreases up to 7%. In the absence of adaptive response, we show that these mortality costs would result in strong population-level declines by the end of the century. However, natural selection acting on wide individual variation in molt phenology might enable evolutionary adaptation to camouflage mismatch. We conclude that evolutionary rescue will be critical for hares and other colour molting species to keep up with climate change. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Simulation studies of emittance growth in RMS mismatched beams

    Cucchetti, A.; Wangler, T.; Reiser, M.

    1991-01-01

    As shown in a separate paper, a charged-particle beam, whose rms size is not matched when injected into a transport channel or accelerator, has excess energy compared with that of a matched beam. If nonlinear space-charge forces are present and the mismatched beam transforms to a matched equilibrium state, rms-emittance growth will occur. The theory yields formulas for the possible rms-emittance growth, but not for the time it takes to achieve this growth. In this paper we present the results of systematic simulation studies for a mismatched 2-D round beam in an ideal transport channel with continuous linear focusing. Emittance growth rates obtained from the simulations for different amounts of mismatch and initial charge will be presented and the emittance growth will be compared with the theory. 6 refs., 7 figs

  8. Architectural Quality of Low Energy Houses

    Lauring, Michael; Marsh, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper expounds a systematic vocabulary concerning architectural quality in houses in general and low energy houses in particular. The vocabulary consists of nine themes. Inside each theme, examples are given of how to achieve both architectural quality and good environmental performance....... The purpose is to provide a useful tool for communication and argumentation in order to further integrated design of houses with good architecture and good environmental performance. ...

  9. Modeling Architectural Patterns Using Architectural Primitives

    Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris

    2005-01-01

    Architectural patterns are a key point in architectural documentation. Regrettably, there is poor support for modeling architectural patterns, because the pattern elements are not directly matched by elements in modeling languages, and, at the same time, patterns support an inherent variability that

  10. Software architecture 2

    Oussalah, Mourad Chabanne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural templa

  11. Lightweight enterprise architectures

    Theuerkorn, Fenix

    2004-01-01

    STATE OF ARCHITECTUREArchitectural ChaosRelation of Technology and Architecture The Many Faces of Architecture The Scope of Enterprise Architecture The Need for Enterprise ArchitectureThe History of Architecture The Current Environment Standardization Barriers The Need for Lightweight Architecture in the EnterpriseThe Cost of TechnologyThe Benefits of Enterprise Architecture The Domains of Architecture The Gap between Business and ITWhere Does LEA Fit? LEA's FrameworkFrameworks, Methodologies, and Approaches The Framework of LEATypes of Methodologies Types of ApproachesActual System Environmen

  12. Software architecture 1

    Oussalah , Mourad Chabane

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural template

  13. Future of information architecture

    Baofu, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Future of Information Architecture examines issues surrounding why information is processed, stored and applied in the way that it has, since time immemorial. Contrary to the conventional wisdom held by many scholars in human history, the recurrent debate on the explanation of the most basic categories of information (eg space, time causation, quality, quantity) has been misconstrued, to the effect that there exists some deeper categories and principles behind these categories of information - with enormous implications for our understanding of reality in general. To understand this, the b

  14. Advanced router architectures

    Kloth, Axel K

    2005-01-01

    Routers, switches, and transmission equipment form the backbone of the Internet, yet many users and service technicians do not understand how these nodes really work.Advanced Router Architectures addresses how components of advanced routers work together and how they are integrated with each other. This book provides the background behind why these building blocks perform certain functions, and how the function is implemented in general use. It offers an introduction to the subject matter that is intended to trigger deeper interest from the reader. The book explains, for example, why traffic m

  15. Mobile networks architecture

    Perez, Andre

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the evolutions of architecture for mobiles and summarizes the different technologies:- 2G: the GSM (Global System for Mobile) network, the GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) network and the EDGE (Enhanced Data for Global Evolution) evolution;- 3G: the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) network and the HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) evolutions:- HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access),- HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access),- HSPA+;- 4G: the EPS (Evolved Packet System) network.The telephone service and data transmission are the

  16. Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome: Do we know it?

    Ramachandra, C; Challa, Vasu Reddy; Shetty, Rachan

    2014-04-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome caused by homozygous mutations in mismatch repair genes. This is characterized by the childhood onset of brain tumors, colorectal cancers, cutaneous manifestations of neurofibromatosis-1 like café au lait spots, hematological malignancies, and occasionally other rare malignancies. Here, we would like to present a family in which the sibling had glioblastoma, and the present case had acute lymphoblastic lymphoma and colorectal cancer. We would like to present this case because of its rarity and would add to literature.

  17. Advanced radar detection schemes under mismatched signal models

    Bandiera, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive detection of signals embedded in correlated Gaussian noise has been an active field of research in the last decades. This topic is important in many areas of signal processing such as, just to give some examples, radar, sonar, communications, and hyperspectral imaging. Most of the existing adaptive algorithms have been designed following the lead of the derivation of Kelly's detector which assumes perfect knowledge of the target steering vector. However, in realistic scenarios, mismatches are likely to occur due to both environmental and instrumental factors. When a mismatched signal

  18. Acoustic Evidence for Phonologically Mismatched Speech Errors

    Gormley, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Speech errors are generally said to accommodate to their new phonological context. This accommodation has been validated by several transcription studies. The transcription methodology is not the best choice for detecting errors at this level, however, as this type of error can be difficult to perceive. This paper presents an acoustic analysis of…

  19. Evaluation of Architectural Spatial Quality in Patients’ Rooms in the Context of User Satisfaction in General Hospitals: A Case study in Gaziantep

    Aslı SUNGUR ERGENOĞLU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare facilities are being evaluated throughout the world determine to what extent they are meeting the needs of patients. Evidence-based research is gaining importance in Turkey as hospital designers strive to increase patients’ satisfaction. In this paper, we will examine the results of a case study conducted to evaluate the spatial quality of patients’ rooms in the context of their satisfaction. Two private general healthcare buildings in Gaziantep were examined in the case study. We chose to evaluate private hospitals because we assumed they would have better conditions than state hospitals. We also took into consideration that these healthcare institutions are in the process of accreditation. Surgeries are frequently conducted here and long-term stays are common. In order to evaluate the subject thoroughly, we used a both a questionnaire and a checklist to gather information. Problems with the spatial quality of the rooms will be identified in the discussion chapter. The examples chosen for the study have showed significant development in available services and space. Using the data obtained from the case study, we have chosen three categories of design criteria through which to evaluate these facilities. Findings will be presented under the headings of function, aesthetics and safety in the results chapter.

  20. Classifying and evaluating architecture design methods

    Aksit, Mehmet; Tekinerdogan, B.

    1999-01-01

    The concept of software architecture has gained a wide popularity and is generally considered to play a fundamental role in coping with the inherent difficulties of the development of large-scale and complex software systems. This document first gives a definition of architectures. Second, a

  1. Classifying and Evaluating Architecture Design Methods

    Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, Mehmet; Aksit, Mehmet

    2002-01-01

    The concept of software architecture has gained a wide popularity and is generally considered to play a fundamental role in coping with the inherent difficulties of the development of large-scale and complex software systems. This chapter first gives a definition of architecture. Second, a

  2. Architectural design decisions

    Jansen, Antonius Gradus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A software architecture can be considered as the collection of key decisions concerning the design of the software of a system. Knowledge about this design, i.e. architectural knowledge, is key for understanding a software architecture and thus the software itself. Architectural knowledge is mostly

  3. Information Integration Architecture Development

    Faulkner, Stéphane; Kolp, Manuel; Nguyen, Duy Thai; Coyette, Adrien; Do, Thanh Tung; 16th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) architectures are gaining popularity for building open, distributed, and evolving software required by systems such as information integration applications. Unfortunately, despite considerable work in software architecture during the last decade, few research efforts have aimed at truly defining patterns and languages for designing such multiagent architectures. We propose a modern approach based on organizational structures and architectural description lan...

  4. Fragments of Architecture

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Topic 3: “Case studies dealing with the artistic and architectural work of architects worldwide, and the ties between specific artistic and architectural projects, methodologies and products”......Topic 3: “Case studies dealing with the artistic and architectural work of architects worldwide, and the ties between specific artistic and architectural projects, methodologies and products”...

  5. Mismatch of Vocational Graduates: What Penalty on French Labour Market?

    Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…

  6. DNA mismatch repair, genome instability and cancer in zebrafish

    Feitsma, H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out whether the zebrafish can be an appropriate model for studying DNA repair and cancer. For this purpose three fish lines were used that lack components of an important mechanism for the repair of small DNA damage: DNA mismatch repair. These fish are

  7. Mismatch repair genes in Lynch syndrome: a review

    Felipe Cavalcanti Carneiro da Silva

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome represents 1-7% of all cases of colorectal cancer and is an autosomal-dominant inherited cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA mismatch repair genes. Since the discovery of the major human genes with DNA mismatch repair function, mutations in five of them have been correlated with susceptibility to Lynch syndrome: mutS homolog 2 (MSH2; mutL homolog 1 (MLH1; mutS homolog 6 (MSH6; postmeiotic segregation increased 2 (PMS2; and postmeiotic segregation increased 1 (PMS1. It has been proposed that one additional mismatch repair gene, mutL homolog 3 (MLH3, also plays a role in Lynch syndrome predisposition, but the clinical significance of mutations in this gene is less clear. According to the InSiGHT database (International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumors, approximately 500 different LS-associated mismatch repair gene mutations are known, primarily involving MLH1 (50% and MSH2 (40%, while others account for 10%. Much progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of Lynch Syndrome. Molecular characterization will be the most accurate way of defining Lynch syndrome and will provide predictive information of greater accuracy regarding the risks of colon and extracolonic cancer and enable optimal cancer surveillance regimens.

  8. Review: Clinical aspects of hereditary DNA Mismatch repair gene mutations

    Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.

    Inherited mutations of the DNA Mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 can result in two hereditary tumor syndromes: the adult-onset autosomal dominant Lynch syndrome, previously referred to as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) and the childhood-onset autosomal recessive

  9. Educational Mismatch and Spatial Flexibility in Italian Local Labour Markets

    Croce, Giuseppe; Ghignoni, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    According to recent literature, this paper highlights the relevance of spatial mobility as an explanatory factor of the individual risk of job-education mismatch. To investigate this causal link, we use individual information about daily home-to-work commuting time and choices to relocate in a different local area to get a job. Our model takes…

  10. Mismatch repair deficiency in colorectal cancer patients in a low ...

    2013-02-06

    Feb 6, 2013 ... This is 10% of the rate reported in First-World countries. In high-incidence areas, the rate of abnormal mismatch repair gene expression in colorectal cancers is 2 - 7%. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hMLH1- and hMSH2-deficient colorectal cancer in the. Northern Cape.

  11. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...... and excluded 61.5% of the tumors from MMR testing. This clinicopathologic index thus successfully selects MMR-defective colon cancers. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  12. Magnetic source localization of early visual mismatch response

    Susac, A.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Huonker, R.; Supek, S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported a visual analogue of the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) response that is based on sensory memory. The neural generators and attention dependence of the visual MMN (vMMN) still remain unclear. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and spatio-temporal source

  13. Hydrophobic mismatch triggering texture defects in membrane gel domains

    Dreier, J.; Brewer, J.R.; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2013-01-01

    higher mismatch values correlate with a vortex-type texture. The defect pattern created during early growth persists in larger domains, and a minimal model incorporating the anisotropic line tension and the vortex energy can rationalize this finding. The results suggest that the lipid composition...

  14. BEPS Action 2: Neutralizing the Effects on Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements

    de Boer, R.; Marres, O.

    2015-01-01

    Curbing tax arbitrage is one of the main priorities of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (endorsed by the G20 and the G8) ever since the public debate on base erosion fully erupted. Neutralizing the effect of hybrid mismatch arrangements has become Action No. 2 of the

  15. Conformations of MutS in DNA mismatch repair

    F.S. Groothuizen (Flora)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Prior to cell division, the DNA containing the genetic information of a cell has to be copied. During this process, errors are sometimes incorporated (so-called mismatches), which may cause genetic abnormalities in future cells. To prevent this, cells contain a DNA

  16. Channel normalization technique for speech recognition in mismatched conditions

    Kleynhans, N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available , where one wishes to use any available training data for a variety of purposes. Research into a new channel normalization (CN) technique for channel mismatched speech recognition is presented. A process of inverse linear filtering is used in order...

  17. Supply and Demand Mismatches in Training: Can Anything Be Done?

    Castro, Claudio de Moura; de Andrade, Antonio Cabral

    1990-01-01

    Vocational training often fails to provide what employers need and students want. To correct supply/demand mismatches requires improving feedback from employers, increasing the flow of information, bringing schools closer to businesses, rewarding institutions for successful employment of graduates, and providing incentives for entrepreneurs. (SK)

  18. Pathological assessment of mismatch repair gene variants in Lynch syndrome

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Heinen, Christopher D; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and is the most prevalent hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome. A significant proportion of variants identified in MMR and other common cancer susceptibility genes are missense or noncoding changes whose...

  19. Mismatch-shaping switching for two-capacitor DAC

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper; Moon, U.; Temes, G.C.

    1998-01-01

    A mismatch-shaping scheme is proposed for a two-capacitor digital-to-analogue converter (DAC). It uses a delta-sigma loop for finding the optimal switching sequence for each input word. Simulations indicate that the scheme can be used for the realisation of DACs with 16 bit linearity and SNR...

  20. Architectural discourse

    Boeriis, Morten; Nørgaard, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Using a multimodal social semiotic perspective, this article presents an analysis of the University of Southern Denmark as a text with particular focus on discourse and framing (cf. van Leeuwen 2005). The university consists of an original part and more recent extensions. The article examines how...... the original and the new parts of the buildings respectively realize different discourses related to education and the educational system more generally, and in particular how framing plays an important role in this respect. While employing van Leeuwen’s system network for framing (2005: 18) for the analysis...

  1. Computer architecture fundamentals and principles of computer design

    Dumas II, Joseph D

    2005-01-01

    Introduction to Computer ArchitectureWhat is Computer Architecture?Architecture vs. ImplementationBrief History of Computer SystemsThe First GenerationThe Second GenerationThe Third GenerationThe Fourth GenerationModern Computers - The Fifth GenerationTypes of Computer SystemsSingle Processor SystemsParallel Processing SystemsSpecial ArchitecturesQuality of Computer SystemsGenerality and ApplicabilityEase of UseExpandabilityCompatibilityReliabilitySuccess and Failure of Computer Architectures and ImplementationsQuality and the Perception of QualityCost IssuesArchitectural Openness, Market Timi

  2. The Changes in Architecture Terminology

    Francois Tran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this research is to inspire a discussion about the changes in architecture terminologywith the revolution in communication and representation forms as a result of digitalisation.The blurred boundary between the virtual and the analogue worlds, the misunderstandings andthe confusion that appear with the interaction of these two worlds nowadays form the major problems facing architectural design, education and research. The researchers in this field arefocused on the interface, the meeting and the transformation point between the digital and analogue worlds in order to prevent those problems and confusions. One of the main reasonsof this ambiguity is the architectural terminology that changes according to the changing status of architectural representation i.e. new forms of representation; new forms of communicationi.e. the new role of the architect and the researcher.Whenever and wherever information and knowledge specialised is created, communicated ortransformed terminology is involved in a way or another. An absence of terminology is combined with an absence of an understanding of concepts. Therefore with the new information and communication technologies; new and developing subject areas the existence of terminology and its update is indispensable. Thus the changing status of the terminology must be analysed. As architecture terminology is essential to improve today’s challenging, multidisciplinary communication in order to clarify the problems of ambiguity and unawareness (as a result of shift of specific architectural vocabulary it is necessary to analyse the changes in the architectural terminology which will form the discussion point of the following paper.As this paper is the beginning step of a research project which started on the occasion of the conference proposed by EAAE/ARCC we will here present only the objectives of this research,its general problematics, the methods that we wish to develop and some provisional

  3. Time-Predictable Computer Architecture

    Schoeberl Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's general-purpose processors are optimized for maximum throughput. Real-time systems need a processor with both a reasonable and a known worst-case execution time (WCET. Features such as pipelines with instruction dependencies, caches, branch prediction, and out-of-order execution complicate WCET analysis and lead to very conservative estimates. In this paper, we evaluate the issues of current architectures with respect to WCET analysis. Then, we propose solutions for a time-predictable computer architecture. The proposed architecture is evaluated with implementation of some features in a Java processor. The resulting processor is a good target for WCET analysis and still performs well in the average case.

  4. Architecture at Hydro-Quebec

    1991-01-01

    Architecture at Hydro-Quebec is concerned not only with combining function and aesthetics in designing buildings and other structures for an electrical utility, but also to satisfy technical and administrative needs and to help solve contemporary problems such as the rational use of energy. Examples are presented of Hydro-Quebec's architectural accomplishments in the design of hydroelectric power stations and their surrounding landscapes, thermal power stations, transmission substations, research and testing facilities, and administrative buildings. It is shown how some buildings are designed to adapt to local environments and to conserve energy. The utility's policy of conserving installations of historic value, such as certain pre-1930 power stations, is illustrated, and aspects of its general architectural policy are outlined. 20 figs.

  5. Catalyst Architecture

    with the wealthy district of Ipanema. The project, which consists of several public programs, addresses the need to open up districts in Rio and create access and connections in the socially divided city across the formal and informal areas, of which the latter counts for more than half of the population in Rio...... that it is not the intention to bring a debate on economic or more general political topics, how interesting it might seem to be. Among others, the issue of gentrification is very relevant in connection with urban renewal of urban interventions. We are very well aware of that. We mention the problem especially in the cases...... the specific challenges facing Rio de Janeiro - a divided city with the formal city and its wealthy neighborhoods on one side and on the other, the many favelas, which are not included in the regulations and public practices of the formal city. Then the case studies of the projects Cantagalo Elevator, designed...

  6. Developing a Distributed Computing Architecture at Arizona State University.

    Armann, Neil; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Development of Arizona State University's computing architecture, designed to ensure that all new distributed computing pieces will work together, is described. Aspects discussed include the business rationale, the general architectural approach, characteristics and objectives of the architecture, specific services, and impact on the university…

  7. Skill effort: A new theoretical perspective on the relation between skills, skill use, mismatches, and wages

    van der Velden, Rolf; Bijlsma, Ineke

    2017-01-01

    Mismatches between workers’ skills and job demands have large negative effects on productivity, job satisfaction, and other outcomes. Current approaches to measure the impact of skills and skill mismatches on wages fail to specify the mechanism through which skills and mismatches may affect

  8. A Calibration Method for Nonlinear Mismatches in M-Channel Time-Interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converters Based on Hadamard Sequences

    Husheng Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TIADC is an architecture used to achieve a high sampling rate and high dynamic performance. However, estimation and compensation methods are required to maintain the dynamic performance of the constituent analog-to-digital converters (ADCs due to channel mismatches. This paper proposes a blind adaptive method to calibrate the nonlinear mismatches in M-channel TIADCs (M-TIADCs. The nonlinearity-induced error signal is reconstructed by the proposed multiplier Hadamard transform (MHT structure, and the nonlinear parameters are estimated by the filtered-X least-mean square (FxLMS algorithm. The performance of cascade calibration is also analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed method consumes much less hardware resources while maintaining the calibration performance.

  9. Modeling Architectural Patterns’ Behavior Using Architectural Primitives

    Waqas Kamal, Ahmad; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    Architectural patterns have an impact on both the structure and the behavior of a system at the architecture design level. However, it is challenging to model patterns’ behavior in a systematic way because modeling languages do not provide the appropriate abstractions and because each pattern

  10. Fuzzy Backstepping Sliding Mode Control for Mismatched Uncertain System

    H. Q. Hou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sliding mode controllers have succeeded in many control problems that the conventional control theories have difficulties to deal with; however it is practically impossible to achieve high-speed switching control. Therefore, in this paper an adaptive fuzzy backstepping sliding mode control scheme is derived for mismatched uncertain systems. Firstly fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed using backstepping method based on the Lyapunov function approach, which is capable of handling mismatched problem. Then fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed using T-S fuzzy model method, it can improve the performance of the control systems and their robustness. Finally this method of control is applied to nonlinear system as a case study; simulation results are also provided the performance of the proposed controller.

  11. Hydrophobic mismatch in gramicidin A'/lecithin systems

    Watnick, P.I.; Chan, S.I.; Dea, P.

    1990-01-01

    Gramicidin A' (GA') has been added to three lipid systems of varying hydrophobic thickness: dimyristoyllecithin (DML), dipalmitoyllecithin (DPL), and distearoyllecithin (DSL). The similarity in length between the hydrophobic portion of GA' and the hydrocarbon chains of the lipid bilayers has been studied by using 31 P and 2 H NMR. Hydrophobic mismatch has been found to be most severe in the DML bilayer system and minimal in the case of DSL. In addition, the effects of hydrophobic mismatch on the cooperative properties of the bilayer have been obtained from 2 H NMR relaxation measurements. The results indicate that incorporation of the peptide into the bilayer disrupts the cooperative director fluctuations characteristic of pure multilamellar lipid dispersions. Finally, the GA'/lecithin ratio at which the well-known transformation from bilayer to reverse hexagonal (H II ) phase occurs is shown to depend on the acyl chain length of the phospholipid. A rationale is proposed for this chain length dependence

  12. Work-Education Mismatch: An Endogenous Theory of Professionalization.

    Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Xue, Yi; Larson, Richard C

    2017-09-16

    We model the education-workforce pipeline and offer an endogenous theory of professionalization and ever-higher degree attainment. We introduce two mechanisms that act on the education enterprise, causing the number of educated people to increase dramatically with relatively short-term changes in the job market. Using our illustrative dynamic model, we argue that the system is susceptible to small changes and the introduced self-driving growth engines are adequate to over-incentivize degree attainment. We also show that the mechanisms magnify effects of short-term recessions or technological changes, and create long-term waves of mismatch between workforce and jobs. The implication of the theory is degree inflation, magnified pressures on those with lower degrees, underemployment, and job market mismatch and inefficiency.

  13. A Computational Model for Biomechanical Effects of Arterial Compliance Mismatch

    Fan He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Compliance mismatch is a negative factor and it needs to be considered in arterial bypass grafting. Objective. A computational model was employed to investigate the effects of arterial compliance mismatch on blood flow, wall stress, and deformation. Methods. The unsteady blood flow was assumed to be laminar, Newtonian, viscous, and incompressible. The vessel wall was assumed to be linear elastic, isotropic, and incompressible. The fluid-wall interaction scheme was constructed using the finite element method. Results. The results show that there are identical wall shear stress waveforms, wall stress, and strain waveforms at different locations. The comparison of the results demonstrates that wall shear stresses and wall strains are higher while wall stresses are lower at the more compliant section. The differences promote the probability of intimal thickening at some locations. Conclusions. The model is effective and gives satisfactory results. It could be extended to all kinds of arteries with complicated geometrical and material factors.

  14. Clinical predictors of prosthesis-patient mismatch after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis

    Luis M Astudillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We sought to ascertain predictors of Patient Prosthesis Mismatch, an independent predictor of mortality, in patients with aortic stenosis using bioprosthetic valves. METHOD: We analyzed 2,107 sequential surgeries. Patient Prosthesis Mismatch was calculated using the effective orifice area of the prosthesis divided by the patient's body surface area. We defined nonsignificant, moderate, and severe Patient Prosthesis Mismatch as effective orifice area indexes of .0.85 cm²/m, 0.85-0.66 cm²/m², and <0.65 cm²/m², respectively. RESULTS: A total of 311 bioprosthetic patients were identified. The incidence of nonsignificant, moderate, and severe Patient Prosthesis Mismatch was 41%, 42, and 16%, respectively. Severe Patient Prosthesis Mismatch was significantly more prevalent in females (82%. In severe Patient Prosthesis Mismatch, the perfusion and the crossclamp times were considerably lower when compared with nonsignificant Patient Prosthesis Mismatch and moderate Patient Prosthesis Mismatch. Patients with severe Patient Prosthesis Mismatch had a significantly higher likelihood of spending time in the intensive care unit and a significantly longer length of stay in the hospital. Body surface area was not different in severe Patient Prosthesis Mismatch when compared with nonsignificant Patient Prosthesis Mismatch. In-hospital mortality in patients with nonsignificant, moderate, and severe Patient Prosthesis Mismatch was 2.3%, 6.1%, and 8%, respectively. Minimally invasive surgery was significantly associated with moderate Patient Prosthesis Mismatch in 49% of the patients, but not with severe Patient Prosthesis Mismatch. CONCLUSION: Severe Patient Prosthesis Mismatch is more common in females, but not in those with minimal available body surface area. Though operative times were shorter in these patients, intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay were longer. Surgeons and cardiologists should be cognizant of these clinical

  15. Experimental high energy physics and modern computer architectures

    Hoek, J.

    1988-06-01

    The paper examines how experimental High Energy Physics can use modern computer architectures efficiently. In this connection parallel and vector architectures are investigated, and the types available at the moment for general use are discussed. A separate section briefly describes some architectures that are either a combination of both, or exemplify other architectures. In an appendix some directions in which computing seems to be developing in the USA are mentioned. (author)

  16. Addressing private sector currency mismatches in emerging Europe

    Jeromin Zettelmeyer; Piroska M. Nagy; Stephen Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of the theoretical and empirical literature on the dollarisation of corporate and household liabilities; presents evidence on the causes of FX lending specifically in transition economies; and proposes a set of criteria to help decide on the right policy response based on country characteristics. These criteria particularly affect the extent to which regulation should be part of the policy response. Regulation to contain FX mismatches is useful in relatively advan...

  17. Religious architecture: anthropological perspectives

    Verkaaik, O.

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious

  18. Avionics Architecture for Exploration

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the AES Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project is to develop a reference architecture that is based on standards and that can be scaled and...

  19. RATS: Reactive Architectures

    Christensen, Marc

    2004-01-01

    This project had two goals: To build an emulation prototype board for a tiled architecture and to demonstrate the utility of a global inter-chip free-space photonic interconnection fabric for polymorphous computer architectures (PCA...

  20. Rhein-Ruhr architecture

    2002-01-01

    katalog til udstillingen 'Rhein - Ruhr architecture' Meldahls smedie, 15. marts - 28. april 2002. 99 sider......katalog til udstillingen 'Rhein - Ruhr architecture' Meldahls smedie, 15. marts - 28. april 2002. 99 sider...

  1. Educational mismatch in the labour market: overqualification and its implications

    Marija Bečić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Educational mismatch as a labour market disruption has lately attracted the interest of many economic experts and scholars. This interest is spurred by considerable improvements in the educational profile of the population, combined with changes in the demand for highly-qualified workers linked to technological developments. The mismatch can appear if an increase in highly-qualified workforce supply is not accom - panied by an equal growth in the demand. Overqualification is one such type of mismatch: it means that knowledge and skills acquired during formal education remain unused in the workplace. Many economies face this problem that can have negative consequences for individuals, businesses, and the government alike. This paper provides an overview of the basic concepts related to overqualification, focusing on the possible implications of this phenomenon, given that employee dissatisfaction can affect businesses and their productivity, and ultimately, the country as a whole. Systematization of previous research and analysis of the basic concepts related to overqualification can contribute to the literature in economics of education in Croatia and create a foundation for future research

  2. The Scientist and the Educational Development Team: An Impedance Mismatch?

    Pompea, S. M.

    2001-05-01

    This talk describes my experiences and those of several other scientists who have worked on teams to develop new instructional materials and programs. At each stage of the development process we try to communicate our skills and experiences to the rest of the development team. In turn, the experiences of non-scientist educators on the team must be communicated to us. However, in many cases there is an "impedance mismatch" which makes communication difficult. One primary source of this mismatch is the scientist's lack of experience with schools, students, teachers, school administrators, museums, and the public. The result of this mismatch can leave the scientist in one limited, but useful role: proofreader and critic. Unfortunately, this can hardly be described as a partnership. This talk gives some advice, based on 25 years of educational materials and program development work, on how to avoid such a limited role. The talk would be appropriate for those scientists who want to lead, inspire, or significantly contribute to educational initiatives and to share in the frustration and the rewards enjoyed by professional educators and professional educational developers. S. Pompea is an adjunct faculty member of Steward Observatory of the University of Arizona.

  3. Aspects related to fracture toughness of mismatch welds

    Kumar, Suranjit; Khan, I.A.; Bhasin, V.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this work effect of weld strength mismatch and weld slenderness on plastic η factor was systematically examined. Solutions presented here are based on extensive two-dimensional finite element analysis. Results of FE analysis has shown that for homogeneous specimens plastic η -factor does not vary significantly with material strain hardening index. Plastic η -factors for non-hardening material models were in better agreement with ASTM solutions than for hardening material models. For mismatch welded specimens analyses were performed on Compact tension (CT) and three points bend (TPB) specimens. Studies were performed for both hardening as well as elastic-perfectly plastic (non-hardening) material models. Results of finite element analysis have shown that unlike homogeneous specimens there is an influence of material strain hardening on plastic η -factor. For over match welds plastic η -factor evaluated for non-hardening material model are lower while for under match welds use of non-hardening material model gives higher value as compare to that of hardening material model. However, it was observed that for over match welds use of ASTM based plastic η -factors (valid for homogeneous specimens) gives the higher values than actual plastic η -factors (evaluated for both hardening as well as non-hardening material model) of mismatch welded specimens. This in turn would lead to un-conservative estimate of fracture toughness and vice versa is true for under-matched welds. (author)

  4. Space-Time and Architecture

    Field, F.; Goodbun, J.; Watson, V.

    Architects have a role to play in interplanetary space that has barely yet been explored. The architectural community is largely unaware of this new territory, for which there is still no agreed method of practice. There is moreover a general confusion, in scientific and related fields, over what architects might actually do there today. Current extra-planetary designs generally fail to explore the dynamic and relational nature of space-time, and often reduce human habitation to a purely functional problem. This is compounded by a crisis over the representation (drawing) of space-time. The present work returns to first principles of architecture in order to realign them with current socio-economic and technological trends surrounding the space industry. What emerges is simultaneously the basis for an ecological space architecture, and the representational strategies necessary to draw it. We explore this approach through a work of design-based research that describes the construction of Ocean; a huge body of water formed by the collision of two asteroids at the Translunar Lagrange Point (L2), that would serve as a site for colonisation, and as a resource to fuel future missions. Ocean is an experimental model for extra-planetary space design and its representation, within the autonomous discipline of architecture.

  5. A discrete element model of brittle damages generated by thermal expansion mismatch of heterogeneous media

    André Damien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the macroscopic scale, such media as rocks or ceramics can be seen as homogeneous continuum. However, at the microscopic scale these materials involve sophisticated micro-structures that mix several phases. Generally, these micro-structures are composed by a large amount of inclusions embedded in a brittle matrix that ensures the cohesion of the structure. These materials generally exhibit complex non linear mechanical behaviors that result from the interactions between the different phases. This paper proposes to study the impact of the diffuse damages that result from the thermal expansion mismatch between the phases in presence. The Discrete Element Method (DEM that naturally take into account discontinuities is proposed to study these phenomena.

  6. Architecture and Film

    Mohammad Javaheri, Saharnaz

    2016-01-01

    Film does not exist without architecture. In every movie that has ever been made throughout history, the cinematic image of architecture is embedded within the picture. Throughout my studies and research, I began to see that there is no director who can consciously or unconsciously deny the use of architectural elements in his or her movies. Architecture offers a strong profile to distinguish characters and story. In the early days, films were shot in streets surrounde...

  7. Elements of Architecture

    Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed...

  8. Mismatched single stranded antisense oligonucleotides can induce efficient dystrophin splice switching

    Kole Ryszard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antisense oligomer induced exon skipping aims to reduce the severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by redirecting splicing during pre-RNA processing such that the causative mutation is by-passed and a shorter but partially functional Becker muscular dystrophy-like dystrophin isoform is produced. Normal exons are generally targeted to restore the dystrophin reading frame however, an appreciable subset of dystrophin mutations are intra-exonic and therefore have the potential to compromise oligomer efficiency, necessitating personalised oligomer design for some patients. Although antisense oligomers are easily personalised, it remains unclear whether all patient polymorphisms within antisense oligomer target sequences will require the costly process of producing and validating patient specific compounds. Methods Here we report preclinical testing of a panel of splice switching antisense oligomers, designed to excise exon 25 from the dystrophin transcript, in normal and dystrophic patient cells. These patient cells harbour a single base insertion in exon 25 that lies within the target sequence of an oligomer shown to be effective at removing exon 25. Results It was anticipated that such a mutation would compromise oligomer binding and efficiency. However, we show that, despite the mismatch an oligomer, designed and optimised to excise exon 25 from the normal dystrophin mRNA, removes the mutated exon 25 more efficiently than the mutation-specific oligomer. Conclusion This raises the possibility that mismatched AOs could still be therapeutically applicable in some cases, negating the necessity to produce patient-specific compounds.

  9. Universality for the parameter-mismatching effect on weak synchronization in coupled chaotic systems

    Lim, Woochang; Kim, Sang-Yoon

    2004-01-01

    To examine the universality for the parameter-mismatching effect on weak chaotic synchronization, we study coupled multidimensional invertible systems such as the coupled Henon maps and coupled pendula. By generalizing the method proposed in coupled one-dimensional (1D) noninvertible maps, we introduce the parameter sensitivity exponent δ to measure the degree of the parameter sensitivity of a weakly stable synchronous chaotic attractor. In terms of the parameter sensitivity exponents, we characterize the effect of the parameter mismatch on the intermittent bursting and the basin riddling occurring in the regime of weak synchronization. It is thus found that the scaling exponent μ for the average characteristic time (i.e., the average interburst time and the average chaotic transient lifetime) for both the bubbling and riddling cases is given by the reciprocal of the parameter sensitivity exponent, as in the simple system of coupled 1D maps. Hence, the reciprocal relation (i.e., μ = 1/δ) seems to be 'universal', in the sense that it holds in typical coupled chaotic systems of different nature

  10. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoma in the context of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome.

    Ripperger, Tim; Schlegelberger, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is one of the rare diseases associated with a high risk of cancer. Causative mutations are found in DNA mismatch repair genes PMS2, MSH6, MSH2 or MLH1 that are well known in the context of Lynch syndrome. CMMRD follows an autosomal recessive inheritance trait and is characterized by childhood brain tumors and hematological malignancies as well as gastrointestinal cancer in the second and third decades of life. There is a high risk of multiple cancers, occurring synchronously and metachronously. In general, the prognosis is poor. About one third of CMMRD patients develop hematological malignancies as primary (sometimes the only) malignancy or as secondary neoplasm. T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, mainly of mediastinal origin, are the most frequent hematological malignancies. Besides malignant diseases, non-neoplastic features are frequently observed, e.g. café-au-lait spots sometimes resembling neurofibromatosis type I, hypopigmented skin lesions, numerous adenomatous polyps, multiple pilomatricomas, or impaired immunoglobulin class switch recombination. Within the present review, we summarize previously published CMMRD patients with at least one hematological malignancy, provide an overview of steps necessary to substantiate the diagnosis of CMMRD, and refer to the recent most relevant literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of cover source mismatch in steganalysis and ways to mitigate its impact

    Kodovský, Jan; Sedighi, Vahid; Fridrich, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    When a steganalysis detector trained on one cover source is applied to images from a different source, generally the detection error increases due to the mismatch between both sources. In steganography, this situation is recognized as the so-called cover source mismatch (CSM). The drop in detection accuracy depends on many factors, including the properties of both sources, the detector construction, the feature space used to represent the covers, and the steganographic algorithm. Although well recognized as the single most important factor negatively affecting the performance of steganalyzers in practice, the CSM received surprisingly little attention from researchers. One of the reasons for this is the diversity with which the CSM can manifest. On a series of experiments in the spatial and JPEG domains, we refute some of the common misconceptions that the severity of the CSM is tied to the feature dimensionality or their "fragility." The CSM impact on detection appears too difficult to predict due to the effect of complex dependencies among the features. We also investigate ways to mitigate the negative effect of the CSM using simple measures, such as by enlarging the diversity of the training set (training on a mixture of sources) and by employing a bank of detectors trained on multiple different sources and testing on a detector trained on the closest source.

  12. Field-of-study mismatch and overqualification: labour market correlates and their wage penalty

    Guillermo Montt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Field-of-study mismatch occurs when a worker, trained in a particular field, works in another field. This study draws on the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC to explore how skill supply and labour market demand dynamics influence mismatch. It updates cross-national estimates on mismatch and estimates the mismatch wage penalty. Findings suggest that around 40% of workers are mismatched by field at their qualification level, 11% overqualified in their field and 13% overqualified and working outside their field. The saturation of the field in the labour market and the transferability of the fields’ skills predict the incidence of field-of-study mismatch and overqualification. Workers who are mismatched by field only suffer a wage penalty if they are overqualified.

  13. Mechanical behaviour of cracked welded structures including mismatch effect

    Hornet, P.

    2002-01-01

    The most important parameters for predicting more precisely the fracture behaviour of welded structures have been identified. In particular, the plasticity development at the crack tip in the ligament appeared as a major parameter to evaluate the yield load of such a complex structure. In this way defect assessments procedures have been developed or modified to take into account the mismatch effect that is to say the mechanical properties of the different material constituting the weld joint. This paper is a synthesis of the work done in the past at Electricite de France on this topic in regards with other work done in France or around the World. The most important parameters which control the plasticity development at the crack tip and so mainly influence the fracture behaviour of welded structures are underlined: the mismatch ratio (weld to base metal yield strength ratio), the mismatch ratio (weld to base metal yield strength ratio), the ligament size and the weld width. Moreover, commonly used fracture toughness testing procedures developed in case of homogeneous specimens cannot be used in a straight forward manner and so has to be modified to take into account the mismatch effect. Number or defect assessment procedures taking into account the mismatch effect by considering the yield load of the welded structure are shortly described. Then, the 'Equivalent Material Method' developed at EDF which allows a good prediction of the applied J-Integral at the crack tip is more detailed. This procedure includes not only both weld and base metal yield strength, the structure geometry, the crack size and the weld dimension using the yield load of the real structures but also includes the effect of both weld and base metal strain hardening exponents. Some validations of this method are proposed. Finally, the ability of finite element modelling to predict the behaviour of such welded structures is demonstrated by modelling real experiments: crack located in the middle of

  14. Numerical simulations of material mismatch and ductile crack growth

    Oestby, Erling

    2002-07-01

    Both the global geometry and inhomogeneities in material properties will influence the fracture behaviour of structures in presence of cracks. In this thesis numerical simulations have been used to investigate how some aspects of both these issues affect the conditions at the crack-tip. The thesis is organised in an introduction chapter, summarising the major findings and conclusions, a review chapter, presenting the main aspects of the developments in the field of fracture mechanics, and three research papers. Paper I considers the effect of mismatch in hardening exponent on the local near-tip stress field for stationary interface cracks in bi-materials under small scale yielding conditions. It is demonstrated that the stress level in the weaker material increases compared to what is found in the homogeneous material for the same globally applied load level, with the effect being of increasing importance as the crack-tip is approached. Although a coupling between the radial and angular dependence of the stress fields exists, the evolving stress field can still be normalised with the applied J. The effect on the increase in stress level can closely be characterised by the difference in hardening exponent, {delta}n, termed the hardening mismatch, and is more or less independent of the absolute level of hardening in the two materials. Paper II and Ill deal with the effects of geometry, specimen size, hardening level and yield stress mismatch in relation to ductile crack growth. The ductile crack growth is simulated through use of the Gurson model. In Paper H the effect of specimen size on the crack growth resistance is investigated for deep cracked bend and shallow cracked tensile specimens. At small amounts of crack growth the effect of specimen size on the crack growth resistance is small, but a more significant effect is found for larger amounts of crack growth. The crack growth resistance decreases in smaller specimens loaded in tension, whereas the opposite is

  15. Vital architecture, slow momentum policy

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2010-01-01

    A reflection on the relation between Danish landscape architecture policy and the statements made through current landscape architectural project.......A reflection on the relation between Danish landscape architecture policy and the statements made through current landscape architectural project....

  16. Engineering general intelligence

    Goertzel, Ben; Geisweiller, Nil

    2014-01-01

    The work outlines a detailed blueprint for the creation of an Artificial General Intelligence system with capability at the human level and ultimately beyond, according to the Cog Prime AGI design and the Open Cog software architecture.

  17. Advanced Architectures for Astrophysical Supercomputing

    Barsdell, B. R.; Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    Astronomers have come to rely on the increasing performance of computers to reduce, analyze, simulate and visualize their data. In this environment, faster computation can mean more science outcomes or the opening up of new parameter spaces for investigation. If we are to avoid major issues when implementing codes on advanced architectures, it is important that we have a solid understanding of our algorithms. A recent addition to the high-performance computing scene that highlights this point is the graphics processing unit (GPU). The hardware originally designed for speeding-up graphics rendering in video games is now achieving speed-ups of O(100×) in general-purpose computation - performance that cannot be ignored. We are using a generalized approach, based on the analysis of astronomy algorithms, to identify the optimal problem-types and techniques for taking advantage of both current GPU hardware and future developments in computing architectures.

  18. Exporting Humanist Architecture

    Nielsen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The article is a chapter in the catalogue for the Danish exhibition at the 2016 Architecture Biennale in Venice. The catalogue is conceived at an independent book exploring the theme Art of Many - The Right to Space. The chapter is an essay in this anthology tracing and discussing the different...... values and ethical stands involved in the export of Danish Architecture. Abstract: Danish architecture has, in a sense, been driven by an unwritten contract between the architects and the democratic state and its institutions. This contract may be viewed as an ethos – an architectural tradition...... with inherent aesthetic and moral values. Today, however, Danish architecture is also an export commodity. That raises questions, which should be debated as openly as possible. What does it mean for architecture and architects to practice in cultures and under political systems that do not use architecture...

  19. Software architecture evolution

    Barais, Olivier; Le Meur, Anne-Francoise; Duchien, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Software architectures must frequently evolve to cope with changing requirements, and this evolution often implies integrating new concerns. Unfortunately, when the new concerns are crosscutting, existing architecture description languages provide little or no support for this kind of evolution....... The software architect must modify multiple elements of the architecture manually, which risks introducing inconsistencies. This chapter provides an overview, comparison and detailed treatment of the various state-of-the-art approaches to describing and evolving software architectures. Furthermore, we discuss...... one particular framework named Tran SAT, which addresses the above problems of software architecture evolution. Tran SAT provides a new element in the software architecture descriptions language, called an architectural aspect, for describing new concerns and their integration into an existing...

  20. VLSI Architectures for Computing DFT's

    Truong, T. K.; Chang, J. J.; Hsu, I. S.; Reed, I. S.; Pei, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Simplifications result from use of residue Fermat number systems. System of finite arithmetic over residue Fermat number systems enables calculation of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of series of complex numbers with reduced number of multiplications. Computer architectures based on approach suitable for design of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits for computing DFT's. General approach not limited to DFT's; Applicable to decoding of error-correcting codes and other transform calculations. System readily implemented in VLSI.

  1. Evolution and adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms driven by mismatch repair system-deficient mutators.

    Adela M Luján

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing chronic airway infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. The majority of the CF patients acquire P. aeruginosa during early childhood, and most of them develop chronic infections resulting in severe lung disease, which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition experiments we demonstrate for the first time that P. aeruginosa MRS-deficient mutators had enhanced adaptability over wild-type strains when grown in structured biofilms but not as planktonic cells. This advantage was associated with enhanced micro-colony development and increased rates of phenotypic diversification, evidenced by biofilm architecture features and by a wider range and proportion of morphotypic colony variants, respectively. Additionally, morphotypic variants generated in mutator biofilms showed increased competitiveness, providing further evidence for mutator-driven adaptive evolution in the biofilm mode of growth. This work helps to understand the basis for the specific high proportion and role of mutators in chronic infections, where P. aeruginosa develops in biofilm communities.

  2. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    Hui-yan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  3. Adaptive Architecture - a Spatial Objective

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2011-01-01

    New challenges of a fast changing society with new social phenomena as well as growing environmental problems ask for rethinking our habitats on all scales and reflecting our design methods to produce them. Many Megacities prepare with big projects against dramatic environmental threats (New York...... detail in itself, does not create humanity: We have today enough of superficial and rather bad architecture which is modern.´ There is nothing to add on....... the weakest point in the development towards a more sustainable architecture on all scales, the problems and solutions are discussed as spatial challenges, including all aspects of spatial creations and spatial retrofitting. To get to the point: The ´sustainable´ in ´sustainable architecture´ is reduced...... in too many buildings to implementations of new technologies, in its worst examples reduced to meaningless applications of new technologies to rather mediocre architecture. I am not arguing in general against new building technologies and I have been involved myself in developments of new building skins...

  4. Web Service Architecture for e-Learning

    Xiaohong Qiu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Message-based Web Service architecture provides a unified approach to applications and Web Services that incorporates the flexibility of messaging and distributed components. We propose SMMV and MMMV collaboration as the general architecture of collaboration based on a Web service model, which accommodates both instructor-led learning and participatory learning. This approach derives from our message-based Model-View-Controller (M-MVC architecture of Web applications, comprises an event-driven Publish/Subscribe scheme, and provides effective collaboration with high interactivity of rich Web content for diverse clients over heterogeneous network environments.

  5. Digital architecture, wearable computers and providing affinity

    Guglielmi, Michel; Johannesen, Hanne Louise

    2005-01-01

    as the setting for the events of experience. Contemporary architecture is a meta-space residing almost any thinkable field, striving to blur boundaries between art, architecture, design and urbanity and break down the distinction between the material and the user or inhabitant. The presentation for this paper...... will, through research, a workshop and participation in a cumulus competition, focus on the exploration of boundaries between digital architecture, performative space and wearable computers. Our design method in general focuses on the interplay between the performing body and the environment – between...

  6. Doublethink and scale mismatch polarize policies for an invasive tree

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2018-01-01

    Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus virginiana invasion for three ecoregions within Nebraska, USA, (2) determine the range of invasion stages at individual land parcel extents within each ecoregion based on the density-impact model, and (3) determine policy alignment and mismatches relative to the density-impact model in order to assess their potential to meet sustainability targets and avoid societal impacts as Juniperus virginiana abundance increases. We found that nearly all policies evidenced doublethink and policy-ecology mismatches, for instance, promoting spread of Juniperus virginiana regardless of invasion stage while simultaneously managing it as a native invader in the same ecoregion. Like other invasive species, theory and literature for this native invader indicate that the consequences of invasion are unlikely to be prevented if policies fail to prioritize management at incipient invasion stages. Theory suggests a more realistic approach would be to align policy with the stage of invasion at local and ecoregion management scales. There is a need for scientists, policy makers, and ecosystem managers to move past ideologies governing native versus non-native invader classification and toward a framework that accounts for the uniqueness of native species invasions

  7. Rhabdomyosarcoma in patients with constitutional mismatch-repair-deficiency syndrome.

    Kratz, C P; Holter, S; Etzler, J; Lauten, M; Pollett, A; Niemeyer, C M; Gallinger, S; Wimmer, K

    2009-06-01

    Biallelic germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 cause a recessive childhood cancer syndrome characterised by early-onset malignancies and signs reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Alluding to the underlying genetic defect, we refer to this syndrome as constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome. The tumour spectrum of CMMR-D syndrome includes haematological neoplasias, brain tumours and Lynch syndrome-associated tumours. Other tumours, such as neuroblastoma, Wilm tumour, ovarian neuroectodermal tumour or infantile myofibromatosis, have so far been found only in individual cases. We analysed two consanguineous families that had members with suspected CMMR-D syndrome who developed rhabdomyosarcoma among other neoplasias. In the first family, we identified a pathogenic PMS2 mutation for which the affected patient was homozygous. In family 2, immunohistochemistry analysis showed isolated loss of PMS2 expression in all tumours in the affected patients, including rhabdomyosarcoma itself and the surrounding normal tissue. Together with the family history and microsatellite instability observed in one tumour this strongly suggests an underlying PMS2 alteration in family 2 also. Together, these two new cases show that rhabdomyosarcoma and possibly other embryonic tumours, such as neuroblastoma and Wilm tumour, belong to the tumour spectrum of CMMR-D syndrome. Given the clinical overlap of CMMR-D syndrome with NF1, we suggest careful examination of the family history in patients with embryonic tumours and signs of NF1 as well as analysis of the tumours for loss of one of the mismatch repair genes and microsatellite instability. Subsequent mutation analysis will lead to a definitive diagnosis of the underlying disorder.

  8. Mismatch analysis of humeral nailing. Antegrade versus retrograde insertion

    Mahaisavariya, B.; Jiamwatthanachai, P.; Aroonjarattham, P.; Aroonjarattham, K.; Wongcumchang, M.; Sitthiseripratip, K.

    2011-01-01

    Closed humeral nailing is now considered an alternative treatment for humeral-shaft fracture. The nail can be inserted with either the antegrade or retrograde method. We investigated and compared the problem of geometric mismatch of the humeral nail to the humerus between the two methods of insertion. The study was performed using virtual simulation based on computed tomography (CT) data of 76 Thai cadaveric humeri and the commonly used Russell-Taylor humeral nail 8 mm in diameter and 220 mm long. Mismatch of the nail to the intact humerus was analyzed and compared between the antegrade and retrograde nailing approaches. The results showed: the diameter of the medullary canal averaged 7.9-13.8 mm; the minimal reaming diameter to accommodate virtual nail insertion averaged 8.8-14.8 mm for the antegrade and 8.8-29.3 mm for the retrograde approach; the minimal reaming thickness of the inner cortex averaged 0.1-1.5 mm for the antegrade and 0.1-9.9 mm for the retrograde approach; the percentages of cortical bone removed prior to nail insertion were 3.8-107.1% and 3.8-1,287.6% for the antegrade and retrograde approaches, respectively; the eccentricity of the nail-medullary canal center were 0.4-3.4 and 0.4-10.6 mm for the antegrade and retrograde approaches, respectively. Less mismatching occurred with antegrade nailing than with the retrograde approach. Retrograde nailing requires excessive reaming at the distal part of the humerus to accommodate nail insertion. This may create bone weakness and the risk of supracondylar fracture. (author)

  9. Indium arsenide-on-SOI MOSFETs with extreme lattice mismatch

    Wu, Bin

    Both molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been used to explore the growth of InAs on Si. Despite 11.6% lattice mismatch, planar InAs structures have been observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) when nucleating using MBE on patterned submicron Si-on-insulator (SOI) islands. Planar structures of size as large as 500 x 500 nm 2 and lines of width 200 nm and length a few microns have been observed. MOCVD growth of InAs also generates single grain structures on Si islands when the size is reduced to 100 x 100 nm2. By choosing SOI as the growth template, selective growth is enabled by MOCVD. Post-growth pattern-then-anneal process, in which MOCVD InAs is deposited onto unpatterned SOI followed with patterning and annealing of InAs-on-Si structure, is found to change the relative lattice parameters of encapsulated 17/5 nm InAs/Si island. Observed from transmission electron diffraction (TED) patterns, the lattice mismatch of 17/5 nm InAs/Si island reduces from 11.2 to 4.2% after being annealed at 800°C for 30 minutes. High-k Al2O3 dielectrics have been deposited by both electron-beam-enabled physical vapor deposition (PVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). Films from both techniques show leakage currents on the order of 10-9A/cm2, at ˜1 MV/cm electric field, breakdown field > ˜6 MV/cm, and dielectric constant > 6, comparable to those of reported ALD prior arts by Groner. The first MOSFETs with extreme lattice mismatch InAs-on-SOI channels using PVD Al2O3 as the gate dielectric are characterized. Channel recess was used to improve the gate control of the drain current.

  10. Doublethink and scale mismatch polarize policies for an invasive tree

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2018-01-01

    Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus virginiana invasion for three ecoregions within Nebraska, USA, (2) determine the range of invasion stages at individual land parcel extents within each ecoregion based on the density-impact model, and (3) determine policy alignment and mismatches relative to the density-impact model in order to assess their potential to meet sustainability targets and avoid societal impacts as Juniperus virginiana abundance increases. We found that nearly all policies evidenced doublethink and policy-ecology mismatches, for instance, promoting spread of Juniperus virginiana regardless of invasion stage while simultaneously managing it as a native invader in the same ecoregion. Like other invasive species, theory and literature for this native invader indicate that the consequences of invasion are unlikely to be prevented if policies fail to prioritize management at incipient invasion stages. Theory suggests a more realistic approach would be to align policy with the stage of invasion at local and ecoregion management scales. There is a need for scientists, policy makers, and ecosystem managers to move past ideologies governing native versus non-native invader classification and toward a framework that accounts for the uniqueness of native species

  11. Fast and quantitative differentiation of single-base mismatched DNA by initial reaction rate of catalytic hairpin assembly.

    Li, Chenxi; Li, Yixin; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Xinyi; Chen, Yang; Yang, Xiaoda; Liu, Feng; Li, Na

    2014-10-15

    The widely used catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) amplification strategy generally needs several hours to accomplish one measurement based on the prevailingly used maximum intensity detection mode, making it less practical for assays where high throughput or speed is desired. To make the best use of the kinetic specificity of toehold domain for circuit reaction initiation, we developed a mathematical model and proposed an initial reaction rate detection mode to quantitatively differentiate the single-base mismatch. Using the kinetic mode, assay time can be reduced substantially to 10 min for one measurement with the comparable sensitivity and single-base mismatch differentiating ability as were obtained by the maximum intensity detection mode. This initial reaction rate based approach not only provided a fast and quantitative differentiation of single-base mismatch, but also helped in-depth understanding of the CHA system, which will be beneficial to the design of highly sensitive and specific toehold-mediated hybridization reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mismatch repair status and synchronous metastases in colorectal cancer

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Morton, Dion

    2015-01-01

    The causality between the metastatic potential, mismatch repair status (MMR) and survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) is complex. This study aimed to investigate the impact of MMR in CRC on the occurrence of synchronous metastases (SCCM) and survival in patients with SCCM on a national basis....... A nationwide cohort study of 6,692 patients diagnosed with CRC between 2010 and 2012 was conducted. Data were prospectively entered into the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's database and merged with data from the Danish Pathology Registry and the National Patient Registry. Multivariable and multinomial...

  13. Single-mismatch 2LSB embedding method of steganography

    Khalind, Omed; Aziz, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method of 2LSB embedding steganography in still images. The proposed method considers a single mismatch in each 2LSB embedding between the 2LSB of the pixel value and the 2-bits of the secret message, while the 2LSB replacement overwrites the 2LSB of the image’s pixel value with 2-bits of the secret message. The number of bit-changes needed for the proposed method is 0.375 bits from the 2LSBs of the cover image, and is much less than the 2LSB replacement which is 0.5...

  14. Unagreement is an Illusion: Apparent person mismatches and nominal structure

    Höhn, Georg F.K.

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11049-015-9311-y This paper proposes an analysis of unagreement, a phenomenon involving an apparent mismatch between a definite third person plural subject and first or second person plural subject agreement observed in various null subject languages (e.g. Spanish, Modern Greek and Bulgarian), but notoriously absent in others (e.g. Italian, European Portuguese). A cross-lingu...

  15. Kinetic characterisation of primer mismatches in allele-specific PCR: a quantitative assessment.

    Waterfall, Christy M; Eisenthal, Robert; Cobb, Benjamin D

    2002-12-20

    A novel method of estimating the kinetic parameters of Taq DNA polymerase during rapid cycle PCR is presented. A model was constructed using a simplified sigmoid function to represent substrate accumulation during PCR in combination with the general equation describing high substrate inhibition for Michaelis-Menten enzymes. The PCR progress curve was viewed as a series of independent reactions where initial rates were accurately measured for each cycle. Kinetic parameters were obtained for allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) amplification to examine the effect of mismatches on amplification. A high degree of correlation was obtained providing evidence of substrate inhibition as a major cause of the plateau phase that occurs in the later cycles of PCR.

  16. Enterprise architecture management

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Gøtze, John; Møller, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in enterprise architecture management, researchers and practitioners lack a shared understanding of its applications in organizations. Building on findings from a literature review and eight case studies, we develop a taxonomy that categorizes applications of enterprise...... architecture management based on three classes of enterprise architecture scope. Organizations may adopt enterprise architecture management to help form, plan, and implement IT strategies; help plan and implement business strategies; or to further complement the business strategy-formation process....... The findings challenge the traditional IT-centric view of enterprise architecture management application and suggest enterprise architecture management as an approach that could support the consistent design and evolution of an organization as a whole....

  17. Can You Hear Architecture

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Taking an off set in the understanding of architectural quality being based on multisensory architecture, the paper aims to discuss the current acoustic discourse in inclusive design and its implications to the integration of inclusive design in architectural discourse and practice as well...... as the understanding of user needs. The paper further points to the need to elaborate and nuance the discourse much more, in order to assure inclusion to the many users living with a hearing impairment or, for other reasons, with a high degree of auditory sensitivity. Using the authors’ own research on inclusive...... design and architectural quality for people with a hearing disability and a newly conducted qualitative evaluation research in Denmark as well as architectural theories on multisensory aspects of architectural experiences, the paper uses examples of existing Nordic building cases to discuss the role...

  18. Enterprise architecture management

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Gøtze, John; Møller, Charles

    2017-01-01

    architecture management based on three classes of enterprise architecture scope. Organizations may adopt enterprise architecture management to help form, plan, and implement IT strategies; help plan and implement business strategies; or to further complement the business strategy-formation process......Despite the growing interest in enterprise architecture management, researchers and practitioners lack a shared understanding of its applications in organizations. Building on findings from a literature review and eight case studies, we develop a taxonomy that categorizes applications of enterprise....... The findings challenge the traditional IT-centric view of enterprise architecture management application and suggest enterprise architecture management as an approach that could support the consistent design and evolution of an organization as a whole....

  19. Gender differences in specialty preference and mismatch with real needs in Japanese medical students

    Harada Tadanari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shortage of doctors and maldistribution among specialties are of great concern in the Japanese health care system. This study investigated specialty preference in medical students of one university, and examined gender differences and compared their preference with real needs. Methods We conducted a self-administered questionnaire including specialty preference in all students of one medical university. Preference was assessed by the five-level probability of their future choice: 1 = very low, 2 = low, 3 = moderate, 4 = high, and 5 = very high. The proportion of 4 or 5 was calculated as the preference rate. The real needs (magnitude of doctor shortage in the prefecture were drawn from two different surveys. The relationship between the sex-specific preference rate by specialty and real needs was assessed by Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results Internal medicine showed the highest preference rate, followed by general surgery, pediatrics, and emergency medicine. There was no significant correlation between the preference rates of men and women (r = 0.27, p = 0.34. The preference rates for general surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, and emergency medicine were significantly higher in men than in women, while those of obstetrics & gynecology, pediatrics, and dermatology were significantly higher in women. The magnitude of doctor shortage by specialty from two surveys were significantly correlated with the total preference rate and men's preference rate (r = 0.54 to 0.74, but not with women's preference rate (r = 0.06 and 0.32. Conclusions This study elucidated not only gender differences in specialty preference but also the relationship to real needs. Critical gender differences and mismatch with real needs were found in women. In addition to traditional gender roles and insufficient support for women's participation in Japan, gender differences and mismatch influence the current and future maldistribution of

  20. Method of Measuring the Mismatch of Parasitic Capacitance in MEMS Accelerometer Based on Regulating Electrostatic Stiffness

    Xianshan Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For the MEMS capacitive accelerometer, parasitic capacitance is a serious problem. Its mismatch will deteriorate the performance of accelerometer. Obtaining the mismatch of the parasitic capacitance precisely is helpful for improving the performance of bias and scale. Currently, the method of measuring the mismatch is limited in the direct measuring using the instrument. This traditional method has low accuracy for it would lead in extra parasitic capacitive and have other problems. This paper presents a novel method based on the mechanism of a closed-loop accelerometer. The strongly linear relationship between the output of electric force and the square of pre-load voltage is obtained through theoretical derivation and validated by experiment. Based on this relationship, the mismatch of parasitic capacitance can be obtained precisely through regulating electrostatic stiffness without other equipment. The results can be applied in the design of decreasing the mismatch and electrical adjusting for eliminating the influence of the mismatch.

  1. An Architecture of Reconciliation

    Bolton, Carlton Robert

    2001-01-01

    The reconciliation of architectural idea and built form is accomplished by the materialization of the idea through the use of specific materials with their inherent qualities and restrictions. The learning begins when one sees these restrictions not as a hinderance to the idea, but that which can reveal the very essence of Architecture. The virtue of this architecture of reconciliation lies in its ability to help Man understand his surroundings and place in the world at large. This is acc...

  2. Flexible weapons architecture design

    Pyant, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilia...

  3. Architecture for the senses

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Accommodating sensory disabilities in architectural design requires specific design considerations. These are different from the ones included by the existing design concept 'accessibility', which primarily accommodates physical disabilites. Hence a new design concept 'sensory accessbility......' is presented as a parallel and complementary concept to the existing one. Sensory accessiblity accommodates sensory disabilities and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to to the sensory experiences and architectural quality of a given space. The article is based on research...

  4. Architecture humanitarian emergencies

    Gomez-Guillamon, Maria; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Contreras, Jorge Lobos

    2013-01-01

    Introduced by scientific articles conserning architecture and human rights in light of cultures, emergencies, social equality and sustainability, democracy, economy, artistic development and science into architecture. Concluding in definition of needs for new roles, processes and education of arc......, Architettura di Alghero in Italy, Architecture and Design of Kocaeli University in Turkey, University of Aguascalientes in Mexico, Architectura y Urbanismo of University of Chile and Escuela de Architectura of Universidad Austral in Chile....

  5. Architecture in Everyday Life

    Costa Agarez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    For most architects, architecture is not only art, craft, passion and engagement; it is their ‘bread-and-butter’, too, and has been so since long. Architecture, consciously or unconsciously, is also the ‘bread-and-butter’ of communities across the world: successfully or unsuccessfully it is part of the daily lives of ordinary women and men. Yet practitioners, theoreticians and historians of architecture often disregard the more quotidian side of the discipline, a neglect that is inversely pro...

  6. The ATLAS Analysis Architecture

    Cranmer, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of the ATLAS analysis architecture including the relevant aspects of the computing model and the major architectural aspects of the Athena framework. Emphasis will be given to the interplay between the analysis use cases and the technical aspects of the architecture including the design of the event data model, transient-persistent separation, data reduction strategies, analysis tools, and ROOT interoperability

  7. Architecture for Data Management

    Vukolic, Marko

    2015-01-01

    In this document we present the preliminary architecture of the SUPERCLOUD data management and storage. We start by defining the design requirements of the architecture, motivated by use cases and then review the state-of-the-art. We survey security and dependability technologies and discuss designs for the overall unifying architecture for data management that serves as an umbrella for different security and dependability data management features. Specifically the document lays out the archi...

  8. Architecture and Stages

    Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

    as "experiencescape" - a space between tourism, culture, learning and economy. Strategies related to these challenges involve new architectural concepts and art as ‘engines' for a change. New expressive architecture and old industrial buildings are often combined into hybrid narratives, linking the past...... with the future. But this is not enough. The agenda is to develop architectural spaces, where social interaction and learning are enhanced by art and fun. How can we develop new architectural designs in our inner cities and waterfronts where eventscapes, learning labs and temporal use are merged with everyday...

  9. Grid Architecture 2

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  10. Towards a Media Architecture

    Ebsen, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    This text explores the concept of media architecture as a phenomenon of visual culture that describes the use of screen-technology in new spatial configurations in practices of architecture and art. I shall argue that this phenomenon is not necessarily a revolutionary new approach, but rather...... a result of conceptual changes in both modes visual representation and in expressions of architecture. These are changes the may be described as an evolution of ideas and consequent experiments that can be traced back to changes in the history of art and the various styles and ideologies of architecture....

  11. Decentralized Software Architecture

    Khare, Rohit

    2002-01-01

    .... While the term "decentralization" is familiar from political and economic contexts, it has been applied extensively, if indiscriminately, to describe recent trends in software architecture towards...

  12. Spatial mismatch, wages and unemployment in metropolitan areas in Brazil

    Ana Maria Bonomi Barufi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial mismatch hypothesis states that a lack of connection to job opportunities may affect an individual’s prospects in the labour market, especially for low-skilled workers. This phenomenon is especially observed in large urban areas, in which low-skilled minorities tend to live far away from jobs and face geographical barriers to finding and keeping jobs. This paper aims to investigate whether this negative relationship between spatial mismatch and labour market outcomes is valid in Brazil after controlling for individual characteristics. Our conclusions indicate that there is no clear relation between different measures of accessibility to jobs and the probability of being unemployed. However, for wages there is a clear correlation, which is stronger in larger metropolitan areas in the country. Given the exploratory nature of this work, our results still rely on strong identification hypotheses to avoid potential bias related to simultaneous location decisions of workers and firms within the city. Even if these conditions do not hold, the results are still meaningful as they provide a better understanding of the conditional distribution of wages and the unemployment rate in the biggest metropolitan areas of Brazil.

  13. Effects of aging on neuromagnetic mismatch responses to pitch changes.

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Baillet, Sylvain; Hsiao, Fu-Jung; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2013-06-07

    Although aging-related alterations in the auditory sensory memory and involuntary change discrimination have been widely studied, it remains controversial whether the mismatch negativity (MMN) or its magnetic counterpart (MMNm) is modulated by physiological aging. This study aimed to examine the effects of aging on mismatch activity to pitch deviants by using a whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) together with distributed source modeling analysis. The neuromagnetic responses to oddball paradigms consisting of standards (1000 Hz, p=0.85) and deviants (1100 Hz, p=0.15) were recorded in healthy young (n=20) and aged (n=18) male adults. We used minimum norm estimate of source reconstruction to characterize the spatiotemporal neural dynamics of MMNm responses. Distributed activations to MMNm were identified in the bilateral fronto-temporo-parietal areas. Compared to younger participants, the elderly exhibited a significant reduction of cortical activation in bilateral superior temporal guri, superior temporal sulci, inferior fontal gyri, orbitofrontal cortices and right inferior parietal lobules. In conclusion, our results suggest an aging-related decline in auditory sensory memory and automatic change detection as indexed by MMNm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Symptom-Hemodynamic Mismatch and Heart Failure Event Risk

    Lee, Christopher S.; Hiatt, Shirin O.; Denfeld, Quin E.; Mudd, James O.; Chien, Christopher; Gelow, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) is a heterogeneous condition of both symptoms and hemodynamics. Objective The goal of this study was to identify distinct profiles among integrated data on physical and psychological symptoms and hemodynamics, and quantify differences in 180-day event-risk among observed profiles. Methods A secondary analysis of data collected during two prospective cohort studies by a single group of investigators was performed. Latent class mixture modeling was used to identify distinct symptom-hemodynamic profiles. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to quantify difference in event-risk (HF emergency visit, hospitalization or death) among profiles. Results The mean age (n=291) was 57±13 years, 38% were female, and 61% had class III/IV HF. Three distinct symptom-hemodynamic profiles were identified. 17.9% of patients had concordant symptoms and hemodynamics (i.e. moderate physical and psychological symptoms matched the comparatively hemodynamic profile), 17.9% had severe symptoms and average hemodynamics, and 64.2% had poor hemodynamics and mild symptoms. Compared to those in the concordant profile, both profiles of symptom-hemodynamic mismatch were associated with a markedly increased event-risk (severe symptoms hazards ratio = 3.38, p=0.033; poor hemodynamics hazards ratio = 3.48, p=0.016). Conclusions A minority of adults with HF have concordant symptoms and hemodynamics. Either profile of symptom-hemodynamic mismatch in HF is associated with a greater risk of healthcare utilization for HF or death. PMID:24988323

  15. Mismatch repair proficiency is not required for radioenhancement by gemcitabine

    Bree, Chris van; Rodermond, Hans M.; Vos, Judith de; Haveman, Jaap; Franken, Nicolaas

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Mismatch repair (MMR) proficiency has been reported to either increase or decrease radioenhancement by 24-h incubations with gemcitabine. This study aimed to establish the importance of MMR for radioenhancement by gemcitabine after short-exposure, high-dose treatment and long-exposure, low-dose treatment. Methods and Materials: Survival of MMR-deficient HCT116 and MMR-proficient HCT116 + 3 cells was analyzed by clonogenic assays. Mild, equitoxic gemcitabine treatments (4 h, 0.1 μM vs. 24 h, 6 nM) were combined with γ-irradiation to determine the radioenhancement with or without recovery. Gemcitabine metabolism and cell-cycle effects were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and bivariate flow cytometry. Results: Radioenhancement after 4 h of 0.1 μM of gemcitabine was similar in both cell lines, but the radioenhancement after 24 h of 6 nM of gemcitabine was reduced in MMR-proficient cells. No significant differences between both cell lines were observed in the gemcitabine metabolism or cell-cycle effects after these treatments. Gemcitabine radioenhancement after recovery was also lower in MMR-proficient cells than in MMR-deficient cells. Conclusion: Mismatch repair proficiency decreases radioenhancement by long incubations of gemcitabine but does not affect radioenhancement by short exposures to a clinically relevant gemcitabine dose. Our data suggest that MMR contributes to the recovery from gemcitabine treatment

  16. Donor-Recipient Size Mismatch in Paediatric Renal Transplantation

    J. Donati-Bourne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. End stage renal failure in children is a rare but devastating condition, and kidney transplantation remains the only permanent treatment option. The aim of this review was to elucidate the broad surgical issues surrounding the mismatch in size of adult kidney donors to their paediatric recipients. Methods. A comprehensive literature search was undertaken on PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar for all relevant scientific articles published to date in English language. Manual search of the bibliographies was also performed to supplement the original search. Results. Size-matching kidneys for transplantation into children is not feasible due to limited organ availability from paediatric donors, resulting in prolonged waiting list times. Transplanting a comparatively large adult kidney into a child may lead to potential challenges related to the surgical incision and approach, vessel anastomoses, wound closure, postoperative cardiovascular stability, and age-correlated maturation of the graft. Conclusion. The transplantation of an adult kidney into a size mismatched paediatric recipient significantly reduces waiting times for surgery; however, it presents further challenges in terms of both the surgical procedure and the post-operative management of the patient’s physiological parameters.

  17. Strategy to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch: aortic root enlargement.

    Srivastava, Dharmendra Kumar; Sanki, Prokash; Bhattacharya, Subhankar; Siddique, Javed Veqar

    2014-02-01

    The choice of a valve with an effective orifice area matching the body surface area and providing efficient hemodynamics is an important factor affecting mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. Our preventative strategy was to implant a larger prosthetic valve by aortic root enlargement using the Nunez procedure in 17 patients between February 2010 and January 2011. The decision to enlarge the aortic root was taken when the 19-mm sizer could not be negotiated easily through the aortic root, or on the basis of body surface area of the patient or type of prosthesis available. Postoperative reductions in peak and mean pressure gradients across aortic valve of 12.8-16.5 and 10.2-12.6 mm Hg, respectively, were observed. Postoperative effective orifice areas of the aortic valves were 1.1-1.5 cm(2). By upsizing the aortic valve, we were able to eliminate patient-prosthesis mismatch in 5 patients, and reduce severe patient-prosthesis mismatch to moderate in 11. Aortic root enlargement is a safe procedure. Therefore, cardiac surgeons should not be reluctant to enlarge the aortic root with an autologous pericardial patch to permit implantation of an adequate size of aortic valve prosthesis, with minimal additional aortic crossclamp time and no added cost.

  18. Counting the mismatches - lung ventilation/perfusion subtraction index

    Anderson, T.C.; Evans, S.G.; Larcos, G.; Farlow, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: There is potential for interobserver variability in interpretation of ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scans. Objective quantification of V/Q mismatch could be useful. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the validity of image subtraction in a group of 27 patients (11 men, 8 women; mean age 59.4 years [range 21-81 years])investigated by V/Q scans for suspected pulmonary emboli. A standard 6 view V/Q scan was obtained with two cobalt markers used on the anterior and posterior surfaces for image alignment. Ventilation images were normalised to the perfusion using an area of normal ventilation and perfusion. With the use of automated, and if required, manual alignment, perfusion images were subtracted from ventilation, with a median filter applied. A summed index of mismatch for each lung scan was calculated from the difference. This index was then retrospectively compared to the result reported by one of four experienced physicians. Two patients with chronic obstructive airways disease were excluded from analysis. We conclude that high probability V/Q scans can be differentiated from low probability studies using this index; further prospective investigation in a larger cohort is warranted

  19. Somatosensory mismatch response in young and elderly adults

    Juho M. Strömmer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with cognitive decline and alterations in early perceptual processes. Studies in the auditory and visual modalities have shown that the mismatch negativity (or the mismatch response, MMR, an event-related potential (ERP elicited by a deviant stimulus in a background of homogenous events, diminishes with aging and cognitive decline. However, the effects of aging on the somatosensory MMR are not known. In the current study, we recorded ERPs to electrical pulses to different fingers of the left hand in a passive oddball experiment in young (22–36 years and elderly (66–95 years adults engaged in a visual task. The MMR was found to deviants as compared to standards at two latency ranges: 180–220 ms and 250–290 ms post-stimulus onset. At 180–220 ms, within the young, the MMR was found at medial electrode sites, whereas aged did not show any amplitude difference between the stimulus types at the same latency range. At 250–290 ms, the MMR was evident with attenuated amplitude and narrowed scalp distribution among aged (Fz compared to young (fronto-centrally and lateral parietal sites. Hence, the results reveal that the somatosensory change detection mechanism is altered in aging. The somatosensory MMR can be used as a reliable measure of age-related changes in sensory-cognitive functions.

  20. Bifunctional Rhodium Intercalator Conjugates as Mismatch-Directing DNA Alkylating Agents

    Schatzschneider, Ulrich; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2004-01-01

    A conjugate of a DNA mismatch-specific rhodium intercalator, containing the bulky chrysenediimine ligand, and an aniline mustard has been prepared, and targeting of mismatches in DNA by this conjugate has been examined. The preferential alkylation of mismatched over fully matched DNA is found by a mobility shift assay at concentrations where untethered organic mustards show little reaction. The binding site of the Rh intercalator was determined by DNA photocleavage, and the position of covale...

  1. Adaptive Architecture - a Spatial Objective

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2011-01-01

    New challenges of a fast changing society with new social phenomena as well as growing environmental problems ask for rethinking our habitats on all scales and reflecting our design methods to produce them. Many Megacities prepare with big projects against dramatic environmental threats (New York...... in too many buildings to implementations of new technologies, in its worst examples reduced to meaningless applications of new technologies to rather mediocre architecture. I am not arguing in general against new building technologies and I have been involved myself in developments of new building skins...... and systems. But I strongly oppose to the prevailing tendency of confusing architectural solutions with technical solutions. Bernard Rudofski´s postulation (written 1987) ´no new construction methods - we need a new way of life !´ seems more relevant than ever, when thinking sustainably and socially conscious...

  2. Is the materialization of architecture necessarily material?

    Čarapić Ana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Architectural dematerialization process has started in the first half of the previous century, and has intensively developed at the beginning of this one. Architectural form decomposition on homo­geneous envelope and dependent internal structure, affect on façade materials to liberate from the ballast of supported role, and to gain the privilege to be the main holder of symbolic and sensual dimension. Therefore, on semantic level, they became primary driving force of dematerialization of form, and architecture in the whole. With new technological development, continuity in 'relieving' of matter has been brought to the extreme. Striving for complete liberty of conventional firmness and stability (in functional and phenomenal mode architecture take over the efemer 'week' substances from nature: water, air light, sound, and turn them in it's proper frame. Therefore, the general thesis of this paper is the absurd of architectural materialization with it's on demateriality. Being brought to the turning point, this absurd transforms both architecture (as artificial matter as well as nature itself. The goal of this paper is to predicate principles of material, formal and architectural genesis, in relation to the theoretical sources, as well as by examples of two developed constructions (pavilion 'Blur building' by Diller & Skofidio, and 'Tower of sound' by Toyo Ito.

  3. Genetic and clinical determinants of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome: report from the constitutional mismatch repair deficiency consortium.

    Bakry, Doua; Aronson, Melyssa; Durno, Carol; Rimawi, Hala; Farah, Roula; Alharbi, Qasim Kholaif; Alharbi, Musa; Shamvil, Ashraf; Ben-Shachar, Shay; Mistry, Matthew; Constantini, Shlomi; Dvir, Rina; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Gallinger, Steven; Lerner-Ellis, Jordan; Pollett, Aaron; Stephens, Derek; Kelies, Steve; Chao, Elizabeth; Malkin, David; Bouffet, Eric; Hawkins, Cynthia; Tabori, Uri

    2014-03-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a devastating cancer predisposition syndrome for which data regarding clinical manifestations, molecular screening tools and management are limited. We established an international CMMRD consortium and collected comprehensive clinical and genetic data. Molecular diagnosis of tumour and germline biospecimens was performed. A surveillance protocol was developed and implemented. Overall, 22/23 (96%) of children with CMMRD developed 40 different tumours. While childhood CMMRD related tumours were observed in all families, Lynch related tumours in adults were observed in only 2/14 families (p=0.0007). All children with CMMRD had café-au-lait spots and 11/14 came from consanguineous families. Brain tumours were the most common cancers reported (48%) followed by gastrointestinal (32%) and haematological malignancies (15%). Importantly, 12 (30%) of these were low grade and resectable cancers. Tumour immunohistochemistry was 100% sensitive and specific in diagnosing mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency of the corresponding gene while microsatellite instability was neither sensitive nor specific as a diagnostic tool (psyndrome where family history of cancer may not be contributory. Screening tumours and normal tissues using immunohistochemistry for abnormal expression of MMR gene products may help in diagnosis and early implementation of surveillance for these children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Secure Storage Architectures

    Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological University; Caldwell, Blake A [ORNL; Hicks, Susan Elaine [ORNL; Koch, Scott M [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Pogge, James R [Tennessee Technological University; Scott, Stephen L [Tennessee Technological University; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Sorrillo, Lawrence [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    help with this issue, which are a particular instances of the more general challenge of efficient host/guest IO that is the focus of interfaces like virtio. A collection of bridging technologies have been identified in Chapter 4, which can be helpful to overcome the limitations and challenges of supporting efficient storage for secure enclaves. The synthesis of native filesystem security mechanisms and bridging technologies led to an isolation-centric storage architecture that is proposed in Chapter 5, which leverages isolation mechanisms from different layers to facilitate secure storage for an enclave. Recommendations: The following highlights recommendations from the investigations done thus far. - The Lustre filesystem offers excellent performance but does not support some security related features, e.g., encryption, that are included in GPFS. If encryption is of paramount importance, then GPFS may be a more suitable choice. - There are several possible Lustre related enhancements that may provide functionality of use for secure-enclaves. However, since these features are not currently integrated, the use of Lustre as a secure storage system may require more direct involvement (support). (*The network that connects the storage subsystem and users, e.g., Lustre s LNET.) - The use of OpenStack with GPFS will be more streamlined than with Lustre, as there are available drivers for GPFS. - The Manilla project offers Filesystem as a Service for OpenStack and is worth further investigation. Manilla has some support for GPFS. - The proposed Lustre enhancement of Dynamic-LNET should be further investigated to provide more dynamic changes to the storage network which could be used to isolate hosts and their tenants. - The Linux namespaces offer a good solution for creating efficient restrictions to shared HPC filesystems. However, we still need to conduct a thorough round of storage/filesystem benchmarks. - Vendor products should be more closely reviewed, possibly to

  5. Architecture and Intelligentsia

    Alexander Rappaport

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article observes intellectual and cultural level of architecture and its important functions in social process. Historical analysis shows constant decline of intellectual level of profession, as a reaction on radical changes in its social functions and mass scale, leading to degrading of individual critical reflection and growing dependence of architecture to political and economical bureaucracy.

  6. Architecture and Intelligentsia

    Alexander Rappaport

    2015-01-01

    The article observes intellectual and cultural level of architecture and its important functions in social process. Historical analysis shows constant decline of intellectual level of profession, as a reaction on radical changes in its social functions and mass scale, leading to degrading of individual critical reflection and growing dependence of architecture to political and economical bureaucracy.

  7. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture

    2017-04-01

    NOTES Patrick La Fratta is now affiliated with Micron Technology, Inc., Boise, Idaho. 14. ABSTRACT We present an introduction to the patented ...Operating System Friendly Microprocessor Architecture (OSFA). The software framework to support the hardware-level security features is currently patent ...Army is assignee. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture. United States Patent 9122610. 2015 Sep. 2. Jungwirth P, inventor; US Army is assignee

  8. Architecture, Drawing, Topology

    Meldgaard, Morten

    This book presents contributions of drawing and text along with their many relationalities from ontology to history and vice versa in a range of reflections on architecture, drawing and topology. We hope to thereby indicate the potential of the theme in understanding not only the architecture of ...

  9. Software Architecture Evolution

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  10. FTS2000 network architecture

    Klenart, John

    1991-01-01

    The network architecture of FTS2000 is graphically depicted. A map of network A topology is provided, with interservice nodes. Next, the four basic element of the architecture is laid out. Then, the FTS2000 time line is reproduced. A list of equipment supporting FTS2000 dedicated transmissions is given. Finally, access alternatives are shown.

  11. Architecture and energy

    Marsh, Rob; Lauring, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Traditional low-energy architecture has not necessarily led to reduced energy consumption. A paradigm shift is proposed promoting pluralistic energy-saving strategies.......Traditional low-energy architecture has not necessarily led to reduced energy consumption. A paradigm shift is proposed promoting pluralistic energy-saving strategies....

  12. Re[valuating]-architecture

    Pereira Roders, A.R.; Post, J.M.; Erkelens, P.A.; Haugen, T.I.

    2006-01-01

    The architectural hierarchy of aims altered in the last decades. Quality and comfort have dethroned functionality! We are already familiar with the taxonomy – quality certification in the construction world; but in architectural designs, it is not common to evaluate scientifically, if the design has

  13. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Henriette Bier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisation focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means.In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as pragmatic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  14. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Henriette Bier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisa­tion focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means. In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as prag­matic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  15. Architecture in Everyday Life

    Agarez, R.; Mota, N.

    2015-01-01

    For most architects, architecture is not only art, craft, passion and engagement; it is their ‘bread-and-butter’, too, and has been so since long. Architecture, consciously or unconsciously, is also the ‘bread-and-butter’ of communities across the world: successfully or unsuccessfully it is part of

  16. Enterprise architecture intelligence

    Veneberg, R.K.M.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Bodenstaff, L.; Reichert, M.U.; Rinderle-Ma, S.; Grossmann, G.

    2014-01-01

    Combining enterprise architecture and operational data is complex (especially when considering the actual ‘matching’ of data with enterprise architecture objects), and little has been written on how to do this. Therefore, in this paper we aim to fill this gap and propose a method to combine

  17. Information Architecture: Looking Ahead.

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Considers the future of the field of information architecture. Highlights include a comparison with the growth of the field of professional management; the design of information systems since the Web; more demanding users; the need for an interdisciplinary approach; and how to define information architecture. (LRW)

  18. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  19. Architecture or Sculpture?

    Baumeister, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Jørn Utzon´s museum design for Asger Jorn´s collection in Silkeborg contextualized in the postwar context of an organic architecture.......Jørn Utzon´s museum design for Asger Jorn´s collection in Silkeborg contextualized in the postwar context of an organic architecture....

  20. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  1. Research Through Architecture

    Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    Presentation of the PhD research at the Aarhus School of Architecture and selected PhD projects in relation to PhD exhibition at Godsbanen.......Presentation of the PhD research at the Aarhus School of Architecture and selected PhD projects in relation to PhD exhibition at Godsbanen....

  2. Aesthetics of sustainable architecture

    Lee, S.; Hill, G.; Sauerbruch, M.; Hutton, L.; Knowles, R.; Bothwell, K.; Brennan, J.; Jauslin, D.; Holzheu, H.; AlSayyad, N.; Arboleda, G.; Bharne, V.; Røstvik, H.; Kuma, K.; Sunikka-Blank, M.; Glaser, M.; Pero, E.; Sjkonsberg, M.; Teuffel, P.; Mangone, G.; Finocchiaro, L.; Hestnes, A.; Briggs, D.; Frampton, K.; Lee, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to reveal, explore and further the debate on the aesthetic potentials of sustainable architecture and its practice. This book opens a new area of scholarship and discourse in the design and production of sustainable architecture, one that is based in aesthetics. The

  3. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  4. Optical RAM-enabled cache memory and optical routing for chip multiprocessors: technologies and architectures

    Pleros, Nikos; Maniotis, Pavlos; Alexoudi, Theonitsa; Fitsios, Dimitris; Vagionas, Christos; Papaioannou, Sotiris; Vyrsokinos, K.; Kanellos, George T.

    2014-03-01

    The processor-memory performance gap, commonly referred to as "Memory Wall" problem, owes to the speed mismatch between processor and electronic RAM clock frequencies, forcing current Chip Multiprocessor (CMP) configurations to consume more than 50% of the chip real-estate for caching purposes. In this article, we present our recent work spanning from Si-based integrated optical RAM cell architectures up to complete optical cache memory architectures for Chip Multiprocessor configurations. Moreover, we discuss on e/o router subsystems with up to Tb/s routing capacity for cache interconnection purposes within CMP configurations, currently pursued within the FP7 PhoxTrot project.

  5. Knowledge and Architectural Practice

    Verbeke, Johan

    2017-01-01

    of the level of research methods and will explain that the research methods and processes in creative practice research are very similar to grounded theory which is an established research method in the social sciences. Finally, an argument will be made for a more explicit research attitude in architectural......This paper focuses on the specific knowledge residing in architectural practice. It is based on the research of 35 PhD fellows in the ADAPT-r (Architecture, Design and Art Practice Training-research) project. The ADAPT-r project innovates architectural research in combining expertise from academia...... and from practice in order to highlight and extract the specific kind of knowledge which resides and is developed in architectural practice (creative practice research). The paper will discuss three ongoing and completed PhD projects and focusses on the outcomes and their contribution to the field...

  6. Can architecture be barbaric?

    Hürol, Yonca

    2009-06-01

    The title of this article is adapted from Theodor W. Adorno's famous dictum: 'To write poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric.' After the catastrophic earthquake in Kocaeli, Turkey on the 17th of August 1999, in which more than 40,000 people died or were lost, Necdet Teymur, who was then the dean of the Faculty of Architecture of the Middle East Technical University, referred to Adorno in one of his 'earthquake poems' and asked: 'Is architecture possible after 17th of August?' The main objective of this article is to interpret Teymur's question in respect of its connection to Adorno's philosophy with a view to make a contribution to the politics and ethics of architecture in Turkey. Teymur's question helps in providing a new interpretation of a critical approach to architecture and architectural technology through Adorno's philosophy. The paper also presents a discussion of Adorno's dictum, which serves for a better understanding of its universality/particularity.

  7. Architecture in the Islamic Civilization: Muslim Building or Islamic Architecture

    Yassin, Ayat Ali; Utaberta, Dr. Nangkula

    2012-01-01

    The main problem of the theory in the arena of islamic architecture is affected by some of its Westernthoughts, and stereotyping the islamic architecture according to Western thoughts; this leads to the breakdownof the foundations in the islamic architecture. It is a myth that islamic architecture is subjected to theinfluence from foreign architectures. This paper will highlight the dialectical concept of islamic architecture ormuslim buildings and the areas of recognition in islamic architec...

  8. Minimalism in architecture: Abstract conceptualization of architecture

    Vasilski Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimalism in architecture contains the idea of the minimum as a leading creative tend to be considered and interpreted in working through phenomena of empathy and abstraction. In the Western culture, the root of this idea is found in empathy of Wilhelm Worringer and abstraction of Kasimir Malevich. In his dissertation, 'Abstraction and Empathy' Worringer presented his thesis on the psychology of style through which he explained the two opposing basic forms: abstraction and empathy. His conclusion on empathy as a psychological basis of observation expression is significant due to the verbal congruence with contemporary minimalist expression. His intuition was enhenced furthermore by figure of Malevich. Abstraction, as an expression of inner unfettered inspiration, has played a crucial role in the development of modern art and architecture of the twentieth century. Abstraction, which is one of the basic methods of learning in psychology (separating relevant from irrelevant features, Carl Jung is used to discover ideas. Minimalism in architecture emphasizes the level of abstraction to which the individual functions are reduced. Different types of abstraction are present: in the form as well as function of the basic elements: walls and windows. The case study is an example of Sou Fujimoto who is unequivocal in its commitment to the autonomy of abstract conceptualization of architecture.

  9. Chimeric proteins for detection and quantitation of DNA mutations, DNA sequence variations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    Chimeric proteins having both DNA mutation binding activity and nuclease activity are synthesized by recombinant technology. The proteins are of the general formula A-L-B and B-L-A where A is a peptide having DNA mutation binding activity, L is a linker and B is a peptide having nuclease activity. The chimeric proteins are useful for detection and identification of DNA sequence variations including DNA mutations (including DNA damage and mismatches) by binding to the DNA mutation and cutting the DNA once the DNA mutation is detected.

  10. A rhodium(III) complex for high-affinity DNA base-pair mismatch recognition

    Junicke, Henrik; Hart, Jonathan R.; Kisko, Jennifer; Glebov, Oleg; Kirsch, Ilan R.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2003-01-01

    A rhodium(III) complex, rac-[Rh(bpy)2phzi]3+ (bpy, 2,2′-bipyridine; phzi, benzo[a]phenazine-5,6-quinone diimine) has been designed as a sterically demanding intercalator targeted to destabilized mismatched sites in double-helical DNA. The complex is readily synthesized by condensation of the phenazine quinone with the corresponding diammine complex. Upon photoactivation, the complex promotes direct strand scission at single-base mismatch sites within the DNA duplex. As with the parent mismatch-specific reagent, [Rh(bpy)2(chrysi)]3+ [chrysene-5,6-quinone diimine (chrysi)], mismatch selectivity depends on the helix destabilization associated with mispairing. Unlike the parent chrysi complex, the phzi analogue binds and cleaves with high affinity and efficiency. The specific binding constants for CA, CC, and CT mismatches within a 31-mer oligonucleotide duplex are 0.3, 1, and 6 × 107 M−1, respectively; site-specific photocleavage is evident at nanomolar concentrations. Moreover, the specificity, defined as the ratio in binding affinities for mispaired vs. well paired sites, is maintained. The increase in affinity is attributed to greater stability in the mismatched site associated with stacking by the heterocyclic aromatic ligand. The high-affinity complex is also applied in the differential cleavage of DNA obtained from cell lines deficient in mismatch repair vs. those proficient in mismatch repair. Agreement is found between photocleavage by the mismatch-specific probes and deficiency in mismatch repair. This mismatch-specific targeting, therefore, offers a potential strategy for new chemotherapeutic design. PMID:12610209

  11. Temporal span of human echoic memory and mismatch negativity: revisited.

    Jääskeläinen, I P; Hautamäki, M; Näätänen, R; Ilmoniemi, R J

    1999-04-26

    The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA)-related decrease in mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitude has been used to infer a putative auditory sensory memory duration of 4-10 s. However, both increased standard-to-standard (SSA) and standard-to-deviant (SDA) gaps could contribute to the effect. Fourteen subjects were presented with standard and deviant tones with short (0.35 s) and long (3.5 s) SOAs. In addition, the SSA and SDA were separately manipulated to test the relative contributions of slower rate of standard tone presentation and longer SDA gap to the SOA-related decrease in MMN amplitude. The MMN amplitude decreased with long SOA by 61%. Increases in SSA and SDA resulted in intermediate 47% and 31% decreases, these manipulations explaining 67% of the long SOA effect (pechoic memory length cannot be directly inferred from an MMN-SOA dependency function.

  12. Mismatch of Cultural Dimensions in an Urban Medical Educational Environment

    Bethany Malone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify cultural dimensions and their potential mismatches between attending physicians and their residents and medical students. Methods. We surveyed faculty and students, both undergraduates and postgraduate resident physicians, at the SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, using Hofstede’s VSM-08 questionnaire, and calculated cultural dimensions, including the Power-Distance Index (PDI, Individualism (IDV, Masculinity (MAS, Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI, and Long-term Outlook (LTO. Correlations between faculty and student demographic data and cultural dimensions were calculated (SPSS. Results. There were 237 student and resident respondents and 96 faculty respondents. Comparing all faculty and student respondents, significant differences were found in four of five cultural dimensions, with faculty scoring higher in MAS, and lower in PDI, IDV, UAI, and LTO. Conclusions. These differences may be important in the design and implementation of a medical educational curriculum, and, particularly, in the measurement and evaluation of educational outcomes.

  13. The mismatch between the cultures of journalism and science

    Gelbspan, R.

    2000-06-01

    This presentation provided some insight into the journalist's perspective on climate change with particular consideration to the way the U.S. media portrays the issue. The author draws on thirty years of experience in journalism when he portrays the economic and political aspects of climate change along with the critical issues of journalism ethics as they relate to the coverage of the climate crisis. This paper also highlighted the campaign of deception by the fossil fuel lobby in the United States. The objective of this presentation is to address the link between inadequate media coverage and the lack of a political constituency in the United States regarding this issue. It was emphasized that there is a communication mismatch between science and journalism. Some suggestions were presented which would help scientists communicate their ideas to the press more effectively.

  14. Skill Mismatch of Graduates in a Local Labour Market

    Enrico Marelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we first review the (potential and actual role of the Universities for the local economies in which they operate, especially considering the implications deriving from the degree of skill mismatch (over-education in a local labour market. Then, in the second part of the paper, we realise an empirical investigation based on administrative information of an Italian University matched with the data of the job centres of the local (provincial labour market in order to reconstruct the characteristics of the university-to-work transitions of graduates. Our results have important policy implications, since for local development it is crucial, among other things, to make the best use of all human resources and especially those with the highest educational level.

  15. Fast damping in mismatched high intensity beam transportation

    V. Variale

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A very fast damping of beam envelope oscillation amplitudes was recently observed in simulations of high intensity beam transport, through periodic FODO cells, in mismatched conditions [V. Variale, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 112A, 1571–1582 (1999 and T. Clauser et al., in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, 1999 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1999, p. 1779]. A Landau damping mechanism was proposed at the origin of observed effect. In this paper, to further investigate the source of this fast damping, extensive simulations have been carried out. The results presented here support the interpretation of the mechanism at the origin of the fast damping as a Landau damping effect.

  16. Three perspectives on the mismatch between measures of material poverty.

    Hick, Rod

    2015-03-01

    The two most prominent measures of material poverty within contemporary European poverty analysis are low income and material deprivation. However, it is by now well-known that these measures identify substantially different people as being poor. In this research note, I seek to demonstrate that there are at least three ways to understand the mismatch between low income and material deprivation, relating to three different forms of identification: identifying poor households, identifying groups at risk of poverty and identifying trends in material poverty over time. Drawing on data from the British Household Panel Survey, I show that while low income and material deprivation identify very different households as being poor, and display distinct trends over time, in many cases they identify the same groups at being at risk of material poverty. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  17. Microsatellite Instability Use in Mismatch Repair Gene Sequence Variant Classification

    Bryony A. Thompson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inherited mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes (MMR can cause MMR deficiency and increased susceptibility to colorectal and endometrial cancer. Microsatellite instability (MSI is the defining molecular signature of MMR deficiency. The clinical classification of identified MMR gene sequence variants has a direct impact on the management of patients and their families. For a significant proportion of cases sequence variants of uncertain clinical significance (also known as unclassified variants are identified, constituting a challenge for genetic counselling and clinical management of families. The effect on protein function of these variants is difficult to interpret. The presence or absence of MSI in tumours can aid in determining the pathogenicity of associated unclassified MMR gene variants. However, there are some considerations that need to be taken into account when using MSI for variant interpretation. The use of MSI and other tumour characteristics in MMR gene sequence variant classification will be explored in this review.

  18. Efficient and reproducible identification of mismatch repair deficient colon cancer

    Joost, Patrick; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Halvarsson, Britta

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The identification of mismatch-repair (MMR) defective colon cancer is clinically relevant for diagnostic, prognostic and potentially also for treatment predictive purposes. Preselection of tumors for MMR analysis can be obtained with predictive models, which need to demonstrate ease...... of application and favorable reproducibility. METHODS: We validated the MMR index for the identification of prognostically favorable MMR deficient colon cancers and compared performance to 5 other prediction models. In total, 474 colon cancers diagnosed ≥ age 50 were evaluated with correlation between...... clinicopathologic variables and immunohistochemical MMR protein expression. RESULTS: Female sex, age ≥60 years, proximal tumor location, expanding growth pattern, lack of dirty necrosis, mucinous differentiation and presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes significantly correlated with MMR deficiency. Presence...

  19. Urban architecture in urban renewal

    Holmgren, Steen; Svensson, Ole

    2001-01-01

    and without obvious architectural value. These issues raise pertinent questions: what urban architectural problems and qualities exist in the complex, inner suburbs? What differences exist between professionals' and residents' perceptions and assessments of urban architecture? How can a shared language...

  20. Mismatch management for optical and matter-wave quadratic solitons

    Driben, R.; Oz, Y.; Malomed, B. A.; Gubeskys, A.; Yurovsky, V. A.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a way to control solitons in χ (2) (quadratically nonlinear) systems by means of periodic modulation imposed on the phase-mismatch parameter ('mismatch management', MM). It may be realized in the cotransmission of fundamental-frequency (FF) and second-harmonic (SH) waves in a planar optical waveguide via a long-period modulation of the usual quasi-phase-matching pattern of ferroelectric domains. In an altogether different physical setting, the MM may also be implemented by dint of the Feshbach resonance in a harmonically modulated magnetic field in a hybrid atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), with the atomic and molecular mean fields (MFs) playing the roles of the FF and SH, respectively. Accordingly, the problem is analyzed in two different ways. First, in the optical model, we identify stability regions for spatial solitons in the MM system, in terms of the MM amplitude and period, using the MF equations for spatially inhomogeneous configurations. In particular, an instability enclave is found inside the stability area. The robustness of the solitons is also tested against variation of the shape of the input pulse, and a threshold for the formation of stable solitons is found in terms of the power. Interactions between stable solitons are virtually unaffected by the MM. The second method (parametric approximation), going beyond the MF description, is developed for spatially homogeneous states in the BEC model. It demonstrates that the MF description is valid for large modulation periods, while, at smaller periods, non-MF components acquire gain, which implies destruction of the MF under the action of the high-frequency MM

  1. Twisting right to left: A…A mismatch in a CAG trinucleotide repeat overexpansion provokes left-handed Z-DNA conformation.

    Noorain Khan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conformational polymorphism of DNA is a major causative factor behind several incurable trinucleotide repeat expansion disorders that arise from overexpansion of trinucleotide repeats located in coding/non-coding regions of specific genes. Hairpin DNA structures that are formed due to overexpansion of CAG repeat lead to Huntington's disorder and spinocerebellar ataxias. Nonetheless, DNA hairpin stem structure that generally embraces B-form with canonical base pairs is poorly understood in the context of periodic noncanonical A…A mismatch as found in CAG repeat overexpansion. Molecular dynamics simulations on DNA hairpin stems containing A…A mismatches in a CAG repeat overexpansion show that A…A dictates local Z-form irrespective of starting glycosyl conformation, in sharp contrast to canonical DNA duplex. Transition from B-to-Z is due to the mechanistic effect that originates from its pronounced nonisostericity with flanking canonical base pairs facilitated by base extrusion, backbone and/or base flipping. Based on these structural insights we envisage that such an unusual DNA structure of the CAG hairpin stem may have a role in disease pathogenesis. As this is the first study that delineates the influence of a single A…A mismatch in reversing DNA helicity, it would further have an impact on understanding DNA mismatch repair.

  2. Predicting and Modeling RNA Architecture

    Westhof, Eric; Masquida, Benoît; Jossinet, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY A general approach for modeling the architecture of large and structured RNA molecules is described. The method exploits the modularity and the hierarchical folding of RNA architecture that is viewed as the assembly of preformed double-stranded helices defined by Watson-Crick base pairs and RNA modules maintained by non-Watson-Crick base pairs. Despite the extensive molecular neutrality observed in RNA structures, specificity in RNA folding is achieved through global constraints like lengths of helices, coaxiality of helical stacks, and structures adopted at the junctions of helices. The Assemble integrated suite of computer tools allows for sequence and structure analysis as well as interactive modeling by homology or ab initio assembly with possibilities for fitting within electronic density maps. The local key role of non-Watson-Crick pairs guides RNA architecture formation and offers metrics for assessing the accuracy of three-dimensional models in a more useful way than usual root mean square deviation (RMSD) values. PMID:20504963

  3. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  4. Identity Management Mismatch Challenges in the Danish Municipality Administration System

    Andersen, Mads Schaarup; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2010-01-01

    Integrating a COTS product in a company’s product portfolio is appealing from a business perspective but highly challenging from the perspective of the software architecture. In this paper we outline research challenges regarding authorization in the identity management part of the Danish...

  5. Immunotherapy holds the key to cancer treatment and prevention in constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome

    Westdorp, Harm; Kolders, Sigrid; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; de Vries, I Jolanda M; Jongmans, Marjolijn C.J.; Schreibelt, Gerty

    2017-01-01

    Monoallelic germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause Lynch syndrome, with a high lifetime risks of colorectal and endometrial cancer at adult age. Less well known, is the constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations

  6. Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency in a healthy child : On the spot diagnosis?

    Suerink, Manon; Potjer, Thomas P.; Versluijs, A. B.; Ten Broeke, Sanne W.; Tops, Carli M.; Wimmer, K.; Nielsen, M.

    2018-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a rare, recessively inherited childhood cancer predisposition syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations in one of the mismatch repair genes. The CMMRD phenotype overlaps with that of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), since many patients have

  7. Educational mismatches for second generation migrants. An analysis of applied science graduates in the Netherlands

    Falcke, Swantje; Meng, Christoph; Nollen, Romy

    2016-01-01

    Educational mismatches, i.e. diferences between the education attained and required for a job have been found to negatively affect earnings and job satisfaction and thus lead to a lower return to education. In this paper we aim to see whether immigrants are more prone to educational mismatches and

  8. Resonance Polarization and Phase-Mismatched CARS of Pheophytin b Excited in the Qy Band

    de Boeij, W.P.; Lucassen, G.W.; Lucassen, Gerald; Otto, Cornelis; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Resonance polarization and phase-mismatched coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements were performed on pheophytin b dissolved in acetone excited in the Qy absorption band, where strong broad fluorescence makes spontaneous Raman spectroscopy impossible. The phase-mismatching

  9. Analytical Expressions for Harmonic Distortion at Low Frequencies due to Device Mismatch in CMOS Current Mirrors

    Bruun, Erik

    1999-01-01

    One of the origins of harmonic distortion in current mirrors is the inevitable mismatch between the mirror transistors. In this brief we examine both single current mirrors and complementary class AB current mirrors and develop analytical expressions for the mismatch induced harmonic distortion. ...

  10. Scandiatransplant acceptable mismatch program (STAMP) a bridge to transplanting highly immunized patients

    Koefoed-Nielsen, Pernille; Weinreich, I; Bengtsson, M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Highly immunized patients are a challenge for organ transplantation programs. One way of increasing the likelihood of transplantation in this group of patients is to expand the possible donations by defining acceptable HLA mismatches. In the Scandiatransplant Acceptable Mismatch Program...

  11. Travels in Architectural History

    Davide Deriu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Travel is a powerful force in shaping the perception of the modern world and plays an ever-growing role within architectural and urban cultures. Inextricably linked to political and ideological issues, travel redefines places and landscapes through new transport infrastructures and buildings. Architecture, in turn, is reconstructed through visual and textual narratives produced by scores of modern travellers — including writers and artists along with architects themselves. In the age of the camera, travel is bound up with new kinds of imaginaries; private records and recollections often mingle with official, stereotyped views, as the value of architectural heritage increasingly rests on the mechanical reproduction of its images. Whilst students often learn about architectural history through image collections, the place of the journey in the formation of the architect itself shifts. No longer a lone and passionate antiquarian or an itinerant designer, the modern architect eagerly hops on buses, trains, and planes in pursuit of personal as well as professional interests. Increasingly built on a presumption of mobility, architectural culture integrates travel into cultural debates and design experiments. By addressing such issues from a variety of perspectives, this collection, a special 'Architectural Histories' issue on travel, prompts us to rethink the mobile conditions in which architecture has historically been produced and received.

  12. Cloud Based Big Data Infrastructure: Architectural Components and Automated Provisioning

    Demchenko, Yuri; Turkmen, Fatih; Blanchet, Christophe; Loomis, Charles; Laat, Caees de

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the general architecture and functional components of the cloud based Big Data Infrastructure (BDI). The proposed BDI architecture is based on the analysis of the emerging Big Data and data intensive technologies and supported by the definition of the Big Data Architecture Framework (BDAF) that defines the following components of the Big Data technologies: Big Data definition, Data Management including data lifecycle and data structures, Big Data Infrastructure (generical...

  13. On Detailing in Contemporary Architecture

    Kristensen, Claus; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Details in architecture have a significant influence on how architecture is experienced. One can touch the materials and analyse the detailing - thus details give valuable information about the architectural scheme as a whole. The absence of perceptual stimulation like details and materiality...... / tactility can blur the meaning of the architecture and turn it into an empty statement. The present paper will outline detailing in contemporary architecture and discuss the issue with respect to architectural quality. Architectural cases considered as sublime piece of architecture will be presented...

  14. Fractionated Spacecraft Architectures Seeding Study

    Mathieu, Charlotte; Weigel, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    .... Models were developed from a customer-centric perspective to assess different fractionated spacecraft architectures relative to traditional spacecraft architectures using multi-attribute analysis...

  15. Integrative Potential of Architectural Activities

    Davydova, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    The architectural activity integrative potential is considered through the combination as well as the organization of necessary universal human and professional, artificial and natural, social and individual architectural activities in the multidimensional unity of its components reflecting and influencing the public thinking with the artistic-figurative language of international communication using experimental form-building, interactive presentations, theatrical and gaming expressiveness to organize an easier contact with the consumer, methods of design and advertising. The methodology is used to reflect the mutual influence of personal and social problems through globalization and identification of their problem in the public, to study the existing methods of the problem solving, to analyze their effectiveness, to search for actual problems and new solutions to them using the latest achievements of technological progress, artistic patterns, creation of a holistic architectural image reflecting the author’s worldview in the general picture of the modern world with its inherent tendencies “Surah” and “entertainment”. The operative communication means in the chain of social experience are developed - the teacher - the trainee - the new educational result used to transmit the updated information in a generalized form, the current and final control through the use of feedback sheets, supporting summaries, info cards, its decisions. The paper considers the study time efficiency due to the organization of the research activity which allows students to obtain a theoretical generalized information (the creator’s limitation) in the process of filling or compiling informative and diagnostic maps that provide the theoretical framework for the creative activity through gaming activity that turns into a work activity which has a diagnosed result.

  16. Architectural Knitted Surfaces

    Mossé, Aurélie

    2010-01-01

    WGSN reports from the Architectural Knitted Surfaces workshop recently held at ShenkarCollege of Engineering and Design, Tel Aviv, which offered a cutting-edge insight into interactive knitted surfaces. With the increasing role of smart textiles in architecture, the Architectural Knitted Surfaces...... workshop brought together architects and interior and textile designers to highlight recent developments in intelligent knitting. The five-day workshop was led by architects Ayelet Karmon and Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen, together with Amir Cang and Eyal Sheffer from the Knitting Laboratory, in collaboration...

  17. Towards Adaptive Evolutionary Architecture

    Bak, Sebastian HOlt; Rask, Nina; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents first results from an interdisciplinary project, in which the fields of architecture, philosophy and artificial life are combined to explore possible futures of architecture. Through an interactive evolutionary installation, called EvoCurtain, we investigate aspects of how...... to the development of designs tailored to the individual preferences of inhabitants, changing the roles of architects and designers entirely. Architecture-as-it-could-be is a philosophical approach conducted through artistic methods to anticipate the technological futures of human-centered development within...

  18. Computer architecture technology trends

    1991-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This year's edition of Computer Architecture Technology Trends analyses the trends which are taking place in the architecture of computing systems today. Due to the sheer number of different applications to which computers are being applied, there seems no end to the different adoptions which proliferate. There are, however, some underlying trends which appear. Decision makers should be aware of these trends when specifying architectures, particularly for future applications. This report is fully revised and updated and provides insight in

  19. The effect of atom mismatch on the fragility of supercooled Lennard-Jones binary mixtures

    Sun Minhua; Sun Yongli; Wang Aiping; Ma Congxiao; Li Jiayun; Cheng Weidong; Liu Fang

    2006-01-01

    The shear viscosity of the well-known binary Lennard-Jones mixture is simulated under constant temperature and constant volume conditions (NVT) by a molecular-dynamics (MD) method. The effect of atomic size mismatch on the fragility parameter and glass-forming ability is studied. The fragility parameters calculated from shear viscosity data decrease with the increment of the atomic size mismatch. The value of the fragility changes from 168.963 to 22.976 when the mismatch changes from 0.023 to 0.25. It is shown that the fragility parameter is sensitive to the atomic size mismatch. The calculated pair distribution functions and mean square displacements indicate that the glass-forming ability increases with the atomic size mismatch

  20. DNA Mismatch Repair and Oxidative DNA Damage: Implications for Cancer Biology and Treatment

    Bridge, Gemma; Rashid, Sukaina; Martin, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Many components of the cell, including lipids, proteins and both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, are vulnerable to deleterious modifications caused by reactive oxygen species. If not repaired, oxidative DNA damage can lead to disease-causing mutations, such as in cancer. Base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair are the two DNA repair pathways believed to orchestrate the removal of oxidative lesions. However, recent findings suggest that the mismatch repair pathway may also be important for the response to oxidative DNA damage. This is particularly relevant in cancer where mismatch repair genes are frequently mutated or epigenetically silenced. In this review we explore how the regulation of oxidative DNA damage by mismatch repair proteins may impact on carcinogenesis. We discuss recent studies that identify potential new treatments for mismatch repair deficient tumours, which exploit this non-canonical role of mismatch repair using synthetic lethal targeting

  1. DNA Mismatch Repair and Oxidative DNA Damage: Implications for Cancer Biology and Treatment

    Bridge, Gemma; Rashid, Sukaina; Martin, Sarah A., E-mail: sarah.martin@qmul.ac.uk [Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-05

    Many components of the cell, including lipids, proteins and both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, are vulnerable to deleterious modifications caused by reactive oxygen species. If not repaired, oxidative DNA damage can lead to disease-causing mutations, such as in cancer. Base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair are the two DNA repair pathways believed to orchestrate the removal of oxidative lesions. However, recent findings suggest that the mismatch repair pathway may also be important for the response to oxidative DNA damage. This is particularly relevant in cancer where mismatch repair genes are frequently mutated or epigenetically silenced. In this review we explore how the regulation of oxidative DNA damage by mismatch repair proteins may impact on carcinogenesis. We discuss recent studies that identify potential new treatments for mismatch repair deficient tumours, which exploit this non-canonical role of mismatch repair using synthetic lethal targeting.

  2. Bifunctional rhodium intercalator conjugates as mismatch-directing DNA alkylating agents.

    Schatzschneider, Ulrich; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2004-07-21

    A conjugate of a DNA mismatch-specific rhodium intercalator, containing the bulky chrysenediimine ligand, and an aniline mustard has been prepared, and targeting of mismatches in DNA by this conjugate has been examined. The preferential alkylation of mismatched over fully matched DNA is found by a mobility shift assay at concentrations where untethered organic mustards show little reaction. The binding site of the Rh intercalator was determined by DNA photocleavage, and the position of covalent modification was established on the basis of the enhanced depurination associated with N-alkylation. The site-selective alkylation at mismatched DNA renders these conjugates useful tools for the covalent tagging of DNA base pair mismatches and new chemotherapeutic design.

  3. Selective Cytotoxicity of Rhodium Metalloinsertors in Mismatch Repair-Deficient Cells†

    Ernst, Russell J.; Komor, Alexis C.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2011-01-01

    Mismatches in DNA occur naturally during replication and as a result of endogenous DNA damaging agents, but the mismatch repair (MMR) pathway acts to correct mismatches before subsequent rounds of replication. Rhodium metalloinsertors bind to DNA mismatches with high affinity and specificity and represent a promising strategy to target mismatches in cells. Here we examine the biological fate of rhodium metalloinsertors bearing dipyridylamine ancillary ligands in cells deficient in MMR versus those that are MMR-proficient. These complexes are shown to exhibit accelerated cellular uptake which permits the observation of various cellular responses, including disruption of the cell cycle, monitored by flow cytometry assays, and induction of necrosis, monitored by dye exclusion and caspase inhibition assays, that occur preferentially in the MMR-deficient cell line. These cellular responses provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the selective activity of this novel class of targeted anti-cancer agents. PMID:22103240

  4. Architectures of prototypes and architectural prototyping

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Michael; Sandvad, Elmer

    1998-01-01

    together as a team, but developed a prototype that more than fulfilled the expectations of the shipping company. The prototype should: - complete the first major phase within 10 weeks, - be highly vertical illustrating future work practice, - continuously live up to new requirements from prototyping......This paper reports from experience obtained through development of a prototype of a global customer service system in a project involving a large shipping company and a university research group. The research group had no previous knowledge of the complex business of shipping and had never worked...... sessions with users, - evolve over a long period of time to contain more functionality - allow for 6-7 developers working intensively in parallel. Explicit focus on the software architecture and letting the architecture evolve with the prototype played a major role in resolving these conflicting...

  5. Scale Mismatches in Social-Ecological Systems: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

    Graeme S. Cumming

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Scale is a concept that transcends disciplinary boundaries. In ecology and geography, scale is usually defined in terms of spatial and temporal dimensions. Sociological scale also incorporates space and time, but adds ideas about representation and organization. Although spatial and temporal location determine the context for social and ecological dynamics, social-ecological interactions can create dynamic feedback loops in which humans both influence and are influenced by ecosystem processes. We hypothesize that many of the problems encountered by societies in managing natural resources arise because of a mismatch between the scale of management and the scale(s of the ecological processes being managed. We use examples from southern Africa and the southern United States to address four main questions: (1 What is a "scale mismatch?" (2 How are scale mismatches generated? (3 What are the consequences of scale mismatches? (4 How can scale mismatches be resolved? Scale mismatches occur when the scale of environmental variation and the scale of social organization in which the responsibility for management resides are aligned in such a way that one or more functions of the social-ecological system are disrupted, inefficiencies occur, and/or important components of the system are lost. They are generated by a wide range of social, ecological, and linked social-ecological processes. Mismatches between the scales of ecological processes and the institutions that are responsible for managing them can contribute to a decrease in social-ecological resilience, including the mismanagement of natural resources and a decrease in human well-being. Solutions to scale mismatches usually require institutional changes at more than one hierarchical level. Long-term solutions to scale mismatch problems will depend on social learning and the development of flexible institutions that can adjust and reorganize in response to changes in ecosystems. Further research is

  6. Analysis of Architecture Pattern Usage in Legacy System Architecture Documentation

    Harrison, Neil B.; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    Architecture patterns are an important tool in architectural design. However, while many architecture patterns have been identified, there is little in-depth understanding of their actual use in software architectures. For instance, there is no overview of how many patterns are used per system or

  7. Bionics in architecture

    Sugár Viktória

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of the forms and phenomena of nature is not a recent concept. Observation of natural mechanisms has been a primary source of innovation since prehistoric ages, which can be perceived through the history of architecture. Currently, this idea is coming to the front again through sustainable architecture and adaptive design. Investigating natural innovations and the clear-outness of evolution during the 20th century led to the creation of a separate scientific discipline, Bionics. Architecture and Bionics are strongly related to each other, since the act of building is as old as the human civilization - moreover its first formal and structural source was obviously the surrounding environment. Present paper discusses the definition of Bionics and its connection with the architecture.

  8. DSP Architecture Design Essentials

    Marković, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    In DSP Architecture Design Essentials, authors Dejan Marković and Robert W. Brodersen cover a key subject for the successful realization of DSP algorithms for communications, multimedia, and healthcare applications. The book addresses the need for DSP architecture design that maps advanced DSP algorithms to hardware in the most power- and area-efficient way. The key feature of this text is a design methodology based on a high-level design model that leads to hardware implementation with minimum power and area. The methodology includes algorithm-level considerations such as automated word-length reduction and intrinsic data properties that can be leveraged to reduce hardware complexity. From a high-level data-flow graph model, an architecture exploration methodology based on linear programming is used to create an array of architectural solutions tailored to the underlying hardware technology. The book is supplemented with online material: bibliography, design examples, CAD tutorials and custom software.

  9. METRIC context unit architecture

    Simpson, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    METRIC is an architecture for a simple but powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Its speed comes from the simultaneous processing of several instruction streams, with instructions from the various streams being dispatched into METRIC's execution pipeline as they become available for execution. The pipeline is thus kept full, with a mix of instructions for several contexts in execution at the same time. True parallel programming is supported within a single execution unit, the METRIC Context Unit. METRIC's architecture provides for expansion through the addition of multiple Context Units and of specialized Functional Units. The architecture thus spans a range of size and performance from a single-chip microcomputer up through large and powerful multiprocessors. This research concentrates on the specification of the METRIC Context Unit at the architectural level. Performance tradeoffs made during METRIC's design are discussed, and projections of METRIC's performance are made based on simulation studies.

  10. Flexible weapons architecture design

    Pyant, William C., III

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilian casualties. This thesis shows that the architecture design factors of damage mechanism, fusing, weapons weight, guidance, and propulsion are significant in enhancing weapon performance objectives, and would benefit from modularization. Additionally, this thesis constructs an algorithm that can be used to design a weapon set for a particular target class based on these modular components.

  11. Border information flow architecture

    2006-04-01

    This brochure describes the Border Information Flow Architecture (BIFA). The Transportation Border Working Group, a bi-national group that works to enhance coordination and planning between the United States and Canada, identified collaboration on th...

  12. Layered Fault Management Architecture

    Sztipanovits, Janos

    2004-01-01

    ... UAVs or Organic Air Vehicles. The approach of this effort was to analyze fault management requirements of formation flight for fleets of UAVs, and develop a layered fault management architecture which demonstrates significant...

  13. Thermal Space in Architecture

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    Present research is revolving around the design process and the use of digital applications to support the design process among architects. This work is made in relation to the current discussions about sustainable architecture and the increased focus on energy consumption and the comfort in our...... and understanding of spaces in buildings can change significantly and instead of the creation of frozen geometrical spaces, thermal spaces can be created as it is suggested in meteorological architecture where functions are distributed in relation to temperature gradients. This creates an interesting contrast......-introducing an increased adaptability in the architecture can be a part of re-defining the environmental agenda and re-establish a link between the environment of the site and the environment of the architecture and through that an increased appreciation of the sensuous space here framed in discussions about thermal...

  14. The toolbus coordination architecture

    Bergstra, J.A.; Klint, P.

    1996-01-01

    Building large, heterogeneous, distributed software systems poses serious problems for the software engineer; achieving interoperability of software systems is still a major challenge. We describe an experiment in designing a generic software architecture for solving these problems. To get

  15. Service Modularity and Architecture

    Brax, Saara A.; Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    , platform-based and mass-customized service business models, comparative research designs, customer perspectives and service experience, performance in context of modular services, empirical evidence of benefits and challenges, architectural innovation in services, modularization in multi-provider contexts......Purpose: Services are highly important in a world economy which has increasingly become service driven. There is a growing need to better understand the possibilities for, and requirements of, designing modular service architectures. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the roots...... of the emerging research stream on service modularity, provide a concise overview of existing work on the subject, and outline an agenda for future research on service modularity and architecture. The articles in the special issue offer four diverse sets of research on service modularity and architecture. Design...

  16. The NASA Integrated Information Technology Architecture

    Baldridge, Tim

    1997-01-01

    This document defines an Information Technology Architecture for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), where Information Technology (IT) refers to the hardware, software, standards, protocols and processes that enable the creation, manipulation, storage, organization and sharing of information. An architecture provides an itemization and definition of these IT structures, a view of the relationship of the structures to each other and, most importantly, an accessible view of the whole. It is a fundamental assumption of this document that a useful, interoperable and affordable IT environment is key to the execution of the core NASA scientific and project competencies and business practices. This Architecture represents the highest level system design and guideline for NASA IT related activities and has been created on the authority of the NASA Chief Information Officer (CIO) and will be maintained under the auspices of that office. It addresses all aspects of general purpose, research, administrative and scientific computing and networking throughout the NASA Agency and is applicable to all NASA administrative offices, projects, field centers and remote sites. Through the establishment of five Objectives and six Principles this Architecture provides a blueprint for all NASA IT service providers: civil service, contractor and outsourcer. The most significant of the Objectives and Principles are the commitment to customer-driven IT implementations and the commitment to a simpler, cost-efficient, standards-based, modular IT infrastructure. In order to ensure that the Architecture is presented and defined in the context of the mission, project and business goals of NASA, this Architecture consists of four layers in which each subsequent layer builds on the previous layer. They are: 1) the Business Architecture: the operational functions of the business, or Enterprise, 2) the Systems Architecture: the specific Enterprise activities within the context

  17. Enterprise Architecture in the Company Management Framework

    Bojinov Bojidar Violinov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to explore the role and importance of the concept of enterprise architecture in modern company management. For this purpose it clarifies the nature, scope, components of the enterprise architecture and relationships within it using the Zachman model. Based on the critical analysis of works by leading scientists, there presented a definition of enterprise architecture as a general description of all elements of strategic management of the company combined with description of its organizational, functional and operational structure, including the relationship between all tangible and intangible resources essential for its normal functioning and development. This in turn enables IT enterprise architecture to be defined as a set of corporate IT resources (hardware, software and technology, their interconnection and integration within the overall architecture of the company, as well as their formal description, methods and tools for their modeling and management in order to achieve strategic business goals of the organization. In conclusion the article summarizes the significance and role of enterprise architecture for strategic management of the company in today’s digital economy. The study underlines the importance of an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the work of a contemporary company, and the need for adequate matching and alignment of IT with business priorities and objectives of the company.

  18. Models in architectural design

    Pauwels, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Whereas architects and construction specialists used to rely mainly on sketches and physical models as representations of their own cognitive design models, they rely now more and more on computer models. Parametric models, generative models, as-built models, building information models (BIM), and so forth, they are used daily by any practitioner in architectural design and construction. Although processes of abstraction and the actual architectural model-based reasoning itself of course rema...

  19. Artificial cognition architectures

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  20. Religious Architecture : Anthropological Perspectives

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious buildings take their place in opposition to the secular surroundings, how they, as evocations of the sublime, help believers to move beyond the boundaries of modern subjectivity, and how they, in their...

  1. Climate and architecture

    Tind Kristensen, Eva; Friis Møller, Winnie; Rotne, Georg

    Climate and Architecture analyserer klimaets rolle i arkitekturen. Intentionen med bogen er at pege på nogle af de mange muligheder for bygningers klimaregulering, som et mere detaljeret studie af de lokale klimatiske forhold og den stedlige byggeskik tilbyder.......Climate and Architecture analyserer klimaets rolle i arkitekturen. Intentionen med bogen er at pege på nogle af de mange muligheder for bygningers klimaregulering, som et mere detaljeret studie af de lokale klimatiske forhold og den stedlige byggeskik tilbyder....

  2. Greek architecture now

    Skousbøll, Karin Merete

    2006-01-01

    With the author's Scandinavian viewpoint the aim of this book has been an investigation into contemporary Greek architecture and at the same time providing an understanding for its essential characteristics based on the historic, cultural heritage of Hellas.......With the author's Scandinavian viewpoint the aim of this book has been an investigation into contemporary Greek architecture and at the same time providing an understanding for its essential characteristics based on the historic, cultural heritage of Hellas....

  3. ‘Research through designing’ in landscape architecture

    Lenzholzer, S.; Duchhart, I.; Koh, J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a general consensus amongst landscape architecture academia that the discipline has to urgently advance its methodological repertoire to generate new knowledge and thus strengthen the academic position of landscape architecture. To enhance the methodological repertoire, the core activity of

  4. Between architecture and model: Strategies for cognitive control

    Taatgen, Niels

    One major limitation of current cognitive architectures is that models are typically constructed in an “empty” architecture, and that the knowledge specifications (typically production rules) are specific to the particular task. This means that general cognitive control strategies have to be

  5. Model-based safety architecture framework for complex systems

    Schuitemaker, Katja; Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza; Braakhuis, J.G.; Podofillini, Luca; Sudret, Bruno; Stojadinovic, Bozidar; Zio, Enrico; Kröger, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The shift to transparency and rising need of the general public for safety, together with the increasing complexity and interdisciplinarity of modern safety-critical Systems of Systems (SoS) have resulted in a Model-Based Safety Architecture Framework (MBSAF) for capturing and sharing architectural

  6. A Concept Transformation Learning Model for Architectural Design Learning Process

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…

  7. Towards a reusable architecture for message exchange in pervasive healthcare

    Cardoso de Moraes, J.L.; Lopes de Souza, Wanderley; Ferreira Pires, Luis; do Prado, Antonio Francisco; Hammoudi, S.; Maciaszek, L.A.; Cordeiro, J.; Dietz, J.L.G.

    The main objective of this paper is to present a reusable architecture for message exchange in pervasive healthcare environments meant to be generally applicable to different applications in the healthcare domain. This architecture has been designed by integrating different concepts and technologies

  8. J-integral analysis of heterogeneous mismatched girth welds in clamped single-edge notched tension specimens

    Hertelé, Stijn; De Waele, Wim; Verstraete, Matthias; Denys, Rudi; O'Dowd, Noel

    2014-01-01

    Flaw assessment procedures require a quantification of crack driving force, and such procedures are generally based on the assumption of weld homogeneity. However, welds generally have a heterogeneous microstructure, which will influence the crack driving force. This paper describes a stress-based methodology to assess complex heterogeneous welds using a J-based approach. Clamped single-edge notched tension specimens, representative of girth weld flaws, are analyzed and the influence of weld heterogeneity on crack driving force has been determined. The use of a modified limit load for heterogeneous welds is proposed, suitable for implementation in a ‘homogenized’ J-integral estimation scheme. It follows from an explicit modification of an existing solution for centre cracked tension specimens. The proposed solution provides a good estimate of crack driving force and any errors in the approximation may be accounted for by means of a small safety factor on load bearing capacity. - Highlights: • We present a crack driving force estimation procedure for heterogeneous welds. • The procedure is based on a ‘homogenized’ version of the EPRI equation. • Complex welds are translated into equivalent idealized mismatched welds. • The procedure is validated for clamped SE(T) specimens. • A mismatch limit load for clamped SE(T) specimens is developed

  9. 3D heteroepitaxy of mismatched semiconductors on silicon

    Falub, Claudiu V.; Kreiliger, Thomas; Isa, Fabio; Taboada, Alfonso G.; Meduňa, Mojmír; Pezzoli, Fabio; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Marzegalli, Anna; Müller, Elisabeth; Chrastina, Daniel; Isella, Giovanni; Neels, Antonia; Niedermann, Philippe; Dommann, Alex; Miglio, Leo; Känel, Hans von

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for monolithically integrating mismatched semiconductor materials with Si, coined three-dimensional (3D) heteroepitaxy. The method comprises the replacement of conventional, continuous epilayers by dense arrays of strain- and defect-free, micron-sized crystals. The crystals are formed by a combination of deep-patterning of the Si substrates and self-limited lateral expansion during the epitaxial growth. Consequently, the longstanding issues of crack formation and wafer bowing can be avoided. Moreover, threading dislocations can be eliminated by appropriately choosing pattern sizes, layer thicknesses and surface morphology, the latter being dependent on the growth temperature. We show this approach to be valid for various material combinations, pattern geometries and substrate orientations. We demonstrate that Ge crystals evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface with Si, by using a synchrotron X-ray beam focused to a spot a few hundred nanometers in size and by recording 3D reciprocal space maps along their height. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) experiments reveal that the interband integrated PL intensity of the Ge crystals is enhanced by almost three orders of magnitude with respect to that of Ge epilayers directly grown on flat Si substrates. Electrical measurements performed on single heterojunction diodes formed between 3D Ge crystals and the Si substrate exhibit rectifying behavior with dark currents of the order of 1 mA/cm 2 . For GaAs the thermal strain relaxation as a function of pattern size is similar to that found for group IV materials. Significant differences exist, however, in the evolution of crystal morphology with pattern size, which more and more tends to a pyramidal shape defined by stable {111} facets with decreasing width of the Si pillars. - Highlights: • Νew method for integrating mismatched semiconductors • Arrays of three-dimensional epitaxial Ge and GaAs crystals on Si

  10. Collocation mismatch uncertainties in satellite aerosol retrieval validation

    Virtanen, Timo H.; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Rodríguez, Edith; Saponaro, Giulia; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2018-02-01

    Satellite-based aerosol products are routinely validated against ground-based reference data, usually obtained from sun photometer networks such as AERONET (AEROsol RObotic NETwork). In a typical validation exercise a spatial sample of the instantaneous satellite data is compared against a temporal sample of the point-like ground-based data. The observations do not correspond to exactly the same column of the atmosphere at the same time, and the representativeness of the reference data depends on the spatiotemporal variability of the aerosol properties in the samples. The associated uncertainty is known as the collocation mismatch uncertainty (CMU). The validation results depend on the sampling parameters. While small samples involve less variability, they are more sensitive to the inevitable noise in the measurement data. In this paper we study systematically the effect of the sampling parameters in the validation of AATSR (Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product against AERONET data and the associated collocation mismatch uncertainty. To this end, we study the spatial AOD variability in the satellite data, compare it against the corresponding values obtained from densely located AERONET sites, and assess the possible reasons for observed differences. We find that the spatial AOD variability in the satellite data is approximately 2 times larger than in the ground-based data, and the spatial variability correlates only weakly with that of AERONET for short distances. We interpreted that only half of the variability in the satellite data is due to the natural variability in the AOD, and the rest is noise due to retrieval errors. However, for larger distances (˜ 0.5°) the correlation is improved as the noise is averaged out, and the day-to-day changes in regional AOD variability are well captured. Furthermore, we assess the usefulness of the spatial variability of the satellite AOD data as an estimate of CMU by comparing the

  11. The ABC Adaptive Fusion Architecture

    Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan; Mogensen, Martin; Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2006-01-01

    and early implementation of a systemcapable of adapting to its operating environment, choosingthe best fit combination of the client-server and peerto-peer architectures. The architecture creates a seamlessintegration between a centralized hybrid architecture and adecentralized architecture, relying on what...

  12. Network interconnections: an architectural reference model

    Butscher, B.; Lenzini, L.; Morling, R.; Vissers, C.A.; Popescu-Zeletin, R.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Heger, D.; Krueger, G.; Spaniol, O.; Zorn, W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems in understanding the different approaches in interconnecting networks of different technologies is the lack of reference to a general model. The paper develops the rationales for a reference model of network interconnection and focuses on the architectural implications for

  13. On Control Strategies for Responsive Architectural Structures

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Parigi, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The present paper considers control of responsive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability. The general scope of...

  14. weHelp: A Reference Architecture for Social Recommender Systems.

    Sheth, Swapneel; Arora, Nipun; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems have become increasingly popular. Most of the research on recommender systems has focused on recommendation algorithms. There has been relatively little research, however, in the area of generalized system architectures for recommendation systems. In this paper, we introduce weHelp : a reference architecture for social recommender systems - systems where recommendations are derived automatically from the aggregate of logged activities conducted by the system's users. Our architecture is designed to be application and domain agnostic. We feel that a good reference architecture will make designing a recommendation system easier; in particular, weHelp aims to provide a practical design template to help developers design their own well-modularized systems.

  15. Architectural theory in Eastern Europe during the Enlightenment

    Basile Baudez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scholars working on architectural theory have recently benefitted from several important editions of treatises published during the Enlightenment, but few manuscripts have received the attention they deserve and we still have until now a relatively limited knowledge of the architectural culture outside Western Europe. Carolyn C. Guile’s translation and edition of Ignacy Potocki (1750-1809’s Remarks on Architecture with Pennsylvania State University Press offers an exceptional case-study of what rigorous and inventive scholarship can bring to our knowledge not only of the strategies at work in the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth but also of the Enlightenment European architectural theory in general.

  16. New Energy Architecture. Myanmar

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    A global transition towards a new energy architecture is under way, driven by countries' need to respond to the changing dynamics of economic growth, environmental sustainability and energy security. The World Economic Forum, in collaboration with Accenture, has created the New Energy Architecture Initiative to address and accelerate this transition. The Initiative supports the development of national strategies and policy frameworks as countries seek to achieve the combined goals of energy security and access, sustainability, and economic growth and development. The World Economic Forum has formed a partnership with the Ministry of Energy of Myanmar to help apply the Initiative's approach to this developing and resource-rich nation. The Asian Development Bank and the World Economic Forum's Project Adviser, Accenture, have collaborated with the Forum on this consultation process, and have been supported by relevant government, industry and civil society stakeholders. The consultation process aims to understand the nation's current energy architecture challenges and provide an overview of a path to a New Energy Architecture through a series of insights. These insights could form the basis for a long-term multistakeholder roadmap to build Myanmar's energy sector in a way that is secure and sustainable, and promotes economic growth as the country makes its democratic transition. While not all recommendations can be implemented in the near term, they do provide options for creating a prioritized roadmap for Myanmar's energy transition. This report is the culmination of a nine-month multistakeholder process investigating Myanmar's energy architecture. Over the course of many visits to the country, the team has conducted numerous interviews, multistakeholder workshops, and learning and data-gathering exercises to ensure a comprehensive range of information and views. The team has also engaged with a variety of stakeholders to better inform their findings, which have come

  17. New Energy Architecture. Myanmar

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    A global transition towards a new energy architecture is under way, driven by countries' need to respond to the changing dynamics of economic growth, environmental sustainability and energy security. The World Economic Forum, in collaboration with Accenture, has created the New Energy Architecture Initiative to address and accelerate this transition. The Initiative supports the development of national strategies and policy frameworks as countries seek to achieve the combined goals of energy security and access, sustainability, and economic growth and development. The World Economic Forum has formed a partnership with the Ministry of Energy of Myanmar to help apply the Initiative's approach to this developing and resource-rich nation. The Asian Development Bank and the World Economic Forum's Project Adviser, Accenture, have collaborated with the Forum on this consultation process, and have been supported by relevant government, industry and civil society stakeholders. The consultation process aims to understand the nation's current energy architecture challenges and provide an overview of a path to a New Energy Architecture through a series of insights. These insights could form the basis for a long-term multistakeholder roadmap to build Myanmar's energy sector in a way that is secure and sustainable, and promotes economic growth as the country makes its democratic transition. While not all recommendations can be implemented in the near term, they do provide options for creating a prioritized roadmap for Myanmar's energy transition. This report is the culmination of a nine-month multistakeholder process investigating Myanmar's energy architecture. Over the course of many visits to the country, the team has conducted numerous interviews, multistakeholder workshops, and learning and data-gathering exercises to ensure a comprehensive range of information and views. The team has also engaged with a variety of stakeholders to better

  18. Discrete geometric structures for architecture

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-06-13

    The emergence of freeform structures in contemporary architecture raises numerous challenging research problems, most of which are related to the actual fabrication and are a rich source of research topics in geometry and geometric computing. The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization of supporting beams and nodes. A study of quadrilateral meshes with planar faces reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. In particular, we discuss meshes which discretize the network of principal curvature lines. Conical meshes are among these meshes; they possess conical offset meshes at a constant face/face distance, which in turn leads to a supporting beam layout with so-called torsion free nodes. This work can be generalized to a variety of multilayer structures and laid the ground for an adapted curvature theory for these meshes. There are also efforts on segmenting surfaces into planar hexagonal panels. Though these are less constrained than planar quadrilateral panels, this problem is still waiting for an elegant solution. Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we present a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' in-circles form a packing, i.e., the in-circles of two triangles with a common edge have the same contact point on that edge. These "circle packing (CP) meshes" exhibit an aesthetic balance of shape and size of their faces. They are closely tied to sphere packings on surfaces and to various remarkable structures and patterns which are of interest in art, architecture, and design. CP meshes constitute a new link between architectural freeform design and computational conformal geometry. Recently, certain timber structures motivated us to study discrete patterns of geodesics on surfaces. This

  19. Quality of Experience for Large Ultra-High-Resolution Tiled Displays with Synchronization Mismatch

    Deshpande Sachin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates to quality of experience when viewing images, video, or other content on large ultra-high-resolution displays made from individual display tiles. We define experiments to measure vernier acuity caused by synchronization mismatch for moving images. The experiments are used to obtain synchronization mismatch acuity threshold as a function of object velocity and as a function of occlusion or gap width. Our main motivation for measuring the synchronization mismatch vernier acuity is its relevance in the application of tiled display systems, which create a single contiguous image using individual discrete panels arranged in a matrix with each panel utilizing a distributed synchronization algorithm to display parts of the overall image. We also propose a subjective assessment method for perception evaluation of synchronization mismatch for large ultra-high-resolution tiled displays. For this, we design a synchronization mismatch measurement test video set for various tile configurations for various interpanel synchronization mismatch values. The proposed method for synchronization mismatch perception can evaluate tiled displays with or without tile bezels. The results from this work can help during design of low-cost tiled display systems, which utilize distributed synchronization mechanisms for a contiguous or bezeled image display.

  20. Auditory mismatch negativity in schizophrenia: topographic evaluation with a high-density recording montage.

    Hirayasu, Y; Potts, G F; O'Donnell, B F; Kwon, J S; Arakaki, H; Akdag, S J; Levitt, J J; Shenton, M E; McCarley, R W

    1998-09-01

    The mismatch negativity, a negative component in the auditory event-related potential, is thought to index automatic processes involved in sensory or echoic memory. The authors' goal in this study was to examine the topography of auditory mismatch negativity in schizophrenia with a high-density, 64-channel recording montage. Mismatch negativity topography was evaluated in 23 right-handed male patients with schizophrenia who were receiving medication and in 23 nonschizophrenic comparison subjects who were matched in age, handedness, and parental socioeconomic status. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used to measure psychiatric symptoms. Mismatch negativity amplitude was reduced in the patients with schizophrenia. They showed a greater left-less-than-right asymmetry than comparison subjects at homotopic electrode pairs near the parietotemporal junction. There were correlations between mismatch negativity amplitude and hallucinations at left frontal electrodes and between mismatch negativity amplitude and passive-apathetic social withdrawal at left and right frontal electrodes. Mismatch negativity was reduced in schizophrenia, especially in the left hemisphere. This finding is consistent with abnormalities of primary or adjacent auditory cortex involved in auditory sensory or echoic memory.

  1. Measurement errors in multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyzers with and without impedance electrode mismatch

    Bogónez-Franco, P; Nescolarde, L; Bragós, R; Rosell-Ferrer, J; Yandiola, I

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare measurement errors in two commercially available multi-frequency bioimpedance analyzers, a Xitron 4000B and an ImpediMed SFB7, including electrode impedance mismatch. The comparison was made using resistive electrical models and in ten human volunteers. We used three different electrical models simulating three different body segments: the right-side, leg and thorax. In the electrical models, we tested the effect of the capacitive coupling of the patient to ground and the skin–electrode impedance mismatch. Results showed that both sets of equipment are optimized for right-side measurements and for moderate skin–electrode impedance mismatch. In right-side measurements with mismatch electrode, 4000B is more accurate than SFB7. When an electrode impedance mismatch was simulated, errors increased in both bioimpedance analyzers and the effect of the mismatch in the voltage detection leads was greater than that in current injection leads. For segments with lower impedance as the leg and thorax, SFB7 is more accurate than 4000B and also shows less dependence on electrode mismatch. In both devices, impedance measurements were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by the capacitive coupling to ground

  2. Snowshoe hares display limited phenotypic plasticity to mismatch in seasonal camouflage

    Zimova, Marketa; Mills, L. Scott; Lukacs, Paul M.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    As duration of snow cover decreases owing to climate change, species undergoing seasonal colour moults can become colour mismatched with their background. The immediate adaptive solution to this mismatch is phenotypic plasticity, either in phenology of seasonal colour moults or in behaviours that reduce mismatch or its consequences. We observed nearly 200 snowshoe hares across a wide range of snow conditions and two study sites in Montana, USA, and found minimal plasticity in response to mismatch between coat colour and background. We found that moult phenology varied between study sites, likely due to differences in photoperiod and climate, but was largely fixed within study sites with only minimal plasticity to snow conditions during the spring white-to-brown moult. We also found no evidence that hares modify their behaviour in response to colour mismatch. Hiding and fleeing behaviours and resting spot preference of hares were more affected by variables related to season, site and concealment by vegetation, than by colour mismatch. We conclude that plasticity in moult phenology and behaviours in snowshoe hares is insufficient for adaptation to camouflage mismatch, suggesting that any future adaptation to climate change will require natural selection on moult phenology or behaviour.

  3. Humming along or buzzing off? The elusive consequences of plant-pollinator mismatches

    Jason Ryan Straka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Temporal mismatches among plants and pollinators, driven by climate change, are considered a potential cause of population declines of these mutualists. However, field studies demonstrating population declines as a result of climate-driven phenological mismatches are uncommon, and the extent to which mismatches will be a problem in the future remains unclear. We revisit predicted consequences of climate-driven phenological mismatch in plant-pollinator systems by identifying nine previously-applied assumptions that are violated or insufficiently understood in real systems. Briefly, the assumptions are: (1 Dates of first-flowering (DFF or dates of first activity (DFA correctly describe phenology, and disparities between DFF and DFA represent the magnitude of mismatch. (2 “Optimal” matches are measured correctly. (3 Advancement of DFF or DFA will be the primary phenological change in the future. (4 Future phenological shifts will be independent for each species. (5 All plant-pollinator interactions are equally effective. (6 Populations of plants and pollinators are limited by mutualistic interactions. Some previous models have also assumed that the effects of future mismatches will not be influenced by (7 emergence of novel interactions, (8 competition or facilitation from altered co-flowering and co-flight, and (9 phenotypic plasticity and rapid adaptive evolution of phenology. Those assumptions affect the direction, extent, and accuracy of predicted consequences of future phenological mismatch. In discussing them, we identify important topics for future research in pollination ecology.

  4. Towards a semantic web layered architecture

    Gerber, AJ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available as an architectural pattern or architectural style [6, 43]. In this section we give a brief description of the con- cepts software architecture and layered architecture. In ad- dition we provide a summary of a list of criteria for layered architectures identified...- els caused some architectural recurrences to evolve. These are described as architectural patterns [6] or architectural styles [43]. Examples of the best known architectural patterns include, but are not limited to, the client/server architectural...

  5. Neural Architectures for Control

    Peterson, James K.

    1991-01-01

    The cerebellar model articulated controller (CMAC) neural architectures are shown to be viable for the purposes of real-time learning and control. Software tools for the exploration of CMAC performance are developed for three hardware platforms, the MacIntosh, the IBM PC, and the SUN workstation. All algorithm development was done using the C programming language. These software tools were then used to implement an adaptive critic neuro-control design that learns in real-time how to back up a trailer truck. The truck backer-upper experiment is a standard performance measure in the neural network literature, but previously the training of the controllers was done off-line. With the CMAC neural architectures, it was possible to train the neuro-controllers on-line in real-time on a MS-DOS PC 386. CMAC neural architectures are also used in conjunction with a hierarchical planning approach to find collision-free paths over 2-D analog valued obstacle fields. The method constructs a coarse resolution version of the original problem and then finds the corresponding coarse optimal path using multipass dynamic programming. CMAC artificial neural architectures are used to estimate the analog transition costs that dynamic programming requires. The CMAC architectures are trained in real-time for each obstacle field presented. The coarse optimal path is then used as a baseline for the construction of a fine scale optimal path through the original obstacle array. These results are a very good indication of the potential power of the neural architectures in control design. In order to reach as wide an audience as possible, we have run a seminar on neuro-control that has met once per week since 20 May 1991. This seminar has thoroughly discussed the CMAC architecture, relevant portions of classical control, back propagation through time, and adaptive critic designs.

  6. Parametric Adaptive Radar Detector with Enhanced Mismatched Signals Rejection Capabilities

    Liu Bin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of adaptive signal detection in the presence of Gaussian noise with unknown covariance matrix. We propose a parametric radar detector by introducing a design parameter to trade off the target sensitivity with sidelobes energy rejection. The resulting detector merges the statistics of Kelly's GLRT and of the Rao test and so covers Kelly's GLRT and the Rao test as special cases. Both invariance properties and constant false alarm rate (CFAR behavior for this detector are studied. At the analysis stage, the performance of the new receiver is assessed and compared with several traditional adaptive detectors. The results highlight better rejection capabilities of this proposed detector for mismatched signals. Further, we develop two two-stage detectors, one of which consists of an adaptive matched filter (AMF followed by the aforementioned detector, and the other is obtained by cascading a GLRT-based Subspace Detector (SD and the proposed adaptive detector. We show that the former two-stage detector outperforms traditional two-stage detectors in terms of selectivity, and the latter yields more robustness.

  7. Integrated analysis of mismatch repair system in malignant astrocytomas.

    Irene Rodríguez-Hernández

    Full Text Available Malignant astrocytomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors with a poor prognosis despite optimal treatment. Dysfunction of mismatch repair (MMR system accelerates the accumulation of mutations throughout the genome causing uncontrolled cell growth. The aim of this study was to characterize the MMR system defects that could be involved in malignant astrocytoma pathogenesis. We analyzed protein expression and promoter methylation of MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 as well as microsatellite instability (MSI and MMR gene mutations in a set of 96 low- and high-grade astrocytomas. Forty-one astrocytomas failed to express at least one MMR protein. Loss of MSH2 expression was more frequent in low-grade astrocytomas. Loss of MLH1 expression was associated with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and MLH1-93G>A promoter polymorphism. However, MSI was not related with MMR protein expression and only 5% of tumors were MSI-High. Furthermore, the incidence of tumors carrying germline mutations in MMR genes was low and only one glioblastoma was associated with Lynch syndrome. Interestingly, survival analysis identified that tumors lacking MSH6 expression presented longer overall survival in high-grade astrocytoma patients treated only with radiotherapy while MSH6 expression did not modify the prognosis of those patients treated with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Our findings suggest that MMR system alterations are a frequent event in malignant astrocytomas and might help to define a subgroup of patients with different outcome.

  8. Responses of prefrontal multisensory neurons to mismatching faces and vocalizations.

    Diehl, Maria M; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2014-08-20

    Social communication relies on the integration of auditory and visual information, which are present in faces and vocalizations. Evidence suggests that the integration of information from multiple sources enhances perception compared with the processing of a unimodal stimulus. Our previous studies demonstrated that single neurons in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) respond to and integrate conspecific vocalizations and their accompanying facial gestures. We were therefore interested in how VLPFC neurons respond differentially to matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) faces and vocalizations. We recorded VLPFC neurons during the presentation of movies with congruent or incongruent species-specific facial gestures and vocalizations as well as their unimodal components. Recordings showed that while many VLPFC units are multisensory and respond to faces, vocalizations, or their combination, a subset of neurons showed a significant change in neuronal activity in response to incongruent versus congruent vocalization movies. Among these neurons, we typically observed incongruent suppression during the early stimulus period and incongruent enhancement during the late stimulus period. Incongruent-responsive VLPFC neurons were both bimodal and nonlinear multisensory, fostering their ability to respond to changes in either modality of a face-vocalization stimulus. These results demonstrate that ventral prefrontal neurons respond to changes in either modality of an audiovisual stimulus, which is important in identity processing and for the integration of multisensory communication information. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411233-11$15.00/0.

  9. Sensory memory during physiological aging indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN).

    Ruzzoli, Manuela; Pirulli, Cornelia; Brignani, Debora; Maioli, Claudio; Miniussi, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    Physiological aging affects early sensory-perceptual processes. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate changes in auditory sensory memory in physiological aging using the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) paradigm as index. The MMN is a marker recorded through the electroencephalogram and is used to evaluate the integrity of the memory system. We adopted a new, faster paradigm to look for differences between 3 groups of subjects of different ages (young, middle age and older adults) as a function of short or long intervals between stimuli. We found that older adults did not show MMN at long interval condition and that the duration of MMN varied according to the participants' age. The current study provides electrophysiological evidence supporting the theory that the encoding of stimuli is preserved during normal aging, whereas the maintenance of sensory memory is impaired. Considering the advantage offered by the MMN paradigm used here, these data might be a useful reference point for the assessment of auditory sensory memory in pathological aging (e.g., in neurodegenerative diseases). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Frontal Theta Activity Supports Detecting Mismatched Information in Visual Working Memory.

    Liang, Tengfei; Hu, Zhonghua; Liu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    During the comparison stage of visual working memory (VWM) processing, detecting the mismatch between the external sensory input and internal representations is a crucial cognitive ability for human, but the neural mechanism behind it remains largely unclear. The present study investigated the role of frontal theta power in detecting the mismatched information in VWM in a delayed matching task. A control task required to compare two simultaneously presented visual figures was also designed as a contrast to exclude the possibility that frontal theta activity just reflecting the non-memory-related behavioral conflicts. To better characterize the control mechanisms shaped by the frontal theta oscillation in human VWM, colored shapes were adopted as materials while both the task-relevant shape feature and task-irrelevant color feature could be mismatched. We found that the response times of participants were significantly delayed under the relevant- and irrelevant-mismatch conditions in both tasks and the conjunction-mismatch condition in delayed matching task. While our EEG data showed that increased frontal theta power was only observed under the relevant- and conjunction-mismatch conditions in the delayed matching task, but not the control task. These findings suggest that the frontal distributed theta activity observed here reflects the detection of mismatched information during the comparison stage of VWM, rather than the response-related conflicts. Furthermore, it is consistent with the proposal that theta-band oscillation can act as a control mechanism in working memory function so that the target-mismatched information in VWM could be successfully tracked. We also propose a possible processing structure to explain the neural dynamics underlying the mismatch detection process in VWM.

  11. Frontal Theta Activity Supports Detecting Mismatched Information in Visual Working Memory

    Tengfei Liang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During the comparison stage of visual working memory (VWM processing, detecting the mismatch between the external sensory input and internal representations is a crucial cognitive ability for human, but the neural mechanism behind it remains largely unclear. The present study investigated the role of frontal theta power in detecting the mismatched information in VWM in a delayed matching task. A control task required to compare two simultaneously presented visual figures was also designed as a contrast to exclude the possibility that frontal theta activity just reflecting the non-memory-related behavioral conflicts. To better characterize the control mechanisms shaped by the frontal theta oscillation in human VWM, colored shapes were adopted as materials while both the task-relevant shape feature and task-irrelevant color feature could be mismatched. We found that the response times of participants were significantly delayed under the relevant- and irrelevant-mismatch conditions in both tasks and the conjunction-mismatch condition in delayed matching task. While our EEG data showed that increased frontal theta power was only observed under the relevant- and conjunction-mismatch conditions in the delayed matching task, but not the control task. These findings suggest that the frontal distributed theta activity observed here reflects the detection of mismatched information during the comparison stage of VWM, rather than the response-related conflicts. Furthermore, it is consistent with the proposal that theta-band oscillation can act as a control mechanism in working memory function so that the target-mismatched information in VWM could be successfully tracked. We also propose a possible processing structure to explain the neural dynamics underlying the mismatch detection process in VWM.

  12. Architecture is Life... ...Life is Architecture

    Snider, David E

    2001-01-01

    When thinking about architecture, I cannot help but think about my life and the things that have affected my life. How does the environment around us effect the daily decisions we make? How do the experiences throughout our life impact who we are and who we become? The people and surroundings we choose will ultimately decide the type of people we become. When we select our surroundings we are in turn selecting our ideal community. Everyone is trying to achieve community in some sense, from in...

  13. Noise-Coupled Image Rejection Architecture of Complex Bandpass ΔΣAD Modulator

    San, Hao; Kobayashi, Haruo

    This paper proposes a new realization technique of image rejection function by noise-coupling architecture, which is used for a complex bandpass ΔΣAD modulator. The complex bandpass ΔΣAD modulator processes just input I and Q signals, not image signals, and the AD conversion can be realized with low power dissipation. It realizes an asymmetric noise-shaped spectra, which is desirable for such low-IF receiver applications. However, the performance of the complex bandpass ΔΣAD modulator suffers from the mismatch between internal analog I and Q paths. I/Q path mismatch causes an image signal, and the quantization noise of the mirror image band aliases into the desired signal band, which degrades the SQNDR (Signal to Quantization Noise and Distortion Ratio) of the modulator. In our proposed modulator architecture, an extra notch for image rejection is realized by noise-coupled topology. We just add some passive capacitors and switches to the modulator; the additional integrator circuit composed of an operational amplifier in the conventional image rejection realization is not necessary. Therefore, the performance of the complex modulator can be effectively raised without additional power dissipation. We have performed simulation with MATLAB to confirm the validity of the proposed architecture. The simulation results show that the proposed architecture can achieve the realization of image-rejection effectively, and improve the SQNDR of the complex bandpass ΔΣAD modulator.

  14. Capacitor Mismatch Error Cancellation Technique for a Successive Approximation A/D Converter

    Zheng, Zhiliang; Moon, Un-Ku; Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    An error cancellation technique is described for suppressing capacitor mismatch in a successive approximation A/D converter. At the cost of a 50% increase in conversion time, the first-order capacitor mismatch error is cancelled. Methods for achieving top-plate parasitic insensitive operation...... are described, and the use of a gain- and offset-compensated opamp is explained. SWITCAP simulation results show that the proposed 16-bit SAR ADC can achieve an SNDR of over 91 dB under non-ideal conditions, including 1% 3 sigma nominal capacitor mismatch, 10-20% randomized parasitic capacitors, 66 dB opamp...

  15. Base Camp Architecture

    Warebi Gabriel Brisibe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal or time line studies of change in the architecture of a particular culture are common, but an area still open to further research is change across space or place. In particular, there is need for studies on architectural change of cultures stemming from the same ethnic source split between their homeland and other Diasporas. This change may range from minor deviations to drastic shifts away from an architectural norm and the accumulation of these shifts within a time frame constitutes variations. This article focuses on identifying variations in the architecture of the Ijo fishing group that migrates along the coastline of West Africa. It examines the causes of cross-cultural variation between base camp dwellings of Ijo migrant fishermen in the Bakassi Peninsula in Cameroon and Bayelsa State in Nigeria. The study draws on the idea of the inevitability of cultural and social change over time as proposed in the theories of cultural dynamism and evolution. It tests aspects of cultural transmission theory using the principal coordinates analysis to ascertain the possible causes of variation. From the findings, this research argues that migration has enhanced the forces of cultural dynamism, which have resulted in significant variations in the architecture of this fishing group.

  16. Architecture and Phenomenology: Introduction

    Brendan O’ Byrne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The implications of philosophical aesthetics in the consideration of architecture have been relatively slight. Part of the reason is the neglect of architecture in the work of Baumgarten, Burke and Kant. Within the discourse of architecture the questions raised for philosophical consideration arising out of practice restricted the area of reflection and investigation. The dominant positions were to become either a version of neo-Kantianism, or a direct re-working of Hegel’s Lectures on Aesthetics. The significance of Kant’s distinction between ‘free’ and ‘dependent beauty’ is analysed, and in consequence the need to philosophically question again the relation of architecture to buiding, to dwelling and space. For this the question of accessibility as raised in the phenomenological enquiry, in the work of Brentano, Sartre, Bachelard, Merleau-Ponty, and especially Heidegger points to a different route for the appraisal of philosophical and architectural relations which are exhibited in the contributions of the 10 authors to this issue of Footprint.

  17. Architecture and Phenomenology: Introduction

    Brendan O’ Byrne

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The implications of philosophical aesthetics in the consideration of architecture have been relatively slight. Part of the reason is the neglect of architecture in the work of Baumgarten, Burke and Kant. Within the discourse of architecture the questions raised for philosophical consideration arising out of practice restricted the area of reflection and investigation. The dominant positions were to become either a version of neo-Kantianism, or a direct re-working of Hegel’s Lectures on Aesthetics. The significance of Kant’s distinction between ‘free’ and ‘dependent beauty’ is analysed, and in consequence the need to philosophically question again the relation of architecture to building, to dwelling and space. For this the question of accessibility as raised in the phenomenological enquiry, in the work of Brentano, Sartre, Bachelard, Merleau-Ponty, and especially Heidegger points to a different route for the appraisal of philosophical and architectural relations which are exhibited in the contributions of the 10 authors to this issue of Footprint.

  18. The Simulation Intranet Architecture

    Holmes, V.P.; Linebarger, J.M.; Miller, D.J.; Vandewart, R.L.

    1998-12-02

    The Simdarion Infranet (S1) is a term which is being used to dcscribc one element of a multidisciplinary distributed and distance computing initiative known as DisCom2 at Sandia National Laboratory (http ct al. 1998). The Simulation Intranet is an architecture for satisfying Sandia's long term goal of providing an end- to-end set of scrviccs for high fidelity full physics simu- lations in a high performance, distributed, and distance computing environment. The Intranet Architecture group was formed to apply current distributed object technologies to this problcm. For the hardware architec- tures and software models involved with the current simulation process, a CORBA-based architecture is best suited to meet Sandia's needs. This paper presents the initial desi-a and implementation of this Intranct based on a three-tier Network Computing Architecture(NCA). The major parts of the architecture include: the Web Cli- ent, the Business Objects, and Data Persistence.

  19. Mood As Cumulative Expectation Mismatch: A Test of Theory Based on Data from Non-verbal Cognitive Bias Tests

    Camille M. C. Raoult

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective states are known to influence behavior and cognitive processes. To assess mood (moderately long-term affective states, the cognitive judgment bias test was developed and has been widely used in various animal species. However, little is known about how mood changes, how mood can be experimentally manipulated, and how mood then feeds back into cognitive judgment. A recent theory argues that mood reflects the cumulative impact of differences between obtained outcomes and expectations. Here expectations refer to an established context. Situations in which an established context fails to match an outcome are then perceived as mismatches of expectation and outcome. We take advantage of the large number of studies published on non-verbal cognitive bias tests in recent years (95 studies with a total of 162 independent tests to test whether cumulative mismatch could indeed have led to the observed mood changes. Based on a criteria list, we assessed whether mismatch had occurred with the experimental procedure used to induce mood (mood induction mismatch, or in the context of the non-verbal cognitive bias procedure (testing mismatch. For the mood induction mismatch, we scored the mismatch between the subjects’ potential expectations and the manipulations conducted for inducing mood whereas, for the testing mismatch, we scored mismatches that may have occurred during the actual testing. We then investigated whether these two types of mismatch can predict the actual outcome of the cognitive bias study. The present evaluation shows that mood induction mismatch cannot well predict the success of a cognitive bias test. On the other hand, testing mismatch can modulate or even inverse the expected outcome. We think, cognitive bias studies should more specifically aim at creating expectation mismatch while inducing mood states to test the cumulative mismatch theory more properly. Furthermore, testing mismatch should be avoided as much as possible

  20. An architecture for fault tolerant controllers

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    degradation in the sense of guaranteed degraded performance. A number of fault diagnosis problems, fault tolerant control problems, and feedback control with fault rejection problems are formulated/considered, mainly from a fault modeling point of view. The method is illustrated on a servo example including......A general architecture for fault tolerant control is proposed. The architecture is based on the (primary) YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing compensators and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The approach suggested can be applied...

  1. Distributed and decentralized control architectures for converter-interfaced microgrids

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Wu, Dan; Shafiee, Qobad

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives a summary on recently available technologies for decentralized and distributed control of microgrids. They can be classified into two general categories: 1) power line communication based architectures and 2) multi-agent based architectures. The essential control methods and info......This paper gives a summary on recently available technologies for decentralized and distributed control of microgrids. They can be classified into two general categories: 1) power line communication based architectures and 2) multi-agent based architectures. The essential control methods...... and information sharing algorithms applied in these architectures are reviewed and examined in a hierarchical manner, in order to point out benefits they will bring to future microgrid applications. The paper is concluded with a summary on existing methods and a discussion on future development trends....

  2. Static Extraction of Object-Oriented Runtime Architectures

    Abi-Antoun, Marwan; Aldrich, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    .... But it is hard to statically extract runtime object graphs that provide architectural abstraction from an arbitrary program written in a general purpose language that follows common design idioms...

  3. Trans-architecture

    Tim Gough

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the intense experience of the gay club, this paper asks whether that experience or event can be acknowledged by architectural theory. Via a reading of Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble and Jacques Derrida’s Before the Law, it posits that the transing of gender can be a clue as to the transing of architecture away from essentialising ontologies. It then uses Deleuze and Guattari’s idea of an assemblage to show how this can be done, making reference to the assemblage of the gay seduction scene in Proust’s Remembrance of Things Past and the image of the interplay of orchid and wasp that is inspired by it. The paper concludes by showing how this ontology relates to a specific instance of transing architecture in the gay and SM clubs of Vauxhall, South London.

  4. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  5. Towards an Architectural Anthropology

    Stender, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Architecture and anthropology have always had overlapping interests regarding issues such as spatial organisation, forms of human dwellings, and the interplay between social life and physical surroundings. Recent developments in both disciplines make it even more relevant to explore and evolve...... their overlaps and collaboration. However, there are also challenging differences to take into account regarding disciplinary traditions of, for example, communication, temporality, and normativity. This article explores the potentials and challenges of architectural anthropology as a distinct sub......-discipline and outlines its possible theoretical, methodological, and applied contributions. It is proposed that the ambition to understand people in a different way than they understand themselves is key in both disciplines, and that architectural anthropology is consequently not only relevant in studies of vernacular...

  6. Islamic Architecture and Arch

    Mohammed Mahbubur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The arch, an essential architectural element since the early civilizations, permitted the construction of lighter walls and vaults, often covering a large span. Visually it was an important decorative feature that was trans-mitted from architectural decoration to other forms of art worldwide. In early Islamic period, Muslims were receiving from many civilizations, which they improved and re-introduced to bring about the Renaissance. Arches appeared in Mesopotamia, Indus, Egyptian, Babylonian, Greek and Assyrian civilizations; but the Romans applied the technique to a wide range of structures. The Muslims mastered the use and design of the arch, employed for structural and functional purposes, progressively meeting decorative and symbolic pur-poses. Islamic architecture is characterized by arches employed in all types of buildings; most common uses being in arcades. This paper discusses the process of assimilation and charts how they contributed to other civilizations.

  7. Architecture of Environmental Engineering

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    2006-01-01

    An architecture of Environmental Engineering has been developed comprising the various disciplines and tools involved. It identifies industry as the major actor and target group, and it builds on the concept of Eco-efficiency. To improve Eco-efficiency, there is a limited number of intervention......-efficiency is the aim of Environmental Engineering, the discipline of synthesis – design and creation of solutions – will form a core pillar of the architecture. Other disciplines of Environmental Engineering exist forming the necessary background and frame for the synthesis. Environmental Engineering, thus, in essence...... comprise the disciplines of: management, system description & inventory, analysis & assessment, prioritisation, synthesis, and communication, each existing at all levels of intervention. The developed architecture of Environmental Engineering, thus, consists of thirty individual disciplines, within each...

  8. Architectural Competition and BIM

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2015-01-01

    on architecturalcompetitions, a series of interviews was conducted with building clients as well as architects, focusing on the impact of the above-mentioned changes within the building sector on architectural competitions as an institution. In the interviews, ICT and notleast BIM was a recurring theme that both parties saw...... as having a positive impact on competitions. But when looking closely into the answers, these revealed diverse understandings of how and why the impact of BIM on competitions could be said to be positive. The paper sheds light on the interaction between the actors (building clients, architects and client...... consultants) and the applied technologies (competition forms, ICT tools, directives) in architectural competitions in a theoretical actor-network perspective. The diverging understandings of the role of BIM are demonstrating one of many negotiations in progress in the network of architectural competitions...

  9. Persian architecture and mathematics

    2012-01-01

    This volulme features eight original papers dedicated to the theme “Persian Architecture and Mathematics,” guest edited by Reza Sarhangi. All papers were approved through a rigorous process of blind peer review and edited by an interdisciplinary scientific editorial committee. Topics range from symmetry in ancient Persian architecture to the elaborate geometric patterns and complex three-dimensional structures of standing monuments of historical periods, from the expression of mathematical ideas to architectonic structures, and from decorative ornament to the representation of modern group theory and quasi-crystalline patterns. The articles discuss unique monuments Persia, including domed structures and two-dimensional patterns, which have received significant scholarly attention in recent years. This book is a unique contribution to studies of Persian architecture in relation to mathematics.

  10. Art and Architectural Space

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    the number of museums went up from 300 by 1980 to estimated 3000 museums by 2015. In urban discourses, new museums and buildings for art have been considered as drivers for ´cultural sustainability´ of cities. The notion is diffuse and the reality is more an economic centred ´city branding´ to help...... the promotion of tourism. What surprises: in many cities, the buildings for art are better known and more published and discussed than the art they accommodate. A lot of them are considered as art objects. This raises two questions: How much is architecture itself a form of arts? (in Western architecture...... historically considered even the mother of all arts) - but more relevant: what are appropriate architectural spaces for presenting, exhibiting, contemplating, reflecting, meditating, discussing, enjoying, dissenting, debating creations of art. Simplified, this is a question about the relation between package...

  11. Performative Urban Architecture

    Thomsen, Bo Stjerne; Jensen, Ole B.

    The paper explores how performative urban architecture can enhance community-making and public domain using socio-technical systems and digital technologies to constitute an urban reality. Digital medias developed for the web are now increasingly occupying the urban realm as a tool for navigating...... the physical world e.g. as exemplified by the Google Walk Score and the mobile extension of the Google Maps to the iPhone. At the same time the development in pervasive technologies and situated computing extends the build environment with digital feedback systems that are increasingly embedded and deployed...... using sensor technologies opening up for new access considerations in architecture as well as the ability for a local environment to act as real-time sources of information and facilities. Starting from the NoRA pavilion for the 10th International Architecture Biennale in Venice the paper discusses...

  12. Architecture of Environmental Engineering

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    2004-01-01

    An architecture of Environmental Engineering has been developed comprising the various disciplines and tools involved. It identifies industry as the major actor and target group, and it builds on the concept of Eco-efficiency. To improve Eco-efficiency, there is a limited number of intervention...... of Eco-efficiency is the aim of Environmental Engineering, the discipline of synthesis – design and creation of solutions – will form a core pillar of the architecture. Other disciplines of Environmental Engineering exist forming the necessary background and frame for the synthesis. Environmental...... Engineering, thus, in essence comprise the disciplines of: management, system description & inventory, analysis & assessment, prioritisation, synthesis, and communication, each existing at all levels of intervention. The developed architecture of Environmental Engineering, thus, consists of thirty individual...

  13. AUTOMATIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLE RECOGNITION

    M. Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the field of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classification of architectural styles from facade images. Our classifier first identifies the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classifier to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.

  14. An anti-image interference quadrature IF architecture for satellite receivers

    He Weidong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS signals span a wide range of frequency, wireless signals coming from other communication systems may be aliased and appear as image interference. In quadrature intermediate frequency (IF receivers, image aliasing due to in-phase and quadrature (I/Q channel mismatches is always a big problem. I/Q mismatches occur because of gain and phase imbalances between quadrature mixers and capacitor mismatches in analog-to-digital converters (ADC. As a result, the dynamic range and performance of a receiver are severely degraded. In this paper, several popular receiver architectures are summarized and the image aliasing problem is investigated in detail. Based on this analysis, a low-IF architecture is proposed for a single-chip solution and a novel and feasible anti-image algorithm is investigated. With this anti-image digital processing, the image reject ratio (IRR can reach approximately above 50 dB, which relaxes image rejection specific in front-end circuit designs and allows cheap and highly flexible analog front-end solutions. Simulation and experimental data show that the anti-image algorithm can work effectively, robustly, and steadily.

  15. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

  16. Architecture in Its Own Shadow

    Alexander Rappaport

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Those who consider themselves architects disapprove of the statements about destruction of the subject of architectural culture, profession and of the subject of architectural theory. At the same time, a deep crisis of both theory and practice is obvious. When theorists of architecture of the 20th and early 21st centuries turned to the subjects external to architecture – sociology, psychology, semiotics, ecology, post-structuralist criticism, etc., instead of enriching and renovating the architectural theory, the results were just the opposite. A brand new and independent paradigm of architecture is needed. It should contain three parts specific by their logical-subject nature: ontology of architecture, methodology of architectural thought and axiology of architectural thought.

  17. The mismatch between the health research and development (R&D that is needed and the R&D that is undertaken: an overview of the problem, the causes, and solutions

    Roderik F. Viergever

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most pressing global health problems is that there is a mismatch between the health research and development (R&D that is needed and that which is undertaken. The dependence of health R&D on market incentives in the for-profit private sector and the lack of coordination by public and philanthropic funders on global R&D priorities have resulted in a global health R&D landscape that neglects certain products and populations and is characterised, more generally, by a distribution that is not ‘needs-driven’. This article provides an overview of the mismatch, its causes, and solutions.

  18. The mismatch between the health research and development (R&D) that is needed and the R&D that is undertaken: an overview of the problem, the causes, and solutions.

    Viergever, Roderik F

    2013-10-10

    One of the most pressing global health problems is that there is a mismatch between the health research and development (R&D) that is needed and that which is undertaken. The dependence of health R&D on market incentives in the for-profit private sector and the lack of coordination by public and philanthropic funders on global R&D priorities have resulted in a global health R&D landscape that neglects certain products and populations and is characterised, more generally, by a distribution that is not 'needs-driven'. This article provides an overview of the mismatch, its causes, and solutions.

  19. Reframing information architecture

    Resmini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Information architecture has changed dramatically since the mid-1990s and earlier conceptions of the world and the internet being different and separate have given way to a much more complex scenario in the present day. In the post-digital world that we now inhabit the digital and the physical blend easily and our activities and usage of information takes place through multiple contexts and via multiple devices and unstable, emergent choreographies. Information architecture now is steadily growing into a channel- or medium-specific multi-disciplinary framework, with contributions coming from a

  20. 3D ARCHITECTURAL VIDEOMAPPING

    R. Catanese

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D architectural mapping is a video projection technique that can be done with a survey of a chosen building in order to realize a perfect correspondence between its shapes and the images in projection. As a performative kind of audiovisual artifact, the real event of the 3D mapping is a combination of a registered video animation file with a real architecture. This new kind of visual art is becoming very popular and its big audience success testifies new expressive chances in the field of urban design. My case study has been experienced in Pisa for the Luminara feast in 2012.

  1. Cartography of architectural controversies

    Lotz, Katrine

    2009-01-01

    on the visual materials and documents produced during the process, and interviews with architects, clients and engineers, I describe the continuous efforts to establish and strengthen architectural motives, and how they eventually gain the ability to align other motives and other actors. I suggest...... that employing the visualising methods of the recent development of Actor-Network-Theory called ‘Cartography of Controversies' might contribute to trans-disciplinary efforts to develop analytic understanding of the conflicting human purposes and power-struggles at stake in the be-coming of architecture....

  2. The Value of Architecture

    Beim, Anne

    2018-01-01

    of Europe’s architectural heritage. This resulted in a greater emphasis on building conservation and led to the development of the Survey of Architectural Values in the Environment (SAVE) by the Danish heritage authorities. The value assessment was initially meant for evaluating building heritage...... and authorities in efforts to evaluate the cultural value of the built environment. The National Trust of Norway is a voluntary association, a trust, and a property owner. Since 1845, it has developed expertise in restoration and maintenance of historical monuments. It is based on personal memberships...

  3. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  4. Band anticrossing effects in highly mismatched semiconductor alloys

    Wu, Junqiao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The first five chapters of this thesis focus on studies of band anticrossing (BAC) effects in highly electronegativity- mismatched semiconductor alloys. The concept of bandgap bowing has been used to describe the deviation of the alloy bandgap from a linear interpolation. Bowing parameters as large as 2.5 eV (for ZnSTe) and close to zero (for AlGaAs and ZnSSe) have been observed experimentally. Recent advances in thin film deposition techniques have allowed the growth of semiconductor alloys composed of significantly different constituents with ever- improving crystalline quality (e.g., GaAs1-xNx and GaP1-xNx with x ~< 0.05). These alloys exhibit many novel and interesting properties including, in particular, a giant bandgap bowing (bowing parameters > 14 eV). A band anticrossing model has been developed to explain these properties. The model shows that the predominant bowing mechanism in these systems is driven by the anticrossing interaction between the localized level associated with the minority component and the band states of the host. In this thesis I discuss my studies of the BAC effects in these highly mismatched semiconductors. It will be shown that the results of the physically intuitive BAC model can be derived from the Hamiltonian of the many-impurity Anderson model. The band restructuring caused by the BAC interaction is responsible for a series of experimental observations such as a large bandgap reduction, an enhancement of the electron effective mass, and a decrease in the pressure coefficient of the fundamental gap energy. Results of further experimental investigations of the optical properties of quantum wells based on these materials will be also presented. It will be shown that the BAC interaction occurs not only between localized states and conduction band states at the Brillouin zone center, but also exists over all of k-space. Finally, taking ZnSTe and ZnSeTe as examples, I show that BAC also

  5. A NEW OS ARCHITECTURE FOR IOT

    Jean Y. Astier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Current computer operating systems architectures are not well suited for the coming world of connected objects, known as the Internet of Things (IoT for multiple reasons: poor communication performances in both point-to-point and broadcast cases, poor operational reliability and network security, excessive requirements both in terms of processor power and memory size leading to excessive electrical power consumption. We introduce a new computer operating system architecture well adapted to IoT, from the most modest to the most complex, and more generally able to significantly raise the input/output capacities of any communicating computer. This architecture rests on the principles of the Von Neumann hardware model, and is composed of two types of asymmetric distributed containers, which communicate by message passing. We describe the sub-systems of both of these types of containers, where each sub-system has its own scheduler, and a dedicated execution level.

  6. CAAD as Computer-Activated Architectural Design

    Galle, Per

    1998-01-01

    In a brief sketch, drawing on a general philosophical conception of human interaction with the world, the architectural design process is analysed in terms of two kinds of human action: interpretation and production. Both of these are seen as establishing a link between mental and material entities....... On this background two alternative roles of computers in computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) are distinguished: a passive and a more active role, where in the latter case, the computer’s capacity for symbol manipulation is utilized to influence design thinking actively. The analysis offered in this paper may...... serve at least two purposes: to provide a conceptual machinery for research and reflection on CAAD, and to clarify the notion of ‘artificial intelligence’ in the light of architectural design....

  7. Mismatch repair and treatment resistance in ovarian cancer

    Helleman, Jozien; Staveren, Iris L van; Dinjens, Winand NM; Kuijk, Patricia F van; Ritstier, Kirsten; Ewing, Patricia C; Burg, Maria EL van der; Stoter, Gerrit; Berns, Els MJJ

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of ovarian cancer is hindered by intrinsic or acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of mismatch repair (MMR) inactivation in ovarian cancer and its association with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We determined, microsatellite instability (MSI) as a marker for MMR inactivation (analysis of BAT25 and BAT26), MLH1 promoter methylation status (methylation specific PCR on bisulfite treated DNA) and mRNA expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6 and PMS2 (quantitative RT-PCR) in 75 ovarian carcinomas and eight ovarian cancer cell lines MSI was detected in three of the eight cell lines i.e. A2780 (no MLH1 mRNA expression due to promoter methylation), SKOV3 (no MLH1 mRNA expression) and 2774 (no altered expression of MMR genes). Overall, there was no association between cisplatin response and MMR status in these eight cell lines. Seven of the 75 ovarian carcinomas showed MLH1 promoter methylation, however, none of these showed MSI. Forty-six of these patients received platinum-based chemotherapy (11 non-responders, 34 responders, one unknown response). The resistance seen in the eleven non-responders was not related to MSI and therefore also not to MMR inactivation. No MMR inactivation was detected in 75 ovarian carcinoma specimens and no association was seen between MMR inactivation and resistance in the ovarian cancer cell lines as well as the ovarian carcinomas. In the discussion, the results were compared to that of twenty similar studies in the literature including in total 1315 ovarian cancer patients. Although no association between response and MMR status was seen in the primary tumor the possible role of MMR inactivation in acquired resistance deserves further investigation

  8. Mismatch repair and treatment resistance in ovarian cancer

    Helleman, Jozien; Staveren, Iris L van [Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dinjens, Winand NM [Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kuijk, Patricia F van; Ritstier, Kirsten [Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ewing, Patricia C [Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Burg, Maria EL van der; Stoter, Gerrit [Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Berns, Els MJJ [Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Medical Oncology, Josephine Nefkens Institute, Room Be424, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR (Netherlands)

    2006-07-31

    The treatment of ovarian cancer is hindered by intrinsic or acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of mismatch repair (MMR) inactivation in ovarian cancer and its association with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We determined, microsatellite instability (MSI) as a marker for MMR inactivation (analysis of BAT25 and BAT26), MLH1 promoter methylation status (methylation specific PCR on bisulfite treated DNA) and mRNA expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6 and PMS2 (quantitative RT-PCR) in 75 ovarian carcinomas and eight ovarian cancer cell lines MSI was detected in three of the eight cell lines i.e. A2780 (no MLH1 mRNA expression due to promoter methylation), SKOV3 (no MLH1 mRNA expression) and 2774 (no altered expression of MMR genes). Overall, there was no association between cisplatin response and MMR status in these eight cell lines. Seven of the 75 ovarian carcinomas showed MLH1 promoter methylation, however, none of these showed MSI. Forty-six of these patients received platinum-based chemotherapy (11 non-responders, 34 responders, one unknown response). The resistance seen in the eleven non-responders was not related to MSI and therefore also not to MMR inactivation. No MMR inactivation was detected in 75 ovarian carcinoma specimens and no association was seen between MMR inactivation and resistance in the ovarian cancer cell lines as well as the ovarian carcinomas. In the discussion, the results were compared to that of twenty similar studies in the literature including in total 1315 ovarian cancer patients. Although no association between response and MMR status was seen in the primary tumor the possible role of MMR inactivation in acquired resistance deserves further investigation.

  9. Mismatch repair and treatment resistance in ovarian cancer

    van der Burg Maria EL

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of ovarian cancer is hindered by intrinsic or acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of mismatch repair (MMR inactivation in ovarian cancer and its association with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods We determined, microsatellite instability (MSI as a marker for MMR inactivation (analysis of BAT25 and BAT26, MLH1 promoter methylation status (methylation specific PCR on bisulfite treated DNA and mRNA expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6 and PMS2 (quantitative RT-PCR in 75 ovarian carcinomas and eight ovarian cancer cell lines Results MSI was detected in three of the eight cell lines i.e. A2780 (no MLH1 mRNA expression due to promoter methylation, SKOV3 (no MLH1 mRNA expression and 2774 (no altered expression of MMR genes. Overall, there was no association between cisplatin response and MMR status in these eight cell lines. Seven of the 75 ovarian carcinomas showed MLH1 promoter methylation, however, none of these showed MSI. Forty-six of these patients received platinum-based chemotherapy (11 non-responders, 34 responders, one unknown response. The resistance seen in the eleven non-responders was not related to MSI and therefore also not to MMR inactivation. Conclusion No MMR inactivation was detected in 75 ovarian carcinoma specimens and no association was seen between MMR inactivation and resistance in the ovarian cancer cell lines as well as the ovarian carcinomas. In the discussion, the results were compared to that of twenty similar studies in the literature including in total 1315 ovarian cancer patients. Although no association between response and MMR status was seen in the primary tumor the possible role of MMR inactivation in acquired resistance deserves further investigation.

  10. Beyond the real world: attention debates in auditory mismatch negativity.

    Chung, Kyungmi; Park, Jin Young

    2018-04-11

    The aim of this study was to address the potential for the auditory mismatch negativity (aMMN) to be used in applied event-related potential (ERP) studies by determining whether the aMMN would be an attention-dependent ERP component and could be differently modulated across visual tasks or virtual reality (VR) stimuli with different visual properties and visual complexity levels. A total of 80 participants, aged 19-36 years, were assigned to either a reading-task (21 men and 19 women) or a VR-task (22 men and 18 women) group. Two visual-task groups of healthy young adults were matched in age, sex, and handedness. All participants were instructed to focus only on the given visual tasks and ignore auditory change detection. While participants in the reading-task group read text slides, those in the VR-task group viewed three 360° VR videos in a random order and rated how visually complex the given virtual environment was immediately after each VR video ended. Inconsistent with the finding of a partial significant difference in perceived visual complexity in terms of brightness of virtual environments, both visual properties of distance and brightness showed no significant differences in the modulation of aMMN amplitudes. A further analysis was carried out to compare elicited aMMN amplitudes of a typical MMN task and an applied VR task. No significant difference in the aMMN amplitudes was found across the two groups who completed visual tasks with different visual-task demands. In conclusion, the aMMN is a reliable ERP marker of preattentive cognitive processing for auditory deviance detection.

  11. Mismatch negativity in chronic schizophrenia and first-episode schizophrenia.

    Salisbury, Dean F; Shenton, Martha E; Griggs, Carlye B; Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; McCarley, Robert W

    2002-08-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related brain potential that is sensitive to stimulus deviation from a repetitive pattern. The MMN is thought primarily to reflect the activity of sensory memory, with, at most, moderate influences of higher-level cognitive processes, such as attention. The MMN is reported to be reduced in patients with chronic schizophrenia. However, it is unknown whether MMN is reduced in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (at first hospitalization). Subject groups comprised patients with chronic schizophrenia (n = 16) and older control subjects (n = 13), and patients with first-episode schizophrenia (n = 21) and younger control subjects (n = 27). The MMN was visualized by subtracting the averaged event-related brain potential to standard tones (1 kHz [95% of all tones]) from the event-related brain potential to pitch-deviant tones (1.2 kHz [5% of all tones]). The MMN voltage was the mean voltage from 100 to 200 milliseconds. Pitch-deviant MMN was reduced by approximately 47% in patients with chronic illness along the sagittal midline relative to controls. The MMN was not reduced in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. All 4 groups showed approximately 64% larger MMN to pitch-deviant tones over the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere. The pitch-deviant MMN reductions present in patients with chronic schizophrenia are not present at first hospitalization. The sensory, echoic memory functions indexed by MMN seem unaffected early in the schizophrenia disease process. Reductions in MMN amplitude may develop over time and index the progression of the disorder, although that can only be definitively determined by longitudinal assessments.

  12. Neural mechanisms of mismatch negativity dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    Lee, M; Sehatpour, P; Hoptman, M J; Lakatos, P; Dias, E C; Kantrowitz, J T; Martinez, A M; Javitt, D C

    2017-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with cognitive deficits that reflect impaired cortical information processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) indexes pre-attentive information processing dysfunction at the level of primary auditory cortex. This study investigates mechanisms underlying MMN impairments in schizophrenia using event-related potential, event-related spectral decomposition (ERSP) and resting state functional connectivity (rsfcMRI) approaches. For this study, MMN data to frequency, intensity and duration-deviants were analyzed from 69 schizophrenia patients and 38 healthy controls. rsfcMRI was obtained from a subsample of 38 patients and 23 controls. As expected, schizophrenia patients showed highly significant, large effect size (P=0.0004, d=1.0) deficits in MMN generation across deviant types. In ERSP analyses, responses to deviants occurred primarily the theta (4-7 Hz) frequency range consistent with distributed corticocortical processing, whereas responses to standards occurred primarily in alpha (8-12 Hz) range consistent with known frequencies of thalamocortical activation. Independent deficits in schizophrenia were observed in both the theta response to deviants (P=0.021) and the alpha-response to standards (P=0.003). At the single-trial level, differential patterns of response were observed for frequency vs duration/intensity deviants, along with At the network level, MMN deficits engaged canonical somatomotor, ventral attention and default networks, with a differential pattern of engagement across deviant types (Pschizophrenia. In addition, differences in ERSP and rsfcMRI profiles across deviant types suggest potential differential engagement of underlying generator mechanisms.

  13. Processing of unattended facial emotions: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Stefanics, Gábor; Csukly, Gábor; Komlósi, Sarolta; Czobor, Pál; Czigler, István

    2012-02-01

    Facial emotions express our internal states and are fundamental in social interactions. Here we explore whether the repetition of unattended facial emotions builds up a predictive representation of frequently encountered emotions in the visual system. Participants (n=24) were presented peripherally with facial stimuli expressing emotions while they performed a visual detection task presented in the center of the visual field. Facial stimuli consisted of four faces of different identity, but expressed the same emotion (happy or fearful). Facial stimuli were presented in blocks of oddball sequence (standard emotion: p=0.9, deviant emotion: p=0.1). Event-related potentials (ERPs) to the same emotions were compared when the emotions were deviant and standard, respectively. We found visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) responses to unattended deviant emotions in the 170-360 ms post-stimulus range over bilateral occipito-temporal sites. Our results demonstrate that information about the emotional content of unattended faces presented at the periphery of the visual field is rapidly processed and stored in a predictive memory representation by the visual system. We also found evidence that differential processing of deviant fearful faces starts already at 70-120 ms after stimulus onset. This finding shows a 'negativity bias' under unattended conditions. Differential processing of fearful deviants were more pronounced in the right hemisphere in the 195-275 ms and 360-390 ms intervals, whereas processing of happy deviants evoked larger differential response in the left hemisphere in the 360-390 ms range, indicating differential hemispheric specialization for automatic processing of positive and negative affect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of aripiprazole on mismatch negativity (MMN in schizophrenia.

    Zhenhe Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are considered core symptoms of the schizophrenia. Cognitive function has been found to be a better predictor of functional outcome than symptom levels. Changed mismatch negativity (MMN reflects abnormalities of early auditory processing in schizophrenia. Up to now, no studies for the effects of aripiprazole on MMN in schizophrenia have been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects included 26 patients with schizophrenia, and 26 controls. Psychopathology was rated in patients with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS at baseline, after 4- and 8-week treatments with aripiprazole. Auditory stimuli for ERP consisted of 100 millisecond/1000 Hz standards, intermixed with 100 millisecond/1500 Hz frequency deviants and 250 millisecond/1000 Hz duration deviants. EEG was recorded at Fz. BESA 5.1.8 was used to perform data analysis. MMN waveforms were obtained by subtracting waveforms elicited by standards from waveforms elicited by frequency- or duration-deviant stimuli. Aripiprazole decreased all PANSS. Patients showed smaller mean amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN at baseline than did controls. A repeated measure ANOVA with sessions (i.e., baseline, 4- and 8-week treatments and MMN type (frequency vs. duration as within-subject factors revealed no significant MMN type or MMN type × session main effect for MMN amplitudes. Session main effect was significant. LSD tests demonstrated significant differences between MMN amplitudes at 8 weeks and those at both baseline and 4 weeks. There was significant negative correlation between changes in amplitudes of frequency and duration MMN and changes in PANSS total scores at baseline and follow-up periods. CONCLUSIONS: Aripiprazole improved the amplitudes of MMN. MMN offers objective evidence that treatment with the aripiprazole may ameliorate preattentive deficits in schizophrenia.

  15. Mismatched racial identities, colourism, and health in Toronto and Vancouver.

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2011-10-01

    Using original telephone survey data collected from adult residents of Toronto (n = 685) and Vancouver (n = 814) in 2009, I investigate associations between mental and physical health and variously conceived racial identities. An 'expressed racial identity' is a self-identification with a racial grouping that a person will readily express to others when asked to fit into official racial classifications presented by Census forms, survey researchers, insurance forms, and the like. Distinguishing between Asian, Black, South Asian, and White expressed racial identities, I find that survey respondents expressing Black identity are the most likely to report high blood pressure or hypertension, a risk that is slightly attenuated by socioeconomic status, and that respondents expressing Asian identity are the most likely to report poorer self-rated mental health and self-rated overall health, risks that are not explained by socioeconomic status. I also find that darker-skinned Black respondents are more likely than lighter-skinned Black respondents to report poor health outcomes, indicating that colourism, processes of discrimination which privilege lighter-skinned people of colour over their darker-skinned counterparts, exists and has implications for well-being in Canada as it does in the United States. Finally, 'reflected racial identity' refers to the racial identity that a person believes that others tend to perceive him or her to be. I find that expressed and reflected racial identities differ from one another for large proportions of self-expressed Black and South Asian respondents and relatively few self-expressed White and Asian respondents. I also find that mismatched racial identities correspond with relatively high risks of various poor health outcomes, especially for respondents who consider themselves White but believe that others tend to think they are something else. I conclude by presenting a framework for conceptualizing multifaceted suites of racial

  16. Evaluating Mismatch Repair Deficiency in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Challenges and Recommendations.

    Hu, Zishuo I; Shia, Jinru; Stadler, Zsofia K; Varghese, Anna M; Capanu, Marinela; Salo-Mullen, Erin; Lowery, Maeve A; Diaz, Luis A; Mandelker, Diana; Yu, Kenneth H; Zervoudakis, Alice; Kelsen, David P; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Klimstra, David S; Saltz, Leonard B; Sahin, Ibrahim H; O'Reilly, Eileen M

    2018-03-15

    Purpose: Immune checkpoint inhibition has been shown to generate profound and durable responses in mismatch repair deficient (MMR-D) solid tumors and has elicited interest in detection tools and strategies to guide therapeutic decision-making. Herein we address questions on the appropriate screening, detection methods, patient selection, and initiation of therapy for MMR-D pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and assess the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in providing additional prognostic and predictive information for MMR-D PDAC. Experimental Design: Archival and prospectively acquired samples and matched normal DNA from N = 833 PDAC cases were analyzed using a hybridization capture-based, NGS assay designed to perform targeted deep sequencing of all exons and selected introns of 341 to 468 cancer-associated genes. A computational program using NGS data derived the MSI status from the tumor-normal paired genome sequencing data. Available germline testing, IHC, and microsatellite instability (MSI) PCR results were reviewed to assess and confirm MMR-D and MSI status. Results: MMR-D in PDAC is a rare event among PDAC patients (7/833), occurring at a frequency of 0.8%. Loss of MMR protein expression by IHC, high mutational load, and elevated MSIsensor scores were correlated with MMR-D PDAC. All 7 MMR-D PDAC patients in the study were found to have Lynch syndrome. Four (57%) of the MMR-D patients treated with immune checkpoint blockade had treatment benefit (1 complete response, 2 partial responses, 1 stable disease). Conclusions: An integrated approach of germline testing and somatic analyses of tumor tissues in advanced PDAC using NGS may help guide future development of immune and molecularly directed therapies in PDAC patients. Clin Cancer Res; 24(6); 1326-36. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Selective tumor cell death induced by irradiated riboflavin through recognizing DNA G-T mismatch.

    Yuan, Yi; Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Lianqi; Wu, Jiasi; Chen, Gangyi; Li, Sheng; Zou, Jiawei; Chen, Rong; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Fan; Tang, Zhuo

    2017-09-06

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) has been thought to be a promising antitumoral agent in photodynamic therapy, though the further application of the method was limited by the unclear molecular mechanism. Our work reveals that riboflavin was able to recognize G-T mismatch specifically and induce single-strand breaks in duplex DNA targets efficiently under irradiation. In the presence of riboflavin, the photo-irradiation could induce the death of tumor cells that are defective in mismatch repair system selectively, highlighting the G-T mismatch as potential drug target for tumor cells. Moreover, riboflavin is a promising leading compound for further drug design due to its inherent specific recognition of the G-T mismatch. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Minimizing the effect of process mismatch in a neuromorphic system using spike-timing-dependent adaptation.

    Cameron, Katherine; Murray, Alan

    2008-05-01

    This paper investigates whether spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can minimize the effect of mismatch within the context of a depth-from-motion algorithm. To improve noise rejection, this algorithm contains a spike prediction element, whose performance is degraded by analog very large scale integration (VLSI) mismatch. The error between the actual spike arrival time and the prediction is used as the input to an STDP circuit, to improve future predictions. Before STDP adaptation, the error reflects the degree of mismatch within the prediction circuitry. After STDP adaptation, the error indicates to what extent the adaptive circuitry can minimize the effect of transistor mismatch. The circuitry is tested with static and varying prediction times and chip results are presented. The effect of noisy spikes is also investigated. Under all conditions the STDP adaptation is shown to improve performance.

  19. A Direct Adaptive Control Approach in the Presence of Model Mismatch

    Joshi, Suresh M.; Tao, Gang; Khong, Thuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of direct model reference adaptive control when the plant-model matching conditions are violated due to abnormal changes in the plant or incorrect knowledge of the plant's mathematical structure. The approach consists of direct adaptation of state feedback gains for state tracking, and simultaneous estimation of the plant-model mismatch. Because of the mismatch, the plant can no longer track the state of the original reference model, but may be able to track a new reference model that still provides satisfactory performance. The reference model is updated if the estimated plant-model mismatch exceeds a bound that is determined via robust stability and/or performance criteria. The resulting controller is a hybrid direct-indirect adaptive controller that offers asymptotic state tracking in the presence of plant-model mismatch as well as parameter deviations.

  20. Perceived match or mismatch on the Gottman conflict styles: associations with relationship outcome variables.

    Busby, Dean M; Holman, Thomas B

    2009-12-01

    Gottman has proposed that there are 3 functional styles of conflict management in couple relationships, labeled Avoidant, Validating, and Volatile, and 1 dysfunctional style, labeled Hostile. Using a sample of 1,983 couples in a committed relationship, we test the association of perceived matches or mismatches on these conflict styles with relationship outcome variables. The results indicate that 32% of the participants perceive there is a mismatch with their conflict style and that of their partner. The Volatile-Avoidant mismatch was particularly problematic and was associated with more stonewalling, relationship problems, and lower levels of relationship satisfaction and stability than the Validating matched style and than other mismatched styles. The most problematic style was the Hostile style. Contrary to existing assumptions by Gottman, the 3 matched functional styles were not equivalent, as the Validating Style was associated with substantially better results on relationship outcome measures than the Volatile and Avoidant styles.

  1. Is there a differential strength of specific HLA mismatches in kidney transplants?

    Sasaki, N; Idica, A; Terasaki, P

    2008-05-01

    In this article we attempted to identify whether there is a specific mismatched antigen that might be detrimental to kidney transplant outcome. The frequency of function versus failure of transplant cases was tallied within subpopulations among a subset of the 2006 United Network for Organ Sharing transplant dataset. We examined 7998 cadaveric and 11,420 living donor kidney transplants that were mismatched for a single class I antigen. When tested by five different criteria, the results were relatively similar for the HLA class I, A- and B-locus mismatches. HLA A1 was identified as the single most dominant immunogenic mismatch. However, when the P values were multiplied by 68, the number of comparisons, A1 was only marginally significant. We concluded that at least for class I specificities, the 68 specificities were about equal immunogenicity in kidney transplantation.

  2. The conceptual mismatch: transportation stressors and experiences for low-income adults.

    2015-10-01

    Physical access to jobs has long been identified as a barrier to employment and earnings, with prior : research identifying the spatial mismatch between suburban entry-level jobs and low-income workers. : However, existing transportation resear...

  3. Mismatch or cumulative stress : Toward an integrated hypothesis of programming effects

    Nederhof, Esther; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the

  4. New Spectral Method for Halo Particle Definition in Intense Mis-matched Beams

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Startsev, Edward A.

    2011-04-27

    An advanced spectral analysis of a mis-matched charged particle beam propagating through a periodic focusing transport lattice is utilized in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. It is found that the betatron frequency distribution function of a mismatched space-charge-dominated beam has a bump-on-tail structure attributed to the beam halo particles. Based on this observation, a new spectral method for halo particle definition is proposed that provides the opportunity to carry out a quantitative analysis of halo particle production by a beam mismatch. In addition, it is shown that the spectral analysis of the mismatch relaxation process provides important insights into the emittance growth attributed to the halo formation and the core relaxation processes. Finally, the spectral method is applied to the problem of space-charge transport limits.

  5. Frameshift mutational target gene analysis identifies similarities and differences in constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency and Lynch syndrome.

    Maletzki, Claudia; Huehns, Maja; Bauer, Ingrid; Ripperger, Tim; Mork, Maureen M; Vilar, Eduardo; Klöcking, Sabine; Zettl, Heike; Prall, Friedrich; Linnebacher, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Mismatch-repair deficient (MMR-D) malignancies include Lynch Syndrome (LS), which is secondary to germline mutations in one of the MMR genes, and the rare childhood-form of constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D); caused by bi-allelic MMR gene mutations. A hallmark of LS-associated cancers is microsatellite instability (MSI), characterized by coding frameshift mutations (cFSM) in target genes. By contrast, tumors arising in CMMR-D patients are thought to display a somatic mutation pattern differing from LS. This study has the main goal to identify cFSM in MSI target genes relevant in CMMR-D and to compare the spectrum of common somatic mutations, including alterations in DNA polymerases POLE and D1 between LS and CMMR-D. CMMR-D-associated tumors harbored more somatic mutations compared to LS cases, especially in the TP53 gene and in POLE and POLD1, where novel mutations were additionally identified. Strikingly, MSI in classical mononucleotide markers BAT40 and CAT25 was frequent in CMMR-D cases. MSI-target gene analysis revealed mutations in CMMR-D-associated tumors, some of them known to be frequently hit in LS, such as RNaseT2, HT001, and TGFβR2. Our results imply a general role for these cFSM as potential new drivers of MMR-D tumorigenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and gray matter heterotopia in three patients with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome.

    Baas, Annette F; Gabbett, Michael; Rimac, Milan; Kansikas, Minttu; Raphael, Martine; Nievelstein, Rutger Aj; Nicholls, Wayne; Offerhaus, Johan; Bodmer, Danielle; Wernstedt, Annekatrin; Krabichler, Birgit; Strasser, Ulrich; Nyström, Minna; Zschocke, Johannes; Robertson, Stephen P; van Haelst, Mieke M; Wimmer, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is a rare inherited childhood cancer predisposition caused by biallelic germline mutations in one of the four mismatch repair (MMR)-genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Owing to a wide tumor spectrum, the lack of specific clinical features and the overlap with other cancer predisposing syndromes, diagnosis of CMMR-D is often delayed in pediatric cancer patients. Here, we report of three new CMMR-D patients all of whom developed more than one malignancy. The common finding in these three patients is agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Gray matter heterotopia is present in two patients. One of the 57 previously reported CMMR-D patients with brain tumors (therefore all likely had cerebral imaging) also had ACC. With the present report the prevalence of cerebral malformations is at least 4/60 (6.6%). This number is well above the population birth prevalence of 0.09-0.36 live births with these cerebral malformations, suggesting that ACC and heterotopia are features of CMMR-D. Therefore, the presence of cerebral malformations in pediatric cancer patients should alert to the possible diagnosis of CMMR-D. ACC and gray matter heterotopia are the first congenital malformations described to occur at higher frequency in CMMR-D patients than in the general population. Further systematic evaluations of CMMR-D patients are needed to identify possible other malformations associated with this syndrome.

  7. Patterns of free amino acids in German convenience food products: marked mismatch between label information and composition.

    Hermanussen, M; Gonder, U; Jakobs, C; Stegemann, D; Hoffmann, G

    2010-01-01

    Free amino acids affect food palatability. As information on amino acids in frequently purchased pre-packaged food is virtually absent, we analyzed free amino acid patterns of 17 frequently purchased ready-to-serve convenience food products, and compared them with the information obtained from the respective food labels. Quantitative amino acid analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations were verified using a stable isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The patterns of free amino acids were compared with information obtained from food labels. An obvious mismatch between free amino acid patterns and food label information was detected. Even on considering that tomatoes and cereal proteins are naturally rich in glutamate, the concentrations of free glutamate outranged the natural concentration of this amino acid in several products, and strongly suggested artificial enrichment. Free glutamate was found to be elevated even in dishes that explicitly state 'no glutamate added'. Arginine was markedly elevated in lentils. Free cysteine was generally low, possibly reflecting thermal destruction of this amino acid during food processing. The meat and brain-specific dipeptide carnosine (CARN) was present in most meat-containing products. Some products did not contain detectable amounts of CARN in spite of meat content being claimed on the food labels. We detected GABA at concentrations that contribute significantly to the taste sensation. This investigation highlights a marked mismatch between food label information and food composition.

  8. Coherent heat transport in 2D phononic crystals with acoustic impedance mismatch

    Arantes, A; Anjos, V

    2016-01-01

    In this work we have calculated the cumulative thermal conductivities of micro-phononic crystals formed by different combinations of inclusions and matrices at a sub-Kelvin temperature regime. The low-frequency phonon spectra (up to tens of GHz) were obtained by solving the generalized wave equation for inhomogeneous media with the plane wave expansion method. The thermal conductivity was calculated from Boltzmann transport theory highlighting the role of the low-frequency thermal phonons and neglecting phonon–phonon scattering. A purely coherent thermal transport regime was assumed throughout the structures. Our findings show that the cumulative thermal conductivity drops dramatically when compared with their bulk counterpart. Depending on the structural composition this reduction may be attributed to the phonon group velocity due to a flattening of the phonon dispersion relation, the extinction of phonon modes in the density of states or due to the presence of complete band gaps. According to the contrast between the inclusions and the matrices, three types of two dimensional phononic crystals were considered: carbon/epoxy, carbon/polyethylene and tungsten/silicon, which correspond respectively to a moderate, strong and very strong mismatch in the mechanical properties of these materials. (paper)

  9. The Role of Institutional Logics in Shaping Architecture Governance

    Andersen, Peter; Svejvig, Per; Carugati, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    are discussed in relation to current practice and theory on both architecture and IT governance. Generally, the findings show how architecture governance is shaped through a complex, contextual and social process beyond rational, managerial decision-making. Finally, we propose that institutional logics can...... to IT governance literature in general. IT governance is often described as a management prerogative, however, using institutional logics as a theoretical lens and sensitizing device, we show how different logics emerged over time and influenced how the organization governed its architecture. These findings...

  10. Exploring the relationship between educational mismatch, earnings and job satisfaction in the tourism industry

    Lillo-Bañuls, Adelaida; Casado-Díaz, José M.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the interrelationship between educational mismatch, wages and job satisfaction in the Spanish tourism sector in the first years of the global economic crisis. It is shown that there is a much higher incidence of over-education among workers in the Spanish tourism sector than in the rest of the economy despite this sector recording lower educational levels. This study estimates two models to analyse the influence of the educational mismatch on wages and job satisfaction f...

  11. DNA mismatch repair deficiency in sporadic colorectal cancer and Lynch Syndrome

    Poulogiannis , George; Frayling , Ian; Arends , Mark

    2009-01-01

    Abstract DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency is one of the best understood forms of genetic instability in colorectal cancer (CRC), and is characterised by the loss of function of the MMR pathway. Failure to repair replication-associated errors due to a defective MMR system allows persistence of mismatch mutations all over the genome, but especially in regions of repetitive DNA known as microsatellites, giving rise to the phenomenon of microsatellite instability (MSI). A high freq...

  12. Patient - implant dimension mismatch in total knee arthroplasty: Is it worth worrying? An Indian scenario

    Jai Thilak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct sizing of the components in both anteroposterior and mediolateral (ML dimensions is crucial for the success of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA. The size of the implants selected is based on the intraoperative measurements. The currently used TKA implants available to us are based on morphometric measurements obtained from a Western/Caucasian population. Hence, the risk of component ML mismatch is more common in Asian sub-population, as they are of a smaller built and stature. This study aims to look into the following aspects agnitude of the ML mismatch between the femoral component and the patient′s anatomical dimension, evaluation of gender variations in distal femur dimensions, and gender-wise and implant-wise correlation of ML mismatch. Materials and Methods: Intraoperatively, the distal femoral dimensions were measured using sterile calipers after removing the osteophytes and compared with the ML dimension of the implant used. ML mismatch length thus obtained is correlated with the various parameters. Results: Males showed larger distal femoral dimensions when compared to females. Males had larger ML mismatch. None of the implants used perfectly matched the patient′s anatomical dimensions. Patients with larger mismatch had lower scorings at 2 years postoperative followup. Conclusion: Implant manufacturers need to design more options of femoral implants for a better fit in our subset of patients. The exact magnitude of mismatch which can cause functional implications need to be made out. The mismatch being one of the important factors for the success of the surgery, we should focus more on this aspect.

  13. Tolerance of DNA Mismatches in Dmc1 Recombinase-mediated DNA Strand Exchange*

    Borgogno, María V.; Monti, Mariela R.; Zhao, Weixing; Sung, Patrick; Argaraña, Carlos E.; Pezza, Roberto J.

    2016-01-01

    Recombination between homologous chromosomes is required for the faithful meiotic segregation of chromosomes and leads to the generation of genetic diversity. The conserved meiosis-specific Dmc1 recombinase catalyzes homologous recombination triggered by DNA double strand breaks through the exchange of parental DNA sequences. Although providing an efficient rate of DNA strand exchange between polymorphic alleles, Dmc1 must also guard against recombination between divergent sequences. How DNA mismatches affect Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange is not understood. We have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to study the mechanism of Dmc1-mediated strand exchange between DNA oligonucleotides with different degrees of heterology. The efficiency of strand exchange is highly sensitive to the location, type, and distribution of mismatches. Mismatches near the 3′ end of the initiating DNA strand have a small effect, whereas most mismatches near the 5′ end impede strand exchange dramatically. The Hop2-Mnd1 protein complex stimulates Dmc1-catalyzed strand exchange on homologous DNA or containing a single mismatch. We observed that Dmc1 can reject divergent DNA sequences while bypassing a few mismatches in the DNA sequence. Our findings have important implications in understanding meiotic recombination. First, Dmc1 acts as an initial barrier for heterologous recombination, with the mismatch repair system providing a second level of proofreading, to ensure that ectopic sequences are not recombined. Second, Dmc1 stepping over infrequent mismatches is likely critical for allowing recombination between the polymorphic sequences of homologous chromosomes, thus contributing to gene conversion and genetic diversity. PMID:26709229

  14. Tolerance of DNA Mismatches in Dmc1 Recombinase-mediated DNA Strand Exchange.

    Borgogno, María V; Monti, Mariela R; Zhao, Weixing; Sung, Patrick; Argaraña, Carlos E; Pezza, Roberto J

    2016-03-04

    Recombination between homologous chromosomes is required for the faithful meiotic segregation of chromosomes and leads to the generation of genetic diversity. The conserved meiosis-specific Dmc1 recombinase catalyzes homologous recombination triggered by DNA double strand breaks through the exchange of parental DNA sequences. Although providing an efficient rate of DNA strand exchange between polymorphic alleles, Dmc1 must also guard against recombination between divergent sequences. How DNA mismatches affect Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange is not understood. We have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to study the mechanism of Dmc1-mediated strand exchange between DNA oligonucleotides with different degrees of heterology. The efficiency of strand exchange is highly sensitive to the location, type, and distribution of mismatches. Mismatches near the 3' end of the initiating DNA strand have a small effect, whereas most mismatches near the 5' end impede strand exchange dramatically. The Hop2-Mnd1 protein complex stimulates Dmc1-catalyzed strand exchange on homologous DNA or containing a single mismatch. We observed that Dmc1 can reject divergent DNA sequences while bypassing a few mismatches in the DNA sequence. Our findings have important implications in understanding meiotic recombination. First, Dmc1 acts as an initial barrier for heterologous recombination, with the mismatch repair system providing a second level of proofreading, to ensure that ectopic sequences are not recombined. Second, Dmc1 stepping over infrequent mismatches is likely critical for allowing recombination between the polymorphic sequences of homologous chromosomes, thus contributing to gene conversion and genetic diversity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Impact of aortic prosthesis-patient mismatch on left ventricular mass regression.

    Alassal, Mohamed A; Ibrahim, Bedir M; Elsadeck, Nabil

    2014-06-01

    Prostheses used for aortic valve replacement may be small in relation to body size, causing prosthesis-patient mismatch and delaying left ventricular mass regression. This study examined the effect of prosthesis-patient mismatch on regression of left ventricular mass after aortic valve replacement. We prospectively studied 96 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement between 2007 and 2012. Mean and peak gradients and indexed effective orifice area were measured by transthoracic echocardiography at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Patient-prosthesis mismatch was defined as indexed effective orifice area ≤0.85 cm(2)·m(-2). Moderate prosthesis-patient mismatch was present in 25% of patients. There were no significant differences in demographic and operative data between patients with and without prosthesis-patient mismatch. Left ventricular dimensions, posterior wall thickness, transvalvular gradients, and left ventricular mass decreased significantly after aortic valve replacement in both groups. The interventricular septal diameter and left ventricular mass index regression, and left ventricular ejection fraction were better in patients without prosthesis-patient mismatch. There was a significant positive correlation between the postoperative indexed effective orifice area of each valve prosthesis and the rate of left ventricular mass regression. Prosthesis-patient mismatch leads to higher transprosthetic gradients and impaired left ventricular mass regression. A small-sized valve prosthesis does not necessarily result in prosthesis-patient mismatch, and may be perfectly adequate in patient with small body size. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Separating VNF and Network Control for Hardware‐Acceleration of SDN/NFV Architecture

    Tong Duan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A hardware‐acceleration architecture that separates virtual network functions (VNFs and network control (called HSN is proposed to solve the mismatch between the simple flow steering requirements and strong packet processing abilities of software‐defined networking (SDN forwarding elements (FEs in SDN/network function virtualization (NFV architecture, while improving the efficiency of NFV infrastructure and the performance of network‐intensive functions. HSN makes full use of FEs and accelerates VNFs through two mechanisms: (1 separation of traffic steering and packet processing in the FEs; (2 separation of SDN and NFV control in the FEs. Our HSN prototype, built on NetFPGA‐10G, demonstrates that the processing performance can be greatly improved with only a small modification of the traditional SDN/NFV architecture.

  17. Discrete optimization in architecture architectural & urban layout

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents three projects that demonstrate the fundamental problems of architectural design and urban composition – the layout design, evaluation and optimization. Part I describes the functional layout design of a residential building, and an evaluation of the quality of a town square (plaza). The algorithm for the functional layout design is based on backtracking using a constraint satisfaction approach combined with coarse grid discretization. The algorithm for the town square evaluation is based on geometrical properties derived directly from its plan. Part II introduces a crowd-simulation application for the analysis of escape routes on floor plans, and optimization of a floor plan for smooth crowd flow. The algorithms presented employ agent-based modeling and cellular automata.

  18. BatMis: a fast algorithm for k-mismatch mapping.

    Tennakoon, Chandana; Purbojati, Rikky W; Sung, Wing-Kin

    2012-08-15

    Second-generation sequencing (SGS) generates millions of reads that need to be aligned to a reference genome allowing errors. Although current aligners can efficiently map reads allowing a small number of mismatches, they are not well suited for handling a large number of mismatches. The efficiency of aligners can be improved using various heuristics, but the sensitivity and accuracy of the alignments are sacrificed. In this article, we introduce Basic Alignment tool for Mismatches (BatMis)--an efficient method to align short reads to a reference allowing k mismatches. BatMis is a Burrows-Wheeler transformation based aligner that uses a seed and extend approach, and it is an exact method. Benchmark tests show that BatMis performs better than competing aligners in solving the k-mismatch problem. Furthermore, it can compete favorably even when compared with the heuristic modes of the other aligners. BatMis is a useful alternative for applications where fast k-mismatch mappings, unique mappings or multiple mappings of SGS data are required. BatMis is written in C/C++ and is freely available from http://code.google.com/p/batmis/

  19. EMI Security Architecture

    White, J.; Schuller, B.; Qiang, W.; Groep, D.; Koeroo, O.; Salle, M.; Sustr, Z.; Kouril, D.; Millar, P.; Benedyczak, K.; Ceccanti, A.; Leinen, S.; Tschopp, V.; Fuhrmann, P.; Heyman, E.; Konstantinov, A.

    2013-01-01

    This document describes the various architectures of the three middlewares that comprise the EMI software stack. It also outlines the common efforts in the security area that allow interoperability between these middlewares. The assessment of the EMI Security presented in this document was performed internally by members of the Security Area of the EMI project.

  20. Interface, a dispersed architecture

    Vissers, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Past and current specification techniques use timing diagrams and written text to describe the phenomenology of an interface. This paper treats an interface as the architecture of a number of processes, which are dispersed over the related system parts and the message path. This approach yields a

  1. Architecture-Conscious Hashing

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); S. Héman (Sándor); P.A. Boncz (Peter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHashing is one of the fundamental techniques used to implement query processing operators such as grouping, aggregation and join. This paper studies the interaction between modern computer architecture and hash-based query processing techniques. First, we focus on extracting maximum

  2. Internationalising architectural education

    Byrd, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This is a track record of my involvement and success in internationalizing architectural education since 2009. It includes projects and outcomes that cover several continents and celebrates the success of my students in various areas of teaching and research including: • International design competitions • International employment • International PhD Students • Student publications in international journals and conferences

  3. The PSIM environment architecture

    Goossenaerts, J.B.M.; Reyneri, C.; van den Berg, R.J.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. This chapter describes the architecture of the PSIM environment. It briefly presents the PSIM objectives and the role the PSIM environment plays in meeting these objectives. It then states the role and place of each of technological components of the environment: the ontology, the

  4. Architectural Creation of Light

    Bülow, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Bidraget "Architectural Creation of Light" indgår sammen med 108 andre bidrag i bogen "You Say Light, I Think Shadow". Bogens indhold undersøger: "Hvad er lys". I dette bidrag besvares spørgsmålet gennem iagttagelser af arkitektstuderendes undersøgelser af lyset i deres arbejdsmodeller i...

  5. Paper relief architecture

    Latka, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents two contemporary projects of paper structures relief architecture designed and built by Shigeru Ban Architects and Voluntary Architect Network. Author of the article took part in design and construction process of one of the projects. The project of Yaan Nursery School, which

  6. Architectural Guide of Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Architectural and cultural guidebook for Jordan that also includes a view on the Syrian refugee situation, especially in the large UNHCR camp of Zaatari. The guide book is a preparatory study for a field trip our master studio undertook to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in Fall 2016....

  7. Light Rhythms in Architecture

    Bülow, Katja

    2013-01-01

    formation and rhythm. When integrated into an architectural concept, electrical lighting non-intended for poetic composition has the ability to contribute to place, time, and function-telling aspects of places in urban contexts. Urban environments are information wise challenging to pre-historic human...

  8. Encountering empty architecture

    Reeh, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This essay is published in the Festschrift to art historian Donald Preziosi on his 75th birthday in 2016 and delves into the exploration of architectural perception and semiotic experience. The argument is the following: Claire Farago and Donald Preziosi once pointed out how recent art museums...

  9. Architecture of Intermodal Complex

    Lee, S.; Herneoja, Aulikki; Österlund, Toni; Markkanen, Piia

    This paper focuses on the conception and design of architecture as the work of producing media about buildings and other environmental artifacts. I approach
    the questions regarding simplicity and complexity through "interdependence" and "intermodality." I believe the two concepts offer more

  10. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  11. Terra Harvest software architecture

    Humeniuk, Dave; Klawon, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Under the Terra Harvest Program, the DIA has the objective of developing a universal Controller for the Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) community. The mission is to define, implement, and thoroughly document an open architecture that universally supports UGS missions, integrating disparate systems, peripherals, etc. The Controller's inherent interoperability with numerous systems enables the integration of both legacy and future UGS System (UGSS) components, while the design's open architecture supports rapid third-party development to ensure operational readiness. The successful accomplishment of these objectives by the program's Phase 3b contractors is demonstrated via integration of the companies' respective plug-'n'-play contributions that include controllers, various peripherals, such as sensors, cameras, etc., and their associated software drivers. In order to independently validate the Terra Harvest architecture, L-3 Nova Engineering, along with its partner, the University of Dayton Research Institute, is developing the Terra Harvest Open Source Environment (THOSE), a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) running on an embedded Linux Operating System. The Use Cases on which the software is developed support the full range of UGS operational scenarios such as remote sensor triggering, image capture, and data exfiltration. The Team is additionally developing an ARM microprocessor-based evaluation platform that is both energy-efficient and operationally flexible. The paper describes the overall THOSE architecture, as well as the design decisions for some of the key software components. Development process for THOSE is discussed as well.

  12. Architecture and monument

    Arjen Oosterman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The relation between architectural history and heritage is ambiguous. Both domains are confronted with rapid changes in scale and complexity, leaving practitioners in both fields with the challenging task to provide new methods and a new vocabulary to enable research and communication. 70 years ago Nicolaus Pevsner could write about Lincoln cathedral and the bicycle shed to discern between architecture and building. These days not only housing and urban development have been accepted as ‘objects’ of research, in fact all material manifestation of human occupation, at least as far as design is involved, is considered worth studying. On the heritage side, developments are comparable: horizontally and vertically the domain has been enlarged tremendously: from a collection of ‘diamonds’ to complete cities, to landscapes and structures. This is not only true for scale and layers, but also for cultural norms of quality. Cultural relativism requires that ‘beauty’ and ‘quality’ are defined in relation to the social group or culture they refer to. The logic that an elite determines what is good and what is right is challenged by the notion that popular taste is in principle equal. So what does this do to our museum collections and lists of protected monuments? The consequences for architectural history are not yet clear. Including new realities like digital design and new fields of practice like the virtual, the knowledge base and toolbox of the architectural historian has to expand beyond the Renaissance ideal of the ‘uomo universale’.

  13. Information network architectures

    Murray, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    Graphs, charts, diagrams and outlines of information relative to information network architectures for advanced aerospace missions, such as the Space Station, are presented. Local area information networks are considered a likely technology solution. The principle needs for the network are listed.

  14. Radiology systems architecture.

    Deibel, S R; Greenes, R A

    1996-05-01

    This article focuses on the software requirements for enterprise integration in radiology. The needs of a future radiology systems architecture are examined, both at a concrete functional level and at an abstract system-properties level. A component-based approach to software development is described and is validated in the context of each of the abstract system requirements for future radiology computing environments.

  15. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    Eigensatz, Michael; Kilian, Martin; Schiftner, Alexander; Mitra, Niloy J.; Pottmann, Helmut; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a

  16. Architecture Sauvage

    Baumeister, Ruth

    Danish artist Asger Jorn (1914-1973) is internationally renowed as a proponent of Nordic art and for his activities as a member of Cobra and the Situationist International. Quite apart from his art, Jorn produced a remarkable quantity of writing on art, architecture and urbanism and engaged in di...

  17. [Architecture, budget and dignity].

    Morel, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on its dynamic strengths, a psychiatric unit develops various projects and care techniques. In this framework, the institute director must make a number of choices with regard to architecture. Why renovate the psychiatry building? What financial investments are required? What criteria should be followed? What if the major argument was based on the respect of the patient's dignity?

  18. [Architecture and movement].

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  19. Principles of landscape architecture

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,

  20. Tutorial on architectural acoustics

    Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio

    2002-11-01

    This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).

  1. Enterprise Architecture Evaluation

    Andersen, Peter; Carugati, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    By being holistically preoccupied with coherency among organizational elements such as organizational strategy, business needs and the IT functions role in supporting the business, enterprise architecture (EA) has grown to become a core competitive advantage. Though EA is a maturing research area...

  2. Between Organisation and Architecture

    Stang Våland, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to our sparse knowledge on the relationship between organisational and architectural design. It is based on an ethnographic study of the process of designing a municipality town hall, in which end-user participation constituted an integrated part of the design process...

  3. Future Network Architectures

    Wessing, Henrik; Bozorgebrahimi, Kurosh; Belter, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies key requirements for NRENs towards future network architectures that become apparent as users become more mobile and have increased expectations in terms of availability of data. In addition, cost saving requirements call for federated use of, in particular, the optical...

  4. How organisation of architecture documentation affects architectural knowledge retrieval

    de Graaf, K.A.; Liang, P.; Tang, A.; Vliet, J.C.

    A common approach to software architecture documentation in industry projects is the use of file-based documents. This approach offers a single-dimensional arrangement of the architectural knowledge. Knowledge retrieval from file-based architecture documentation is efficient if the organisation of

  5. Software architecture analysis tool : software architecture metrics collection

    Muskens, J.; Chaudron, M.R.V.; Westgeest, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Software Engineering discipline lacks the ability to evaluate software architectures. Here we describe a tool for software architecture analysis that is based on metrics. Metrics can be used to detect possible problems and bottlenecks in software architectures. Even though metrics do not give a

  6. GNC Architecture Design for ARES Simulation. Revision 3.0. Revision 3.0

    Gay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the GNC architecture and associated interfaces for all ARES simulations. Establishing a common architecture facilitates development across the ARES simulations and provides an efficient mechanism for creating an end-to-end simulation capability. In general, the GNC architecture is the frame work in which all GNC development takes place, including sensor and effector models. All GNC software applications have a standard location within the architecture making integration easier and, thus more efficient.

  7. A Multi-Time Scale Morphable Software Milieu for Polymorphous Computing Architectures (PCA) - Composable, Scalable Systems

    Skjellum, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphous Computing Architectures (PCA) rapidly "morph" (reorganize) software and hardware configurations in order to achieve high performance on computation styles ranging from specialized streaming to general threaded applications...

  8. Toward Measures for Software Architectures

    Chastek, Gary; Ferguson, Robert

    2006-01-01

    .... Defining these architectural measures is very difficult. The software architecture deeply affects subsequent development and project management decisions, such as the breakdown of the coding tasks and the definition of the development increments...

  9. Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First

  10. Homozygous germ-line mutation of the PMS2 mismatch repair gene: a unique case report of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD).

    Ramchander, N C; Ryan, N A J; Crosbie, E J; Evans, D G

    2017-04-05

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome results from bi-allelic inheritance of mutations affecting the key DNA mismatch repair genes: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Individuals with bi-allelic mutations have a dysfunctional mismatch repair system from birth; as a result, constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome is characterised by early onset malignancies. Fewer than 150 cases have been reported in the literature over the past 20 years. This is the first report of the founder PMS2 mutation - NM_000535.5:c.1500del (p.Val501TrpfsTer94) in exon 11 and its associated cancers in this family. The proband is 30 years old and is alive today. She is of Pakistani ethnic origin and a product of consanguinity. She initially presented aged 24 with painless bleeding per-rectum from colorectal polyps and was referred to clinical genetics. Clinical examination revealed two café-au-lait lesions, lichen planus, and a dermoid cyst. Her sister had been diagnosed in childhood with an aggressive brain tumour followed by colorectal cancer. During follow up, the proband developed 37 colorectal adenomatous polyps, synchronous ovarian and endometrial adenocarcinomas, and ultimately a metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. DNA sequencing of peripheral lymphocytes revealed a bi-allelic inheritance of the PMS2 mutation NM_000535.5:c.1500del (p.Val501TrpfsTer94) in exon 11. Ovarian tumour tissue demonstrated low microsatellite instability. To date, she has had a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and a total gastrectomy. Aspirin and oestrogen-only hormone replacement therapy provide some chemoprophylaxis and manage postmenopausal symptoms, respectively. An 18-monthly colonoscopy surveillance programme has led to the excision of three high-grade dysplastic colorectal tubular adenomatous polyps. The proband's family pedigree displays multiple relatives with cancers including a likely case of 'true' Turcot syndrome. Constitutional mismatch repair

  11. Mismatch and misalignment: dark haloes and satellites of disc galaxies

    Deason, A. J.; McCarthy, I. G.; Font, A. S.; Evans, N. W.; Frenk, C. S.; Belokurov, V.; Libeskind, N. I.; Crain, R. A.; Theuns, T.

    2011-08-01

    We study the phase-space distribution of satellite galaxies associated with late-type galaxies in the GIMIC suite of simulations. GIMIC consists of resimulations of five cosmologically representative regions from the Millennium Simulation, which have higher resolution and incorporate baryonic physics. Whilst the disc of the galaxy is well aligned with the inner regions (r˜ 0.1r200) of the dark matter halo, both in shape and angular momentum, there can be substantial misalignments at larger radii (r˜r200). Misalignments of >45° are seen in ˜30 per cent of our sample. We find that the satellite population aligns with the shape (and angular momentum) of the outer dark matter halo. However, the alignment with the galaxy is weak owing to the mismatch between the disc and dark matter halo. Roughly 20 per cent of the satellite systems with 10 bright galaxies within r200 exhibit a polar spatial alignment with respect to the galaxy - an orientation reminiscent of the classical satellites of the Milky Way. We find that a small fraction (˜10 per cent) of satellite systems show evidence for rotational support which we attribute to group infall. There is a bias towards satellites on prograde orbits relative to the spin of the dark matter halo (and to a lesser extent with the angular momentum of the disc). This preference towards co-rotation is stronger in the inner regions of the halo where the most massive satellites accreted at relatively early times are located. We attribute the anisotropic spatial distribution and angular momentum bias of the satellites at z= 0 to their directional accretion along the major axes of the dark matter halo. The satellite galaxies have been accreted relatively recently compared to the dark matter mass and have experienced less phase-mixing and relaxation - the memory of their accretion history can remain intact to z= 0. Understanding the phase-space distribution of the z= 0 satellite population is key for studies that estimate the host halo

  12. Economics-driven software architecture

    Mistrik, Ivan; Kazman, Rick; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Economics-driven Software Architecture presents a guide for engineers and architects who need to understand the economic impact of architecture design decisions: the long term and strategic viability, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of applications and systems. Economics-driven software development can increase quality, productivity, and profitability, but comprehensive knowledge is needed to understand the architectural challenges involved in dealing with the development of large, architecturally challenging systems in an economic way. This book covers how to apply economic consider

  13. Enterprise architecture for business success

    Wijegunaratne, Inji; Evans-Greenwood, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) has evolved to become a prominent presence in today's information systems and technology landscape. The EA discipline is rich in frameworks, methodologies, and the like. However, the question of 'value' for business ;professionals remains largely unanswered - that is, how best can Enterprise Architecture and Enterprise Architects deliver value to the enterprise? Enterprise Architecture for Business Success answers this question. Enterprise Architecture for Business Success is primarily intended for IT professionals working in the area of Enterprise Architectu

  14. Architecture Approach in System Development

    Ladislav Burita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe a practical solution of architecture approach in system development. The software application is the system which optimizes the transport service. The first part of the paper defines the enterprise architecture, its parts and frameworks. Next is explained the NATO Architecture Framework (NAF, a tool for command and control systems development in military environment. The NAF is used for architecture design of the system for optimization of the transport service.

  15. Business value of solution architecture

    Slot, R.; Dedene, G.; Maes, R.; Proper, E.; Harmsen, F.; Dietz, J.L.G.

    2009-01-01

    The theory and especially the practice of IT architecture have been developed quite vigorously the last years. However, hardly any quantitative data about the value of IT architecture is available. This paper presents the results of a study, which measures the value of IT solution architecture for

  16. Cognitive Architectures for Multimedia Learning

    Reed, Stephen K.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a tutorial overview of cognitive architectures that can form a theoretical foundation for designing multimedia instruction. Cognitive architectures include a description of memory stores, memory codes, and cognitive operations. Architectures that are relevant to multimedia learning include Paivio's dual coding theory,…

  17. Computers in Academic Architecture Libraries.

    Willis, Alfred; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Computers are widely used in architectural research and teaching in U.S. schools of architecture. A survey of libraries serving these schools sought information on the emphasis placed on computers by the architectural curriculum, accessibility of computers to library staff, and accessibility of computers to library patrons. Survey results and…

  18. Advancing the match-mismatch framework for large herbivores in the Arctic: Evaluating the evidence for a trophic mismatch in caribou.

    David Gustine

    Full Text Available Climate-induced shifts in plant phenology may adversely affect animals that cannot or do not shift the timing of their reproductive cycle. The realized effect of potential trophic "mismatches" between a consumer and its food varies with the degree to which species rely on dietary income and stored capital. Large Arctic herbivores rely heavily on maternal capital to reproduce and give birth near the onset of the growing season but are they vulnerable to trophic mismatch? We evaluated the long-term changes in the temperatures and characteristics of the growing seasons (1970-2013, and compared growing conditions and dynamics of forage quality for caribou at peak parturition, peak lactation, and peak forage biomass, and plant senescence between two distinct time periods over 36 years (1977 and 2011-13. Despite advanced thaw dates (7-12 days earlier, increased growing season lengths (15-21 days longer, and consistent parturition dates, we found no decline in forage quality and therefore no evidence within this dataset for a trophic mismatch at peak parturition or peak lactation from 1977 to 2011-13. In Arctic ungulates that use stored capital for reproduction, reproductive demands are largely met by body stores deposited in the previous summer and autumn, which reduces potential adverse effects of any mismatch between food availability and timing of parturition. Climate-induced effects on forages growing in the summer and autumn ranges, however, do correspond with the demands of female caribou and their offspring to gain mass for the next reproductive cycle and winter. Therefore, we suggest the window of time to examine the match-mismatch framework in Arctic ungulates is not at parturition but in late summer-autumn, where the multiplier effects of small changes in forage quality are amplified by forage abundance, peak forage intake, and resultant mass gains in mother-offspring pairs.

  19. Cognitive Architectures and Autonomy: A Comparative Review

    Thórisson, Kristinn; Helgasson, Helgi

    2012-05-01

    One of the original goals of artificial intelligence (AI) research was to create machines with very general cognitive capabilities and a relatively high level of autonomy. It has taken the field longer than many had expected to achieve even a fraction of this goal; the community has focused on building specific, targeted cognitive processes in isolation, and as of yet no system exists that integrates a broad range of capabilities or presents a general solution to autonomous acquisition of a large set of skills. Among the reasons for this are the highly limited machine learning and adaptation techniques available, and the inherent complexity of integrating numerous cognitive and learning capabilities in a coherent architecture. In this paper we review selected systems and architectures built expressly to address integrated skills. We highlight principles and features of these systems that seem promising for creating generally intelligent systems with some level of autonomy, and discuss them in the context of the development of future cognitive architectures. Autonomy is a key property for any system to be considered generally intelligent, in our view; we use this concept as an organizing principle for comparing the reviewed systems. Features that remain largely unaddressed in present research, but seem nevertheless necessary for such efforts to succeed, are also discussed.

  20. First-impression bias effects on mismatch negativity to auditory spatial deviants.

    Fitzgerald, Kaitlin; Provost, Alexander; Todd, Juanita

    2018-04-01

    Internal models of regularities in the world serve to facilitate perception as redundant input can be predicted and neural resources conserved for that which is new or unexpected. In the auditory system, this is reflected in an evoked potential component known as mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN is elicited by the violation of an established regularity to signal the inaccuracy of the current model and direct resources to the unexpected event. Prevailing accounts suggest that MMN amplitude will increase with stability in regularity; however, observations of first-impression bias contradict stability effects. If tones rotate probabilities as a rare deviant (p = .125) and common standard (p = .875), MMN elicited to the initial deviant tone reaches maximal amplitude faster than MMN to the first standard when later encountered as deviant-a differential pattern that persists throughout rotations. Sensory inference is therefore biased by longer-term contextual information beyond local probability statistics. Using the same multicontext sequence structure, we examined whether this bias generalizes to MMN elicited by spatial sound cues using monaural sounds (n = 19, right first deviant and n = 22, left first deviant) and binaural sounds (n = 19, right first deviant). The characteristic differential modulation of MMN to the two tones was observed in two of three groups, providing partial support for the generalization of first-impression bias to spatially deviant sounds. We discuss possible explanations for its absence when the initial deviant was delivered monaurally to the right ear. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.