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Sample records for minimum undrained strength

  1. Undrained shear strength determination and correlations on Søvind Marl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    on both the preconsolidation and the undrained shear strength. Two apparent values of the preconsolidation stresses can be determined due to the fissured structure (Grønbech et al. 2015) which also considerably decreases the undrained shear strength. Determination of shear strength of fissured clay...... is done through field testing or triaxial testing. Christensen and Hansen (1959) tested fissured Danish Oligocene clay and found the undrained shear strength, Su, be approximately 1/3 of the measured field vane shear strength, cfv. This correlation has since been used in Danish geotechnical practice...

  2. Impact of Crack on Stability of Slope with Linearly Increasing Undrained Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure for assessment of the impact of tension crack on stability of slope in clays with linearly increasing undrained strength. The procedure is based on the limit equilibrium method with variational extremization. The distribution of the normal stress over slip surface is mathematically obtained for slopes in clays with the linearly increasing undrained strength and then used to determine the tension crack for clays with zero tensile strength. The seismic effect is also included using the pseudostatic approach. Closed-form solutions to the minimum safety factor and the maximum crack depth can be derived and given in the form of chart for convenient use. The results demonstrate a significant effect of the tension crack on the stability of steep slopes, especially for strong seismic conditions. In this situation, neglecting the impact of tension crack in traditional ϕ=0 analyses may overestimate the slope safety. The most adverse location of the tension crack can be also determined and presented in the charts, which may be useful in designing reinforcements and remedial measures for slope stabilization.

  3. Predicting development of undrained shear strength in soft oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, S. [Klohn Crippen Berger, Calgary, AB (Canada); Matthews, J. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed a method of predicting the development of undrained shear strength in soft oil sands tailings. Phenomenology charts of oil sands tailings ponds were used to present the suspension, density, stresses and hydrostatic behaviour of tailings. Sedimentation and consolidation processes were discussed. The charts demonstrated how the tailings slurry settles and consolidates, releases water and dissipates pore pressures. The slurry then develops intergranular stresses and increases in density. The increases correlate with increased resistance to deformation and decreased compressibility and hydraulic conductivity. A critical state soil mechanics (CSSM) was used to characterize the soft oil sands tailings. Undrained strength was determined using the concept of the undrained strength ratio (USR). The USR was determined using traditional geotechnical investigation methods. Settling of the non-consolidated (NC) soil deposits was simulated using the finite strain consolidation theory. The model was based on the premise that current effective stresses control undrained shear strength in the NC deposits. Case studies were used to demonstrate the predictive framework. tabs, figs.

  4. correlation of the undrained shear strength and plasticity index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    σ3 = cell pressure in the triaxial test (or minimum principal stress) ... excavation; the force on a retaining wall. For each of the above .... Where Uw = pore water pressure. Ua = pore air ..... Vucetic, M. and Dobry, R. Effect of soil plasticity on Cyclic ...

  5. Critical undrained shear strength of sand-silt mixtures under monotonic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bensoula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study uses experimental triaxial tests with monotonic loading to develop empirical relationships to estimate undrained critical shear strength. The effect of the fines content on undrained shear strength is analyzed for different density states. The parametric analysis indicates that, based on the soil void ratio and fine content properties, the undrained critical shear strength first increases and then decreases as the proportion of fines increases, which demonstrates the influence of fine content on a soil’s vulnerability to liquefaction. A series of monotonic undrained triaxial tests were performed on reconstituted saturated sand-silt mixtures. Beyond 30% fines content, a fraction of the silt participates in the soil’s skeleton chain force. In this context, the concept of the equivalent intergranular void ratio may be an appropriate parameter to express the critical shear strength of the studied soil. This parameter is able to control the undrained shear strength of non-plastic silt and sand mixtures with different densities.   Resumen Este estudio utiliza evaluaciones experimentales triaxiales con cargas repetitivas para desarrollar relaciones empíricas y estimar la tensión crítica de corte bajo condiciones no drenadas. El efecto de contenido de finos en la tensión de corte sin drenar se analizó en diferentes estados de densidad. El análisis paramétrico indica que, basado en la porosidad del suelo y las propiedades del material de finos, la tensión de corte sin drenar primero se incrementa y luego decrece mientras la proporción de finos aumenta, lo que demuestra la influencia de contenido de finos en la vulnerabilidad del suelo a la licuación. Una serie de las evaluaciones se realizó en  mezclas rehidratadas y saturadas de arena y cieno. Más allá del 30 % de los contenidos finos, una fracción del cieno hace parte principal de la cadena de fuerza del suelo. En este contexto, el concepto de porosidad equivalente

  6. Constitutive modelling of the undrained shear strength of fine grained soils containing gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozic, J.L.H. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Nadim, F.; Kvalstad, T.J. [Norwegian Geotechnical Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    The behaviour of fine grained gassy soils was studied in order to develop a technique to quantitatively evaluate geohazards. Gas can occur in seabeds either in solution in pore water, undissolved in the form of gas filled voids, or as gas hydrates. In offshore soils, the degree of saturation is generally greater than 90 per cent, resulting in a soil structure with a continuous water phase and a discontinuous gas phase. The presence of methane gas will impact the strength of the soil, which alters its resistance to submarine sliding. This paper presents a constitutive model for determining the undrained shear strength of fine-grained gassy soils to assess the stability of deep water marine slopes for offshore developments. Methane gas is shown to have a beneficial effect on the soil strength in compressive loading, but the peak strength is achieved at larger deformations. The increased strength is a result of compression and solution gas which cause partial drainage and reduced pore pressures. The undrained shear strength of gassy soils was shown to increase with increasing initial consolidation stress, increasing volumetric coefficient of solubility, and increasing initial void ratio. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Effect of Different Peat Size and Pre-Consolidation Pressure of Reconstituted Peat on Effective Undrained Shear Strength Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, ATS; Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Ezree, AM; Nizam, ZM

    2017-08-01

    Shear strength of the soil is one of the most important parameters in engineering design, especially during the pre- or post-construction periods, since it is mainly used to measure and evaluate the foundation or slope stability of soil. Peat normally known as a soil that has a very low value of shear strength, and in order to determine and understand the shear strength of the peat, it is a difficult task in geotechnical engineering due to several factors such as types of fabrics, the origin of the soil, water content, organic matter and the degree of humification. The aim of this study is to determine the effective undrained shear strength properties of reconstituted peat of different sizes. All the reconstituted peat samples were formed with the size that passed the opening sieve of 0.425 mm (effective undrained shear strength properties for reconstituted peat effective shear strength properties for the reconstituted peat effective undrained shear strength properties result obtained from the tests show that the reconstituted peat pore pressure, Δu, show both of undrained shear strength.

  8. Study on GMZ bentonite-sand mixture by undrained triaxial tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wen-jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is particularly necessary to study the deformation, strength and the changes of pore water pressure of bentonite-based buffer/backfill materials under the undrained condition. A series of isotropic compression tests and triaxial shear tests under undrained conditions were conducted on the compacted saturated/unsaturated GMZ bentonite-sand mixtures with dry mass ratio of bentonite/sand of 30:70. During the tests, the images of the sample were collected by photographic equipment and subsequently were cropped, binarized and centroids marked by image processing technique. Based on identification of the variation of the position of marked centroids, the deformation of the sample can be determined automatically in real-time. Finally, the hydro-mechanical behaviour of saturated and unsaturated bentonite-sand mixtures under the undrained condition can be obtained. From results of triaxial shear tests on unsaturated samples under constant water content, inflated volumetric deformation transforms to contractive volumetric deformation due to the increase of the confining pressure and lateral expansion deformation are observed due to the increase in the shearing stress. Moreover, the net mean stress affects the initial stiffness, undrained shear strength and deformation of the sample during the undrained shear tests.

  9. Failure envelope approach for consolidated undrained capacity of shallow foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Vulpe, Cristina; Gourvenec, Susan; Leman, Billy; Fung, Kah Ngii

    2016-01-01

    A generalized framework is applied to predict consolidated undrained VHM failure envelopes for surface circular and strip foundations. The failure envelopes for consolidated undrained conditions are shown to be scaled from those for unconsolidated undrained conditions by the uniaxial consolidated undrained capacities, which are predicted through a theoretical framework based on fundamental critical state soil mechanics. The framework is applied to results from small-strain finite-element anal...

  10. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel

    2013-01-01

    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0-0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0-0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including rotation resistant). For rope lengths less than 3,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0. (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0. (c) Tail...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes...

  15. The minimum sit-to-stand height test: reliability, responsiveness and relationship to leg muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Karl; Sherrington, Catherine; Wallbank, Geraldine; Pamphlett, Patricia; Olivetti, Lynette

    2012-07-01

    To determine the reliability of the minimum sit-to-stand height test, its responsiveness and its relationship to leg muscle strength among rehabilitation unit inpatients and outpatients. Reliability study using two measurers and two test occasions. Secondary analysis of data from two clinical trials. Inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation services in three public hospitals. Eighteen hospital patients and five others participated in the reliability study. Seventy-two rehabilitation unit inpatients and 80 outpatients participated in the clinical trials. The minimum sit-to-stand height test was assessed using a standard procedure. For the reliability study, a second tester repeated the minimum sit-to-stand height test on the same day. In the inpatient clinical trial the measures were repeated two weeks later. In the outpatient trial the measures were repeated five weeks later. Knee extensor muscle strength was assessed in the clinical trials using a hand-held dynamometer. The reliability for the minimum sit-to-stand height test was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.96). The standard error of measurement was 34 mm. Responsiveness was moderate in the inpatient trial (effect size: 0.53) but small in the outpatient trial (effect size: 0.16). A small proportion (8-17%) of variability in minimum sit-to-stand height test was explained by knee extensor muscle strength. The minimum sit-to-stand height test has excellent reliability and moderate responsiveness in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Responsiveness in an outpatient rehabilitation setting requires further investigation. Performance is influenced by factors other than knee extensor muscle strength.

  16. Measuring Undrained Shear Strength using CPT and Field Vane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luke, Kirsten

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of CPT's and Field Vane tests from two small test areas with different soils, Glacial Till and Yoldia Clay. An average of Nk = qt/cv for the Yoldia Clay is 7.7 with a standard deviation of 0.7. The average of Nk for the Glacial Till is 9.7 with a standard deviation...

  17. The Settlement Behavior of Piled Raft Interaction in Undrained Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalesari, Abbasali Taghavi; Barari, Amin; Amini, Pedram Fardad

    2013-01-01

    Offshore piled raft foundations are one of the most commonly used foundations in offshore structures. When a raft foundation alone does not satisfy the design requirements, the addition of piles may improve both the ultimate load capacity and the settlement performance of the raft. In this paper......, the behavior of a piled raft on undrained soil is studied based on a series of parametric studies on the average and differential settlement of piled raft using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The settlement behavior is found to be dependent on the number of piles and raft thickness....

  18. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kyungtaek; Kim, Dogyeum; Park, Chunjin; Ryu, Gumsung; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Janghwa

    2013-01-01

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates

  19. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyungtaek; Kim, Dogyeum; Park, Chunjin; Ryu, Gumsung; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Janghwa [Korea Institute Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates.

  20. On the undrained compressive behaviour of gassy sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haththotuwa, C.K.; Grozic, J.L.H. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Gassy soils are composed of soil, water, and air phases. The soils contain a relatively large amount of gas dissolved in pore fluids, and are typically found with a large number of small bubbles embedded in the pore water. Larger bubbles are found in the matrices of fully saturated soils. This paper discussed a study of the loading behaviour of gassy soils. Shear and compression waves were used to measure the degree of gas saturation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the transient behaviour of the gassy soils during undrained loading while using P and S wave velocities in order to characterize changes in saturation. A moist tamping method was used to prepare reconstituted samples of Ottawa sands. A modified triaxial system was used to test the samples. Cell pressure was increased rapidly and pore pressure, axial, and volumetric deformations were measured. P and S wave measurements were taken at the end of each increment at equilibrium conditions. Results of the study indicated that gas content may be responsive to confining pressures as well as pore pressures. Compressibility had a beneficial influence on stability. Results also showed that gas content is linked to total stresses. It was concluded that P wave velocity increased with decreasing gas content, while S wave velocity showed no response to decreases in gas saturation. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  1. In-situ hydrogen in metal determination using a minimum neutron source strength and exposure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, M; Agamy, S; Khalil, M Y

    2013-08-01

    Water is frequently present in the environment and is a source of hydrogen that can interact with many materials. Because of its small atomic size, a hydrogen atom can easily diffuse into a host metal, and though the metal may appear unchanged for a time, the metal will eventually abruptly lose its strength and ductility. Thus, measuring the hydrogen content in metals is important in many fields, such as in the nuclear industry, in automotive and aircraft fabrication, and particularly, in offshore oil and gas fields. It has been demonstrated that the use of nuclear methods to measure the hydrogen content in metals can achieve sensitivity levels on the order of parts per million. However, the use of nuclear methods in the field has not been conducted for two reasons. The first reason is due to exposure limitations. The second reason is due to the hi-tech instruments required for better accuracy. In this work, a new method using a low-strength portable neutron source is explored in conjunction with detectors based on plastic nuclear detection films. The following are the in-situ requirements: simplicity in setup, high reliability, minimal exposure dose, and acceptable accuracy at an acceptable cost. A computer model of the experimental setup is used to reproduce the results of a proof-of-concept experiment and to predict the sensitivity levels under optimised experimental conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, James G; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2010-02-01

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry and drained constants, which are assumed known, and the saturated or undrained constants, which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the effects of the fluids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore fluid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants.

  3. Inverse problem in anisotropic poroelasticity: Drained constants from undrained ultrasound measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J.G.; Nakagawa, S.

    2009-11-20

    Poroelastic analysis has traditionally focused on the relationship between dry or drained constants which are assumed known and the saturated or undrained constants which are assumed unknown. However, there are many applications in this field of study for which the main measurements can only be made on the saturated/undrained system, and then it is uncertain what the eects of the uids were on the system, since the drained constants remain a mystery. The work presented here shows how to deduce drained constants from undrained constants for anisotropic systems having symmetries ranging from isotropic to orthotropic. Laboratory ultrasound data are then inverted for the drained constants in three granular packings: one of glass beads, and two others for distinct types of more or less angular sand grain packings. Experiments were performed under uniaxial stress, which resulted in hexagonal (transversely isotropic) symmetry of the poroelastic response. One important conclusion from the general analysis is that the drained constants are uniquely related to the undrained constants, assuming that porosity, grain bulk modulus, and pore uid bulk modulus are already known. Since the resulting system of equations for all the drained constants is linear, measurement error in undrained constants also propagates linearly into the computed drained constants.

  4. Relationship of magnetic field strength and brightness of fine-structure elements in the solar temperature minimum region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J. W.; Ewing, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative relationship was determined between magnetic field strength (or magnetic flux) from photospheric magnetograph observations and the brightness temperature of solar fine-structure elements observed at 1600 A, where the predominant flux source is continuum emission from the solar temperature minimum region. A Kitt Peak magnetogram and spectroheliograph observations at 1600 A taken during a sounding rocket flight of the High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph from December 11, 1987 were used. The statistical distributions of brightness temperature in the quiet sun at 1600 A, and absolute value of magnetic field strength in the same area were determined from these observations. Using a technique which obtains the best-fit relationship of a given functional form between these two histogram distributions, a quantitative relationship was determined between absolute value of magnetic field strength B and brightness temperature which is essentially linear from 10 to 150 G. An interpretation is suggested, in which a basal heating occurs generally, while brighter elements are produced in magnetic regions with temperature enhancements proportional to B.

  5. Influence of hydrogen-ion concentration exponent on undrained shear behaviour of bentonites; Bentonaito no hihaisui sendan kyodo ni oyobosu suiso ion nodo shisu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, T [Kiso Jiban Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tokida, M [Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano (Japan)

    1994-12-21

    Because there is a report example that the yield stress of a landslide clay increases along with a decrease of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent, it is thought that a shear strength of the landslide clay depends on the hydrogen-ion concentration exponent. Furthermore, when the soil stabilization method by lime is applied to the soft ground and high organic earth, it is pointed out that the hydrogen-ion concentration exponent will become one of the harmful factors. Accordingly, it is understood that revealing an influence of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent affects on the characteristics of an earth is one of the important factors, to evaluate a strength, deformation and so forth of the viscous ground. In this study, in order to examine an influence of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent affecting on an undrained shear behavior of the bentonites, for the artificially adjusted bentonite specimens with 5 kinds of different pH, the isotropic consolidated undrained triaxial compression tests were performed, and consequently an influence of pH affecting on the engineering characteristics of the bentonites was made clear quantitatively. 28 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Optimizing Cutting Conditions for Minimum Surface Roughness in Face Milling of High Strength Steel Using Carbide Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Taha Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A full factorial design technique is used to investigate the effect of machining parameters, namely, spindle speed (N, depth of cut (ap, and table feed rate (Vf, on the obtained surface roughness (Ra and Rt during face milling operation of high strength steel. A second-order regression model was built using least squares method depending on the factorial design results to approximate a mathematical relationship between the surface roughness and the studied process parameters. Analysis of variance was conducted to estimate the significance of each factor and interaction with respect to the surface roughness. For Ra, the results show that spindle speed, depth of cut, and table feed rate have a significant effect on the surface roughness in both linear and quadratic terms. There is also an interaction between depth of cut and feed rate. It also appears that feed rate has the greatest effect on the data variation followed by depth of cut. For Rt, the results show that the table feed rate is the most effective factor followed by the depth of cut, while the spindle speed had a significant small effect only in its quadratic term. The conditions of minimum Ra and Rt are identified through least square optimization. Moreover, multiobjective optimization for minimizing Ra and maximizing metal removal rate Q is conducted and the results are presented.

  7. Stress-strain relation of bentonite at undrained shear. Laboratory tests to investigate the influence of material composition and test technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueck, Ann; Boergesson, Lennart; Johannesson, Lars-Erik (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report describes a laboratory study conducted to update the material model of the buffer material used in the analyses of the effect of a rock shear through a deposition hole. The study considers some new conditions and is especially focused on the reference case with MX-80Ca developed for SR-Site (MX-80 ion exchanged to Ca). The material model is based on relations between density, swelling pressure, shear strength and rate of strain. The reference model is described by Boergesson et al. (2010). The laboratory study is focused on undrained stress-strain-strength properties, which have been studied mainly by conducting triaxial tests and unconfined compression tests. The test results are compared to the earlier measurements and models which show that the new results fit very well into the general picture and models. For the new conditions suitable values of constants included in the model are proposed

  8. Stress-strain relation of bentonite at undrained shear. Laboratory tests to investigate the influence of material composition and test technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueck, Ann; Boergesson, Lennart; Johannesson, Lars-Erik

    2010-12-01

    This report describes a laboratory study conducted to update the material model of the buffer material used in the analyses of the effect of a rock shear through a deposition hole. The study considers some new conditions and is especially focused on the reference case with MX-80Ca developed for SR-Site (MX-80 ion exchanged to Ca). The material model is based on relations between density, swelling pressure, shear strength and rate of strain. The reference model is described by Boergesson et al. (2010). The laboratory study is focused on undrained stress-strain-strength properties, which have been studied mainly by conducting triaxial tests and unconfined compression tests. The test results are compared to the earlier measurements and models which show that the new results fit very well into the general picture and models. For the new conditions suitable values of constants included in the model are proposed

  9. Effect of interface condition on the undrained capacity of subsea mudmats under six-degree-of-freedom loading

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Z.; Feng, X.; Gourvenec, S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of soil–foundation interface condition on the undrained capacity of rectangular mudmat foundations under loading in six degrees of freedom is investigated. Undrained failure envelopes for mudmats with zero-tension interface have been derived from finite-element analyses, and compared with the solutions from traditional methods and established for an unlimited-tension interface condition. The zero-tension interface has minimal effect on failure envelopes in the absence of moment, bu...

  10. DEM simulation of undrained behaviour with preshearing history for saturated granular media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Guobin; Zha, Xiaoxiong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the three-dimensional (3D) discrete element method (DEM) simulations of undrained axisymmetric/triaxial tests on loose assemblies of polydisperse spheres with and without preshearing history using a periodic cell. Undrained tests are modelled by deforming the samples under constant volume conditions. The simulations show that the preshearing process will not induce initial structural anisotropy, and that the presheared and unpresheared samples follow the same initial stress path along a unique limiting boundary in the q–p space, as observed in the published experimental literature, which was not crossed over by any of the stress paths of the presheared samples. It is also shown that the presheared samples are denser compared with the original unpresheared one, and therefore exhibit higher resistance to (temporary) liquefaction. At the grain scale, such higher resistance is found to be attributed to the evolution of a redundancy factor, a microscopic definition of liquefaction (temporary liquefaction). The Lade instability (peak deviator stress) is found to correspond to a unique mechanical coordination number of 4.5, independent of preshearing history. It is also found that the onset of liquefaction (temporary liquefaction) in terms of the redundancy factor lags behind the onset of macroscopic strain softening in terms of the Lade instability for the presheared and unpresheared samples under undrained conditions. (paper)

  11. Relationship between isometric thigh muscle strength and minimum clinically important differences in knee function in osteoarthritis: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdorfer, Anja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Eckstein, Felix

    2015-04-01

    To determine the relationship between thigh muscle strength and clinically relevant differences in self-assessed lower leg function. Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength of 4,553 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants (2,651 women and 1,902 men) was related to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function scores by linear regression. Further, groups of male and female participant strata with minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs) in WOMAC function scores (6 of 68 units) were compared across the full range of observed values and to participants without functional deficits (WOMAC score 0). The effect of WOMAC knee pain and body mass index on the above relationships was explored using stepwise regression. Per regression equations, a 3.7% reduction in extensor strength and a 4.0% reduction in flexor strength were associated with an MCID in WOMAC function in women, and, respectively, a 3.6% and 4.8% reduction in men. For strength divided by body weight, reductions were 5.2% and 6.7%, respectively, in women and 5.8% and 6.7%, respectively, in men. Comparing MCID strata across the full observed range of WOMAC function confirmed the above estimates and did not suggest nonlinear relationships across the spectrum of observed values. WOMAC pain correlated strongly with WOMAC function, but extensor (and flexor) muscle strength contributed significant independent information. Reductions of approximately 4% in isometric muscle strength and of 6% in strength per body weight were related to a clinically relevant difference in WOMAC functional disability. Longitudinal studies will need to confirm these relationships within persons. Muscle extensor (and flexor) strength (per body weight) provided significant independent information in addition to pain in explaining variability in lower leg function. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Climatically related millennial-scale fluctuations in strength of California margin oxygen-minimum zone during the past 60 k.y.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannariato, K.G.; Kennett, J.P.

    1999-11-01

    A strong oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ) currently exists along the California margin because of a combination of high surface-water productivity and poor intermediate-water ventilation. However, the strength of this OMZ may have been sensitive to late Quaternary ocean-circulation and productivity changes along the margin. Although sediment-lamination strength has been used to trace ocean-oxygenation changes in the past, oxygen levels on the open margin are not sufficiently low for laminations to form. In these regions, benthic foraminifera are highly sensitive monitors of OMZ strength, and their fossil assemblages can be used to reconstruct past fluctuations. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1017, off Point Conception, exhibit major and rapid faunal oscillations in response to late Quaternary millennial-scale climate change (Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles) on the open central California margin. These faunal oscillations can be correlated to and are apparently synchronous with those reported from Santa Barbara Basin. Together they represent major fluctuations in the strength of the OMZ which were intimately associated with global climate change--weakening, perhaps disappearing, during cool periods and strengthening during warm periods. These rapid, major OMZ strength fluctuations were apparently widespread on the Northeast Pacific margin and must have influenced the evolution of margin biota and altered biogeochemical cycles with potential feedbacks to global climate change.

  13. Minimum Description Length Block Finder, a Method to Identify Haplotype Blocks and to Compare the Strength of Block Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Mannila, H.; Koivisto, M.; Perola, M.; Varilo, T.; Hennah, W.; Ekelund, J.; Lukk, M.; Peltonen, L.; Ukkonen, E.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new probabilistic method for finding haplotype blocks that is based on the use of the minimum description length (MDL) principle. We give a rigorous definition of the quality of a segmentation of a genomic region into blocks and describe a dynamic programming algorithm for finding the optimal segmentation with respect to this measure. We also describe a method for finding the probability of a block boundary for each pair of adjacent markers: this gives a tool for evaluating the ...

  14. Generalized oscillator strength for the argon 3p6-3p5 4s transition: Correlation and exchange effects on the characteristic minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhifan; Msezane, Alfred Z.; Amusia, M. Ya.

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the generalized oscillator strength (GOS) for a transition of the type np→(n+1)s, where n is the principal quantum number of the outermost filled shell of the atomic ground state, using the random-phase approximation with exchange. We find that the influence of correlation and exchange effects on the position of the characteristic minimum in the GOS of Ar(n=3) is insignificant. Also, our first Born approximation predicts the position of the minimum accurately provided that accurate target wave functions are employed. Our results agree excellently with measurements and are expected to be applicable equally to the corresponding subshells of Ne(n=2), Kr(n=4), and Xe(n=5). (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  15. Generalized oscillator strength for the argon 3p{sup 6}-3p{sup 5} 4s transition: Correlation and exchange effects on the characteristic minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhifan [Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, and Department of Physics, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States); Msezane, Alfred Z. [Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, and Department of Physics, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States); Amusia, M. Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, (Israel)

    1999-12-01

    We have investigated the generalized oscillator strength (GOS) for a transition of the type np{yields}(n+1)s, where n is the principal quantum number of the outermost filled shell of the atomic ground state, using the random-phase approximation with exchange. We find that the influence of correlation and exchange effects on the position of the characteristic minimum in the GOS of Ar(n=3) is insignificant. Also, our first Born approximation predicts the position of the minimum accurately provided that accurate target wave functions are employed. Our results agree excellently with measurements and are expected to be applicable equally to the corresponding subshells of Ne(n=2), Kr(n=4), and Xe(n=5). (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  16. Comparison of Shear Strength Properties for Undisturbed and Reconstituted Parit Nipah Peat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Abdullah, M. E.; Zakaria, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Shear strength of soil is required to determine the soil stability and design the foundations. Peat is known as a soil with complex natural formations which also contributes problems to the researchers, developers, engineers and contractors in constructions and infrastructures. Most researchers conducted experiment and investigation of shear strength on peat using shear box test and simple shear test, but only a few had discovered the behavior of peat using triaxial consolidated undrained test. The aim of this paper is to determine the undrained shear strength properties of reconstituted peat and undisturbed peat of Parit Nipah, Johor for comparison purposes. All the reconstituted peat samples were formed with the size that passed opening sieve 3.35 mm and preconsolidation pressure at 100 kPa. The result of undrained shear strength of reconstituted peat was 21kPa for cohesion with the angle of friction, 41° compare to the undisturbed peat with cohesion 10 kPa and angle of friction, 16°. The undrained shear strength properties result obtained shows that the reconstituted peat has higher strength than undisturbed peat. For relationship deviator stress-strain, σd max and excess pore pressure, Δu, it shows that both of undisturbed and reconstituted gradually increased when σ’ increased, but at the end of the test, the values are slightly dropped. The physical properties of undisturbed and reconstituted peat were also investigated to correlate with the undrained shear strength results.

  17. Minimum description length block finder, a method to identify haplotype blocks and to compare the strength of block boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, H; Koivisto, M; Perola, M; Varilo, T; Hennah, W; Ekelund, J; Lukk, M; Peltonen, L; Ukkonen, E

    2003-07-01

    We describe a new probabilistic method for finding haplotype blocks that is based on the use of the minimum description length (MDL) principle. We give a rigorous definition of the quality of a segmentation of a genomic region into blocks and describe a dynamic programming algorithm for finding the optimal segmentation with respect to this measure. We also describe a method for finding the probability of a block boundary for each pair of adjacent markers: this gives a tool for evaluating the significance of each block boundary. We have applied the method to the published data of Daly and colleagues. The results expose some problems that exist in the current methods for the evaluation of the significance of predicted block boundaries. Our method, MDL block finder, can be used to compare block borders in different sample sets, and we demonstrate this by applying the MDL-based method to define the block structure in chromosomes from population isolates.

  18. Interim report on the laboratory and theoretical work in modeling the drained and undrained behavior of buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, L.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the continuous work of modeling the geotechnical properties of buffer materials. Some results of laboratory work with drained and undrained tests are described as well as the material models that these test have yielded. The effective stress concept and its relevance is discussed. The technique to apply the models in calculations using the finite element program ABAQUS is described. Some calculations of laboratory verification tests are shown and the results compared. Finally two examples of scenario calculations are shown. The work has led to three material models that can be used in ABAQUS calculations. All parameters for these models are not fully known and a continuation of the work is required. These models are not suitable for all situations and the relevance and need for further developments are presently investigated. (au)

  19. Effect of minimum strength of mirror magnetic field (Bmin) on production of highly charged heavy ions from RIKEN liquid-He-free super conducting electron-cyclotron resonance ion source (RAMSES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hideyuki; Imanaka, Masashi; Lee, S.-M.Sang-Moo; Higurashi, Yoshihide; Nakagawa, Takahide; Kidera, Masanori; Kageyama, Tadashi; Kase, Masayuki; Yano, Yasushige; Aihara, Toshimitsu

    2002-01-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions (O, Ar and Kr ions) as a function of the minimum strength of mirror magnetic field (B min ) of the RIKEN liquid-He-free super conducting electron-cyclotron resonance ion source. In this experiment, we found that the optimum value of B min exists to maximize the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and the value was almost the same (∼0.49 T) for various charge state heavy ions

  20. Observations during static and cyclic undrained loading of dense Aalborg University sand no. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Diaz, Alberto Troya; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    . Soil strength and stiffness are found to change depending on the type of loading applied. Effective friction angle is found to be changing during various phases of loading. Linear Mohr Coulomb model could potentially be sufficient for modeling the full spectrum of dense sand behavior if extended...... with a changing friction angle following the examined patterns of response. A total stress path based material model is presented in this paper....

  1. One nuclear calcium transient induced by a single burst of action potentials represents the minimum signal strength in activity-dependent transcription in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Oberlaender, Kristin; Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar

    2017-07-01

    Neurons undergo dramatic changes in their gene expression profiles in response to synaptic stimulation. The coupling of neuronal excitation to gene transcription is well studied and is mediated by signaling pathways activated by cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium transients. Despite this, the minimum synaptic activity required to induce gene expression remains unknown. To address this, we used cultured hippocampal neurons and cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) that allows detection of nascent transcripts in the cell nucleus. We found that a single burst of action potentials, consisting of 24.4±5.1 action potentials during a 6.7±1.9s depolarization of 19.5±2.0mV causing a 9.3±0.9s somatic calcium transient, is sufficient to activate transcription of the immediate early gene arc (also known as Arg3.1). The total arc mRNA yield produced after a single burst-induced nuclear calcium transient was very small and, compared to unstimulated control neurons, did not lead to a significant increase in arc mRNA levels measured using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) of cell lysates. Significantly increased arc mRNA levels became detectable in hippocampal neurons that had undergone 5-8 consecutive burst-induced nuclear calcium transients at 0.05-0.15Hz. These results indicate that a single burst-induced nuclear calcium transient can activate gene expression and that transcription is rapidly shut off after synaptic stimulation has ceased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation and Uncertainty of Recent Carbon Accumulation and Vertical Accretion in Drained and Undrained Forested Peatlands of the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Orlando, James; Salas, Antonia; Wurster, Frederic C.; Duberstein, Jamie A.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how drainage impacts carbon densities and recent rates (past 50 years) of vertical accretion and carbon accumulation in southeastern forested peatlands. We compared these parameters in drained maple-gum (MAPL), Atlantic white cedar (CDR), and pocosin (POC) communities in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GDS) of Virginia/North Carolina and in an intact (undrained) CDR swamp in the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (AR) of North Carolina. Peat cores were analyzed for bulk density, percent organic carbon, and 137Cs and 210Pb. An uncertainty analysis of both 137Cs and 210Pb approaches was used to constrain error at least partially related to mobility of both radioisotopes. GDS peats had lower porosities (89.6% (SD = 1.71) versus 95.3% (0.18)) and higher carbon densities (0.082 (0.021) versus 0.037 (0.009) g C cm-3) than AR. Vertical accretion rates (0.10-0.56 cm yr-1) were used to estimate a time period of 84-362 years for reestablishment of peat lost during the 2011 Lateral West fire at the GDS. Carbon accumulation rates ranged from 51 to 389 g C m-2 yr-1 for all sites. In the drained (GDS) versus intact (AR) CDR sites, carbon accumulation rates were similar with 137Cs (87GDS versus 92AR g C m-2 yr-1) and somewhat less at the GDS than AR as determined with 210Pb (111GDS versus 159AR g C m-2 yr-1). Heightened productivity and high polyphenol content of peat may be responsible for similar rates of carbon accumulation in both drained and intact CDR peatlands.

  3. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L.; Lakshmikanthan, P.; Santhosh, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m 3 to 10.3 kN/m 3 at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43

  4. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L., E-mail: gls@civil.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Lakshmikanthan, P., E-mail: lakshmikanthancp@gmail.com [Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Santhosh, L.G., E-mail: lgsanthu2006@gmail.com [Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m{sup 3} to 10.3 kN/m{sup 3} at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43.

  5. Minimum Wages and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Gary S.; Kanbur, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Textbook analysis tells us that in a competitive labor market, the introduction of a minimum wage above the competitive equilibrium wage will cause unemployment. This paper makes two contributions to the basic theory of the minimum wage. First, we analyze the effects of a higher minimum wage in terms of poverty rather than in terms of unemployment. Second, we extend the standard textbook model to allow for incomesharing between the employed and the unemployed. We find that there are situation...

  6. General quantitative analysis of stress partitioning and boundary conditions in undrained biphasic porous media via a purely macroscopic and purely variational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpieri, Roberto; Travascio, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In poroelasticity, the effective stress law relates the external stress applied to the medium to the macroscopic strain of the solid phase and the interstitial pressure of the fluid saturating the mixture. Such relationship has been formerly introduced by Terzaghi in form of a principle. To date, no poroelastic theory is capable of recovering a stress partitioning law in agreement with Terzaghi's postulated one in the absence of ad hoc constitutive assumptions on the medium. We recently proposed a variational macroscopic continuum description of two-phase poroelasticity to derive a general biphasic formulation at finite deformations, termed variational macroscopic theory of porous media (VMTPM). Such approach proceeds from the inclusion of the intrinsic volumetric strain among the kinematic descriptors aside to macroscopic displacements, and as a variational theory, uses the Hamilton least-action principle as the unique primitive concept of mechanics invoked to derive momentum balance equations. In a previous related work it was shown that, for the subclass of undrained problems, VMTPM predicts that stress is partitioned in the two phases in strict compliance with Terzaghi's law, irrespective of the microstructural and constitutive features of a given medium. In the present contribution, we further develop the linearized framework of VMTPM to arrive at a general operative formula that allows the quantitative determination of stress partitioning in a jacketed test over a generic isotropic biphasic specimen. This formula is quantitative and general, in that it relates the partial phase stresses to the externally applied stress as function of partitioning coefficients that are all derived by strictly following a purely variational and purely macroscopic approach, and in the absence of any specific hypothesis on the microstructural or constitutive features of a given medium. To achieve this result, the stiffness coefficients of the theory are derived by using

  7. Minimum critical mass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, H. van; Leege, P.F.A. de

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is presented of thermal systems with minimum critical mass, based on the use of materials with optimum neutron moderating and reflecting properties. The optimum fissile material distributions in the systems are obtained by calculations with standard computer codes, extended with a routine for flat fuel importance search. It is shown that in the minimum critical mass configuration a considerable part of the fuel is positioned in the reflector region. For 239 Pu a minimum critical mass of 87 g is found, which is the lowest value reported hitherto. (author)

  8. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  9. Assessment of clay stiffness and strength parameters using index properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Ahmed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is developed to determine the shear wave velocity in saturated soft to firm clays using measurements of the liquid limit, plastic limit, and natural water content with depth. The shear wave velocity is assessed using the site-specific variation of the natural water content with the effective mean stress. Subsequently, an iterative process is envisaged to obtain the clay stiffness and strength parameters. The at-rest earth pressure coefficient, as well as bearing capacity factor and rigidity index related to the cone penetration test, is also acquired from the analyses. Comparisons are presented between the measured clay parameters and the results of corresponding analyses in five different case studies. It is demonstrated that the presented approach can provide acceptable estimates of saturated clay stiffness and strength parameters. One of the main privileges of the presented methodology is the site-specific procedure developed based on the relationships between clay strength and stiffness parameters, rather than adopting direct correlations. Despite of the utilized iterative processes, the presented approach can be easily implemented using a simple spreadsheet, benefiting both geotechnical researchers and practitioners. Keywords: Soft to firm clays, Atterberg limits, Shear wave velocity, Small-strain shear modulus, Constrained modulus, Undrained shear strength, Effective friction angle, Cone penetration test

  10. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  11. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  12. Do Minimum Wages Fight Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark; William Wascher

    1997-01-01

    The primary goal of a national minimum wage floor is to raise the incomes of poor or near-poor families with members in the work force. However, estimates of employment effects of minimum wages tell us little about whether minimum wages are can achieve this goal; even if the disemployment effects of minimum wages are modest, minimum wage increases could result in net income losses for poor families. We present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes from matched March CPS s...

  13. Employment effects of minimum wages

    OpenAIRE

    Neumark, David

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of higher minimum wages come from the higher wages for affected workers, some of whom are in low-income families. The potential downside is that a higher minimum wage may discourage employers from using the low-wage, low-skill workers that minimum wages are intended to help. Research findings are not unanimous, but evidence from many countries suggests that minimum wages reduce the jobs available to low-skill workers.

  14. 75 FR 6151 - Minimum Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... capital and reserve requirements to be issued by order or regulation with respect to a product or activity... minimum capital requirements. Section 1362(a) establishes a minimum capital level for the Enterprises... entities required under this section.\\6\\ \\3\\ The Bank Act's current minimum capital requirements apply to...

  15. The Laboratory Study of Shear Strength of the Overconsolidated and Quasi - Overconsolidated Fine - Grained Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Joanna

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents results of laboratory shear strength test conducted on fine-grained soil samples with different grain size distribution and with different geological age and stress history. The Triaxial Isotopic Consolidation Undrained Tests (TXCIU) were performed under different consolidation stress in normal and overconsolidadion stress state on the samples with natural structure. Soil samples were selected from soil series of different age and geological origins: overconsolidated sensu stricto Miopliocene silty clay (siCl) and quasi overconsolidated Pleistocene clayey silt (clSi). Paper pointed out that overconsolidated sensu stricto and quasi overconsolidated fine-grained soil in same stress and environmental condition could show almost similar behaviour, and in other condition could behave significantly different. The correct evaluation of geotechnical parameters, the possibility of predicting their time-correct ability is only possible with appropriately recognized geological past and past processes that accompanied the soil formation.

  16. Strength optimized designs of thermoelastic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2010-01-01

    For thermoelastic structures the same optimal design does not simultaneously lead to minimum compliance and maximum strength. Compliance may be a questionable objective and focus for the present paper is on the important aspect of strength, quantified as minimization of the maximum von Mises stre...... loads are appended....

  17. Seasonal Effects on the Relationships Between Soil Water Content, Pore Water Pressure and Shear Strength and Their Implications for Slope Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    A soil's shear resistance is mainly dependent upon the magnitude of effective stress. For small to medium height slopes (up to 10m) in clay soils the total stress acting along potential failure planes will be low, therefore the magnitude of effective stress (and hence soil shear strength) will be dominated by the pore-water pressure. The stability of slopes on this scale through periods of increased precipitation is improved by the generation of negative pore pressures (soil suctions) during preceding, warmer, drier periods. These negative pore water pressures increase the effective stress within the soil and cause a corresponding increase in shearing resistance. The relationships between soil water content and pore water pressure (soil water retention curves) are known to be hysteretic, but for the purposes of the majority of slope stability assessments in partially saturated clay soils, these are assumed to be consistent with time. Similarly, the relationship between shear strength and water content is assumed to be consistent over time. This research presents a laboratory study in which specimens of compacted Glacial Till (typical of engineered slopes within the UK) were subjected to repeated cycles of wetting and drying to simulate seasonal cycles. At predetermined water contents, measurements of soil suction were made using tensiometer and dewpoint potentiometer methods. The undrained shear strength of the specimens was then measured using triaxial strength testing equipment. Results indicate that repeated wetting and drying cycles caused a change in the soil water retention behaviour. A reduction in undrained shear strength at corresponding water contents along the wetting and drying paths was also observed. The mechanism for the change in the relationship is believed to be a deterioration in the soil physical structure due to shrink/swell induced micro-cracking. The non-stationarity of these relationships has implications for slope stability assessment.

  18. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  19. Reduction of the Shear Strength of Soils in the Niger Delta Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the effects of crude oil pollution on the engineering properties of the affected soils and comparison with the engineering properties of unpolluted soils of similar soil structure within the same zone was carried out. Decrease in values of un-drained cohesion, un-drained angle of internal friction, optimum moisture ...

  20. Optimal temperature profiles for minimum residual stress in the cure process of polymer composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gopal, AK

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available include the minimum residual stresses, minimum cure cycle lime and full degree of cure. The development of residual stresses during the cure cycle is one of the most important problems as they affect the strength and the mechanical properties of the final...

  1. The assessment of bond strength between heat damaged concrete and high strength fibre reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, M. Z. A. Mohd; Muhamad, K.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the bond strength between heat damaged concrete and high strength fibre reinforced concrete (HPFRC). Firstly, this paper presents the various steps taken to prepare the HPFRC with self-compacting property. The minimum targeted slump flow is 600 mm and minimum targeted compressive strength is 80 MPa. The key mix variables considered are such as type of superplasticizer, water cement ratio and silica fume content. Then, the bond strength between the heat damaged concrete with HPFRC was examined. The experimental parameters are heating temperature, surface treatment technique and curing method and the results show that, all experimental parameters are significantly affected the bond strength between heat damaged concrete and HPFRC.

  2. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  3. Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q....

  4. Fermat and the Minimum Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arguably, least action and minimum principles were offered or applied much earlier. This (or these) principle(s) is/are among the fundamental, basic, unifying or organizing ones used to describe a variety of natural phenomena. It considers the amount of energy expended in performing a given action to be the least required ...

  5. Coupling between minimum scattering antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed...

  6. Physicochemical characteristics of undrainable water dams utilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pH, electro-conductivity and total dissoved solutes (TDS) were measured in-situ from three reservoirs (Gathathini, Lusoi and Kianda dams) differing in their habitat characteristics. Water samples were collected for determination of the ionic concentartions of the reservoirs. Water quality status differed markedly between sites, ...

  7. Quantum mechanics the theoretical minimum

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    From the bestselling author of The Theoretical Minimum, an accessible introduction to the math and science of quantum mechanicsQuantum Mechanics is a (second) book for anyone who wants to learn how to think like a physicist. In this follow-up to the bestselling The Theoretical Minimum, physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman offer a first course in the theory and associated mathematics of the strange world of quantum mechanics. Quantum Mechanics presents Susskind and Friedman’s crystal-clear explanations of the principles of quantum states, uncertainty and time dependence, entanglement, and particle and wave states, among other topics. An accessible but rigorous introduction to a famously difficult topic, Quantum Mechanics provides a tool kit for amateur scientists to learn physics at their own pace.

  8. Minimum resolvable power contrast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.

  9. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  10. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  11. Empirical Strengths of Concrete Roof Slabs After 34 Years Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results were compared with those from standard compressive strength machine in the laboratory, and subjected to statistical analysis. The final results showed that the lowest slab compressive strength was 14 N/mm2 below the minimum concrete grade of 25N/mm2; and percentage defective was 29.5% more than the ...

  12. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths......-based intervention program in order to explore the strengths. Finally different methods to apply the strength in everyday life at school were applied. The paper presentation will show the results for strengths display for children aged 6-16 in different categories: Different age groups: Are the same strengths...... present in both small children and youths? Gender: Do the results show differences between the two genders? Danish as a mother- tongue language: Do the results show any differences in the strengths display when considering different language and cultural backgrounds? Children with Special Needs: Do...

  13. The minimum yield in channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uguzzoni, A.; Gaertner, K.; Lulli, G.; Andersen, J.U.

    2000-01-01

    A first estimate of the minimum yield was obtained from Lindhard's theory, with the assumption of a statistical equilibrium in the transverse phase-space of channeled particles guided by a continuum axial potential. However, computer simulations have shown that this estimate should be corrected by a fairly large factor, C (approximately equal to 2.5), called the Barrett factor. We have shown earlier that the concept of a statistical equilibrium can be applied to understand this result, with the introduction of a constraint in phase-space due to planar channeling of axially channeled particles. Here we present an extended test of these ideas on the basis of computer simulation of the trajectories of 2 MeV α particles in Si. In particular, the gradual trend towards a full statistical equilibrium is studied. We also discuss the introduction of this modification of standard channeling theory into descriptions of the multiple scattering of channeled particles (dechanneling) by a master equation and show that the calculated minimum yields are in very good agreement with the results of a full computer simulation

  14. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |η| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presented. We also highlight the advantage of these triggers for particle correlation analyses. (author)

  15. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  16. Approximating the minimum cycle mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendu Chatterjee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider directed graphs where each edge is labeled with an integer weight and study the fundamental algorithmic question of computing the value of a cycle with minimum mean weight. Our contributions are twofold: (1 First we show that the algorithmic question is reducible in O(n^2 time to the problem of a logarithmic number of min-plus matrix multiplications of n-by-n matrices, where n is the number of vertices of the graph. (2 Second, when the weights are nonnegative, we present the first (1 + ε-approximation algorithm for the problem and the running time of our algorithm is ilde(O(n^ω log^3(nW/ε / ε, where O(n^ω is the time required for the classic n-by-n matrix multiplication and W is the maximum value of the weights.

  17. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  18. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  19. Youth minimum wages and youth employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marimpi, Maria; Koning, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median

  20. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  1. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  2. Minimum income protection in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Peijpe, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the Dutch legal system of minimum income protection through collective bargaining, social security, and statutory minimum wages. In addition to collective agreements, the Dutch statutory minimum wage offers income protection to a small number of workers. Its

  3. The strength compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    of agreement/disagreement. Also the child/teacher is asked whether the actual strength is important and if he or she has the possibilities to apply the strength in the school. In a PhDproject ‘Strengths-based Learning - Children’s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential’ 750 Danish children......Individual paper presentation: The ‘Strength Compass’. The results of a PhDresearch project among schoolchildren (age 6-16) identifying VIAstrengths concerning age, gender, mother-tongue-langue and possible child psychiatric diagnosis. Strengths-based interventions in schools have a theoretical...... Psychological Publishing Company. ‘The Strength Compass’ is a computer/Ipad based qualitative tool to identify the strengths of a child by a self-survey or a teacher’s survey. It is designed as a visual analogue scale with a statement of the strength in which the child/teacher may declare the degree...

  4. Optimal estimation of the optomechanical coupling strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernád, József Zsolt; Sanavio, Claudio; Xuereb, André

    2018-06-01

    We apply the formalism of quantum estimation theory to obtain information about the value of the nonlinear optomechanical coupling strength. In particular, we discuss the minimum mean-square error estimator and a quantum Cramér-Rao-type inequality for the estimation of the coupling strength. Our estimation strategy reveals some cases where quantum statistical inference is inconclusive and merely results in the reinforcement of prior expectations. We show that these situations also involve the highest expected information losses. We demonstrate that interaction times on the order of one time period of mechanical oscillations are the most suitable for our estimation scenario, and compare situations involving different photon and phonon excitations.

  5. Article Review on World Bank Report, Optimal Design for a Minimum Wage Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurrachmi, Rininta; Mad-Ahin, Ashanee; Waeowanjit, Phimpaporn; Kareemarif Arif, Naz Abdul

    2012-01-01

    There are many pros and cons with the implementation of minimum wage in Malaysia, since it is the first time. This article review is to analyze the World Bank report on Malaysian minimum wage policy that will be implemented in 2013. There are strength and weakness on the report. Moreover the review will also be analyzed from Islamic perspective since majority population in Malaysia is Muslim.

  6. Minimum wage development in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Bolsheva, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the minimum wage policy at the national level in Russia and its impact on living standards in the country. The analysis showed that the national minimum wage in Russia does not serve its original purpose of protecting the lowest wage earners and has no substantial effect on poverty reduction. The national subsistence minimum is too low and cannot be considered an adequate criterion for the setting of the minimum wage. The minimum wage d...

  7. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  8. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes

  9. Strengths-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    -being. The Ph.D.-project in Strength-based learning took place in a Danish school with 750 pupils age 6-16 and a similar school was functioning as a control group. The presentation will focus on both the aware-explore-apply processes and the practical implications for the schools involved, and on measurable......Strength-based learning - Children͛s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential͛ is a Ph.D.-project aiming to create a strength-based mindset in school settings and at the same time introducing strength-based interventions as specific tools to improve both learning and well...

  10. Minimum emittance of three-bend achromats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyu; Xu Gang

    2012-01-01

    The calculation of the minimum emittance of three-bend achromats (TBAs) made by Mathematical software can ignore the actual magnets lattice in the matching condition of dispersion function in phase space. The minimum scaling factors of two kinds of widely used TBA lattices are obtained. Then the relationship between the lengths and the radii of the three dipoles in TBA is obtained and so is the minimum scaling factor, when the TBA lattice achieves its minimum emittance. The procedure of analysis and the results can be widely used in achromats lattices, because the calculation is not restricted by the actual lattice. (authors)

  11. A Pareto-Improving Minimum Wage

    OpenAIRE

    Eliav Danziger; Leif Danziger

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that a graduated minimum wage, in contrast to a constant minimum wage, can provide a strict Pareto improvement over what can be achieved with an optimal income tax. The reason is that a graduated minimum wage requires high-productivity workers to work more to earn the same income as low-productivity workers, which makes it more difficult for the former to mimic the latter. In effect, a graduated minimum wage allows the low-productivity workers to benefit from second-degree pr...

  12. The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Lajtkepová

    2010-01-01

    Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007). ...

  13. Globally optimal, minimum stored energy, double-doughnut superconducting magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieng, Quang M; Vegh, Viktor; Brereton, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    The use of the minimum stored energy current density map-based methodology of designing closed-bore symmetric superconducting magnets was described recently. The technique is further developed to cater for the design of interventional-type MRI systems, and in particular open symmetric magnets of the double-doughnut configuration. This extends the work to multiple magnet domain configurations. The use of double-doughnut magnets in MRI scanners has previously been hindered by the ability to deliver strong magnetic fields over a sufficiently large volume appropriate for imaging, essentially limiting spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and field of view. The requirement of dedicated interventional space restricts the manner in which the coils can be arranged and placed. The minimum stored energy optimal coil arrangement ensures that the field strength is maximized over a specific region of imaging. The design method yields open, dual-domain magnets capable of delivering greater field strengths than those used prior to this work, and at the same time it provides an increase in the field-of-view volume. Simulation results are provided for 1-T double-doughnut magnets with at least a 50-cm 1-ppm (parts per million) field of view and 0.7-m gap between the two doughnuts. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, F.; Viola, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova Univ. (Italy)

    1995-05-21

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)

  15. Zero forcing parameters and minimum rank problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barioli, F.; Barrett, W.; Fallat, S.M.; Hall, H.T.; Hogben, L.; Shader, B.L.; Driessche, van den P.; Holst, van der H.

    2010-01-01

    The zero forcing number Z(G), which is the minimum number of vertices in a zero forcing set of a graph G, is used to study the maximum nullity/minimum rank of the family of symmetric matrices described by G. It is shown that for a connected graph of order at least two, no vertex is in every zero

  16. 30 CFR 281.30 - Minimum royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 281.30 Section 281.30 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.30 Minimum royalty...

  17. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…

  18. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  19. Give Me Strength.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    维拉

    1996-01-01

    Mort had an absolutely terrible day at the office.Everythingthat could go wrong did go wrong.As he walked home he could beheard muttering strange words to himself:“Oh,give me strength,give me strength.”Mort isn’t asking for the kind of strength thatbuilds strong muscles:he’s asking for the courage or ability to

  20. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  1. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  2. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  3. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  4. Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Peng, Yue-Mei

    2015-03-01

    For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 31/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design.

  5. Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gang; Peng Yuemei

    2015-01-01

    For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 3 1/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design. (authors)

  6. Who Benefits from a Minimum Wage Increase?

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Lopresti; Kevin J. Mumford

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how a minimum wage increase affects the wages of low-wage workers. Most studies assume that there is a simple mechanical increase in the wage for workers earning a wage between the old and the new minimum wage, with some studies allowing for spillovers to workers with wages just above this range. Rather than assume that the wages of these workers would have remained constant, this paper estimates how a minimum wage increase impacts a low-wage worker's wage...

  7. Wage inequality, minimum wage effects and spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates possible spillover effects of the UK minimum wage. The halt in the growth in inequality in the lower half of the wage distribution (as measured by the 50:10 percentile ratio) since the mid-1990s, in contrast to the continued inequality growth in the upper half of the distribution, suggests the possibility of a minimum wage effect and spillover effects on wages above the minimum. This paper analyses individual wage changes, using both a difference-in-differences estimat...

  8. How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C T; Jian, L K; Luhmann, J G

    2013-05-01

    The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23-24 transition.

  9. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  10. Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

  11. Determining minimum lubrication film for machine parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1978-01-01

    Formula predicts minimum film thickness required for fully-flooded ball bearings, gears, and cams. Formula is result of study to determine complete theoretical solution of isothermal elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication of fully-flooded elliptical contacts.

  12. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  13. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)

  14. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H. L. C.

    2017-12-01

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory.

  15. Modelling of tension stiffening for normal and high strength concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Bo; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1998-01-01

    form the model is extended to apply to biaxial stress fields as well. To determine the biaxial stress field, the theorem of minimum complementary elastic energy is used. The theory has been compared with tests on rods, disks, and beams of both normal and high strength concrete, and very good results...

  16. ZERODUR: deterministic approach for strength design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Peter

    2012-12-01

    There is an increasing request for zero expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR substrates being capable of enduring higher operational static loads or accelerations. The integrity of structures such as optical or mechanical elements for satellites surviving rocket launches, filigree lightweight mirrors, wobbling mirrors, and reticle and wafer stages in microlithography must be guaranteed with low failure probability. Their design requires statistically relevant strength data. The traditional approach using the statistical two-parameter Weibull distribution suffered from two problems. The data sets were too small to obtain distribution parameters with sufficient accuracy and also too small to decide on the validity of the model. This holds especially for the low failure probability levels that are required for reliable applications. Extrapolation to 0.1% failure probability and below led to design strengths so low that higher load applications seemed to be not feasible. New data have been collected with numbers per set large enough to enable tests on the applicability of the three-parameter Weibull distribution. This distribution revealed to provide much better fitting of the data. Moreover it delivers a lower threshold value, which means a minimum value for breakage stress, allowing of removing statistical uncertainty by introducing a deterministic method to calculate design strength. Considerations taken from the theory of fracture mechanics as have been proven to be reliable with proof test qualifications of delicate structures made from brittle materials enable including fatigue due to stress corrosion in a straight forward way. With the formulae derived, either lifetime can be calculated from given stress or allowable stress from minimum required lifetime. The data, distributions, and design strength calculations for several practically relevant surface conditions of ZERODUR are given. The values obtained are significantly higher than those resulting from the two

  17. The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lajtkepová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007. The aim of this article is to present selected results of two researches of acceptance of the statutory minimum wage by Czech enterprises. The first research makes use of the data collected by questionnaire research in 83 small and medium-sized enterprises in the South Moravia Region in 2005, the second one the data of 116 enterprises in the entire Czech Republic (in 2007. The data have been processed by means of the standard methods of descriptive statistics and of the appropriate methods of the statistical analyses (Spearman correlation coefficient of sequential correlation, Kendall coefficient, χ2 - independence test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and others.

  18. Risk control and the minimum significant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented

  19. Minimum qualifications for nuclear criticality safety professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzlach, N.

    1990-01-01

    A Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Training Committee has been established within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety and Technology Project to review and, if necessary, develop standards for the training of personnel involved in nuclear criticality safety (NCS). The committee is exploring the need for developing a standard or other mechanism for establishing minimum qualifications for NCS professionals. The development of standards and regulatory guides for nuclear power plant personnel may serve as a guide in developing the minimum qualifications for NCS professionals

  20. A minimum achievable PV electrical generating cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabisky, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The role and share of photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in our nation's future energy arsenal is primarily dependent on its future production cost. This paper provides a framework for obtaining a minimum achievable electrical generating cost (a lower bound) for fixed, flat-plate photovoltaic systems. A cost of 2.8 $cent/kWh (1990$) was derived for a plant located in Southwestern USA sunshine using a cost of money of 8%. In addition, a value of 22 $cent/Wp (1990$) was estimated as a minimum module manufacturing cost/price

  1. Strength of Fibrous Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zheng-Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Strength of Fibrous Composites" addresses evaluation of the strength of a fibrous composite by using its constituent material properties and its fiber architecture parameters. Having gone through the book, a reader is able to predict the progressive failure behavior and ultimate strength of a fibrous laminate subjected to an arbitrary load condition in terms of the constituent fiber and matrix properties, as well as fiber geometric parameters. The book is useful to researchers and engineers working on design and analysis for composite materials. Dr. Zheng-Ming Huang is a professor at the School of Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, China. Mr. Ye-Xin Zhou is a PhD candidate at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Hong Kong, China.

  2. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  3. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  4. Discretization of space and time: determining the values of minimum length and minimum time

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the minimum length and the minimum time interval. These values are found to be exactly coincident with the Planck's length and the Planck's time but for the presence of h instead of ħ .

  5. Short-term Periodization Models: Effects on Strength and Speed-strength Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Hagen; Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Mickel, Christoph; Sander, Andre; Szilvas, Elena

    2015-10-01

    least 1-2 days before competition because of the shorter regeneration times and potentiation effects. Compared with ballistic strength training (30% 1 RM), this method has been shown to provide statistically superior gains in maximal strength, peak power, impulse size, and explosive strength during tapering in track-and-field throwers. The speed-strength performance in drop jumps of strength-trained subjects showed potentiation effects 48-148 h after a single strength-power training session. Regarding neuromuscular performance, plyometric exercises can even be performed after strength-power training on the same day if a minimum rest period of 3 h is provided.

  6. MINIMUM AREAS FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING FACILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg.

    MINIMUM AREA SPACE REQUIREMENTS IN SQUARE FOOTAGE FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING FACILITIES ARE PRESENTED, INCLUDING FACILITIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL USE, GENERAL USE, AND SERVICE USE. LIBRARY, CAFETERIA, KITCHEN, STORAGE, AND MULTIPURPOSE ROOMS SHOULD BE SIZED FOR THE PROJECTED ENROLLMENT OF THE BUILDING IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROJECTION UNDER THE…

  7. Dirac's minimum degree condition restricted to claws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Z.; Schiermeyer, I.

    1997-01-01

    Let G be a graph on n 3 vertices. Dirac's minimum degree condition is the condition that all vertices of G have degree at least . This is a well-known sufficient condition for the existence of a Hamilton cycle in G. We give related sufficiency conditions for the existence of a Hamilton cycle or a

  8. 7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements. No person shall... shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1...

  9. Minimum Risk Pesticide: Definition and Product Confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimum risk pesticides pose little to no risk to human health or the environment and therefore are not subject to regulation under FIFRA. EPA does not do any pre-market review for such products or labels, but violative products are subject to enforcement.

  10. The Minimum Distance of Graph Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    We study codes constructed from graphs where the code symbols are associated with the edges and the symbols connected to a given vertex are restricted to be codewords in a component code. In particular we treat such codes from bipartite expander graphs coming from Euclidean planes and other...... geometries. We give results on the minimum distances of the codes....

  11. Minimum maintenance solar pump | Assefa | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A minimum maintenance solar pump (MMSP), Fig 1, has been simulated for Addis Ababa, taking solar meteorological data of global radiation, diffuse radiation and ambient air temperature as input to a computer program that has been developed. To increase the performance of the solar pump, by trapping the long-wave ...

  12. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols....

  13. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination, a shipment of 25 packages or...

  14. Minimum impact house prototype for sustainable building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, E.; Klenner, K.; Lantelme, M.; Mohn, A.; Sauter, S.; Thöne, J.; Zellmann, E.; Drexler, H.; Jauslin, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Minihouse is a prototupe for a sustainable townhouse. On a site of only 29 sqm it offers 154 sqm of urban life. The project 'Minimum Impact House' adresses two important questions: How do we provide living space in the cities without distroying the landscape? How to improve sustainably the

  15. 49 CFR 639.27 - Minimum criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... dollar value to any non-financial factors that are considered by using performance-based specifications..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.27 Minimum criteria. In making the... used where possible and appropriate: (a) Operation costs; (b) Reliability of service; (c) Maintenance...

  16. Computing nonsimple polygons of minimum perimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekete, S.P.; Haas, A.; Hemmer, M.; Hoffmann, M.; Kostitsyna, I.; Krupke, D.; Maurer, F.; Mitchell, J.S.B.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, C.; Troegel, J.

    2018-01-01

    We consider the Minimum Perimeter Polygon Problem (MP3): for a given set V of points in the plane, find a polygon P with holes that has vertex set V , such that the total boundary length is smallest possible. The MP3 can be considered a natural geometric generalization of the Traveling Salesman

  17. Minimum-B mirrors plus EBT principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1983-01-01

    Electrons are heated at the minimum B location(s) created by the multipole field and the toroidal field. Resulting hot electrons can assist plasma confinement by (1) providing mirror, (2) creating azimuthally symmetric toroidal confinement, or (3) creating modified bumpy torus

  18. Completeness properties of the minimum uncertainty states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The completeness properties of the Schrodinger minimum uncertainty states (SMUS) and of some of their subsets are considered. The invariant measures and the resolution unity measures for the set of SMUS are constructed and the representation of squeezing and correlating operators and SMUS as superpositions of Glauber coherent states on the real line is elucidated.

  19. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...

  20. Faster Fully-Dynamic minimum spanning forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob; Rotenberg, Eva; Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We give a new data structure for the fully-dynamic minimum spanning forest problem in simple graphs. Edge updates are supported in O(log4 n/log logn) expected amortized time per operation, improving the O(log4 n) amortized bound of Holm et al. (STOC’98, JACM’01).We also provide a deterministic data...

  1. Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

  2. Asymptotics for the minimum covariance determinant estimator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, R.W.; Davies, P.L.; Jhun, M.

    1993-01-01

    Consistency is shown for the minimum covariance determinant (MCD) estimators of multivariate location and scale and asymptotic normality is shown for the former. The proofs are made possible by showing a separating ellipsoid property for the MCD subset of observations. An analogous property is shown

  3. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  4. Planetary tides during the Maunder sunspot minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smythe, C.M.; Eddy, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Sun-centered planetary conjunctions and tidal potentials are here constructed for the AD1645 to 1715 period of sunspot absence, referred to as the 'Maunder Minimum'. These are found to be effectively indistinguishable from patterns of conjunctions and power spectra of tidal potential in the present era of a well established 11 year sunspot cycle. This places a new and difficult restraint on any tidal theory of sunspot formation. Problems arise in any direct gravitational theory due to the apparently insufficient forces and tidal heights involved. Proponents of the tidal hypothesis usually revert to trigger mechanisms, which are difficult to criticise or test by observation. Any tidal theory rests on the evidence of continued sunspot periodicity and the substantiation of a prolonged period of solar anomaly in the historical past. The 'Maunder Minimum' was the most drastic change in the behaviour of solar activity in the last 300 years; sunspots virtually disappeared for a 70 year period and the 11 year cycle was probably absent. During that time, however, the nine planets were all in their orbits, and planetary conjunctions and tidal potentials were indistinguishable from those of the present era, in which the 11 year cycle is well established. This provides good evidence against the tidal theory. The pattern of planetary tidal forces during the Maunder Minimum was reconstructed to investigate the possibility that the multiple planet forces somehow fortuitously cancelled at the time, that is that the positions of the slower moving planets in the 17th and early 18th centuries were such that conjunctions and tidal potentials were at the time reduced in number and force. There was no striking dissimilarity between the time of the Maunder Minimum and any period investigated. The failure of planetary conjunction patterns to reflect the drastic drop in sunspots during the Maunder Minimum casts doubt on the tidal theory of solar activity, but a more quantitative test

  5. A Fully Analytical Solution of the Wellbore Stability Problem under Undrained Conditions Using a Linearised Cam-Clay Model Solution analytique au problème de stabilité de puits en conditions non drainées utilisant un modèle de Cam-Clay linéarisé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlez P. A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a linearised version of the Cam-Clay model fully integrated in the scope of the general theory of poroplasticity. The constitutive law which is developed in the scope of the effective plastic stress concept, only contains two plastic parameters (hardening modulus and slope of the critical state line. To be validated, the model is integrated over homogeneous stress paths (hydrostatic, drained triaxial and undrained triaxal then compared with experimental data issued from conventional laboratory triaxial tests. In the second part, a simplified version of the model is applied to the wellbore boundary problem (vertical well in an axisymmetric horizontal stress field and under undrained conditions. Given the linearity of the constitutive law and the a priori knowledge of the shape of the plastic region, the solution (stress, strain and pore pressure is fully analytical. The solution shows that for an overconsolidated material (overconsolidation degree less than 2 the hoop stress is strongly relaxed in the plastic zone. The higher the compressibility of the saturating fluid, the larger the relaxation of the hoop stress. In terms of stability, the more compressible the fluid saturating the porous medium is, the more stable the well will be. Finally the larger the overconsolidation ratio is, the less stable the well will be. Cet article présente une version linéarisée du modèle de Cam-Clay intégré dans le cadre général de la théorie de la poroplasticité isotherme. La loi de comportement développée à partir du concept des contraintes effectives plastiques ne contient que deux paramètres plastiques (module d'écrouissage et pente de la droite critique. Le modèle est validé sur des chemins de contrainte homogènes (hydrostatique, triaxial drainé et triaxial non drainé et comparé à des essais expérimentaux obtenus à partir d'essais conventionnels de laboratoire. Ensuite, une version simplifiée du modèle est

  6. Strength properties of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, S.; Bakar, B. H. Abu; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a laboratory investigation on the properties of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Compressive strength, which is one of the most important properties in masonry structures, is used to determine masonry performance. The compressive strength of the ICEB units was determined by applying a compressive strength test for 340 units from four types of ICEB. To analyze the strength of the ICEB units, each unit was capped by a steel plate at the top and bottom to create a flat surface, and then ICEB was loaded until failure. The average compressive strength of the corresponding ICEB units are as follows: wall brick, 19.15 N/mm2; beam brick, 16.99 N/mm2; column brick, 13.18 N/mm2; and half brick, 11.79 N/mm2. All the ICEB units had compressive strength of over 5 N/mm2, which is the minimum strength for a load-bearing brick. This study proves that ICEB units may be used as load-bearing bricks. The strength of ICEBs is equal to that of other common bricks and blocks that are currently available in the market.

  7. Statistical considerations of graphite strength for assessing design allowable stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, M.; Mogi, H.; Ioka, I.; Arai, T.; Oku, T.

    1987-01-01

    Several aspects of statistics need to be considered to determine design allowable stresses for graphite structures. These include: 1) Statistical variation of graphite material strength. 2) Uncertainty of calculated stress. 3) Reliability (survival probability) required from operational and safety performance of graphite structures. This paper deals with some statistical considerations of structural graphite for assessing design allowable stress. Firstly, probability distribution functions of tensile and compressive strengths are investigated on experimental Very High Temperature candidated graphites. Normal, logarithmic normal and Weibull distribution functions are compared in terms of coefficient of correlation to measured strength data. This leads to the adaptation of normal distribution function. Then, the relation between factor of safety and fracture probability is discussed on the following items: 1) As the graphite strength is more variable than metalic material's strength, the effect of strength variation to the fracture probability is evaluated. 2) Fracture probability depending on survival probability of 99 ∼ 99.9 (%) with confidence level of 90 ∼ 95 (%) is discussed. 3) As the material properties used in the design analysis are usually the mean values of their variation, the additional effect of these variations on the fracture probability is discussed. Finally, the way to assure the minimum ultimate strength with required survival probability with confidence level is discussed in view of statistical treatment of the strength data from varying sample numbers in a material acceptance test. (author)

  8. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  9. Redox Buffer Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Levie, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. The ability of pH buffers to stabilize the pH is indicated by the buffer value b introduced in 1922 by van Slyke. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication we define the redox buffer strength by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.

  10. Measurement of Minimum Bias Observables with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kvita, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes. It has also a significant relevance for the simulation of the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (“pileup”). The ATLAS collaboration has provided new measurements of the inclusive charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at center of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements cover a wide spectrum using charged particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged particle multiplicities.

  11. Comments on the 'minimum flux corona' concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antiochos, S.K.; Underwood, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Hearn's (1975) models of the energy balance and mass loss of stellar coronae, based on a 'minimum flux corona' concept, are critically examined. First, it is shown that the neglect of the relevant length scales for coronal temperature variation leads to an inconsistent computation of the total energy flux F. The stability arguments upon which the minimum flux concept is based are shown to be fallacious. Errors in the computation of the stellar wind contribution to the energy budget are identified. Finally we criticize Hearn's (1977) suggestion that the model, with a value of the thermal conductivity modified by the magnetic field, can explain the difference between solar coronal holes and quiet coronal regions. (orig.) 891 WL [de

  12. Minimum wakefield achievable by waveguide damped cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.; Kroll, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors use an equivalent circuit to model a waveguide damped cavity. Both exponentially damped and persistent (decay t -3/2 ) components of the wakefield are derived from this model. The result shows that for a cavity with resonant frequency a fixed interval above waveguide cutoff, the persistent wakefield amplitude is inversely proportional to the external Q value of the damped mode. The competition of the two terms results in an optimal Q value, which gives a minimum wakefield as a function of the distance behind the source particle. The minimum wakefield increases when the resonant frequency approaches the waveguide cutoff. The results agree very well with computer simulation on a real cavity-waveguide system

  13. Protocol for the verification of minimum criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggiano, M.; Spiccia, P.; Gaetano Arnetta, P.

    2014-01-01

    This Protocol has been prepared with reference to the provisions of article 8 of the Legislative Decree of May 26, 2000 No. 187. Quality controls of radiological equipment fit within the larger 'quality assurance Program' and are intended to ensure the correct operation of the same and the maintenance of that State. The pursuit of this objective guarantees that the radiological equipment subjected to those controls also meets the minimum criteria of acceptability set out in annex V of the aforementioned legislative decree establishing the conditions necessary to allow the functions to which each radiological equipment was designed, built and for which it is used. The Protocol is established for the purpose of quality control of radiological equipment of Cone Beam Computer Tomography type and reference document, in the sense that compliance with stated tolerances also ensures the subsistence minimum acceptability requirements, where applicable.

  14. Low Streamflow Forcasting using Minimum Relative Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H.; Singh, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Minimum relative entropy spectral analysis is derived in this study, and applied to forecast streamflow time series. Proposed method extends the autocorrelation in the manner that the relative entropy of underlying process is minimized so that time series data can be forecasted. Different prior estimation, such as uniform, exponential and Gaussian assumption, is taken to estimate the spectral density depending on the autocorrelation structure. Seasonal and nonseasonal low streamflow series obtained from Colorado River (Texas) under draught condition is successfully forecasted using proposed method. Minimum relative entropy determines spectral of low streamflow series with higher resolution than conventional method. Forecasted streamflow is compared to the prediction using Burg's maximum entropy spectral analysis (MESA) and Configurational entropy. The advantage and disadvantage of each method in forecasting low streamflow is discussed.

  15. Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kevin

    The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

  16. Corium crust strength measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomperski, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: lomperski@anl.gov; Farmer, M.T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: farmer@anl.gov

    2009-11-15

    Corium strength is of interest in the context of a severe reactor accident in which molten core material melts through the reactor vessel and collects on the containment basemat. Some accident management strategies involve pouring water over the melt to solidify it and halt corium/concrete interactions. The effectiveness of this method could be influenced by the strength of the corium crust at the interface between the melt and coolant. A strong, coherent crust anchored to the containment walls could allow the yet-molten corium to fall away from the crust as it erodes the basemat, thereby thermally decoupling the melt from the coolant and sharply reducing the cooling rate. This paper presents a diverse collection of measurements of the mechanical strength of corium. The data is based on load tests of corium samples in three different contexts: (1) small blocks cut from the debris of the large-scale MACE experiments, (2) 30 cm-diameter, 75 kg ingots produced by SSWICS quench tests, and (3) high temperature crusts loaded during large-scale corium/concrete interaction (CCI) tests. In every case the corium consisted of varying proportions of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and the constituents of concrete to represent a LWR melt at different stages of a molten core/concrete interaction. The collection of data was used to assess the strength and stability of an anchored, plant-scale crust. The results indicate that such a crust is likely to be too weak to support itself above the melt. It is therefore improbable that an anchored crust configuration could persist and the melt become thermally decoupled from the water layer to restrict cooling and prolong an attack of the reactor cavity concrete.

  17. Minimum intervention dentistry: periodontics and implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, I B; Ngo, L

    2013-06-01

    This article will look at the role of minimum intervention dentistry in the management of periodontal disease. It will discuss the role of appropriate assessment, treatment and risk factors/indicators. In addition, the role of the patient and early intervention in the continuing care of dental implants will be discussed as well as the management of peri-implant disease. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Minimum quality standards and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a domes...... prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating....

  19. ''Reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics and minimum dissipation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1992-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all solutions of the equations of ''reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics approach a uniform-current, zero-flow state for long times, given a constant wall electric field, uniform scalar viscosity and resistivity, and uniform mass density. This state is the state of minimum energy dissipation rate for these boundary conditions. No steady-state turbulence is possible. The result contrasts sharply with results for full three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics before the reduction occurs

  20. Minimum K_2,3-saturated Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ya-Chen

    2010-01-01

    A graph is K_{2,3}-saturated if it has no subgraph isomorphic to K_{2,3}, but does contain a K_{2,3} after the addition of any new edge. We prove that the minimum number of edges in a K_{2,3}-saturated graph on n >= 5 vertices is sat(n, K_{2,3}) = 2n - 3.

  1. Minimum degree and density of binary sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Müttel, J.; Rautenbach, D.

    2010-01-01

    For d,k∈N with k ≤ 2d, let g(d,k) denote the infimum density of binary sequences (x)∈{0,1} which satisfy the minimum degree condition σ(x+) ≥ k for all i∈Z with xi=1. We reduce the problem of computing g(d,k) to a combinatorial problem related to the generalized k-girth of a graph G which...

  2. Strength capability while kneeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslegrave, C M; Tracy, M F; Corlett, E N

    1997-12-01

    Work sometimes has to be carried out kneeling, particularly where jobs are performed in confined spaces as is common for miners, aircraft baggage handlers and maintenance workers. In order to assess the risks in performing forceful tasks under such conditions, data is needed on strength capabilities of kneeling subjects. A study was undertaken to measure isometric strength in single-handed exertions for male subjects and to investigate the effects on this of task layout factors (direction of force exertion, reach distance, height of the workpiece and orientation relative to the subject's sagittal plane). The data has been tabulated to show the degree to which strength may be reduced in different situations and analysis of the task factors showed their influence to be complex with direction of exertion and reach distance having the greatest effect. The results also suggest that exertions are weaker when subjects are kneeling on two knees than when kneeling on one knee, although this needs to be confirmed by direct experimental comparison.

  3. Design for minimum energy in interstellar communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmitt, David G.

    2015-02-01

    Microwave digital communication at interstellar distances is the foundation of extraterrestrial civilization (SETI and METI) communication of information-bearing signals. Large distances demand large transmitted power and/or large antennas, while the propagation is transparent over a wide bandwidth. Recognizing a fundamental tradeoff, reduced energy delivered to the receiver at the expense of wide bandwidth (the opposite of terrestrial objectives) is advantageous. Wide bandwidth also results in simpler design and implementation, allowing circumvention of dispersion and scattering arising in the interstellar medium and motion effects and obviating any related processing. The minimum energy delivered to the receiver per bit of information is determined by cosmic microwave background alone. By mapping a single bit onto a carrier burst, the Morse code invented for the telegraph in 1836 comes closer to this minimum energy than approaches used in modern terrestrial radio. Rather than the terrestrial approach of adding phases and amplitudes increases information capacity while minimizing bandwidth, adding multiple time-frequency locations for carrier bursts increases capacity while minimizing energy per information bit. The resulting location code is simple and yet can approach the minimum energy as bandwidth is expanded. It is consistent with easy discovery, since carrier bursts are energetic and straightforward modifications to post-detection pattern recognition can identify burst patterns. Time and frequency coherence constraints leading to simple signal discovery are addressed, and observations of the interstellar medium by transmitter and receiver constrain the burst parameters and limit the search scope.

  4. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  5. Effect of Hand Mixing on the Compressive Strength of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Isiwu AGUWA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of hand mixing on the compressive strength of concrete. Before designing the concrete mix, sieve analysis of sharp sand and chippings was carried out and their fineness moduli were determined. Also the dry weight of chippings and the specific gravities of both sand and chippings were determined. A designed concrete mix of 1:2:4 was used and the number of turnings of the mixture over from one end to another by hand mixing was varying from one time up to and including seven times. The strengths were measured at the curing ages of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively using 150mm concrete cubes cast, cured and crushed. The results revealed that the compressive strengths of concrete cubes appreciably increased with increase in number of turnings from one to four times but remained almost constant beyond four times of turning for all the ages tested. For example, at 1, 2, and 3 times turning; the compressive strengths at 28 days were 4.67, 13.37 and 20.28N/mm2 respectively while at 4, 5 and 6 times turning; the compressive strengths at 28 days were 21.15, 21.34 and 21.69N/mm2. From the data, adequate strengths were not developed at turnings below three times of hand mixing, concluding that a minimum of three times turning is required to produce concrete with satisfactory strength.

  6. The Peculiar Solar Minimum 23/24 Revealed by the Microwave Butterfly Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Yashiro, Seiji; Makela, Pertti; Shibasaki, Kiyoto; Hathaway, David

    2010-01-01

    The diminished polar magnetic field strength during the minimum between cycles 23 and 24 is also reflected in the thermal radio emission originating from the polar chromosphere. During solar minima, the polar corona has extended coronal holes containing intense unipolar flux. In microwave images, the coronal holes appear bright, with a brightness enhancement of 500 to 2000 K with respect to the quiet Sun. The brightness enhancement corresponds to the upper chromosphere, where the plasma temperature is approx.10000 K. We constructed a microwave butterfly diagram using the synoptic images obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph (NoRH) showing the evolution of the polar and low latitude brightness temperature. While the polar brightness reveals the chromospheric conditions, the low latitude brightness is attributed to active regions in the corona. When we compared the microwave butterfly diagram with the magnetic butterfly diagram, we found a good correlation between the microwave brightness enhancement and the polar field strength. The microwave butterfly diagram covers part of solar cycle 22, whole of cycle 23, and part of cycle 24, thus enabling comparison between the cycle 23/24 and cycle 22/23 minima. The microwave brightness during the cycle 23/24 minimum was found to be lower than that during the cycle 22/23 minimum by approx.250 K. The reduced brightness temperature is consistent with the reduced polar field strength during the cycle 23/24 minimum seen in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We suggest that the microwave brightness at the solar poles is a good indicator of the speed of the solar wind sampled by Ulysses at high latitudes..

  7. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  8. Decentralized Pricing in Minimum Cost Spanning Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    In the minimum cost spanning tree model we consider decentralized pricing rules, i.e. rules that cover at least the ecient cost while the price charged to each user only depends upon his own connection costs. We de ne a canonical pricing rule and provide two axiomatic characterizations. First......, the canonical pricing rule is the smallest among those that improve upon the Stand Alone bound, and are either superadditive or piece-wise linear in connection costs. Our second, direct characterization relies on two simple properties highlighting the special role of the source cost....

  9. The Risk Management of Minimum Return Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Mahayni

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Contracts paying a guaranteed minimum rate of return and a fraction of a positive excess rate, which is specified relative to a benchmark portfolio, are closely related to unit-linked life-insurance products and can be considered as alternatives to direct investment in the underlying benchmark. They contain an embedded power option, and the key issue is the tractable and realistic hedging of this option, in order to rigorously justify valuation by arbitrage arguments and prevent the guarantees from becoming uncontrollable liabilities to the issuer. We show how to determine the contract parameters conservatively and implement robust risk-management strategies.

  10. Iterative Regularization with Minimum-Residual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian

    2007-01-01

    subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....

  11. Iterative regularization with minimum-residual methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian

    2006-01-01

    subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES - their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....

  12. 49 CFR 192.505 - Strength test requirements for steel pipeline to operate at a hoop stress of 30 percent or more...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength test requirements for steel pipeline to...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Test Requirements § 192.505 Strength test requirements for steel pipeline... as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, the strength test must be conducted by maintaining the...

  13. Feedback brake distribution control for minimum pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernini, Davide; Velenis, Efstathios; Longo, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    The distribution of brake forces between front and rear axles of a vehicle is typically specified such that the same level of brake force coefficient is imposed at both front and rear wheels. This condition is known as 'ideal' distribution and it is required to deliver the maximum vehicle deceleration and minimum braking distance. For subcritical braking conditions, the deceleration demand may be delivered by different distributions between front and rear braking forces. In this research we show how to obtain the optimal distribution which minimises the pitch angle of a vehicle and hence enhances driver subjective feel during braking. A vehicle model including suspension geometry features is adopted. The problem of the minimum pitch brake distribution for a varying deceleration level demand is solved by means of a model predictive control (MPC) technique. To address the problem of the undesirable pitch rebound caused by a full-stop of the vehicle, a second controller is designed and implemented independently from the braking distribution in use. An extended Kalman filter is designed for state estimation and implemented in a high fidelity environment together with the MPC strategy. The proposed solution is compared with the reference 'ideal' distribution as well as another previous feed-forward solution.

  14. Gaussian discriminating strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  15. Preliminary structural design of composite main rotor blades for minimum weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Mark W.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology is developed to perform minimum weight structural design for composite or metallic main rotor blades subject to aerodynamic performance, material strength, autorotation, and frequency constraints. The constraints and load cases are developed such that the final preliminary rotor design will satisfy U.S. Army military specifications, as well as take advantage of the versatility of composite materials. A minimum weight design is first developed subject to satisfying the aerodynamic performance, strength, and autorotation constraints for all static load cases. The minimum weight design is then dynamically tuned to avoid resonant frequencies occurring at the design rotor speed. With this methodology, three rotor blade designs were developed based on the geometry of the UH-60A Black Hawk titanium-spar rotor blade. The first design is of a single titanium-spar cross section, which is compared with the UH-60A Black Hawk rotor blade. The second and third designs use single and multiple graphite/epoxy-spar cross sections. These are compared with the titanium-spar design to demonstrate weight savings from use of this design methodology in conjunction with advanced composite materials.

  16. Do minimum wages reduce poverty? Evidence from Central America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... Raising minimum wages has traditionally been considered a way to protect poor ... However, the effect of raising minimum wages remains an empirical question ... ​More than 70 of Vietnamese entrepreneurs choose to start a ...

  17. A simulation of earthquake induced undrained pore pressure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Plains, Kandla River and Gulf of Kachch, between .... We consider the role of induced pore pressure ... location of the Bhuj earthquake epicentre as estimated by US Geological Survey. .... war R 2001 Changes in Ocean; GIS @ development 5.

  18. Vertical Capacity of Bucket Foundations in Undrained Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind turbine structures are traditionally founded on gravity concrete foundations or mono-piles. Bucket foundations were developed for the offshore oil and gas industry and are now being used in wind turbine construction. The loading in this application is characterized by a vertical loa...

  19. Investigation of suction anchor pullout capacity under undrained conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jarand, Pollestad

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology Floating units are dependent on reliable mooring systems to ensure safety during marine operations. Suction anchors have proved to be a technologically viable and cost-effective concept. They are capable of precision installation, re-use, and provide large resistive capacity. This thesis investigates load capacity and failure modes of suction anchors subjected to vertical, horizontal (lateral), and incline loading. Suction anchor design co...

  20. Undrained Response of Bucket Foundations to Moment Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    geotechnical engineers. This paper presents the experimental and numerical results of moment loading on small scale models of bucket foundations installed on Yoldia clay. The moment loading is experienced via the horizontal forces applied to features on a tower installed on bucket foundations. Different arm...

  1. Assessing the impacts of Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol pricing regulations on alcohol-related crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Sherk, Adam; Callaghan, Russell C; Macdonald, Scott; Gatley, Jodi

    2017-07-01

    Saskatchewan's introduction in April 2010 of minimum prices graded by alcohol strength led to an average minimum price increase of 9.1% per Canadian standard drink (=13.45 g ethanol). This increase was shown to be associated with reduced consumption and switching to lower alcohol content beverages. Police also informally reported marked reductions in night-time alcohol-related crime. This study aims to assess the impacts of changes to Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol-pricing regulations between 2008 and 2012 on selected crime events often related to alcohol use. Data were obtained from Canada's Uniform Crime Reporting Survey. Auto-regressive integrated moving average time series models were used to test immediate and lagged associations between minimum price increases and rates of night-time and police identified alcohol-related crimes. Controls were included for simultaneous crime rates in the neighbouring province of Alberta, economic variables, linear trend, seasonality and autoregressive and/or moving-average effects. The introduction of increased minimum-alcohol prices was associated with an abrupt decrease in night-time alcohol-related traffic offences for men (-8.0%, P prices may contribute to reductions in alcohol-related traffic-related and violent crimes perpetrated by men. Observed lagged effects for violent incidents may be due to a delay in bars passing on increased prices to their customers, perhaps because of inventory stockpiling. [Stockwell T, Zhao J, Sherk A, Callaghan RC, Macdonald S, Gatley J. Assessing the impacts of Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol pricing regulations on alcohol-related crime. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:492-501]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Does increasing the minimum wage reduce poverty in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Gindling, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    Do minimum wage policies reduce poverty in developing countries? It depends. Raising the minimum wage could increase or decrease poverty, depending on labor market characteristics. Minimum wages target formal sector workers—a minority of workers in most developing countries—many of whom do not live in poor households. Whether raising minimum wages reduces poverty depends not only on whether formal sector workers lose jobs as a result, but also on whether low-wage workers live in poor househol...

  3. On a Minimum Problem in Smectic Elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonsanti, Michele; Giovine, Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    Smectic elastomers are layered materials exhibiting a solid-like elastic response along the layer normal and a rubbery one in the plane. Balance equations for smectic elastomers are derived from the general theory of continua with constrained microstructure. In this work we investigate a very simple minimum problem based on multi-well potentials where the microstructure is taken into account. The set of polymeric strains minimizing the elastic energy contains a one-parameter family of simple strain associated with a micro-variation of the degree of freedom. We develop the energy functional through two terms, the first one nematic and the second one considering the tilting phenomenon; after, by developing in the rubber elasticity framework, we minimize over the tilt rotation angle and extract the engineering stress

  4. Minimum DNBR Prediction Using Artificial Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Ju Hyun; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The minimum DNBR (MDNBR) for prevention of the boiling crisis and the fuel clad melting is very important factor that should be consistently monitored in safety aspects. Artificial intelligence methods have been extensively and successfully applied to nonlinear function approximation such as the problem in question for predicting DNBR values. In this paper, support vector regression (SVR) model and fuzzy neural network (FNN) model are developed to predict the MDNBR using a number of measured signals from the reactor coolant system. Also, two models are trained using a training data set and verified against test data set, which does not include training data. The proposed MDNBR estimation algorithms were verified by using nuclear and thermal data acquired from many numerical simulations of the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 (YGN-3)

  5. Image Segmentation Using Minimum Spanning Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, M. P.; Armiati, A.; Alvini, S.

    2018-04-01

    This research aim to segmented the digital image. The process of segmentation is to separate the object from the background. So the main object can be processed for the other purposes. Along with the development of technology in digital image processing application, the segmentation process becomes increasingly necessary. The segmented image which is the result of the segmentation process should accurate due to the next process need the interpretation of the information on the image. This article discussed the application of minimum spanning tree on graph in segmentation process of digital image. This method is able to separate an object from the background and the image will change to be the binary images. In this case, the object that being the focus is set in white, while the background is black or otherwise.

  6. Literacy for QTLS achieving the minimum core

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Literacy for QTLS is written specifically with the needs of all those training to teach or currently working in the lifelong learning sector in mind. This highly practical and easy-to-use text will help you identify your areas of strength and weakness, develop your knowledge and skills in order to pass the national literacy test and adopt strategies that you can use to support the language and literacy skills of your own learners.Packed with test-your-knowledge questions, examples and recommendations for best practice, this book, closely linked to the QTLS standards, is essential reading for a

  7. Compressive and flexural strength of high strength phase change mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingyao; Fang, Changle

    2018-04-01

    High-strength cement produces a lot of hydration heat when hydrated, it will usually lead to thermal cracks. Phase change materials (PCM) are very potential thermal storage materials. Utilize PCM can help reduce the hydration heat. Research shows that apply suitable amount of PCM has a significant effect on improving the compressive strength of cement mortar, and can also improve the flexural strength to some extent.

  8. Statistical physics when the minimum temperature is not absolute zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won Sang; Hassanabadi, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the nonzero minimum temperature is considered based on the third law of thermodynamics and existence of the minimal momentum. From the assumption of nonzero positive minimum temperature in nature, we deform the definitions of some thermodynamical quantities and investigate nonzero minimum temperature correction to the well-known thermodynamical problems.

  9. 12 CFR 564.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 564.4 Section 564.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum: (a...

  10. 29 CFR 505.3 - Prevailing minimum compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevailing minimum compensation. 505.3 Section 505.3 Labor... HUMANITIES § 505.3 Prevailing minimum compensation. (a)(1) In the absence of an alternative determination...)(2) of this section, the prevailing minimum compensation required to be paid under the Act to the...

  11. An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Minimum Wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Minimum Wage, Investment and Economic Growth in Ghana. ... In addition, the ratio of public investment to tax revenue must increase as minimum wage increases since such complementary changes are more likely to lead to economic growth. Keywords: minimum wage ...

  12. Minimum Covers of Fixed Cardinality in Weighted Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lee J.

    Reported is the result of research on combinatorial and algorithmic techniques for information processing. A method is discussed for obtaining minimum covers of specified cardinality from a given weighted graph. By the indicated method, it is shown that the family of minimum covers of varying cardinality is related to the minimum spanning tree of…

  13. Minimum Price Guarantees In a Consumer Search Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); A. Parakhonyak (Alexei)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is the first to examine the effect of minimum price guarantees in a sequential search model. Minimum price guarantees are not advertised and only known to consumers when they come to the shop. We show that in such an environment, minimum price guarantees increase the value of

  14. Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages. Recent Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David

    Using a specially constructed panel data set on state minimum wage laws and labor market conditions, Neumark and Wascher (1992) presented evidence that countered the claim that minimum wages could be raised with no cost to employment. They concluded that estimates indicating that minimum wages reduced employment on the order of 1-2 percent for a…

  15. Minimum Wages and Skill Acquisition: Another Look at Schooling Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Wascher, William

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of minimum wage on schooling, seeking to reconcile some of the contradictory results in recent research using Current Population Survey data from the late 1970s through the 1980s. Findings point to negative effects of minimum wages on school enrollment, bolstering the findings of negative effects of minimum wages on enrollment…

  16. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  17. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by the...

  18. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards...

  19. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26). Although...

  20. 24 CFR 891.145 - Owner deposit (Minimum Capital Investment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... General Program Requirements § 891.145 Owner deposit (Minimum Capital Investment). As a Minimum Capital... Investment shall be one-half of one percent (0.5%) of the HUD-approved capital advance, not to exceed $25,000. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Owner deposit (Minimum Capital...

  1. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank, both...

  2. 9 CFR 147.51 - Authorized laboratory minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized laboratory minimum requirements. 147.51 Section 147.51 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Authorized Laboratories and Approved Tests § 147.51 Authorized laboratory minimum requirements. These minimum...

  3. A Methodology for Reducing Bench Strength in Information Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major risks in information technology (IT project execution is the non-availability of resources with required skill sets to meet the project demands. To mitigate this risk, almost every IT organization maintains a portion of their resources on bench. The bench strength reduces the delay in starting the project due to the non-availability of skilled resources. But bench strength or buffer is cost to the company. A medium scale Indian IT company incurs around USD 142,347 monthly on maintaining the bench strength. Hence this study is undertaken to develop a methodology to reduce the bench strength in IT companies. The proposed methodology is to obtain an optimum mix of resources from bench and through recruitment to meet the demands at a minimum cost. This is done by formulating the problem as an integer programming problem. The problem aims to minimize the total cost of obtaining the skilled resources without violating the constraints on demand, bench strength availability and recruitment lead time. The problem can be solved using Microsoft excel solver function or any other optimization packages like CPLEX, Gurobi, etc. A case study on the application of proposed methodology is also discussed in the paper. The case study showed that the proposed methodology is superior to the existing practice of maintaining large bench strengths to meet the demands for resources with various skills.

  4. Determination of composition of pozzolanic waste mixtures with optimized compressive strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardi José Vidal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of ceramic wastes with pozzolanic properties along with other compounds for obtaining new materials with cementating properties is an alternative for reducing the environmental pollution. The acceptance of these new products in the market demands minimal changes in mechanical properties according to its utilization. For a variable range of compositional intervals, attempts were made to establish limiting incorporation proportions that assure the achievement of minimum pre-established mechanical strength values in the final product. In this case minimum compressive strength value is 3,000 kPa. A simultaneous association of other properties is also possible.

  5. Institutional Strength in Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Much work has been undertaken in order to identify, learn and implement the lessons from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. These have mainly targeted on engineering or operational lessons. Less attention has been paid to the institutional lessons, although there have been some measures to improve individual peer reviews, particularly by the World Association of Nuclear Operators, and the authoritative IAEA report published in 2015 brought forward several important lessons for regulators and advocated a system approach. The report noted that one of the contributing factors the accident was the tendency of stakeholders not to challenge. Additionally, it reported deficiencies in the regulatory authority and system. Earlier, the root cause of the accident was identified by a Japanese independent parliamentary report as being cultural and institutional. The sum total of the institutions, the safety system, was ineffective. While it is important to address the many technical and operational lessons these may not necessary address this more fundamental lesson, and may not serve to provide robust defences against human or institutional failings over a wide variety of possible events and combinations. The overall lesson is that we can have rigorous and comprehensive safety standards and other tools in place to deliver high levels of safety, but ultimately what is important is the ability of the nuclear safety system to ensure that the relevant institutions diligently and effectively apply those standards and tools — to be robust and resilient. This has led to the consideration of applying the principles of the strength in depth philosophy to a nuclear safety system as a way of providing a framework for developing, assessing, reviewing and improving the system. At an IAEA conference in October 2013, a model was presented for a robust national nuclear safety system based on strength in depth philosophy. The model highlighted three main layers: industry, the

  6. Esthetic, occlusal, and periodontal rehabilitation of anterior teeth with minimum thickness porcelain laminate veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Pedroche, Lorena Oliveira; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2014-12-01

    Ceramic veneers of minimum thickness provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure. Dental ceramics can both improve the esthetic appearance and reestablish the strength and function of teeth. In worn anterior teeth, functional surfaces, for example, anterior and lateral guidance, can be restored effectively. The characteristics of dental ceramics, such as color stability and mechanical and optical properties, make this material a good choice for indirect restorations, especially when optimum function and esthetics are required. This clinical report presents an occlusal, periodontal, and restorative solution with minimum thickness glass ceramic veneers for worn anterior teeth with multiple diastemas. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in

  8. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in the first

  9. Minimum relative entropy, Bayes and Kapur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Allan D.

    2011-04-01

    The focus of this paper is to illustrate important philosophies on inversion and the similarly and differences between Bayesian and minimum relative entropy (MRE) methods. The development of each approach is illustrated through the general-discrete linear inverse. MRE differs from both Bayes and classical statistical methods in that knowledge of moments are used as ‘data’ rather than sample values. MRE like Bayes, presumes knowledge of a prior probability distribution and produces the posterior pdf itself. MRE attempts to produce this pdf based on the information provided by new moments. It will use moments of the prior distribution only if new data on these moments is not available. It is important to note that MRE makes a strong statement that the imposed constraints are exact and complete. In this way, MRE is maximally uncommitted with respect to unknown information. In general, since input data are known only to within a certain accuracy, it is important that any inversion method should allow for errors in the measured data. The MRE approach can accommodate such uncertainty and in new work described here, previous results are modified to include a Gaussian prior. A variety of MRE solutions are reproduced under a number of assumed moments and these include second-order central moments. Various solutions of Jacobs & van der Geest were repeated and clarified. Menke's weighted minimum length solution was shown to have a basis in information theory, and the classic least-squares estimate is shown as a solution to MRE under the conditions of more data than unknowns and where we utilize the observed data and their associated noise. An example inverse problem involving a gravity survey over a layered and faulted zone is shown. In all cases the inverse results match quite closely the actual density profile, at least in the upper portions of the profile. The similar results to Bayes presented in are a reflection of the fact that the MRE posterior pdf, and its mean

  10. Indigenous Design for Automatic Testing of Tensile Strength Using Graphical User Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Rafay; Junejo Faraz; Imtiaz Rafey; Shamsi Usama Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Tensile Testing is a fundamental material test to measure the tenacity and tensile strength. Tensile strength means ability to take tensile stress. This Universal Testing Machine is designed using Dual Cylinder Technique in order to comply with the maximun load (tensile force) with the reduction of minimum physical effort and minimized losses.It is to provide material testing opportunity to the students of different institutions, locally and globally, at lowest price; so that they can have a ...

  11. Meter of dynamics of restoring the electrical strength of spark gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, E.A.; Kravchenko, S.A.; Yagnov, V.A.; Shipuk, I.Ya.

    1997-01-01

    Method for diagnostics of the dynamics spark gap electric strength restoration and an electric device for its realization are described. The electric strength measurement error, conditioned by the breakdown current through electric probes or the contacts of a spark gap under investigation, is reduced to minimum due to fast switching off the probe voltage if the breakdown current exceeds some established value (1 mA). 1 ref

  12. Minimum Bias Measurements at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00022031; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive charged particle measurements at hadron colliders probe the low-energy nonperturbative region of QCD. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged-particles produced in pp collisions at 13 TeV have been measured by the CMS experiment. The ATLAS collaboration has measured the inclusive charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam current, recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The measurements present the first detailed studies in inclusive phase spaces with a minimum transverse momentum of 100 MeV and 500 MeV. The distribution of electromagnetic and hadronic energy in the very forward phase-space has been measured with the CASTOR calorimeters located at a pseudorapidity of -5.2 to -6.6 in the very forward region of CMS. The energy distributions are very powerful benchmarks to study the performance of MPI in hadronic interactions models at 13 TeV collision energy. All measurements are compared with predictions of ...

  13. Topside measurements at Jicamarca during solar minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-pulse topside radar data acquired at Jicamarca and processed using full-profile analysis are compared to data processed using more conventional, range-gated approaches and with analytic and computational models. The salient features of the topside observations include a dramatic increase in the Te/Ti temperature ratio above the F peak at dawn and a local minimum in the topside plasma temperature in the afternoon. The hydrogen ion fraction was found to exhibit hyperbolic tangent-shaped profiles that become shallow (gradually changing above the O+-H+ transition height during the day. The profile shapes are generally consistent with diffusive equilibrium, although shallowing to the point of changes in inflection can only be accounted for by taking the effects of E×B drifts and meridional winds into account. The SAMI2 model demonstrates this as well as the substantial effect that drifts and winds can have on topside temperatures. Significant quiet-time variability in the topside composition and temperatures may be due to variability in the mechanical forcing. Correlations between topside measurements and magnetometer data at Jicamarca support this hypothesis.

  14. Topside measurements at Jicamarca during solar minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-pulse topside radar data acquired at Jicamarca and processed using full-profile analysis are compared to data processed using more conventional, range-gated approaches and with analytic and computational models. The salient features of the topside observations include a dramatic increase in the Te/Ti temperature ratio above the F peak at dawn and a local minimum in the topside plasma temperature in the afternoon. The hydrogen ion fraction was found to exhibit hyperbolic tangent-shaped profiles that become shallow (gradually changing above the O+-H+ transition height during the day. The profile shapes are generally consistent with diffusive equilibrium, although shallowing to the point of changes in inflection can only be accounted for by taking the effects of E×B drifts and meridional winds into account. The SAMI2 model demonstrates this as well as the substantial effect that drifts and winds can have on topside temperatures. Significant quiet-time variability in the topside composition and temperatures may be due to variability in the mechanical forcing. Correlations between topside measurements and magnetometer data at Jicamarca support this hypothesis.

  15. Designing from minimum to optimum functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannova, Olga; Bell, Larry

    2011-04-01

    This paper discusses a multifaceted strategy to link NASA Minimal Functionality Habitable Element (MFHE) requirements to a compatible growth plan; leading forward to evolutionary, deployable habitats including outpost development stages. The discussion begins by reviewing fundamental geometric features inherent in small scale, vertical and horizontal, pressurized module configuration options to characterize applicability to meet stringent MFHE constraints. A proposed scenario to incorporate a vertical core MFHE concept into an expanded architecture to provide continuity of structural form and a logical path from "minimum" to "optimum" design of a habitable module. The paper describes how habitation and logistics accommodations could be pre-integrated into a common Hab/Log Module that serves both habitation and logistics functions. This is offered as a means to reduce unnecessary redundant development costs and to avoid EVA-intensive on-site adaptation and retrofitting requirements for augmented crew capacity. An evolutionary version of the hard shell Hab/Log design would have an expandable middle section to afford larger living and working accommodations. In conclusion, the paper illustrates that a number of cargo missions referenced for NASA's 4.0.0 Lunar Campaign Scenario could be eliminated altogether to expedite progress and reduce budgets. The plan concludes with a vertical growth geometry that provides versatile and efficient site development opportunities using a combination of hard Hab/Log modules and a hybrid expandable "CLAM" (Crew Lunar Accommodations Module) element.

  16. Minimum nonuniform graph partitioning with unrelated weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarychev, K. S.; Makarychev, Yu S.

    2017-12-01

    We give a bi-criteria approximation algorithm for the Minimum Nonuniform Graph Partitioning problem, recently introduced by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. In this problem, we are given a graph G=(V,E) and k numbers ρ_1,\\dots, ρ_k. The goal is to partition V into k disjoint sets (bins) P_1,\\dots, P_k satisfying \\vert P_i\\vert≤ ρi \\vert V\\vert for all i, so as to minimize the number of edges cut by the partition. Our bi-criteria algorithm gives an O(\\sqrt{log \\vert V\\vert log k}) approximation for the objective function in general graphs and an O(1) approximation in graphs excluding a fixed minor. The approximate solution satisfies the relaxed capacity constraints \\vert P_i\\vert ≤ (5+ \\varepsilon)ρi \\vert V\\vert. This algorithm is an improvement upon the O(log \\vert V\\vert)-approximation algorithm by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. We extend our results to the case of 'unrelated weights' and to the case of 'unrelated d-dimensional weights'. A preliminary version of this work was presented at the 41st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP 2014). Bibliography: 7 titles.

  17. Isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration reduction by fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, A I; Smith, C; Dyar, O; Goodman, D; Smith, L R; Glass, P S

    1993-05-01

    Isoflurane is commonly combined with fentanyl during anesthesia. Because of hysteresis between plasma and effect site, bolus administration of fentanyl does not accurately describe the interaction between these drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the MAC reduction of isoflurane by fentanyl when both drugs had reached steady biophase concentrations. Seventy-seven patients were randomly allocated to receive either no fentanyl or fentanyl at several predetermined plasma concentrations. Fentanyl was administered using a computer-assisted continuous infusion device. Patients were also randomly allocated to receive a predetermined steady state end-tidal concentration of isoflurane. Blood samples for fentanyl concentration were taken at 10 min after initiation of the infusion and before and immediately after skin incision. A minimum of 20 min was allowed between the start of the fentanyl infusion and skin incision. The reduction in the MAC of isoflurane by the measured fentanyl concentration was calculated using a maximum likelihood solution to a logistic regression model. There was an initial steep reduction in the MAC of isoflurane by fentanyl, with 3 ng/ml resulting in a 63% MAC reduction. A ceiling effect was observed with 10 ng/ml providing only a further 19% reduction in MAC. A 50% decrease in MAC was produced by a fentanyl concentration of 1.67 ng/ml. Defining the MAC reduction of isoflurane by all the opioids allows their more rational administration with inhalational anesthetics and provides a comparison of their relative anesthetic potencies.

  18. A Phosphate Minimum in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmier, A.; Giraud, M.; Sudre, J.; Jonca, J.; Leon, V.; Moron, O.; Dewitte, B.; Lavik, G.; Grasse, P.; Frank, M.; Stramma, L.; Garcon, V.

    2016-02-01

    The Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) off Peru is known to be associated with the advection of Equatorial SubSurface Waters (ESSW), rich in nutrients and poor in oxygen, through the Peru-Chile UnderCurrent (PCUC), but this circulation remains to be refined within the OMZ. During the Pelágico cruise in November-December 2010, measurements of phosphate revealed the presence of a phosphate minimum (Pmin) in various hydrographic stations, which could not be explained so far and could be associated with a specific water mass. This Pmin, localized at a relatively constant layer ( 20minimum with a mean vertical phosphate decrease of 0.6 µM but highly variable between 0.1 and 2.2 µM. In average, these Pmin are associated with a predominant mixing of SubTropical Under- and Surface Waters (STUW and STSW: 20 and 40%, respectively) within ESSW ( 25%), complemented evenly by overlying (ESW, TSW: 8%) and underlying waters (AAIW, SPDW: 7%). The hypotheses and mechanisms leading to the Pmin formation in the OMZ are further explored and discussed, considering the physical regional contribution associated with various circulation pathways ventilating the OMZ and the local biogeochemical contribution including the potential diazotrophic activity.

  19. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  20. Oscillator strengths for neutral technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garstang, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Oscillator strengths have been calculated for most of the spectral lines of TcI which are of interest in the study of stars of spectral type S. Oscillator strengths have been computed for the corresponding transitions in MnI as a partial check of the technetium calculations

  1. STRENGTH OF NANOMODIFIED HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOZEMTСEV Alexandr Sergeevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at development of nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete for construction. The developed concretes are of low average density and high ultimate compressive strength. It is shown that to produce this type of concrete one need to use hollow glass and aluminosilicate microspheres. To increase the durability of adhesion between cement stone and fine filler the authors offer to use complex nanodimensinal modifier based on iron hydroxide sol and silica sol as a surface nanomodifier for hollow microspheres. It is hypothesized that the proposed modifier has complex effect on the activity of the cement hydration and, at the same time increases bond strength between filler and cement-mineral matrix. The compositions for energy-efficient nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete which density is 1300…1500 kg/m³ and compressive strength is 40…65 MPa have been developed. The approaches to the design of high-strength lightweight concrete with density of less than 2000 kg/m³ are formulated. It is noted that the proposed concretes possess dense homogeneous structure and moderate mobility. Thus, they allow processing by vibration during production. The economic and practical implications for realization of high-strength lightweight concrete in industrial production have been justified.

  2. RCoronae Borealis at the 2003 light minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameswara Rao, N.; Lambert, David L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.

    2006-08-01

    A set of five high-resolution optical spectra of R CrB obtained in 2003 March is discussed. At the time of the first spectrum (March 8), the star was at V = 12.6, a decline of more than six magnitudes. By March 31, the date of the last observation, the star at V = 9.3 was on the recovery to maximum light (V = 6). The 2003 spectra are compared with the extensive collection of spectra from the 1995-1996 minimum presented previously. Spectroscopic features common to the two minima include the familiar ones also seen in spectra of other R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) in decline: sharp emission lines of neutral and singly ionized atoms, broad emission lines including HeI, [NII] 6583 Å, Na D and CaII H & K lines, and blueshifted absorption lines of Na D, and KI resonance lines. Prominent differences between the 2003 and 1995-1996 spectra are seen. The broad Na D and Ca H & K lines in 2003 and 1995-1996 are centred approximately on the mean stellar velocity. The 2003 profiles are fit by a single Gaussian, but in 1995-1996 two Gaussians separated by about 200 km s-1 were required. However, the HeI broad emission lines are fit by a single Gaussian at all times; the emitting He and Na-Ca atoms are probably not colocated. The C2 Phillips 2-0 lines were detected as sharp absorption lines and the C2 Swan band lines as sharp emission lines in 2003, but in 1995-1996 the Swan band emission lines were broad and the Phillips lines were undetected. The 2003 spectra show CI sharp emission lines at minimum light with a velocity changing in 5 d by about 20 km s-1 when the velocity of `metal' sharp lines is unchanged; the CI emission may arise from shock-heated gas. Reexamination of spectra obtained at maximum light in 1995 shows extended blue wings to strong lines with the extension dependent on a line's lower excitation potential; this is the signature of a stellar wind, also revealed by published observations of the HeI 10830 Å line at maximum light. Changes in the cores of the

  3. Real or perceived impediments to minimum pricing of alcohol in Australia: public opinion, the industry and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Jenny; Carragher, Natacha; Davoren, Sondra; O'Brien, Paula

    2013-11-01

    A burgeoning body of empirical evidence demonstrates that increases in the price of alcohol can reduce per capita alcohol consumption and harmful drinking. Taxes on alcohol can be raised to increase prices, but this strategy can be undermined if the industry absorbs the tax increase and cross-subsidises the price of one alcoholic beverage with other products. Such loss-leading strategies are not possible with minimum pricing. We argue that a minimum (or floor) price for alcohol should be used as a complement to alcohol taxation. Several jurisdictions have already introduced minimum pricing (e.g., Canada, Ukraine) and others are currently investigating pathways to introduce a floor price (e.g., Scotland). Tasked by the Australian government to examine the public interest case for a minimum price, Australia's peak preventative health agency recommended against setting one at the present time. The agency was concerned that there was insufficient Australian specific modelling evidence to make robust estimates of the net benefits. Nonetheless, its initial judgement was that it would be difficult for a minimum price to produce benefits for Australia at the national level. Whilst modelling evidence is certainly warranted to support the introduction of the policy, the development and uptake of policy is influenced by more than just empirical evidence. This article considers three potential impediments to minimum pricing: public opinion and misunderstandings or misgivings about the operation of a minimum price; the strength of alcohol industry objections and measures to undercut the minimum price through discounts and promotions; and legal obstacles including competition and trade law. The analysis of these factors is situated in an Australian context, but has salience internationally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Distribution of the Sample Minimum-Variance Frontier

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Kan; Daniel R. Smith

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a finite sample analysis of the sample minimum-variance frontier under the assumption that the returns are independent and multivariate normally distributed. We show that the sample minimum-variance frontier is a highly biased estimator of the population frontier, and we propose an improved estimator of the population frontier. In addition, we provide the exact distribution of the out-of-sample mean and variance of sample minimum-variance portfolios. This allows us t...

  5. Minimum Wages and Teen Employment: A Spatial Panel Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Charlene Kalenkoski; Donald Lacombe

    2011-01-01

    The authors employ spatial econometrics techniques and Annual Averages data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for 1990-2004 to examine how changes in the minimum wage affect teen employment. Spatial econometrics techniques account for the fact that employment is correlated across states. Such correlation may exist if a change in the minimum wage in a state affects employment not only in its own state but also in other, neighboring states. The authors show that state minimum wages negat...

  6. Minimum Wages and the Distribution of Family Incomes

    OpenAIRE

    Dube, Arindrajit

    2017-01-01

    Using the March Current Population Survey data from 1984 to 2013, I provide a comprehensive evaluation of how minimum wage policies influence the distribution of family incomes. I find robust evidence that higher minimum wages shift down the cumulative distribution of family incomes at the bottom, reducing the share of non-elderly individuals with incomes below 50, 75, 100, and 125 percent of the federal poverty threshold. The long run (3 or more years) minimum wage elasticity of the non-elde...

  7. Minimum Distance Estimation on Time Series Analysis With Little Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tekin, Hakan

    2001-01-01

    .... Minimum distance estimation has been demonstrated better standard approaches, including maximum likelihood estimators and least squares, in estimating statistical distribution parameters with very small data sets...

  8. Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2015-11-19

    We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees is approximately equal to 8.548×10^326365), has also minimum depth. Both problems were considered by Knuth (1998). To obtain these results, we use tools based on extensions of dynamic programming which allow us to make sequential optimization of decision trees relative to depth and average depth, and to count the number of decision trees with minimum average depth.

  9. The influence of titanium dioxide additive on the short-term DC breakdown strength of polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M. S; Henk, Peter O; Henriksen, Mogens

    1990-01-01

    , with hemispherically tipped cylindrical electrodes completely embedded in the material, with a minimum gap length between the electrode tips of 0.25 mm. All tests were conducted at room temperature. Results indicate that, although the addition of TiO2 reduces the DC breakdown strength of the doped material if compared...

  10. Thermomechanical processing of 5083 aluminum to increase strength without increasing susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edstrom, C.M.; Blakeslee, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    5083 aluminium with 25% cold work must be processed above 215 0 C or below 70 0 C to avoid forming continuous precipitate in the grain boundaries which makes the material susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Time at temperature above 215 0 C should be held to minimum (less than 30 min) to retain some strength from the 25% cold work

  11. Training and minimum wages: first evidence from the introduction of the minimum wage in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bellmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyze the short-run impact of the introduction of the new statutory minimum wage in Germany on further training at the workplace level. Applying difference-in-difference methods to data from the IAB Establishment Panel, we do not find a reduction in the training incidence but a slight reduction in the intensity of training at treated establishments. Effect heterogeneities reveal that the negative impact is mostly driven by employer-financed training. On the worker level, we observe a reduction of training for medium- and high-skilled employees but no significant effects on the training of low-skilled employees.

  12. Minimum weight protection - Gradient method; Protection de poids minimum - Methode du gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danon, R.

    1958-12-15

    After having recalled that, when considering a mobile installation, total weight has a crucial importance, and that, in the case of a nuclear reactor, a non neglectable part of weight is that of protection, this note presents an iterative method which results, for a given protection, to a configuration with a minimum weight. After a description of the problem, the author presents the theoretical formulation of the gradient method as it is applied to the concerned case. This application is then discussed, as well as its validity in terms of convergence and uniqueness. Its actual application is then reported, and possibilities of practical applications are evoked.

  13. Minimum weight design of inhomogeneous rotating discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahed, Hamid; Farshi, Behrooz; Bidabadi, Jalal

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous applications for gas turbine discs in the aerospace industry such as in turbojet engines. These discs normally work under high temperatures while subjected to high angular velocities. Minimizing the weight of such items in aerospace applications results in benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. High speed of rotation causes large centrifugal forces in a disc and simultaneous application of high temperatures reduces disc material strength. Thus, the latter effects tend to increase deformations of the disc under the applied loads. In order to obtain a reliable disc analysis and arrive at the corresponding correct stress distribution, solutions should consider changes in material properties due to the temperature field throughout the disc. To achieve this goal, an inhomogeneous disc model with variable thickness is considered. Using the variable material properties method, stresses are obtained for the disc under rotation and a steady temperature field. In this paper this is done by modelling the rotating disc as a series of rings of different but constant properties. The optimum disc profile is arrived at by sequentially proportioning the thicknesses of each ring to satisfy the stress requirements. This method vis-a-vis a mathematical programming procedure for optimization shows several advantages. Firstly, it is simple iterative proportioning in each design cycle not requiring involved mathematical operations. Secondly, due to its simplicity it alleviates the necessity of certain simplifications that are common in so-called rigorous mathematical procedures. The results obtained, compared to those published in the literature show agreement and superiority. A further advantage of the proposed method is the independence of the end results from the initially assumed point in the iterative design routine, unlike most methods published so far

  14. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  15. Strength Training and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in organized sports or activities such as baseball, soccer, or gymnastics usually can safely to start strength ... as biking and running, adequate hydration, and healthy nutrition. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  16. Characteristics of structural loess strength and preliminary framework for joint strength formula

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-jian Li; Jun-ding Liu; Rui Yan; Wen Zheng; Sheng-jun Shao

    2014-01-01

    The strength of structural loess consists of the shear strength and tensile strength. In this study, the stress path, the failure envelope of principal stress (Kf line), and the strength failure envelope of structurally intact loess and remolded loess were analyzed through three kinds of tests: the tensile strength test, the uniaxial compressive strength test, and the conventional triaxial shear strength test. Then, in order to describe the tensile strength and shear strength of structural lo...

  17. MEDOF - MINIMUM EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OPTIMAL FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter program, MEDOF, generates filters for use in optical correlators. The algorithm implemented in MEDOF follows theory put forth by Richard D. Juday of NASA/JSC. This program analytically optimizes filters on arbitrary spatial light modulators such as coupled, binary, full complex, and fractional 2pi phase. MEDOF optimizes these modulators on a number of metrics including: correlation peak intensity at the origin for the centered appearance of the reference image in the input plane, signal to noise ratio including the correlation detector noise as well as the colored additive input noise, peak to correlation energy defined as the fraction of the signal energy passed by the filter that shows up in the correlation spot, and the peak to total energy which is a generalization of PCE that adds the passed colored input noise to the input image's passed energy. The user of MEDOF supplies the functions that describe the following quantities: 1) the reference signal, 2) the realizable complex encodings of both the input and filter SLM, 3) the noise model, possibly colored, as it adds at the reference image and at the correlation detection plane, and 4) the metric to analyze, here taken to be one of the analytical ones like SNR (signal to noise ratio) or PCE (peak to correlation energy) rather than peak to secondary ratio. MEDOF calculates filters for arbitrary modulators and a wide range of metrics as described above. MEDOF examines the statistics of the encoded input image's noise (if SNR or PCE is selected) and the filter SLM's (Spatial Light Modulator) available values. These statistics are used as the basis of a range for searching for the magnitude and phase of k, a pragmatically based complex constant for computing the filter transmittance from the electric field. The filter is produced for the mesh points in those ranges and the value of the metric that results from these points is computed. When the search is concluded, the

  18. Six months into Myanmar's minimum wage: Reflecting on progress ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... Participants examined recent results from an IDRC-funded enterprise survey, ... of a minimum wage, and how they have coped with the new situation.” ... Debate on the impact of minimum wages on employment continues ...

  19. The impact of minimum wages on youth employment in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Pereira

    2003-01-01

    textabstractFrom January 1, 1987, the legal minimum wage for workers aged 18 and 19 in Portugal was uprated to the full adult rate, generating a 49.3% increase between 1986 and 1987 in the legal minimum wage for this age group. This shock is used as a ?natural experiment? to evaluate the impact of

  20. The Impact Of Minimum Wage On Employment Level And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work has been carried out to analyze the critical impact of minimum wage of employment level and productivity in Nigeria. A brief literature on wage and its determination was highlighted. Models on minimum wage effect are being look into. This includes research work done by different economist analyzing it ...

  1. 42 CFR 84.134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.134... Respirators § 84.134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Supplied-air respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type and...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section each respirator shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container...

  3. 42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type and...

  4. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.174... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except..., durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type of respirator it contains...

  5. 42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. 84.74...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. (a) Apparatus may be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...

  6. 14 CFR 91.155 - Basic VFR weather minimums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic VFR weather minimums. 91.155 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Visual Flight Rules § 91.155 Basic VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section and...

  7. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that CMS considers appropriate to reduce, control or eliminate start-up administrative costs. (b) After... section. (c) Calculation of the minimum net worth amount—(1) Cash requirement. (i) At the time of application, the organization must maintain at least $750,000 of the minimum net worth amount in cash or cash...

  8. 7 CFR 1610.5 - Minimum Bank loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum Bank loan. 1610.5 Section 1610.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.5 Minimum Bank loan. A Bank loan will not be made unless the applicant qualifies for a Bank...

  9. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year... subject to its child labor provisions, with certain exceptions not applicable here. (b) 18-year minimum... occupation found and declared by the Secretary of Labor to be particularly hazardous for the employment of...

  10. 76 FR 15368 - Minimum Security Devices and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Minimum Security Devices and Procedures... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Minimum Security Devices and Procedures... security devices and procedures to discourage robberies, burglaries, and larcenies, and to assist in the...

  11. 76 FR 30243 - Minimum Security Devices and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Minimum Security Devices and Procedures.... Title of Proposal: Minimum Security Devices and Procedures. OMB Number: 1550-0062. Form Number: N/A... respect to the installation, maintenance, and operation of security devices and procedures to discourage...

  12. 12 CFR 567.2 - Minimum regulatory capital requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum regulatory capital requirement. 567.2... Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.2 Minimum regulatory capital requirement. (a) To meet its regulatory capital requirement a savings association must satisfy each of the following capital standards: (1) Risk...

  13. Minimum bias measurement at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, Nicola; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes and to simulate the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (pile-up). We summarise the ATLAS minimum bias measurements with proton-proton collision at 13 TeV center-of-mass-energy at the Large Hadron Collider.

  14. Solving the minimum flow problem with interval bounds and flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... with crisp data. In this paper, the idea of Ghiyasvand was extended for solving the minimum flow problem with interval-valued lower, upper bounds and flows. This problem can be solved using two minimum flow problems with crisp data. Then, this result is extended to networks with fuzzy lower, upper bounds and flows.

  15. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205 Section 25.205 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station...

  16. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement...

  17. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... should have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure; excellent control... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE...

  18. Minimum Competencies in Undergraduate Motor Development. Guidance Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The minimum competency guidelines in Motor Development described herein at the undergraduate level may be gained in one or more motor development course(s) or through other courses provided in an undergraduate curriculum. The minimum guidelines include: (1) Formulation of a developmental perspective; (2) Knowledge of changes in motor behavior…

  19. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's gloves) worn while handling high-voltage trailing cables shall be rated at least 20,000 volts and shall...

  20. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a substantial...

  1. State cigarette minimum price laws - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Cigarette price increases reduce the demand for cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and youth initiation of smoking. Excise tax increases are the most effective government intervention to increase the price of cigarettes, but cigarette manufacturers use trade discounts, coupons, and other promotions to counteract the effects of these tax increases and appeal to price-sensitive smokers. State cigarette minimum price laws, initiated by states in the 1940s and 1950s to protect tobacco retailers from predatory business practices, typically require a minimum percentage markup to be added to the wholesale and/or retail price. If a statute prohibits trade discounts from the minimum price calculation, these laws have the potential to counteract discounting by cigarette manufacturers. To assess the status of cigarette minimum price laws in the United States, CDC surveyed state statutes and identified those states with minimum price laws in effect as of December 31, 2009. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which determined that 25 states had minimum price laws for cigarettes (median wholesale markup: 4.00%; median retail markup: 8.00%), and seven of those states also expressly prohibited the use of trade discounts in the minimum retail price calculation. Minimum price laws can help prevent trade discounting from eroding the positive effects of state excise tax increases and higher cigarette prices on public health.

  2. Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees

  3. 30 CFR 18.97 - Inspection of machines; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of machines; minimum requirements... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Field Approval of Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.97 Inspection of machines; minimum...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5330 - Minimum surplus ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum surplus ratios. 615.5330 Section 615.5330 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5330 Minimum...

  5. 19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. 144.33 Section 144.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Warehouse § 144.33 Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. Unless by special authority of the Commissioner of...

  6. The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina

    Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...

  7. Minimum Moduli in Von Neumann Algebras | Gopalraj | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we answer a question raised in [12] in the affirmative, namely that the essential minimum modulus of an element in a von. Neumann algebra, relative to any norm closed two-sided ideal, is equal to the minimum modulus of the element perturbed by an element from the ideal. As a corollary of this result, we ...

  8. 12 CFR 932.8 - Minimum liquidity requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum liquidity requirements. 932.8 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.8 Minimum liquidity requirements. In addition to meeting the deposit liquidity requirements contained in § 965.3 of this chapter, each Bank...

  9. Is a Minimum Wage an Appropriate Instrument for Redistribution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.F. Gerritsen (Aart); B. Jacobs (Bas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the redistributional (dis)advantages of a minimum wage over income taxation in competitive labor markets, without imposing assumptions on the (in)efficiency of labor rationing. Compared to a distributionally equivalent tax change, a minimum-wage increase raises involuntary

  10. The Minimum Wage and the Employment of Teenagers. Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallick, Bruce; Currie, Janet

    A study used individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine the effects of changes in the federal minimum wage on teenage employment. Individuals in the sample were classified as either likely or unlikely to be affected by these increases in the federal minimum wage on the basis of their wage rates and industry of…

  11. The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James

    2008-01-01

    Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…

  12. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  13. Do minimum wages reduce poverty? Evidence from Central America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In all three countries, these multiple minimum wages are negotiated among representatives of the central government, labour unions and the chambers of commerce. Minimum wage legislation applies to all private-sector employees, but in all three countries a large part of the work force is self-employed or works as unpaid ...

  14. Thermal cyclic strength of molybdenum monocrystal at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strizhalo, V.A.; Uskov, E.I.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the thermocyclic creep and low-cycle fatigue of a molybdenum single crystal are discussed. The strength of a molybdenum single crystal under nonisothermal stressing has been investigated by using two different regimes of temperature and load variation. The temperature limits of the cycle were the same for the two testing regimes, the maximum temperature being 1700degC and the minimum 350degC. At higher temperatures (above 1500degC) the short-term strength of single-crystal molybdenum is comparable with that of commercial molybdenum and the refractory alloys, while the ductility is considerably higher. It should be noted that the failure of single-crystal molybdenum under rigid alternating loading is preceded by intensive distortion of the specimen, owing to directional cyclic creep of the metal in zones of bulging and thinning

  15. Mixture proportioning of fly ash-concretes based on mortar strength and flow data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusrat, A.; Tahir, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    A method of mixture proportioning of fly ash concretes is presented. The method is based on the strength and flow data of a minimum of nine fly ash-cement mortars. The essence of the method is that three fly ash-binder ratios are to be combined with three water-binder ratios in the range of interest. The strength and water demand data are analyzed for constructing mixture proportion charts. The strength vs. water-binder ratio charts are prepared by down-scaling the 50-mm mortar strength to the 150-mm standard concrete cylinders. The method is illustrated with the help of examples. The trial mixtures proportioned using the proposed methods have reasonably achieved the 28 day target strengths. (author)

  16. Minimum Variance Portfolios in the Brazilian Equity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rubesam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate minimum variance portfolios in the Brazilian equity market using different methods to estimate the covariance matrix, from the simple model of using the sample covariance to multivariate GARCH models. We compare the performance of the minimum variance portfolios to those of the following benchmarks: (i the IBOVESPA equity index, (ii an equally-weighted portfolio, (iii the maximum Sharpe ratio portfolio and (iv the maximum growth portfolio. Our results show that the minimum variance portfolio has higher returns with lower risk compared to the benchmarks. We also consider long-short 130/30 minimum variance portfolios and obtain similar results. The minimum variance portfolio invests in relatively few stocks with low βs measured with respect to the IBOVESPA index, being easily replicable by individual and institutional investors alike.

  17. Reducing tobacco use and access through strengthened minimum price laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Ian; Pearson, Anne; Laird-Metke, Elisa; Ribisl, Kurt

    2014-10-01

    Higher prices reduce consumption and initiation of tobacco products. A minimum price law that establishes a high statutory minimum price and prohibits the industry's discounting tactics for tobacco products is a promising pricing strategy as an alternative to excise tax increases. Although some states have adopted minimum price laws on the basis of statutorily defined price "markups" over the invoice price, existing state laws have been largely ineffective at increasing the retail price. We analyzed 3 new variations of minimum price laws that hold great potential for raising tobacco prices and reducing consumption: (1) a flat rate minimum price law similar to a recent enactment in New York City, (2) an enhanced markup law, and (3) a law that incorporates both elements.

  18. The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina

    Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...... wage inequality is increased in the informal sectors. Overall, the minimum wages decrease national wage inequality. Our estimates indicate a decrease in the wage distribution Gini coefficient of about 2 percentage points and an increase in the 10/50 wage ratio of 5-7 percentage points caused...... by the adjustment of the minimum wages from 2011to 2012 that levelled the minimum wage across economic sectors....

  19. Reactive Strength Index: A Poor Indicator of Reactive Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Robin; Kenny, Ian; Harrison, Drew

    2017-11-28

    The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0.3 m box onto a force platform with dependent variables contact time (CT), landing time (TLand), push-off time (TPush), flight time (FT), jump height (JH), reactive strength index (RSI, calculated as JH / CT), reactive strength ratio (RSR, calculated as FT / CT) and vertical leg spring stiffness (Kvert) recorded. Pearson's correlation test found very high to near perfect relationships between RSI and RSR (r = 0.91 to 0.97), with mixed relationships found between RSI, RSR and the key performance variables, (Men: r = -0.86 to -0.71 between RSI/RSR and CT, r = 0.80 to 0.92 between RSI/RSR and JH; Women: r = -0.85 to -0.56 between RSR and CT, r = 0.71 between RSI and JH). This study demonstrates that the method of assessing reactive strength (RSI versus RSR) may be influenced by the performance strategies adopted i.e. whether an athlete achieves their best reactive strength scores via low CTs, high JHs or a combination. Coaches are advised to limit the variability in performance strategies by implementing upper and / or lower CT thresholds to accurately compare performances between individuals.

  20. Teaching the Minimum Wage in Econ 101 in Light of the New Economics of the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Alan B.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the recent controversy over the effect of the minimum wage on employment offers an opportunity for teaching introductory economics. Examines eight textbooks to determine topic coverage but finds little consensus. Describes how minimum wage effects should be taught. (RLH)

  1. Reliability of isometric subtalar pronator and supinator strength testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Marco; Lahner, Matthias; Winhuysen, Martin; Maiwald, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Due to the specific anatomy of the subtalar joint with its oblique axis, isometric pronator and supinator strength is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to determine intra- and between-session reliability of pronator and supinator strength and lower leg muscle activity measurements during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC). Pronator and supinator peak torques (PT), with and without supplementary visual muscle strength biofeedback (FB), and muscular activities of peroneus longus (PL) and tibialis anterior (TA) were assessed twice 3 days apart by the same examiner in 21 healthy young male adults (mean age: 27.6 years; SD = 3.9). Limits of agreement (LoA) and minimum detectable change (MDC) were evaluated. By applying FB, reliability of both pronator and supinator PT was improved: LoA were reduced from 32% to 26% and from 20% to 18% and MDC from 20% to 15% and from 16% to 12% in supinator and pronator PT, respectively. Learning effects in pronator and supinator PT (p isometric subtalar pronator and supinator strength testing is reliable in healthy subjects. LoA of 18% and 26% have to be exceeded for pronator and supinator PT, respectively, to detect relevant effects in repeated measures.

  2. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  3. Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion behavior of high strength AA7075 aluminium alloy friction stir welds – Effect of post weld heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijaya Kumar

    2015-12-01

    It was observed that the hardness and strength of weld were observed to be comparatively high in peak aged (T6 condition but the welds showed poor corrosion resistance. The resistance to pitting corrosion was improved and the mechanical properties were maintained by RRA treatment. The resistance to pitting corrosion was improved in RRA condition with the minimum loss of weld strength.

  4. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  5. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S.; Abrams, Laura S.; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one. Paper type Conceptual paper PMID:28299968

  6. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  7. Strength and life under creeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospishil, B.

    1982-01-01

    Certain examples of the application of the Lepin modified creep model, which are of interest from technical viewpoint, are presented. Mathematical solution of the dependence of strength limit at elevated temperatures on creep characteristics is obtained. Tensile test at elevated temperatures is a particular case of creep or relaxation and both strength limit and conventional yield strength at elevated temperatures are completely determined by parameters of state equations during creep. The equation of fracture summing during creep is confirmed not only by the experiment data when stresses change sporadically, but also by good reflection of durability curve using the system of equations. The system presented on the basis of parameters of the equations obtained on any part of durability curve, permits to forecast the following parameters of creep: strain, strain rate, life time, strain in the process of fracture. Tensile test at elevated temperature is advisable as an addition when determining creep curves (time-strain curves) [ru

  8. Withdrawal Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that stainless steel nails have superior corrosion performance compared to carbon steel or galvanized nails in treated wood; however, their mechanical fastening behavior is unknown. In this paper, the performance of stainless steel nails is examined with respect to two important properties used in wood connection design: withdrawal strength...

  9. Design of a minimum emittance nBA lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Y.

    1998-04-01

    An attempt to design a minimum emittance n-bend achromat (nBA) lattice has been made. One distinct feature is that dipoles with two different lengths were used. As a multiple bend achromat, five bend achromat lattices with six superperiod were designed. The obtained emittace is three times larger than the theoretical minimum. Tunes were chosen to avoid third order resonances. In order to correct first and second order chromaticities, eight family sextupoles were placed. The obtained emittance of five bend achromat lattices is almost equal to the minimum emittance of five bend achromat lattice consisting of dipoles with equal length.

  10. [Hospitals failing minimum volumes in 2004: reasons and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, M; Kühnen, C; Cruppé, W de; Blum, K; Ohmann, C

    2008-02-01

    In 2004 Germany introduced annual minimum volumes nationwide on five surgical procedures: kidney, liver, stem cell transplantation, complex oesophageal, and pancreatic interventions. Hospitals that fail to reach the minimum volumes are no longer allowed to perform the respective procedures unless they raise one of eight legally accepted exceptions. The goal of our study was to investigate how many hospitals fell short of the minimum volumes in 2004, whether and how this was justified, and whether hospitals that failed the requirements experienced any consequences. We analysed data on meeting the minimum volume requirements in 2004 that all German hospitals were obliged to publish as part of their biannual structured quality reports. We performed telephone interviews: a) with all hospitals not achieving the minimum volumes for complex oesophageal, and pancreatic interventions, and b) with the national umbrella organisations of all German sickness funds. In 2004, one quarter of all German acute care hospitals (N=485) performed 23,128 procedures where minimum volumes applied. 197 hospitals (41%) did not meet at least one of the minimum volumes. These hospitals performed N=715 procedures (3.1%) where the minimum volumes were not met. In 43% of these cases the hospitals raised legally accepted exceptions. In 33% of the cases the hospitals argued using reasons that were not legally acknowledged. 69% of those hospitals that failed to achieve the minimum volumes for complex oesophageal and pancreatic interventions did not experience any consequences from the sickness funds. However, one third of those hospitals reported that the sickness funds addressed the issue and partially announced consequences for the future. The sickness funds' umbrella organisations stated that there were only sparse activities related to the minimum volumes and that neither uniform registrations nor uniform proceedings in case of infringements of the standards had been agreed upon. In spite of the

  11. On the road again: traffic fatalities and auto insurance minimums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Yakovlev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on policy-induced moral hazard effects in the auto insurance market has focused on the impact of compulsory insurance, no-fault liability, and tort liability laws on traffic fatalities. In contrast, this paper examines the moral hazard effect of a previously overlooked policy variable: minimum auto insurance coverage. We hypothesize that state-mandated auto insurance minimums may “over-insure” some drivers, lowering their incentives to drive carefully. Using a longitudinal panel of American states from 1982 to 2006, we find that policy-induced increases in auto insurance minimums are associated with higher traffic fatality rates, ceteris paribus.

  12. Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas Seidelin

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine...... the minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques...

  13. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and

  14. Minimum Wages and Regional Disparity: An analysis on the evolution of price-adjusted minimum wages and their effects on firm profitability (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORIKAWA Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper, using prefecture level panel data, empirically analyzes 1) the recent evolution of price-adjusted regional minimum wages and 2) the effects of minimum wages on firm profitability. As a result of rapid increases in minimum wages in the metropolitan areas since 2007, the regional disparity of nominal minimum wages has been widening. However, the disparity of price-adjusted minimum wages has been shrinking. According to the analysis of the effects of minimum wages on profitability us...

  15. Strength Properties of Aalborg Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    glacial time are characterised by the absence of this mussel. These deposits are named Aalborg Clay and Aalborg Sand. In the city of Aalborg, a fill layer superposes Aalborg Clay. This layer is at some places found to be 6m thick. This fill layer does not provide sufficient bearing capacity, which has...... resulted in many damaged buildings in Aalborg. To provide sufficient bearing capacity it is therefore necessary either to remove the fill or to construct the building on piles. Both methods imply that the strength of Aalborg Clay is important for the construction. This paper evaluates the strength...

  16. Topological strength of magnetic skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J.G.G.S.; Rodrigues, E.I.B.

    2017-02-01

    This work deals with magnetic structures that attain integer and half-integer skyrmion numbers. We model and solve the problem analytically, and show how the solutions appear in materials that engender distinct, very specific physical properties, and use them to describe their topological features. In particular, we found a way to model skyrmion with a large transition region correlated with the presence of a two-peak skyrmion number density. Moreover, we run into the issue concerning the topological strength of a vortex-like structure and suggest an experimental realization, important to decide how to modify and measure the topological strength of the magnetic structure.

  17. Development of strength evaluation method for high-pressure ceramic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takegami, Hiroaki, E-mail: takegami.hiroaki@jaea.go.jp; Terada, Atsuhiko; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency is conducting R and D on nuclear hydrogen production by the Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process. Since highly corrosive materials such as sulfuric and hydriodic acids are used in the IS process, it is very important to develop components made of corrosion resistant materials. Therefore, we have been developing a sulfuric acid decomposer made of a ceramic material, that is, silicon carbide (SiC), which shows excellent corrosion resistance to sulfuric acid. One of the key technological challenges for the practical use of a ceramic sulfuric acid decomposer made of SiC is to be licensed in accordance with the High Pressure Gas Safety Act for high-pressure operations of the IS process. Since the strength of a ceramic material depends on its geometric form, etc., the strength evaluation method required for a pressure design is not established. Therefore, we propose a novel strength evaluation method for SiC structures based on the effective volume theory in order to extend the range of application of the effective volume. We also developed a design method for ceramic apparatus with the strength evaluation method in order to obtain a license in accordance with the High Pressure Gas Safety Act. In this paper, the minimum strength of SiC components was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, and the minimum strength evaluation method of SiC components was developed by using the results of simulation. The method was confirmed by fracture test of tube model and reference data.

  18. Robustification and Optimization in Repetitive Control For Minimum Phase and Non-Minimum Phase Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasitmeeboon, Pitcha

    repetitive control FIR compensator. The aim is to reduce the final error level by using real time frequency response model updates to successively increase the cutoff frequency, each time creating the improved model needed to produce convergence zero error up to the higher cutoff. Non-minimum phase systems present a difficult design challenge to the sister field of Iterative Learning Control. The third topic investigates to what extent the same challenges appear in RC. One challenge is that the intrinsic non-minimum phase zero mapped from continuous time is close to the pole of repetitive controller at +1 creating behavior similar to pole-zero cancellation. The near pole-zero cancellation causes slow learning at DC and low frequencies. The Min-Max cost function over the learning rate is presented. The Min-Max can be reformulated as a Quadratically Constrained Linear Programming problem. This approach is shown to be an RC design approach that addresses the main challenge of non-minimum phase systems to have a reasonable learning rate at DC. Although it was illustrated that using the Min-Max objective improves learning at DC and low frequencies compared to other designs, the method requires model accuracy at high frequencies. In the real world, models usually have error at high frequencies. The fourth topic addresses how one can merge the quadratic penalty to the Min-Max cost function to increase robustness at high frequencies. The topic also considers limiting the Min-Max optimization to some frequencies interval and applying an FIR zero-phase low-pass filter to cutoff the learning for frequencies above that interval.

  19. New true-triaxial rock strength criteria considering intrinsic material characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Cheng; Quan, Xiaowei; Wang, Yanning; Yu, Liyuan; Jiang, Binsong

    2018-02-01

    A reasonable strength criterion should reflect the hydrostatic pressure effect, minimum principal stress effect, and intermediate principal stress effect. The former two effects can be described by the meridian curves, and the last one mainly depends on the Lode angle dependence function. Among three conventional strength criteria, i.e. Mohr-Coulomb (MC), Hoek-Brown (HB), and Exponent (EP) criteria, the difference between generalized compression and extension strength of EP criterion experience a firstly increase then decrease process, and tends to be zero when hydrostatic pressure is big enough. This is in accordance with intrinsic rock strength characterization. Moreover, the critical hydrostatic pressure I_c corresponding to the maximum difference of between generalized compression and extension strength can be easily adjusted by minimum principal stress influence parameter K. So, the exponent function is a more reasonable meridian curves, which well reflects the hydrostatic pressure effect and is employed to describe the generalized compression and extension strength. Meanwhile, three Lode angle dependence functions of L_{{MN}}, L_{{WW}}, and L_{{YMH}}, which unconditionally satisfy the convexity and differential requirements, are employed to represent the intermediate principal stress effect. Realizing the actual strength surface should be located between the generalized compression and extension surface, new true-triaxial criteria are proposed by combining the two states of EP criterion by Lode angle dependence function with a same lode angle. The proposed new true-triaxial criteria have the same strength parameters as EP criterion. Finally, 14 groups of triaxial test data are employed to validate the proposed criteria. The results show that the three new true-triaxial exponent criteria, especially the Exponent Willam-Warnke criterion (EPWW) criterion, give much lower misfits, which illustrates that the EP criterion and L_{{WW}} have more reasonable meridian

  20. Labour Market Regulations in China: Minimum Wage Policy | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At the same time, wage and income inequalities have grown significantly and wages have fallen. ... wages are set, and the wages' effects on employment and inequality. ... Impact of minimum wage on gender wage gaps in urban China.

  1. EFFECTS DISTRIBUTIVE THE WAGE MINIMUM IN MARKET OF LABOR CEARENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyciane Coelho Vasconcelos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the contribution of the minimum wage (MW for the devolution of income from the labor market at Ceará in the period 2002-2012. This research was based on National Sample Survey (PNAD of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE.It was used the simulation methodology proposed in DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996 from the estimated counterfactual Kernel density functions. The simulations were performed for females and males. The results revealed by the decompositions than the minimum wage, the degree of formalization and the personal attributes had impacts not concentrators to workers female and male. However, for women, the de-concentrating effect of the minimum wage is more intense in the sample compared to men. In summary, the simulations indicate the importance of the minimum wage to reduce the dispersion of labor income in recent years.

  2. Minimum uncertainty and squeezing in diffusion processes and stochastic quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartino, S.; Desiena, S.; Illuminati, Fabrizo; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    1994-01-01

    We show that uncertainty relations, as well as minimum uncertainty coherent and squeezed states, are structural properties for diffusion processes. Through Nelson stochastic quantization we derive the stochastic image of the quantum mechanical coherent and squeezed states.

  3. Appearance of minimum on the curve of cerium melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguslavskij, Yu.Ya.; Grigor'ev, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown by means of simple and obvious thermodynamical considerations that the reduced stability line continues up to the solid phase boundary. The existence of this line causes the appearance of minimum on the fcc cerium melting curve

  4. Parameterization of ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2016-03-15

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different power functions of the arguments. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles, minimum yields, effects on half-angles and minimum yields of amorphous overlayers. The program can calculate these half-angles and minimum yields for 〈u v w〉 axes and [h k l] planes up to (5 5 5). The program is open source and available at (http://www.sandia.gov/pcnsc/departments/iba/ibatable.html).

  5. Solving Minimum Cost Multi-Commodity Network Flow Problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-23

    Mar 23, 2018 ... network-based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile ... Minimum Cost Network Flow Problem (MCNFP) and some ..... Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic. Incident ... Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Surveying &.

  6. Allocation of optimal distributed generation using GA for minimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    quality of supply and reliability in tern extending equipment maintenance intervals and ... The performance of the method is tested on 33-bus test system and ... minimum real power losses of the system by calculating DG size at different buses.

  7. Suggested benchmarks for shape optimization for minimum stress concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli

    2008-01-01

    Shape optimization for minimum stress concentration is vital, important, and difficult. New formulations and numerical procedures imply the need for good benchmarks. The available analytical shape solutions rely on assumptions that are seldom satisfied, so here, we suggest alternative benchmarks...

  8. Decoding Reed-Solomon Codes beyond half the minimum distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    1999-01-01

    We describe an efficient implementation of M.Sudan"s algorithm for decoding Reed-Solomon codes beyond half the minimum distance. Furthermore we calculate an upper bound of the probabilty of getting more than one codeword as output...

  9. USING GENETIC ALGORTIHM TO SOLVE STEINER MINIMUM SPANNING TREE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur İŞÇİ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA are a stochastic research methods, and they produce solutions that are close to optimum or near optimum. In addition to GA's successful application to traveling salesman problem, square designation, allocation, workshop table, preparation of lesson/examination schedules, planning of communication networks, assembling line balanced, minimum spanning tree type many combinatorial optimization problems it would be applicable to make the best comparison in optimization. In this study a Java program is developed to solve Steiner minimum spanning tree problem by genetic algorithm and its performance is examined. According to the tests carried out on the problems that were given before in the literature, results that are close to optimum are obtained in by GA approach that is recommended in this study. For the predetermined points in the study, length and gain are calculated for Steiner minimum spanning tree problem and minimum spanning tree problem.

  10. Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS) is a comprehensive assessment and care planning process used by the nursing home industry since 1990 as...

  11. The debate on the economic effects of minimum wage legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Miguel Ruesga-Benito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The minimum wage establishment has its origin in the first third of the last century. Since its creation has been a focus of continuing controversy and an unfinished debate on economics field. This work reviews the effects of the minimum wage on employment and other macroeconomic variables, from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. The method is based on the revision of the literature and the main economic indicators. The central contribution of this paper is providing a general reflection on theoretical and empirical analysis about the debate on minimum wage and its effects. The results showed that some labor policies are taking account the effects of austerity strategies, shifting the attention towards the implementation of minimum wages or their updating, in order to reduce the growing inequalities in the distribution of income, and even poverty levels.

  12. 77 FR 76979 - Pesticides; Revisions to Minimum Risk Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... industries such as animal feed (NAICS code 311119), cosmetics (NAICS code 325620), and soap and detergents... reporting of production to EPA. To meet the criteria for the minimum risk exemption, a pesticide must...

  13. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, J.W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sitas, N.; Baulcomb, C.; Lambini, C.K.; Rawlins, M.; Baral, H.; Zähringer, J.; Carter-Silk, E.; Balzan, M.V.; Kenter, J.O.; Häyhä, T.; Petz, K.; Koss, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an

  14. Polynomial expansions and transition strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is statistical spectroscopy applied to determining strengths and strength sums of excitation processes in nuclei. The focus will be on a ds-shell isoscalar E2 study with detailed shell-model results providing the standard for comparison; similar results are available for isovector E2 and M1 and E4 transitions as well as for single-particle transfer and ν +- decay. The present study is intended to serve as a tutorial for applications where shell-model calculations are not feasible. The problem is posed and a schematic theory for strengths and sums is presented. The theory is extended to include the effect of correlations between H, the system Hamiltonian, and theta, the excitation operator. Associated with correlation measures is a geometry that can be used to anticipate the goodness of a symmetry. This is illustrated for pseudo SU(3) in the fp-shell. Some conclusions about fluctuations and collectivity that one can deduce from the statistical results for strengths are presented

  15. On strength of porous material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1999-01-01

    The question of non-destructive testing of porous materials has always been of interest for the engineering profession. A number of empirically based MOE-MOR relations between stiffness (Modulus Of Elasticity) and strength (Modulus OF Rupture) of materials have been established in order to control...

  16. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an assess...

  17. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  18. Strength training for the warfighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K

    2012-07-01

    Optimizing strength training for the warfighter is challenged by past training philosophies that no longer serve the modern warfighter facing the "anaerobic battlefield." Training approaches for integration of strength with other needed physical capabilities have been shown to require a periodization model that has the flexibility for changes and is able to adapt to ever-changing circumstances affecting the quality of workouts. Additionally, sequencing of workouts to limit over-reaching and development of overtraining syndromes that end in loss of duty time and injury are paramount to long-term success. Allowing adequate time for rest and recovery and recognizing the negative influences of extreme exercise programs and excessive endurance training will be vital in moving physical training programs into a more modern perspective as used by elite strength-power anaerobic athletes in sports today. Because the warfighter is an elite athlete, it is time that training approaches that are scientifically based are updated within the military to match the functional demands of modern warfare and are given greater credence and value at the command levels. A needs analysis, development of periodized training modules, and individualization of programs are needed to optimize the strength of the modern warfighter. We now have the knowledge, professional coaches and nonprofit organization certifications with continuing education units, and modern training technology to allow this to happen. Ultimately, it only takes command decisions and implementation to make this possible.

  19. Modeling of Sylgard Adhesive Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Ralph Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-03

    Sylgard is the name of a silicone elastomeric potting material manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation.1 Although the manufacturer cites its low adhesive strength as a feature of this product, thin layers of Sylgard do in fact have a non-negligible strength, which has been measured in recent tensile and shear debonding tests. The adhesive strength of thin layers of Sylgard potting material can be important in applications in which components having signi cantly di erent thermal expansion properties are potted together, and the potted assembly is subjected to temperature changes. The tensile and shear tractions developed on the potted surfaces of the components can cause signi cant internal stresses, particularly for components made of low-strength materials with a high area-to-volume ratio. This report is organized as follows: recent Sylgard debonding tests are rst brie y summarized, with particular attention to the adhesion between Sylgard and PBX 9501, and also between Sylgard and aluminum. Next, the type of numerical model that will be used to simulate the debonding behavior exhibited in these tests is described. Then the calibration of the debonding model will be illustrated. Finally, the method by which the model parameters are adjusted (scaled) to be applicable to other, non- tested bond thicknesses is summarized, and all parameters of the model (scaled and unscaled) are presented so that other investigators can reproduce all of the simulations described in this report as well as simulations of the application of interest.

  20. Minimum emittance of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source

    CERN Document Server

    Shoji, Y

    1999-01-01

    Theoretically achievable minimum emittances of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source are calculated. The rings discussed in this paper consist of isochronus and achromatic bending cells, isochronus TBA (triple bend achromat) cells with negative dispersion, isochronus TBA cells with inverse bends or isochronus QBA (four bend achromat) cells. We show that the minimum emittances of these rings are roughly 2 or 3 times of those of the optimized non-isochronus rings.

  1. Great expectations: Reservation wages and the minimum wage reform

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorets, Alexandra; Filatov, Alexey; Shupe, Cortnie

    2018-01-01

    We use the German Socio-Economic Panel to show that introducing a high-impact statutory minimum wage causes an increase in reservation wages of approximately 4 percent at the low end of the distribution. The shifts in reservation wages and observed wages due to the minimum wage reform are comparable in their magnitude. Additional results show that German citizens adjust their reservation wages more than immigrants. Moreover, suggestive evidence points to a compensation mechanism in which immi...

  2. Pay equity, minimum wage and equality at work

    OpenAIRE

    Rubery, Jill

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the underlying causes of pay discrimination embedded within the organization of the labour market and structures of pay and reward. Discusses the need to focus on pay equity as part of a general strategy of promoting equity and decent work and examines the case for using minimum wage policies in comparison to more targeted equal pay policies to reduce gender pay equity. Identifies potential obstacles to or support for such policies and describes experiences of the use of minimum wages...

  3. A method for minimum risk portfolio optimization under hybrid uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Yu E.; Yazenin, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate a minimum risk portfolio model under hybrid uncertainty when the profitability of financial assets is described by fuzzy random variables. According to Feng, the variance of a portfolio is defined as a crisp value. To aggregate fuzzy information the weakest (drastic) t-norm is used. We construct an equivalent stochastic problem of the minimum risk portfolio model and specify the stochastic penalty method for solving it.

  4. A Minimum Spanning Tree Representation of Anime Similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Canggih Puspo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new way to represent Japanese animation (anime) is presented. We applied a minimum spanning tree to show the relation between anime. The distance between anime is calculated through three similarity measurements, namely crew, score histogram, and topic similarities. Finally, the centralities are also computed to reveal the most significance anime. The result shows that the minimum spanning tree can be used to determine the similarity anime. Furthermore, by using centralities c...

  5. Energy and environmental norms on Minimum Vital Flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maran, S.

    2008-01-01

    By the end of the year will come into force the recommendations on Minimum Vital flow and operators of hydroelectric power plants will be required to make available part of water of their derivations in order to protect river ecosystems. In this article the major energy and environmental consequences of these rules, we report some quantitative evaluations and are discusses the proposals for overcoming the weaknesses of the approach in the estimation of Minimum Vital Flux [it

  6. Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lian-en

    1984-01-01

    Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water: An attempt is made to obtain shallow-water optimal ship forms for total resistance by means of "tent" function representation under the constraints that the main dimensions of the ship and the water-line area were kept constant. The objective function in the quadratic programming is the sum of wave-making resistance calculated by Sretenski's formula and viscou...

  7. MINIMUM BRACING STIFFNESS FOR MULTI-COLUMN SYSTEMS: THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    ARISTIZÁBAL-OCHOA, J. DARÍO

    2011-01-01

    A method that determines the minimum bracing stiffness required by a multi-column elastic system to achieve non-sway buckling conditions is proposed. Equations that evaluate the required minimum stiffness of the lateral and torsional bracings and the corresponding “braced" critical buckling load for each column of the story level are derived using the modified stability functions. The following effects are included: 1) the types of end connections (rigid, semirigid, and simple); 2) the bluepr...

  8. Colacium Minimum (Euglenophyta, A New Epiphytic Species For Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołowski Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colacium minimum Fott & Komárek, known so far from a few localities in Central Europe (Czech Republic, is reported here for the first time from Asia (Thailand. This epiphytic species was found growing on eight taxa of loricated euglenoids. The process of surface colonization of Trachelomonas Ehrenb. and Strombomonas Deflandre taxa by C. minimum in natural populations is briefly discussed and originally documented using LM and SEM.

  9. A theory of compliance with minimum wage legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce firm heterogeneity in the context of a model of non-compliance with minimum wage legislation. The introduction of heterogeneity in the ease with which firms can be monitored for non compliance allows us to show that non-compliance will persist in sectors which are relatively difficult to monitor, despite the government implementing non stochastic monitoring. Moreover, we show that the incentive not to comply is an increasing function of the level of the minimum wag...

  10. Towards a mathematical foundation of minimum-variance theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianfeng [COGS, Sussex University, Brighton (United Kingdom); Zhang Kewei [SMS, Sussex University, Brighton (United Kingdom); Wei Gang [Mathematical Department, Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2002-08-30

    The minimum-variance theory which accounts for arm and eye movements with noise signal inputs was proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4). Here we present a detailed theoretical analysis of the theory and analytical solutions of the theory are obtained. Furthermore, we propose a new version of the minimum-variance theory, which is more realistic for a biological system. For the new version we show numerically that the variance is considerably reduced. (author)

  11. Minimum Wage Policy and Country’s Technical Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Mohd Zaini Abd; Chan, Sok-Gee; Hassan, Sallahuddin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the government has decided that Malaysia would introduce a minimum wage policy. However, some quarters argued against the idea of a nationwide minimum wage asserting that it will lead to an increase in the cost of doing business and thus will hurt Malaysian competitiveness. Although standard economic theory unambiguously implies that wage floors have a negative impact on employment, the existing empirical literature is not so clear. Some studies have found the expected negative impa...

  12. The Einstein-Hilbert gravitation with minimum length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, H. L. C.

    2018-05-01

    We study the Einstein-Hilbert gravitation with the deformed Heisenberg algebra leading to the minimum length, with the intention to find and estimate the corrections in this theory, clarifying whether or not it is possible to obtain, by means of the minimum length, a theory, in D=4, which is causal, unitary and provides a massive graviton. Therefore, we will calculate and analyze the dispersion relationships of the considered theory.

  13. The Unusual Minimum of Cycle 23: Observations and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Petrus C.; Nandy, D.; Munoz-Jaramillo, A.

    2009-05-01

    The current minimum of cycle 23 is unusual in its long duration, the very low level to which Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) has fallen, and the small flux of the open polar fields. The deep minimum of TSI seems to be related to an unprecedented dearth of polar faculae, and hence to the small amount of open flux. Based upon surface flux transport models it has been suggested that the causes of these phenomena may be an unusually vigorous meridional flow, or even a deviation from Joy's law resulting in smaller Joy angles than usual for emerging flux in cycle 23. There is also the possibility of a connection with the recently inferred emergence in polar regions of bipoles that systematically defy Hale's law. Much speculation has been going on as to the consequences of this exceptional minimum: are we entering another global minimum, is this the end of the 80 year period of exceptionally high solar activity, or is this just a statistical hiccup? Dynamo simulations are underway that may help answer this question. As an aside it must be mentioned that the current minimum of TSI puts an upper limit in the TSI input for global climate simulations during the Maunder minimum, and that a possible decrease in future solar activity will result in a very small but not insignificant reduction in the pace of global warming.

  14. Calculation of the minimum critical mass of fissile nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.Q.; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    The OB-1 method for the calculation of the minimum critical mass of fissile actinides in metal/water systems was described in a previous paper. A fit to the calculated minimum critical mass data using the extended criticality parameter is the basis of the revised method. The solution density (grams/liter) for the minimum critical mass is also obtained by a fit to calculated values. Input to the calculation consists of the Maxwellian averaged fission and absorption cross sections and the thermal values of nubar. The revised method gives more accurate values than the original method does for both the minimum critical mass and the solution densities. The OB-1 method has been extended to calculate the uncertainties in the minimum critical mass for 12 different fissile nuclides. The uncertainties for the fission and capture cross sections and the estimated nubar uncertainties are used to determine the uncertainties in the minimum critical mass, either in percent or grams. Results have been obtained for U-233, U-235, Pu-236, Pu-239, Pu-241, Am-242m, Cm-243, Cm-245, Cf-249, Cf-251, Cf-253, and Es-254. Eight of these 12 nuclides are included in the ANS-8.15 standard.

  15. Tensile strength of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus material from overhangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attree, N.; Groussin, O.; Jorda, L.; Nébouy, D.; Thomas, N.; Brouet, Y.; Kührt, E.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Knollenberg, J.; Hartogh, P.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Auger, A.-T.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Bodewits, D.; Boudreault, S.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Deller, J.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S.; Ip, W.-H.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J. R.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Lowry, S.; Marchi, S.; Marzari, F.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Pajola, M.; Toth, I.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.; Shi, X.

    2018-03-01

    We directly measured twenty overhanging cliffs on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko extracted from the latest shape model and estimated the minimum tensile strengths needed to support them against collapse under the comet's gravity. We find extremely low strengths of around 1 Pa or less (1 to 5 Pa, when scaled to a metre length). The presence of eroded material at the base of most overhangs, as well as the observed collapse of two features andthe implied previous collapse of another, suggests that they are prone to failure and that the true material strengths are close to these lower limits (although we only consider static stresses and not dynamic stress from, for example, cometary activity). Thus, a tensile strength of a few pascals is a good approximation for the tensile strength of the 67P nucleus material, which is in agreement with previous work. We find no particular trends in overhang properties either with size over the 10-100 m range studied here or location on the nucleus. There are no obvious differences, in terms of strength, height or evidence of collapse, between the populations of overhangs on the two cometary lobes, suggesting that 67P is relatively homogenous in terms of tensile strength. Low material strengths are supportive of cometary formation as a primordial rubble pile or by collisional fragmentation of a small body (tens of km).

  16. Strength-ductility relationships in intermediate purity hot-pressed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, A.J.; Bielawski, C.A.; Paine, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The strength of vacuum hot-pressed, intermediate purity beryllium may be substantially increased without sacrifice of the strain capacity of the present grade (S-65) through decrease in the average grain size. Tensile strength of 517 MPa, 0.2% offset yield strength of 414 MPa with minimum 3% tensile elongation in all test directions could be commercially achieved. The tangent modulus of such material is quite attractive and suffers only about 10% degradation from room temperature to 260 0 C. The tangent modulus is dramatically enhanced by the presence of a yield point. The ductility of the materials studied did not appear to be affected by the BeO content across the range of 0.5 to 2.0% using nominal -44 to -15 μm powder particle sizes. All fine-grained pressings exhibited yield points in the as-pressed condition. Either full-density or sub-density hot-pressed billets given a hot isostatic pressing treatment without the use of cans showed only slight yield points after the HIP treatment with essentially the same strength and ductility factors as in the pressed condition. A plot of grain size vs yield strength in the as-pressed condition projects to an intercept with the fracture strength line at about 3 μm grain size. A similar plot after the HIP treatment shows a yield strength line parallel to the fracture strength line with no projected intercept predicting a completely brittle material. (author)

  17. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ignition sensitivity of a highly flammable dust decreases upon addition of inert dust. • Minimum ignition temperature of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • Minimum ignition energy of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. - Abstract: The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.

  18. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi, E-mail: emmanueladdai41@yahoo.com; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Ignition sensitivity of a highly flammable dust decreases upon addition of inert dust. • Minimum ignition temperature of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • Minimum ignition energy of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. - Abstract: The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.

  19. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-04-15

    The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anesthesiologists' perceptions of minimum acceptable work habits of nurse anesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinov, Ilana I; Dexter, Franklin; Hindman, Bradley J; Brull, Sorin J

    2017-05-01

    Work habits are non-technical skills that are an important part of job performance. Although non-technical skills are usually evaluated on a relative basis (i.e., "grading on a curve"), validity of evaluation on an absolute basis (i.e., "minimum passing score") needs to be determined. Survey and observational study. None. None. The theme of "work habits" was assessed using a modification of Dannefer et al.'s 6-item scale, with scores ranging from 1 (lowest performance) to 5 (highest performance). E-mail invitations were sent to all consultant and fellow anesthesiologists at Mayo Clinic in Florida, Arizona, and Minnesota. Because work habits expectations can be generational, the survey was designed for adjustment based on all invited (responding or non-responding) anesthesiologists' year of graduation from residency. The overall mean±standard deviation of the score for anesthesiologists' minimum expectations of nurse anesthetists' work habits was 3.64±0.66 (N=48). Minimum acceptable scores were correlated with the year of graduation from anesthesia residency (linear regression P=0.004). Adjusting for survey non-response using all N=207 anesthesiologists, the mean of the minimum acceptable work habits adjusted for year of graduation was 3.69 (standard error 0.02). The minimum expectations for nurse anesthetists' work habits were compared with observational data obtained from the University of Iowa. Among 8940 individual nurse anesthetist work habits scores, only 2.6% were habits scores were significantly greater than the Mayo estimate (3.69) for the minimum expectations; all Phabits of nurse anesthetists within departments should not be compared with an appropriate minimum score (i.e., of 3.69). Instead, work habits scores should be analyzed based on relative reporting among anesthetists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Strength of interface in stainless clad steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohji, Kiyotsugu; Nakai, Yoshikazu; Hashimoto, Shinji

    1990-01-01

    Mechanical tests were conducted on four kinds of stainless clad steels to establish test methods for determining crack growth resistance of bimaterial interface. In tension tests, smooth specimens and shallow notched specimens were employed. In these tests, all of the smooth specimens were broken in carbon steel, not along the bimaterial interface. On the other hand, most of the shallow notched specimens were broken along the interface, when the notch root was located at the interface. Therefore, the shallow notched specimens were suitable for estimating the strength of the interface in tension tests. For fracture toughness tests, chevron notched specimens are recommended, since pre-fatigue cracks were susceptible to initiate and grow in carbon steel for conventional straight notched specimens. In fatigue crack growth tests, side-grooved and non-side-grooved specimens were employed. Although the side-grooves were machined so that the minimum cross-sectional plane of the specimens coincided with the plane of the bimaterial interface, cracks did not always propagate along the interface. Therefore, the side-grooves were judged not to be effective for cracks to propagate along the bimaterial interface. Both in fracture toughness tests and fatigue tests, the crack growth resistance along bimaterial interface was much lower than the resistance of matrix steels. In all of the mechanical tests conducted, the crack growth resistance along the interface was higher for the normalized material than that for the as-rolled material. The nickel foil inserted between carbon steel and stainless steel improved the growth resistance of interfacial cracks. (author)

  2. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. DATA EXTRACTION: The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles...... isokinetic dynamometry. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had...... were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty studies covering 316 PPSH were included. High intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) inter- and intrasession reliability was reported for isokinetic dynamometry, which was independent of the tested muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity...

  3. Electric quadrupole strength in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Isoscalar electric quadrupole strength distributions in nuclei are surveyed, and it is concluded that the strength is shared, in most cases, roughly equally between low-lying transitions and the giant quadrupole state. The same is not true of the isovector case. A simple extension of the schematic model gives a remarkably successul description of the data, and emphasizes the vital importance of the coupling between high-lying and low-lying quadrupole modes. The standadrd simple representation of the giant quadrupole resonance as produced by operating on the nuclear ground state with the quadrupole transition operator is not applicable to the isoscalar case. It is suggested that giant resonances fall into broad classes of similar states, with considerable qualitative differences between the distinct classes. (author)

  4. Line strengths in WN stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leep, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The author has analyzed high-dispersion spectra of over 100 WN stars in the Galaxy and the Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC). Most of the spectra were obtained through 4-m telescopes (Conti, Leep, and Perry 1981). The measured strengths of the WN classification lines N III lambdalambda4634-41, N IV lambda4057, N V lambda4604 (Smith 1968) for stars on WN subtypes 2.5-8 are shown. The assignments of WN subtypes are based on visual estimates of ratios of line strengths according to the scheme of Smith (1968), except that stars appearing to be earlier than WN3 are classified as WN2 or WN2.5 as explained by van der Hucht et al. (1981) and by Conti, Leep and Perry (1981). (Auth.)

  5. THE MINIMUM OF SOLAR CYCLE 23: AS DEEP AS IT COULD BE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Senkpeil, Ryan R. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tlatov, Andrey G. [Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station of the Pulkovo Observatory, Kislovodsk 357700 (Russian Federation); Pevtsov, Alexei A. [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Balmaceda, Laura A. [Institute for Astronomical, Terrestrial and Space Sciences (ICATE-CONICET), San Juan (Argentina); DeLuca, Edward E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Martens, Petrus C. H., E-mail: munoz@solar.physics.montana.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In this work we introduce a new way of binning sunspot group data with the purpose of better understanding the impact of the solar cycle on sunspot properties and how this defined the characteristics of the extended minimum of cycle 23. Our approach assumes that the statistical properties of sunspots are completely determined by the strength of the underlying large-scale field and have no additional time dependencies. We use the amplitude of the cycle at any given moment (something we refer to as activity level) as a proxy for the strength of this deep-seated magnetic field. We find that the sunspot size distribution is composed of two populations: one population of groups and active regions and a second population of pores and ephemeral regions. When fits are performed at periods of different activity level, only the statistical properties of the former population, the active regions, are found to vary. Finally, we study the relative contribution of each component (small-scale versus large-scale) to solar magnetism. We find that when hemispheres are treated separately, almost every one of the past 12 solar minima reaches a point where the main contribution to magnetism comes from the small-scale component. However, due to asymmetries in cycle phase, this state is very rarely reached by both hemispheres at the same time. From this we infer that even though each hemisphere did reach the magnetic baseline, from a heliospheric point of view the minimum of cycle 23 was not as deep as it could have been.

  6. Soil strength and forest operations

    OpenAIRE

    Beekman, F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heavy machinery and transport vehicles is an integral part of modern forest operations. This use often causes damage to the standing trees and to the soil. In this study the effects of vehicle traffic on the soil are analysed and the possible consequences for forest management discussed. The study is largely restricted to sandy and loamy soils because of their importance for Dutch forestry.

    Soil strength, defined as the resistance of soil structure against the impa...

  7. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.

    2013-01-01

    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....

  8. Strength and Microstructure of Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Forex - one particular alumina ceramic, I our own detailed crack ample, the relatively large values of r, and c* for the VI observations, and those of...particularly toughness indices, 1i71", indicating that there is sonic the c° , T parameters. However, the indentation mcth- kind of trade -o1Tbetwecn...macroscopic and microsnpic odology takes us closer to the strengths of specimens toughness levels, and that this trade -off is cont’olled by with natural

  9. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  10. Total edge irregularity strength of (n,t)-kite graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarsih, Tri; Indriati, Diari

    2018-04-01

    Let G(V, E) be a simple, connected, and undirected graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A total k-labeling is a map that carries vertices and edges of a graph G into a set of positive integer labels {1, 2, …, k}. An edge irregular total k-labeling λ :V(G)\\cup E(G)\\to \\{1,2,\\ldots,k\\} of a graph G is a labeling of vertices and edges of G in such a way that for any different edges e and f, weights wt(e) and wt(f) are distinct. The weight wt(e) of an edge e = xy is the sum of the labels of vertices x and y and the label of the edge e. The total edge irregularity strength of G, tes(G), is defined as the minimum k for which a graph G has an edge irregular total k-labeling. An (n, t)-kite graph consist of a cycle of length n with a t-edge path (the tail) attached to one vertex of a cycle. In this paper, we investigate the total edge irregularity strength of the (n, t)-kite graph, with n > 3 and t > 1. We obtain the total edge irregularity strength of the (n, t)-kite graph is tes((n, t)-kite) = \\lceil \\frac{n+t+2}{3}\\rceil .

  11. Anisotropic toughness and strength in graphene and its atomistic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. Zubaer; Ahmed, Tousif; Silverman, Benjamin; Khawaja, M. Shehroz; Calderon, Justice; Rutten, Andrew; Tse, Stanley

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the implication of crystallographic orientation on toughness and ideal strength in graphene under lattice symmetry-preserving and symmetry-breaking deformations. In symmetry-preserving deformation, both toughness and strength are isotropic, regardless of the chirality of the lattice; whereas, in symmetry-breaking deformation they are strongly anisotropic, even in the presence of vacancy defects. The maximum and minimum of toughness or strength occur for loading along the zigzag direction and the armchair direction, respectively. The anisotropic behavior is governed by a complex interplay among bond-stretching deformation, bond-bending deformation, and the chirality of the lattice. Nevertheless, the condition for crack-nucleation is dictated by the maximum bond-force required for bond rupture, and it is independent of the chiral angle of the lattice or loading direction. At the onset of crack-nucleation a localized nucleation zone is formed, wherein the bonds rupture locally satisfying the maximum bond-force criterion. The nucleation zone acts as the physical origin in triggering the fracture nucleation process, but its presence is undetectable from the macroscopic stress-strain data.

  12. A Theoretically Consistent Method for Minimum Mean-Square Error Estimation of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for minimum mean-square error (MMSE) estimation of mel-frequency cepstral features for noise robust automatic speech recognition (ASR). The method is based on a minimum number of well-established statistical assumptions; no assumptions are made which are inconsistent with others....... The strength of the proposed method is that it allows MMSE estimation of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC's), cepstral mean-subtracted MFCC's (CMS-MFCC's), velocity, and acceleration coefficients. Furthermore, the method is easily modified to take into account other compressive non-linearities than...... the logarithmic which is usually used for MFCC computation. The proposed method shows estimation performance which is identical to or better than state-of-the-art methods. It further shows comparable ASR performance, where the advantage of being able to use mel-frequency speech features based on a power non...

  13. Minimum time control of a pair of two-level quantum systems with opposite drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Raffaele; D’Alessandro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we solve two equivalent time optimal control problems. On one hand, we design the control field to implement in minimum time the SWAP (or equivalent) operator on a two-level system, assuming that it interacts with an additional, uncontrollable, two-level system. On the other hand, we synthesize the SWAP operator simultaneously, in minimum time, on a pair of two-level systems subject to opposite drifts. We assume that it is possible to perform three independent control actions, and that the total control strength is bounded. These controls either affect the dynamics of the target system, under the first perspective, or, simultaneously, the dynamics of both systems, in the second view. We obtain our results by using techniques of geometric control theory on Lie groups. In particular, we apply the Pontryagin maximum principle, and provide a complete characterization of singular and nonsingular extremals. Our analysis shows that the problem can be formulated as the motion of a material point in a central force, a well known system in classical mechanics. Although we focus on obtaining the SWAP operator, many of the ideas and techniques developed in this work apply to the time optimal implementation of an arbitrary unitary operator. (paper)

  14. MODULATION OF GALACTIC COSMIC RAY PROTONS AND ELECTRONS DURING AN UNUSUAL SOLAR MINIMUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, B.; Kopp, A.; Gieseler, J.; Mueller-Mellin, R.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.; Potgieter, M. S.; Ferreira, S. E. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the latest Ulysses out-of-ecliptic orbit the solar wind density, pressure, and magnetic field strength have been the lowest ever observed in the history of space exploration. Since cosmic ray particles respond to the heliospheric magnetic field in the expanding solar wind and its turbulence, the weak heliospheric magnetic field as well as the low plasma density and pressure are expected to cause the smallest modulation since the 1970s. In contrast to this expectation, the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) proton flux at 2.5 GV measured by Ulysses in 2008 does not exceed the one observed in the 1990s significantly, while the 2.5 GV GCR electron intensity exceeds the one measured during the 1990s by 30%-40%. At true solar minimum conditions, however, the intensities of both electrons and protons are expected to be the same. In contrast to the 1987 solar minimum, the tilt angle of the solar magnetic field has remained at about 30 deg. in 2008. In order to compare the Ulysses measurements during the 2000 solar magnetic epoch with those obtained 20 years ago, the former have been corrected for the spacecraft trajectory using latitudinal gradients of 0.25% deg. -1 and 0.19% deg. -1 for protons and electrons, respectively, and a radial gradient of 3% AU -1 . In 2008 and 1987, solar activity, as indicated by the sunspot number, was low. Thus, our observations confirm the prediction of modulation models that current sheet and gradient drifts prevent the GCR flux to rise to typical solar minimum values. In addition, measurements of electrons and protons allow us to predict that the 2.5 GV GCR proton intensity will increase by a factor of 1.3 if the tilt angle reaches values below 10 deg.

  15. Physiological minimum temperatures for root growth in seven common European broad-leaved tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Gabriela; Lenz, Armando; Körner, Christian; Hoch, Günter

    2014-03-01

    Temperature is the most important factor driving the cold edge distribution limit of temperate trees. Here, we identified the minimum temperatures for root growth in seven broad-leaved tree species, compared them with the species' natural elevational limits and identified morphological changes in roots produced near their physiological cold limit. Seedlings were exposed to a vertical soil-temperature gradient from 20 to 2 °C along the rooting zone for 18 weeks. In all species, the bulk of roots was produced at temperatures above 5 °C. However, the absolute minimum temperatures for root growth differed among species between 2.3 and 4.2 °C, with those species that reach their natural distribution limits at higher elevations also tending to have lower thermal limits for root tissue formation. In all investigated species, the roots produced at temperatures close to the thermal limit were pale, thick, unbranched and of reduced mechanical strength. Across species, the specific root length (m g(-1) root) was reduced by, on average, 60% at temperatures below 7 °C. A significant correlation of minimum temperatures for root growth with the natural high elevation limits of the investigated species indicates species-specific thermal requirements for basic physiological processes. Although these limits are not necessarily directly causative for the upper distribution limit of a species, they seem to belong to a syndrome of adaptive processes for life at low temperatures. The anatomical changes at the cold limit likely hint at the mechanisms impeding meristematic activity at low temperatures.

  16. On cyclic yield strength in definition of limits for characterisation of fatigue and creep behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorash, Yevgen; MacKenzie, Donald

    2017-06-01

    This study proposes cyclic yield strength as a potential characteristic of safe design for structures operating under fatigue and creep conditions. Cyclic yield strength is defined on a cyclic stress-strain curve, while monotonic yield strength is defined on a monotonic curve. Both values of strengths are identified using a two-step procedure of the experimental stress-strain curves fitting with application of Ramberg-Osgood and Chaboche material models. A typical S-N curve in stress-life approach for fatigue analysis has a distinctive minimum stress lower bound, the fatigue endurance limit. Comparison of cyclic strength and fatigue limit reveals that they are approximately equal. Thus, safe fatigue design is guaranteed in the purely elastic domain defined by the cyclic yielding. A typical long-term strength curve in time-to-failure approach for creep analysis has two inflections corresponding to the cyclic and monotonic strengths. These inflections separate three domains on the long-term strength curve, which are characterised by different creep fracture modes and creep deformation mechanisms. Therefore, safe creep design is guaranteed in the linear creep domain with brittle failure mode defined by the cyclic yielding. These assumptions are confirmed using three structural steels for normal and high-temperature applications. The advantage of using cyclic yield strength for characterisation of fatigue and creep strength is a relatively quick experimental identification. The total duration of cyclic tests for a cyclic stress-strain curve identification is much less than the typical durations of fatigue and creep rupture tests at the stress levels around the cyclic yield strength.

  17. Calculation of the quadrupole magnet strengths in the PEP lattice for SCORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.S.; Lee, M.J.

    1978-03-01

    The code, QUADS, which determines the step size in making configuration changes and calculates the field strengths of the 11 main ring quadrupole magnet families at each configuration has been completed. This code has been designed to have minimum computation time while keeping the necessary features for making future modifications of the beam lattice. It is being incorporated into SCORE, the program for the strength computation of the ring elements. The purpose of this note is to describe the method used in this calculation. 4 figs

  18. Maintained ship hull girder ultimate strength reliability considering corrosion and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yong; Cui, W.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    The prupose of this paper is to propose a methodology to assess the time-variant ultimate strength of ship hull girder under the degradations of corrosion and fatigue. The effects of fatigue cracks on the tensile and compressive residual ultimate strength of stiffened panels and unstiffened plates......, webs and flanges, respectively. The effects of inspections and repair are taken into account. A minimum net thickness rule is used to determine repair policies. A procedure is proposed to determine the maximum allowable corrosion thickness of different parts of the hull cross section. The procedure...

  19. Protein-containing nutrient supplementation following strength training enhances the effect on muscle mass, strength, and bone formation in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Olesen, Jens L; Matsumoto, Keitaro

    2008-01-01

    .0 +/- 1.4%); nutrient group: 0.953 +/- 0.051 to 0.978 +/- 0.043 g/mm(3) (3.8 +/- 3.4%)] when adjusted for age, body mass index, and BMD at inclusion. Bone formation displayed an interaction (P increased osteocalcin at 24 wk in the nutrient group. In conclusion, we report...... that nutrient supplementation results in superior improvements in muscle mass, muscle strength, femoral neck BMD, and bone formation during 24 wk of strength training. The observed differences following such a short intervention emphasize the significance of postexercise nutrient supply on musculoskeletal......We evaluated the response of various muscle and bone adaptation parameters with 24 wk of strength training in healthy, early postmenopausal women when a nutrient supplement (protein, carbohydrate, calcium, and vitamin D) or a placebo supplement (a minimum of energy) was ingested immediately...

  20. Protein-containing nutrient supplementation following strength training enhances the effect on muscle mass, strength, and bone formation in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Olesen, J.L.; Matsumoto, K.

    2008-01-01

    .4%); nutrient group: 0.953 ± 0.051 to 0.978 ± 0.043 g/mm3 (3.8 ± 3.4%)] when adjusted for age, body mass index, and BMD at inclusion. Bone formation displayed an interaction (P increased osteocalcin at 24 wk in the nutrient group. In conclusion, we report that nutrient supplementation...... results in superior improvements in muscle mass, muscle strength, femoral neck BMD, and bone formation during 24 wk of strength training. The observed differences following such a short intervention emphasize the significance of postexercise nutrient supply on musculoskeletal maintenance.......We evaluated the response of various muscle and bone adaptation parameters with 24 wk of strength training in healthy, early postmenopausal women when a nutrient supplement (protein, carbohydrate, calcium, and vitamin D) or a placebo supplement (a minimum of energy) was ingested immediately...

  1. UBV photometry of dwarf novae in the brightness minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshina, I.B.; Lyutyj, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    Photoelectric one-night observations of the dwarf novae SS Cyg at minimum light evidence for the existence of eclipses in this system at the moments of conjuctions. The orbital inclination of the system is estimated to be i approximately 70 deg C. The components of this system are low-massive (white and red dwarf stars) and low-luminous objects. As the optical luminosity of the dwarf novae at the minimum light is dependent on the accretion disk and hot spot at its periphery, where the substance jet run out from a nondegenerated component falls, eclipses should be associated with the disk and hot spot. The white dwarf star contributes greatly to the luminosity at the minimum light, but its eclipses are possible only at i approximately 90 deg

  2. CONSEQUENCES OF INCREASING THE MINIMUM WAGE IN UKRAINE TWICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Boreiko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the views of scientists on the role of incomes of the poorest people in providing of economic development of the country and consequences of increasing the minimum wage in Ukraine twice are investigated; the dynamics of change in Ukraine minimum wage during a decade are analyzed and decline in living standards of population during this period is shown; measures, which should be taken for non-inflationary growth in incomes of the population, are grounded; it is disclosed that such measures should include unification of income tax for individuals and single social contribution and restoration of a progressive taxation of incomes of the working population. Key words: minimum wage, household income, the poorest part of the population, the economy of country, tax system.

  3. Nursing Minimum Data Set Based on EHR Archetypes Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigolon, Dandara N; Moro, Cláudia M C

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of a Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) can facilitate the use of health information systems. The adoption of these sets and represent them based on archetypes are a way of developing and support health systems. The objective of this paper is to describe the definition of a minimum data set for nursing in endometriosis represent with archetypes. The study was divided into two steps: Defining the Nursing Minimum Data Set to endometriosis, and Development archetypes related to the NMDS. The nursing data set to endometriosis was represented in the form of archetype, using the whole perception of the evaluation item, organs and senses. This form of representation is an important tool for semantic interoperability and knowledge representation for health information systems.

  4. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  5. Realistic minimum accident source terms - Evaluation, application, and risk acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, P. L.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation, application, and risk acceptance for realistic minimum accident source terms can represent a complex and arduous undertaking. This effort poses a very high impact to design, construction cost, operations and maintenance, and integrated safety over the expected facility lifetime. At the 2005 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD) Meeting in Knoxville Tenn., two papers were presented mat summarized the Y-12 effort that reduced the number of criticality accident alarm system (CAAS) detectors originally designed for the new Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF) from 258 to an eventual as-built number of 60. Part of that effort relied on determining a realistic minimum accident source term specific to the facility. Since that time, the rationale for an alternate minimum accident has been strengthened by an evaluation process that incorporates realism. A recent update to the HEUMF CAAS technical basis highlights the concepts presented here. (authors)

  6. Aseptic minimum volume vitrification technique for porcine parthenogenetically activated blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yu, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Minimum volume vitrification may provide extremely high cooling and warming rates if the sample and the surrounding medium contacts directly with the respective liquid nitrogen and warming medium. However, this direct contact may result in microbial contamination. In this work, an earlier aseptic technique was applied for minimum volume vitrification. After equilibration, samples were loaded on a plastic film, immersed rapidly into factory derived, filter-sterilized liquid nitrogen, and sealed into sterile, pre-cooled straws. At warming, the straw was cut, the filmstrip was immersed into a 39 degree C warming medium, and the sample was stepwise rehydrated. Cryosurvival rates of porcine blastocysts produced by parthenogenetical activation did not differ from control, vitrified blastocysts with Cryotop. This approach can be used for minimum volume vitrification methods and may be suitable to overcome the biological dangers and legal restrictions that hamper the application of open vitrification techniques.

  7. Minimum spanning trees and random resistor networks in d dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, N

    2005-09-01

    We consider minimum-cost spanning trees, both in lattice and Euclidean models, in d dimensions. For the cost of the optimum tree in a box of size L , we show that there is a correction of order L(theta) , where theta or =1 . The arguments all rely on the close relation of Kruskal's greedy algorithm for the minimum spanning tree, percolation, and (for some arguments) random resistor networks. The scaling of the entropy and free energy at small nonzero T , and hence of the number of near-optimal solutions, is also discussed. We suggest that the Steiner tree problem is in the same universality class as the minimum spanning tree in all dimensions, as is the traveling salesman problem in two dimensions. Hence all will have the same value of theta=-3/4 in two dimensions.

  8. Optimal heliocentric trajectories for solar sail with minimum area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Vyacheslav G.

    2018-05-01

    The fixed-time heliocentric trajectory optimization problem is considered for planar solar sail with minimum area. Necessary optimality conditions are derived, a numerical method for solving the problem is developed, and numerical examples of optimal trajectories to Mars, Venus and Mercury are presented. The dependences of the minimum area of the solar sail from the date of departure from the Earth, the time of flight and the departing hyperbolic excess of velocity are analyzed. In particular, for the rendezvous problem (approaching a target planet with zero relative velocity) with zero departing hyperbolic excess of velocity for a flight duration of 1200 days it was found that the minimum area-to-mass ratio should be about 12 m2/kg for trajectory to Venus, 23.5 m2/kg for the trajectory to Mercury and 25 m2/kg for trajectory to Mars.

  9. On kinematical minimum principles for rates and increments in plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization approach for elastoplastic analysis is discussed showing that some minimum principles related to numerical methods can be derived by means of duality and penalization procedures. Three minimum principles for velocity and plastic multiplier rate fields are presented in the framework of perfect plasticity. The first one is the classical Greenberg formulation. The second one, due to Capurso, is developed here with different motivation, and modified by penalization of constraints so as to arrive at a third principle for rates. The counterparts of these optimization formulations in terms of discrete increments of displacements of displacements and plastic multipliers are discussed. The third one of these minimum principles for finite increments is recognized to be closely related to Maier's formulation of holonomic plasticity. (Author) [pt

  10. The impact of the minimum wage on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Elena; Ukert, Benjamin

    2018-03-07

    This study evaluates the effect of minimum wage on risky health behaviors, healthcare access, and self-reported health. We use data from the 1993-2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and employ a difference-in-differences strategy that utilizes time variation in new minimum wage laws across U.S. states. Results suggest that the minimum wage increases the probability of being obese and decreases daily fruit and vegetable intake, but also decreases days with functional limitations while having no impact on healthcare access. Subsample analyses reveal that the increase in weight and decrease in fruit and vegetable intake are driven by the older population, married, and whites. The improvement in self-reported health is especially strong among non-whites, females, and married.

  11. Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas Seidelin

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine...... the minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques...... and a new notion of priced regions. The latter allows symbolic representation and manipulation of reachable states together with the cost of reaching them....

  12. Mars ionopause during solar minimum: A lesson from Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, K.K.; Mayr, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    The ion densities measured by the Viking landers (Hanson et al., 1977) do not show an abrupt falloff with height, giving the false impression that Mars has no ionopause. On the basis of knowledge gained from the solar wind interaction at Venus during solar minimum, they demonstrate that the observed O 2 + profile above about 160 km on Mars is a distributed photodynamical ionosphere and can produce an ionopause at around 325 km, similar to that observed on Venus during solar minimum. They conclude that the solar wind interacts directly with the Mars ionosphere, suggesting that the planet does not have an intrinsic magnetic field of any consequence

  13. The Minimum Core for Numeracy Audit and Test

    CERN Document Server

    Patmore, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This book supports trainee teachers in the Lifelong Learning Sector in the assessment of their numeracy knowledge. A self-audit section is included to help trainees understand their level of competence and confidence in numeracy and will help them identify any gaps in their knowledge and skills. This is followed by exercises and activities to support and enhance learning. The book covers all the content of the LLUK standards for the minimum core for numeracy. Coverage and assessment of the minimum core have to be embedded in all Certificate and Diploma courses leading to QTLS and ATLS status.

  14. The Minimum Core for Language and Literacy Audit and Test

    CERN Document Server

    Machin, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This book supports trainee teachers in the Lifelong Learning Sector in the assessment of their literacy knowledge. A self-audit section is included to help trainees understand their level of competence and confidence in literacy and will help them identify any gaps in their knowledge and skills. This is followed by exercises and activities to support and enhance learning. The book covers all the content of the LLUK standards for the minimum core for literacy. Coverage and assessment of the minimum core have to be embedded in all Certificate and Diploma courses leading to QTLS and ATLS status.

  15. Minimum-error discrimination of entangled quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.; Coish, N.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Hamel, D. R.; Resch, K. J.; Croke, S.

    2010-01-01

    Strategies to optimally discriminate between quantum states are critical in quantum technologies. We present an experimental demonstration of minimum-error discrimination between entangled states, encoded in the polarization of pairs of photons. Although the optimal measurement involves projection onto entangled states, we use a result of J. Walgate et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4972 (2000)] to design an optical implementation employing only local polarization measurements and feed-forward, which performs at the Helstrom bound. Our scheme can achieve perfect discrimination of orthogonal states and minimum-error discrimination of nonorthogonal states. Our experimental results show a definite advantage over schemes not using feed-forward.

  16. Start of Eta Car's X-ray Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Liburd, Jamar; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Gull, Theodore; Madura, Thomas; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Russell, Chris; Pollock, Andrew; hide

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of Eta Car's X-ray spectrum in the 2-10 keV band using quicklook data from the XRay Telescope on Swift shows that the flux on July 30, 2014 was 4.9 plus or minus 2.0×10(exp-12) ergs s(exp-1)cm(exp-2). This flux is nearly equal to the X-ray minimum flux seen by RXTE in 2009, 2003.5, and 1998, and indicates that Eta Car has reached its X-ray minimum, as expected based on the 2024-day period derived from previous 2-10 keV observations with RXTE.

  17. Minimum load reduction for once-through boiler power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.; Godina, G.; Manganelli, R.

    2001-01-01

    In Italy the liberalization process of energy market is giving particular importance to the optimization of power plants performances; especially for those that will be called to satisfy grid peak demands. On those plants some techniques have been experimented for the reduction of minimum load; these techniques, investigated and tested by an engineering dynamic simulator, have been sequentially tested on plant. The minimum load for up 320 MW of Tavazzano power plants has been diminished from 140 down to 80 MW without plant modification [it

  18. The minimum measurable dose of the sensitive Harshaw TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shachar, B.; German, U.; Naim, E.

    1991-01-01

    The TL-dose response was measured for the sensitive Harshaw manufactured phosphors (CaF 2 :Dy and CaF 2 :Tm), taking chips from the same batch and from different batches. The relative standard deviations were fitted to a semiempirical expression, from which the minimum measurable doses were derived and compared to the minimum measurable dose calculated by taking 3 times the standard deviation of unirradiated chips. The contribution of the individual calibration of each TLD chip was checked, as well

  19. UPGMA and the normalized equidistant minimum evolution problem

    OpenAIRE

    Moulton, Vincent; Spillner, Andreas; Wu, Taoyang

    2017-01-01

    UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) is a widely used clustering method. Here we show that UPGMA is a greedy heuristic for the normalized equidistant minimum evolution (NEME) problem, that is, finding a rooted tree that minimizes the minimum evolution score relative to the dissimilarity matrix among all rooted trees with the same leaf-set in which all leaves have the same distance to the root. We prove that the NEME problem is NP-hard. In addition, we present some heurist...

  20. Do Higher Minimum Wages Benefit Health? Evidence From the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Otto

    This study examines the link between minimum wages and health outcomes by using the introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom in 1999 as an exogenous variation of earned income. A test for health effects by using longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey for a period of ten years was conducted. It was found that the NMW significantly improved several measures of health, including self-reported health status and the presence of health conditions. When examining potential mechanisms, it was shown that changes in health behaviors, leisure expenditures, and financial stress can explain the observed improvements in health.

  1. The relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Han, X. X.; Ge, J.; Wang, C. H.

    2018-01-01

    To determine the relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material, 20 groups of geopolymer grouting materials were prepared, the compressive strength and flexural strength were determined by mechanical properties test. On the basis of excluding the abnormal values through boxplot, the results show that, the compressive strength test results were normal, but there were two mild outliers in 7days flexural strength test. The compressive strength and flexural strength were linearly fitted by SPSS, six regression models were obtained by linear fitting of compressive strength and flexural strength. The linear relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength can be better expressed by the cubic curve model, and the correlation coefficient was 0.842.

  2. 77 FR 5454 - Modifications to Minimum Present Value Requirements for Partial Annuity Distribution Options...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Modifications to Minimum Present Value Requirements for Partial Annuity Distribution Options Under Defined... guidance relating to the minimum present value requirements applicable to certain defined benefit pension plans. These proposed regulations would change the regulations regarding the minimum present value...

  3. 76 FR 4061 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ..., Randolph County, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig El Dorado, KS, Captain Jack Thomas/El Dorado... Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 3 Cook, MN, Cook Muni, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig Duluth, MN...

  4. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young's modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs

  5. Mechanical response tissue analyzer for estimating bone strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Steele, Charles; Mauriello, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    One of the major concerns for extended space flight is weakness of the long bones of the legs, composed primarily of cortical bone, that functions to provide mechanical support. The strength of cortical bone is due to its complex structure, described simplistically as cylinders of parallel osteons composed of layers of mineralized collagen. The reduced mechanical stresses during space flight or immobilization of bone on Earth reduces the mineral content, and changes the components of its matrix and structure so that its strength is reduced. Currently, the established clinical measures of bone strength are indirect. The measures are based on determinations of mineral density by means of radiography, photon absorptiometry, and quantitative computer tomography. While the mineral content of bone is essential to its strength, there is growing awareness of the limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially limitations of the measurement as the sole predictor of fracture risk in metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Other experimental methods in clinical trials that more directly evaluate the physical properties of bone, and do not require exposure to radiation, include ultrasound, acoustic emission, and low-frequency mechanical vibration. The last method can be considered a direct measure of the functional capacity of a long bone since it quantifies the mechanical response to a stimulus delivered directly to the bone. A low frequency vibration induces a response (impedance) curve with a minimum at the resonant frequency, that a few investigators use for the evaluation of the bone. An alternative approach, the method under consideration, is to use the response curve as the basis for determination of the bone bending stiffness EI (E is the intrinsic material property and I is the cross-sectional moment of inertia) and mass, fundamental mechanical properties of bone.

  6. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  7. optimizing compressive strength characteristics of hollow building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: hollow building Blocks, granite dust, sand, partial replacement, compressive strength. 1. INTRODUCTION ... exposed to extreme climate. The physical ... Sridharan et al [13] conducted shear strength studies on soil-quarry dust.

  8. Elastic buckling strength of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structural safety assessment of corroded structures, residual strength should be ... Rahbar-Ranji (2001) has proposed a spectrum for random simulation of ... The main aim of the present work is to investigate the buckling strength of simply ...

  9. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the ionic strength module, when to list ionic strength as a candidate cause, ways to measure ionic strength, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ionic strength, ionic strength module references and literature reviews.

  10. Do Minimum Wages in Latin America and the Caribbean Matter? Evidence from 19 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy

    of if and how minimum wages affect wage distributions in LAC countries. Although there is no single minimum wage institution in the LAC region, we find regional trends. Minimum wages affect the wage distribution in both the formal and, especially, the informal sector, both at the minimum wage and at multiples...... of the minimum. The minimum does not uniformly benefit low-wage workers: in countries where the minimum wage is relatively low compared to mean wages, the minimum wage affects the more disadvantaged segments of the labor force, namely informal sector workers, women, young and older workers, and the low skilled...

  11. Determination of giant resonance strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serr, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Using theoretical strength functions to describe the different giant resonances expected at excitation energies of the order of (60-85)/Asup(1/3) MeV, we calculate the double differential cross sections d 2 sigma/dΩ dE associated with the reactions 208 Pb(α, α') and 90 Zr(α, α') (Esub(α) = 152 MeV). The angular distributions for the giant quadrupole and giant monopole resonances obtained from fits to these spectra, making simple, commonly used assumptions for the peak shapes and background, are compared to the original angular distributions. The differences between them are an indication of some of the uncertainties affecting the giant resonance strengths extracted from hadron inelastic scattering data. Fits to limited angular regions lead to errors of up to 50% in the value of the energy-weighted sum rule, depending on the angles examined. While it seems possible to extract the correct EWSR for the GMR by carrying out the analyses at 0 0 , no single privileged angle seems to exist in the case of the GQR. (orig.)

  12. On (dynamic) range minimum queries in external memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, L.; Fischer, Johannes; Sanders, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We study the one-dimensional range minimum query (RMQ) problem in the external memory model. We provide the first space-optimal solution to the batched static version of the problem. On an instance with N elements and Q queries, our solution takes Θ(sort(N + Q)) = Θ( N+QB log M /B N+QB ) I...

  13. 42 CFR 86.31 - Eligibility; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility; minimum requirements. 86.31 Section 86.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Direct...

  14. Minimum critical power ratio control device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Tsuneo.

    1991-01-01

    Reactor core flowrate is determined by comparing a minimum critical power ratio calculated based on the status amount of a nuclear power plant and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor core flowrate. Further, the minimum critical power ratio and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor thermal power are compared to set a reactor thermal power converted to a reactor core flowrate. Deviation between the thus determined reactor core flowrate and the present reactor core flowrate is calculated. When the obtained deviation is lower than a rated value, a reactor core flowrate set signal is generated to a reactor flowrate control means, to control the reactor power by a recycling flowrate control system of the reactor. On the other hand, when the deviation exceeds the determined value, the reactor core flowrate set signal is converted into a reactor thermal power, to control the position of control rods and control the reactor power. Then, monitor and control can be conducted safely and automatically without depending on operator's individual ability over the entire operation range corresponding to load following operation. (N.H.)

  15. On the relationship between stress intensity factor (K) and minimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on crack-tip plastic zones are of fundamental importance in describing the process of failure and in formulating various fracture criteria. Minimum plastic zone radius (MPZR) theory is widely used in prediction of crack initiation angle in mixed mode fracture analysis of engineering materials. In this study, shape and ...

  16. Physics at the CERN collider using a ''minimum bias'' trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnison, G.; Astbury, A.; Grayer, G.; Haynes, W.J.; Nandi, A.K.; Roberts, C.; Scott, W.; Shah, T.P.; Bezaguet, A.; Boeck, R.; Calvetti, M.; Carroll, T.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Ceradini, F.; Cittolin, S.; Demoulin, M.; DiBitinto, D.; Ellis, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Jank, W.; Jorat, G.; Kowalski, H.; Kryn, D.; Lacava, F.; Markiewicz, T.; Maurin, G.; Muirhead, H.; Muller, F.; Naumann, L.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, G.; Placci, A.; Revol, J.P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rohlf, J.; Rossi, P.; Rubbia, C.; Sadoulet, B.; Schinzel, D.; Tao, C.; Timmer, J.; Meer, S. van der; Vialle, J.P.; Vuillemin, V.; Xie, G.Y.; Zurfluh, E.; Cochet, C.; DeBeer, M.; Denegri, D.; Givernaud, A.; Laugier, J.P.; Leveque, A.; Locci, E.; Loret, M.; Malosse, J.J.; Rich, J.; Sass, R.; Saudraix, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spiro, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Fontaine, G.; Geer, S.; Ghesquiere, C.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Orkin-Lecourtois, A.; Sajot, G.; Vrana, J.; Bacci, C.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Corden, M.; Dallman, D.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Dowell, J.D.; Edwards, M.; Eggert, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Erhard, P.; Faissner, H.; Frey, R.; Fruehwirth, R.; Garvey, J.; Giboni, K.L.; Gibson, W.R.; Gutierrez, P.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hodges, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.; Kalmus, P.I.P.; Karimaeki, V.; Keeler, R.; Kenyon, I.; Kernan, A.; Kinnunen, R.; Kozanecki, W.; Lehmann, H.; Leuchs, K.; McMahon, T.; Moricca, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Piano Mortari, G.; Pimiae, M.; Radermacher, E.; Ransdell, J.; Reithler, H.; Salvi, G.; Salvini, G.; Strauss, J.; Sumorok, K.; Szoncso, F.; Smith, D.; Thompson, G.; Tscheslog, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Wahl, H.D.; Watkins, P.; Wilson, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper the physics of the events collected using this ''minimum bias trigger'' is described. After a brief description of the detector, I present results concerning particle production (pseudorapidity distributions, multiplicity and KNO scaling). Transverse energy distributions, long and short range correlations, and finally high psub(t) physics and jets. (orig./HSI)

  17. Minimum K-S estimator using PH-transform technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchit Boonthiem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improvement of the Minimum Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S estimator using proportional hazards transform (PH-transform technique. The data of experiment is 47 fire accidents data of an insurance company in Thailand. This experiment has two operations, the first operation, we minimize K-S statistic value using grid search technique for nine distributions; Rayleigh distribution, gamma distribution, Pareto distribution, log-logistic distribution, logistic distribution, normal distribution, Weibull distribution, lognormal distribution, and exponential distribution and the second operation, we improve K-S statistic using PHtransform. The result appears that PH-transform technique can improve the Minimum K-S estimator. The algorithms give better the Minimum K-S estimator for seven distributions; Rayleigh distribution, logistic distribution, gamma distribution, Pareto distribution, log-logistic distribution, normal distribution, Weibull distribution, log-normal distribution, and exponential distribution while the Minimum K-S estimators of normal distribution and logistic distribution are unchanged

  18. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and well-being (see subpart C of this part); and (ii) The Act sets an 18-year minimum age with respect... hazardous for the employment of minors of such age or detrimental to their health or well-being (see subpart... regulation or by order that the employment of employees between the ages of 14 and 16 years in occupations...

  19. Impact of HIPAA's minimum necessary standard on genomic data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara J; Jarvik, Gail P

    2018-04-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule's minimum necessary standard, which applies to sharing of genomic data, particularly clinical data, following 2013 Privacy Rule revisions. This research used the Thomson Reuters Westlaw database and law library resources in its legal analysis of the HIPAA privacy tiers and the impact of the minimum necessary standard on genomic data sharing. We considered relevant example cases of genomic data-sharing needs. In a climate of stepped-up HIPAA enforcement, this standard is of concern to laboratories that generate, use, and share genomic information. How data-sharing activities are characterized-whether for research, public health, or clinical interpretation and medical practice support-affects how the minimum necessary standard applies and its overall impact on data access and use. There is no clear regulatory guidance on how to apply HIPAA's minimum necessary standard when considering the sharing of information in the data-rich environment of genomic testing. Laboratories that perform genomic testing should engage with policy makers to foster sound, well-informed policies and appropriate characterization of data-sharing activities to minimize adverse impacts on day-to-day workflows.

  20. Minimum cost dynamic flows: The series-parallel case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinz, Bettina; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic network consists of a directed graph with capacities, costs, and integral transit times on the arcs. In the minimum-cost dynamic flow problem (MCDFP), the goal is to compute, for a given dynamic network with source s, sink t, and two integers v and T, a feasible dynamic flow from s to t of

  1. A note on minimum-variance theory and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianfeng [Department of Informatics, Sussex University, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Tartaglia, Giangaetano [Physics Department, Rome University ' La Sapienza' , Rome 00185 (Italy); Tirozzi, Brunello [Physics Department, Rome University ' La Sapienza' , Rome 00185 (Italy)

    2004-04-30

    We revisit the minimum-variance theory proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4), discuss the implications of the theory on modelling the firing patterns of single neurons and analytically find the optimal control signals, trajectories and velocities. Under the rate coding assumption, input control signals employed in the minimum-variance theory should be Fitts processes rather than Poisson processes. Only if information is coded by interspike intervals, Poisson processes are in agreement with the inputs employed in the minimum-variance theory. For the integrate-and-fire model with Fitts process inputs, interspike intervals of efferent spike trains are very irregular. We introduce diffusion approximations to approximate neural models with renewal process inputs and present theoretical results on calculating moments of interspike intervals of the integrate-and-fire model. Results in Feng, et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 7287-304) are generalized. In conclusion, we present a complete picture on the minimum-variance theory ranging from input control signals, to model outputs, and to its implications on modelling firing patterns of single neurons.

  2. Estimation of Minimum DNBR Using Cascaded Fuzzy Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenon of boiling crisis is called a departure from nucleate boiling (DNB). The DNB phenomena can influence the fuel cladding and fuel pellets. The DNB ratio (DNBR) is defined as the ratio of the expected DNB heat flux to the actual fuel rod heat flux. Since it is very important to monitor and predict the minimum DNBR in a reactor core to prevent the boiling crisis and clad melting, a number of researches have been conducted to predict DNBR values. The aim of this study is to estimate the minimum DNBR in a reactor core using the measured signals of the reactor coolant system (RCS) by applying cascaded fuzzy neural networks (CFNN) according to operating conditions. Reactor core monitoring and protection systems require minimum DNBR prediction. The CFNN can be used to optimize the minimum DNBR value through the process of adding fuzzy neural networks (FNN) repeatedly. The proposed algorithm is trained by using the data set prepared for training (development data) and verified by using another data set different (independent) from the development data. The developed CFNN models were applied to the first fuel cycle of OPR1000. The RMS errors are 0.23% and 0.12% for the positive and negative ASI, respectively

  3. 6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 27.204 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.204 Minimum concentration by security issue. (a) Release Chemicals—(1) Release-Toxic Chemicals. If a release-toxic chemical of interest...

  4. 29 CFR 779.508 - Eighteen-year minimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eighteen-year minimum. 779.508 Section 779.508 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  5. 29 CFR 779.506 - Sixteen-year minimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sixteen-year minimum. 779.506 Section 779.506 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  6. 29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An employer may provide... commission on sales. An exempt employee also may receive a percentage of the sales or profits of the employer...

  7. 76 FR 23208 - Alternative to Minimum Days Off Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Language X. Voluntary Consensus Standards XI. Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact XII. Paperwork... the Current Fitness for Duty Requirements On September 3, 2010, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI... to the minimum days off requirements considered the collective advantages and disadvantages of having...

  8. Stellar Spectral Classification with Minimum Within-Class and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) is one of the important stellar spectral classification methods, and it is widely used in practice. But its classification efficiencies cannot be greatly improved because it does not take the class distribution into consideration. In view of this, a modified SVM-named Minimum within-class and ...

  9. Construction of Protograph LDPC Codes with Linear Minimum Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Jones, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    A construction method for protograph-based LDPC codes that simultaneously achieve low iterative decoding threshold and linear minimum distance is proposed. We start with a high-rate protograph LDPC code with variable node degrees of at least 3. Lower rate codes are obtained by splitting check nodes and connecting them by degree-2 nodes. This guarantees the linear minimum distance property for the lower-rate codes. Excluding checks connected to degree-1 nodes, we show that the number of degree-2 nodes should be at most one less than the number of checks for the protograph LDPC code to have linear minimum distance. Iterative decoding thresholds are obtained by using the reciprocal channel approximation. Thresholds are lowered by using either precoding or at least one very high-degree node in the base protograph. A family of high- to low-rate codes with minimum distance linearly increasing in block size and with capacity-approaching performance thresholds is presented. FPGA simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes perform as predicted.

  10. Heart rate-based lactate minimum test: a reproducible method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strupler, M.; Muller, G.; Perret, C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find the individual intensity for aerobic endurance training, the lactate minimum test (LMT) seems to be a promising method. LMTs described in the literature consist of speed or work rate-based protocols, but for training prescription in daily practice mostly heart rate is used. The

  11. Oxygen minimum zones harbour novel viral communities with low diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassman, N.; Prieto-Davo, A.; Walsh, K.; Silva, G.G.; Angly, F.; Akhter, S.; Barott, K.; Busch, J.; McDole, T.; Haggerty, J.M.; Willner, D.; Alarcon, G.; Ulloa, O.; DeLong, E.F.; Dutilh, B.E.; Rohwer, F.; Dinsdale, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are oceanographic features that affect ocean productivity and biodiversity, and contribute to ocean nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we describe the viral communities associated with the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) OMZ off Iquique, Chile for the

  12. Sanitation in wilderness: Balancing minimum tool policies and wilderness values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Lachapelle

    2000-01-01

    Officials with the four wilderness managing agencies are faced with balancing wilderness preservation values and the minimum tool policies of their respective agencies. One example is the management of sanitation, particularly human waste and the often intrusive infrastructure that accompanies its treatment and disposal. Because the treatment and disposal of human...

  13. Minimum-phase distribution of cosmic source brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'chenko, A.A.; Malov, I.F.; Mogil'nitskaya, L.F.; Frolov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    Minimum-phase distributions of brightness (profiles) for cosmic radio sources 3C 144 (the wave lambda=21 cm), 3C 338 (lambda=3.5 m), and 3C 353 (labda=31.3 cm and 3.5 m) are obtained. A real possibility for the profile recovery from module fragments of its Fourier-image is shown

  14. Minimum-link paths among obstacles in the plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, J.S.B.; Rote, G.; Woeginger, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    Given a set of nonintersecting polygonal obstacles in the plane, thelink distance between two pointss andt is the minimum number of edges required to form a polygonal path connectings tot that avoids all obstacles. We present an algorithm that computes the link distance (and a corresponding

  15. Generating Approximative Minimum Length Paths in 3D for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Flemming; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bisgaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    We consider the challenge of planning a minimum length path from an initial position to a desired position for a rotorcraft. The path is found in a 3-dimensional Euclidean space containing a geometric obstacle. We base our approach on visibility graphs which have been used extensively for path pl...

  16. Smoothing-Norm Preconditioning for Regularizing Minimum-Residual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Toke Koldborg

    2006-01-01

    take into account a smoothing norm for the solution. This technique is well established for CGLS, but it does not immediately carry over to minimum-residual methods when the smoothing norm is a seminorm or a Sobolev norm. We develop a new technique which works for any smoothing norm of the form $\\|L...

  17. 49 CFR 236.0 - Applicability, minimum requirements, and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $100,000 per violation may be assessed... state law seeking damages for personal injury, death, or property damage alleging that a party has... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability, minimum requirements, and penalties...

  18. Minimum component high frequency current mode rectifier | Sampe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a current mode full wave rectifier circuit is proposed. The current mode rectifier circuit is implemented utilizing a floating current source (FCS) as an active element. The minimum component full wave rectifier utilizes only a single floating current source, two diodes and two grounded resistors. The extremely ...

  19. Maximum effort in the minimum-effort game

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Normann, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 249-259 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : minimum-effort game * coordination game * experiments * social capital Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  20. Deformed special relativity with an invariant minimum speed and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the other hand, according to special relativity (SR), the momentum cannot ... Deformed special relativity with an invariant minimum speed ..... However, we need to show that there is an anti-gravitational interaction between the ordinary proof mass m and the big sphere with a 'dark mass' of vacuum (MΛ), but let us first ...

  1. A note on minimum-variance theory and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianfeng; Tartaglia, Giangaetano; Tirozzi, Brunello

    2004-01-01

    We revisit the minimum-variance theory proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4), discuss the implications of the theory on modelling the firing patterns of single neurons and analytically find the optimal control signals, trajectories and velocities. Under the rate coding assumption, input control signals employed in the minimum-variance theory should be Fitts processes rather than Poisson processes. Only if information is coded by interspike intervals, Poisson processes are in agreement with the inputs employed in the minimum-variance theory. For the integrate-and-fire model with Fitts process inputs, interspike intervals of efferent spike trains are very irregular. We introduce diffusion approximations to approximate neural models with renewal process inputs and present theoretical results on calculating moments of interspike intervals of the integrate-and-fire model. Results in Feng, et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 7287-304) are generalized. In conclusion, we present a complete picture on the minimum-variance theory ranging from input control signals, to model outputs, and to its implications on modelling firing patterns of single neurons

  2. 14 CFR 91.119 - Minimum safe altitudes: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure. (d) Helicopters. Helicopters may be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum safe altitudes: General. 91.119 Section 91.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  3. Ant Colony Optimization and the Minimum Cut Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kötzing, Timo; Lehre, Per Kristian; Neumann, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a powerful metaheuristic for solving combinatorial optimization problems. With this paper we contribute to the theoretical understanding of this kind of algorithm by investigating the classical minimum cut problem. An ACO algorithm similar to the one that was prov...

  4. Debate on the impact of minimum wages on employment continues ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-12-04

    Dec 4, 2012 ... Whether minimum wages affect the job market depends a lot on the extent to ... and security) – no significant disemployment effects were reported.” ... Hosting global events is a popular strategy for boosting city profiles and ...

  5. 36 CFR 223.61 - Establishing minimum stumpage rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing.... No timber may be sold or cut under timber sale contracts for less than minimum stumpage rates except... amounts of material not meeting utilization standards of the timber sale contract. For any timber sale...

  6. 47 CFR 73.807 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and the right-hand column lists (for informational purposes only) the minimum distance necessary for...) Within 320 km of the Mexican border, LP100 stations must meet the following separations with respect to any Mexican stations: Mexican station class Co-channel (km) First-adjacent channel (km) Second-third...

  7. Minimum Requirements for Core Competency in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Elizabeth A; Burke, Margaret M; Johnson, Peter N; Klein, Kristin C; Miller, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    Colleges of pharmacy provide varying amounts of didactic and clinical hours in pediatrics resulting in variability in the knowledge, skills, and perceptions of new graduates toward pediatric pharmaceutical care. The Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) endorses the application of a minimum set of core competencies for all pharmacists involved in the care of hospitalized children.

  8. The"minimum information about an environmental sequence" (MIENS) specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, P.; Kottmann, R.; Field, D.; Knight, R.; Cole, J.R.; Amaral-Zettler, L.; Gilbert, J.A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, I.; Johnston, A.; Cochrane, G.; Vaughan, R.; Hunter, C.; Park, J.; Morrison, N.; Rocca-Serra, P.; Sterk, P.; Arumugam, M.; Baumgartner, L.; Birren, B.W.; Blaser, M.J.; Bonazzi, V.; Bork, P.; Buttigieg, P. L.; Chain, P.; Costello, E.K.; Huot-Creasy, H.; Dawyndt, P.; DeSantis, T.; Fierer, N.; Fuhrman, J.; Gallery, R.E.; Gibbs, R.A.; Giglio, M.G.; Gil, I. San; Gonzalez, A.; Gordon, J.I.; Guralnick, R.; Hankeln, W.; Highlander, S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Jansson, J.; Kennedy, J.; Knights, D.; Koren, O.; Kuczynski, J.; Kyrpides, N.; Larsen, R.; Lauber, C.L.; Legg, T.; Ley, R.E.; Lozupone, C.A.; Ludwig, W.; Lyons, D.; Maguire, E.; Methe, B.A.; Meyer, F.; Nakieny, S.; Nelson, K.E.; Nemergut, D.; Neufeld, J.D.; Pace, N.R.; Palanisamy, G.; Peplies, J.; Peterson, J.; Petrosino, J.; Proctor, L.; Raes, J.; Ratnasingham, S.; Ravel, J.; Relman, D.A.; Assunta-Sansone, S.; Schriml, L.; Sodergren, E.; Spor, A.; Stombaugh, J.; Tiedje, J.M.; Ward, D.V.; Weinstock, G.M.; Wendel, D.; White, O.; Wikle, A.; Wortman, J.R.; Glockner, F.O.; Bushman, F.D.; Charlson, E.; Gevers, D.; Kelley, S.T.; Neubold, L.K.; Oliver, A.E.; Pruesse, E.; Quast, C.; Schloss, P.D.; Sinha, R.; Whitely, A.

    2010-10-15

    We present the Genomic Standards Consortium's (GSC) 'Minimum Information about an ENvironmental Sequence' (MIENS) standard for describing marker genes. Adoption of MIENS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity across the Tree of Life as it is currently being documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.

  9. Design of Linear - and Minimum-phase FIR-equalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Jensen, K.J.; Gaunholt, Hans

    1996-01-01

    an error function which is quadratic in the filtercoefficients. The advantage of the quadratic function is the ability to find the optimal coefficients solving a system of linear equations without iterations.The transformation to a minimum-phase equalizer is carried out by homomorphic deconvolution...

  10. Teenagers and the Minimum Wage in Retail Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Philip G.; Wadycki, Walter J.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of minimum wage policy on the hiring of teenagers in relation to adult laborers in retail trade has been assessed through analysis of a study sample of 353 male and 391 female retail trade employees who were part of the 1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity. (LH)

  11. State Flexibility: The Minimum Wage and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst., Washington, DC.

    In 1999, Congress for the first time, is debating a federal minimum wage hike that will affect low-skilled people who have dramatically fewer options if they cannot find work. This public policy debate has been occasioned by the new state focus on welfare reform that, to some, suggests that a state flexibility approach be applied to the minimum…

  12. Interpreting Minimum Wage Effects on Wage Distributions: A Cautionary Tale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Flinn

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWhile it is tempting to infer the welfare effects of minimum wage changes from empirical observations on pre- and post-change wage distributions, in this exercise we have attempted to point out the hazards of doing so. We have focused on wage distributions in this paper, but this

  13. Researching the Minimum Wage: A Moral Economy for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverow-Turk, Vara

    1991-01-01

    Describes a writing assignment that requires students to research and report on what it would be like to live on minimum wage. Explains that this assignment is not really any different than the traditional assignment, it is simply more obvious about its political content because it involves an inquiry into economics rather than literature or…

  14. Adding Curvature to Minimum Description Length Shape Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling seeks a compact description of a set of shapes in terms of the coordinates of marks on the shapes. It has been shown that the mark positions resulting from this optimisation to a large extent solve the so-called point correspondence...

  15. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2003-01-01

    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  16. Relationship between the edgewise compression strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study were used to determine the linear regression constants in the Maltenfort model by correlating the measured board edgewise compression strength (ECT) with the predicted strength, using the paper components' compression strengths, measured with the short-span compression test (SCT) and the ...

  17. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  18. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  19. LDPC Codes with Minimum Distance Proportional to Block Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes characterized by minimum Hamming distances proportional to block sizes have been demonstrated. Like the codes mentioned in the immediately preceding article, the present codes are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. The previously mentioned codes have low decoding thresholds and reasonably low error floors. However, the minimum Hamming distances of those codes do not grow linearly with code-block sizes. Codes that have this minimum-distance property exhibit very low error floors. Examples of such codes include regular LDPC codes with variable degrees of at least 3. Unfortunately, the decoding thresholds of regular LDPC codes are high. Hence, there is a need for LDPC codes characterized by both low decoding thresholds and, in order to obtain acceptably low error floors, minimum Hamming distances that are proportional to code-block sizes. The present codes were developed to satisfy this need. The minimum Hamming distances of the present codes have been shown, through consideration of ensemble-average weight enumerators, to be proportional to code block sizes. As in the cases of irregular ensembles, the properties of these codes are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code having too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code having too many such nodes tends not to exhibit a minimum distance that is proportional to block size. Results of computational simulations have shown that the decoding thresholds of codes of the present type are lower than those of regular LDPC codes. Included in the simulations were a few examples from a family of codes characterized by rates ranging from low to high and by thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds; the simulation results from these examples showed that the codes in question have low

  20. Compressive Strength of Cometary Surfaces Derived from Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElShafie, A.; Heggy, E.

    2014-12-01

    Landing on a comet nucleus and probing it, mechanically using harpoons, penetrometers and drills, and electromagnetically using low frequency radar waves is a complex task that will be tackled by the Rosetta mission for Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The mechanical properties (i.e. density, porosity and compressive strength) and the electrical properties (i.e. the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant) of the comet nucleus, constrain both the mechanical and electromagnetic probing capabilities of Rosetta, as well as the choice of landing site, the safety of the landing, and subsurface data interpretation. During landing, the sounding radar data that will be collected by Rosetta's CONSERT experiment can be used to probe the comet's upper regolith layer by assessing its dielectric properties, which are then inverted to retrieve the surface mechanical properties. These observations can help characterize the mechanical properties of the landing site, which will optimize the operation of the anchor system. In this effort, we correlate the mechanical and electrical properties of cometary analogs to each other, and derive an empirical model that can be used to retrieve density, porosity and compressive strength from the dielectric properties of the upper regolith inverted from CONSERT observations during the landing phase. In our approach we consider snow as a viable cometary material analog due to its low density and its porous nature. Therefore, we used the compressive strength and dielectric constant measurements conducted on snow at a temperature of 250 K and a density range of 0.4-0.9 g/cm3 in order to investigate the relation between compressive strength and dielectric constant under cometary-relevant density range. Our results suggest that compressive strength increases linearly as function of the dielectric constant over the observed density range mentioned above. The minimum and maximum compressive strength of 0.5 and 4.5 MPa corresponded to a

  1. Minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS) and minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS) specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, Pelin; Kottmann, Renzo; Field, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a standard developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting marker gene sequences--the minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS). We also introduce a system for describing the environment from which a biological sample originates. The 'environment...

  2. Natural Frequencies of Wind Turbines on Monopile Foundations in Clayey Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Vahdatirad, Mohammadjavad; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive study is performed on the stiffness of a monopile foundation supporting an offshore wind turbine in undrained, over-consolidated clay having a spatial variation of the soil properties. The undrained shear strength is considered as a stochastic field with increasing mean value over...

  3. Cobalt: for strength and color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.; Kropschot, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt is a shiny, gray, brittle metal that is best known for creating an intense blue color in glass and paints. It is frequently used in the manufacture of rechargeable batteries and to create alloys that maintain their strength at high temperatures. It is also one of the essential trace elements (or "micronutrients") that humans and many other living creatures require for good health. Cobalt is an important component in many aerospace, defense, and medical applications and is a key element in many clean energy technologies. The name cobalt comes from the German word kobold, meaning goblin. It was given this name by medieval miners who believed that troublesome goblins replaced the valuable metals in their ore with a substance that emitted poisonous fumes when smelted. The Swedish chemist Georg Brandt isolated metallic cobalt-the first new metal to be discovered since ancient times-in about 1735 and identified some of its valuable properties.

  4. High-strength beryllium block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, N.P.; Keith, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium billets hot isopressed using fine powder of high purity have exceptionally attractive properties; average tensile ultimate, 0.2% offset yield strength and elongation are 590 MPa, 430 MPa and 4.0% respectively. Properties are attributed to the fine grain size (about 4.0 μm average diameter) and the relatively low levels of BeO present as fine, well-dispersed particles. Dynamic properties, e.g., fracture toughness, are similar to those of standard grade, high-purity beryllium. The modulus of beryllium is retained to very high stress levels, and the microyield stress or precision elastic limit is higher than for other grades, including instrument grades. Limited data for billets made from normal-purity fine powders show similar room temperature properties. (author)

  5. Swimbladder on Fish Target Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses of target strength (TS for the Selar boops (Oxeye scad and Megalaspis cordyla (Torpedo scad, the most commercially fish in Malaysia. TS can be determined from in situ measurements and acoustic calculation of fish model. TS value, depth, and position (x-y-z of targeted fish can be viewed from echogram using FQ-80 Analyzer by in situ measurement. X-ray imaged can be deployed to develop the acoustic fish model. The percentage of length and upper surface area for swimbladder to body fish of Selar boops more than Megalaspis cordyla can be measured after X-ray process. The percentage of width and volume of swimbladders to its each body are no significantly difference for both fish. These data of swimbladder physic support the result of in situ measurement which TS of Megalaspis cordyla stronger Selar boops.

  6. Preparation, mechanical strengths, and thermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Furukawa, S.; Hagiwara, M.; Masumoto, T.

    1987-05-01

    Ni-based amorphous wires with good bending ductility have been prepared for Ni75Si8B17 and Ni78P12B10 alloys containing 1 to 2 at. pct Al or Zr by melt spinning in rotating water. The enhancement of the wire-formation tendency by the addition of Al has been clarified to be due to the increase in the stability of the melt jet through the formation of a thin A12O3 film on the outer surface. The maximum wire diameter is about 190 to 200 μm for the Ni-Si (or P)-B-Al alloys and increases to about 250 μm for the Ni-Si-B-Al-Cr alloys containing 4 to 6 at. pct Cr. The tensile fracture strength and fracture elongation are 2730 MPa and 2.9 pct for (Ni0.75Si0.08B0.17 99Al1) wire and 2170 MPa and 2.4 pct for (Ni0.78P0.12B0.1)99Al1 wire. These wires exhibit a fatigue limit under dynamic bending strain in air with a relative humidity of 65 pct; this limit is 0.50 pct for a Ni-Si-B-Al wire, which is higher by 0.15 pct than that of a Fe75Si10B15 amorphous wire. Furthermore, the Ni-base wires do not fracture during a 180-deg bending even for a sample annealed at temperatures just below the crystallization temperature, in sharp contrast to high embrittlement tendency for Fe-base amorphous alloys. Thus, the Ni-based amorphous wires have been shown to be an attractive material similar to Fe- and Co-based amorphous wires because of its high static and dynamic strength, high ductility, high stability to thermal embrittlement, and good corrosion resistance.

  7. Is the minimum enough? Affordability of a nutritious diet for minimum wage earners in Nova Scotia (2002-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Felicia D; Williams, Patricia L; Watt, Cynthia G

    2014-05-09

    This paper aims to assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia (NS) from 2002 to 2012 using an economic simulation that includes food costing and secondary data. The cost of the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB) was assessed with a stratified, random sample of grocery stores in NS during six time periods: 2002, 2004/2005, 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2012. The NNFB's cost was factored into affordability scenarios for three different household types relying on minimum wage earnings: a household of four; a lone mother with three children; and a lone man. Essential monthly living expenses were deducted from monthly net incomes using methods that were standardized from 2002 to 2012 to determine whether adequate funds remained to purchase a basic nutritious diet across the six time periods. A 79% increase to the minimum wage in NS has resulted in a decrease in the potential deficit faced by each household scenario in the period examined. However, the household of four and the lone mother with three children would still face monthly deficits ($44.89 and $496.77, respectively, in 2012) if they were to purchase a nutritiously sufficient diet. As a social determinant of health, risk of food insecurity is a critical public health issue for low wage earners. While it is essential to increase the minimum wage in the short term, adequately addressing income adequacy in NS and elsewhere requires a shift in thinking from a focus on minimum wage towards more comprehensive policies ensuring an adequate livable income for everyone.

  8. Association Between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H; Brown, Justin C; Gater, David R; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength among breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Community-dwelling breast cancer survivors (N=295). Not applicable. 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer, with 3 maximal contractions of the left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Among 295 breast cancer survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1kg (range, 2.2-43.0kg), and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8kg (range, 9.0-43.0kg). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7kg (95% limits of agreement, -8.2 to 17.6kg). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=.31; Pstrength (R 2 =.23). Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer survivors. 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anetai, Yusuke, E-mail: anetai@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 2-2, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ota, Seiichi [Department of Medical Technology, Osaka University Hospital, Yamadaoka 2-15, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: CyberKnife{sup ®} robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony{sup ®} mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife{sup ®}. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony{sup ®} mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife{sup ®} was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy

  10. Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anetai, Yusuke; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ota, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: CyberKnife"® robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony"® mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife"®. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony"® mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife"® was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy affected by respiratory

  11. Reference Values of Grip Strength, Prevalence of Low Grip Strength, and Factors Affecting Grip Strength Values in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Ong, Sherlin; Cheung, Osbert; Leung, Jason; Woo, Jean

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to update the reference values of grip strength, to estimate the prevalence of low grip strength, and to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol on grip strength values in Chinese adults. A cross-sectional survey of Chinese men (n = 714) and women (n = 4014) aged 18-102 years was undertaken in different community settings in Hong Kong. Grip strength was measured with a digital dynamometer (TKK 5401 Grip-D; Takei, Niigata, Japan). Low grip strength was defined as grip strength 2 standard deviations or more below the mean for young adults. The effects of measurement protocol on grip strength values were examined in a subsample of 45 men and women with repeated measures of grip strength taken with a hydraulic dynamometer (Baseline; Fabrication Enterprises Inc, Irvington, NY), using pair t-tests, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland and Altman plots. Grip strength was greater among men than among women (P values than the Baseline hydraulic dynamometer (P values were also observed when the measurement was performed with the elbow extended in a standing position, compared with that with the elbow flexed at 90° in a sitting position, using the same dynamometer (P values of grip strength and estimated the prevalence of low grip strength among Chinese adults spanning a wide age range. These findings might be useful for risk estimation and evaluation of interventions. However, grip strength measurements should be interpreted with caution, as grip strength values can be affected by type of dynamometer used, assessment posture, and elbow position. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Nimphius, Sophia; Bellon, Christopher R; Stone, Michael H

    2018-04-01

    This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete's training status and the dose-response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete's training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should

  13. Numerical analyses of caisson breakwaters on soft foundations under wave cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-zhan; Yan, Zhen; Wang, Yu-chi

    2016-03-01

    A caisson breakwater is built on soft foundations after replacing the upper soft layer with sand. This paper presents a dynamic finite element method to investigate the strength degradation and associated pore pressure development of the intercalated soft layer under wave cyclic loading. By combining the undrained shear strength with the empirical formula of overconsolidation clay produced by unloading and the development model of pore pressure, the dynamic degradation law that describes the undrained shear strength as a function of cycle number and stress level is derived. Based on the proposed dynamic degradation law and M-C yield criterion, a dynamic finite element method is numerically implemented to predict changes in undrained shear strength of the intercalated soft layer by using the general-purpose FEM software ABAQUS, and the accuracy of the method is verified. The effects of cycle number and amplitude of the wave force on the degradation of the undrained shear strength of the intercalated soft layer and the associated excess pore pressure response are investigated by analyzing an overall distribution and three typical sections underneath the breakwater. By comparing the undrained shear strength distributions obtained by the static method and the quasi-static method with the undrained shear strength distributions obtained by the dynamic finite element method in the three typical sections, the superiority of the dynamic finite element method in predicting changes in undrained shear strength is demonstrated.

  14. Minimum disturbance rewards with maximum possible classical correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, Varad R., E-mail: varad_pande@yahoo.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Pune, 411008 (India); Shaji, Anil [School of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram, 695016 (India)

    2017-07-12

    Weak measurements done on a subsystem of a bipartite system having both classical and nonClassical correlations between its components can potentially reveal information about the other subsystem with minimal disturbance to the overall state. We use weak quantum discord and the fidelity between the initial bipartite state and the state after measurement to construct a cost function that accounts for both the amount of information revealed about the other system as well as the disturbance to the overall state. We investigate the behaviour of the cost function for families of two qubit states and show that there is an optimal choice that can be made for the strength of the weak measurement. - Highlights: • Weak measurements done on one part of a bipartite system with controlled strength. • Weak quantum discord & fidelity used to quantify all correlations and disturbance. • Cost function to probe the tradeoff between extracted correlations and disturbance. • Optimal measurement strength for maximum extraction of classical correlations.

  15. Physical activity and respiratory muscle strength in elderly: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Dutra Pereira

    Full Text Available Introduction The aging will inevitably bring some kind of functional decline in elderly, sarcopenia in this sense stands out because it damages the muscle function and extend also to the respiratory muscles. Objective Systematically review studies that have sought to compare the strength of respiratory muscles between sedentary and physically active elderly in training programs nonspecific respiratory musculature. Materials and methods From the descriptors motor activity, respiratory muscles and elderly, the databases LILACS, MedLine, Cochrane, PEDro, Scirus and Redalyc were consulted. Results Of 1.263 experiments available in said databases, 12 were recovered and 6 were selected due they meet all the inclusion criteria and selection requirements. Conclusion Physical activity programs offered by the selected studies led physically active elderly to have respiratory muscle strength statistically higher than the sedentary. However, this condition did not expressed itself as security to these elderly to present strength levels above of the minimum predictive of normality.

  16. Traditional versus functional strength training: Effects on muscle strength and power in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Hilde Lohne; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Anderssen, Sigmund A.

    2013-01-01

    Published versiom of an article in the journal:Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Also available from Human Kinetics: http://http://journals.humankinetics.com/japa-back-issues/japa-volume-21-issue-1-january/traditional-versus-functional-strength-training-effects-on-muscle-strength-and-power-in-the-elderly The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderl...

  17. [Storage of plant protection products in farms: minimum safety requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Alfonzo, Santo; Rubbiani, Maristella

    2012-01-01

    Failure to comply with requirements for proper storage and use of pesticides in farms can be extremely hazardous and the risk of accidents involving farm workers, other persons and even animals is high. There are still wide differences in the interpretation of the concept of "securing or making safe", by workers in this sector. One of the critical points detected, particularly in the fruit sector, is the establishment of an adequate storage site for plant protection products. The definition of "safe storage of pesticides" is still unclear despite the recent enactment of Legislative Decree 81/2008 regulating health and work safety in Italy. In addition, there are no national guidelines setting clear minimum criteria for storage of plant protection products in farms. The authors, on the basis of their professional experience and through analysis of recent legislation, establish certain minimum safety standards for storage of pesticides in farms.

  18. Measurement of Minimum Bias Observables with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kvita, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes. It has also a significant relevance for the simulation of the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (“pileup”). The ATLAS collaboration has provided new measurements of the inclusive charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at center of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements cover a wide spectrum using charged particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged particle multiplicities.

  19. PORTFOLIO COMPOSITION WITH MINIMUM VARIANCE: COMPARISON WITH MARKET BENCHMARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Menezes Cavalcante

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio optimization strategies are advocated as being able to allow the composition of stocks portfolios that provide returns above market benchmarks. This study aims to determine whether, in fact, portfolios based on the minimum variance strategy, optimized by the Modern Portfolio Theory, are able to achieve earnings above market benchmarks in Brazil. Time series of 36 securities traded on the BM&FBOVESPA have been analyzed in a long period of time (1999-2012, with sample windows of 12, 36, 60 and 120 monthly observations. The results indicated that the minimum variance portfolio performance is superior to market benchmarks (CDI and IBOVESPA in terms of return and risk-adjusted return, especially in medium and long-term investment horizons.

  20. Lower bounds for the minimum distance of algebraic geometry codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter

    , such as the Goppa bound, the Feng-Rao bound and the Kirfel-Pellikaan bound. I will finish my talk by giving several examples. Especially for two-point codes, the generalized order bound is fairly easy to compute. As an illustration, I will indicate how a lower bound can be obtained for the minimum distance of some...... description of these codes in terms of order domains has been found. In my talk I will indicate how one can use the ideas behind the order bound to obtain a lower bound for the minimum distance of any AG-code. After this I will compare this generalized order bound with other known lower bounds...

  1. The Factors that Determine the Minimum Speed of an Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, F H

    1921-01-01

    The author argues that because of a general misunderstanding of the principles of flight at low speed, there are a large number of airplanes that could be made to fly several miles per hour slower than at present by making slight modifications. In order to show how greatly the wing section affects the minimum speed, curves are plotted against various loadings. The disposition of wings on the airplane slightly affects the lift coefficient, and a few such cases are discussed. Another factor that has an effect on minimum speed is the extra lift exerted by the slip stream on the wings. Also discussed are procedures to be followed by the pilot, especially with regard to stick movements during low speed flight. Also covered are stalling, yaw, rolling moments, lateral control, and the effectiveness of ailerons and rudders.

  2. Minimum energy consumption process synthesis for energy saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao-Ping, Jia [Institute for Petroleum and Chemical Industry, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, Shandong (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fang, Wang; Shu-Guang, Xiang; Xin-Sun, Tan; Fang-Yu, Han [Institute for Petroleum and Chemical Industry, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, Shandong (China)

    2008-05-15

    The paper presents a synthesis strategy for the chemical processes with energy saving. The concept of minimum energy consumption process (MECP) is proposed. Three characteristics of MECP are introduced, including thermodynamic minimum energy demand, energy consumption efficiency and integration degree. These characteristics are evaluated according to quantitative thermodynamic analysis and qualitative knowledge rules. The procedure of synthesis strategy is proposed to support the generation of MECP alternatives, which combine flowsheet integration and heat integration. The cases studies will focus on how integration degrees of a process affect the energy-saving results. The separation sequences of the hydrodealkylation of toluene (HDA) process and ethanol distillation process as case studies are used to illustrate. (author)

  3. Normalized Minimum Error Entropy Algorithm with Recursive Power Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namyong Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimum error entropy (MEE algorithm is known to be superior in signal processing applications under impulsive noise. In this paper, based on the analysis of behavior of the optimum weight and the properties of robustness against impulsive noise, a normalized version of the MEE algorithm is proposed. The step size of the MEE algorithm is normalized with the power of input entropy that is estimated recursively for reducing its computational complexity. The proposed algorithm yields lower minimum MSE (mean squared error and faster convergence speed simultaneously than the original MEE algorithm does in the equalization simulation. On the condition of the same convergence speed, its performance enhancement in steady state MSE is above 3 dB.

  4. Allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.

    1988-05-01

    The paper develops methodology and procedure for determining the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for continued safe operation of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis method based on the J-integral tearing modulus (J/T) approach is used. Closed from expressions for the applied J and tearing modulus are presented for finite length, part-throughwall axial flaw with aspect ratio of 1/6. Solutions are then presented for Section III, Appendix G flaw. A simple flaw evaluation procedure that can be applied quickly by utility engineers is presented. An attractive feature of the simple procedure is that tearing modulus calculations are not required by the user, and a solution for the slope of the applied J/T line is provided. Results for the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness are presented for a range of reactor pressure vessel thickness and heatup/cooldown rates.

  5. Are There Long-Run Effects of the Minimum Wage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    An empirical consensus suggests that there are small employment effects of minimum wage increases. This paper argues that these are short-run elasticities. Long-run elasticities, which may differ from short-run elasticities, are policy relevant. This paper develops a dynamic industry equilibrium model of labor demand. The model makes two points. First, long-run regressions have been misinterpreted because even if the short- and long-run employment elasticities differ, standard methods would not detect a difference using US variation. Second, the model offers a reconciliation of the small estimated short-run employment effects with the commonly found pass-through of minimum wage increases to product prices.

  6. Reforming the minimum wage: Toward a psychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The field of psychology has periodically used its professional and scholarly platform to encourage national policy reform that promotes the public interest. In this article, the movement to raise the federal minimum wage is presented as an issue meriting attention from the psychological profession. Psychological support for minimum wage reform derives from health disparities research that supports the causal linkages between poverty and diminished physical and emotional well-being. Furthermore, psychological scholarship relevant to the social exclusion of low-income people not only suggests additional benefits of financially inclusive policymaking, it also indicates some of the attitudinal barriers that could potentially hinder it. Although the national living wage debate obviously extends beyond psychological parameters, psychologists are well-positioned to evaluate and contribute to it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper develops methodology and procedure for determining the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for continued safe operation of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis method based on the J-integral tearing modulus (J/T) approach is used. Closed from expressions for the applied J and tearing modulus are presented for finite length, part-throughwall axial flaw with aspect ratio of 1/6. Solutions are then presented for Section III, Appendix G flaw. A simple flaw evaluation procedure that can be applied quickly by utility engineers is presented. An attractive feature of the simple procedure is that tearing modulus calculations are not required by the user, and a solution for the slope of the applied J/T line is provided. Results for the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness are presented for a range of reactor pressure vessel thickness and heatup/cooldown rates. (orig.)

  8. Sunspots During the Maunder Minimum from Machina Coelestis by Hevelius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, V. M. S.; Álvarez, J. Villalba; Vaquero, J. M.

    2015-10-01

    We revisited the sunspot observations published by Johannes Hevelius in his book Machina Coelestis (1679) corresponding to the period of 1653 - 1675 (just in the middle of the Maunder Minimum). We show detailed translations of the original Latin texts describing the sunspot records and provide the general context of these sunspot observations. From this source, we present an estimate of the annual values of the group sunspot number based only on the records that explicitly inform us of the presence or absence of sunspots. Although we obtain very low values of the group sunspot number, in accordance with a grand minimum of solar activity, these values are significantly higher in general than the values provided by Hoyt and Schatten ( Solar Phys. 179, 189, 1998) for the same period.

  9. Pengoperasian Beban Listrik Fase Tunggal Terkendali Melalui Minimum System Berbasis Mikrokontroler Dan Sensor Voice Recognition (Vr)

    OpenAIRE

    Goeritno, Arief; Ginting, Sandy Ferdiansyah; Yatim, Rakhmad

    2017-01-01

    Minimum system berbasis mikrokontroler dan sensor voice recognition (VR) sebagai pengendali aktuator telah digunakan untuk pengoperasian beban listrik fase tunggal. Minimum system adalah suatu sistem yang tersusun melalui 2 (dua) tahapan, yaitu (a) diagram rangkaian dan bentuk fisis board dan (b) pengawatan terintegrasi terhadap minimum system pada sistem mikrokontroler ATmega16. Keberadaan sistem mikrokontroler pada minimum system perlu program tertanam melalui pemrograman berbasis bahasa ...

  10. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-4 - Minimum investment of lessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum investment of lessor. 5c.168(f)(8)-4....168(f)(8)-4 Minimum investment of lessor. (a) Minimum investment. Under section 168(f)(8)(B)(ii), an... has a minimum at risk investment which, at the time the property is placed in service under the lease...

  11. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the minimum...

  12. 41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable to...

  13. 29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that an...

  14. Survival at the Center - The Stability of Minimum Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hehenkamp , Burkhard; Wambach , Achim

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We model a Hotelling market with multidimensional product differentiation in an evolutionary framework. Both evolutionary stability (in the sense of Schaffer, 1989) and stochastic stability (following Kandori et al., 1993, and Young, 1993) are analysed. It is shown that firms move towards the center in product space, i.e. a "principle of minimum differentiation" on all dimensions of the product space applies.

  15. Minimum weight passive insulation requirements for hypersonic cruise vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived for two representative cases of the transient heat conduction equation to determine the minimum weight requirements for passive insulation systems of hypersonic cruise vehicles. The cases discussed are the wet wall case with the interior wall temperature held to that of the boiling point of the fuel throughout the flight, and the dry wall case where the heat transferred through the insulation is absorbed by the interior structure whose temperature is allowed to rise.

  16. Challenging Minimum Deterrence: Articulating the Contemporary Relevance of Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    elements of the US nuclear force gives this debate added meaning and urgency . One alternative currently under discus- sion is minimum deterrence. This...in 2013 illustrates this concept well.55 In this sense , an escalation-deterrence force would supply the tools neces- sary for context-specific...Shaub, “Remembrance of Things Past,” 78–79, 82. 16. Ibid., 80. For further elaboration of this argument, see James Forsyth’s “The Common Sense of

  17. Upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we consider the notions of exact and approximate decision reducts for binary decision tables. We present upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts depending on the number of rows (objects) in the decision table. We show that the bound for exact reducts is unimprovable in the general case, and the bound for approximate reducts is almost unimprovable in the general case. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. The power of reordering for online minimum makespan scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Englert, Matthias; Özmen, Deniz; Westermann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In the classic minimum makespan scheduling problem, we are given an input sequence of jobs with processing times. A scheduling algorithm has to assign the jobs to m parallel machines. The objective is to minimize the makespan, which is the time it takes until all jobs are processed. In this paper, we consider online scheduling algorithms without preemption. However, we do not require that each arriving job has to be assigned immediately to one of the machines. A reordering buffer with limited...

  19. Minimum-domain impulse theory for unsteady aerodynamic force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, L. L.; Liu, L. Q.; Su, W. D.; Wu, J. Z.

    2018-01-01

    We extend the impulse theory for unsteady aerodynamics from its classic global form to finite-domain formulation then to minimum-domain form and from incompressible to compressible flows. For incompressible flow, the minimum-domain impulse theory raises the finding of Li and Lu ["Force and power of flapping plates in a fluid," J. Fluid Mech. 712, 598-613 (2012)] to a theorem: The entire force with discrete wake is completely determined by only the time rate of impulse of those vortical structures still connecting to the body, along with the Lamb-vector integral thereof that captures the contribution of all the rest disconnected vortical structures. For compressible flows, we find that the global form in terms of the curl of momentum ∇ × (ρu), obtained by Huang [Unsteady Vortical Aerodynamics (Shanghai Jiaotong University Press, 1994)], can be generalized to having an arbitrary finite domain, but the formula is cumbersome and in general ∇ × (ρu) no longer has discrete structures and hence no minimum-domain theory exists. Nevertheless, as the measure of transverse process only, the unsteady field of vorticity ω or ρω may still have a discrete wake. This leads to a minimum-domain compressible vorticity-moment theory in terms of ρω (but it is beyond the classic concept of impulse). These new findings and applications have been confirmed by our numerical experiments. The results not only open an avenue to combine the theory with computation-experiment in wide applications but also reveal a physical truth that it is no longer necessary to account for all wake vortical structures in computing the force and moment.

  20. The Vital Minimum Amount of Drinking Water Required in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Martínez Moscoso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2017, the government of Ecuador established the minimum quantity of water required to be provided for free by drinking water utilities. Ecuador recognized the access to water as a fundamental human right because it guarantees the good living, known as “Sumak kawsay”, an indigenous Andean concept, in the Ecuadorian Constitution. This represents a novel approach to water rights in the world, as it is the first attempt to establish a minimum quantity of water under a constitutional guarantee by legislation, rather than regulation or judicial decision. However, this novel legislative approach raises the question of how this minimum amount of free water will impact the most vulnerable members of the Ecuadorian community. This paper provides the results of the first comprehensive research of the minimum required water provision in Ecuador. In order to measure the impact on the income of households, we built a methodology integrating: doctrinaire analyses, normative studies, and economic analyses. According to the Ecuadorian legislation, over-consumption of raw water generates additional costs that must be paid by water companies to the central government. In that regard, there is an inevitable relationship between the efficiency of the service and those additional costs. Efficiency, on this case, is the capacity of water companies (public or private to provide water services at an adequate price, observing the following parameters: quantity, quality and sufficiency. Our research found that with this legislation in three Ecuadorian local governments (Cuenca, Gualaceo and Suscal, the most vulnerable households (i.e., low-income and/or indigenous households will be affected the most. This means that and those families will spend the most part of their income on water services otherwise they would have to reduce their water consumption.

  1. Detailed spectroscopy in the superdeformed second minimum of 240Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirolf, P.G.; Gassmann, D.; Habs, D.; Chromik, M.J.; Eisermann, Y.; Graw, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Maier, H.J.; Metz, A.; Reiter, P.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Superdeformed prolate nuclei, having an axis ratio of about 2:1, have first been discovered in fission isomers in the actinide region almost 40 years ago by Polikanov et al.. Their interpretation of being the result of microscopic shell corrections on top of the macroscopic liquid drop potential leading to a second minimum in the nuclear potential energy surface is well established. 240 Pu with its 3.7 ns fission isomer may be regarded as the prototype nucleus for spectroscopic studies of superdeformed actinide nuclei since the identification of the ground state rotational band in conversion electron measurements [1]. Though from the knowledge on excited states in the first minimum and previous measurements in the second minimum low-lying collective excitations in the second minimum low-lying collective excitations in the second well of 240 Pu can be expected, none of them has been experimentally identified so far. Quite surprisingly, no low-lying collective quadrupole excitations could be observed in a recent detailed high-resolution and high-efficiency γ-spectroscopy experiment [2]. Complementary information could be obtained in conversion electron measurements in coincidence with isomeric fission performed at the Garching Accelerator Laboratory, resulting in the first identification of the lowest β-vibrational band [3]. In a combined analysis of the γ-spectroscopic and conversion electron data conversion coefficients α K or limits on α K could be deduced, thus allowing to determine the multipolarities of the transitions. A predominant population of negative parity states in the second well could be observed that can be explained by the filtering function of the inner and outer fission barrier. Complementary transmission resonance measurements have been performed, yielding new information on the fine structure of (β-)vibrational multi-phonon states. A new method could be established to determine the excitation energy of

  2. Designing minimum data sets of health smart card system

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtaram Nematollahi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays different countries benefit from health system based on health cards and projects related to smart cards. Lack of facilities which cover this technology is obvious in our society. This paper aims to design Minimum Data Sets of Health Smart Card System for Iran. Method: This research was an applied descriptive study. At first, we reviewed the same projects and guidelines of selected countries and the proposed model was designed in accordance to the country’s ...

  3. Minimum deterrence and regional security. Section 2. Other regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azikiwe, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Compared to European political and security circumstance, minimum deterrence is less an illusion in other regions where weapon free zones already exist. It will continue to be relevant to the security of other regions. Strategic arms limitation should be pursued vigorously in a constructive and pragmatic manner, bearing in mind the need to readjust to new global challenges. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is the linchpin on which the Non-proliferation Treaty rests

  4. Minimum ionizing particle detection using amorphous silicon diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, J.; Hollingsworth, R.E.; Buitrago, R.H. (Glasstech Solar, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (USA)); Oakley, D.; Cumalat, J.P.; Nauenberg, U. (Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics); McNeil, J.A. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden (USA). Dept. of Physics); Anderson, D.F. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Perez-Mendez, V. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon pin diodes have been used to detect minimum ionizing electrons with a pulse height signal-to-noise ratio exceeding 3. A distinct signal was seen for shaping times from 100 to 3000 ns. The devices used had a 54 {mu}m thick intrinsic layer and an active area of 0.1 cm{sup 2}. The maximum signal was 3200 electrons with a noise width of 950 electrons for a shaping time of 250 ns. (orig.).

  5. Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Frank J.; Ulloa, Osvaldo; DeLong, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics in these environments. Here, we present a metatranscriptomic survey of microbial community metabolism in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific OMZ off northern Chile. Community RNA was sampled in late austral autumn from four depths (50, 85, 110, 200 m) extending across the oxycl...

  6. A Theory of Compliance with Minimum Wage Law

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice; Jellal Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – In this paper, we introduce firm heterogeneity in the context of a model of non-compliance with minimum wage legislation. Design/methodology/approach – Theoretical modeling under government compliance policy and wages & employment under non compliance. Findings – The introduction of heterogeneity in the ease with which firms can be monitored for non compliance allows us to show that non-compliance will persist in sectors which are relatively difficult to monitor, despite the governm...

  7. Minimum Plate Thickness in High-Speed Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The minimum plate thickness requirements specified by the classification societies for high-speed craft are supposed to ensure adequate resistance to impact loads such as collision with floating objects and objects falling on the deck. The paper presents analytical methods of describing such impact...... phenomena and proposes performance requirements instead of thickness requirements for hull panels in high-speed craft made of different building materials....

  8. Vibrational motion in a symmetric, double minimum potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Molecular vibrational motion in a symmetric, double minimum potential is treated by means of a quartic model potential, by reference to the tables published by Jaan Laane and the results of harmonic analyses for the stationary points. The inversion vibration of ammonia is treated in detail. - Not...... on the harmonic approximation for polyatomic molecules are appended. - Presented at a NORFA Workshop in Hirtshals, Denmark, August 1997....

  9. Passivity Based Stabilization of Non-minimum Phase Nonlinear Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Travieso-Torres, J.C.; Duarte-Mermoud, M.A.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2009), s. 417-426 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : nonlinear systems * stabilisation * passivity * state feedback Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-passivity based stabilization of non-minimum phase nonlinear systems.pdf

  10. Anisotropic Failure Strength of Shale with Increasing Confinement: Behaviors, Factors and Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Li, Xiao; Qian, Haitao

    2017-11-15

    Some studies reported that the anisotropic failure strength of shale will be weakened by increasing confinement. In this paper, it is found that there are various types of anisotropic strength behaviors. Four types of anisotropic strength ratio ( S A 1 ) behaviors and three types of anisotropic strength difference ( S A 2 ) behaviors have been classified based on laboratory experiments on nine groups of different shale samples. The cohesion c w and friction angle ϕ w of the weak planes are proven to be two dominant factors according to a series of bonded-particle discrete element modelling analyses. It is observed that shale is more prone to a slight increase of S A 1 and significant increase of S A 2 with increasing confinement for higher cohesion c w and lower to medium friction angle ϕ w . This study also investigated the mechanism of the anisotropic strength behaviors with increasing confinement. Owing to different contributions of c w and ϕ w under different confinements, different combinations of c w and ϕ w may have various types of influences on the minimum failure strength with the increasing confinement; therefore, different types of anisotropic behaviors occur for different shale specimens as the confinement increases. These findings are very important to understand the stability of wellbore and underground tunneling in the shale rock mass, and should be helpful for further studies on hydraulic fracture propagations in the shale reservoir.

  11. Does cruciate retention primary total knee arthroplasty affect proprioception, strength and clinical outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Pieter-Jan T K; Parys, Roel; Tampere, Thomas; Linden, Patrick; Van den Daelen, Luc; Verdonk, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    It remains unclear what the contribution of the PCL is in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of the PCL in TKA in relationship to clinical outcome, strength and proprioception. Two arthroplasty designs were compared: a posterior cruciate-substituting (PS) and a posterior cruciate-retaining (CR) TKA. A retrospective analysis was performed of 27 CR and 18 PS implants with a minimum of 1 year in vivo. Both groups were compared in terms of clinical outcome (range of motion, visual analogue scale for pain, Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Scoring system, Lysholm score and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score), strength (Biodex System 3 Dynamometer(®)) and proprioception (balance and postural control using the Balance Master system(®)). Each design was also compared to the non-operated contralateral side in terms of strength and proprioception. There were no significant differences between both designs in terms of clinical outcome and strength. In terms of proprioception, only the rhythmic weight test at slow and moderate speed shifting from left to right was significant in favour of the CR design. None of the unilateral stance tests showed any significant difference between both designs. There was no difference in terms of strength and proprioception between the operated side and the non-operated side. Retaining the PCL in TKA does not result in an improved performance in terms of clinical outcome and proprioception and does not show any difference in muscle strength. III.

  12. Relativistic configuration interaction treatment of generalized oscillator strength for krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huangchun; Qu Yizhi; Liu Chunhua

    2007-01-01

    A fully relativistic configuration interaction method is developed to investigate the transition energies and general oscillator strengths of the lower lying states of krypton, for both optically allowed and optically forbidden transitions. The calculated results are in agreement with the recent experimental measurements. The calculated transition energies for the 5s and 5s' transitions are 9.970 and 10.717 eV, which agree with the experimental data of 10.033 and 10.643 eV. The calculated oscillator strengths are 0.211 and 0.170, comparable with the experimental results 0.214(±0.012) and 0.194 (±0.012), respectively. The momentum transfer positions (K 2 in a.u.) of the minimum and maximum GOSs in the 4s 2 4p 6 →4s 2 4p 5 (5s + 5s') transitions are 1.105 and 2.225, comparable with the measurements results 1.24 and 2.97. (authors)

  13. On the Total Edge Irregularity Strength of Generalized Butterfly Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Wahyuna, Hafidhyah; Indriati, Diari

    2018-04-01

    Let G(V, E) be a connected, simple, and undirected graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A total k-labeling is a map that carries vertices and edges of a graph G into a set of positive integer labels {1, 2, …, k}. An edge irregular total k-labeling λ: V(G) ∪ E(G) → {1, 2, …, k} of a graph G is a total k-labeling such that the weights calculated for all edges are distinct. The weight of an edge uv in G, denoted by wt(uv), is defined as the sum of the label of u, the label of v, and the label of uv. The total edge irregularity strength of G, denoted by tes(G), is the minimum value of the largest label k over all such edge irregular total k-labelings. A generalized butterfly graph, BFn , obtained by inserting vertices to every wing with assumption that sum of inserting vertices to every wing are same then it has 2n + 1 vertices and 4n ‑ 2 edges. In this paper, we investigate the total edge irregularity strength of generalized butterfly graph, BFn , for n > 2. The result is tes(B{F}n)=\\lceil \\frac{4n}{3}\\rceil .

  14. Relativistic Configuration Interaction Treatment of Generalized Oscillator Strength for Krypton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huang-Chun; QU Yi-Zhi; LIU Chun-Hua

    2007-01-01

    A fully relativistic configuration interaction method is developed to investigate the transition energies and general oscillator strengths of the lower lying states of krypton, for both optically allowed and optically forbidden transitions. The calculated results are in agreement with the recent experimental measurements. The calculated transition energies for the 5s and 5s' transitions are 9.970 and 10.717eV, which agree with the experimental data of 10.033 and 10.643 eV. The calculated oscillator strengths are 0.211 and 0.170, comparable with the experimental results 0.214(±0.012) and 0.194 (±0.012), respectively. The momentum transfer positions ( K2 in a.u.) of the minimum and maximum GOSs in the 4s24p6 → 4s24p5 (5s + 5s') transitions are 1.105 and 2.225, comparable with the measurements results 1.24 and 2.97 [Phys. Rev. A 67 (2003) 062708].

  15. Evaluation of methods for increasing vacuum breakdown strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.D.; Cooke, C.M.; Berman, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    Research to determine the effectiveness of coated and gas shielded cathodes as a means of increasing vacuum breakdown strength under short pulse conditions is reported. A technique for rapidly evaluating large numbers of coatings on small electrodes at relatively low pulse voltage (120 kV or less) and methods for testing larger electrodes and fewer coatings at higher total voltage were developed. Experiments with gas shielded cathodes were also conducted. Results suggest that it may be possible to eliminate prebreakdown current and to double breakdown strength by applying a suitable coating to the cathode. Breakdown stresses in excess of 2 MV/cm were obtained in a 0.5 mm gap with sputtered coatings of alumina, Cr 2 O 3 , and several readily available epoxies. Electrodes two orders of magnitude greater in area were tested, and stresses approaching 1 MV/cm were measured in 5 mm gaps for several epoxies and for alumina. It has further been shown that, because similar trends occurred in the data from large and small experiments, it should be possible to screen potential coatings rapidly and effectively with minimum expenditure using a method similar to that employed for small electrodes at low pulse voltage

  16. Improved initial guess for minimum energy path calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidstrup, Søren; Pedersen, Andreas; Stokbro, Kurt; Jónsson, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented for generating a good initial guess of a transition path between given initial and final states of a system without evaluation of the energy. An objective function surface is constructed using an interpolation of pairwise distances at each discretization point along the path and the nudged elastic band method then used to find an optimal path on this image dependent pair potential (IDPP) surface. This provides an initial path for the more computationally intensive calculations of a minimum energy path on an energy surface obtained, for example, by ab initio or density functional theory. The optimal path on the IDPP surface is significantly closer to a minimum energy path than a linear interpolation of the Cartesian coordinates and, therefore, reduces the number of iterations needed to reach convergence and averts divergence in the electronic structure calculations when atoms are brought too close to each other in the initial path. The method is illustrated with three examples: (1) rotation of a methyl group in an ethane molecule, (2) an exchange of atoms in an island on a crystal surface, and (3) an exchange of two Si-atoms in amorphous silicon. In all three cases, the computational effort in finding the minimum energy path with DFT was reduced by a factor ranging from 50% to an order of magnitude by using an IDPP path as the initial path. The time required for parallel computations was reduced even more because of load imbalance when linear interpolation of Cartesian coordinates was used

  17. Designing minimum data sets of health smart card system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaram Nematollahi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays different countries benefit from health system based on health cards and projects related to smart cards. Lack of facilities which cover this technology is obvious in our society. This paper aims to design Minimum Data Sets of Health Smart Card System for Iran. Method: This research was an applied descriptive study. At first, we reviewed the same projects and guidelines of selected countries and the proposed model was designed in accordance to the country’s needs, taking people’s attitude about it by Delphi technique. A data analysis in study stage of MDS(Minimum Data Sets of Health Smart Card in the selective countries was done by comparative tables and determination of similarities and differences of the MDS. In the stage of gaining credit for model, it was accomplished with descriptive statistics to the extent of absolute and relative frequency through SPSS (version 16. Results: MDS of Health Smart Card for Iran is presented in the patient’s card and health provider’s card on basisof studiesin America, Australia, Turkey and Belgium and needs of our country and after doing Delphi technique with 94 percent agreement confirmed. Conclusion: Minimum Data Sets of Health Smart Card provides continuous care for patients and communication among providers. So, it causes a decrease in the complications of threatening diseases. Collection of MDS of diseases increases the quality of care assessment

  18. Locally Minimum Storage Regenerating Codes in Distributed Cloud Storage Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wang; Wei Luo; Wei Liang; Xiangyang Liu; Xiaodai Dong

    2017-01-01

    In distributed cloud storage sys-tems, inevitably there exist multiple node fail-ures at the same time. The existing methods of regenerating codes, including minimum storage regenerating (MSR) codes and mini-mum bandwidth regenerating (MBR) codes, are mainly to repair one single or several failed nodes, unable to meet the repair need of distributed cloud storage systems. In this paper, we present locally minimum storage re-generating (LMSR) codes to recover multiple failed nodes at the same time. Specifically, the nodes in distributed cloud storage systems are divided into multiple local groups, and in each local group (4, 2) or (5, 3) MSR codes are constructed. Moreover, the grouping method of storage nodes and the repairing process of failed nodes in local groups are studied. The-oretical analysis shows that LMSR codes can achieve the same storage overhead as MSR codes. Furthermore, we verify by means of simulation that, compared with MSR codes, LMSR codes can reduce the repair bandwidth and disk I/O overhead effectively.

  19. Bistable minimum energy structures (BiMES) for binary robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follador, M; Conn, A T; Rossiter, J

    2015-01-01

    Bistable minimum energy structures (BiMES) are devices derived from the union of the concepts of dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures and bistable systems. This article presents this novel approach to active, elastic and bistable structures. BiMES are based on dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), which act as antagonists and provide the actuation for switching between the two equilibrium positions. A central elastic beam is the backbone of the structure and is buckled into the minimum energy configurations by the action of the two DEAs. The theory and the model of the device are presented, and also its fabrication process. BiMES are considered as fundamental units for more complex structures, which are presented and fabricated as proof of concept. Two different ways of combining the multiple units are proposed: a parallel configuration, to make a simple gripper, and a serial configuration, to generate a binary device. The possibility of using the bistable system as a continuous bender actuator, by modulating the actuation voltage of the two DEAs, was also investigated. (paper)

  20. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.