WorldWideScience

Sample records for minimum internal control

  1. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement procedures at least...

  2. 78 FR 63873 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ..., references to the drop and count team have been replaced with more general terminology (i.e., authorized... gaming regulatory authorities and operation management are in the best position to define the term and... Management and Budget as required by 44 U.S.C. 3501, et seq., and assigned OMB Control Number 3141-0009....

  3. 25 CFR 542.19 - What are the minimum internal control standards for accounting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.19 What are the minimum internal control standards for... part and by the Tribal internal control standards; (6) Journal entries prepared by the gaming...

  4. 25 CFR 542.16 - What are the minimum internal control standards for information technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.16 What are the minimum internal control... to adhere to tribal internal control standards applicable to the goods and services the vendor...

  5. 25 CFR 542.9 - What are the minimum internal control standards for card games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for card... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.9 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in...

  6. 25 CFR 542.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for the... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.14 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in...

  7. 25 CFR 542.15 - What are the minimum internal control standards for credit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.15 What are the minimum internal control standards for... procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this section, as...

  8. 25 CFR 542.8 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pull... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.8 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in...

  9. 25 CFR 542.12 - What are the minimum internal control standards for table games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for table... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.12 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in...

  10. 25 CFR 542.10 - What are the minimum internal control standards for keno?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for keno... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.10 What are the minimum internal control standards for... procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this section, as...

  11. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... while tribes and operations transition to the new Class II Minimum Internal Control Standards that were... part 543, Minimum Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, with comprehensive and updated...

  12. 76 FR 53817 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II... delay of the effective date on the final rule for Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming... sections of established Minimum Internal Control Standards and replaced them with a new part titled...

  13. 25 CFR 542.22 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.22 What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier A gaming operations? (a)...

  14. 25 CFR 542.32 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.32 What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier B gaming operations? (a)...

  15. 25 CFR 542.42 - What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.42 What are the minimum internal control standards for internal audit for Tier C gaming operations? (a)...

  16. 75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... the extension of the effective date on the final rule for Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class... internal controls found in Sec. 543.3(c)(3) to October 13, 2011, in order to extend the transition...

  17. 25 CFR 542.17 - What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary services or items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.17 What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary services or items? (a) Each Tribal gaming regulatory authority...

  18. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is...

  19. 25 CFR 542.43 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for a Tier C gaming operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.43 What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for a Tier C gaming operation? (a) The surveillance...

  20. 25 CFR 542.33 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier B gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.33 What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier B gaming operations? (a) The surveillance system...

  1. 25 CFR 542.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier A gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.23 What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier A gaming operations? (a) Tier A gaming operations...

  2. 25 CFR 543.16 - What are the minimum internal controls for information technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... quarterly user access review must be maintained. (vii) System exception information (e.g., changes to system.../auditing systems; (iii) Cashless systems; (iv) Voucher systems; (v) Player tracking systems; and (vi... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal controls for...

  3. Minimum quality standards and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which...... prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating....

  4. 14 CFR 25.149 - Minimum control speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 25.149 Section 25... Minimum control speed. (a) In establishing the minimum control speeds required by this section, the method... prevent a heading change of more than 20 degrees. (e) VMCG, the minimum control speed on the ground,...

  5. Internal Controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Managing risk is essential for positioning a company for growth in the current business environment.Yet as companies around the world clamber to inplement integrated risk controls in light of corlporate meltdowns and terrorist concems,many firms fail to pull the weeds out of their own backyard in China before trying to harvest the profitable crops!

  6. Control Techtronics International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.

    1995-12-31

    Polish graded coal can be burned in existing stoker boilers and meet the 1998 Air Quality standard. This is accomplished with the Control Techtronics microprocessor-based combustion controller accurately and repeatedly: (a) matching the combustion air to the coal firing rate, with continuous stack sensor feedback; (b) continuously varying the boiler`s firing rate based on output water temperature or steam pressure; (c) continuously varying the exhaust fan`s speed to maintain minimum negative pressure in the boiler`s combustion chamber; and recirculating a portion of the flue gas, at varying amounts throughout the boiler`s firing rate. Systems for five boilers have been installed and are operating on MPEC`s Balicka plant in Krakow. Control Techtronics International has $10 million of U.S. Export-Import Bank funds available for similar projects throughout Poland.

  7. 14 CFR 23.1513 - Minimum control speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 23.1513 Section 23.1513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1513 Minimum control speed. The minimum control speed V MC, determined under § 23.149,...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1513 - Minimum control speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 25.1513 Section 25.1513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 25.1513 Minimum control speed. The minimum control speed V MC determined under § 25.149 must...

  9. 25 CFR 542.31 - What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and count for Tier B gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Pit marker issue and payment slips (if applicable) removed from the table game drop boxes shall either.../payment slip for each table is accurate. (9) Foreign currency exchange forms (if applicable) removed from... comparable controls. (i) Alternatively, an on-the-floor drop system utilizing a mobile scale shall...

  10. 78 FR 11793 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... that govern cash handling, documentation, game integrity, auditing, surveillance, and variances, as... recently on September 21, 2012. 77 FR 58708. III. Development of the Proposed Rule On September 21, 2012... drop figures must be transferred via direct communications line or computer storage media to the...

  11. 77 FR 58707 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... statistical records before the deal is finished, the Commission eliminated requirements for conducting a statistical review at regular intervals. The Commission agrees that statistical analysis is useful for pull... the standard to progressive prize meters exceeding specified thresholds. The Commission believes...

  12. 77 FR 32444 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), including, but not limited to, the standards... accounting procedures into their respective sections. DATES: Submit comments on or before July 31, 2012... of the supervision provisions throughout the proposed rule. The Commission has revised each...

  13. Veterinary practice internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, T E

    1996-02-01

    This chapter explores the responsive management requirements critical for effective internal controls. Internal control techniques offered include the application of segregation of function, goal-orientation, performance planning, and training objectives in five veterinary practice areas. These areas are client controls, cash controls, inventory controls, purchase controls, and stock controls. Because only trusted staff members are given access to practice assets, the veterinary leadership must have a responsive management plan to protect the life of the practice while building the practice team. Methods are shared for controlling opportunities that can lead to employee fraud while concurrently building a team approach to internal controls.

  14. 14 CFR 23.149 - Minimum control speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 23.149 Section 23... Maneuverability § 23.149 Minimum control speed. (a) VMC is the calibrated airspeed at which, when the critical... still inoperative, and thereafter maintain straight flight at the same speed with an angle of bank...

  15. A unified model-free controller for switching minimum phase, non-minimum phase and time-delay systems

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary work presents a simple derivation of the standard model-free control in order to control switching minimum phase, non-minimum phase and time-delay systems. The robustness of the proposed method is studied in simulation.

  16. Minimum energy control and optimal-satisfactory control of Boolean control network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fangfei, E-mail: li_fangfei@163.com; Lu, Xiwen

    2013-12-09

    In the literatures, to transfer the Boolean control network from the initial state to the desired state, the expenditure of energy has been rarely considered. Motivated by this, this Letter investigates the minimum energy control and optimal-satisfactory control of Boolean control network. Based on the semi-tensor product of matrices and Floyd's algorithm, minimum energy, constrained minimum energy and optimal-satisfactory control design for Boolean control network are given respectively. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained results.

  17. Internal budget control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mervete Shala

    2011-06-01

    Generally, duties of internal control officers within ministries and institutions must be clearly divided to reduce the risk of inco-rrect behaviour. Operations of an efficient control mechanism influence and ensure conditions for rule of law, good governance, and democracy.

  18. Minimum Thrust Load Control for Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Bak, Thomas; Knudsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    presents a new minimum thrust control strategy capable of stabilizing a floating wind turbine. The new control strategy explores the freedom of variable generator speed above rated wind speed. A comparison to the traditional constant speed strategy, shows improvements in structural fore-aft oscillations...

  19. Internal control system

    OpenAIRE

    Pavésková, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Dissertation focuse on the internal control system in the enterprises, aims to map the control system by focusing on the purchasing department. I focused on the purchasing process, because with an increasing trends of outsourcing services and the increasing interconnectedness of enterprises increases the risk of fraud currently in the purchasing process. To the research was selected the sample of companies from the banking and non-banking environment, to which were sent a questionnaire focusi...

  20. Robustification and Optimization in Repetitive Control For Minimum Phase and Non-Minimum Phase Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasitmeeboon, Pitcha

    repetitive control FIR compensator. The aim is to reduce the final error level by using real time frequency response model updates to successively increase the cutoff frequency, each time creating the improved model needed to produce convergence zero error up to the higher cutoff. Non-minimum phase systems present a difficult design challenge to the sister field of Iterative Learning Control. The third topic investigates to what extent the same challenges appear in RC. One challenge is that the intrinsic non-minimum phase zero mapped from continuous time is close to the pole of repetitive controller at +1 creating behavior similar to pole-zero cancellation. The near pole-zero cancellation causes slow learning at DC and low frequencies. The Min-Max cost function over the learning rate is presented. The Min-Max can be reformulated as a Quadratically Constrained Linear Programming problem. This approach is shown to be an RC design approach that addresses the main challenge of non-minimum phase systems to have a reasonable learning rate at DC. Although it was illustrated that using the Min-Max objective improves learning at DC and low frequencies compared to other designs, the method requires model accuracy at high frequencies. In the real world, models usually have error at high frequencies. The fourth topic addresses how one can merge the quadratic penalty to the Min-Max cost function to increase robustness at high frequencies. The topic also considers limiting the Min-Max optimization to some frequencies interval and applying an FIR zero-phase low-pass filter to cutoff the learning for frequencies above that interval.

  1. Generalized Minimum Variance Control for MDOF Structures under Earthquake Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhdar Guenfaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of a multi-degree-of-freedom structural system under earthquake excitation is investigated in this paper. The control approach based on the Generalized Minimum Variance (GMV algorithm is developed and presented. Our approach is a generalization to multivariable systems of the GMV strategy designed initially for single-input-single-output (SISO systems. Kanai-Tajimi and Clough-Penzien models are used to generate the seismic excitations. Those models are calculated using the specific soil parameters. Simulation tests using a 3DOF structure are performed and show the effectiveness of the control method.

  2. Design of RTDA controller for industrial process using SOPDT model with minimum or non-minimum zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasan, K; Srinivasan, K

    2015-07-01

    This research paper focuses on the design and development of simplified RTDA control law computation formulae for SOPDT process with minimum or non-minimum zero. The design of RTDA control scheme consists of three main components namely process output prediction, model prediction update and control action computation. The systematic approach for computation of the above three components for SOPDT process with minimum or non-minimum zero is developed in this paper. The design, implementation and performance evaluation of the developed controller is demonstrated via simulation examples. The closed loop equation, block diagram representation and theoretical stability derivation for RTDA controller are developed. The performance of proposed controller is compared with IMC, SPC, MPC and PID controller and it is demonstrated on Industrial non-linear CSTR process.

  3. Design and Control of Nonlinear Mechanical Systems for Minimum Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated methodology for optimal design and control of nonlinear flexible mechanical systems, including minimum time problems. This formulation is implemented in an optimum design code and it is applied to the nonlinear behavior dynamic response. Damping and stiffness characteristics plus control driven forces are considered as decision variables. A conceptual separation between time variant and time invariant design parameters is presented, this way including the design space into the control space and considering the design variables as control variables not depending on time. By using time integrals through all the derivations, design and control problems are unified. In the optimization process we can use both types of variables simultaneously or by interdependent levels. For treating minimum time problems, a unit time interval is mapped onto the original time interval, then treating equally time variant and time invariant problems. The dynamic response and its sensitivity are discretized via space-time finite elements, and may be integrated either by at-once integration or step-by-step. Adjoint system approach is used to calculate the sensitivities.

  4. Chaos control in an economic model via minimum entropy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salarieh, Hassan [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: salarieh@mech.sharif.edu; Alasty, Aria [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Research Institute for Science Policy (NRISP), Soheil Street, Shirazi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: aalasti@sharif.edu

    2009-04-30

    In this paper, minimum entropy algorithm for controlling chaos, is applied to a Cournot duopoly with different constant marginal costs, as a discrete-time dynamical system which shows chaotic behavior. The ME control is implemented through delayed feedback. It is assumed that the equations of the dynamical system are not known, so the feedback gain cannot be obtained analytically from the system equations. In the ME method the feedback gain is obtained adaptively in such a way that the entropy of the system converges to zero, hence a fixed point of the system will be stabilized. Application of the proposed method with different economic control strategies is numerically investigated. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the ME method for controlling chaos in economic systems with unknown equations.

  5. International Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    Use for Addicts .................................................... 34 Figures Figure 1. Map of World Drug Majors in FY2009...cannabis resin, coca leaf, cocaine, heroin, and opium. Psychotropic substances include ecstasy,2 LSD ,3 amphetamine, and methamphetamine. Examples of other...methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine). 3 LSD is the street name for lysergic acid diethylamide. 4 The most recent international effort to estimate the value of

  6. Operational Control of Internal Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. van der Meer (Robert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOperational Control of Internal Transport considers the control of guided vehicles in vehicle-based internal transport systems found in facilities such as warehouses, production plants, distribution centers and transshipment terminals. The author's interest of research having direct use

  7. A Broadband Beamformer Using Controllable Constraints and Minimum Variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2014-01-01

    The minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) and the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) beamformers are two optimal approaches in the sense of noise reduction. The LCMV beamformer can also reject interferers using linear constraints at the expense of reducing the degree of freedom...

  8. Expanding Internal Control Functionality Scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola M. Vuitsiv

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the influence of «western» concepts of the information needs of management process provisions on forming and developing the up-to-date model of Internal Control. An attempt has been made to develop the approach to solve urgent management tasks by applying the ideas of controlling and management accounting via the traditional national approach to the content of control. The place of control in the enterprise management information system has also been reviewed.

  9. Minimum power requirement for environmental control of aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, J.C.; Bejan, A. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States). Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science

    2003-10-01

    This paper addresses two basic issues in the thermodynamic optimization of environmental control systems (ECS) for aircraft: realistic limits for the minimal power requirement, and design features that facilitate operation at minimal power consumption. Four models are proposed and optimized. In the first, the ECS operates reversibly, the air stream in the cabin is mixed to one temperature, and the cabin experiences heat transfer with the ambient, across its insulation. The cabin temperature is fixed. In the second model, the fixed cabin temperature is assigned to the internal solid surfaces of the cabin, and a thermal resistance separates these surfaces from the air mixed in the cabin. In the third model, the ECS operates irreversibly, based on the bootstrap air cycle. The fourth model combines the ECS features of the third model with the cabin-environment interaction features of the second model. It is shown that in all models the temperature of the air stream that the ECS delivers to the cabin can be optimized for operation at minimal power. The effect of other design parameters and flying conditions is documented. The optimized air delivery temperature is relatively insensitive to the complexity of the model; for example, it is insensitive to the size of the heat exchanger used in the bootstrap air cycle. This study adds to the view that robustness is a characteristic of optimized complex flow systems, and that thermodynamic optimization results can be used for orientation in the pursuit of more complex and realistic designs. (author)

  10. The internal control of tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Shuvalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to study the theoretical and practical issues of internal fiscal control. Internal tax control system requires the development of methodological tools, its scientific basis and practical recommendations for the application. This difficult task is now solved only in organizations, which are the largest taxpayers. For small and medium-sized businesses in the organization of internal fiscal control may improve the quality of the accounting organization of the company. The internal control system has a positive effect on the further development of business and helps to attract investment or loans. There are new business opportunities due to the presence of an established and controlled by the system the company’s financial department. From the point of view of tax authorities increase the economic potential of the taxpayer provides the growth of the tax base and therefore increase revenues. Thus, the development of methodological tools of internal fiscal control organizations is of relevance to all participants of tax relations. The theoretical basis of the study served as a position of economic theory, the works of local and foreign experts in the field of tax control theory. The information base for the study were the statistical compilations, economic and legal literature, affecting the perspective of this study, laws and regulations of the Russian Federation, instructions, letters, explanations of the Federal Tax Service and the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, the data published in the press materials all-Russian scientific and practical conferences, seminars and Internet resources.

  11. The current issues of internal control and internal audit harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Синюгіна, Наталія Вікторівна

    2013-01-01

    The relevance of topics related to a harmonization of internal control and internal audit system of internal financial control is being proved. It is high lightened the essence of harmonization period by reviewing existing thoughts on this object, a concept of 'harmonization of internal control and internal audit", and provided reasonably practical recommendations to ensure such harmonization in the modern world. The scientific impact of this research is to clarify the concept of "harmonizati...

  12. 49 CFR 192.476 - Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Design and... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.476 Internal corrosion control: Design and construction... the risk of internal corrosion. At a minimum, unless it is impracticable or unnecessary to do so,...

  13. Designing a robust minimum variance controller using discrete slide mode controller approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipouri, Yousef; Poshtan, Javad

    2013-03-01

    Designing minimum variance controllers (MVC) for nonlinear systems is confronted with many difficulties. The methods able to identify MIMO nonlinear systems are scarce. Harsh control signals produced by MVC are among other disadvantages of this controller. Besides, MVC is not a robust controller. In this article, the Vector ARX (VARX) model is used for simultaneously modeling the system and disturbance in order to tackle these disadvantages. For ensuring the robustness of the control loop, the discrete slide mode controller design approach is used in designing MVC and generalized MVC (GMVC). The proposed method for controller design is tested on a nonlinear experimental Four-Tank benchmark process and is compared with nonlinear MVCs designed by neural networks. In spite of the simplicity of designing GMVCs for the VARX models with uncertainty, the results show that the proposed method is accurate and implementable.

  14. Optimizing controllability of complex networks by minimum structural perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Xu; Ni, Xuan; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2012-02-01

    To drive a large, complex, networked dynamical system toward some desired state using as few external signals as possible is a fundamental issue in the emerging field of controlling complex networks. Optimal control is referred to the situation where such a network can be fully controlled using only one driving signal. We propose a general approach to optimizing the controllability of complex networks by judiciously perturbing the network structure. The principle of our perturbation method is validated theoretically and demonstrated numerically for homogeneous and heterogeneous random networks and for different types of real networks as well. The applicability of our method is discussed in terms of the relative costs of establishing links and imposing external controllers. Besides the practical usage of our approach, its implementation elucidates, interestingly, the intricate relationship between certain structural properties of the network and its controllability.

  15. A Minimum Relative Entropy Controller for Undiscounted Markov Decision Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, Pedro A

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive control problems are notoriously difficult to solve even in the presence of plant-specific controllers. One way to by-pass the intractable computation of the optimal policy is to restate the adaptive control as the minimization of the relative entropy of a controller that ignores the true plant dynamics from an informed controller. The solution is given by the Bayesian control rule-a set of equations characterizing a stochastic adaptive controller for the class of possible plant dynamics. Here, the Bayesian control rule is applied to derive BCR-MDP, a controller to solve undiscounted Markov decision processes with finite state and action spaces and unknown dynamics. In particular, we derive a non-parametric conjugate prior distribution over the policy space that encapsulates the agent's whole relevant history and we present a Gibbs sampler to draw random policies from this distribution. Preliminary results show that BCR-MDP successfully avoids sub-optimal limit cycles due to its built-in mechanism to...

  16. THE INTERNAL CONTROL MODELS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Internal control is indissolubly linked to business and accounting. Throughout history, domestic and international trade has grown exponentially, which has led to an increasing complexity of internal control, to new methods and techniques to control the business. The literature has presented the first models of internal control in the Sumerian period (3600 - 3200 BC), and the emergence and development of internal control in Egypt, Persia, Greek and Roman Empire, in the Middle Ages...

  17. THE INTERNAL CONTROL MODELS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    TEODORESCU CRISTIAN DRAGOS

    2015-01-01

    Internal control is indissolubly linked to business and accounting. Throughout history, domestic and international trade has grown exponentially, which has led to an increasing complexity of internal control, to new methods and techniques to control the business. The literature has presented the first models of internal control in the Sumerian period (3600 - 3200 BC), and the emergence and development of internal control in Egypt, Persia, Greek and Roman Empire, in the Middle Ages till modern...

  18. Optimal actuator location of minimum norm controls for heat equation with general controlled domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bao-Zhu; Xu, Yashan; Yang, Dong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study optimal actuator location of the minimum norm controls for a multi-dimensional heat equation with control defined in the space L2 (Ω × (0 , T)). The actuator domain is time-varying in the sense that it is only required to have a prescribed Lebesgue measure for any moment. We select an optimal actuator location so that the optimal control takes its minimal norm over all possible actuator domains. We build a framework of finding the Nash equilibrium so that we can develop a sufficient and necessary condition to characterize the optimal relaxed solutions for both actuator location and corresponding optimal control of the open-loop system. The existence and uniqueness of the optimal classical solutions are therefore concluded. As a result, we synthesize both optimal actuator location and corresponding optimal control into a time-varying feedbacks.

  19. Semi-global robust output regulation of minimum-phase nonlinear systems based on high-gain nonlinear internal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xile; Lu, Meili; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, K. M.; Deng, Bin; Che, Yanqiu

    2010-05-01

    We consider the assumption of existence of the general nonlinear internal model that is introduced in the design of robust output regulators for a class of minimum-phase nonlinear systems with rth degree (r ≥ 2). The robust output regulation problem can be converted into a robust stabilisation problem of an augmented system consisting of the given plant and a high-gain nonlinear internal model, perfectly reproducing the bounded including not only periodic but also nonperiodic exogenous signal from a nonlinear system, which satisfies some general immersion assumption. The state feedback controller is designed to guarantee the asymptotic convergence of system errors to zero manifold. Furthermore, the proposed scheme makes use of output feedback dynamic controller that only processes information from the regulated output error by using high-gain observer to robustly estimate the derivatives of the regulated output error. The stabilisation analysis of the resulting closed-loop systems leads to regional as well as semi-global robust output regulation achieved for some appointed initial condition in the state space, for all possible values of the uncertain parameter vector and the exogenous signal, ranging over an arbitrary compact set.

  20. Establishing a minimum dataset for prospective registration of systematic reviews: an international consultation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Booth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In response to growing recognition of the value of prospective registration of systematic review protocols, we planned to develop a web-based open access international register. In order for the register to fulfil its aims of reducing unplanned duplication, reducing publication bias, and providing greater transparency, it was important to ensure the appropriate data were collected. We therefore undertook a consultation process with experts in the field to identify a minimum dataset for registration. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A two-round electronic modified Delphi survey design was used. The international panel surveyed included experts from areas relevant to systematic review including commissioners, clinical and academic researchers, methodologists, statisticians, information specialists, journal editors and users of systematic reviews. Direct invitations to participate were sent out to 315 people in the first round and 322 in the second round. Responses to an open invitation to participate were collected separately. There were 194 (143 invited and 51 open respondents with a 100% completion rate in the first round and 209 (169 invited and 40 open respondents with a 91% completion rate in the second round. In the second round, 113 (54% of the participants reported having previously taken part in the first round. Participants were asked to indicate whether a series of potential items should be designated as optional or required registration items, or should not be included in the register. After the second round, a 70% or greater agreement was reached on the designation of 30 of 36 items. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the Delphi exercise have established a dataset of 22 required items for the prospective registration of systematic reviews, and 18 optional items. The dataset captures the key attributes of review design as well as the administrative details necessary for registration.

  1. Internal Ballistic Code for Solid Rocket Motors using Minimum Distance Function for Grain Burnback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroz Javed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A computer code has been developed for internal ballistic performance evaluation of solid rocket motors, using minimum distance function (MDF approach for prediction of geometry evolution. This method can handle any complex geometry without the need to define different geometrical shapes and their evolution as used in several existing analytical geometry evolution-based methodologies. The code is validated with both experimental results published in literature, as well as for solid rocket motors of tactical and strategic missiles and a very good match is obtained with static test results. The output of the code gives p-t (pressure-time curve as well as the detailed parameters of the flow along the axial direction, and geometries in the form of mesh file, which can be further used as input to codes for CFD analysis.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 3, May 2015, pp.181-188, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.8304

  2. Automated Clutch of AMT Vehicle Based on Adaptive Generalized Minimum Variance Controller

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ze Li; Xinhao Yang

    2014-01-01

    ... of the automated clutch of automatic mechanical transmission vehicle. In this paper, an adaptive generalized minimum variance controller is applied to the automated clutch, which is driven by a brushless DC motor...

  3. Minimum Energy Control of Descriptor Fractional Discrete–Time Linear Systems with Two Different Fractional Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajewski Łukasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reachability and minimum energy control of descriptor fractional discrete-time linear systems with different fractional orders are addressed. Using the Weierstrass–Kronecker decomposition theorem of the regular pencil, a solution to the state equation of descriptor fractional discrete-time linear systems with different fractional orders is given. The reachability condition of this class of systems is presented and used for solving the minimum energy control problem. The discussion is illustrated with numerical examples.

  4. On-Off Minimum-Time Control With Limited Fuel Usage: Global Optima Via Linear Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRIESSEN,BRIAN

    1999-09-01

    A method for finding a global optimum to the on-off minimum-time control problem with limited fuel usage is presented. Each control can take on only three possible values: maximum, zero, or minimum. The simplex method for linear systems naturally yields such a solution for the re-formulation presented herein because it always produces an extreme point solution to the linear program. Numerical examples for the benchmark linear flexible system are presented.

  5. Trends in social assistance, minimum income benefits and income polarization in an international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis collects six empirical studies regarding the developments of social assistance benefits, their determinants and the impact of the benefit changes on income polarization. The first study suggests that the real minimum income benefit levels increased in many OECD countries whilst minimum i

  6. Trends in social assistance, minimum income benefits and income polarization in an international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis collects six empirical studies regarding the developments of social assistance benefits, their determinants and the impact of the benefit changes on income polarization. The first study suggests that the real minimum income benefit levels increased in many OECD countries whilst minimum

  7. THE INTERNAL CONTROL MODELS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU CRISTIAN DRAGOȘ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control is indissolubly linked to business and accounting. Throughout history, domestic and international trade has grown exponentially, which has led to an increasing complexity of internal control, to new methods and techniques to control the business. The literature has presented the first models of internal control in the Sumerian period (3600 - 3200 BC, and the emergence and development of internal control in Egypt, Persia, Greek and Roman Empire, in the Middle Ages till modern times. The purpose of this article is to present the models of internal control in Romania, starting from the principles of the classical model of internal control (COSO model. For a better understanding of the implication of internal control in terms of public and private sector, I have structured the article in the following parts: (a the definition of internal control in the literature; (b the presentation of the COSO model; (c internal control and internal audit in public institutions; (d internal control issues in accounting regulations on the individual and consolidated annual financial statements; (e internal / managerial control; (f conclusions.

  8. Minimum Error Entropy Filter for Fault Detection of Networked Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Guolian Hou; Mifeng Ren; Lilong Du; Jianhua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, fault detection of networked control systems with random delays, packet dropout and noises is studied. The filter is designed using a minimum error entropy criterion. The residual generated by the filter is then evaluated to detect faults in networked control systems. An illustrative networked control system is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Minimum Error Entropy Filter for Fault Detection of Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolian Hou

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, fault detection of networked control systems with random delays, packet dropout and noises is studied. The filter is designed using a minimum error entropy criterion. The residual generated by the filter is then evaluated to detect faults in networked control systems. An illustrative networked control system is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Employee quality, monitoring environment and internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of internal control employees (ICEs on internal control quality. Using special survey data from Chinese listed firms, we find that ICE quality has a significant positive influence on internal control quality. We examine the effect of monitoring on this result and find that the effect is more pronounced for firms with strict monitoring environments, especially when the firms implement the Chinese internal control regulation system (CSOX, have higher institutional ownership or attach greater importance to internal control. Our findings suggest that ICEs play an important role in the design and implementation of internal control systems. Our study should be of interest to both top managers who wish to improve corporate internal control quality and regulators who wish to understand the mechanisms of internal control monitoring.

  11. A Minimum-energy Path-preserving Topology Control Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Zhao Lin; Xian Zhou; Yun Li

    2009-01-01

    The topology control strategies of wireless sensor networks are very important for reducing the energy consumption of sensor nodes and prolonging the life-span of networks. In this paper, we put forward a minimum-energy path-preserving topology control (MPTC) algorithm based on a concept of none k-redundant edges. MPTC not only resolves the problem of excessive energy consumption because of the unclosed region in small minimum-energy communication network (SMECN), but also preserves at least one minimum-energy path between every pair of nodes in a wireless sensor network. We also propose an energy-efficient reconfiguration protocol that maintains the minimum-energy path property in the case where the network topology changes dynamically. Finally, we demonstrate the performance improvements of our algorithm through simulation.

  12. 12 CFR 618.8430 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls. 618.8430 Section 618.8430 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM GENERAL PROVISIONS Internal Controls § 618.8430 Internal controls. Each Farm Credit institution's board of directors must adopt an...

  13. 48 CFR 519.7014 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7014 Internal controls. (a) The GSA Mentor-Protégé Program Manager will manage the Program. Internal controls will be established...

  14. 48 CFR 819.7112 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 819... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7112 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU... Program objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to...

  15. Minimum scale controlled topology optimization and experimental test of a micro thermal actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heo, S.; Yoon, Gil Ho; Kim, Y.Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the optimal topology design, fabrication and test of a micro thermal actuator. Because the minimum scale was controlled during the design optimization process, the production yield rate of the actuator was improved considerably; alternatively, the optimization design...... without scale control resulted in a very low yield rate. Using the minimum scale controlling topology design method developed earlier by the authors, micro thermal actuators were designed and fabricated through a MEMS process. Moreover, both their performance and production yield were experimentally...

  16. COSO internal control integrated framework 2013

    CERN Document Server

    American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

    2013-01-01

    Issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), the 2013 Internal Control – Integrated Framework(Framework) is expected to help organizations design and implement internal control in light of many changes in business and operating environments since the issuance of the original Framework in 1992. The new Framework retains the core definition of internal control and the five components of internal control, and it continues to emphasize the importance of management judgment in designing, implementing, and conducting a system of internal control, and in assessing its effectiveness. It broadens the application of internal control in addressing operations and reporting objectives, and clarifies the requirements for determining what constitutes effective internal control.

  17. SIMULATION STUDY OF GENERALIZED MINIMUM VARIANCE CONTROL FOR AN EXTRACTION TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xiaoping

    2003-01-01

    In an extraction turbine, pressure of the extracted steam and rotate speed of the rotor are two important controlled quantities. The traditional linear state feedback control method is not perfect enough to control the two quantities accurately because of existence of nonlinearity and coupling. A generalized minimum variance control method is studied for an extraction turbine. Firstly, a nonlinear mathematical model of the control system about the two quantities is transformed into a linear system with two white noises. Secondly, a generalized minimum variance control law is applied to the system.A comparative simulation is done. The simulation results indicate that precision and dynamic quality of the regulating system under the new control law are both better than those under the state feedback control law.

  18. Design High Efficiency-Minimum Rule Base PID Like Fuzzy Computed Torque Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khalilian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimum rule base Proportional Integral Derivative (PID Fuzzy Computed Torque Controller is presented in this research. The popularity of PID Fuzzy Computed Torque Controller can be attributed to their robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and partly to their functional simplicity. The process of setting of PID Fuzzy Computed Torque Controller can be determined as an optimization task. Over the years, use of intelligent strategies for tuning of these controllers has been growing. PID methodology has three inputs and if any input is described with seven linguistic values, and any rule has three conditions we will need 343 rules. It is too much work to write 343 rules. In this research the PID-like fuzzy controller can be constructed as a parallel structure of a PD-like fuzzy controller and a PI controller to have the minimum rule base. However computed torque controller is work based on cancelling decoupling and nonlinear terms of dynamic parameters of each link, this controller is work based on manipulator dynamic model and this technique is highly sensitive to the knowledge of all parameters of nonlinear robot manipulator’s dynamic equation. This research is used to reduce or eliminate the computed torque controller problem based on minimum rule base fuzzy logic theory to control of flexible robot manipulator system and testing of the quality of process control in the simulation environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK Simulator.

  19. A minimum-time based fuzzy logic dynamic braking resistor control for sub-synchronous resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, A.H.M.A. [University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2004-03-01

    Dynamically switched resistor banks connected to the generator transformer bus are known to improve transient stability of the power system. In this article, a braking resistor control strategy designed through fuzzy logic control theory has been proposed to damp the slowly growing sub-synchronous resonant (SSR) frequency oscillations of a power system. The proposed control has been tested on the IEEE second benchmark model for SSR studies. A fuzzy logic controller designed through a classical minimum-time strategy was compared with a general fuzzy strategy employing generator speed variation and acceleration as input to the controller. It was observed that the proposed minimum-time based fuzzy controller provides better damping control; and it is computationally very efficient. (author)

  20. Internal quality control: best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinns, Helen; Pitkin, Sarah; Housley, David; Freedman, Danielle B

    2013-12-01

    There is a wide variation in laboratory practice with regard to implementation and review of internal quality control (IQC). A poor approach can lead to a spectrum of scenarios from validation of incorrect patient results to over investigation of falsely rejected analytical runs. This article will provide a practical approach for the routine clinical biochemistry laboratory to introduce an efficient quality control system that will optimise error detection and reduce the rate of false rejection. Each stage of the IQC system is considered, from selection of IQC material to selection of IQC rules, and finally the appropriate action to follow when a rejection signal has been obtained. The main objective of IQC is to ensure day-to-day consistency of an analytical process and thus help to determine whether patient results are reliable enough to be released. The required quality and assay performance varies between analytes as does the definition of a clinically significant error. Unfortunately many laboratories currently decide what is clinically significant at the troubleshooting stage. Assay-specific IQC systems will reduce the number of inappropriate sample-run rejections compared with the blanket use of one IQC rule. In practice, only three or four different IQC rules are required for the whole of the routine biochemistry repertoire as assays are assigned into groups based on performance. The tools to categorise performance and assign IQC rules based on that performance are presented. Although significant investment of time and education is required prior to implementation, laboratories have shown that such systems achieve considerable reductions in cost and labour.

  1. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  2. A topology control algorithm for preserving minimum-energy paths in wireless ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhong; CHANG Yilin; CUI Can; ZHANG Xin

    2007-01-01

    In this Paper,a distributed topology control algorithm is proposed.By adjusting the transmission power of each node,this algorithm constructs a wireless network topology with minimum-energy property,i.e.,it preserves a minimum-energy path between every pair of nodes.Moreover,the proposed algorithm can be used in both homogenous and heterogeneous wireless networks.and it can also work without an explicit propagation channel model or the position information of nodes.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has advantages over the topology control algorithm based on direct-transmission region in terms of average node degree and power efficiency.

  3. Hypnosis control based on the minimum concentration of anesthetic drug for maintaining appropriate hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Eiko; Nishigaki, Yuki; Kanda, Chiaki; Takeda, Toshihiro; Shirakami, Gotaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hypnosis control method using Auditory Evoked Potential Index (aepEX) as a hypnosis index. In order to avoid side effects of an anesthetic drug, it is desirable to reduce the amount of an anesthetic drug during surgery. For this purpose many studies of hypnosis control systems have been done. Most of them use Bispectral Index (BIS), another hypnosis index, but it has problems of dependence on anesthetic drugs and nonsmooth change near some particular values. On the other hand, aepEX has an ability of clear distinction between patient consciousness and unconsciousness and independence of anesthetic drugs. The control method proposed in this paper consists of two elements: estimating the minimum effect-site concentration for maintaining appropriate hypnosis and adjusting infusion rate of an anesthetic drug, propofol, using model predictive control. The minimum effect-site concentration is estimated utilizing the property of aepEX pharmacodynamics. The infusion rate of propofol is adjusted so that effect-site concentration of propofol may be kept near and always above the minimum effect-site concentration. Simulation results of hypnosis control using the proposed method show that the minimum concentration can be estimated appropriately and that the proposed control method can maintain hypnosis adequately and reduce the total infusion amount of propofol.

  4. Design of Critical Control Systems for Non-Minimum Phase Plants via LTR Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Tadashi; Ono, Takahiko

    An application of the loop transfer recovery (LTR) technique to critical control systems design is proposed for non-minimum phase plants. The controller structure is chosen as the Davison type integral controller with the Kalman filter. First, a critical control system is designed on the assumption that the state of the minimum phase part of the plant can be used for the feedback. A quadratic performance index with tuning parameters is used for determining the partial state feedback gain matrix. Second, the Kalman filter gain matrix is determined such that the output feedback controller performs as in the partial state feedback controller. The formal partial loop recovery procedure using the Riccati equation is adopted for this purpose. The proposed design method requires much simpler numerical search than the conventional one-step approach. An illustrative design example is presented.

  5. Discussion of the target-missile control scheme with supersonic speed at minimum altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An antiship missile with supersonic speed at minimum altitude is an effective weapon to break through a defense line. The former Soviet Union was a leader in this field since it had developed several kinds of antiship missiles which obtained supersonic speed at minimum altitudes. To counter this kind of missile,many countries have been developing corresponding antimissiles. For the purpose of verifing the antimissile missile's effectiveness in intercepting antiship missiles, a target-missile is needed. A target-missle is cheaper and can imitate the main characteristics of antiship missiles with supersonic speed at minimum altitude. In this paper, the control scheme of a target missile flying with supersonic speed at minimum altitude is studied. To counter the problem of hedgehopping over the sea, a control scheme utilizing a SINS + altimeter was proposed.In this scheme, both the quick response ability of altitude control and the anti-jamming problem were considered. A simulation experiment shows that when an integrated altitude control system is used, the anti-disturbance ability of the integrated altitude is good and the response speed of altitude control system can be dramatically improved.

  6. Achieving minimum caseload requirements: an analysis of hospital quality control reports from 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cruppé, Werner; Malik, Marc; Geraedts, Max

    2014-08-18

    Legally mandated minimum hospital caseload requirements for certain invasive procedures, including pancreatectomy, esophagectomy, and some types of organ transplantation, have been in effect in Germany since 2004. The goal of such requirements is to improve patient care by ensuring that patients undergo certain procedures only in hospitals that have met the corresponding minimum caseload requirement. We used the case numbers published in legally mandated hospital quality control reports to determine whether the hospitals actually met the stipulated requirements. We performed a secondary analysis of data supplied by hospitals in their quality control reports for the years 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010 with respect to six procedures that have a minimum caseload requirement: complex interventions on the esophagus and pancreas, total knee replacement, and hepatic, renal, and stem-cell transplantation. The total case numbers for these six different procedures rose from 22 064 (0.1% of all procedures) in 2004 to 170 801 (0.9% of all procedures) in 2010. From 2006 onward, procedures to which minimum caseload requirements apply have been carried out in half of all hospitals studied. These procedures account for 0.9% of all inpatient cases in Germany. The percentage of hospitals that continue to perform certain procedures despite not having met the minimum caseload requirement ranged from 5% to 45%, depending on the type of procedure, and the percentage of cases carried out in such hospitals ranged from 1% to 15%. These values remained nearly constant for each of the six minimum caseload requirements over the 4 reporting years for which data were examined. The establishment of minimum caseload requirements in Germany in 2004 did not lessen the number of cases performed in violation of these requirements over the period 2004 to 2010.

  7. Analyzing and Seeking Minimum Test Instruction Set of Digital Signal Processor for Motor Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严伟; 曹家麟; 龚幼民

    2005-01-01

    The relativity of instructions of motor control digital signal processor (MCDSP) in the design is analyzed. A method for obtaining a minimum instruction set in place of the complete instruction set during generation of testing procedures is given in terms of the processor presentation matrix between micro-operators and instructions of MCDSP.

  8. Internal Temperature Control For Vibration Testers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Vibration test fixtures with internal thermal-transfer capabilities developed. Made of aluminum for rapid thermal transfer. Small size gives rapid response to changing temperatures, with better thermal control. Setup quicker and internal ducting facilitates access to parts being tested. In addition, internal flows smaller, so less energy consumed in maintaining desired temperature settings.

  9. Charge-Balanced Minimum-Power Controls for Spiking Neuron Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Dasanayake, Isuru

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the optimal control of phase models for spiking neuron oscillators. We focus on the design of minimum-power current stimuli that elicit spikes in neurons at desired times. We furthermore take the charge-balanced constraint into account because in practice undesirable side effects may occur due to the accumulation of electric charge resulting from external stimuli. Charge-balanced minimum-power controls are derived for a general phase model using the maximum principle, where the cases with unbounded and bounded control amplitude are examined. The latter is of practical importance since phase models are more accurate for weak forcing. The developed optimal control strategies are then applied to both mathematically ideal and experimentally observed phase models to demonstrate their applicability, including the phase model for the widely studied Hodgkin-Huxley equations.

  10. Legal regulation of the governmental internal control in the Internal Affairs system of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Борець, Л. В.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the problems of organizational and legal providing of implementation of the governmental internal control in the system of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, whose elements are internal control and internal audit.The basic principle of the governmental internal financial control is a clear distinction between internal control and internal audit.The internal audit should determine how to carry internal control.The basis of internal control is responsibility of hea...

  11. The Preventive Control of a Dengue Disease Using Pontryagin Minimum Principal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna Sari, Eminugroho; Insani, Nur; Lestari, Dwi

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour analysis for host-vector model without control of dengue disease is based on the value of basic reproduction number obtained using next generation matrices. Furthermore, the model is further developed involving a preventive control to minimize the contact between host and vector. The purpose is to obtain an optimal preventive strategy with minimal cost. The Pontryagin Minimum Principal is used to find the optimal control analytically. The derived optimality model is then solved numerically to investigate control effort to reduce infected class.

  12. Minimum principle and controllability for multiparameter discrete inclusions via derived cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Cernea

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a multiparameter discrete inclusion and we prove that the reachable set of a certain variational multiparameter discrete inclusion is a derived cone in the sense of Hestenes to the reachable set of the discrete inclusion. This result allows to obtain sufficient conditions for local controllability along a reference trajectory and a new proof of the minimum principle for an optimization problem given by a multiparameter discrete inclusion with endpoint constraints.

  13. INTERNAL AUDIT COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - MANAGEMENT CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI-DOREL JURCHESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Given Romania's integration into the European Union we consider it appropriate to clarify some terms used in auditing activities of both public funds and European funds. International practice requires a clear separation of internal audit activities from other management control concepts and recommend to establish an internal controlling system as well as an internal audit structure under the coordination of the manager as being the only ways cap able to respond to current risks faced by public entities. Internal Audit, along its evolution - characterized by complex dynamics and adaptability - created confusion regarding the concept of control. The research presented in this paper is based on works published to date regarding the conceptual boundaries of this notion.

  14. Internal transport control in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing up internal transport schedules in pot plant production is a very complex task. Scheduling internal transport at the operational level and providing control on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis in particular requires a new approach. A hierarchical planning approach based on

  15. Profit Centres and Internal Controls as Drivers of Business Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Drožđek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the current and future needs of the market, and knowing how to fulfil them, is the task of any successful economy. Companies wanting to be in step with the development of modern economy are trying to reorient their business regarding its organization, technology and information processes in order to increase their business efficiency. Thus, an adequately established and organized system of internal control, as well as a properly designed and highly efficient organizational structure also represents one of the challenges of a modern enterprise. Therefore, the combination of the internal control system and profit centres is the system which reduces the probability of errors and possible fraud to a minimum and is a prerequisite of efficient business.

  16. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  17. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhamilya F. Ismailova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical aspects of internal financial control, summarizes the definition formulated by scientists and experts, analyzed for differences between incompany and intrafarm control. The article discusses the collapse of Enron, notes the general provisions of various types of financial control.

  18. Exact internal controllability for shallow shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Shaoji; FENG Dexing

    2006-01-01

    The internal control problem is considered, based on the linear displacement equations of shallow shell. It is shown, with some checkable geometric conditions on control region, that the undergoing shallow shell is exactly controllable by using Hilbert uniqueness method (HUM), piecewise multiplier method and Riemannian geometry method. Then some examples are given to show the assumed geometric conditions.

  19. RESEARCH ON STABILITY AND MINIMUM ORIFICE AREA OF HYDRAULIC SERVO POSITION CONTROL SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports results of research on the stability of a hydraulic servo position system using generalization pulse code modulation (GPCM) and common on/off valves for hydraulic servo control. The de- scribing function was first used to analyze the system′s stability, and based on the nonlinear theory, an equation calculating the minimum orifice area of GPCM valves was derived by applying results of analysis on the stability of the GPCM control system. In the end, aimed at developing a hydraulic servo position system to be used in a paint robot, simulation and experiment were carried out. The results show that the theoretical conclusions accorded with practical results.

  20. Control of spatiotemporal chaos: dependence of the minimum pinning distance on the spatial measure entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greilich, A.; Markus, M.; Goles, E.

    2005-05-01

    We investigate the control of spatiotemporal chaos by external forcing at equidistant points (pinning sites) in one-dimensional systems. A monotonic decrease of the minimum distance between pinning sites versus the spatial measure entropy (in the absence of forcing) can be obtained for an appropriate choice of the forcing procedure. Such a relation between a feature for control and the disorder of the uncontrolled system is shown for four systems: binary cellular automata, coupled logistic equations, a stick-slip model and coupled differential equations.

  1. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  2. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  3. Quantum Internal Model Principle: Decoherence Control

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesan, Narayan; 10.1109/CDC.2007.4434706

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we study the problem of Decoherence Control for quantum systems by employing a novel construction termed "the bait" and with techniques from geometric control theory, in order to successfully and completely decouple an open quantum system from its environment. We re-formulate the problem of Decoherence Control as a disturbance rejection scheme which also leads us to the idea of Internal Model Principle for quantum control systems which is first of its kind in the literature. Classical internal model principle provides the guidelines for designing linear controllers for perfect tracking in the presence of external disturbances, with the help of the internal model of the disturbance generator. The theory of Disturbance Decoupling of the output from external noises is another problem that is well studied for classical systems. The two problems focus on different aspects viz. perfect output tracking and complete decoupling of output in the presence of the noise respectively. However for quantum s...

  4. Minimum-time trajectory control of a two-link flexible robotic manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenwald, D.A.; Feddema, J.T.; Eisler, G.R.; Segalman, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper analyzes the experimental and simulation results of a minimum-time trajectory control scheme for a two-link flexible robot. An off-line optimization routine determines a minimum-time, straight line tip trajectory which stays within the torque constraints of the motors and ends in a quiescent state, i.e., no vibrational transients. An efficient finite-element model is used in the optimization to approximate the flexible arm dynamics. The control strategy described here is used to determine the feedback gains for the position, velocity, and strain gage signals from a quadratic cost criterion based on the finite-element model linearized about the straight line tip trajectory. These feedback signals are added to the modeled torque obtained from the optimization routine and used to control the robot arm actuators. The results indicate that this combination of model-based and error-driven control strategies achieves a closer tracking of the desired trajectory and a better handling of modeling errors (such as tip payloads) than either strategy alone.

  5. Determinants of Effective Internal Control System in Nigerian Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Effective Internal Control System in Nigerian Banks. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... management observance of control, good remuneration of internal control staff, cost of instituting internal control ...

  6. Minimum Energy Control of 2D Positive Continuous-Discrete Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczorek Tadeusz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The minimum energy control problem for the 2D positive continuous-discrete linear systems is formulated and solved. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the reachability at the point of the systems are given. Sufficient conditions for the existence of solution to the problem are established. It is shown that if the system is reachable then there exists an optimal input that steers the state from zero boundary conditions to given final state and minimizing the performance index for only one step (q = 1. A procedure for solving of the problem is proposed and illustrated by a numerical example.

  7. Combined feedforward and model-assisted active disturbance rejection control for non-minimum phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Li, Donghai; Gao, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zhao; Zhao, Shen

    2016-09-01

    Control of the non-minimum phase (NMP) system is challenging, especially in the presence of modelling uncertainties and external disturbances. To this end, this paper presents a combined feedforward and model-assisted Active Disturbance Rejection Control (MADRC) strategy. Based on the nominal model, the feedforward controller is used to produce a tracking performance that has minimum settling time subject to a prescribed undershoot constraint. On the other hand, the unknown disturbances and uncertain dynamics beyond the nominal model are compensated by MADRC. Since the conventional Extended State Observer (ESO) is not suitable for the NMP system, a model-assisted ESO (MESO) is proposed based on the nominal observable canonical form. The convergence of MESO is proved in time domain. The stability, steady-state characteristics and robustness of the closed-loop system are analyzed in frequency domain. The proposed strategy has only one tuning parameter, i.e., the bandwidth of MESO, which can be readily determined with a prescribed robustness level. Some comparative examples are given to show the efficacy of the proposed method. This paper depicts a promising prospect of the model-assisted ADRC in dealing with complex systems.

  8. Control and Optimization of a Variable-Pitch Quadrotor with Minimum Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a rapid growth of interest in quadrotors with electric variable-pitch propellers. The control and optimization of such propellers are important factors for improving the flight performance of the vehicles. Therefore, the steady-state identification method to estimate the parameters of the mathematical model of the electric variable-pitch propeller is developed. The steady-state control and optimization scheme with minimum power consumption and the adaptive compensation scheme for the variable-pitch propeller are then proposed, based on which the response performance of the lift force produced by the variable-pitch propeller can be greatly improved by using a cascade compensation scheme. Furthermore, the direct lift-based flight control strategy is presented, which can significantly contribute to the improvement of the flight performance, precisely because the roll, pitch, yaw and vertical channels of the variable-pitch quadrotor are approximately linearized and completely decoupled from each other in this case. The experimental results demonstrate that both the endurance performance and the positioning accuracy of the variable-pitch quadrotor are improved simultaneously by using the proposed method with minimum power consumption.

  9. Improved internal control for molecular diagnosis assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayagamoorthy, T; Maryanski, Danielle; Vinayagamoorthy, Dilanthi; Hay, Katie S L; Yo, Jacob; Carter, Mark; Wiegel, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The two principal determining steps in molecular diagnosis are the amplification and the identification steps. Accuracy of DNA amplification is primarily determined by the annealing sequence of the PCR primer to the analyte DNA. Accuracy for identification is determined either by the annealing region of a labelled probe for the real time PCR analysis, or the annealing of a sequencing primer for DNA sequencing analysis, that binds to the respective analyte (amplicon). Presently, housekeeping genes (Beta globin, GAPDH) are used in molecular diagnosis to verify that the PCR conditions are optimum, and are thus known as amplification controls [1-4]. Although these genes have been useful as amplification controls, they lack the true definition of an internal control because the primers and annealing conditions are not identical to the analyte being assayed. This may result in a false negative report [5]. The IC-Code platform technology described here provides a true internal control where the internal control and analyte share identical PCR primers annealing sequences for the amplification step and identical sequencing primer annealing sequence for the identification step. •The analyte and internal control have the same PCR and sequencing annealing sequences.•This method assures for little or no false negatives and false positives due to the method's design of using identical annealing conditions for the internal control and analyte, and by using DNA sequencing analysis for the identification step of the analyte, respectively.•This method also allows for a set lower limit of detection to be used by varying the amount of internal control used in the assay.

  10. DoD ADP Internal Control Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    D. Application Controls 6-33 E. Microcomputer Controls 6-51 APPENDIX - LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT -INTERNAL CONTROL TECNIQUES A. Need Justification (Phase 0...Defense is allocating about $8 billion annually on Automated Information Systems (AIS), is making AIS Life-Cycle Management (LCM) decision which involve...OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE WASHINGTON, DC 20301-1100 COMPTROLLER Information Resources Management FOREWORD The DoD is allocating

  11. Searchless tuning of linear controllers for the minimum of quadratic criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikina, G. A.; Burtseva, Yu. S.

    2014-03-01

    A searchless method of calculating the tunings of typical controllers is developed for linear plants with a time delay, the use of which makes it possible to minimize the quadratic criterion I 2 with respect to an internal disturbance. The basic idea of the method consists in obtaining the complex frequency response of a suboptimal linear controller, followed by approaching the characteristic of a typical controller to this frequency response in the essential frequency band using the least squares method. Recommendations on selecting the smoothing filter time constant and the suboptimal system's dynamic error are given for a system comprising a PID controller and a second-order plant with a time delay.

  12. The optimal controling search of electromechanical manipulator under the minimum energy of light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avetisyan V.V.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimal warranted control is considered by the manipulator with the purpose of searching the fixed plant. In the capacity of an optimization, as against [1–5], the functional which is taking into account power inputs of a light source, located on схвате the manipulator is considered. The required plant is considered detected at hit in a light circle with the given illumination intensity. The algorithm of build-up of a traffic control схвата, and also the law of a modification of an electric current in a chain of a light source at which driving on the relevant search trajectory ensures detection of required plant for warranted time at minimum light power inputs during searching designed.

  13. Minimum Variance Distortionless Response Beamformer with Enhanced Nulling Level Control via Dynamic Mutated Artificial Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiong Sieh Kiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart antenna applications, the adaptive beamforming technique is used to cancel interfering signals (placing nulls and produce or steer a strong beam toward the target signal according to the calculated weight vectors. Minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR beamforming is capable of determining the weight vectors for beam steering; however, its nulling level on the interference sources remains unsatisfactory. Beamforming can be considered as an optimization problem, such that optimal weight vector should be obtained through computation. Hence, in this paper, a new dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS is proposed to enhance MVDR beamforming for controlling the null steering of interference and increase the signal to interference noise ratio (SINR for wanted signals.

  14. HEAT PUMP GAS COOLER CONTROL USING CRITERION OF MINIMUM OF EXERGY LOSSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the development of the criterion of optimality of transients of the control system, based on the minimum of exergy losses in the gas cooler of carbon dioxide heat pump. It is noted that the exergy quality criterion has a clear physical meaning, as compared with the integral quadratic criterion in which the choice of the coefficients in the integrand is not justified. Mathematic model of heat exchanger is obtained using the method of solving differential equations, without going to the irrational transfer functions. The model is reduced to transfer functions of the first and second order with the delay. The continuous temperature control system of heat pump gas cooler is considered. It is shown, that one of the versions of the control system for the minimization of the proposed criterion can be a combined control system using both the principle of the negative feedback and the principle of the invariance related to a number of disturbances affecting the processes of heat transfer in the heat exchanger.

  15. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E. Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly...... describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen...

  16. Minimum intervention dentistry approach to managing early childhood caries: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, Peter; Klobas, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    A pragmatic randomized control trial was undertaken to compare the minimum intervention dentistry (MID) approach, based on the atraumatic restorative treatment procedures (MID-ART: Test), against the standard care approach (Control) to treat early childhood caries in a primary care setting. Consenting parent/child dyads were allocated to the Test or Control group using stratified block randomization. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Participants were examined at baseline and at follow-up by two calibrated examiners blind to group allocation status (κ = 0.77), and parents completed a questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Dental therapists trained in MID-ART provided treatment to the Test group and dentists treated the Control group using standard approaches. The primary outcome of interest was the number of children who were referred for specialist pediatric care. Secondary outcomes were the number of teeth treated, changes in child oral health-related quality of life and dental anxiety and parental perceptions of care received. Data were analyzed on an intention to treat basis; risk ratio for referral for specialist care, test of proportions, Wilcoxon rank test and logistic regression were used. Three hundred and seventy parents/carers were initially screened; 273 children were examined at baseline and 254 were randomized (Test = 127; Control = 127): mean age = 3.8 years, SD 0.90; 59% male, mean dmft = 4.9, SD 4.0. There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, baseline caries experience or child oral health-related quality of life between the Test and Control group. At follow-up (mean interval 11.4 months, SD 3.1 months), 220 children were examined: Test = 115, Control = 105. Case-notes review of 231 children showed Test = 6 (5%) and Control = 53 (49%) were referred for specialist care, P Control group (mean = 1.54, SD 2.20), Wilcoxon's test, P controlling for age and baseline caries experience, showed a

  17. Criteria for the Minimum Operation Length of Internal Forces as a Function of the Development of an Optimum Structure of Machinery Structural Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fligiel M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the operation length of internal forces (DDSW understood as the length of the flow of internal forces along the shortest possible internal routes. The operation length of internal forces is determined on the basis of stresses and the given volume in the constructional space. The minimum DDSW of the structure satisfies the criterial conditions of the most rigid structure, where the potential energy of deformation and the deformation energy potential is the same in the whole volume and thus the potential gradient is zero.

  18. Quality control methods in accelerometer data processing: defining minimum wear time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Rich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When using accelerometers to measure physical activity, researchers need to determine whether subjects have worn their device for a sufficient period to be included in analyses. We propose a minimum wear criterion using population-based accelerometer data, and explore the influence of gender and the purposeful inclusion of children with weekend data on reliability. METHODS: Accelerometer data obtained during the age seven sweep of the UK Millennium Cohort Study were analysed. Children were asked to wear an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for seven days. Reliability coefficients(r of mean daily counts/minute were calculated using the Spearman-Brown formula based on the intraclass correlation coefficient. An r of 1.0 indicates that all the variation is between- rather than within-children and that measurement is 100% reliable. An r of 0.8 is often regarded as acceptable reliability. Analyses were repeated on data from children who met different minimum daily wear times (one to 10 hours and wear days (one to seven days. Analyses were conducted for all children, separately for boys and girls, and separately for children with and without weekend data. RESULTS: At least one hour of wear time data was obtained from 7,704 singletons. Reliability increased as the minimum number of days and the daily wear time increased. A high reliability (r = 0.86 and sample size (n = 6,528 was achieved when children with ≥ two days lasting ≥10 hours/day were included in analyses. Reliability coefficients were similar for both genders. Purposeful sampling of children with weekend data resulted in comparable reliabilities to those calculated independent of weekend wear. CONCLUSION: Quality control procedures should be undertaken before analysing accelerometer data in large-scale studies. Using data from children with ≥ two days lasting ≥10 hours/day should provide reliable estimates of physical activity. It's unnecessary to include only children

  19. 49 CFR 225.33 - Internal Control Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal Control Plans. 225.33 Section 225.33....33 Internal Control Plans. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with a written Internal Control... official business. Each railroad shall amend its Internal Control Plan, as necessary, to reflect...

  20. Internal Model Based Active Disturbance Rejection Control

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jinwen; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The basic active disturbance rejection control (BADRC) algorithm with only one order higher extended state observer (ESO) proves to be robust to both internal and external disturbances. An advantage of BADRC is that in many applications it can achieve high disturbance attenuation level without requiring a detailed model of the plant or disturbance. However, this can be regarded as a disadvantage when the disturbance characteristic is known since the BADRC algorithm cannot exploit such informa...

  1. United Nations International Drug Control Programme responds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Platzer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] We would like to reply to the article written by Axel Klein entitled, "Between the Death Penalty and Decriminalization: New Directions for Drug Control in the Commonwealth Caribbean" published in NWIG 75 (3&4 2001. We have noted a number of factual inaccuracies as well as hostile comments which portray the United Nations International Drug Control Programme in a negative light. This reply is not intended to be a critique of the article, which we find unbalanced and polemical, but rather an alert to the tendentious statements about UNDCP, which we feel should be corrected.

  2. Minimum time and fuel flight profiles for an F-15 airplane with a Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, E. A., Jr.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize minimum time and fuel consumption paths for an F-15 airplane powered by two F100 Engine Model Derivative (EMD) engines. The benefits of using variable stall margin (uptrim) to increase performance were also determined. This study supports the NASA Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) program. The basis for this comparison was minimum time and fuel used to reach Mach 2 at 13,716 m (45,000 ft) from the initial conditions of Mach 0.15 at 1524 m (5000 ft). Results were also compared to a pilot's estimated minimum time and fuel trajectory determined from the F-15 flight manual and previous experience. The minimum time trajectory took 15 percent less time than the pilot's estimate for the standard EMD engines, while the minimum fuel trajectory used 1 percent less fuel than the pilot's estimate for the minimum fuel trajectory. The F-15 airplane with EMD engines and uptrim, was 23 percent faster than the pilot's estimate. The minimum fuel used was 5 percent less than the estimate.

  3. What is the minimum number of patients for quality control of lung cancer management in Norway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaug, Knut; Eide, Geir E; Gulsvik, Amund

    2016-11-01

    There are few data available on the optimal number of lung cancer patients needed to generate and compare estimates of quality between units managing lung cancer. The number of lung cancer patients per management unit varies considerably in Norway, where there are 42 hospitals that treated between 1 and 454 lung cancer patients in 2011. To estimate the differences in quality indicators that are of sufficient importance to change a pulmonary physician's lung cancer management program, and to estimate the size of the patient samples necessary to detect such differences. Twenty-six physicians were asked about the relative differences from a national average of quality indicators that would change their own lung cancer management program. Sample sizes were calculated to give valid estimates of quality of a management unit based on prevalence of quality indicators and minimally important differences (MID). The average MID in quality indicators that would cause a change in management varied from 18% to 24% among 26 chest physicians, depending on the indicator. To generate precise estimates for quality control of lung cancer care in Norway, the number of management units must be reduced. Given the present willingness of chest physicians to change their procedures for management of lung cancer according to the results of quality control indicators, we recommend a maximum of 10 units with a minimum of 200 incident lung cancer patients per year for each management center. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. INTERMARS: User-controlled international management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1986-01-01

    Existing international space law as well as the best interest of all nations are consistent with the establishment of a user-based international organization, herein called INTERMARS. INTERMARS would provide access to facilities and services at a Martian base which would be of high functional potential, quality, safety, and reliability. These opportunities would be available on an open and nondiscriminatory basis to all peaceful users and investors. INTERMARS is a model organization concept tailored to provide cooperative international management of a Martian base for the benefit of its members, users, and investors. Most importantly, INTERMARS would provide such management through a sharing of both sovereignty and opportunity rather then unilateral control by any one nation or set of competing nations. Through an Assembly of Parties, a Board of Governors, a Board of Users and Investors, and a Director General, INTERMARS would meet its primary goal as it would be in the self-interest of all members, users, and investors to do so. The internal structure and philosophy of INTERMARS would provide not only for all participants to have representation in decisions affecting its activities, but also would insure effective and responsive management. Surely this is the precedent wished for, to establish for mankind at the now not-so-distant shores of the new ocean of space.

  5. 49 CFR 192.477 - Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. 192.477... Control § 192.477 Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. If corrosive gas is being transported, coupons... internal corrosion. Each coupon or other means of monitoring internal corrosion must be checked two...

  6. New tuning rules for PID controllers based on IMC with minimum IAE for inverse response processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duby Castellanos-Cárdenas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper new tuning rules for Proportional Integral Derivative (PID are presented, which are based on Internal Model Control (IMC. This set of equations minimizes the performance index, in this case, the Integral Absolute Error (IAE. Furthermore, a correlation is proposed in order to calculate the tuning parameter of the method, where a holding oscillation response is obtained regarding changes in the set point. This value represents a stability limit for the IMC method. The overall development is then applied to an Inverse Response System of second order and with dead time.

  7. Strengthen Business Management, Improve Internal Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Yadong

    2011-01-01

    @@ Sarbanes-Oxley Act, is known as the strictest financial act enacted by US government since 1930s.Any enterprise that violates this act is to be severely punished with possible imprisonment of its top management, which will definitely put the company in the danger of losing reputation and refinancing ability as well as investors' trust.The development of the company will be inevitably jeopardized.As an enterprise listed in the US, starting from 2006, PetroChina shall be under the strict verification and assessment of the Sarbanes-Oxley act and construct a well-designed internal control system based on Section 404 in the act.An integrated internal

  8. Minimum State Awareness for Resilient Control Systems Under Cyber-Attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, Roger [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; McIntyre, Timothy J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    State awareness for a control system is the accurate knowledge of the internal states of the system realization. To maintain stable operation, a controller requires a certain degree of state awareness. By definition, a cyber-attacker decreases the state awareness by modifying or removing the information available to the operator and control system. By doing so, the attacker can directly cause damage to the physical system through the control system, or indirectly by causing the operator to react in a damaging manner to the false information. In a number of recent papers, detection and mitigation strategies have been proposed that assume state awareness. The goal of the attacker to reduce or remove state awareness makes this assumption invalid for most situations. One of the central problems of resilient control is developing methods to retain sufficient state awareness to continue operation during a cyberattack. In this paper, we will define state awareness, discuss the consequences of loss of state awareness, and some potential research directions for maintaining state awareness.

  9. International consensus principles for ethical wildlife control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sara; Fenwick, Nicole; Ryan, Erin A; Baker, Liv; Baker, Sandra E; Beausoleil, Ngaio J; Carter, Scott; Cartwright, Barbara; Costa, Federico; Draper, Chris; Griffin, John; Grogan, Adam; Howald, Gregg; Jones, Bidda; Littin, Kate E; Lombard, Amanda T; Mellor, David J; Ramp, Daniel; Schuppli, Catherine A; Fraser, David

    2017-08-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts are commonly addressed by excluding, relocating, or lethally controlling animals with the goal of preserving public health and safety, protecting property, or conserving other valued wildlife. However, declining wildlife populations, a lack of efficacy of control methods in achieving desired outcomes, and changes in how people value animals have triggered widespread acknowledgment of the need for ethical and evidence-based approaches to managing such conflicts. We explored international perspectives on and experiences with human-wildlife conflicts to develop principles for ethical wildlife control. A diverse panel of 20 experts convened at a 2-day workshop and developed the principles through a facilitated engagement process and discussion. They determined that efforts to control wildlife should begin wherever possible by altering the human practices that cause human-wildlife conflict and by developing a culture of coexistence; be justified by evidence that significant harms are being caused to people, property, livelihoods, ecosystems, and/or other animals; have measurable outcome-based objectives that are clear, achievable, monitored, and adaptive; predictably minimize animal welfare harms to the fewest number of animals; be informed by community values as well as scientific, technical, and practical information; be integrated into plans for systematic long-term management; and be based on the specifics of the situation rather than negative labels (pest, overabundant) applied to the target species. We recommend that these principles guide development of international, national, and local standards and control decisions and implementation. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Organic carbon, and not copper, controls denitrification in oxygen minimum zones of the ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ward, B.B.; Tuit, C.B.; Jayakumar, A.; Rich, J.J.; Moffett, J.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Incubation experiments under trace metal clean conditions and ambient oxygen concentrations were used to investigate the response of microbial assemblages in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) to additions of organic carbon and copper, two factors...

  11. Sensorless State-Space Control of Elastic Two-Inertia Drive System Using a Minimum State Order Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Comnac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents sensorless state-space control of two-inertia drive system with resilient coupling. The control structure contains an I+PI controller for load speed regulation and a state feedback controller for effective vibration suppression of the elastic coupling. Mechanical state variable of two-inertia drive are obtained by using a linear minimum-order (Gopinath state observer. The design of the combined (I+PI and state feedback controller is achieved with the extended version of the modulus criterion [5]. The dynamic behavior of presented control structure has been examined, for different conditions, using MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation.

  12. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by—...

  13. ROBUST INTERNAL MODEL CONTROL STRATEGY BASED PID CONTROLLER FOR BLDCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.PURNA CHANDRA RAO

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available All the closed loop control system requires the controller for improvement of transient response of the error signal. Though the tuning of PID controller in real time is bit difficult and moreover it lacks the disturbance rejection capability. This paper presents a tuning of PID parameters based on internal model strategy. The advantageous of the proposed control strategy is well described in the paper. To test the validity of the proposed control, it is implemented in brushless dc motor drive. The mathematical model of brushless dc motor (BLDC is presented for control design. In addition the robustness of the control strategy is discussed. The proposed control strategy possesses good transient responses and good load disturbance response. In addition, the proposed control strategy possesses good tracking ability. To test the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, the BLDC is represented in transfer function model and later implemented in test system. The results are presented to validate the proposed control strategy for BLDC drive.

  14. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be...

  15. Botulinum Toxin Injection for Internal Rotation Contractures in Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy. A Minimum 5-Year Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijnisveld, Bouke J; van Wijlen-Hempel, Marie S; Hogendoorn, Simone; de Boer, Kees S; Malessy, Martijn J A; Keurentjes, J Christiaan; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    Brachial plexus birth palsy is frequently associated with internal rotation contractures of the shoulder as a result of muscle imbalance. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection in the subscapular (SC) muscle on external rotation and the need for tendon transfer for external rotation of the shoulder. A prospective comparative study was performed including 15 consecutive patients treated with BTX-A and a historic control group of 67 patients with mean age 30 months (SD 10). The BTX-A injection (2 IU/kg body weight) was performed immediately following MRI under general anesthesia in the SC muscle. Passive external rotation, the need for tendon transfer surgery, glenohumeral deformity, and muscle degeneration were evaluated. The hazard ratio for no relapse of internal rotation contracture after BTX-A injection compared with no BTX-A injection was calculated. In the BTX-A group, the passive external rotation in adduction increased from -1 degree (95% CI, -10 to 8) to 32 degrees (95% CI, 17-46) at 3 months and 6 patients were indicated for surgery compared with a decline from -2 degrees (95% CI, -7 to 3) to -11 degrees (95% CI, -17 to -6) in the control group with 66 indications for surgery. At 5 years of follow-up, 10 patients in the BTX-A group were indicated for surgery with a hazard ratio of 4.0 (95% CI, 1.9 to 8.4). BTX-A injection in the SC muscle of brachial plexus birth palsy patients can reduce internal rotation contractures and subsequently the need for tendon transfer surgery. At 5 years of follow-up a relapse was seen in 67% of the patients treated with BTX-A. Because at MRI less SC degeneration was found in the good responders on BTX-A treatment, this group seems to be the best target group. Further research is needed on patient selection for BTX-A injection including glenohumeral deformity, SC degeneration, as well as doses of BTX-A to be used. Level II-prospective comparative study.

  16. Organisation of Internal Control in a Budget Institution: Applied Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Dikan Larysa V.; Deyneko Yevgen V.

    2013-01-01

    The article proves urgency and necessity of organisation of internal control in budget institutions. It graphically depicts a general structure of the organisation of internal control in budget institutions. It offers and substantiates a model of organisation of internal control in budget institutions. It proves that the key principles of organisation of internal control in budget institutions are principles of effectiveness and efficiency. Moreover, the effectiveness principle is connected w...

  17. 48 CFR 719.273-10 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 719.273...égé Program 719.273-10 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU will oversee the Program and will work in... objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to the Program....

  18. 12 CFR 1731.5 - Internal controls, procedures, and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls, procedures, and training... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS MORTGAGE FRAUD REPORTING § 1731.5 Internal controls, procedures, and training. An Enterprise shall establish adequate and efficient internal controls...

  19. 12 CFR 917.6 - Internal control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal control system. 917.6 Section 917.6... POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.6 Internal control... internal control system that addresses: (i) The efficiency and effectiveness of Bank activities; (ii)...

  20. 49 CFR 192.475 - Internal corrosion control: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: General. 192.475... Control § 192.475 Internal corrosion control: General. (a) Corrosive gas may not be transported by... taken to minimize internal corrosion. (b) Whenever any pipe is removed from a pipeline for any...

  1. On the Minimum Attention and the Anytime Attention Control Problems for Linear Systems: A Linear Programming Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Donkers, M C F; Heemels, W P M H

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present two control laws that are tailored for control applications in which computational and/or communication resources are scarce. Namely, we consider minimum attention control, where the `attention' that a control task requires is minimised given certain performance requirements, and anytime attention control, where the performance under the `attention' given by a scheduler is maximised. Here, we interpret `attention' as the inverse of the time elapsed between two consecutive executions of a control task. By focussing on linear plants, by allowing for only a finite number of possible intervals between two subsequent executions of the control task, by making a novel extension to the notion of control Lyapunov functions and taking these novel extended control Lyapunov function to be infinity-norm-based, we can formulate the aforementioned control problems as online linear programs, which can be solved efficiently. Furthermore, we provide techniques to construct suitable infinity-norm-based...

  2. 10 CFR 74.43 - Internal controls, inventory, and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls, inventory, and records. 74.43 Section... NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of Moderate Strategic Significance § 74.43 Internal controls, inventory, and records. (a) General. Licensees subject to § 74.41 shall maintain the internal...

  3. Minimum energy control of descriptor discrete-time linear systems by the use of Weierstrass-Kronecker decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczorek Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimum energy control problem for the descriptor discrete-time linear systems by the use of Weierstrass-Kronecker decomposition is formulated and solved. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the reachability of descriptor discrete-time linear systems are given. A procedure for computation of optimal input and a minimal value of the performance index is proposed and illustrated by a numerical example.

  4. Minimum variance system identification with application to digital adaptive flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotob, S.; Kaufman, H.

    1975-01-01

    A new on-line minimum variance filter for the identification of systems with additive and multiplicative noise is described which embodies both accuracy and computational efficiency. The resulting filter is shown to use both the covariance of the parameter vector itself and the covariance of the error in identification. A bias reduction scheme can be used to yield asymptotically unbiased estimates. Experimental results for simulated linearized lateral aircraft motion in a digital closed loop mode are presented, showing the utility of the identification schemes.

  5. A new minimum-time control law for a one-mode model of a flexible slewing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Enrique; Ozguner, Umit

    1993-01-01

    We describe the construction of a new minimum-time control law for a single-axis, undamped, one-mode model of a flexible slewing structure. The set of necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality are developed using phase-plane techniques, and are given in terms of the vibration frequencies and the rigid-body states. This effectively provides the switching hypersurface in four-dimensional space. The resulting control strategy has the advantage that can be implemented on-line since no a priori computation of switching times is required.

  6. THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana VLAD; Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2010-01-01

    Effective internal controls are the foundation of safe and sound banking. A properly designed and consistently enforced system of operational and financial internal control helps a bank’s board of directors and management safeguard the bank’s resources, produce reliable financial reports, and comply with laws and regulations. Effective internal control also reduces the possibility of significant errors and irregularities and assists in their timely detection when they do occur. A bank’s board...

  7. Employee quality, monitoring environment and internal control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chunli Liu Bin Lin Wei Shu

    2017-01-01

    ... quality.We examine the effect of monitoring on this result and find that the effect is more pronounced for firms with strict monitoring environments, especially when the firms implement the Chinese internal...

  8. 25 CFR 543.7 - What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... system exception reports generated. (xxiii) Accounting/auditing agents must reconcile the audited bingo... currency interface systems, accounting/auditing agents must make appropriate comparisons of system... predetermined thresholds: (A) Where the Class II gaming system is capable of providing information per...

  9. 25 CFR 542.7 - What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Oct. 13, 2010, at 74 FR 52139, Oct. 9, 2009. (a) Computer applications. For any computer applications... the ability to, upon request, produce a printed account history, including all transactions, and a...

  10. 25 CFR 542.13 - What are the minimum internal control standards for gaming machines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... computer via a communications network; (iii) One or more electronic selection devices, utilizing random... equivalent means of identifying same. (b) Computer applications. For any computer applications utilized... record coin-in or credit-in, or on-line gaming machine monitoring system that captures similar data. (9...

  11. Essence and Prospect of International Export Control Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ International export control regimes are referring to the regimes and systems concerning limitation of export and transference of military-use and dual-use items and related parts as well as technologies. In the past couple of years, the control regimes have shown a strengthening posture. In addition, a new global export control regime is brewing. Hence export control has caught the attention of the international community, and particularly of the circles of armament control and commerce. The author would like to make some analyses of the posture and then try to predict the trend of international export control regimes.

  12. Non-Minimum Phase Nonlinear System Predictive Control Based on Local Recurrent Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 陈增强; 袁著祉

    2003-01-01

    After a recursive multi-step-ahead predictor for nonlinear systems based on local recurrent neural networks is introduced, an intelligent PID controller is adopted to correct the errors including identified model errors and accumulated errors produced in the recursive process. Characterized by predictive control, this method can achieve a good control accuracy and has good robustness. A simulation study shows that this control algorithm is very effective.

  13. An Analysis of the Internal Audit and Internal Control Systems of Banks in TRNC

    OpenAIRE

    Argun, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the internal audit and internal control systems of banks in TRNC. Internal audit is one of the most important units of a bank. It includes checking and assessing overall accuracy and consistency of banks’ operations. During the last three decades the bank management and operations of banks have evolved due to financial liberalization, globalization and technological innovation which also increased operational risks. Banks are required to develop their internal contr...

  14. Investigating the effective factors on management internal controls applying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information technology plays an important role on increasing internal control in many organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of information technology, hiring high quality skilled management team, using high quality standards and increasing employees' awareness on managing internal control. The survey uses a questionnaire based on Likert scale and distributes among the people who work in either administration or financial sectors of governmental agencies in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results of the study indicate that the implementation of information technology positively influences management team to control their system, more effectively, using more skilled and specialized managers positively influences management internal control, an organization with suitable standard positively influences management internal control and increasing employees' awareness positively influences management internal control.

  15. A GENERAL ASSESSMENT OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL IN MINING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN RĂVAŞ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of the internal auditor is to examine whether persons exercising internal control are able to carry out checks with ambition, with responsibility and be involved in some cases of fraud. To achieve the proper conditions, the side observant and constructive side of control is necessary to ensure the independence and authority or control bodies with responsibilities for control of the operation.

  16. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa I. Egorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological aspects of the internal control system formation are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on the problems of financial statements misrepresentation. The basic principles and structure of the internal control system are discussed in this article.

  17. INTERNAL CONTROLS IN ENSURING GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSMAS NJANIKE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed factors that influence the internal controls in ensuring good corporate governance in financial institutions in developing economies with special reference to Zimbabwe. The research paper assessed how lack of internal controls affected good corporate governance and aimed to bring out elements of good corporate governance. It emerged that failure to effectively implement internal controls contributed significantly to poor corporate governance. The study discovered that internal control system overrides and the issue of “fact cat” directors also contributed to poor corporate governance. The study recommended that there is need for the board of directors to guarantee an organizational structure that clearly defines management responsibilities, authority and reporting relationships. There is also need to ensure that delegated responsibilities are effectively carried out to ensure compliance with internal controls of the financial institution concerned.

  18. A Neural Network Controller for Variable-Speed Variable-Pitch Wind Energy Conversion Systems Using Generalized Minimum Entropy Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mifeng Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the neural network controller design problem for variable pitch wind energy conversion systems (WECS with non-Gaussian wind speed disturbances in the stochastic distribution control framework. The approach here is used to directly model the unknown control law based on a fixed neural network (the number of layers and nodes in a neural network is fixed without the need to construct a separate model for the WECS. In order to characterize the randomness of the WECS, a generalized minimum entropy criterion is established to train connection weights of the neural network. For the train purpose, both kernel density estimation method and sliding window technique are adopted to estimate the PDF of tracking error and entropies. Due to the unknown process dynamics, the gradient of the objective function in a gradient-descent-type algorithm is estimated using an incremental perturbation method. The proposed approach is illustrated on a simulated WECS with non-Gaussian wind speed.

  19. AUTOMATION OF THE SYSTEM OF INTERNAL LABORATORY QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Z. Stetsyuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control system base d on the principles of standardi zation of all phases of laboratory testing and analysis of internal laboratory quality control and external quality assessment. For the detection accuracy of the results of laboratory tests, carried out internally between the laboratory and laboratory quality control. Under internal laboratory quality control we understand measurement results of each analysis in each anal ytical series rendered directly in the lab every day. The purpose of internal laboratory control - identifying and eliminating unacceptable deviations from standard perfor mance test in the laboratory, i.e. identifying and eliminating harmful analytical errors. The solutions to these problems by implementing automated systems - software that allows you to optimize analytical laboratory research stage of the procedure by automatically creating process control charts was shown.

  20. H-infinity control for cascade minimum-phase switched nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengzhi ZHAO; Jun ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the H-infinity control problem for a class of cascade switched nonlinear systems.Each switched system in this class is composed of a zero-input asymptotically stable nonlinear part,which is also a switched system,and a linearizable part which is controllable.Conditions under which the H-infinity control problem is solvable under arbitrary switching law and under some designed switching law are derived respectively.The nonlinear state feedback and switching law are designed.We exploit the structural characteristics of the switched nonlinear systems to construct common Lyapunov functions for arbitrary switching and to find a single Lyapunov function for designed switching law.The proposed methods do not rely on the solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi inequalities.

  1. THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana VLAD; Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2010-01-01

    Effective internal controls are the foundation of safe and sound banking. A properly designed and consistentlyenforced system of operational and financial internal control helps a bank’s board of directors and managementsafeguard the bank’s resources, produce reliable financial reports, and comply with laws and regulations. Effectiveinternal control also reduces the possibility of significant errors and irregularities and assists in their timely detectionwhen they do occur. A bank’s board of ...

  2. Minimum-Voltage Vector Injection Method for Sensorless Control of PMSM for Low-Speed Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Ge; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a simple signal injection method is proposed for sensorless control of PMSM at low speed, which ideally requires one voltage vector only for position estimation. The proposed method is easy to implement resulting in low computation burden. No filters are needed for extracting...... may also be further developed to inject two opposite voltage vectors to reduce the effects of inverter voltage error on the position estimation accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing with other sensorless control method. Theoretical analysis and experimental...

  3. Influence Implementation Internal Control To Quality Audit Internal Education Consultant In Indonesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zeina Maya Sari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research focus to quality audit internal with accountancy Inspection. Hameed 1995 found that the most important factors that affect auditing quality are auditors experience honesty and the knowledge in accounting and auditing standards. Research into this express an inspection of Intern Accountancy amp attributed to Monetary inspection an consultant education with quality. Audit quality is obtained by a process of identifying and administering the activities needed to achieve the quality objectives . Since an entityamp8223s internal control is under the purview of its audit committee Krishnan 2005 the relation between audit committee quality and internal control weaknesses is a subject to be investigated. The methodology used is a quantitative analysis by examining the relationship between variables conceptually. While some study its accounting activity. In self-supporting internal control. Internal control is defined as a process affected by an entitys board of directors management and other personnel designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of objectives International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions 1998 its bearing by reporting level an environment and reduction conduct in reporting result of mistake. What finally involvement by Audit Intern can be of benefit. In addition to researching into proposing Audit Intern can improve the target of consultant education going concern.

  4. Internal Decoupling in Nonlinear Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple method has been investigated for the total or partial removal of the effect of non-linear process phenomena in multi-variable feedback control systems. The method is based upon computing the control variables which will drive the process at desired rates. It is shown that the effect of model errors in the linearization of the process can be partly removed through the use of large feedback gains. In practice there will be limits on how large gains can he used. The sensitivity to parameter errors is less pronounced and the transient behaviour is superior to that of ordinary PI controllers.

  5. Internal Controlling of a Radiology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, W; Busch, H P

    2015-11-01

    Caused by legal reform initiatives there is a continuous need to increase effectiveness and efficiency in hospitals and surgeries, and thus to improve processes.Consequently the successful management of radiological departments and surgeries requires suitable structures and optimization processes to make optimization in the fields of medical quality, service quality and efficiency possible.In future in the DRG System it is necessary that the organisation of processes must focus on the whole clinical treatment of the patients (Clinical Pathways). Therefore the functions of controlling must be more established and adjusted. On the basis of select Controlling instruments like budgeting, performance indicators, process optimization, staff controlling and benchmarking the target-based and efficient control of radiological surgeries and departments is shown. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Internal control system in health institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán, Luis Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Una herramienta fundamental para el desarrollo de las instituciones de salud es el sistema de control interno, cuyos componentes y procesos se presentan, haciendo énfasis en su necesidad, utilidad y viabilidad.

  7. Improved internal control for molecular diagnosis assays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinayagamoorthy, T; Maryanski, Danielle; Vinayagamoorthy, Dilanthi; Hay, Katie S L; Yo, Jacob; Carter, Mark; Wiegel, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    ..., that binds to the respective analyte (amplicon). Presently, housekeeping genes (Beta globin, GAPDH) are used in molecular diagnosis to verify that the PCR conditions are optimum, and are thus known as amplification controls...

  8. Internal control system in health institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán, Luis Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Una herramienta fundamental para el desarrollo de las instituciones de salud es el sistema de control interno, cuyos componentes y procesos se presentan, haciendo énfasis en su necesidad, utilidad y viabilidad.

  9. Synchronization in networks of minimum-phase, non-introspective agents without exchange of controller states: Homogeneous, heterogeneous, and nonlinear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grip, H°avard Fjær; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the synchronization problem for a class of directed networks where the agents receive relative output information from their neighbors, but lack independent information about their own state or output (they are non-introspective) and are unable to exchange internal controller states with

  10. The use of minimum order state observers in digital flight-control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Hatch, H. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of selecting the 'arbitrary' design parameters of digital state observers when they are being used as a part of a digital flight-control system. A cost index is developed which indicates the output noise caused by input quantization due to analog-to-digital conversion. The cost index assumes that the input quantization error is uniformly distributed over the least-significant-bit of the conversion. Formulas relating the cost index to the observer design parameters are presented. The cost index is minimized with respect to the design parameters using a conjugate gradient algorithm. An example of the theory is presented in which a digital observer is designed so that a satisfactory digital flight-control system is obtained starting from an unacceptable one.

  11. Stabilizing unstable fixed points of chaotic maps via minimum entropy control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salarieh, Hassan [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: salarieh@mech.sharif.edu; Alasty, Aria [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    In this paper the problem of chaos control in nonlinear maps using minimization of entropy function is investigated. Invariant probability measure of a chaotic dynamics can be used to produce an entropy function in the sense of Shannon. In this paper it is shown that how the entropy control technique is utilized for chaos elimination. Using only the measured states of a chaotic map the probability measure of the system is numerically estimated and this estimated measure is used to obtain an estimation for the entropy of the chaotic map. The control variable of the chaotic system is determined in such a way that the entropy function descends until the chaotic trajectory of the map is replaced with a regular one. The proposed idea is applied for stabilizing the fixed points of the logistic and the Henon maps as some cases of study. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the method in chaos rejection when only the statistical information is available from the under-study systems.

  12. Determinants of human resource investment in internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hag Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the unique reporting environment in Korea, this study investigates the determinants of human resource investment in internal controls for 1352 listed firms disclosing the number of personnel who are in charge of internal control-related tasks (IC personnel from 2005 to 2008. We find that the number of IC personnel within a firm and several key departments increase with firm size, number of employees, complexity and for Chaebols, and decrease in rapidly growing firms. Additional analysis reveals that the factors influencing internal control systems have an accentuated effect on firms with relatively larger firm size.

  13. Helicopter internal noise control: Three case histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Cox, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    Case histories are described in which measurable improvements in the cabin noise environments of the Bell 214B, 206B, and 222 were realized. These case histories trace the noise control efforts followed in each vehicle. Among the design approaches considered, the addition of a fluid pulsation damper in a hydraulic system and the installation of elastomeric engine mounts are highlighted. It is concluded that substantial weight savings result when the major interior noise sources are controlled by design, both in altering the noise producing mechanism and interrupting the sound transmission paths.

  14. Optimising a Model of Minimum Stock Level Control and a Model of Standing Order Cycle in Selected Foundry Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymszal J.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that the area where one can look for significant reserves in the procurement logistics is a rational management of the stock of raw materials. Currently, the main purpose of projects which increase the efficiency of inventory management is to rationalise all the activities in this area, taking into account and minimising at the same time the total inventory costs. The paper presents a method for optimising the inventory level of raw materials under a foundry plant conditions using two different control models. The first model is based on the estimate of an optimal level of the minimum emergency stock of raw materials, giving information about the need for an order to be placed immediately and about the optimal size of consignments ordered after the minimum emergency level has occurred. The second model is based on the estimate of a maximum inventory level of raw materials and an optimal order cycle. Optimisation of the presented models has been based on the previously done selection and use of rational methods for forecasting the time series of the delivery of a chosen auxiliary material (ceramic filters to a casting plant, including forecasting a mean size of the delivered batch of products and its standard deviation.

  15. Minimum energy control for a two-compartment neuron to extracellular electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Li, Hui-Yan; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2016-11-01

    The energy optimization of extracellular electric field (EF) stimulus for a neuron is considered in this paper. We employ the optimal control theory to design a low energy EF input for a reduced two-compartment model. It works by driving the neuron to closely track a prescriptive spike train. A cost function is introduced to balance the contradictory objectives, i.e., tracking errors and EF stimulus energy. By using the calculus of variations, we transform the minimization of cost function to a six-dimensional two-point boundary value problem (BVP). Through solving the obtained BVP in the cases of three fundamental bifurcations, it is shown that the control method is able to provide an optimal EF stimulus of reduced energy for the neuron to effectively track a prescriptive spike train. Further, the feasibility of the adopted method is interpreted from the point of view of the biophysical basis of spike initiation. These investigations are conducive to designing stimulating dose for extracellular neural stimulation, which are also helpful to interpret the effects of extracellular field on neural activity.

  16. Reduce Fraud Risk in Your District with Stronger Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrzesik, Daryl J.; Nuehring, Bert G.

    2011-01-01

    Internal accounts offer schools a faster, more convenient way to handle the income and expenses that result from student fees, school clubs and organizations, field trips, fund-raising, and similar activities. But this convenience also incurs the added risk of fraud. Fortunately, there are proven ways to strengthen internal controls and reduce…

  17. Enhanced IMC based PID controller design for non-minimum phase (NMP) integrating processes with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghousiya Begum, K; Seshagiri Rao, A; Radhakrishnan, T K

    2017-03-18

    Internal model control (IMC) with optimal H2 minimization framework is proposed in this paper for design of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. The controller design is addressed for integrating and double integrating time delay processes with right half plane (RHP) zeros. Blaschke product is used to derive the optimal controller. There is a single adjustable closed loop tuning parameter for controller design. Systematic guidelines are provided for selection of this tuning parameter based on maximum sensitivity. Simulation studies have been carried out on various integrating time delay processes to show the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed controller provides enhanced closed loop performances when compared to recently reported methods in the literature. Quantitative comparative analysis has been carried out using the performance indices, Integral Absolute Error (IAE) and Total Variation (TV).

  18. Internal Control, Auditing, and the Automated Acquisitions System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Carol Pitts

    1990-01-01

    Discusses issues and procedures involved in auditing the automated acquisitions system at Ohio State University Libraries. The audit process is explained, internal controls within the system are identified, general control mechanisms such as limited electronic access are discussed, and application control mechanisms that relate to specific…

  19. 2013 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book examines mechatronics and automatic control systems. The book covers important emerging topics in signal processing, control theory, sensors, mechanic manufacturing systems and automation. The book presents papers from the 2013 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems held in Hangzhou, China on August 10-11, 2013. .

  20. Internal Control, Auditing, and the Automated Acquisitions System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Carol Pitts

    1990-01-01

    Discusses issues and procedures involved in auditing the automated acquisitions system at Ohio State University Libraries. The audit process is explained, internal controls within the system are identified, general control mechanisms such as limited electronic access are discussed, and application control mechanisms that relate to specific…

  1. Optical Control of Internal Conversion in Pyrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Grant; Singha, Sima; Hu, Zhan; Seideman, Tamar; Gordon, Robert

    2014-03-01

    We apply quantum control schemes previously reserved for atoms and small molecules to more complex polyatomic molecules. Pyrazine was chosen as a model polyatomic molecule for its well-studied conical intersection seam between the S1 and S2 potential energy surfaces (PESs). Using shaped ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulses, we demonstrate optical control of the excited state dynamics of this molecule under collisionless conditions. This was achieved in a pump-probe experiment by employing a genetic algorithm programmed to suppress ionization of the pyrazine molecules at a preselected time. Our findings indicate that the optimized pulses localize the wave packet for times up to 1.5 ps at a location on the coupled S1/S2 PESs where ionization is energetically forbidden. Our approach is general and does not require knowledge of the molecular Hamiltonian. Funding provided by National Science Foundation grant no. CHE-0848198.

  2. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  3. Determinants of human resource investment in internal controls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jong-Hag Choi Joonil Lee Catherine Heyjung Sonu

    2013-01-01

    Using the unique reporting environment in Korea, this study investigates the determinants of human resource investment in internal controls for 1352 listed firms disclosing the number of personnel who...

  4. Internal controls and credit risk relationship among banks in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Kofi Akwaa-Sekyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study purport to investigate the effectiveness of internal control mechanisms, investigate whether evidence of agency problem is found among banks in Europe and determine how internal controls affect credit risk. Design/methodology/approach: Panel data from 91 banks from 23 European Union countries were studied from 2008-2014. Hausman’s specification test suggest the use of fixed effects estimation technique of GLS. Quantitatively modelled data on 15 variables covering elements of internal controls, objectives of internal controls, agency problem, bank and country specific variables were used. Findings: There is still high credit risk in spite of measures being implemented by the European Central Bank. Banks have individual entity factors that increase or decrease credit risk. The study finds effective internal control systems because objectives of internal controls are achieved and significantly determine credit risk. Agency problem is confirmed due to significant positive relation with credit risk. There is significant effect of internal controls on credit risk with specific variables as risk assessment, return on average risk weighted assets, institutional ownership, bank size, inflation, interest rate and GDP. Research limitations/implications: Missing data prevented the use of strongly balanced panel. The lack of flexibility with using quantitative approach did not allow further scrutiny of the nature of variables. However, statistical tests were acceptable for the model used. The study has implications for management and owners of banks to be warry of agency problem because that provides incentive for reckless high risk transactions that may benefit the agent than the principal. Management must engage in actions that profile the company better and enhances value maximization. Rising default risk has tendency to impair corporate image leading to loss of reputational capital. Originality/value: The study provides the use of

  5. Controlling internal parasites without anthelmintics (a review) OF0132

    OpenAIRE

    KEATINGE, Ray

    1996-01-01

    1.0 Executive summary 1. Internal parasites are a major source of economic loss in grazing ruminants. To a greater or lesser degree, most farms in the UK rely on anthelmintics for control. In most situations these products continue to be highly effective, but anthelmintic resistance is increasing to the limited range of products available, raising serious concerns over the future of worm control. 2. Internal parasites are also of concern on organic farms, where the prophylactic us...

  6. Multi-loop adaptive internal model control based on a dynamic partial least squares model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao ZHAO; Bin HU; Jun LIANG

    2011-01-01

    A multi-loop adaptive internal model control (IMC) strategy based on a dynamic partial least squares (PLS) framework is proposed to account for plant model errors caused by slow aging, drift in operational conditions, or environmental changes. Since PLS decomposition structure enables multi-loop controller design within latent spaces, a multivariable adaptive control scheme can be converted easily into several independent univariable control loops in the PLS space. In each latent subspace,once the model error exceeds a specific threshold, online adaptation rules are implemented separately to correct the plant model mismatch via a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. Because the IMC extracts the inverse of the minimum part of the internal model as its structure, the IMC controller is self-tuned by explicitly updating the parameters, which are parts of the internal model.Both parameter convergence and system stability are briefly analyzed, and proved to be effective. Finally, the proposed control scheme is tested and evaluated using a widely-used benchmark of a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with pure delay.

  7. Determinants of human resource investment in internal controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong-Hag; Choi; Joonil; Lee; Catherine; Heyjung; Sonu

    2013-01-01

    Using the unique reporting environment in Korea, this study investigates the determinants of human resource investment in internal controls for 1352 listed firms disclosing the number of personnel who are in charge of internal controlrelated tasks(IC personnel) from 2005 to 2008. We find that the number of IC personnel within a firm and several key departments increase with firm size,number of employees, complexity and for Chaebols, and decrease in rapidly growing firms. Additional analysis reveals that the factors influencing internal control systems have an accentuated effect on firms with relatively larger firm size.

  8. Chaos control of the brushless direct current motor using adaptive dynamic surface control based on neural network with the minimum weights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shaohua [School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing Aerospace Polytechnic, Chongqing, 400021 (China); Wu, Songli [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing Aerospace Polytechnic, Chongqing, 400021 (China); Gao, Ruizhen [School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-07-15

    This paper investigates chaos control for the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) system by adaptive dynamic surface approach based on neural network with the minimum weights. The BLDCM system contains parameter perturbation, chaotic behavior, and uncertainty. With the help of radial basis function (RBF) neural network to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, the adaptive law is established to overcome uncertainty of the control gain. By introducing the RBF neural network and adaptive technology into the dynamic surface control design, a robust chaos control scheme is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly bounded, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show that the proposed approach works well in suppressing chaos and parameter perturbation.

  9. Chaos control of the brushless direct current motor using adaptive dynamic surface control based on neural network with the minimum weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaohua; Wu, Songli; Gao, Ruizhen

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates chaos control for the brushless DC motor (BLDCM) system by adaptive dynamic surface approach based on neural network with the minimum weights. The BLDCM system contains parameter perturbation, chaotic behavior, and uncertainty. With the help of radial basis function (RBF) neural network to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, the adaptive law is established to overcome uncertainty of the control gain. By introducing the RBF neural network and adaptive technology into the dynamic surface control design, a robust chaos control scheme is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly bounded, and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results are provided to show that the proposed approach works well in suppressing chaos and parameter perturbation.

  10. Board independence, internal information environment and voluntary disclosure of auditors’ reports on internal controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Sun; Yang Yi; Bin Lin

    2012-01-01

    When there is high information asymmetry between directors and managers,independent directors do not have enough information to perform their functions. Only when faced with a good internal information environment can such directors acquire enough information to provide advice and monitor managers,and only under these conditions can increasing their proportion on the board effectively reduce agency problems, such as driving managers to disclose information to investors. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms that voluntarily disclose their auditors’ reports on internal controls from 2007 to 2009, this study explores how the information acquisition costs of independent directors affect their monitoring effectiveness by investigating the disclosure decisions of their internal control audits. We find that when the information asymmetry between insiders and outside directors is low and the proportion of independent directors on a board is high, a firm is more likely to voluntarily disclose its internal control audit report.

  11. Board independence, internal information environment and voluntary disclosure of auditors’ reports on internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When there is high information asymmetry between directors and managers, independent directors do not have enough information to perform their functions. Only when faced with a good internal information environment can such directors acquire enough information to provide advice and monitor managers, and only under these conditions can increasing their proportion on the board effectively reduce agency problems, such as driving managers to disclose information to investors. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms that voluntarily disclose their auditors’ reports on internal controls from 2007 to 2009, this study explores how the information acquisition costs of independent directors affect their monitoring effectiveness by investigating the disclosure decisions of their internal control audits. We find that when the information asymmetry between insiders and outside directors is low and the proportion of independent directors on a board is high, a firm is more likely to voluntarily disclose its internal control audit report.

  12. 2nd International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book examines mechatronics and automatic control systems. The book covers important emerging topics in signal processing, control theory, sensors, mechanic manufacturing systems and automation. The book presents papers from the second International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems held in Beijing, China on September 20-21, 2014. Examines how to improve productivity through the latest advanced technologies Covering new systems and techniques in the broad field of mechatronics and automatic control systems.

  13. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. The... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in...

  14. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the heat source. For reasons of personal preference, consumers may choose to cook food to higher temperatures. ... cont = $(this).next(); $(this).tablesorterPager({container: cont }) }); $('.pagesize').change(function() { $('body').addClass('tableReRender').removeClass('tableReRender'); }) }) Site Map ...

  15. Issues of internal control during the reform period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Gresova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and methodological problems of organization and financial control activities, the main problems and reasons causing the need for a unified system of internal financial control in the State Administration of Railway Transport of Ukraine at the stage of the reform.

  16. Specificity of continuous auditing approach on information technology internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaćanski Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary business world, can not be imagined without the use of information technology in all aspects of business. The use of information technology in manufacturing and non-production companies' activities can greatly facilitate and accelerate the process of operation and control. Because of its complexity, they possess vulnerable areas and provide space for the emergence of accidental and intentional frauds that can significantly materially affect the business decisions made by the companies' management. Implementation of internal controls can greatly reduce the level of errors that can contribute to making the wrong decisions. In order to protect the operating system, the company's management implement an internal audit to periodically examine the fundamental quality of the internal control systems. Since the internal audit, according to its character, only periodically checks quality of internal control systems and information technologies to be reported to the manager, the problem arises in the process of in wrong time reporting the management structures of the business entity. To eliminate this problem, management implements a special approach to internal audit, called continuous auditing.

  17. Internal models for interpreting neural population activity during sensorimotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Matthew D; Yu, Byron M; Chase, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    To successfully guide limb movements, the brain takes in sensory information about the limb, internally tracks the state of the limb, and produces appropriate motor commands. It is widely believed that this process uses an internal model, which describes our prior beliefs about how the limb responds to motor commands. Here, we leveraged a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus monkeys and novel statistical analyses of neural population activity to gain insight into moment-by-moment internal model computations. We discovered that a mismatch between subjects' internal models and the actual BMI explains roughly 65% of movement errors, as well as long-standing deficiencies in BMI speed control. We then used the internal models to characterize how the neural population activity changes during BMI learning. More broadly, this work provides an approach for interpreting neural population activity in the context of how prior beliefs guide the transformation of sensory input to motor output.

  18. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  19. Internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable set of impulsive control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matviychuk, Oksana G. [Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya str., Ekaterinburg, 620990, Russia and Ural Federal University, 19 Mira str., Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-18

    A problem of estimating reachable sets of linear impulsive control system with uncertainty in initial data is considered. The impulsive controls in the dynamical system belong to the intersection of a special cone with a generalized ellipsoid both taken in the space of functions of bounded variation. Assume that an ellipsoidal state constraints are imposed. The algorithms for constructing internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable sets for such control systems and numerical simulation results are given.

  20. Support vector regression-based internal model control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-wei; PENG Tie-gen

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a design of internal model control systems for process with delay by using support vector regression (SVR). The proposed system fully uses the excellent nonlinear estimation performance of SVR with the structural risk minimization principle. Closed-system stability and steady error are analyzed for the existence of modeling errors. The simulations show that the proposed control systems have the better control performance than that by neural networks in the cases of the training samples with small size and noises.

  1. Internal Control of Enterprise Capital Turnover under the Integration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminska Tetiana H.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to build methods of internal control of the capital turnover, which would meet modern integration processes in Ukraine and in the world. First of all it states that internal control should ensure realisation of interests of the enterprise owner. It marks out that despite the existing methods, the enterprise control should be started not with assets, but from the sources of their formation – own capital and obligations, and only then go to the enterprise property control. The author offers relevant methods of capital turnover control, which takes into account its stages – acquisition, production and sales – and gives practical recommendations on its use at enterprises. Special attention is paid to the capital turnover control at the stage of production, which should keep track of both quantitative and qualitative parameters. Acquisition and sales control, except for internal controllers, is carried out by marketing, logistics and other services. Generalisation of results of the control should be done in forms that, on the one hand, have evidential force and, on the other, accessible for comprehension and use in the process of making managerial decisions by managers of various levels.

  2. Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud: A Knowledge Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud : A Knowledge...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud : A Knowledge...capable processes, and effective internal controls result in the DoD having a higher level of vulnerability for procurement fraud (Rendon & Rendon, in

  3. THOUGHT FOR INTEGRATION OF ENTERPRISE'S INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The introduction of the enterprise's internal control system is directly related to some well known exposures of finance and accounting scandals, such as Enron,WorldCom, and Xerox etc.. The U.S. President Bush signed Sarbanes-Oxley Act on July 30, 2002. The 404th term of the act claims that all corporations in the U.S.must establish an internal control system to avoid above mentioned financial and accounting risks. With respect to the requirements of Chinese Securities Supervisory Association and the National Capital Committee,PetroChina established its internal control system in February, 2004. CNPC has also established such a system,and has run very well until now.

  4. INNOVATIVE ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF STATE INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL AND INTERNAL FINANCIAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Voronchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the innovative aspects of development of state internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit in terms of the budgeting focused on result. A mechanism for implementing the functions of the Supervisory bodies in order to ensure the effi cient use of budgetary funds and eff ectiveness of budget expenditures. The main purpose of the article is justifi cation of implementing systems of internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit in the structures of the major administrators and recipients of budgetary funds, with the allocation of the basic tools that ensure the functioning of the control mechanism, the combination of control procedures and sequence of their implementation. Methodological base of research is the generalization of domestic and foreign experience of internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit, refl ecting an objective law and the necessity of development of state fi nancial control system in the conditions of innovative economy. The result of the implementation of the proposed mechanism and instruments for its implementation in key spending units and recipients of budget funds should be to ensure the eff ectiveness of the implementation of government programmes and projects. Signifi cance of the research contained in the article problems and their solutions is to ensure the effectiveness of the regulatory authorities at all stages of movement of budgetary funds and effective implementation of their Manager and recipient assigned to them socio-economic functions.

  5. Minimum exposure limits and measured relationships between the vitamin D, erythema and international commission on non-ionizing radiation protection solar ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio; Butler, Harry; Turner, Joanna; Wainwright, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has established guidelines for exposure to ultraviolet radiation in outdoor occupational settings. Spectrally weighted ICNIRP ultraviolet exposures received by the skin or eye in an 8 h period are limited to 30 J m(-2). In this study, the time required to reach the ICNIRP exposure limit was measured daily in 10 min intervals upon a horizontal plane at a subtropical Australian latitude over a full year and compared with the effective Vitamin D dose received to one-quarter of the available skin surface area for all six Fitzpatrick skin types. The comparison of measured solar ultraviolet exposures for the full range of sky conditions in the 2009 measurement period, including a major September continental dust event, show a clear relationship between the weighted ICNIRP and the effective vitamin D dose. Our results show that the horizontal plane ICNIRP ultraviolet exposure may be used under these conditions to provide minimum guidelines for the healthy moderation of vitamin D, scalable to each of the six Fitzpatrick skin types.

  6. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  7. 75 FR 77664 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions... of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Rock Island, Illinois... International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division. The Department has determined that these...

  8. 76 FR 81986 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions... Assistance on July 30, 2010, applicable to workers of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control... location of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division. The Department...

  9. ENHANCING ASSETS' PROTECTION THROUGH AN ADEQUATE MONITORING OF INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM BY INTERNAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Eugen Cosmin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The assets are established into a company as very important and strategic resources that are contributing at the creation of the needed premises to conduct the daily-basis activity and also to reach present and future planned objectives. Recent studies like COSO's Fraudulent Financial Reporting 1998-2007 have highlighted an increasing fraudulent activity against assets therefore the efforts of fighting against fraud must be supplemented in order to preserve the existence and value of those resources. Internal controls are processes implemented in order to give a reasonable assurance that the company will not become a fraud victim. Even so, a lot of internal controls are paying a heavy tribute to their lack of efficiency and update. Thus, for a correct functioning, internal controls must be monitored and assessed permanently in order to preserve their strength and ability to fulfill their mission. This approach will deliver more added value because rather than being corrected after they have already occurred, the frauds related with the assets will be prevented, detected and reported at a timely moment, thereby the incidence and value of those criminal activities will decrease significantly. Furthermore, because not only the process of monitoring is important but even the entity conducting this activity we believe that internal audit is the most appropriate to undertake this responsibility. Thus, through this material we opened a discussion about how important permanent monitored and updated internal controls are in order to assure a proper assets protection and why internal audit, rather than the management, should be the most eligible to undertake this responsibility. Also we provided some suggestions regarding the main activities that must be taken into consideration by an internal audit professional when is being involved in a monitoring process of internal control system. We do believe that this paper will be the starting point for new

  10. International Conference on Systems, Control and Information Technologies 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Systems, Control and Information Technologies 2016. It includes research findings from leading experts in the fields connected with INDUSTRY 4.0 and its implementation, especially: intelligent systems, advanced control, information technologies, industrial automation, robotics, intelligent sensors, metrology and new materials. Each chapter offers an analysis of a specific technical problem followed by a numerical analysis and simulation as well as the implementation for the solution of a real-world problem.

  11. Temporal and Geographic variation in the validity and internal consistency of the Nursing Home Resident Assessment Minimum Data Set 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Shubing

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Minimum Data Set (MDS for nursing home resident assessment has been required in all U.S. nursing homes since 1990 and has been universally computerized since 1998. Initially intended to structure clinical care planning, uses of the MDS expanded to include policy applications such as case-mix reimbursement, quality monitoring and research. The purpose of this paper is to summarize a series of analyses examining the internal consistency and predictive validity of the MDS data as used in the "real world" in all U.S. nursing homes between 1999 and 2007. Methods We used person level linked MDS and Medicare denominator and all institutional claim files including inpatient (hospital and skilled nursing facilities for all Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries entering U.S. nursing homes during the period 1999 to 2007. We calculated the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV of diagnoses taken from Medicare hospital claims and from the MDS among all new admissions from hospitals to nursing homes and the internal consistency (alpha reliability of pairs of items within the MDS that logically should be related. We also tested the internal consistency of commonly used MDS based multi-item scales and examined the predictive validity of an MDS based severity measure viz. one year survival. Finally, we examined the correspondence of the MDS discharge record to hospitalizations and deaths seen in Medicare claims, and the completeness of MDS assessments upon skilled nursing facility (SNF admission. Results Each year there were some 800,000 new admissions directly from hospital to US nursing homes and some 900,000 uninterrupted SNF stays. Comparing Medicare enrollment records and claims with MDS records revealed reasonably good correspondence that improved over time (by 2006 only 3% of deaths had no MDS discharge record, only 5% of SNF stays had no MDS, but over 20% of MDS discharges indicating hospitalization had no associated

  12. 12 CFR 609.940 - Internal systems and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal systems and controls. 609.940 Section 609.940 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards... business plan objectives and policies and procedures requirements regarding E-commerce; and (b) Prevent...

  13. CFO finance network centrality, errors and internal control material weaknessess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schabus, M.

    2015-01-01

    CFOs finance networks matter in determining certain accounting and reporting outcomes. Drawing on social network theory, this study shows that CFO centrality in a network of financial experts is inversely related to the occurrence of restatements due to errors and disclosure of internal control mate

  14. Internal Controls for Accounting Areas. Alliance Action Information Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Internal controls are important to ensure your Parent Center's resources are well protected. Steps should be taken to ensure that finance transactions are authorized by management, executed properly and on time, and recorded appropriately. Some centers may not have staff with all of the titles used in the procedures presented in this paper.…

  15. The International Arms Control and Disarmament Situation in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Yidan; Yu Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    In 2015,the situation of the international arms control and disarmament was in the overall stability,the United States and Russia continued to promote the performance process of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty(New START),the final agreement on the Iran nuclear issue was signed.But the ninth Review

  16. Internal Controls for Accounting Areas. Alliance Action Information Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Internal controls are important to ensure your Parent Center's resources are well protected. Steps should be taken to ensure that finance transactions are authorized by management, executed properly and on time, and recorded appropriately. Some centers may not have staff with all of the titles used in the procedures presented in this paper.…

  17. CFO finance network centrality, errors and internal control material weaknessess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schabus, M.

    2015-01-01

    CFOs finance networks matter in determining certain accounting and reporting outcomes. Drawing on social network theory, this study shows that CFO centrality in a network of financial experts is inversely related to the occurrence of restatements due to errors and disclosure of internal control mate

  18. 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of instrument electrical and automatic control system, the 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Automatic Control (CEEAC) was established at the crossroads of information technology and control technology, and seeks to effectively apply information technology to a sweeping trend that views control as the core of intelligent manufacturing and life. This book takes a look forward into advanced manufacturing development, an area shaped by intelligent manufacturing. It highlights the application and promotion of process control represented by traditional industries, such as the steel industry and petrochemical industry; the technical equipment and system cooperative control represented by robot technology and multi-axis CNC; and the control and support of emerging process technologies represented by laser melting and stacking, as well as the emerging industry represented by sustainable and intelligent life. The book places particular emphasis on the micro-segments field, such as...

  19. 47 CFR 90.475 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.475 Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems. (a) An internal transmitter control system need not be designed to meet...

  20. Use of combined maximum and minimum intensity projections to determine internal target volume in 4-dimensional CT scans for hepatic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the accuracy of the combined maximum and minimum intensity projection-based internal target volume (ITV delineation in 4-dimensional (4D CT scans for liver malignancies. Methods 4D CT with synchronized IV contrast data were acquired from 15 liver cancer patients (4 hepatocellular carcinomas; 11 hepatic metastases. We used five approaches to determine ITVs: (1. ITVAllPhases: contouring gross tumor volume (GTV on each of 10 respiratory phases of 4D CT data set and combining these GTVs; (2. ITV2Phase: contouring GTV on CT of the peak inhale phase (0% phase and the peak exhale phase (50% and then combining the two; (3. ITVMIP: contouring GTV on MIP with modifications based on physician's visual verification of contours in each respiratory phase; (4. ITVMinIP: contouring GTV on MinIP with modification by physician; (5. ITV2M: combining ITVMIP and ITVMinIP. ITVAllPhases was taken as the reference ITV, and the metrics used for comparison were: matching index (MI, under- and over-estimated volume (Vunder and Vover. Results 4D CT images were successfully acquired from 15 patients and tumor margins were clearly discernable in all patients. There were 9 cases of low density and 6, mixed on CT images. After comparisons of metrics, the tool of ITV2M was the most appropriate to contour ITV for liver malignancies with the highest MI of 0.93 ± 0.04 and the lowest proportion of Vunder (0.07 ± 0.04. Moreover, tumor volume, target motion three-dimensionally and ratio of tumor vertical diameter over tumor motion magnitude in cranio-caudal direction did not significantly influence the values of MI and proportion of Vunder. Conclusion The tool of ITV2M is recommended as a reliable method for generating ITVs from 4D CT data sets in liver cancer.

  1. The role of interactive control systems in obtaining internal consistency in the management control system package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Companies rely on multiple Management Control Systems to obtain their short and long term objectives. When applying a multifaceted perspective on Management Control System the concept of internal consistency has been found to be important in obtaining goal congruency in the company. However...... of MCSs when analyzing internal consistency in the MCS package and how managers obtain internal consistency in the new MCS package when a MCS change occur. This study focuses specifically on changes to administrative controls, which are not internal consistent with the current cybernetic controls. As top......, to date we know little about how managers maintain internal consistency, when individual MCSs change and do not fit with the other MCSs. Based on a case study in a global Danish manufacturing company this study finds that it is necessary to distinguish between the design characteristics of MCS and use...

  2. Improvement of the Molecular diagnosis of Cryptococcus neoformans using Internal Control (IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Shahhosseiny

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lacking of internal control in majority of the PCR realated searchesis one of the most important items yet. Using sensitive and specialized laboratory techniques such as PCR is necessary to cryptococosis diagnosis. Different methods to detect this pathogen exist. Generally, culturing based methods are time consuming and have low sensitivity and need enough experience and equipments to data analyzing. Further painting based methods have no sufficient sensitivity as well. As a result, molecular techniques such as PCR are more appropriate to diagnosis purposes, but different data gathered from non standard tests supposed to be one of the deficiencies of this powerful molecular technique. This aim of this study was to design and produce the plasmid amplification internal control (IAC to identify the restrictors in Cryptococcus neoformans PCR test and its future applications in the routine diagnostic laboratories. Materials and methods: In this study to produce internal control, first the special PCR primers based on Gene target 16SrRNA for optimized molecular detection and then sensitivity and character were identified. Then, the composite primers for IAC C. neoformans was designed, replicated and clonized as well. The replicated IAC C. neoformans was attached to pTZ57R and transformed and colonized in E.coli JM107. The minimum IC number of each PCR reaction was studied using dilution and PCR reaction spectrum with IC. Results: The size of C. neoformans diagnostic product with its special primers was 415 bp and IAC C. neoformans amplicon is 661 bp, which have desired deference in the size (246 bp. The minimum IC number was identified 1000 in each reaction. The min/max sensitivity of PCR test with IC for C. neoformans DNA was identified between 100 particle to 3 million yeasts. There was no unwanted product in the character test with different agents. Conclusion: In spite of high rate and exclusivity of PCR technique, one of the main

  3. International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Discrimination and inequality shape women’s experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a ‘gender perspective’ into drug control policies, with ‘gender’ limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality. Also, drug control policies often fail to meaningfully address the specific needs and circumstances of women (inclusively defined), leaving them at risk of recurrent violations of their rights in the context of drugs. This article explores what it means to ‘mainstream’ this narrower version of gender into drug control efforts, using as examples various women’s experiences as people who use drugs, in the drug trade, and in the criminal justice system. It points to international guidelines on human rights and drug control as an important tool to ensure attention to women’s rights in drug control policy design and implementation. PMID:28630557

  4. Technical Consultation of the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Cooling Water Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Rotter, Hank A.; Easton, Myriam; Lince, Jeffrey; Park, Woonsup; Stewart, Thomas; Speckman, Donna; Dexter, Stephen; Kelly, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) coolant exhibited unexpected chemical changes during the first year of on-orbit operation following the launch and activation in February 2001. The coolant pH dropped from 9.3 to below the minimum specification limit of 9.0, and re-equilibrated between 8.3 and 8.5. This drop in coolant pH was shown to be the result of permeation of CO2 from the cabin into the coolant via Teflon flexible hoses which created carbonic acid in the fluid. This unexpected diffusion was the result of having a cabin CO2 partial pressure higher than the ground partial pressure (average 4.0 mmHg vs. less than 0.2 mmHg). This drop in pH was followed by a concurrent increasing coolant nickel concentration. No other metal ions were observed in the coolant and based on previous tests, the source of nickel ion was thought to be the boron nickel (BNi) braze intermetallics used in the construction of HXs and cold plates. Specifically, BNi2 braze alloy was used for the IATCS IFHX and BNi3 braze alloy was used for the IATCS Airlock Servicing and Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) HX and cold plates. Given the failure criticality of the HXs, a Corrosion Team was established by the IATCS CWG to determine the impact of the nickel corrosion on hardware performance life.

  5. Current Situation of International Nuclear Arms Control and Nuclear Disarmament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong; Xianfu

    2014-01-01

    <正>Currently,international nuclear arms control and nuclear disarmament process is showing both encouraging and frustrating signs,with a stress on the latter.The following is a general picture:First,the new U.S.-Russian nuclear disarmament process faces challenges and prospect of a new round of nuclear disarmament negotiation is grim.As a result of implementing the New START signed in February 2011,as of March 1,2014,the United States has 1585

  6. Synthetical Control of AGC/LPC System Based on Neural Networks Internal Model Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    One synthetical control method of AGC/LPC system based on intelligence control theory-neural networks internal model control method is presented. Genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to optimize the parameters of the neural networks. Simulation results prove that this method is effective.

  7. Minimum-time control of systems with Coloumb friction: Near global optima via mixed integer linear programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRIESSEN,BRIAN; SADEGH,NADER

    2000-04-25

    This work presents a method of finding near global optima to minimum-time trajectory generation problem for systems that would be linear if it were not for the presence of Coloumb friction. The required final state of the system is assumed to be maintainable by the system, and the input bounds are assumed to be large enough so that they can overcome the maximum static Coloumb friction force. Other than the previous work for generating minimum-time trajectories for non redundant robotic manipulators for which the path in joint space is already specified, this work represents, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first approach for generating near global optima for minimum-time problems involving a nonlinear class of dynamic systems. The reason the optima generated are near global optima instead of exactly global optima is due to a discrete-time approximation of the system (which is usually used anyway to simulate such a system numerically). The method closely resembles previous methods for generating minimum-time trajectories for linear systems, where the core operation is the solution of a Phase I linear programming problem. For the nonlinear systems considered herein, the core operation is instead the solution of a mixed integer linear programming problem.

  8. ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMS OF INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL IN THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela – Lavinia CIOBĂNICĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the multitude of definitions, internal control is found in the centre of managerial concerns worldwide. This amplification of interest towards internal control has its origin in a series of events, of which two can be mentioned: the growing business complexity and dispersal activity centres, which led to the growth and development of the delegation of competence, the only way which enables the responsible to exercise powers from a distance and entirely, bringing together the components needed by its delegates. Regulatory domain, which has not ceased to expand: laws, regulations, rules, professional constraints, budgetary and social – all these have increasingly limited the decision makers, through a network of rules that must be respected. Consequently, what can be done to be safe from any punishment and to ensure constant watch over the essentials? To answer these questions, and many others, experts in the field have taken initiatives that have enabled them to define with precision the specific internal control and to set goals, creating the famous models: COSO and CoCo.

  9. RISK ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES IN COSO INTERNAL CONTROL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan TÜREDİ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The companies pursue their goals and operate their activities in an environment full of risks and uncertainties. One of the major principles in accounting is that the companies to continue indefinitely, which is called “the going concern assumption”. Any company, surrounded by many risks must adapt to the rapidly changing conditions of the business environment, realize and manage those risks and build some core competencies to continue as a going concern. COSO internal control, having practical application tools for companies is one of the generally accepted frameworks that aims enabling the companies to build, manage and develop an internal control structure as a tool to reach sustainable success. One of the five COSO components is “risk assessment” covering the recognition and assessment of the potential risks that the company faces and manage those risk considering their materiality. This study aims to explain the COSO internal control model with its five components as well as stressing the assessment of risks component supported by some examples.

  10. A comprehensive gaze stabilization controller based on cerebellar internal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannucci, Lorenzo; Falotico, Egidio; Tolu, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    based on the coordination of VCR and VOR and OKR. The model, inspired by neuroscientific cerebellar theories, is provided with learning and adaptation capabilities based on internal models. We present the results for the gaze stabilization model on three sets of experiments conducted on the SABIAN robot...... and on the iCub simulator, validating the robustness of the proposed control method. The first set of experiments focused on the controller response to a set of disturbance frequencies along the vertical plane. The second shows the performances of the system under three-dimensional disturbances. The last set...

  11. THE COMMUNICATION OF INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM WEAKNESSES - NECESSITY AND RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, NEDELCU (BUNEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In terms of its mission, the control is an inherent part of management, being a specifically human activity, especially useful serving both the management, business partners, public institutions and public. Especially in the last period, amid the economic and financial crisis manifested in recent years, the control has evolved and evolving both by the improvement of organization and management systems and by the response to continuous development of the environment in which it operates. The control activities are an integral part of the management process by which the entity aims to achieve their objectives. The research methodology consists essentially in a literature review and recent regulations in the analyzed field.The objective of this study is to highlight the way in which shall be communicated the deficiencies of internal control systems, to the persons responsible for their governance, inclusively in the banking system.

  12. 26 CFR 1.963-3 - Distributions counting toward a minimum distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributions counting toward a minimum distribution. 1.963-3 Section 1.963-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.963-3...

  13. Nanoparticle hardness controls the internalization pathway for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Zhang, Xianren; Cao, Dapeng

    2015-02-14

    Nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery systems offer fundamental advantages over current therapeutic agents that commonly display a longer circulation time, lower toxicity, specific targeted release, and greater bioavailability. For successful NP-based drug delivery it is essential that the drug-carrying nanocarriers can be internalized by the target cells and transported to specific sites, and the inefficient internalization of nanocarriers is often one of the major sources for drug resistance. In this work, we use the dissipative particle dynamics simulation to investigate the effect of NP hardness on their internalization efficiency. Three simplified models of NP platforms for drug delivery, including polymeric NP, liposome and solid NP, are designed here to represent increasing nanocarrier hardness. Simulation results indicate that NP hardness controls the internalization pathway for drug delivery. Rigid NPs can enter the cell by a pathway of endocytosis, whereas for soft NPs the endocytosis process can be inhibited or frustrated due to wrapping-induced shape deformation and non-uniform ligand distribution. Instead, soft NPs tend to find one of three penetration pathways to enter the cell membrane via rearranging their hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. Finally, we show that the interaction between nanocarriers and drug molecules is also essential for effective drug delivery.

  14. Development of internal controls for PCR detection of Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, G; Pearce, M; Leslie, D

    1998-12-01

    This work describes the development and evaluation of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Bacillus anthracis strains harbouring plasmid pX02. The multiplex also incorporated an internal control (IC) to avoid false negative reactions. Internal controls consisted of plasmids containing modified PCR target sequences, corresponding to the capC and BA813 genes of B. anthracis, which were then co-amplified with the original target sequences using the same set of amplimers. The initial IC construct comprised of an internally deleted form of the genomic target sequence cloned into pUC19. A series of nested DNA fragments corresponding to the 23S rRNA sequences of Bacillus cereus were then subcloned into the point of deletion, producing a number of IC constructs with similar sequences but increasing product size on PCR amplification. Neither the presence of IC DNA template or IC PCR product size affected the specificity or non-specific cross-reactivity of the original PCR assay. The concentration of IC was critical, too much IC DNA template would out compete the genomic DNA template, thus giving a false negative result. However, when the concentration of IC was optimal assay sensitivity was not compromised.

  15. 13 CFR 107.506 - Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../Internal controls. 107.506 Section 107.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures....

  16. 7 CFR 4290.506 - Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls... Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures....

  17. The national and international regulatory environment in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2015-07-09

    Despite their lethality, cigarettes are subject to little regulation that directly restricts their contents or their legality. This may change in the near future with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the world's first global health treaty, now in force, as well as developments in a few individual countries. Cigarettes are subject to a substantial number of country-specific regulations regarding their conditions of sale: their price (mostly through taxation), the places where they can be consumed (clean indoor air laws), who can smoke them (prohibitions on their use by or sales to minors), how they can be advertised or promoted (if at all), and how they must be packaged (minimum pack sizes, warning labels, plain packaging). Such policies constitute the core of successful tobacco control. The FCTC has been ratified by 180 countries representing 90% of the world's population. The FCTC requires compliance with numerous provisions relating to the kinds of regulations noted above. The treaty also mandates explicit attention to direct product regulation. Several countries have such authority, at least in limited forms. In the US, for example, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now has the legal authority to regulate tobacco products, including their contents. The possibility exists that, in the foreseeable future, a country will mandate product standards that will substantially reduce the appeal of cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products, which are by far the leading sources of the death and disease associated with tobacco.

  18. Sustainable Innovation, Management Accounting and Control Systems, and International Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lopez-Valeiras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how Management Accounting and Control Systems (MACS facilitate the appropriation of the benefits of sustainable innovations in organizations. In particular, this paper examines the moderating role of different types of MACS in the relationships between sustainable innovation and international performance at an organizational level. We collected survey data from 123 Spanish and Portuguese organizations. Partial Least Square was used to analyze the data. Results show that the effect of sustainable innovations on international performance is enhanced by contemporary rather than traditional types of MACS. Overall our findings show that MACS can help managers to develop and monitor organizational activities (e.g., costumer services and distribution activities, which support the appropriation of the potential benefits from sustainable innovation. This paper responds to recent calls for in-depth studies about the organizational mechanism that may enhance the success of sustainable innovation.

  19. 2011 International Conference in Electrics, Communication and Automatic Control Proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This two-volume set contains the very latest, cutting-edge material in electrics, communication and automatic control. As a vital field of research that is highly relevant to current developments in a number of technological domains, the subjects it covers include micro-electronics and integrated circuit control, signal processing technology, next-generation network infrastructure, wireless communication and scientific instruments. The aim of the International Conference in Electrics, Communication and Automatic Control, held in Chongqing, China, in June 2011 was to provide a valuable inclusive platform for researchers, engineers, academicians and industrial professionals from all over the world to share their research results with fellow scientists in the sector. The call for papers netted well over 600 submissions, of which 224 were selected for presentation. This fully peer-reviewed collection of papers from the conference can be viewed as a single-source compendium of the latest trends and techniques in t...

  20. International Conference on Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Soria, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the outcome of the international meeting on instability, control and noise generated by massive flow separation that was organized at the Monash Center, in Prato, Italy, September 4-6, 2013. The meeting served as the final review of the EU-FP7 Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows Marie Curie travel grant and was supported by the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development. Fifty leading specialists from twelve countries reviewed the progress made since the 50s of the last century and discussed modern analysis techniques, advanced experimental flow diagnostics, and recent developments in active flow control techniques from the incompressible to the hypersonic regime. Applications involving massive flow separation and associated instability and noise generation mechanisms of interest to the aeronautical, naval and automotive industries have been addressed from a theoretical, numerical or experimental point of view, making this book a unique source containing the stat...

  1. Linear Array Geometry Synthesis with Minimum Side Lobe Level and Null Control Using Dynamic Multi-Swarm Particle Swarm Optimizer with Local Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Zafar, Hamim

    Linear antenna array design is one of the most important electromagnetic optimization problems of current interest. This paper describes the synthesis method of linear array geometry with minimum side lobe level and null control by the Dynamic Multi-Swarm Particle Swarm Optimizer with Local Search (DMSPSO) which optimizes the spacing between the elements of the linear array to produce a radiation pattern with minimum side lobe level and null placement control. The results of the DMSPSO algorithm have been shown to meet or beat the results obtained using other state-of-the-art metaheuristics like the Genetic Algorithm (GA),General Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Memetic Algorithms (MA), and Tabu Search (TS) in a statistically meaningful way. Three design examples are presented that illustrate the use of the DMSPSO algorithm, and the optimization goal in each example is easily achieved.

  2. 关于核反应堆系统的最小范数控制%On Minimum Norm Control for the Nuclear Reactor Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the minimum norm control problems of nuclear reactor systems governed by the monoenergetic steady-state isotropic transport equation, Under the given condition, we have proved the existence and uniqueness of the minimum norm scattering-fission cross section control element, and have given its corresponding optimality conditions.%讨论核反应堆系统散射裂变截面的最小范数控制问题.在一定条件下证明了最小范数散射裂变截面控制变量的存在性和唯一性,并给出其相应的优化条件.

  3. Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Weir, Natalee; Oehler, Bill; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry; Lukens, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously. Criteria for that down-select included: the need for safe, non-intrusive implementation and operation in a functioning system; the ability to control existing planktonic and biofilm residing microorganisms; a negligible impact on system-wetted materials of construction; and a negligible reactivity with existing coolant additives. Candidate testing to provide data for the selection of an optimal alternate biocide is now in the final stages. That testing has included rapid biocide effectiveness screening using Biolog MT2 plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (amount that will inhibit visible growth of microorganisms), time kill studies to determine the exposure time required to completely eliminate organism growth, materials compatibility exposure evaluations, coolant compatibility studies, and bench-top simulated coolant testing. This paper reports the current status of the effort to select an alternate biocide for the ISS ITCS coolant. The results of various test results to select the optimal candidate are presented.

  4. Vehicle active steering control research based on two-DOF robust internal model control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Liu, Yahui; Wang, Fengbo; Bao, Chunjiang; Sun, Qun; Zhao, Youqun

    2016-07-01

    Because of vehicle's external disturbances and model uncertainties, robust control algorithms have obtained popularity in vehicle stability control. The robust control usually gives up performance in order to guarantee the robustness of the control algorithm, therefore an improved robust internal model control(IMC) algorithm blending model tracking and internal model control is put forward for active steering system in order to reach high performance of yaw rate tracking with certain robustness. The proposed algorithm inherits the good model tracking ability of the IMC control and guarantees robustness to model uncertainties. In order to separate the design process of model tracking from the robustness design process, the improved 2 degree of freedom(DOF) robust internal model controller structure is given from the standard Youla parameterization. Simulations of double lane change maneuver and those of crosswind disturbances are conducted for evaluating the robust control algorithm, on the basis of a nonlinear vehicle simulation model with a magic tyre model. Results show that the established 2-DOF robust IMC method has better model tracking ability and a guaranteed level of robustness and robust performance, which can enhance the vehicle stability and handling, regardless of variations of the vehicle model parameters and the external crosswind interferences. Contradiction between performance and robustness of active steering control algorithm is solved and higher control performance with certain robustness to model uncertainties is obtained.

  5. Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement: A Review of the Locus of Control Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormanik, Martin B.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2009-01-01

    One aspect of personality, perceptions of internal versus external control of reinforcement, shifts under conditions of change. This review of the literature examines the relationship between planned organizational change and locus of control. The review includes literature from the disciplines of clinical and social psychology, adult development,…

  6. Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement: A Review of the Locus of Control Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormanik, Martin B.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2009-01-01

    One aspect of personality, perceptions of internal versus external control of reinforcement, shifts under conditions of change. This review of the literature examines the relationship between planned organizational change and locus of control. The review includes literature from the disciplines of clinical and social psychology, adult development,…

  7. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product. CONCLUSIONS: International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of

  8. A Selected Operational History of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) for International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vipul P.; Winton, Dale; Ibarra, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) has been developed jointly by Boeing Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama and Honeywell Engines & Systems, Torrance, California to meet the internal thermal control needs for the International Space Station (ISS). The ITCS provides heat removal for the critical life support systems and thermal conditioning for numerous experiment racks. The ITCS will be fitted on a number of modules on the ISS. The first US Element containing the ITCS, Node 1, was launched in December 1998. Since Node 1 does not contain a pump to circulate the fluid it was not filled with ITCS fluid until after the US Laboratory Module was installed. The second US Element module, US Laboratory Module, which contains the pumps and all the major ITCS control hardware, was launched in February 2001. The third US Element containing the ITCS, the US Airlock, was launched in July 2001. The dual loop system of the ITCS is comprised of a lowtemperature loop (LTL) and a moderate-temperature loop (MTL). Each loop has a pump package assembly (PPA), a system flow control assembly (SFCA), a threeway mixing valve (TWMV), several rack flow control assemblies (RFCA), cold plates, pressure sensors, temperature sensors, pump bypass assembly (PBA) and a heat exchanger. In addition, the MTL has an additional TWMV, a payload regeneration heat exchanger (P/RHE) and a manual flow control valve (MFCV). The LTL has a service performance and checkout unit (SPCU) heat exchanger. The two loops are linked via one loop crossover assembly (LCA) providing cross loop capabilities and a single PPA, two-loop functionality. One important parameter monitored by the ground stations and on-orbit is the amount of fluid leakage from the ITCS. ISS fluid leakage is of importance since ITCS fluid is costly to re-supply, may be difficult to clean up in zero-g, and if uncontained could lead to equipment failures and potential hazards. This paper examines the nominal leakage observed over period of a year

  9. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 1 includes best papers selected from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into five sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Identification and Control, Navigation, Guidance and Sensor, Simulation Technology, Future Telecommunications and Control

  10. Hybrid internal model control and proportional control of chaotic dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐冬莲; 姚良宾

    2004-01-01

    A new chaos control method is proposed to take advantage of chaos or avoid it. The hybrid Internal Model Control and Proportional Control learning scheme are introduced. In order to gain the desired robust performance and ensure the system's stability, Adaptive Momentum Algorithms are also developed. Through properly designing the neural network plant model and neural network controller, the chaotic dynamical systems are controlled while the parameters of the BP neural network are modified. Taking the Lorenz chaotic system as example, the results show that chaotic dynamical systems can be stabilized at the desired orbits by this control strategy.

  11. Hybrid internal model control and proportional control of chaotic dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dong-lian; Yao, Liang-bin

    2004-01-01

    A new chaos control method is proposed to take advantage of chaos or avoid it. The hybrid Internal Model Control and Proportional Control learning scheme are introduced. In order to gain the desired robust performance and ensure the system's stability, Adaptive Momentum Algorithms are also developed. Through properly designing the neural network plant model and neural network controller, the chaotic dynamical systems are controlled while the parameters of the BP neural network are modified. Taking the Lorenz chaotic system as example, the results show that chaotic dynamical systems can be stabilized at the desired orbits by this control strategy.

  12. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  13. International Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control

    CERN Document Server

    Johannsen, Gunnar

    1976-01-01

    This book includes all papers presented at the International Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control held at Berchtesgaden, Federal Republic of Germany, March 8-12, 1976. The Symposium was sponsored by the Scientific Affairs Division of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Brussels, and the government of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn. We believe the book constitutes an important and timely status report on monitoring behavior and supervisory control by human operators of complex man-machine systems in which the computer is sharing key functions with the man. These systems include aircraft and other vehicles, nuclear and more conventional power plants, and processes for the manu­ facture of chemicals, petroleum, and discrete parts. By "monitoring" we mean the systematic observation by a human operator of mul tiple sources of information, e. g. , ranging from integrated display consoles to disparate "live situations". The monitor's purpose is to determine whether operations are norm...

  14. 1st International Conference on Intelligent Communication, Control and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Sushabhan

    2017-01-01

    The book presents high-quality research papers presented at the first international conference, ICICCD 2016, organised by the Department of Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering of University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun on 2nd and 3rd April, 2016. The book is broadly divided into three sections: Intelligent Communication, Intelligent Control and Intelligent Devices. The areas covered under these sections are wireless communication and radio technologies, optical communication, communication hardware evolution, machine-to-machine communication networks, routing techniques, network analytics, network applications and services, satellite and space communications, technologies for e-communication, wireless Ad-Hoc and sensor networks, communications and information security, signal processing for communications, communication software, microwave informatics, robotics and automation, optimization techniques and algorithms, intelligent transport, mechatronics system, guidance and navigat...

  15. Unexpected Control Structure Interaction on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Susan F.; Platonov, Valery; Medina, Elizabeth A.; Borisenko, Alexander; Bogachev, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    On June 23, 2011, the International Space Station (ISS) was performing a routine 180 degree yaw maneuver in support of a Russian vehicle docking when the on board Russian Segment (RS) software unexpectedly declared two attitude thrusters failed and switched thruster configurations in response to unanticipated ISS dynamic motion. Flight data analysis after the maneuver indicated that higher than predicted structural loads had been induced at various locations on the United States (U.S.) segment of the ISS. Further analysis revealed that the attitude control system was firing thrusters in response to both structural flex and rigid body rates, which resonated the structure and caused high loads and fatigue cycles. It was later determined that the thruster themselves were healthy. The RS software logic, which was intended to react to thruster failures, had instead been heavily influenced by interaction between the control system and structural flex. This paper will discuss the technical aspects of the control structure interaction problem that led to the RS control system firing thrusters in response to structural flex, the factors that led to insufficient preflight analysis of the thruster firings, and the ramifications the event had on the ISS. An immediate consequence included limiting which thrusters could be used for attitude control. This complicated the planning of on-orbit thruster events and necessitated the use of suboptimal thruster configurations that increased propellant usage and caused thruster lifetime usage concerns. In addition to the technical aspects of the problem, the team dynamics and communication shortcomings that led to such an event happening in an environment where extensive analysis is performed in support of human space flight will also be examined. Finally, the technical solution will be presented, which required a multidisciplinary effort between the U.S. and Russian control system engineers and loads and dynamics structural engineers to

  16. The Role of Accounting and Internal Control in Reducing Bureaucracy in the Public Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luminita Ionescu

    2016-01-01

      The aim of this paper is to present the relation between efficient internal control and accounting procedures and how the internal control system could play an important role in reducing bureaucracy...

  17. Microbiological Characterization and Concerns of the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Wieland, Paul O.

    2005-01-01

    Since January 1999, the chemical the International Space Station Thermal Control System (IATCS) and microbial state of (ISS) Internal Active fluid has been monitored by analysis of samples returned to Earth. Key chemical parameters have changed over time, including a drop in pH from the specified 9.5 +/- 0.5 ta = 58.4, an increase in the level of total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved nickel (Ni) in the fluid, and a decrease in the phosphate (PO,) level. In addition, silver (AS) ion levels in the fluid decreased rapidly as Ag deposited on internal metallic surfaces of the system. The lack of available Ag ions coupled with changes in the fluid chemistry has resulted in a favorable environment for microbial growth. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria have increased from less than 10 colony-forming units (CFUs)/l00 mL to l0(exp 6) to l0(exp 7) CFUs/100 mL. The increase of the microbial population is of concern because uncontrolled microbiological growth in the IATCS can contribute to deterioration in the performance of critical components within the system and potentially impact human health if opportunistic pathogens become established and escape into the cabin atmosphere. Micro-organisms can potentially degrade the coolant chemistry; attach to surfaces and form biofilms; lead to biofouling of filters, tubing, and pumps; decrease flow rates; reduce heat transfer; initiate and accelerate corrosion; and enhance mineral scale formation. The micro- biological data from the ISS IATCS fluid, and approaches to addressing the concerns, are summarized in this paper.

  18. SOME CONSIDERATIONS OVER THE INTERNAL CONTROL IN THE CONTEXT OF CURRENT ACCOUNTANCY REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenghel Dorin Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the hereby study we set ourselves on an analysis over the internal control and the ways of implementation of it. The final purpose of our research is represented by the characteristics of the internal control system in the context of current accountancy regulations. The accomplishment of such goal has forced us to research the current literature in the area and also the legal regulations over internal control. Of course, the accomplishment of such a research was possible only after a pertinent analysis over the opinions expressed in specialty literature regarding this area. Our research wants to be with a theoretical and applicative character. It is based on analysing the internal control system, the methodology of internal control and the steps of internal control. We express our belief that the implementation of the internal control in a very exact manner comes as an aid to the company management and lead to the accomplishment of managerial objectives and policies. In what it regards the result of our research there can be drawn the following conclusions: from the legal regulations (OMFP nr. 3055/2009, there is no clear conclusion over the procedures and policies of implementation of internal control applicable to an economical entity; also there are not presented in a detailed way the types (forms of internal control, being presented in the legal regulations only a classification of them after the time in which they are exercised (before, during or after the finishing of the operations; also in the legal regulations there is developed a certain way of internal control, represented by the financial and accounting internal control, as if the other forms of internal control do not exist; in what regards the components of internal control, these are presented in another way, but similar to already known models of internal control (Coso and Coco; also in the legal regulations there are presented the general objectives of internal control

  19. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 327 - Internal Management Control Review Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal Management Control Review Checklist B... B to Part 327—Internal Management Control Review Checklist (a) Task: Personnel and/or Organization... See footnote 2 to this Appendix B. (1) I attest that the above listed internal controls...

  20. 17 CFR 229.308T - (Item 308T) Internal control over financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 308T) Internal control... § 229.308T (Item 308T) Internal control over financial reporting. Note to Item 308T: This is a special... internal control over financial reporting. Provide a report of management on the registrant's...

  1. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-13 - Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... internal accounting control. 240.17Ad-13 Section 240.17Ad-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-13 Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control. (a) Accountant's... accountant concerning the transfer agent's system of internal accounting control and related procedures...

  2. 7 CFR 1773.32 - Report on compliance and on internal control over financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report on compliance and on internal control over... RUS Reporting Requirements § 1773.32 Report on compliance and on internal control over financial... compliance with applicable laws, regulations, contracts, and grants, and on internal control over...

  3. 78 FR 22263 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Meeting AGENCY... (GAO) is initiating efforts to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government... Internal Control in the Federal Government please contact Kristen Kociolek, Assistant Director,...

  4. 78 FR 40740 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY... Accountability Office (GAO) is preparing to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government... and the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government please contact Kristen...

  5. 17 CFR 229.308 - (Item 308) Internal control over financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 308) Internal control... § 229.308 (Item 308) Internal control over financial reporting. (a) Management's annual report on internal control over financial reporting. Provide a report of management on the registrant's...

  6. 12 CFR 630.5 - Accuracy of reports and assessment of internal control over financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT SYSTEM General § 630.5 Accuracy of reports and assessment of internal control over financial... assessment of internal control over financial reporting. (1) Annual reports must include a report by the Funding Corporation's management assessing the effectiveness of the internal control over...

  7. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY: U.S. Government... 2013 Exposure Draft update to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government reflect... Internal Control in the Federal Government, 2013 Exposure Draft, is available and can be downloaded...

  8. 78 FR 52532 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY: U.S. Government... Office (GAO) is seeking public comments on the proposed revisions to the Standards for Internal Control... Internal Control in the Federal Government reflect major developments in the accountability and...

  9. Controlled Vocabularies Boost International Participation and Normalization of Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lola M.

    2006-01-01

    The Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) science staff set out to document Earth science data and provide a mechanism for it's discovery in fulfillment of a commitment to NASA's Earth Science progam and to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites' (CEOS) International Directory Network (IDN.) At the time, whether to offer a controlled vocabulary search or a free-text search was resolved with a decision to support both. The feedback from the user community indicated that being asked to independently determine the appropriate 'English" words through a free-text search would be very difficult. The preference was to be 'prompted' for relevant keywords through the use of a hierarchy of well-designed science keywords. The controlled keywords serve to 'normalize' the search through knowledgeable input by metadata providers. Earth science keyword taxonomies were developed, rules for additions, deletions, and modifications were created. Secondary sets of controlled vocabularies for related descriptors such as projects, data centers, instruments, platforms, related data set link types, and locations, along with free-text searches assist users in further refining their search results. Through this robust 'search and refine' capability in the GCMD users are directed to the data and services they seek. The next step in guiding users more directly to the resources they desire is to build a 'reasoning' capability for search through the use of ontologies. Incorporating twelve sets of Earth science keyword taxonomies has boosted the GCMD S ability to help users define and more directly retrieve data of choice.

  10. Preliminary design of the Space Station internal thermal control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Mark T.; Patterson, David W.; Turner, Larry D.

    1987-01-01

    The baseline preliminary design configuration of the Internal Thermal Control system (ITCS) of the U.S. Space Station pressurized elements (i.e., the Habitation and U.S. Laboratory modules, pressurized logistics carrier, and resources nodes) is defined. The ITCS is composed of both active and passive components. The subsystems which comprise the ITCS are identified and their functional descriptions are provided. The significant trades and analyses, which were performed during Phase B (i.e., the preliminary design phase) that resulted in the design described herein, are discussed. The ITCS interfaces with the station's central Heat Rejection and Transport System (HRTS), other systems, and externally attached pressurized payloads are described. Requirements on the ITCS with regard to redundancy and experiment support are also addressed.

  11. Analysis of power ramp rate and minimum power controllability of the MMS model for a plant dynamics analysis of a Prototype SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Kim, Dehee; Joo, Hyungkook; Lee, Taeho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A full plant dynamic model was developed for a prototype SFR using the Modular Modeling System (MMS). It includes the modeling of various subsystems such as the neutronics, primary and intermediate sodium systems of the NSSS, steam and water systems of the BOP, BOP controls, and the supervisory plant controls. The NSSS model is subdivided into component models, such as a Core, IHXs, Pumps, SGs, and the rest of the NSSS loop model. The BOP model is subdivided into a steam subsystem, feedwater subsystem, and preheater subsystem. Plant transient tests were performed to study the operational considerations. It includes varying the power ramp rate and studying the controllability at minimum power. Plant transient tests were performed to study operational considerations by using the MMS model for a prototype SFR. It includes varying the power ramp rate, studying the controllability at the minimum power set point. At a power ramp rate of higher than 2%, the steam temperature has a large deviation from the target. As the power set point decreases, the PHTS hot leg temperature and steam temperature tend to have higher deviations. After further refinement of the MMS model, it can be useful for developing the plant operation logics of the prototype SFR.

  12. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... number, horse identification or event identification, as applicable; (iv) Type of bet(s), each bet amount... wagers for one day and trace to the total produced by the system. (9) At least one day per quarter, the...

  13. Energy Management Strategy Implementation for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Genetic Algorithm Tuned Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Panday

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce apace extraction of natural resources, to plummet the toxic emissions, and to increase the fuel economy for road transportation, hybrid vehicles are found to be promising. Hybrid vehicles use batteries and engine to propel the vehicle which minimizes dependence on liquid fuels. Battery is an important component of hybrid vehicles and is mainly characterized by its state of charge level. Here a modified state of charge estimation algorithm is applied, which includes not only coulomb counting but also open circuit voltage, weighting factor, and correction factor to track the run time state of charge efficiently. Further, presence of battery and engine together needs a prevailing power split scheme for their efficient utilization. In this paper, a fuel efficient energy management strategy for power-split hybrid electric vehicle using modified state of charge estimation method is developed. Here, the optimal values of various governing parameters are firstly computed with genetic algorithm and then fed to Pontryagin’s minimum principle to decide the threshold power at which engine is turned on. This process makes the proposed method robust and provides better chance to improve the fuel efficiency. Engine efficient operating region is identified to operate vehicle in efficient regions and reduce fuel consumption.

  14. Coherent Phase Control of Internal Conversion in Pyrazine

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Robert J; Seideman, Tamar; Singha, Sima; Sukharev, Maxim; Zhao, Youbo

    2014-01-01

    Shaped ultrafast laser pulses were used to study and control the ionization dynamics of electronically excited pyrazine in a pump and probe experiment. For pump pulses created without feedback from the product signal, the ion growth curve (the parent ion signal as a function of pump/probe delay) was described quantitatively by the classical rate equations for internal conversion of the $S_2$ and $S_1$ states. Very different, non-classical behavior was observed when a genetic algorithm (GA) was used to minimize the ion signal at some pre-determined target time, T. Two qualitatively different control mechanisms were identified for early (T$1.5$ ps) target times. In the former case, the ion signal was largely suppressed for $t1.5$ ps the ion growth curve followed the classical rate equations for $t

  15. International Space Station power module thermal control system hydraulic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, V. [Boeing North American, Inc., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

    1997-12-31

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses four photovoltaic power modules (PVMs) to provide electric power for the US On-Orbit Segment. The PVMs consist of photovoltaic arrays (PVAs), orbit replaceable units (ORUs), photovoltaic radiators (PVRs), and a thermal control system (TCS). The PVM TCS function is to maintain selected PVM components within their specified operating ranges. The TCS consists of the pump flow control subassembly (PFCS), piping system, including serpentine tubing for individual component heat exchangers, headers/manifolds, fluid disconnect couplings (FQDCs), and radiator (PVR). This paper describes the major design requirements for the TCS and the results of the system hydraulic performance predictions in regard to these requirements and system component sizing. The system performance assessments were conducted using the PVM TCS fluid network hydraulic model developed for predicting system/component pressure losses and flow distribution. Hardy-Cross method of iteration was used to model the fluid network configuration. Assessments of the system hydraulic performance were conducted based on an evaluation of uncertainties associated with the manufacturing and design tolerances. Based on results of the analysis, it was concluded that all design requirements regarding system performance could be met. The hydraulic performance range, enveloping possible system operating parameter variations was determined.

  16. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A;

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. This study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the predictivity of high...... frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral lymphocytes for increased cancer risk. Occupational hygienists assessed exposures in each participating country: Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway and Sweden. The exposure status to a carcinogen or a clastogen was coded in the cohort according...... country-specific differences, differences in information available to the home assessor and the others and misunderstandings or difficulties in translation of information. To ensure the consistency of exposure assessments in international retrospective case-control studies it is important to have a well...

  17. Intelligent modified internal model control for speed control of nonlinear uncertain heavy duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anil Kumar; Gaur, Prerna

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to control the speed of heavy duty vehicle (HDV) through angular position of throttle valve. Modified internal model control (IMC) schemes with fuzzy supervisor as an adaptive tuning are proposed to control the speed of HDV. Internal model (IM) plays a key role in design of various IMC structures with robust and adaptive features. The motivation to design an IM is to produce nearly stable performance as of the system itself. Clustering algorithm and Hankel approximation based model order reduction techniques are used for the design of suitable IM. The time domain performance specifications such as overshoot, settling time, rise time and integral error performance indices such as the integral of the absolute error and the integral of the square of error are taken into consideration for performance analysis of HDV for various uncertainties.

  18. Coherent phase control of internal conversion in pyrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Robert J., E-mail: rjgordon@uic.edu; Singha, Sima; Zhao, Youbo [Department of Chemistry (m/c 111), University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60680-7061 (United States); Hu, Zhan [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Seideman, Tamar [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Sukharev, Maxim [Science and Mathematics Faculty, College of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Shaped ultrafast laser pulses were used to study and control the ionization dynamics of electronically excited pyrazine in a pump and probe experiment. For pump pulses created without feedback from the product signal, the ion growth curve (the parent ion signal as a function of pump/probe delay) was described quantitatively by the classical rate equations for internal conversion of the S{sub 2} and S{sub 1} states. Very different, non-classical behavior was observed when a genetic algorithm (GA) employing phase-only modulation was used to minimize the ion signal at some pre-determined target time, T. Two qualitatively different control mechanisms were identified for early (T < 1.5 ps) and late (T > 1.5 ps) target times. In the former case, the ion signal was largely suppressed for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the ion signal produced by the GA-optimized pulse and a transform limited (TL) pulse coalesced. In contrast, for T > 1.5 ps, the ion growth curve followed the classical rate equations for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the quantum yield for the GA-optimized pulse was much smaller than for a TL pulse. We interpret the first type of behavior as an indication that the wave packet produced by the pump laser is localized in a region of the S{sub 2} potential energy surface where the vertical ionization energy exceeds the probe photon energy, whereas the second type of behavior may be described by a reduced absorption cross section for S{sub 0} → S{sub 2} followed by incoherent decay of the excited molecules. Amplitude modulation observed in the spectrum of the shaped pulse may have contributed to the control mechanism, although this possibility is mitigated by the very small focal volume of the probe laser.

  19. Coherent phase control of internal conversion in pyrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert J.; Hu, Zhan; Seideman, Tamar; Singha, Sima; Sukharev, Maxim; Zhao, Youbo

    2015-04-01

    Shaped ultrafast laser pulses were used to study and control the ionization dynamics of electronically excited pyrazine in a pump and probe experiment. For pump pulses created without feedback from the product signal, the ion growth curve (the parent ion signal as a function of pump/probe delay) was described quantitatively by the classical rate equations for internal conversion of the S2 and S1 states. Very different, non-classical behavior was observed when a genetic algorithm (GA) employing phase-only modulation was used to minimize the ion signal at some pre-determined target time, T. Two qualitatively different control mechanisms were identified for early (T 1.5 ps) target times. In the former case, the ion signal was largely suppressed for t 1.5 ps, the ion growth curve followed the classical rate equations for t quantum yield for the GA-optimized pulse was much smaller than for a TL pulse. We interpret the first type of behavior as an indication that the wave packet produced by the pump laser is localized in a region of the S2 potential energy surface where the vertical ionization energy exceeds the probe photon energy, whereas the second type of behavior may be described by a reduced absorption cross section for S0 → S2 followed by incoherent decay of the excited molecules. Amplitude modulation observed in the spectrum of the shaped pulse may have contributed to the control mechanism, although this possibility is mitigated by the very small focal volume of the probe laser.

  20. The influence of beam energy, mode and focal length on the control of laser ignition in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullett, J. D.; Dodd, R.; Williams, C. J.; Triantos, G.; Dearden, G.; Shenton, A. T.; Watkins, K. G.; Carroll, S. D.; Scarisbrick, A. D.; Keen, S.

    2007-08-01

    This work involves a study on laser ignition (LI) in an internal combustion (IC) engine and investigates the effects on control of engine combustion performance and stability of varying specific laser parameters (beam energy, beam quality, minimum beam waist size, focal point volume and focal length). A Q-switched Nd : YAG laser operating at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was successfully used to ignite homogeneous stoichiometric gasoline and air mixtures in one cylinder of a 1.6 litre IC test engine, where the remaining three cylinders used conventional electrical spark ignition (SI). A direct comparison between LI and conventional SI is presented in terms of changes in coefficient of variability in indicated mean effective pressure (COVIMEP) and the variance in the peak cylinder pressure position (VarPPP). The laser was individually operated in three different modes by changing the diameter of the cavity aperture, where the results show that for specific parameters, LI performed better than SI in terms of combustion performance and stability. Minimum ignition energies for misfire free combustion ranging from 4 to 28 mJ were obtained for various optical and laser configurations and were compared with the equivalent minimum optical breakdown energies in air.

  1. Attaining the minimum target of resolution WHA 54.19 for schistosomiasis control in the Rainforest Zone of the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Tereza C; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Galvão, Aline F; Pereira, Ana Paula B; Wandereley, Tereza N; Barbosa, Constança S; Pieri, Otávio S

    2006-09-01

    Resolution 19 of the 54th World Health Assembly (WHA-54.19) urged member nations to promote preventive measures, ensure treatment and mobilize resources for control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH). The minimum target is to attend 75% of all school-age children at risk by year 2010. The Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH) recommends biennial surveys of whole communities and treatment of the positives through the Schistosomiasis Control Program within the Unified Health System (PCE-SUS). However, by 2004 the PCE-SUS had covered only 8.4% of the 1.2 million residents in the Rainforest Zone of Pernambuco (ZMP). Six of the 43 municipalities still remained unattended. Only three of the municipalities already surveyed reached coverage of 25% or more. At least 154 thousand children in the 7-14 years old range have to be examined (and treated if positive) within the next five years to attend the minimum target of the WHA 54.19 for the ZMP. To make this target feasible, it is suggested that from 2006 to 2010 the PCE-SUS actions should be complemented with school-based diagnosis and treatment, involving health and educational organs as well as community associations to include both children in schools and non-enrolled school-age children.

  2. Attaining the minimum target of resolution WHA 54.19 for schistosomiasis control in the Rainforest Zone of the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C Favre

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Resolution 19 of the 54th World Health Assembly (WHA-54.19 urged member nations to promote preventive measures, ensure treatment and mobilize resources for control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH. The minimum target is to attend 75% of all school-age children at risk by year 2010. The Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH recommends biennial surveys of whole communities and treatment of the positives through the Schistosomiasis Control Program within the Unified Health System (PCE-SUS. However, by 2004 the PCE-SUS had covered only 8.4% of the 1.2 million residents in the Rainforest Zone of Pernambuco (ZMP. Six of the 43 municipalities still remained unattended. Only three of the municipalities already surveyed reached coverage of 25% or more. At least 154 thousand children in the 7-14 years old range have to be examined (and treated if positive within the next five years to attend the minimum target of the WHA 54.19 for the ZMP. To make this target feasible, it is suggested that from 2006 to 2010 the PCE-SUS actions should be complemented with school-based diagnosis and treatment, involving health and educational organs as well as community associations to include both children in schools and non-enrolled school-age children.

  3. Quantum Brachistochrone Curves as Geodesics: Obtaining Accurate Minimum-Time Protocols for the Control of Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoting; Allegra, Michele; Jacobs, Kurt; Lloyd, Seth; Lupo, Cosmo; Mohseni, Masoud

    2015-05-01

    Most methods of optimal control cannot obtain accurate time-optimal protocols. The quantum brachistochrone equation is an exception, and has the potential to provide accurate time-optimal protocols for a wide range of quantum control problems. So far, this potential has not been realized, however, due to the inadequacy of conventional numerical methods to solve it. Here we show that the quantum brachistochrone problem can be recast as that of finding geodesic paths in the space of unitary operators. We expect this brachistochrone-geodesic connection to have broad applications, as it opens up minimal-time control to the tools of geometry. As one such application, we use it to obtain a fast numerical method to solve the brachistochrone problem, and apply this method to two examples demonstrating its power.

  4. Internal control as part of prevention irregularities in accounting of budgetary institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.М. Bunda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the principles of internal control, the importance, the rationale for the essence of the system of internal control and the legislative building in budgetary institution. It describes the main challenges and problems of practical application of internal control in the normal course of business in modern enterprises. It reveals the following elements of the internal control of a budget institution as: control environment, risk assessment process of a budget institution, information systems, control procedures and control monitoring. The dependence between the effectiveness of accounting and internal control of a budget institution is determined. The paper highlights the methods of evaluation of internal control of a budget institution. This method is recommended for use in the preliminary assessment of control risk budget institution. The concept of «decision» as on the whole and also in particular in internal control is covered. The essential grouping indications of internal control decisions are defined and every type of decisions is characterized. The main directions of improvement of internal control to prevent violations in accounting of a budgetary institution is examined.

  5. Online rate control in digital cameras for near-constant distortion based on minimum/maximum criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Ortega, Antonio

    2000-04-01

    We address the problem of online rate control in digital cameras, where the goal is to achieve near-constant distortion for each image. Digital cameras usually have a pre-determined number of images that can be stored for the given memory size and require limited time delay and constant quality for each image. Due to time delay restrictions, each image should be stored before the next image is received. Therefore, we need to define an online rate control that is based on the amount of memory used by previously stored images, the current image, and the estimated rate of future images. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for online rate control, in which an adaptive reference, a 'buffer-like' constraint, and a minimax criterion (as a distortion metric to achieve near-constant quality) are used. The adaptive reference is used to estimate future images and the 'buffer-like' constraint is required to keep enough memory for future images. We show that using our algorithm to select online bit allocation for each image in a randomly given set of images provides near constant quality. Also, we show that our result is near optimal when a minimax criterion is used, i.e., it achieves a performance close to that obtained by applying an off-line rate control that assumes exact knowledge of the images. Suboptimal behavior is only observed in situations where the distribution of images is not truly random (e.g., if most of the 'complex' images are captured at the end of the sequence.) Finally, we propose a T- step delay rate control algorithm and using the result of 1- step delay rate control algorithm, we show that this algorithm removes the suboptimal behavior.

  6. Vector control of BLDCM based on minimum copper loss%基于最小铜损的BLDCM矢量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 宣铠锐; 李孝尊

    2013-01-01

    In order to decrease the torque ripple and improve the operational efficiency of brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) drive system, a vector control scheme of BLDCM based on the minimum copper loss was proposed. In the realization approach for the proposed scheme, the current command generator was designed based on the minimum copper loss, and the generator would obtain the given values of BLDCM stator current according to the reference torque output by speed outer loop. After comparing the given values with the actual values of stator current, the comparison values passed through the PI adjuster of inner current loop and the reference voltage of inverter would be generated. Through controlling the inverter, the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) was performed, and the phase voltage of driving BLDCM was output to implement the vector control of BLDCM. In order to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the vector control scheme of BLDCM based on the minimum copper loss, the Simulink simulation model for the proposed system was established. The simulated results validate that the vector control scheme of BLDCM can not only reduce the torque ripple but also exhibit good dynamic and static performances.%为了降低无刷直流电机(BLDCM)驱动系统的转矩脉动,提高运行效率,提出了基于最小铜损的BLDCM矢量控制方案.该方案实现思路是基于最小铜损设计电流指令发生器,发生器根据速度外环输出的参考转矩获得BLDCM定子电流给定值.定子电流给定值与实际定子电流比较后,经过电流内环PI调节器生成逆变器参考电压,其控制逆变器进行空间矢量脉宽调制(SVPWM)并输出驱动BLDCM的相电压,实现BLDCM的矢量控制.为了验证基于最小铜损BLDCM矢量控制方案的可行性和有效性,建立了该系统的Simulink仿真模型,仿真结果证实了BLDCM矢量控制在降低转矩脉动的同时兼具良好的动态和静态性能.

  7. Space station freedom resource nodes internal thermal control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhoff, Paul; Dellinger, Brent; Taggert, Shawn; Cornwell, John

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the internal thermal control system (ITCS) developed for Space Station Freedom by the NASA-Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace to provide cooling for the resource nodes, airlock, and pressurized logistics modules. The ITCS collects, transports and rejects waste heat from these modules by a dual-loop, single-phase water cooling system. ITCS performance, cooling, and flow rate requirements are presented. An ITCS fluid schematic is shown and an overview of the current baseline system design and its operation is presented. Assembly sequence of the ITCS is explained as its configuration develops from Man Tended Capability (MTC), for which node 2 alone is cooled, to Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) where the airlock, a pressurized logistics module, and node 1 are cooled, in addition to node 2. A SINDA/FLUINT math model of the ITCS is described, and results of analyses for an MTC and a PMC case are shown and discussed.

  8. Vector control in internal midface distraction using temporary anchorage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Cameron; Rommer, Elizabeth; Mancho, Salim; Carey, Joseph; Hammoudeh, Jeffrey A; Urata, Mark M

    2012-11-01

    Le Fort III and monobloc distraction osteogenesis serve as the primary surgical treatment for children with severe midface hypoplasia. The orbital retrusion and class III malocclusion of patients with midface hypoplasia is best addressed with bodily advancement of the midface segment parallel to the cephalometric Frankfort horizontal plane. Use of internal distraction devices allows for advancement of the midface without extensive external hardware but comes at the cost of less vectorial control, resulting in a distraction vector that can cause a clockwise rotation of the entire midface or frontofacial component creating hollow appearing orbits. To counteract this clockwise rotation, we have developed a technique using orthodontic microimplants to anchor interarch class III relationship elastics. We report our experiences with this technique on a cadaveric model and as a case series of 17 patients who underwent midface distraction. A Le Fort III distraction procedure was carried out on a cadaver, and the orbital height was measured at 0-, 10-, and 20-mm distraction advancement with and without elastics in a class III relationship. Improvement of both subjective hollow appearance of the orbits and objective measurement of the orbital height with class III relationship elastics demonstrated the efficacy of class III relationship elastics in counteracting the clockwise rotation of the midface segment. A review of 17 patients with midface or frontofacial hypoplasia treated with Le Fort III or monobloc distraction with simultaneous microimplant anchored class III relationship elastics revealed correction of malocclusion and improved midface projection without significant increase in vertical height of the orbits.

  9. Controlling a hurricane by altering its internal climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardhekar, D.

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric hazards, like the fury of a hurricane, can be controlled by altering its internal climate. The hurricane controlling technique suggested is eco-friendly, compatible with hurricane size, has a sound scientific base and is practically possible. The key factor is a large scale dilution of the hurricane fuel, vapour, in the eye wall and spiral rain bands where condensation causing vapor volume reduction (a new concept which can be explained by Avogadro's law) and latent heat release drive the storm. This can be achieved by installing multiple storage tanks containing dry liquefied air on the onshore and offshore coastal regions and islands, preferably underground, in the usual path of a hurricane. Each storage tank is designed to hold and release dry liquefied air of around 100,000 tons. Satellite tracking of hurricanes can locate the eye wall and the spiral rain bands. The installed storage tanks coming under these areas will rapidly inject dry air in huge quantities thereby diluting the vapour content of the vapour-rich air in the eye wall and in the spiral rain bands. This will result in reduced natural input of vapour-rich air, reduced release of latent heat, reduced formation of the low pressure zone due to condensation and volume reduction of the vapor, expansion of the artificially introduced dry air as it goes up occupying a larger space with the diluted fuel, absorption of energy from the system by low temperature of the artificially introduced air. It will effect considerable condensation of the vapor near the sea surface thus further starving the hurricane of its fuel in its engine. Seeding materials, or microscopic dust as suggested by Dr. Daniel Rosenfeld in large quantities may also be introduced via the flow of the injected dry air in order to enhance the hurricane controlling ability. All the above factors are in favour of retarding the hurricane's wind speed and power. The sudden weakening of hurricane Lili was found to be partially caused

  10. Control mechanisms for a nonlinear model of international relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentek, A.; Kadtke, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Inst. for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences; Lenhart, S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Mathematics Dept.; Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.

    1997-07-15

    Some issues of control in complex dynamical systems are considered. The authors discuss two control mechanisms, namely: a short range, reactive control based on the chaos control idea and a long-term strategic control based on an optimal control algorithm. They apply these control ideas to simple examples in a discrete nonlinear model of a multi-nation arms race.

  11. Internal quality control in point-of-care testing: where's the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Helen; Freedman, Danielle B

    2016-03-01

    ISO 22870 standards require protocols for performance of internal quality control for all point-of-care testing devices and training of users in its theory and practice. However, the unique setting of point-of-care testing (i.e. processes conducted by non-scientific users) means that laboratory internal quality control programmes do not easily translate to point-of-care testing. In addition, while the evidence base for internal quality control within the laboratory has been increasing, the equivalent literature surrounding point-of-care testing is very limited. This has led to wide variation in what is considered acceptable practice for internal quality control at the point of care. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that internal quality control is an area of deficiency in point-of-care testing. Internal quality control protocols used at point-of-care testing should be defined based on risk management. The protocol will therefore be dependent on analyser complexity and availability of inbuilt system checks, the risk associated with release of an incorrect patient result as well as frequency of use. The emphasis should be on designing an effective internal quality control protocol as opposed to the inherent tendency of introducing high-frequency quality control. Typically a simple pass or fail criterion is used for internal quality control in point-of-care testing based on whether internal quality control results fall within assigned ranges. While simply taught, such criteria can require broad internal quality control ranges to decrease the probability of false rejection (also reducing the probability of error detection). Customized internal quality control ranges, two-tier acceptance systems and assay-specific internal quality control can be used to improve error detection rates.

  12. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanusi Fasilat, A., E-mail: Fasilat17@gmail.com; Hassan, Haslinda, E-mail: lynn@uum.edu.my [School of Accountancy, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2015-12-11

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  13. 13 CFR 108.506 - Safeguarding the NMVC Company's assets/Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assets/Internal controls. 108.506 Section 108.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Requirements § 108.506 Safeguarding the NMVC Company's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to... document describing your control procedures....

  14. INTERNAL BANKING CONTROL AND AUDIT: A COMPARATIVE APPROACH IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Adela Socol

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to realize a comparative analysis of theinternal banking control and internal audit, based on the Romanian banking system case.We identify the main differences and similarities between internal control and internalaudit at the level of Romanian banks. Using national regulatory framework and activebanks‘ from Romanian behavior, we find evidence of the risk-based audit approach andthe solid interdependence between the banking internal control and banking internalaud...

  15. The Role of Accounting and Internal Control in Reducing Bureaucracy in the Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita Ionescu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the relation between efficient internal control and accounting procedures and how the internal control system could play an important role in reducing bureaucracy. Nowadays, the government accounting and control of public finances are a national and international priority, in the context refugee crisis and terrorist attacks. Modernization of the public sector accounting could accelerate the process of reducing bureaucracy by implementing accounting informat...

  16. Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2012-01-01

    for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q.......Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for the stored energies obtained through the vector spherical wave theory, it is shown that a magnetic-coated metal core reduces the internal stored energy of both TM1m and TE1m modes simultaneously, so that a self-resonant antenna with the Q approaching the fundamental minimum is created. Numerical results...

  17. Theoretical grounds of internal audit in the system of state financial control in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikan Larysa V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern directions of reformation of the system of state financial control connected with introduction of the state internal financial control. It considers economic essence of the state internal financial control in the context of its components. It justifies the place of the internal audit in the system of the state internal financial control in Ukraine. It considers existing definitions of internal audit in legislative acts. It generalises views of scientists on interpretation of the “internal audit” notion. It provides definitions united in approaches. It conducts a critical analysis of generalised approaches. It offers the authors’ view on the essence of internal audit in budget institutions, which has certain positive features compared to existing ones.

  18. What are the minimum requirements for ketogenic diet services in resource-limited regions? Recommendations from the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force for Dietary Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Al-Macki, Nabil; Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Kim, Heung D; Liao, Jianxiang; Megaw, Katherine; Nathan, Janak K; Raimann, Ximena; Rivera, Rocio; Wiemer-Kruel, Adelheid; Williams, Emma; Zupec-Kania, Beth A

    2015-09-01

    Despite the increasing use of dietary therapies for children and adults with refractory epilepsy, the availability of these treatments in developing countries with limited resources remains suboptimal. One possible contributory factor may be the costs. There is often reported a significant perceived need for a large ketogenic diet team, supplements, laboratory studies, and follow-up visits to provide this treatment. The 2009 Epilepsia Consensus Statement described ideal requirements for a ketogenic diet center, but in some situations this is not feasible. As a result, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Dietary Therapy was asked to convene and provide practical, cost-effective recommendations for new ketogenic diet centers in resource-limited regions of the world.

  19. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  20. Internal quality control of PCR-based genotyping methods: practical experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Gram, Jørgen; Jespersen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Internal quality control programmes for genetic analyses are needed. We have focused on quality control aspects of selected polymorphism analyses used in thrombosis research. DNA was isolated from EDTA-blood (n = 500) and analysed for 18 polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), i...... because of positive reagent blanks (controls (Control of data handling revealed 0.1% reading mistakes and 0.5% entry mistakes. Based on our experiences, we propose an internal quality control programme...

  1. Minimum-noise production of translation factor eIF4G maps to a mechanistically determined optimal rate control window for protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang; Firczuk, Helena; Pietroni, Paola; Westbrook, Richard; Dacheux, Estelle; Mendes, Pedro; McCarthy, John E.G.

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression noise influences organism evolution and fitness. The mechanisms determining the relationship between stochasticity and the functional role of translation machinery components are critical to viability. eIF4G is an essential translation factor that exerts strong control over protein synthesis. We observe an asymmetric, approximately bell-shaped, relationship between the average intracellular abundance of eIF4G and rates of cell population growth and global mRNA translation, with peak rates occurring at normal physiological abundance. This relationship fits a computational model in which eIF4G is at the core of a multi-component–complex assembly pathway. This model also correctly predicts a plateau-like response of translation to super-physiological increases in abundance of the other cap-complex factors, eIF4E and eIF4A. Engineered changes in eIF4G abundance amplify noise, demonstrating that minimum stochasticity coincides with physiological abundance of this factor. Noise is not increased when eIF4E is overproduced. Plasmid-mediated synthesis of eIF4G imposes increased global gene expression stochasticity and reduced viability because the intrinsic noise for this factor influences total cellular gene noise. The naturally evolved eIF4G gene expression noise minimum maps within the optimal activity zone dictated by eIF4G's mechanistic role. Rate control and noise are therefore interdependent and have co-evolved to share an optimal physiological abundance point. PMID:27928055

  2. Minimum fuel mode evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    The minimum fuel mode of the NASA F-15 research aircraft is designed to minimize fuel flow while maintaining constant net propulsive force (FNP), effectively reducing thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), during cruise flight conditions. The test maneuvers were at stabilized flight conditions. The aircraft test engine was allowed to stabilize at the cruise conditions before data collection initiated; data were then recorded with performance seeking control (PSC) not-engaged, then data were recorded with the PSC system engaged. The maneuvers were flown back-to-back to allow for direct comparisons by minimizing the effects of variations in the test day conditions. The minimum fuel mode was evaluated at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers and focused on three altitudes: 15,000; 30,000; and 45,000 feet. Flight data were collected for part, military, partial, and maximum afterburning power conditions. The TSFC savings at supersonic Mach numbers, ranging from approximately 4% to nearly 10%, are in general much larger than at subsonic Mach numbers because of PSC trims to the afterburner.

  3. Effect of internal controls on credit risk among listed Spanish banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Kofi Akwaa-Sekyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper examines the effectiveness of internal control systems, explores the exposure of Spanish banks to the dangers of default as a result of internal control systems and establishes a relationship between internal controls and credit risk. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative research approach is used to test hypotheses on the relationship between internal controls and credit risk among listed banks in Spain. Data from Bankscope and company websites from 2004-2013 were used. Generalized Least Squares (random effect econometric estimation technique was used for the model. Findings: We find that internal control systems are in place but their effectiveness cannot be guaranteed. This exposes Spanish listed banks to serious default situations. There is significant effect of internal controls on credit risk especially the control environment, risk management, control activities and monitoring. The non-disclosure of material internal control weakness is a contributory factor to the ineffective internal control systems. There is however a perceived board ineffectiveness which does not augur well for effective internal control systems. Board characteristics for Spanish banks confirm the agency theory. Research Limitations and Implications: Data unavailability for certain years, variables and many inactive banks did not permit a larger sample size than expected. The use of quantitative variables lacks flexibility. Practical Implications: Bank management will find the work useful to ensure strict enforcement of internal control mechanisms and see it as both credit risk and operational risk issues. Central bank should hurry to compel banks to disclose material internal control weakness as provided in the reviewed COSO framework. Social Implications: Ineffective internal controls lead to credit risks, bank closure and loss of investments. Society suffers a lot from such losses and contagion. Disclosure of material internal control

  4. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING INTERNAL FIELD AUDITS AND QUALITY CONTROL (SOP-2.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for conducting internal field audits and quality control procedures. Internal field audits will be conducted to ensure the collection of high quality data. Internal field audits will be conducted by Field Auditors (the Field QA Officer and the Field...

  5. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING INTERNAL FIELD AUDITS AND QUALITY CONTROL (SOP-2.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for conducting internal field audits and quality control procedures. Internal field audits will be conducted to ensure the collection of high quality data. Internal field audits will be conducted by Field Auditors (the Field QA Officer and the Field...

  6. Korean public opinion on alcohol control policy: a cross-sectional International Alcohol Control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seonwha; Chun, Sungsoo; Newell, Maxine; Yun, Mieun

    2015-01-01

    To examine Korean public opinions toward alcohol control measures on availability, advertisement, drink-driving and pricing policy, and how the views on alcohol control policy vary by demographics, drinking patterns and attitude to drinking environments. The study used national-based, cross-sectional data collected in 2012 as part of the International Alcohol Control study. 2510 people (M: 1163, F: 1261) aged 15-65 and living in geographically diverse regions of Korea completed the questionnaire asking the support of 12 alcohol control measures. Generally, targeted measures (purchase age of 20 and drink-driving) were more popular than universal (availability, advertisement and price) among Koreans. Gender, age, marital status, drinking patterns and attitude to drinking environments related to alcohol use of young and heavy drinkers were strong predictors of the opinions on most of the alcohol control measures. It was daily/weekly drinkers who opposed most restrictions on alcohol availability and price and the support from individuals who are more aware of problems with drinking in public place was outstanding in every control measure. These findings should be taken into account by Korean policy-makers as they formulate an alcohol policy for the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CMC blade with pressurized internal cavity for erosion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres; Goike, Jerome Walter

    2016-02-02

    A ceramic matrix composite blade for use in a gas turbine engine having an airfoil with leading and trailing edges and pressure and suction side surfaces, a blade shank secured to the lower end of each airfoil, one or more interior fluid cavities within the airfoil having inlet flow passages at the lower end which are in fluid communication with the blade shank, one or more passageways in the blade shank corresponding to each one of the interior fluid cavities and a fluid pump (or compressor) that provides pressurized fluid (nominally cool, dry air) to each one of the interior fluid cavities in each airfoil. The fluid (e.g., air) is sufficient in pressure and volume to maintain a minimum fluid flow to each of the interior fluid cavities in the event of a breach due to foreign object damage.

  8. Promoting Internal Control and Business Ethics: A New Role for Internal Auditors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, William E.

    1994-01-01

    This article argues that, to be effective and ethical organizations, colleges and universities should develop and implement codes of conduct and staff training programs in business ethics and fraud prevention, which are most logically managed by the internal audit department of the institution. (MSE)

  9. The impact of a firm's internal control mechanisms on the choice of innovation mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xinmin; LI Yuan; SU Zhongfeng; FENG Jinlu

    2007-01-01

    A finn's internal control mechanisms may have a significant influence on the choice of innovation mode. Therefore, based on the research on the internal control mechanisms of companies, we developed a model to explore the relationship between a finn's internal control mechanisms and the choice of innovation mode. Using a sample of 585 Chinese finns, this study tests the proposed model. Results show that strategic control has a positive relationship with radical innovation, but a negative relationship with incremental innovation, while financial control has a negative relationship with radical innovation, but a positive relationship with incremental innovation.

  10. Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Internal Audit Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    No. DODIG-2015-043 D E C E M B E R 1 , 2 0 1 4 Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Internal Audit Organization... FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE SUBJECT: Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Internal Audit Organization (Report No...organization, Defense Finance and Accounting Service Office of Internal Review (DFAS IR), in effect for the period ended June 30, 2014. The generally

  11. 25 CFR 23.46 - Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial management, internal and external controls and....46 Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances. Grantee financial... required by the grantee's financial management system. The Secretary or his/her designee may review the...

  12. International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Alexander; Krommer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The papers in this volume present and discuss the frontiers in the mechanics of controlled machines and structures. They are based on papers presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines held in Vienna in September 2015. The workshop continues a series of international workshops held in Linz (2008) and St. Petersburg (2010).

  13. 25 CFR 900.54 - Should the property management system prescribe internal controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... System Standards § 900.54 Should the property management system prescribe internal controls? Yes. Effective internal controls should include procedures: (a) For the conduct of periodic inventories; (b) To... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Should the property management system prescribe...

  14. Internal Control Over Financial Reporting and Managerial Rent Extraction: Evidence from the Profitability of Insider Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skaife, H.A.; Veenman, D.; Wangerin, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the association between ineffective internal control over financial reporting and the profitability of insider trading. We predict and find that the profitability of insider trading is significantly greater in firms disclosing material weaknesses in internal control relative to

  15. La mise en oeuvre des codes d'éthique par le control interne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The real value of the internal control system lies in the animation of the ethical values in the organization. The integration of ethical risks in the internal control process enables the moving notions of ethical behaviour and accommodate the training and inducement programs of all employees accord

  16. Internal Control Over Financial Reporting and Managerial Rent Extraction: Evidence from the Profitability of Insider Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skaife, H.A.; Veenman, D.; Wangerin, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the association between ineffective internal control over financial reporting and the profitability of insider trading. We predict and find that the profitability of insider trading is significantly greater in firms disclosing material weaknesses in internal control relative to f

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVENTORIES IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanasenko A. N.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the necessity of inventories for any organization. The fate of the organization depends on its management effectiveness and its financial position. The organizational peculiarities of internal control in the agricultural sphere have been studied and the ways of improvement of the organizational and methodological mechanisms have been offered for the internal control of inventories in agricultural organizations

  18. CONSEQUENCES OF INTERNAL CONTROL AND COSO FOR AUDITING AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE - AN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloir Trindade Vasques Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has demonstrated that the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO, internal control, internal auditing and corporate governance are efficient means of ensuring the continuity of the organization. Reaffirming that the developed process can provide security and reliability to enterprise managers. It has realized the importance of internal control and its consequences for organizations, making use of internal auditing techniques, which gives information for better controlling, increasing the value of the organization and the interests of investors or shareholders. This way they are able to know how finances, equity and the ability to honor commitments are. Moreover, the use of internal control and the principles of governance make better practices for management and control.

  19. Kindergarten children’s attachment security, inhibitory control, and the internalization of rules of conduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eHeikamp

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting from research on relations between attachment and the development of self-regulation, the present study aimed to investigate research questions on relations among inhibitory control, internalization of rules of conduct (i.e., behavior regulation, concern occasioned by others transgressions, confession, reparation after wrongdoing, and attachment security. Attachment security and internalization of rules of conduct of German kindergarten children (N = 82 were assessed by maternal reports. Children’s inhibitory control was measured with the Stop-task. Regression analyses revealed that inhibitory control was positively related to attachment security and to internalization of rules of conduct. Mediational analysis using a bootstrapping approach indicated an indirect effect of attachment security on internalization processes via inhibitory control. Implications for further research on the development of inhibitory control and internalization of rules of conduct are discussed.

  20. Have the auditors closed the expectation gap concerning evaluation of internal control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkholm, Peter; Holm, Claus

    In the last decades the focus on expectation gap issues has resolved many fundamental discrepancies between best-practice standards and the expectations stated by the primary users of audit services. Maybe the most important discrepancy has been between the view on internal control as formulated...... in the auditing standards and the concept of internal control as understood by company management. In the US, this was realized in the Treadway report on fraudulent financial reporting, which stated the need for at common reference point on the content of internal control. Since this need was explicitly stated...... internal controls intended for management directors, it provides a framework which explicitly deals with the interests of all parties involved (including auditors, board of directors and regulating bodies). The auditors took this into account by updating the particular auditing standard on internal control...

  1. Have the auditors closed the expectation gap concerning evaluation of internal control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkholm, Peter; Holm, Claus

    in the auditing standards and the concept of internal control as understood by company management. In the US, this was realized in the Treadway report on fraudulent financial reporting, which stated the need for at common reference point on the content of internal control. Since this need was explicitly stated...... internal controls intended for management directors, it provides a framework which explicitly deals with the interests of all parties involved (including auditors, board of directors and regulating bodies). The auditors took this into account by updating the particular auditing standard on internal control...... (the replacement of SAS 55 with SAS 78 "Consideration of the Internal Control Structure in a Financial Statement Audit"). The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent realized discrepancies has been narrowed in, or completely resolved, by the joint efforts from COSO and the standard setters...

  2. Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC Applied in Optimization of Radiation Pattern Control of Phased-Array Radars for Rocket Tracking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo W. T. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs with phased arrays (PAs. These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs, the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs. For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence.

  3. Threshold-Switchable Particles (TSPs) to Control Internal Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticles; Trauma 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT...clotting. 2. KEYWORDS  Internal hemorrhage  Bleeding  Blood clotting  Nanoparticles  Trauma 2 3. OVERALL PROJECT SUMMARY...possess hexagonal symmetry. Fast -Fourier transform (FFT) analysis will allow the Liu group to compare the structure’s symmetry group to other

  4. An Analysis of Internal Controls and Procurement Fraud Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xvii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACFE Association of Certified Fraud Examiners AGO Auditor -General’s Office ASB...Internal Auditors and the Institute of Management Accountants. COSO’s mission is to provide “thought leadership through the development of...complementary bidding, bid rotation , market division and subcontracting, which are 35 described in the following paragraphs (ACFE, 2013; Office of the

  5. An Analysis of an Automatic Coolant Bypass in the International Space Station Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Stephen E.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A challenging part of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control design is the ability to incorporate design changes into an integrated system without negatively impacting performance. The challenge presents itself in that the typical ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consists of an integrated hardware/software system that provides active coolant resources to a variety of users. Software algorithms control the IATCS to specific temperatures, flow rates, and pressure differentials in order to meet the user-defined requirements. What may seem to be small design changes imposed on the system may in fact result in system instability or the temporary inability to meet user requirements. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the solution process and analyses used to implement one such design change that required the incorporation of an automatic coolant bypass in the ISS Node 2 element.

  6. Control of Modular Multilevel Converter with reduced internal data exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Máthé, Lászlo; Burlacu, Paul Dan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2017-01-01

    Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) are penetrating due to their superior performances. Due to the modular structure of the converter, communication platform has to be established between the Sub-Modules (SM) and a Central Controller Unit (CCU). When the communication platform is designed...... for such an application, several key parameters have to be considered such as high speed data transfer with low propagation delay, data integrity, and ability for accurate synchronization. In order to minimize the data flow in the MMC a hierarchical control is proposed where a CCU calculates an identical reference...... for all the SMs while the modulation and capacitor voltage balancing is performed in the controller from the SM. Thus, at each sampling instance only four bytes references are sent by the central controller to the controllers from the SM, while one or two bytes are received from SMs. Further, the control...

  7. Partial Internal Control Recovery on 1-D Klein-Gordon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Pranoto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this exposition, a technique to recover internal control on a distributed parameter system is reported. The system is described by 1-D Klein-Gordon partial differential equation with a time-varying parameter. We would like to recover the internal control applied to the system if we know some limited information about the output. We use a method called sentinel method to recover the internal control. It involves some construction of a linear functional, and we show that this construction relates closely to the exact controllability problem.

  8. Family involvement, internal control and agency costs – Evidences from China's listed family firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wangfeng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the agency costs of 314 family firms listed on Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchange in China. The results show that agency costs of family firms increase significantly with the enhancement of family's ownership and the separation of ownership and control, while family involvement in management can reduce the agency costs. By including the variable proxying internal control and the interaction term between internal control and family involvement in the empirical model, we still find that the effects of family involvement on agency costs are contingent on the quality of internal control.

  9. Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

  10. A minimum extinction area control strategy to suppress commutation failure in HVDC transmission system%高压直流输电系统抑制换相失败的最小关断面积控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭忠; 李少华; 李泰; 荆雪记; 周金萍; 苏匀; 赵静; 郭宏光

    2015-01-01

    According to commutation process of inverter, the mechanism of commutation failure is analyzed. Two methods to distinguish commutation failure in HVDC transmission system are compared, which are minimum extinction angle distinguishing and minimum extinction area distinguishing. A minimum extinction area control strategy is presented to improve ability of suppressing commutation failure in inverter station. Taking Lingfeng DC project as research object, a control and protection model based on PSCAD/EMTDC is built, and control experiment with minimum extinction angle control strategy and extinction area control strategy is done. The simulation results show that minimum extinction area control strategy is more effective than minimum extinction angle control strategy in suppressing commutation failure, and commutation failure can not be avoided if AC voltage dropped seriously.%根据逆变器的换相过程,分析了换相失败机理。比较了两种高压直流输电系统换相失败判别方法:最小关断角判别和最小关断面积判别;为了提高逆变站抑制换相失败的能力,提出了最小关断面积控制策略。以林枫直流为研究对象,在PSCAD/EMTDC中建立了相应的控制保护模型,对最小关断角控制策略和最小关断面积控制策略进行对比实验。仿真结果表明最小关断面积控制策略抑制换相失败的效果优于最小关断角控制;交流电压跌落幅度过大,换相失败无法避免。

  11. Internal Administrative Control: Its Applicability to the Marine Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    full ramge of needs and is not ascribed to by the AICEA in whole. Paul Grady, chairman of the AICP1’s - Committee on Auditing Procedures, commezted on...activity is essential tc her.it reassesssent and modificaticn cf current strategies in light cf celaned exteral evironaental or i aterna l...internal aulitor"s, Thie Interral I SS, June, 1977, .’.4- - 26. Zaltcz Gene Wl. and Lawrence, Paul R., Liotivaticr and garj n2KS~iaicc Richard 1D. I

  12. Control of International Joint-ventures:A Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Ding

    2013-01-01

    Joint-venture,which is considered as an important hybrid govern-ance structure between markets and hierarchy,has gained increasing popularity among firms that attempt to improve their competitive advantage through collabo-ration.This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical studies on control of joint-ventures with an emphasis on the specific control mechanisms used in practice to manage joint-ventures.Furthermore,special attention is given to how performance of joint-venture is measured and what determines its performance.This paper con-cludes with some suggestions for future research on control of joint-ventures.

  13. 5th International Conference on Optimization and Control with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Teo, Kok; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This book presents advances in state-of-the-art solution methods and their applications to real life practical problems in optimization, control and operations research. Contributions from world-class experts in the field are collated here in two parts, dealing first with optimization and control theory and then with techniques and applications. Topics covered in the first part include control theory on infinite dimensional Banach spaces, history-dependent inclusion and linear programming complexity theory. Chapters also explore the use of approximations of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman inequality for solving periodic optimization problems and look at multi-objective semi-infinite optimization problems, and production planning problems.  In the second part, the authors address techniques and applications of optimization and control in a variety of disciplines, such as chaos synchronization, facial expression recognition and dynamic input-output economic models. Other applications considered here include image retr...

  14. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  15. Monitoring of International Space Station Telemetry Using Shewhart Control Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Jeffery T.; Simon, Alan L.; Gouveia, John A.; Hillin, Andrew M.; Hernandez, Steve A.

    2012-01-01

    Shewhart control charts have been established as an expedient method for analyzing dynamic, trending data in order to identify anomalous subsystem performance as soon as such performance would exceed a statistically established baseline. Additionally, this leading indicator tool integrates a selection methodology that reduces false positive indications, optimizes true leading indicator events, minimizes computer processor unit duty cycles, and addresses human factor concerns (i.e., the potential for flight-controller data overload). This innovation leverages statistical process control, and provides a relatively simple way to allow flight controllers to focus their attention on subtle system changes that could lead to dramatic off-nominal system performance. Finally, this capability improves response time to potential hardware damage and/or crew injury, thereby improving space flight safety. Shewhart control charts require normalized data. However, the telemetry from the ISS Early External Thermal Control System (EETCS) was not normally distributed. A method for normalizing the data was implemented, as was a means of selecting data windows, the number of standard deviations (Sigma Level), the number of consecutive points out of limits (Sequence), and direction (increasing or decreasing trend data). By varying these options, and treating them like dial settings, the number of nuisance alerts and leading indicators were optimized. The goal was to capture all leading indicators while minimizing the number of nuisances. Lean Six Sigma (L6S) design of experiment methodologies were employed. To optimize the results, Perl programming language was used to automate the massive amounts of telemetry data, control chart plots, and the data analysis.

  16. SIMULATION OF CONTROL STRATEGY FOR INTERNATIONAL MARKETING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Korzh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to develop a general model of integrated management of marketing activities from an international perspective, given the relationship of its parts to each other and the external environment and the cyclical nature of the process, and the construction of a general model for evaluating the performance of international marketing system. Results: In modern conditions high-quality products are necessity-term, but not sufficient to achieve the successful operation of the market. To optimize the above goal should be to work out issues such as the definition of the requirements of potential customers, the timing, location and conditions of the transaction, that is, the seller must offer the buyer at a particular moment only the product that the best way to satisfy existing need for the latter. This may explain the reason for the proposed buyers of high-quality goods are distributed in the market of one country and cannot find it in another. Discussion: The information presented in this article marketing management model allows you to organize all marketing activities and events, and do them not by chance, but in the complex, taking into account their relationship and interaction. As well as the opportunity to working with mesh product and market development to identify new attraction activities and evaluate them in terms of compliance with the overall objectives and company resources. In addition, the proposed method of assessing the effectiveness of a marketing system is universal, and it allows you to analyze the effectiveness of the functioning of the marketing of individual enterprises, regardless of scope, given the impact of all factors.

  17. On the Internal Multi-Model Control of Uncertain Discrete-Time Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakra Othman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, new approaches of internal multi-model control are proposed to be applied for the case of the discrete-time systems with parametric uncertainty. In this sense, two implantation structures of the internal multi-model control are adopted; the first is based on the principle of switching and the second on the residues techniques. The stability’s study of these control structures is based on the Kharitonov theorem, thus two extensions of this theorem have been applied to define the internal models. To illustrate these approaches, simulation results are presented at the end of this article.

  18. Willful stereotype control: the impact of internal motivation to respond without prejudice on the regulation of activated stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehr, J.; Sassenberg, K.; Jonas, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Internal motivation to behave nonprejudiced leads to heightened control of stereotype activation. However, it is not clear whether internal motivation to behave nonprejudiced only reduces stereotype activation or whether individuals high internally motivated to behave nonprejudiced are also more

  19. Evaluating the Level of Internal Control System in the Management of Financial Security of Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pidvysotska Lyudmyla J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the organization and technology of evaluation process of the internal control system of bank in order to ensure financial security management of its activities. The work of the internal audit service on monitoring and evaluating the performance of the bank’s internal control system was analyzed. It has been found that improving the level of financial security of commercial banks is conditional upon improvements in the quality of audits and the provision of sound and objective conclusions. The interrelation of the tasks of internal audit service and the tasks of bank’s financial security management has been determined. Methodological recommendations on evaluation of the bank’s internal control system on the basis of results of audit have been proposed.

  20. Modelling and Internal Fuzzy Model Power Control of a Francis Water Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Nagode

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents dynamic modelling of a Francis turbine with a surge tank and the control of a hydro power plant (HPP. Non-linear and linear models include technical parameters and show high similarity to measurement data. Turbine power control with an internal model control (IMC is proposed, based on a turbine fuzzy model. Considering appropriate control responses in the entire area of turbine power, the model parameters of the process are determined from a fuzzy model, which are further included in the internal model controller. The results are compared to a proportional-integral (PI controller tuned with an integral absolute error (IAE objective function, and show an improved response of internal model control.

  1. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  2. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  3. Internal-External Control and Others' Susceptibility to Influence as Determinants of Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William L.; Taylor, Alan L.

    The relationship between internal-external control of reinforcement and attraction to others who vary in susceptibility to persuasion was investigated. Internals are defined as persons who believe that reinforcement is contingent on their behavior, while externals are those who believe that reinforcement is independent of their actions and is…

  4. The Role of Accounting and Internal Control in Reducing Bureaucracy in the Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Ionescu

    2016-12-01

    The reform of the public administration in all European countries developed new control techniques and procedures in order to control public sector budget and financial activity. Efficient intern control procedure and managerial responsibility could contribute to good governance, transparency and low level of bureaucracy.

  5. Planar reorientation maneuvers of space multibody systems using internal controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a reorientation maneuvering strategy for an interconnection of planar rigid bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques, and torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero in this paper. The maneuver strategy uses the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. We demonstrate that large-angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is briefly summarized. Specifications and computer simulations of a specific reorientation maneuver, and the corresponding control strategies, are described.

  6. International conference on Advances in Intelligent Control and Innovative Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Oscar; Huang, Xu; Intelligent Control and Innovative Computing

    2012-01-01

    In the lightning-fast world of intelligent control and cutting-edge computing, it is vitally important to stay abreast of developments that seem to follow each other without pause. This publication features the very latest and some of the very best current research in the field, with 32 revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers in the field. Culled from contributions to the key 2011 conference Advances in Intelligent Control and Innovative Computing, held in Hong Kong, the articles deal with a wealth of relevant topics, from the most recent work in artificial intelligence and decision-supporting systems, to automated planning, modelling and simulation, signal processing, and industrial applications. Not only does this work communicate the current state of the art in intelligent control and innovative computing, it is also an illuminating guide to up-to-date topics for researchers and graduate students in the field. The quality of the contents is absolutely assured by the high pro...

  7. Internal control over financial reporting and managerial rent extraction: Evidence from the profitability of insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Skaife (Hollis); D. Veenman (David); D. Wangerin (Daniel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the association between ineffective internal control over financial reporting and the profitability of insider trading. We predict and find that the profitability of insider trading is significantly greater in firms disclosing material weaknesses in

  8. Report: Follow-Up Audit - EPA Needs to Strengthen Internal Controls Over Retention Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0407, September 26, 2017. Additional actions are needed to strengthen internal controls over monitoring and to effectively resolve the cause of the prior audit findings. We question $1,605 of irregular payments.

  9. A corrupção e os controles internos do estado Corruption and the state's internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Araújo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende reavaliar a importância dos Controles Internos da Administração Pública a partir de uma interpretação dada pela Teoria de Agência. O texto argumenta que os Controles Internos, definidos como os controles exercidos por uma organização sobre si própria, podem tornar-se os principais controles sobre a burocracia. O artigo conclui argumentando que os Controles Internos deveriam ser encarados como sendo parte integrante de um sistema de controles político-democráticos.This article intends to reevaluate the importance of the Internal Controls Systems of the Public Administration from an interpretation given by the Theory of Agency. This text argues that the Internal Controls, defined as the control exerted for an organization on itself, can become the main control on the bureaucracy and that the Internal Controls should be seen as part of a system of political-democratic control.

  10. Minimum Length - Maximum Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Panes, Boris

    2011-01-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA about superluminal neutrinos.

  11. Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter STATCOM under internal and external unbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsolaridis, Georgios; Kontos, E.; Parikh, Harsh;

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a complete control scheme for the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) in a STATCOM application. The focus is laid on the internal balancing of the converter and its reliable operation under internal mismatches as well as under external unbalanced conditions. The leg energy...... controller ensures that the sum of the capacitor voltages of each phase are equal. An intuitive arm energy controller is also implemented which allows the decoupled control of the energy levels of every arm. The control performance of the STATCOM was evaluated under asymmetrical grid faults...... and the simulation results verified the capability to provide maximum reactive power to the AC grid while maintaining internal balance through the individual control of each arm energy level....

  12. Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter STATCOM under internal and external unbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsolaridis, Georgios; Kontos, E.; Parikh, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a complete control scheme for the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) in a STATCOM application. The focus is laid on the internal balancing of the converter and its reliable operation under internal mismatches as well as under external unbalanced conditions. The leg energy...... and the simulation results verified the capability to provide maximum reactive power to the AC grid while maintaining internal balance through the individual control of each arm energy level....... controller ensures that the sum of the capacitor voltages of each phase are equal. An intuitive arm energy controller is also implemented which allows the decoupled control of the energy levels of every arm. The control performance of the STATCOM was evaluated under asymmetrical grid faults...

  13. Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud: A Knowledge Assessment (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud : A Knowledge Assessment Juanita M. Rendon Rene G. Rendon Report...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud : A...DoD, 2009, 2015) • DoD contract management deficiencies result in higher level of vulnerability for procurement fraud 4 Background

  14. The role of a company’s internal control system in fraud prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragomir Dimitrijevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of internal control over specific segments of activities has been associated with management needs for evaluation of the consistency between the actual situation and development targets. Monitoring activities should enable detection and timely reaction to possible target-related deviations. While responding to complex market needs, companies are exposed to numerous internal and external influences, some of which may cause significant damage. Companies have realized that it is safer and cheaper to establish their own internal control systems in order to prevent such influences. The aim of this work is to show how the overall quality of control and The emergence of internal control over specific segments of activities has been associated with management needs for evaluation of the consistency between the actual situation and development targets. Monitoring activities should enable detection and timely reaction to possible target-related deviations. While responding to complex market needs, companies are exposed to numerous internal and external influences, some of which may cause significant damage. Companies have realized that it is safer and cheaper to establish their own internal control systems in order to prevent such influences. The aim of this work is to show how the overall quality of control and company performance is improved through implementation of preventive methods by internal controls, and to indicate that a developed system of internal control represents a protective barrier against various kinds of data manipulation and fraud inside the companies. Special attention was paid to fraud in financial statements since it can cause the most serious damage leading to instability of the economic-financial environment.

  15. Data Mining for Fraud Detection: Toward an Improvement on Internal Control Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Jans, Mieke; Lybaert, Nadine; Vanhoof, Koen

    2007-01-01

    Fraud is a million dollar business and it's increasing every year. The numbers are shocking, all the more because over one third of all frauds are detected by 'chance' means. The second best detection method is internal control. As a result, it would be advisable to search for improvement of internal control systems. Taking into consideration the promising success stories of companies selling data mining software, along with the positive results of research in this area, we ...

  16. A survey on the effectiveness of internal control systems in Turkish banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Özbek, Mahmut Burak

    2011-01-01

    Internal control represents a continuous process in which takes part the board of directors, senior management and all level of personnel, and whose aim is to ensure that all the established goals will be reached. The main objectives of the internal control process are: efficiency and effectiveness of activities; reliability, completeness and timeliness of financial and management information; compliance with applicable laws and regulations. In this study, COSO evaluation model was used in or...

  17. 电机控制数字信号处理器最小测试指令集的分析和寻找%Analyzing and Seeking Minimum Test Instruction Set of Digital Signal Processor for Motor Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严伟; 曹家麟; 龚幼民

    2005-01-01

    The relativity of instructions of motor control digital signal processor (MCDSP) in the design is analyzed. A method for obtaining a minimum instruction set in place of the complete instruction set during generation of testing procedures is given in terms of the processor presentation matrix between micro-operators and instructions of MCDSP.

  18. The international atom: evolution of radiation control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, F J

    2002-07-01

    Under the Atoms for Peace program, Turkey received a one MWt swimming pool reactor in 1962 that initiated a health physics program for the reactor and a Radiation Control Program (RCP) for the country's use of ionizing radiation. Today, over 13,000 radiation workers, concentrated in the medical field, provide improved medical care with 6,200 x-ray units, including 494 CAT scanners, 222 radioimmunoassay (RIA) labs and 42 radiotherapy centers. Industry has a large stake in the safe use of ionizing radiation with over 1,200 x-ray and gamma radiography and fluoroscopic units, 2,500 gauges in automated process control and five irradiators. A 48-person RCP staff oversees this expanded radiation use. One incident involving a spent 3.3 TBq (88 Ci) 60Co source resulted in 10 overexposures but no fatalities. Taiwan received a 1.6 MWt swimming pool reactor in 1961 and rapidly applied nuclear technology to the medical and industrial fields. Today, there are approximately 24,000 licensed radiation workers in nuclear power field, industry, medicine and academia. Four BWRs and two PWRs supply about 25% of the island's electrical power needs. One traumatic event galvanized the RCP when an undetermined amount of 60Co was accidentally incorporated into reinforcing bars, which in turn were incorporated into residential and commercial buildings. Public exposures were estimated to range up to 15 mSv (1.3 rem) per annum. There were no reported ill effects, except possibly psychological, to date. The RCP now has instituted stringent control measures to ensure radiation-free dwellings and work places. Albania's RCP is described as it evolved since 1972. Regulations were promulgated which followed the IAEA Basic Safety Standards of that era. With 525 licenses and 600 radiation workers, the problem was not in the regulations per se but in their enforcement. The IAEA helped to upgrade the RCP as the economy evolved from one that was centrally planned economy to a free market economy. As this

  19. Detecting Internal Control Problems Based on COSO and Islamic Perspective: Case on SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Hidayah Suyoso Putra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The presence of Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs has been able to be livelihoods sources and absorb more labor, even though it has a relative smaller contribution of additional value compared to the Large-scale Enterprises. The number of economic actors of SMEs spread across area from urban to rural. However, SMEs have faced several serious problems. These problems are caused by the unique characteristics of SMEs itself. First, lack of managerial skills due to limited human resources and lack of monitoring which it is rarely conducted by the manager or the owner. Second, lack of information and technology to carry out operations. Both problems have great impacts in lack of internal controls. Third, SMEs also face problems in developing business scale, limited access to capital to the banks and financial institutions due to the lack of transparency. Therefore, this research aimed to detect to what extent of the problems arising in the application and assessment of internal controls performed by SMEs.Method – The research employs descriptive qualitative research method through direct observation, interview and business documentation owned by the company. Research materials are 29 SMEs consisting of 19 trading SMEs and 10 service SMEs. All SMEs are located in Malang city. Detection of application and assessment of internal controls in this study is based on the COSO framework and the Islamic perspective.Result – Internal control activities indicators apply the five principles of COSO framework which focused on three layers. First layer is self-assessment control area. Second layer is environment control area and the third layer is independent control area. While the Islamic perspective is focused on the internal control of business activities based on the Qur'an and Hadith. The results derive from application and assessment based on COSO framework and Islamic perspectives are complementary in improving the practice of internal

  20. Modelling and Internal Fuzzy Model Power Control of a Francis Water Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Klemen Nagode; Igor Škrjanc

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents dynamic modelling of a Francis turbine with a surge tank and the control of a hydro power plant (HPP). Non-linear and linear models include technical parameters and show high similarity to measurement data. Turbine power control with an internal model control (IMC) is proposed, based on a turbine fuzzy model. Considering appropriate control responses in the entire area of turbine power, the model parameters of the process are determined from a fuzzy model, which are furthe...

  1. EQUIVALENCE BETWEEN EXACT INTERNAL CONTROLLABILITY OF THE KIRCHHOFF PLATE-LIKE EQUATION AND THE WAVE EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    When the rotatory inertia is taken into account, vibrations of a linear plate can be described by the Kirchhoff plate equation. Consider this equation with locally distributed control forces and some boundary condition which is the simply supported boundary condition for a rectangular plate. In this paper, the authors establish exact controllability of the system in terms of the equivalence to exact internal controllability of the wave equation, by means of a frequency domain characterization of exact controllability introduced recently in [11].

  2. Limits to international diversification in oil and gas -domestic vs foreign asset control

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We provide evidence that international diversification in the oil and gas sector comes at an important cost; lower control over foreign oilfield assets (and therefore reduced control over oilfield cash-flows). This work examines the factors that drive companies to diversify despite the loss of control over oilfields. Detailed worldwide data for 293 companies owning 6633 field stakes enable us to demonstrate that diversification increases with firm size but results in lower asset control - wit...

  3. 75 FR 57385 - Internal Control Over Financial Reporting in Exchange Act Periodic Reports of Non-Accelerated Filers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 210, 229, and 249 Internal Control Over Financial Reporting in Exchange Act Periodic... effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting. See Release No. 33-8238 (June 5, 2003... audit report an assessment of the issuer's internal control over financial reporting. \\13\\ An...

  4. Internal quality control of PCR-based genotyping methods in research studies and patient diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Gram, Jørgen; Jespersen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Genetic analyses are increasingly integrated in the clinical laboratory, and internal quality control programmes are needed. We have focused on quality control aspects of selected polymorphism analyses used in thrombosis research. DNA was isolated from EDTA-blood (n = 500) by ammonium acetate pre...

  5. Compromised motor control in children with DCD: A deficit in the internal model - a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.J.; Lust, J.M.; Wilson, P.H.; Steenbergen, B.

    2014-01-01

    A viable hypothesis to explain the compromised motor ability of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) suggests a fundamental deficit in their ability to utilize internal models for motor control. Dysfunction in this mode of control is thought to compromise their motor learning

  6. On the internal model principle in formation control and in output synchronization of nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2012-01-01

    The role of internal model principle is investigated in this paper in the context of collective synchronization and formation control problems. In the collective synchronization problem for nonlinear systems, we propose distributed control laws for passive systems which synchronize to the solution o

  7. On the internal model principle in formation control and in output synchronization of nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2012-01-01

    The role of internal model principle is investigated in this paper in the context of collective synchronization and formation control problems. In the collective synchronization problem for nonlinear systems, we propose distributed control laws for passive systems which synchronize to the solution o

  8. On the internal model principle in formation control and in output synchronization of nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2012-01-01

    The role of internal model principle is investigated in this paper in the context of collective synchronization and formation control problems. In the collective synchronization problem for nonlinear systems, we propose distributed control laws for passive systems which synchronize to the solution

  9. Compromised motor control in children with DCD: A deficit in the internal model - a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.J.; Lust, J.M.; Wilson, P.H.; Steenbergen, B.

    2014-01-01

    A viable hypothesis to explain the compromised motor ability of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) suggests a fundamental deficit in their ability to utilize internal models for motor control. Dysfunction in this mode of control is thought to compromise their motor learning capa

  10. Internal quality control of PCR-based genotyping methods: practical experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Gram, Jørgen; Jespersen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Internal quality control programmes for genetic analyses are needed. We have focused on quality control aspects of selected polymorphism analyses used in thrombosis research. DNA was isolated from EDTA-blood (n = 500) and analysed for 18 polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), i.e. rest...

  11. Business Process Risk Management, Compliance and Internal Control: A Research Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Best, Peter; Green, Peter

    (COSO). Based on an inductive methodological approach using literature review and interviews with managers engaged in risk management and internal control projects, this paper identifies three main areas that currently have management attention. These are business process risk management, compliance......Integration of risk management and management control is emerging as an important area in the wake of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and with ongoing development of frameworks such as the Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) framework from the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission...... management and internal control development. This paper discusses these areas and identifies a series of research questions regarding these critical issues....

  12. Business Process Risk Management, Compliance and Internal Control: A Research Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Best, Peter; Green, Peter

    (COSO). Based on an inductive methodological approach using literature review and interviews with managers engaged in risk management and internal control projects, this paper identifies three main areas that currently have management attention. These are business process risk management, compliance......Integration of risk management and management control is emerging as an important area in the wake of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and with ongoing development of frameworks such as the Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) framework from the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission...... management and internal control development. This paper discusses these areas and identifies a series of research questions regarding these critical issues....

  13. Design of active disturbance rejection internal model control strategy for SISO system with time delay process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qi-bing; LIU Li-ye

    2015-01-01

    A novel control scheme of active disturbance rejection internal model control (ADRIMC) is proposed to improve the anti-interference ability and robustness for the dead-time process. The active anti-interference concept is introduced into the internal model control (IMC) by analyzing the relationship between IMC and disturbance observer control (DOB). Further, a design process of disturbance filter is presented to realize the active anti-interference ability for ADRIMC scheme. The disturbance filter is used to estimate an equivalent disturbance consisting of both external disturbances and internal disturbances caused by model mismatches. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method possesses a good disturbance rejection performance, though losing some partial dynamic performance. In other words, the proposed method shows a tradeoff between the dynamic performance and the system robust.

  14. Optimal closed-loop identification test design for internal model control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立群; 邵惠鹤; 戴丹

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, optimal cloeed-loop test design for control is studied. The identified model is used for controller design. The control scheme used is internal model control (IMC) and the design constraint is the power of the process output or that of the reference signal. The measure of performance is the variance of the error between the output of the ideal closed-loop system (with the ideal controller) and that of the actual closed-loop system (with the controller computed from the identified model). Optimal spectrum formulae can be used to determine the PRBS signal in industrious identification.

  15. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: A focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale Adam J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people’s attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Methods Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218 were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Results Analysis indicated that participants’ objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1 scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2 a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to ‘punish’ the moderate drinker; and (3 concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at ‘problem’ and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. Conclusions There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most

  16. Corporate Characteristics and Internal Control Information Disclosure- Evidence from Annual Reports in 2009 of Listed Companies in Shenzhen Stock Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowen, Song

    Under the research framework of internal control disclosure and combined the current economic situation, the paper empirically analyzes the relationship between corporate characteristics and internal control information disclosure. The paper selects 647 A share companies listed in Shenzhen Stock Exchanges in 2009 as a sample. The results show: (1) the companies with excellent performance and high liquidity tend to disclose more internal control information; (2) the companies with the high leverage and also issued B shares are not willing to disclosure internal control information; (3) the companies sizes and companies which have hired Four-big accounting firms have no significant effects on internal control disclosure.

  17. ROMANIA’S FACTS ABOUT INTERNAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND FINANCED PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogar Cristian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The malfunctioning of internal control system of European Social Fund (ESF financed interventions may prejudice the sound financial management principle. Incorporating COSO principles in the beneficiary’s internal control systems may provide some warranties about compliance to the above mentioned principle as described in the EC Regulation 1605-2002. This study aims to explore some facts in actual internal control environment, as a base for future improvements of Romanian ESF beneficiary’s internal control systems ESF financed interventions covers a large range of costs for implementing labor market related services. But supporting costs according to the sound financial management principle calls for best value for money in real and legal operations. Without some specifics from the donor or a mutual accepted best practice model, most of the ESF beneficiaries are reporting their efforts to actual researches and specialized literature regarding internal control system implementation in services. This study was realized in April 2012 by applying an investigation instrument, an on-line questionnaire collecting both opinions and factual data as well to a number of 962 members of a practice community for ESF interventions implementation. This technique was used to test hypotheses regarding the premises existence for a future improvement of the existing internal control system model. 100 members of this community: managers, accountants, auditors financial responsible and other team members answered anonymously, revealing a real concern for internal control, providing as well a different side image for this. Analyzing all stakeholder answers, we may consider that our hypothesis is correct and there is a real need for internal control environment improvements. This study is a part of a larger research “New models of the accounting and internal control systems of ESF financed interventions in Romania”, addressing a qualitative

  18. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  19. External and semi-internal controls for PCR amplification of homologous sequences in mixed templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Elena; Gulevich, Alexander; Rensing, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    In a mixed template, the presence of homologous target DNA sequences creates environments that almost inevitably give rise to artifacts and biases during PCR. Heteroduplexes, chimeras, and skewed template-to-product ratios are the exclusive attributes of mixed template PCR and never occur in a single template assay. Yet, multi-template PCR has been used without appropriate attention to quality control and assay validation, in spite of the fact that such practice diminishes the reliability of results. External and internal amplification controls became obligatory elements of good laboratory practice in different PCR assays. We propose the inclusion of an analogous approach as a quality control system for multi-template PCR applications. The amplification controls must take into account the characteristics of multi-template PCR and be able to effectively monitor particular assay performance. This study demonstrated the efficiency of a model mixed template as an adequate external amplification control for a particular PCR application. The conditions of multi-template PCR do not allow implementation of a classic internal control; therefore we developed a convenient semi-internal control as an acceptable alternative. In order to evaluate the effects of inhibitors, a model multi-template mix was amplified in a mixture with DNAse-treated sample. Semi-internal control allowed establishment of intervals for robust PCR performance for different samples, thus enabling correct comparison of the samples. The complexity of the external and semi-internal amplification controls must be comparable with the assumed complexity of the samples. We also emphasize that amplification controls should be applied in multi-template PCR regardless of the post-assay method used to analyze products.

  20. Protocol for the "Michigan Awareness Control Study": A prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing electronic alerts based on bispectral index monitoring or minimum alveolar concentration for the prevention of intraoperative awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avidan Michael S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of intraoperative awareness with explicit recall is 1-2/1000 cases in the United States. The Bispectral Index monitor is an electroencephalographic method of assessing anesthetic depth that has been shown in one prospective study to reduce the incidence of awareness in the high-risk population. In the B-Aware trial, the number needed to treat in order to prevent one case of awareness in the high-risk population was 138. Since the number needed to treat and the associated cost of treatment would be much higher in the general population, the efficacy of the Bispectral Index monitor in preventing awareness in all anesthetized patients needs to be clearly established. This is especially true given the findings of the B-Unaware trial, which demonstrated no significant difference between protocols based on the Bispectral Index monitor or minimum alveolar concentration for the reduction of awareness in high risk patients. Methods/Design To evaluate efficacy in the general population, we are conducting a prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing the Bispectral Index monitor to a non-electroencephalographic gauge of anesthetic depth. The total recruitment for the study is targeted for 30,000 patients at both low and high risk for awareness. We have developed a novel algorithm that is capable of real-time analysis of our electronic perioperative information system. In one arm of the study, anesthesia providers will receive an electronic page if the Bispectral Index value is >60. In the other arm of the study, anesthesia providers will receive a page if the age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentration is Discussion Awareness during general anesthesia is a persistent problem and the role of the Bispectral Index monitor in its prevention is still unclear. The Michigan Awareness Control Study is the largest prospective trial of awareness prevention ever conducted. Trial Registration Clinical Trial NCT00689091

  1. Participants at the 4th Controlling Conference of International Public Organisations

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2010-01-01

    The 4th Controlling Conference of International Public Organisations is part of a cycle of yearly conferences which were held the previous years in Frankfurt, Munich, Luxemburg, and which will take place this year on 31 May and 1 June at CERN. The aim of these conferences is to offer a forum for Directors of Administration, Deputy CFOs, Secretary-Generals, Heads of Budget of International Organisations, to exchange experiences on selected themes related to performance management. This year’s theme is “The Reduction of Overheads in International Public Organisations”.

  2. Lessons from international experience in controlling pharmaceutical expenditure. III: Regulating industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Bloor, K; Maynard, A.; Freemantle, N

    1996-01-01

    This is the third of three papers that review international policies to control spending on drugs and to improve the efficiency of drug use. This paper reviews policies regulating the supply of drugs, particularly licensing and reimbursement controls, price and profit regulation. Price and profit controls contain few incentives for improving cost effective use of drugs, and focus on cost containment and profitability of domestic industry. Carefully monitored economic evaluation could lead to ...

  3. Enhancing International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC) Operations Using Tcl/Tk

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHagan, Brian; Long, Stephen K., Sr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will discuss the use of Tcl/Tk to enhance the abilities of flight controllers to control the International Space Station (ISS) from the Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Johnson Space Center. We will discuss why existing tools where not able to meet these needs as easily as Tcl/Tk. In addition, we will also discuss how we interfaced with the existing MCC infrastructure to receive ISS telemetry, find servers, register services, and send commands to ISS.

  4. Graph theory for FPGA minimum configurations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Aiwu; Li Wenchang; Xiang Chuanyin; Song Jiangmin; Kang Shi; Liao Yongbo

    2011-01-01

    A traditional bottom-up modeling method for minimum configuration numbers is adopted for the study of FPGA minimum configurations.This method is limited ifa large number of LUTs and multiplexers are presented.Since graph theory has been extensively applied to circuit analysis and test,this paper focuses on the modeling FPGA configurations.In our study,an internal logic block and interconnections of an FPGA are considered as a vertex and an edge connecting two vertices in the graph,respectively.A top-down modeling method is proposed in the paper to achieve minimum configuration numbers for CLB and IOB.Based on the proposed modeling approach and exhaustive analysis,the minimum configuration numbers for CLB and IOB are five and three,respectively.

  5. Regulatory and scientific frameworks for zoonosis control in Japan--contributing to International Health Regulations (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Omoe, H; Omoe, K

    2009-12-01

    Zoonoses have earned recognition as the source of serious problems for both public and animal health throughout the world. Emerging infectious diseases have been occurring at an unprecedented rate since the 1970s and a large proportion of these diseases are considered zoonotic. To aid in controlling zoonoses, countermeasures have been strengthened against these diseases and are maintained at both national and international levels. Atypical example of this international effort can be found in the revised International Health Regulations (2005), known as the IHR (2005), which were instituted by the World Health Organization and have been implemented since 2007. In Japan, the appropriate Ministries have established frameworks for controlling zoonoses that employ both administrative and scientific approaches to fulfill the demands of the IHR (2005). In this paper, the authors present the Japanese framework for controlling zoonoses, as a useful example for global public and animal health management in coming years.

  6. Internal control and auditing – a necessity for responsible reporting and managerial usefulness of accounting information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Teodora CIUHUREANU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that not only in Romania, internal control and auditing are subject to legal regulations. Often, the two forms of ensuring the quality of accounting information are particularly perceived as mandatory requirement instead of as a necessity for certifying the information travelling between producer and user. The paper addresses issues which aim to highlight the need to organize the internal control and auditing of the accounting information from the perspective of the need to certify the accounting information for a responsible reporting. Moreover, through a study conducted on a sample of 301 companies in the Central Region of Romania, we also captured the managers’/directors’ opinion regarding the internal control and audit in terms of confidence, ensuring opportunities to valorise the accounting information and its usefulness for management.

  7. Impact of Public Internal Financial Control on Public Administration in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna VAŠIČEK

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The PIFC /Public Internal Financial Control/ was developed by the European Commission. PIFC is set of principles internal financial controls system established for the purpose of controlling, auditing, supervise on the use of national budget and European Union budget and funds. Also, in order to support candidate countries in their internal control system reforms in the public sector. Therefore, it is expected for the candidate countries to establish and develop the system of internal financial controls according to the concept which was in that field developed by the European Union based on International Standards and the best practice of European countries. Since the year 2003 the Republic of Croatia undertakes intensive activities on the establishment and development of the internal financial control system according with the regulation of European Union. In keeping with the set concept, the Republic of Croatia undertook numerous activities during the past six years to create all the necessary assumptions for the establishment and development of the system, including: the adoption of the initial strategic documents; drafting of laws; the creation of organisational capacities and human resources; and the implementation of the system with budget users at central government and local levels. In this paper we will present phases of implementation PIFC in Croatian Public Sector. Through this phases we will show impact that PIFC has on development of New Public Management in Croatia and changes in organizational structure and human resource that are caused during this process. Also, we will give critical opinion of that process and problems which occur during implementation. In this paper we will present approach in implementation of PIFC in Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and compare this with implementation in Croatia.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Active Noise Controller for Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Da; Chen, Chih-Keng; Lee, Chun-Ying; Lee, Tian-Hua

    2002-10-01

    Two active noise control (ANC) algorithms for internal combustion engine exhaust systems are developed and their performances are compared in various experiments. The first controller is based on the filtered-x least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm with feedback neutralization, while the second is a fixed controller with a gain-scheduled active control technique for broadband attenuation with thermal effects. Both control algorithms are implemented on a digital signal processing (DSP) platform. Experiments are carried out to evaluate the attenuation performance of the proposed active noise control systems for an engine exhaust system. The results of the experiments indicate that both the adaptive controller and the gain-scheduled controller effectively suppress the noise of engine exhaust systems. The experimental comparison and analysis of the proposed controllers are also described.

  9. 17 CFR 240.17i-4 - Internal risk management control system requirements for supervised investment bank holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17i-4 Internal risk management control system...) As part of its internal risk management control system, a supervised investment bank holding company... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internal risk...

  10. A human rights view on access to controlled substances for medical purposes under the international drug control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gispen, Marie Elske C

    2013-11-05

    The world is confronted with a major public health deficit caused by poor access to controlled essential medicines under the international drug control framework. This is affecting millions of patients on a daily basis and resulting in numerous human rights violations. The present review contextualises this deficit from a human rights perspective. Drug control efforts are informed by a twofold objective stemming from the double nature of scheduled substances: free access for medical purposes should be ensured, though non-medical use of substances such as opium should be restricted. The international drug control framework is, in theory, based on this twofold notion, however at the level of interpretation, monitoring, and implementation, a one-sided emphasis is demonstrated. By tracing a parallel between the obligations of states under the international drug control framework and those that derive from human rights law, the review shows that the two systems seem incoherent and conflicting in nature and flags the importance of cross-disciplinary research into drug control and human rights.

  11. Patients suffering from restless legs syndrome have low internal locus of control and poor psychological functioning compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Hatzinger, Martin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disturbing sensorimotor disorder negatively influencing both sleep and psychological functioning. The aim of the present study was to assess RLS patients with respect to locus of control, sleep-related personality traits, quality of life, and sleep as compared to healthy controls. Thirty-eight patients (18 females and 20 males; mean age: 56.06 years) diagnosed with RLS and an age- and gender-matched control group (n = 42) were recruited. Participants completed a series of questionnaires related to locus of control, personality traits, quality of life, and sleep. Compared to healthy controls, RLS patients had a lower internal locus of control, unfavourable sleep-related personality traits such as low self-confidence and higher mental arousal, poorer quality of life, and more depressive symptoms. Sleep was also affected. Multiple regression analyses showed that a low internal and a high external locus of control were predicted by RLS. The pattern of results suggests that RLS is associated with a low locus of control, negative personality traits, and poor quality of life as compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. [Development of uncompetitive exogenous internal amplification control for real-time PCR based on UFA method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M K; Bragin, A G; Prasolova, M A; Vedernikov, V E; Dymshits, G M

    2009-01-01

    An uncompetitive exogenous internal amplification control method (EIAC) was developed on the basis of short synthetic DNA segment, whose amplification can be detected in real time by UFA spectroscopy principle. The EIAC was shown to be useful as internal control in diagnostic test systems based on DNA or RNA detection by multiplex real-time PCR. It can be applied to assess the quality of extracted DNA or RNA, and also to detect and study the factors causing PCR inhibition and earlier plateau effect.

  13. MONITORING IN CREDIT INSTITUTIONS – COMPARATIVE APPROACH ON INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEMS – THE CASE OF ROMANIA VS. INTERNATIONAL MODELS OF CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURESAN MARIANA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the stipulations of the two well-known internal control system models – COSO and CoCo - the purpose of this paper is to focus on the Romanian framework for credit institutions – trying to to identify on which international model is our national one most appropriate to. The research methodology is based on an empirical analysis between Romanian regulation and the models already mentioned. To reach to a conclusion we tried to identify several key issues closely related to information and communication, and to determine the degree of similarities and dissimilarities between the three selected frameworks, by using statistical indicators. The paper has some limitations, too, because it only approaches formal harmonization. So, those issues analyzed through the regulations’ perspectives need to be closely quantified in matters of their actual implementation, which offer us outlooks of future research.

  14. International note: Maternal warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control: Relations to adjustment of Ghanaian early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S

    2016-06-01

    This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression.

  15. El Control y la Confianza: dos rivales en las "International Joint Ventures"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Puig Blanco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas conjuntas internacionales(International Joint Ventures se caracterizan pordos factores íntimamente relacionados: el control y eloportunismo. En este trabajo, trataremos de analizarla relación entre ambos factores y estudiaremos quétipos de control ayudarían a prevenir o a reducirel oportunismo en este tipo de empresas. Además,trataremos de identificar las ventajas e inconvenientesasociados al control y analizaremos el caso de unaInternational Joint Venture formada por dos empresas,una española y la otra americana, cuyo fracaso se debió,en gran parte, a la ausencia de control (confianza y aloportunismo.   ABSTRACT International Joint Ventures are distinguished bytwo closely related factors: control and opportunism.In this paper we will try to analyze the relationshipbetween both factors and we will study what controlswould help prevent or reduce opportunism in thisclass of enterprises. Besides, we will attempt to identifythe advantages and inconveniences associated withcontrol, and analyze one case of an International JointVenture comprised by two companies, a Spanish and anAmerican one whose failure was largely due to lack ofcontrol (trust and opportunism.

  16. Design concept of three-dimensional section controllable internal waverider hypersonic inlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new hypersonic inlet named three-dimensional section controllable internal waverider inlet is presented in this paper to achieve the goal of section shape geometric transition and complete capture of the upstream mass. On the basis of the association between hypersonic waverider airframe and streamtraced hypersonic inlet, the waverider concept is extended to yield results for the internal flows, namely internal waverider concept. It is proven theoretically that not osculating cones but osculating axisymmetric theory is appropriate for the design of section controllable internal waverider inlet. And two design methods out of the internal waverider concept are proposed subsequently to construct two inlets with specific section shape request, triangle to ellipse and rectangle to ellipse ones. The calculation results show that the inlets are capable of keeping their shock structures and the main flow characteristics exactly as their derived flowfield. Further, the inlets successfully capture all the upstream mass despite their complicated cross-section transitions. It is believed that the concept proposed ex- plores a new way of designing three-dimensional hypersonic inlets with special demand of section shape transition. However, the detailed flow characteristic and the performance of the internal waverider inlets are still under investigation.

  17. Design concept of three-dimensional section controllable internal waverider hypersonic inlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU YanCheng; LIANG DeWang

    2009-01-01

    A new hypersonic inlet named three-dimensional section controllable internal waverider inlet is presented in this paper to achieve the goal of section shape geometric transition and complete capture of the upstream mass. On the basis of the association between hypersonic waverider airframe and streamtraced hypersonic inlet, the waverider concept is extended to yield results for the internal flows,namely internal waverider concept. It is proven theoretically that not osculating cones but osculating axisymmetric theory is appropriate for the design of section controllable internal wsverider inlet. And two design methods out of the internal waverider concept are proposed subsequently to construct two inlets with specific section shape request, triangle to ellipse and rectangle to ellipse ones. The calculation results show that the inlets are capable of keeping their shock structures and the main flow characteristics exactly as their derived flowfield. Further, the inlets successfully capture all the upstream mass despite their complicated cross-section transitions. It is believed that the concept proposed explores a new way of designing three-dimensional hypersonic inlets with special demand of section shape transition. However, the detailed flow characteristic and the performance of the internal waverider inlets are still under investigation.

  18. Engine modeling and control modeling and electronic management of internal combustion engines

    CERN Document Server

    Isermann, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demands for internal combustion engines with regard to fuel consumption, emissions and driveability lead to more actuators, sensors and complex control functions. A systematic implementation of the electronic control systems requires mathematical models from basic design through simulation to calibration. The book treats physically-based as well as models based experimentally on test benches for gasoline (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engines and uses them for the design of the different control functions. The main topics are: - Development steps for engine control - Stationary and dynamic experimental modeling - Physical models of intake, combustion, mechanical system, turbocharger, exhaust, cooling, lubrication, drive train - Engine control structures, hardware, software, actuators, sensors, fuel supply, injection system, camshaft - Engine control methods, static and dynamic feedforward and feedback control, calibration and optimization, HiL, RCP, control software developm...

  19. Internal Leakage Fault Detection and Tolerant Control of Single-Rod Hydraulic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of internal leakage fault detection and tolerant control for single-rod hydraulic actuators is present in this paper. Fault detection is a potential technique to provide efficient condition monitoring and/or preventive maintenance, and fault tolerant control is a critical method to improve the safety and reliability of hydraulic servo systems. Based on quadratic Lyapunov functions, a performance-oriented fault detection method is proposed, which has a simple structure and is prone to implement in practice. The main feature is that, when a prescribed performance index is satisfied (even a slight fault has occurred, there is no fault alarmed; otherwise (i.e., a severe fault has occurred, the fault is detected and then a fault tolerant controller is activated. The proposed tolerant controller, which is based on the parameter adaptive methodology, is also prone to realize, and the learning mechanism is simple since only the internal leakage is considered in parameter adaptation and thus the persistent exciting (PE condition is easily satisfied. After the activation of the fault tolerant controller, the control performance is gradually recovered. Simulation results on a hydraulic servo system with both abrupt and incipient internal leakage fault demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault detection and tolerant control method.

  20. Active vibration control using state space LQG and internal model control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkholt, Jakob; Elliott, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Two ways of designing discrete time robust H2-controllers for feedback broadband active vibration control are compared through computer simulations. The methods are based on different models of disturbance and plant transfer functions, but yield controllers with identical properties. Two simple...... ways of introducing robustness into the H2-design are compared, and finally an efficient way of designing a practical IIR-controller is proposed....

  1. Active vibration control using state space LQG and internal model control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkholt, Jakob; Elliott, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Two ways of designing discrete time robust H2-controllers for feedback broadband active vibration control are compared through computer simulations. The methods are based on different models of disturbance and plant transfer functions, but yield controllers with identical properties. Two simple...... ways of introducing robustness into the H2-design are compared, and finally an efficient way of designing a practical IIR-controller is proposed....

  2. Physiological and Molecular Response of Prorocentrum minimum to Tannic Acid: An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Feasibility of Using Tannic Acid in Controling the Red Tide in a Eutrophic Coastal Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungkwan Jeong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay and gene expression experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the growth and physiology of Prorocentrum minimum isolated from a eutrophic coastal water in response to tannic acid. In the bioassay experiments, variations in abundance, chlorophyll (chl a concentration, maximum fluorescence (in vivo Fm, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm were measured over the course of a seven-day incubation. Moreover, stress-related gene expression in both the control and an experimental (2.5 ppm TA treatment group was observed for 24 h and 48 h. The molecular markers used in this study were the heat shock proteins (Hsp70 and Hsp90 and cyclophilin (CYP. The findings show that P. minimum can thrive and grow at low concentrations (<2.5 ppm of tannic acid, and, above this concentration, cells begin to slow down development. In addition, TA concentration of 10 ppm halted photosynthetic activity. At the molecular level, treatment with tannic acid increased the expression of Hsp70, Hsp90, and CYP, and heat shock proteins are more upregulated than the cyclophilin gene. Exposure to tannic acid increased the expression of stress factors over time (48 h by 10- to 27-fold the expression level of the control group. These results suggest that tannic acid can be used to control harmful algal blooms such as those containing P. minimum in eutrophic coastal waters.

  3. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  4. External and semi-internal controls for PCR amplification of homologous sequences in mixed templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalle, Elena; Gulevich, Alexander; Rensing, Christopher Günther T

    2013-01-01

    in a single template assay. Yet, multi-template PCR has been used without appropriate attention to quality control and assay validation, in spite of the fact that such practice diminishes the reliability of results. External and internal amplification controls became obligatory elements of good laboratory...... practice in different PCR assays. We propose the inclusion of an analogous approach as a quality control system for multi-template PCR applications. The amplification controls must take into account the characteristics of multi-template PCR and be able to effectively monitor particular assay performance...

  5. Minimum Entropy Orientations

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinal, Jean; Joret, Gwenaël

    2008-01-01

    We study graph orientations that minimize the entropy of the in-degree sequence. The problem of finding such an orientation is an interesting special case of the minimum entropy set cover problem previously studied by Halperin and Karp [Theoret. Comput. Sci., 2005] and by the current authors [Algorithmica, to appear]. We prove that the minimum entropy orientation problem is NP-hard even if the graph is planar, and that there exists a simple linear-time algorithm that returns an approximate solution with an additive error guarantee of 1 bit. This improves on the only previously known algorithm which has an additive error guarantee of log_2 e bits (approx. 1.4427 bits).

  6. Internal flow management in a multi-zone climate control unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Persis, C.; Jessen, Jan Jacob; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2006-01-01

    of each zone is strongly affected by those in the neighbor zones. We discuss a control strategy which, by acting on the heating and ventilation devices of the overall system, is able to achieve the control task while efficiently managing the internal flow. It is pointed out that the controller is hybrid......In this contribution, we examine a dynamic model describing the evolution of internal climate conditions in a closed environment partitioned into zones for which different climate conditions must be guaranteed. The zones are not separated, large air masses are exchanged among them, and the behavior...... and decentralized. An additional feature of the controller is that it takes on values in a finite set. The possible implementation in a networked environment is briefly discussed....

  7. Quasilinear Extreme Learning Machine Model Based Internal Model Control for Nonlinear Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy for internal model control (IMC is proposed using a regression algorithm of quasilinear model with extreme learning machine (QL-ELM. Aimed at the chemical process with nonlinearity, the learning process of the internal model and inverse model is derived. The proposed QL-ELM is constructed as a linear ARX model with a complicated nonlinear coefficient. It shows some good approximation ability and fast convergence. The complicated coefficients are separated into two parts. The linear part is determined by recursive least square (RLS, while the nonlinear part is identified through extreme learning machine. The parameters of linear part and the output weights of ELM are estimated iteratively. The proposed internal model control is applied to CSTR process. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method are extensively verified through numerical results.

  8. DILEMATIKA PENETAPAN UPAH MINIMUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Pitaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the effort of creating appropiate wage for employees, it is necessary to determine the wages by considering the increase of poverty without ignoring the increase of productivity, the progressivity of companies and the growth of economic. The new minimum wages in the provincial level and the regoinal/municipality level have been implemented per 1st January in Indonesia since 2001. The determination of minimum wage for provinvial level should be done 30 days before 1st January, whereas the determination of minimumwage for regional/municipality level should be done 40 days before 1st January. Moreover,there is an article which governs thet the minimumwage will be revised annually. By considering the time of determination and the time of revision above,it can be predicted that before and after the determination date will be crucial time. This is because the controversy among parties in industrial relationships will arise. The determination of minimum wage will always become a dilemmatic step which has to be done by the Government. Through this policy, on one side the government attempts to attract many investors, however, on the other side the government also has to protect the employees in order to have the appropiate wage in accordance with the standard of living.

  9. Life support and internal thermal control system design for the Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R.; Mitchell, K.; Reuter, J.; Carrasquillo, R.; Beverly, B.

    1991-01-01

    A Review of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) design, including recent changes resulting from an activity to restructure the program, is provided. The development state of the original Space Station Freedom ECLSS through the restructured configuration is considered and the selection of regenerative subsystems for oxygen and water reclamation is addressed. A survey of the present ground development and verification program is given.

  10. Business Process Risk Management, Compliance and Internal Control: A Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Best, Peter; Green, Peter; Rosemann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Integration of risk management and management control is emerging as an important area in the wake of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and with ongoing development of frameworks such as the Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) framework from the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Based on an inductive methodological approach using literature review and interviews with managers engaged in risk management and internal control projects, this paper identifies three main ar...

  11. Mupirocin for the reduction of colonization of internal jugular cannulae: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L.R. Hill; A. P. Fisher; R. J. Ware; S. Wilson; M. W. Casewell

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIn a prospective study, 218 cardiothoracic patients, in whom 'Abbocath-T' cannulae had been inserted preoperatively into the internal jugular vein, were randomized to receive skin preparation of the insertion site with tincture of iodine (108 controls) or tincture of iodine followed by a

  12. 12 CFR 620.3 - Accuracy of reports and assessment of internal control over financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accuracy of reports and assessment of internal control over financial reporting. 620.3 Section 620.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DISCLOSURE TO SHAREHOLDERS General § 620.3 Accuracy of reports and assessment of...

  13. Predicting internalizing symptoms over a two year period by BIS, FFFS and attentional control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sportel, B. Esther; Nauta, Maaike H.; de Hullu, Eva; de Jong, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying risk factors for the development of internalizing disorders is of major importance. In this context, behavioral inhibition (BIS), the fight-flight-freeze-system (FFFS), and attentional control (AC) have been proposed as being possible risk factors for both anxiety disorders and depressio

  14. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  15. Internalizing versus Externalizing Control: Different Ways to Perform a Time-Based Prospective Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tracy; Loft, Shayne; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    "Time-based prospective memory" (PM) refers to performing intended actions at a future time. Participants with time-based PM tasks can be slower to perform ongoing tasks (costs) than participants without PM tasks because internal control is required to maintain the PM intention or to make prospective-timing estimates. However, external…

  16. Notification: Evaluating the Internal Controls for EPA's Vehicle Emissions Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY17-0009, Mar 6, 2017. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to determine whether the EPA’s existing internal controls are effective at detecting and preventing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty on-road vehicle emissions fraud.

  17. Internalizing versus Externalizing Control: Different Ways to Perform a Time-Based Prospective Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tracy; Loft, Shayne; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    "Time-based prospective memory" (PM) refers to performing intended actions at a future time. Participants with time-based PM tasks can be slower to perform ongoing tasks (costs) than participants without PM tasks because internal control is required to maintain the PM intention or to make prospective-timing estimates. However, external…

  18. 75 FR 55626 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control and Law... determine and certify that: (1) The herbicide used for aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia...

  19. An internal control for the diagnosis of Crown Gall by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cubero, J.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Lopez, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The addition of an internal control (IC) at the appropriate concentration enables recognize of false negatives in the detection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and improves the reliability of PCR for crown gall diagnosis. Co-amplification of the IC and target sequence from A. tumefaciens ensures the at

  20. Multi-level access control in the data pipeline of the international supply chain system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruksasri, P.; Berg, J. van den; Hofman, W.; Daskapan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Seamless Integrated Data Pipeline system was proposed to the European Union in order to overcome the information quality shortcomings of the current international supply chain information exchange systems. Next to identification and authorization of stakeholders, secure access control needs to b

  1. Brain mechanisms for predictive control by switching internal models: implications for higher-order cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamizu, Hiroshi; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2009-07-01

    Humans can guide their actions toward the realization of their intentions. Flexible, rapid and precise realization of intentions and goals relies on the brain learning to control its actions on external objects and to predict the consequences of this control. Neural mechanisms that mimic the input-output properties of our own body and other objects can be used to support prediction and control, and such mechanisms are called internal models. We first summarize functional neuroimaging, behavioral and computational studies of the brain mechanisms related to acquisition, modular organization, and the predictive switching of internal models mainly for tool use. These mechanisms support predictive control and flexible switching of intentional actions. We then review recent studies demonstrating that internal models are crucial for the execution of not only immediate actions but also higher-order cognitive functions, including optimization of behaviors toward long-term goals, social interactions based on prediction of others' actions and mental states, and language processing. These studies suggest that a concept of internal models can consistently explain the neural mechanisms and computational principles needed for fundamental sensorimotor functions as well as higher-order cognitive functions.

  2. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF THE INTERNAL / MANAGERIAL CONTROL STANDARD NO. 6 - ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut-Cosmin BĂLOI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our initiative of analyzing the internal control standard which deals with the organizational structure comes from the observations on the significance of these essential aspects of modern management and on the sensitivity with which this standard is treated in most of the public institutions considered representative for the Oltenia region. Although the administrators of public institutions strive to optimize the systems of internal/managerial control, they frequently face many issues concerning the misunderstanding of these standards, vaguely explained, for example throughout some guidelines or other documents. The hypothesis of our study is that most of public institutions face gaps in understanding, interpreting, adapting and implementing an effective model of organizational structure, and the causes are due to the lack of an interdependent, correlated approach of the pillars that support the internal/managerial control system: the 25 standards required by the Romanian legislation. Our study critically describes the superficial approach founded in the self-evaluation reports of the public institutions, if we refer only to the conformity of the organizational structure and the four standards that we consider inextricably related with this internal/managerial control standard. From the methodological point of view, our study tests the correlation between the level of compliance of these standards and the functionality of the system composed by them in the public organizations that we have investigated.

  3. International forum for surveillance and control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript provides highlights of presentations given at the 1st International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Disease in Beijing, China. Topics covered in this 4-day forum included: diseases, surveillance, insecticides, physiology and ecology, behavior, inv...

  4. International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Control: A Tool for Securing Women's Rights in Drug Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Rebecca; Pol, Luciana

    2017-06-01

    Discrimination and inequality shape women's experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a 'gender perspective' into drug control policies, with 'gender' limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality. Also, drug control policies often fail to meaningfully address the specific needs and circumstances of women (inclusively defined), leaving them at risk of recurrent violations of their rights in the context of drugs. This article explores what it means to 'mainstream' this narrower version of gender into drug control efforts, using as examples various women's experiences as people who use drugs, in the drug trade, and in the criminal justice system. It points to international guidelines on human rights and drug control as an important tool to ensure attention to women's rights in drug control policy design and implementation.

  5. Minimum quality standards and exports

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction of a minimum quality standard and exports in a vertical product differentiation model when firms sell global products. If ex ante quality of foreign firms is lower (higher) than the quality of exporting firms, a mild minimum quality standard in the home market hinders (supports) exports. The minimum quality standard increases quality in both markets. A welfare maximizing minimum quality standard is always lower under trade than under autarky. A minimum quali...

  6. Simple adaptive control system design for a quadrotor with an internal PFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Nakamura, Takuto; Kumon, Makoto; Takagi, Taro [Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kumamoto University 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    The paper deals with an adaptive control system design problem for a four rotor helicopter or quadrotor. A simple adaptive control design scheme with a parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) in the internal loop of the considered quadrotor will be proposed based on the backstepping strategy. As is well known, the backstepping control strategy is one of the advanced control strategy for nonlinear systems. However, the control algorithm will become complex if the system has higher order relative degrees. We will show that one can skip some design steps of the backstepping method by introducing a PFC in the inner loop of the considered quadrotor, so that the structure of the obtained controller will be simplified and a high gain based adaptive feedback control system will be designed. The effectiveness of the proposed method will be confirmed through numerical simulations.

  7. Internal model control of a fast steering mirror for electro-optical fine tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun-xia; Bao, Qi-liang; Wu, Qiong-yan

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research is to develop advanced control methods to improve the bandwidth and tracking precision of the electro-optical fine tracking system using a fast steering mirror (FSM). FSM is the most important part in this control system. The model of FSM is established at the beginning of this paper. Compared with the electro-optical fine tracking system with ground based platform, the electro-optical fine tracking system with movement based platform must be a wide bandwidth and a robustness system. An advanced control method based on internal model control law is developed for electro-optical fine tracking system. The IMC is an advanced algorithm. Theoretically, it can eliminate disturbance completely and make sure output equals to input even there is model error. Moreover, it separates process to the system dynamic characteristic and the object perturbation. Compared with the PID controller, the controller is simpler and the parameter regulation is more convenient and the system is more robust. In addition, we design an improved structure based on classic IMC. The tracking error of the two-port control system is much better than which of the classic IMC. The simulation results indicate that the electro-optical control system based on the internal model control algorithm is very effective. It shows a better performance at the tracing precision and the disturbance suppresses. Thus a new method is provided for the high-performance electro-optical fine tracking system.

  8. THE EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL MORALITY AND INTERNAL CONTROL ON THE PROPENSITY TO COMMIT FRAUD: EVIDENCE FROM LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Puspasari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the influence of individual morality and internal controls on individuals’ propensity to commit accounting fraud at the local government level. This is a quasi-experimental research paper. Individual morality and internal controls are hypothesized to be having an interaction with each other in influencing the propensity to commit accounting fraud. Individuals who have low levels of moral principles are hypothesized to have the tendency to commit accounting fraud in the absence of any internal controls. To test this, a 2x2 factorial experiment was conducted involving 57 students from the Masters in Economics Development programme at Gadjah Mada University. The result shows that there is an interaction between individual morality and internal controls. The absence of internal controls does not cause an individual with high moral principles to commit accounting fraud. However, individuals with low morality levels tend to commit accounting fraud when internal controls are absent.

  9. Education Financial Management: Weak Internal Controls Led to Instances of Fraud and Other Improper Payments. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbom, Linda M.

    This report to Congressional Requesters is concerned with internal control problems found in the U.S. Department of Education. Significant internal control weaknesses in the U.S. Department of Education's payment processes and poor physical control over its computer assets made the department vulnerable to (and in some cases resulted in) fraud,…

  10. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  11. Economic stress and lack of internal health locus of control: a life course approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2014-02-01

    To investigate associations between economic stress in childhood and adulthood, and lack of internal health locus of control (HLC), testing the accumulation and critical period life course hypotheses. A cross-sectional public health (postal) survey was conducted in Skåne in 2008, based on a random sample with 28,198 participants in the age interval 18-80 years, with 55% participation. Logistic regressions analyzed associations between childhood and current economic stress, and lack of internal HLC. A 33.7% prevalence of men and 31.8% of women lack internal HLC, which was significantly associated with the covariates included. The accumulation hypothesis was partly supported because combined childhood and adulthood economic stress exposures were significantly associated with lack of internal HLC in a graded manner. The critical period hypothesis was not supported since the association between economic stress in childhood and lack of internal HLC was partly significant in the final model, and the association with adult (current) economic stress was also significant. The accumulation hypothesis was partly supported. The critical period hypothesis was not supported since both childhood and current economic stress experience were significantly associated with lack of internal HLC. Economic conditions in childhood as well as adulthood are plausibly of relevance for HLC.

  12. Tuning algorithms for fractional order internal model controllers for time delay processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muresan, Cristina I.; Dutta, Abhishek; Dulf, Eva H.; Pinar, Zehra; Maxim, Anca; Ionescu, Clara M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents two tuning algorithms for fractional-order internal model control (IMC) controllers for time delay processes. The two tuning algorithms are based on two specific closed-loop control configurations: the IMC control structure and the Smith predictor structure. In the latter, the equivalency between IMC and Smith predictor control structures is used to tune a fractional-order IMC controller as the primary controller of the Smith predictor structure. Fractional-order IMC controllers are designed in both cases in order to enhance the closed-loop performance and robustness of classical integer order IMC controllers. The tuning procedures are exemplified for both single-input-single-output as well as multivariable processes, described by first-order and second-order transfer functions with time delays. Different numerical examples are provided, including a general multivariable time delay process. Integer order IMC controllers are designed in each case, as well as fractional-order IMC controllers. The simulation results show that the proposed fractional-order IMC controller ensures an increased robustness to modelling uncertainties. Experimental results are also provided, for the design of a multivariable fractional-order IMC controller in a Smith predictor structure for a quadruple-tank system.

  13. Internal health locus of control predicts willingness to track health behaviors online and with smartphone applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brooke L; Goldstein, Carly M; Gathright, Emily C; Hughes, Joel W; Latner, Janet D

    2017-04-17

    Given rising technology use across all demographic groups, digital interventions offer a potential strategy for increasing access to health information and care. Research is lacking on identifying individual differences that impact willingness to use digital interventions, which may affect patient engagement. Health locus of control, the amount of control an individual believes they have over their own health, may predict willingness to use mobile health (mHealth) applications ('apps') and online trackers. A cross-sectional study (n = 276) was conducted to assess college students' health locus of control beliefs and willingness to use health apps and online trackers. Internal and powerful other health locus of control beliefs predicted willingness to use health apps and online trackers while chance health locus of control beliefs did not. Individuals with internal and powerful other health locus of control beliefs are more willing than those with chance health locus of control beliefs to utilize a form of technology to monitor or change health behaviors. Health locus of control is an easy-to-assess patient characteristic providers can measure to identify which patients are more likely to utilize mHealth apps and online trackers.

  14. Optimal control predicts human performance on objects with internal degrees of freedom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne J Nagengast

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available On a daily basis, humans interact with a vast range of objects and tools. A class of tasks, which can pose a serious challenge to our motor skills, are those that involve manipulating objects with internal degrees of freedom, such as when folding laundry or using a lasso. Here, we use the framework of optimal feedback control to make predictions of how humans should interact with such objects. We confirm the predictions experimentally in a two-dimensional object manipulation task, in which subjects learned to control six different objects with complex dynamics. We show that the non-intuitive behavior observed when controlling objects with internal degrees of freedom can be accounted for by a simple cost function representing a trade-off between effort and accuracy. In addition to using a simple linear, point-mass optimal control model, we also used an optimal control model, which considers the non-linear dynamics of the human arm. We find that the more realistic optimal control model captures aspects of the data that cannot be accounted for by the linear model or other previous theories of motor control. The results suggest that our everyday interactions with objects can be understood by optimality principles and advocate the use of more realistic optimal control models for the study of human motor neuroscience.

  15. An international track wheelchair with a center of gravity directional controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R A

    1989-01-01

    An international track wheelchair (ITWC) with a center of gravity directional controller (COGDC) is described in this paper. The rules for international track competition disallow devices designed solely for steering. Equipment has been disqualified for having steering handles, crown compensators, and other lever systems. However, the rules do allow tie-rod linkage and the use of springs for dampening caster flutter. The chair described in this paper exploits the physical properties of wheeled vehicles to achieve directional control on the track. This controller is effective, because turning is only required in one direction. Three such track wheelchairs have been developed and were used at the Paralympics in Seoul, Korea, in October of 1988.

  16. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2014 and February 2015. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  17. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  18. Internal-Model-Principle-Based Specific Harmonics Repetitive Controller for Grid-Connected PWM Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhou Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the general properties of IMP-based controller and presents an internal-model-principle-based (IMP-based specific harmonics repetitive control (SHRC scheme. The proposed SHRC is effective for specific nk±m order harmonics, with n>m≥0 and k=0,1,2,…. Using the properties of exponential function, SHRC can also be rewritten into the format of multiple resonant controllers in parallel, where the control gain of SHRC is n/2 multiple of that of conventional RC (CRC. Therefore, including SHRC in a stable closed-loop feedback control system, asymptotic disturbance eliminating, or reference tracking for any periodic signal only including these specific harmonic components at n/2 times faster error convergence rate compared with CRC can be achieved. Application examples of SHRC controlled three-phase/single-phase grid-connected PWM inverters demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed SHRC scheme.

  19. Nonlinear Attitude Control of Planar Structures in Space Using Only Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. Harris

    1993-01-01

    An attitude control strategy for maneuvers of an interconnection of planar bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques and that torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero. The control strategy utilizes the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. Large angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is summarized.

  20. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  1. Closed to reason: time for accountability for the International Narcotic Control Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For more than two decades, the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB has tried to stop harm reduction and its HIV prevention programs. This posture is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of their responsibilities and of drug addiction itself – i.e. as a public health and clinical care matter made criminal by decree. A recent focal point for the Board's action has been rejecting the use of supervised injection facilities to reduce morbidity and mortality of drug injectors. They single out individual countries and attempt to bully them into rejecting such programs under the banner of the United Nations (falsely and in the name of international treaties. Their unrelenting and unjustified badgering of signatories to the international treaties that established the INCB is not only unjustified; it is an affront to one of the core purposes of the Board itself: to ensure adequate medical supplies and safe use of controlled substances. The INCB's ill-conceived obsession with intravenousaddiction as a crime flies in the face of the medical view and policies of the World Health Organization and the universally endorsed principles of the General Assembly of the United Nations. The latest target of the INCB is North America's only supervised injection facility, Insite, located in the inner city of Vancouver, Canada. Using the power of their office to meddle in matters of public health for individual nations is without medical, scientific or legal justification. But, most importantly, it is a matter of lifeand death for these most marginalized of citizens. The empirical evidence remains that a significant portion of the continued growth of the AIDS pandemic is due to injecting drug use, and the INCB's intrusion will inevitably result in additional deaths due to preventable HIV infections and drug overdoses. So we are very pleased to call to our readers' attention to a recent report produced by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the

  2. Do Minimum Wages Fight Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark; William Wascher

    1997-01-01

    The primary goal of a national minimum wage floor is to raise the incomes of poor or near-poor families with members in the work force. However, estimates of employment effects of minimum wages tell us little about whether minimum wages are can achieve this goal; even if the disemployment effects of minimum wages are modest, minimum wage increases could result in net income losses for poor families. We present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes from matched March CPS s...

  3. Internal Control of Derivatives Usage by Spanish Savings Banks: An Empirical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernández-Laviada

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Global derivatives activity continues to expand although they have provided some of the most devastating financial disasters. The debate on their regulation has always been present and is still unresolved. However, without undervaluing the importance of regulation and the usefulness of an adequate external control, a sound internal control system is essential to prevent new financial scandals. First of all, this paper, through the review of existing recommendations, rules, regulation and academic literature, studies and analyses the need and importance of internal control in derivative usage for risk management. And secondly, through a questionnaire about established policies, procedures and internal controls, it provides evidence related to its usage and control by Spanish savings banks.El uso de los derivados sigue en expansión a pesar de haber ocasionado alguno de los mayoresescándalos financieros.El debate sobre su regulación, todavía sin resolver, ha estado siempre presente. No obstante,y sin menospreciar la importancia de la regulación y la utilidad de un adecuado controlexterno, un buen sistema de control interno es esencial para prevenir nuevos desastres.Este trabajo, en primer lugar, a través de la revisión de las recomendaciones, normas,regulación y literatura académica existente, estudia y analiza la necesidad e importancia delcontrol interno en el uso de los derivados para la gestión del riesgo. Y en segundo lugar, através de un cuestionario sobre las políticas, procedimientos y controles internos establecidos,aporta evidencia sobre el uso y control de los mismos por las cajas de ahorros españolas.

  4. Potential International Approaches to Ownership/Control of Human Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    In its governance activities for genetic resources, the international community has adopted various approaches to their ownership, including: free access; common heritage of mankind; intellectual property rights; and state sovereign rights. They have also created systems which combine elements of these approaches. While governance of plant and animal genetic resources is well-established internationally, there has not yet been a clear approach selected for human genetic resources. Based on assessment of the goals which international governance of human genetic resources ought to serve, and the implications for how they will be accessed and utilised, it is argued that common heritage of mankind will be the most appropriate approach to adopt to their ownership/control. It does this with the aim of stimulating discussion in this area and providing a starting point for deeper consideration of how a common heritage of mankind, or similar, regime for human genetic resources would function and be implemented.

  5. China's position in negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revised International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y

    2014-02-01

    This paper examines China's position in the negotiations of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revised International Health Regulations. In particular, it explores three sets of factors shaping China's attitudes and actions in the negotiations: the aspiration to be a responsible power; concerns about sovereignty; and domestic political economy. In both cases, China demonstrated strong incentives to participate in the negotiation of legally binding international rules. Still, the sovereignty issue was a major, if not the biggest, concern for China when engaging in global health rule making. The two cases also reveal domestic political economy as an important factor in shaping China's position in international health negotiations. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Resource allocation analysis for international cooperation program for HIV/AIDS prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Xue, Hui; Liu, Hui; Guo, Hao-yan; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Jiang-ping

    2008-12-01

    To provide evidence for resource allocation and cooperation between domestic and international HIV/AIDS programs in China by analyzing the needs and current levels of resource input in provinces. National and provincial international cooperation program investment and allocation data from 2000 to 2006 were collected. Several factors in each province were analyzed through multiple regression analysis in order to determine whether they had a statistical correlation to the distribution of international HIV/AIDS program resources in China, including: the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the number of accumulated people living with HIV/AIDS, and the number of accumulated people living with AIDS. Then the Z values were calculated at each provincial level and compared with related international investment. The resource allocation in different program areas were compared with the level of resource input by international and central government HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs through Chi-square test. The international cooperation program investment at local level from 2000 to 2006 were 4893, 24 669, 50 567, 52 950, 112 143, 363 396 and 247 045 thousand RMB respectively, and at national level were 3007, 19 726, 29 035, 37 530, 77 500, 105 786 and 77 035 thousand RMB respectively. There was a statistical correlation between international HIV/AIDS program resource input and the accumulated number of people living with AIDS (R is 0.56 and 0.69 accordingly, and P invest in each province according to its practical needs (R = 0.066, P = 0.725). The international cooperation program investments and needs in different province could not meet completely. The ranks of Z value in Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu were 3, 5 and 6, but the ranks of international cooperation program in those provinces were 18, 13 and 28 respectively. The investment proportion for national investment in surveillance and testing, advocacy education and intervention, care and support, and others were 22

  7. Development of a versatile and stable internal control system for RT-qPCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Eva; Wölfel, Roman

    2014-11-01

    RT-qPCR, an established method for the detection of RNA viruses, requires internal RNA controls for the correct interpretation of PCR results. Robust and versatile RT-PCR controls can be achieved for example by packaging RNA into a virus-derived protein shell. In this study a MS2-based internal control system was developed, that allows stable and universal packing of different RNAs into non-infectious, non-lytic MS2-based viral like particles (VLPs). Two competitive internal controls for a hantavirus assay and a Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) assay were cloned for the expression of VLPs. The expression of VLPs containing the RNA of interest could be induced with arabinose in Escherichia coli. The VLPs proved to be temperature resistant and could be frozen and thawed several times without degradation. Distinction of IC RNA from the target RNA was facilitated by a clear shift in the melting temperature or by specific hybridization signals. Furthermore, target and IC PCR amplification could be easily distinguished by their size in gel-electrophoretic analyses. Limits of detection were determined, demonstrating that the application of the IC did not reduce the sensitivity of the target RT-qPCR reactions. The system can be adapted to nearly any required sequence, resulting in a highly flexible method with broad range applications.

  8. Cultural Challenges Faced by American Mission Control Personnel Working with International Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples. METHODS: Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers. All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. RESULTS: The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. DISCUSSION: Although specific to American ISS personnel, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research on other populations. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future mission control personnel working in international or multicultural mission operations teams.

  9. Early control of distal internal carotid artery during carotid endarterectomy: does it reduce cerebral microemboli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommertz, G; Das, M; Langer, S; Koeppel, T A; Krings, T; Mess, W H; Schiefer, J; Jacobs, M J

    2010-06-01

    According to the results of the large trials on carotid endarterectomy (CEA), this type of surgery is only warranted if perioperative mortality and morbidity are kept considerably low. Less attention has been paid to methods of cerebral protection during CEA, although intraoperative transcranial Doppler (TCD) can visualise intracerebral microemboli (MES) during routine carotid dissection, although MES occur throughout the CEA, only those during dissection are related to neurological outcome. Prevention of MES by means of early control of the distal internal carotid artery dislodging from the carotid artery plaque during dissection is very likely the mechanism behind an eventual benefit from this approach. Hence, the amount of MES might serve as a surrogate parameter for the risk of periprocedural neurological events. So, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether early control of the distal carotid artery during CEA is capable of reducing the number of MES by means of a prospective randomised trial. Twenty-eight patients (29 procedures) could be prospectively included in our study. Before surgery we randomly assigned the patients to two groups: group A (N.=12): CEA by means of early control of the distal internal carotid artery; group B (N.=17): CEA with dissection of the total carotid bifurcation before clamping the arteries. Periprocedurally, we continuously monitored the cerebral blood flow in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery by means of TCD. Pre- and postoperative morbidity were independently verified by a neurologist control of the distal internal carotid artery did not reduce the occurrence of MES during dissection of the carotid bifurcation. Also, the total number of MES throughout the procedure and postoperatively was comparable between both groups. The procedure related times as well as the clinical outcome did not differ significantly. Thus, early control of the distal internal carotid artery has got no advantage but also no disadvantage

  10. Minnowbrook VI: 2009 Workshop on Flow Physics and Control for Internal and External Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGraff, John E.; Povinelli, Louis A.; Gostelow, J. Paul; Glauser, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Topics covered include: Flow Physics and control for Internal and External Aerodynamics (not in TOC...starts on pg13); Breaking CFD Bottlenecks in Gas-Turbine Flow-Path Design; Streamwise Vortices on the Convex Surfaces of Circular Cylinders and Turbomachinery Blading; DNS and Embedded DNS as Tools for Investigating Unsteady Heat Transfer Phenomena in Turbines; Cavitation, Flow Structure and Turbulence in the Tip Region of a Rotor Blade; Development and Application of Plasma Actuators for Active Control of High-Speed and High Reynolds Number Flows; Active Flow Control of Lifting Surface With Flap-Current Activities and Future Directions; Closed-Loop Control of Vortex Formation in Separated Flows; Global Instability on Laminar Separation Bubbles-Revisited; Very Large-Scale Motions in Smooth and Rough Wall Boundary Layers; Instability of a Supersonic Boundary-Layer With Localized Roughness; Active Control of Open Cavities; Amplitude Scaling of Active Separation Control; U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Need for Flow Physics and Control With Applications Involving Aero-Optics and Weapon Bay Cavities; Some Issues Related to Integrating Active Flow Control With Flight Control; Active Flow Control Strategies Using Surface Pressure Measurements; Reduction of Unsteady Forcing in a Vaned, Contra-Rotating Transonic Turbine Configuration; Active Flow Control Stator With Coanda Surface; Controlling Separation in Turbomachines; Flow Control on Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoils Using Vortex Generator Jets; Reduced Order Modeling Incompressible Flows; Study and Control of Flow Past Disk, and Circular and Rectangular Cylinders Aligned in the Flow; Periodic Forcing of a Turbulent Axisymmetric Wake; Control of Vortex Breakdown in Critical Swirl Regime Using Azimuthal Forcing; External and Turbomachinery Flow Control Working Group; Boundary Layers, Transitions and Separation; Efficiency Considerations in Low Pressure Turbines; Summary of Conference; and Final Plenary Session

  11. 26 CFR 11.410(b)-1 - Minimum coverage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum coverage requirements. 11.410(b)-1 Section 11.410(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT...

  12. Informing efficient randomised controlled trials: exploration of challenges in developing progression criteria for internal pilot studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Paula R; Gamble, Carrol; O'Connell Francischetto, Elaine; Metcalfe, Chris; Davidson, Peter; Williams, Hywel; Blazeby, Jane M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Designing studies with an internal pilot phase may optimise the use of pilot work to inform more efficient randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Careful selection of preagreed decision or ‘progression’ criteria at the juncture between the internal pilot and main trial phases provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the likely success of the main trial and optimise its design or, if necessary, to make the decision not to proceed with the main trial. Guidance on the appropriate selection and application of progression criteria is, however, lacking. This paper outlines the key issues to consider in the optimal development and review of operational progression criteria for RCTs with an internal pilot phase. Design A structured literature review and exploration of stakeholders' opinions at a Medical Research Council (MRC) Hubs for Trials Methodology Research workshop. Key stakeholders included triallists, methodologists, statisticians and funders. Results There is considerable variation in the use of progression criteria for RCTs with an internal pilot phase, although 3 common issues predominate: trial recruitment, protocol adherence and outcome data. Detailed and systematic reporting around the decision-making process for stopping, amending or proceeding to a main trial is uncommon, which may hamper understanding in the research community about the appropriate and optimal use of RCTs with an internal pilot phase. 10 top tips for the development, use and reporting of progression criteria for internal pilot studies are presented. Conclusions Systematic and transparent reporting of the design, results and evaluation of internal pilot trials in the literature should be encouraged in order to facilitate understanding in the research community and to inform future trials. PMID:28213598

  13. Global robust output regulation control for cascaded nonlinear systems using the internal model principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiang-Bo; Zhao, Yan; Wu, Yu-Qiang

    2014-04-01

    This article considers the global robust output regulation problem via output feedback for a class of cascaded nonlinear systems with input-to-state stable inverse dynamics. The system uncertainties depend not only on the measured output but also all the unmeasurable states. By introducing an internal model, the output regulation problem is converted into a stabilisation problem for an appropriately augmented system. The designed dynamic controller could achieve the global asymptotic tracking control for a class of time-varying reference signals for the system output while keeping all other closed-loop signals bounded. It is of interest to note that the developed control approach can be applied to the speed tracking control of the fan speed control system. The simulation results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  14. 12th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Gusikhin, Oleg; Madani, Kurosh; Sasiadek, Jurek

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the 11th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (ICINCO 2014), held in Vienna, Austria, from 1 to 3 September 2014. The conference brought together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested in the application of informatics to Control, Automation and Robotics. Four simultaneous tracks will be held, covering Intelligent Control Systems, Optimization, Robotics, Automation, Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modelling and Control, and Industrial Engineering, Production and Management. Informatics applications are pervasive in many areas of Control, Automation and Robotics. ICINCO 2014 received 301 submissions, from 49 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 20% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, ba...

  15. 12th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Madani, Kurosh; Gusikhin, Oleg; Sasiadek, Jurek

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the 12th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (ICINCO 2015), held in Colmar, France, from 21 to 23 July 2015. The conference brought together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested in the application of informatics to Control, Automation and Robotics. Four simultaneous tracks will be held, covering Intelligent Control Systems, Optimization, Robotics, Automation, Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modelling and Control, and Industrial Engineering, Production and Management. Informatics applications are pervasive in many areas of Control, Automation and Robotics. ICINCO 2015 received 214 submissions, from 42 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 14% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, based ...

  16. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  17. Electrostatic Suspension System Nonlinear Character Analysis and Its Internal Model Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinearity is an important characteristic in electrostatic suspension system (ESS). This paper concludes the nonlinear parts in ESS, which generally result from the relationships between rotor displacement and capacitance, rotor displacement and electrostatic force, and control voltage and electrostatic force. In terms of the nonlinearities, a new control method with modified internal model control (IMC) was proposed to analyze the ESS, deduce the transfer function of the modified IMC controller in ESS, and simulate this new application in ESS. Comparing with proportional integral derivative (PID)control, IMC has only a parameter, and has better performance. As a result, IMC solves nonlinearity error well in ESS with only one uncertain parameter, and performs well when the rotor has large displacement.

  18. Simulation and Development of Internal Model Control Applications in the Bayer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombé, Ph.; Dablainville, R.; Vacarisas, J.

    Traditional PID feedback control system is limited in its use in the Bayer cycle due to the important and omnipresent time delays which can lead to stability problems and sluggish response. Advanced modern control techniques are available, but suffer in an industrial environment from a lack of simplicity and robustness. In this respect the Internal Model Control (IMC) method may be considered as an exception. After a brief review of the basic theoretical principles behind IMC, an IMC scheme is developed to work with single-input, single-output, discrete-time, nonlinear systems. Two applications of IMC in the Bayer process, both in simulations and on industrial plants, are then described: control of the caustic soda concentration of the aluminate liquor and control of the A12O3/Na20 caust. ratio of the digested slurry, Finally, the results obtained make this technique quite attractive for the alumina industry.

  19. Compact vibration isolation and suspension for Australian International Gravitational Observatory: local control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jean-Charles; Barriga, Pablo; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David G

    2009-11-01

    High performance vibration isolators are required for ground based gravitational wave detectors. To attain very high performance at low frequencies we have developed multistage isolators for the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory detector in Australia. New concepts in vibration isolation including self-damping, Euler springs, LaCoste springs, Roberts linkages, and double preisolation require novel sensors and actuators. Double preisolation enables internal feedback to be used to suppress low frequency seismic noise. Multidegree of freedom control systems are required to attain high performance. Here we describe the control components and control systems used to control all degrees of freedom. Feedback forces are injected at the preisolation stages and at the penultimate suspension stage. There is no direct actuation on test masses. A digital local control system hosted on a digital signal processor maintains alignment and position, corrects drifts, and damps the low frequency linear and torsional modes without exciting the very high Q-factor test mass suspension. The control system maintains an optical cavity locked to a laser with a high duty cycle even in the absence of an autoalignment system. An accompanying paper presents the mechanics of the system, and the optical cavity used to determine isolation performance. A feedback method is presented, which is expected to improve the residual motion at 1 Hz by more than one order of magnitude.

  20. Minimum wages, earnings, and migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boffy-Ramirez, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    Does increasing a state’s minimum wage induce migration into the state? Previous literature has shown mobility in response to welfare benefit differentials across states, yet few have examined the minimum wage as a cause of mobility...

  1. Pengaruh Locus Of Control terhadap Kinerja dan Kepuasan Kerja Internal Auditor dengan Tri Hita Karana sebagai Variabel Moderasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Adi Kurniawan Saputra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effect of Locus of Control on Performance and Auditor internal Work Satisfaction with Tri Hita Karana Local Culture as Moderating Variable. This study aims to determine the effect of Locus of Control on performance and job satisfaction of internal auditors star hotels in Bali, as well as local culture Tri Hita Karana as a moderation of this influence. There were 62 internal auditors of star hotels involved in this research. The results of this study indicate a significant influence between Locus of Control on performance and job satisfaction of internal auditors with the local culture Tri Hita Karana as a variable moderation.

  2. Development of PCR internal controls for DNA profiling with the AmpFℓSTR® SGM Plus® amplification kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathalie, Zahra; Hadi, Sibte; Goodwin, William

    2012-09-01

    Forensic DNA profiling uses a series of commercial kits that co-amplify several loci in one reaction; the products of the PCR are fluorescently labelled and analysed using CE. Before CE, an aliquot of the PCR is mixed with formamide and an internal lane size standard. Using the SGM Plus amplification kit, we have developed two internal non-amplified controls of 80 bp and 380 bp that are labelled with ROX fluorescent dye and added to the PCR. Combined with two internal amplification controls of 90 bp and 410 bp, they provide additional controls for the PCR, electrokinetic injection, and CE and also function as an internal size standard.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo

    2002-07-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Capsicum sp. extracts and pure compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against MIC causing bacteria. Studies on the ability of these compounds to dissociate biofilm from the substratum were conducted using microtiter plate assays. Tests using laboratory scale pipeline simulators continued. Preliminary results showed that the natural extracts possess strong antimicrobial activity being comparable to or even better than the pure compounds tested against strains of sulfate reducers. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations had been determined. It was also found that they possess bactericidal properties at minimal concentrations. Biofilm dissociation activity as assessed by microtiter plate assays demonstrated varying degrees of differences between the treated and untreated group with the superior performance of the extracts over pure compounds. Such is an indication of the possible benefits that could be obtained from these natural products. Confirmatory experiments are underway.

  4. An Analysis of Internal Controls for DoD Contract Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ensure auditability in contract management , the DOD needs to have effective internal controls (Rendon & Rendon, 2015). B. PURPOSE OF RESEARCH The...they have the appropriate workforce and contract management processes to manage these areas mentioned effectively and must provide verification that...performance, and quality. One quantitative way that performance is measured is by utilizing earned value management (EVM). Earned value management is a

  5. Method and systems for power control of internal combustion engines using individual cycle cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorenko, Y.; Korzhov, M.; Filippov, A.; Atamanenko, N.

    1996-09-01

    A new method of controlling power has been developed for improving efficiency and emissions performance of internal combustion engines at partial load. The method involves cutting-off some of the work cycles, as the load decreases, to obtain required power. Theoretical and experimental material is presented to illustrate the underlying principle, the implementation means and the results for the 4- and 8-cylinder piston engine and a twin rotor Wankel engine applications.

  6. History of the Internal Control System at the Association of Organic Cacao Farmers (APKO) in Pidie

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyadi, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Plenty of Activities, but Limited Funding and Reliable Resources. Another big problem faced by ICS is weeds and diseases that attack cacao trees. The farmers are not used to the organic farming practice of mechanical or manual weeding, instead of using herbicides. The farmers are also eager to apply chemicals to control cacao plant diseases. It requires constant monitoring of ICS staff, who must continually inform the cooperative of internal problems, verbally or in writing, in every meeting.

  7. Update in the methodology of the chronic stress paradigm: internal control matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Tatyana; Couch, Yvonne; Kholod, Natalia; Boyks, Marco; Malin, Dmitry; Leprince, Pierre; Steinbusch, Harry Mw

    2011-04-27

    To date, the reliability of induction of a depressive-like state using chronic stress models is confronted by many methodological limitations. We believe that the modifications to the stress paradigm in mice proposed herein allow some of these limitations to be overcome. Here, we discuss a variant of the standard stress paradigm, which results in anhedonia. This anhedonic state was defined by a decrease in sucrose preference that was not exhibited by all animals. As such, we propose the use of non-anhedonic, stressed mice as an internal control in experimental mouse models of depression. The application of an internal control for the effects of stress, along with optimized behavioural testing, can enable the analysis of biological correlates of stress-induced anhedonia versus the consequences of stress alone in a chronic-stress depression model. This is illustrated, for instance, by distinct physiological and molecular profiles in anhedonic and non-anhedonic groups subjected to stress. These results argue for the use of a subgroup of individuals who are negative for the induction of a depressive phenotype during experimental paradigms of depression as an internal control, for more refined modeling of this disorder in animals.

  8. Management of Internal Control%浅谈内部控制的管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇

    2011-01-01

    Now the problems in internal control of domestic enterprises are accounting information distortion,imperfect systems,frequent violation of disciplines,and imperfect evaluation mechanism on managers,etc.Hence,the enterprises should establish a better internal control environment,clarify the division of recording and safekeeping assets,take effective measures to guarantee completeness and correctness of accounting document and record,build physical inventory and stock-taking system,and increase power supervision.Through efforts and cooperation of all aspects,we can increase the level of internal control and enterprise management.%目前,国内企业内部控制存在的问题,主要是会计信息失真,制度不完善,违法违纪现象时常发生,考核企业干部机制不完善等。企业应建立一个良好的内部控制环境,明确资产记录与保管的分工,采取有效措施确保会计凭证和会计记录的完整性和正确性,建立财产清查盘点制度,加强权力监督。通过多方努力,形成合力,从而提升内部控制水平,进而提高企业管理水平。

  9. 77 FR 11136 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; a Multi-Center International Hospital-Based Case-Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... International Hospital-Based Case-Control Study of Lymphoma in Asia (AsiaLymph) (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title: A Multi-Center International Hospital- Based Case-Control Study of Lymphoma in Asia (AsiaLymph) (NCI). Type...

  10. Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Effects Involving an Expert System Designed as a Learning Tool for Internal Control Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenard, Mary Jane

    2003-01-01

    The assessment of internal control is a consideration in all financial statement audits, as stressed by the Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 78. According to this statement, "the auditor should obtain an understanding of internal control sufficient to plan the audit" (Accounting Standards Board, 1995, p. 1). Therefore, an…

  11. 17 CFR 210.2-02T - Accountants' reports and attestation reports on internal control over financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountants' reports and attestation reports on internal control over financial reporting. 210.2-02T Section 210.2-02T Commodity and... attestation reports on internal control over financial reporting. (a) The requirements of § 210.2-02(f)...

  12. Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Effects Involving an Expert System Designed as a Learning Tool for Internal Control Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenard, Mary Jane

    2003-01-01

    The assessment of internal control is a consideration in all financial statement audits, as stressed by the Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 78. According to this statement, "the auditor should obtain an understanding of internal control sufficient to plan the audit" (Accounting Standards Board, 1995, p. 1). Therefore, an…

  13. Does audit quality influence the relation between earnings management and internal control weakness in the post - SOX period?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenstein, J.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Kalantonis, P.; Kaldis, P.

    2013-01-01

    Material weaknesses in the internal control system of a company create more opportunities for managers to engage in opportunistic earnings management. In this study the authors investigate the relation between earnings management and disclosed material weaknesses in the internal controls, both under

  14. Does audit quality influence the relation between earnings management and internal control weakness in the post - SOX period?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenstein, J.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Kalantonis, P.; Kaldis, P.

    2013-01-01

    Material weaknesses in the internal control system of a company create more opportunities for managers to engage in opportunistic earnings management. In this study the authors investigate the relation between earnings management and disclosed material weaknesses in the internal controls, both under

  15. Internal voltage control of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells: Feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the feasibility of internal voltage regulation of fuel cell systems. Two methods were tested. In one, reactant partial pressure was used as the voltage control parameter and in the other reactant total pressure was used for control. Both techniques were breadboarded and tested on a single alkaline-electrolyte fuel cell. Both methods were found to be possible forms of regulation, however, of the two the total pressure technique would be more efficient, simpler to apply and would provide better transient characteristics.

  16. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship: lessons for international surveillance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, C M; McCann, B; Syed, Q; Christie, P; Joseph, C; Colligan, J; McGaffin, A

    2003-06-01

    A sporadic case of Legionnaires' disease was linked to travel on a cruise ship. Investigation identified two further cases of Legionnaires' Disease and one case of non-pneumonic Legionella infection. An Incident Team confirmed the source to be the ship's water system and control measures were instituted that included pasteurisation, super chlorination and chlorine dioxide dosing. The Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC), through the European Surveillance Scheme for Travel Associated Legionnaires' Disease, identified three previous cases associated with the same ship's water system including one fatality. Lessons for the international surveillance and control of Legionnaires' disease on cruise ships are discussed.

  17. The internal representation of head orientation differs for conscious perception and balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Brian H; Rasman, Brandon G; Inglis, J Timothy; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-04-15

    We tested perceived head-on-feet orientation and the direction of vestibular-evoked balance responses in passively and actively held head-turned postures. The direction of vestibular-evoked balance responses was not aligned with perceived head-on-feet orientation while maintaining prolonged passively held head-turned postures. Furthermore, static visual cues of head-on-feet orientation did not update the estimate of head posture for the balance controller. A prolonged actively held head-turned posture did not elicit a rotation in the direction of the vestibular-evoked balance response despite a significant rotation in perceived angular head posture. It is proposed that conscious perception of head posture and the transformation of vestibular signals for standing balance relying on this head posture are not dependent on the same internal representation. Rather, the balance system may operate under its own sensorimotor principles, which are partly independent from perception. Vestibular signals used for balance control must be integrated with other sensorimotor cues to allow transformation of descending signals according to an internal representation of body configuration. We explored two alternative models of sensorimotor integration that propose (1) a single internal representation of head-on-feet orientation is responsible for perceived postural orientation and standing balance or (2) conscious perception and balance control are driven by separate internal representations. During three experiments, participants stood quietly while passively or actively maintaining a prolonged head-turned posture (>10 min). Throughout the trials, participants intermittently reported their perceived head angular position, and subsequently electrical vestibular stimuli were delivered to elicit whole-body balance responses. Visual recalibration of head-on-feet posture was used to determine whether static visual cues are used to update the internal representation of body configuration

  18. Modeling and temperature regulation of a thermally coupled reactor system via internal model control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.; Coronella, C.J.; Bhadkamkar, A.S.; Seader, J.D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering

    1993-12-01

    A two-stage, thermally coupled fluidized-bed reactor system has been developed for energy-efficient conversion of tar-sand bitumen to synthetic crude oil. Modeling and temperature control of a system are addressed in this study. A process model and transfer function are determined by a transient response technique and the reactor temperature are controlled by PI controllers with tuning settings determined by an internal model control (IMC) strategy. Using the IMC tuning method, sufficiently good control performance was experimentally observed without lengthy on-line tuning. It is shown that IMC strategy provides a means to directly use process knowledge to make a control decision. Although this control method allows for fine tuning by adjusting a single tuning parameter, it is not easy to determine the optimal value of this tuning parameter, which must be specified by the user. A novel method is presented to evaluate that parameter, which must be specified by the user. A novel method is presented to evaluate that parameter in this study. It was selected based on the magnitude of elements on the off-diagonal of the relative gain array to account for the effect of thermal coupling on control performance. It is shown that this method provides stable and fast control of reactor temperatures. By successfully decoupling the system, a simple method of extending the IMC tuning technique to multiinput/multioutput systems is obtained.

  19. Minimum short-circuit ratios for grid interconnection of wind farms with induction generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginatto, Romeu; Rocha, Carlos [Western Parana State University (UNIOESTE), Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil). Center for Engineering and Exact Sciences], Emails: romeu@unioeste.br, croberto@unioeste.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper concerns the problem of determining the minimum value for the short-circuit ratio which is adequate for the interconnection of a given wind farms to a given grid point. First, a set of 3 criteria is defined in order to characterize the quality/safety of the interconnection: acceptable terminal voltage variations, a minimum active power margin, and an acceptable range for the internal voltage angle. Then, the minimum short circuit ratio requirement is determined for 6 different induction generator based wind turbines, both fixed-speed (with and without reactive power compensation) and variable-speed (with the following control policies: reactive power, power factor, and terminal voltage regulation). The minimum short-circuit ratio is determined and shown in graphical results for the 6 wind turbines considered, for X/R in the range 0-15, also analyzing the effect of more/less stringent tolerances for the interconnection criteria. It is observed that the tighter the tolerances the larger the minimum short-circuit ratio required. For the same tolerances in the interconnection criteria, a comparison of the minimum short circuit ratio required for the interconnection of both squirrel-cage and doubly-fed induction generators is presented, showing that the last requires much smaller values for the short-circuit ratio. (author)

  20. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION IN BANKS - KEY ELEMENTS OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM #8211; AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS BETWEEN ROMANIAN, AMERICAN AND CANADIAN MODELS OF CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bota-Avram Cristina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to focus on one of the most important aspect of the internal control in banking system #8211; information and communication - trying to identify on which of the two well-known international models of control (COSO or CoCo i

  1. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  2. Duffing revisited: Phase-shift control and internal resonance in self-sustained oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Arroyo, Sebastián I

    2014-01-01

    We address two aspects of the dynamics of the forced Duffing oscillator which are relevant to the technology of micromechanical devices and, at the same time, disclose new effects of nonlinearities on oscillating systems. First, we study the stability of periodic motion when the phase shift between the external force and the oscillation is controlled -contrary to the standard case, where the control parameter is the frequency of the force. Phase-shift control is the operational configuration under which self-sustained oscillators -and, in particular, micromechanical oscillators- provide a frequency reference useful for time keeping. We show that, contrary to the standard forced Duffing oscillator, under phase-shift control oscillations are stable over the whole resonance curve. Second, we analyze a model for the internal resonance between the main Duffing oscillation mode and a higher-harmonic mode of a vibrating solid bar clamped at its two ends. We focus on the stabilization of the oscillation frequency whe...

  3. Report of the international workshop on quality control of monthly climate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), the US Department of Energy`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) cosponsored an international quality control workshop for monthly climate data, October 5--6, 1993, at NCDC. About 40 scientists from around the world participated. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss and compare various quality control methods and to draft recommendations concerning the most successful systems. The near-term goal to improve quality control of CLIMAT messages for the NCDC/WMO publication Monthly Climatic Data for the World was sucessfully met. An electronic bulletin board was established to post errors and corrections. Improved communications among Global Telecommunication System hubs will be implemented. Advanced quality control algorithms were discussed and improvements were suggested. Further data exchanges were arranged.

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of mini-satellite respinup by weak internal controllable torques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somov, Yevgeny, E-mail: e-somov@mail.ru [Samara State Technical University, Department for Guidance, Navigation and Control, 244 Molodogvardeyskaya Str., Samara 443100 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-10

    Contemporary space engineering advanced new problem before theoretical mechanics and motion control theory: a spacecraft directed respinup by the weak restricted control internal forces. The paper presents some results on this problem, which is very actual for energy supply of information mini-satellites (for communication, geodesy, radio- and opto-electronic observation of the Earth et al.) with electro-reaction plasma thrusters and gyro moment cluster based on the reaction wheels or the control moment gyros. The solution achieved is based on the methods for synthesis of nonlinear robust control and on rigorous analytical proof for the required spacecraft rotation stability by Lyapunov function method. These results were verified by a computer simulation of strongly nonlinear oscillatory processes at respinuping of a flexible spacecraft.

  5. International Conference on Harmonisation; choice of control group and related issues in clinical trials; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-14

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "E10 Choice of Control Group and Related Issues in Clinical Trials." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance sets forth general principles that are relevant to all controlled trials and are especially pertinent to the major clinical trials intended to demonstrate drug (including biological drug) efficacy. The guidance describes the principal types of control groups and discusses their appropriateness in particular situations. The guidance is intended to assist sponsors and investigators in the choice of control groups for clinical trials.

  6. 25 CFR 542.41 - What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and count for Tier C gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Corrections to information originally recorded by the count team on soft count documentation shall be made by... shift and traced to the totals documented by the computerized system. Accounting personnel shall verify.../auditing employees. (10) The opening/closing table and marker inventory forms (if applicable) shall...

  7. 25 CFR 542.21 - What are the minimum internal control standards for drop and count for Tier A gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Corrections to information originally recorded by the count team on soft count documentation shall be made by... count team; or (ii) Totaled by shift and traced to the totals documented by the computerized system... may be performed by accounting/auditing employees. (10) The opening/closing table and marker...

  8. High throughput detection of Coxiella burnetii by real-time PCR with internal control system and automated DNA preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramme Stefanie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q-fever, a widespread zoonosis. Due to its high environmental stability and infectivity it is regarded as a category B biological weapon agent. In domestic animals infection remains either asymptomatic or presents as infertility or abortion. Clinical presentation in humans can range from mild flu-like illness to acute pneumonia and hepatitis. Endocarditis represents the most common form of chronic Q-fever. In humans serology is the gold standard for diagnosis but is inadequate for early case detection. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool in an eventual biological weapon attack or in local epidemics we developed a real-time 5'nuclease based PCR assay with an internal control system. To facilitate high-throughput an automated extraction procedure was evaluated. Results To determine the minimum number of copies that are detectable at 95% chance probit analysis was used. Limit of detection in blood was 2,881 copies/ml [95%CI, 2,188–4,745 copies/ml] with a manual extraction procedure and 4,235 copies/ml [95%CI, 3,143–7,428 copies/ml] with a fully automated extraction procedure, respectively. To demonstrate clinical application a total of 72 specimens of animal origin were compared with respect to manual and automated extraction. A strong correlation between both methods was observed rendering both methods suitable. Testing of 247 follow up specimens of animal origin from a local Q-fever epidemic rendered real-time PCR more sensitive than conventional PCR. Conclusion A sensitive and thoroughly evaluated real-time PCR was established. Its high-throughput mode may show a useful approach to rapidly screen samples in local outbreaks for other organisms relevant for humans or animals. Compared to a conventional PCR assay sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher after testing samples from a local Q-fever outbreak.

  9. Unhappy with internal corporate search? : learn tips and tricks for building a controlled vocabulary ontology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpin, Bettina Karin Schimanski; Jones, Brian S.; Bemesderfer, Joy; Ralph, Mark E.; Miller, Jennifer L

    2010-06-01

    Are your employees unhappy with internal corporate search? Frequent complaints include: too many results to sift through; results are unrelated/outdated; employees aren't sure which terms to search for. One way to improve intranet search is to implement a controlled vocabulary ontology. Employing this takes the guess work out of searching, makes search efficient and precise, educates employees about the lingo used within the corporation, and allows employees to contribute to the corpus of terms. It promotes internal corporate search to rival its superior sibling, internet search. We will cover our experiences, lessons learned, and conclusions from implementing a controlled vocabulary ontology at Sandia National Laboratories. The work focuses on construction of this ontology from the content perspective and the technical perspective. We'll discuss the following: (1) The tool we used to build a polyhierarchical taxonomy; (2) Examples of two methods of indexing the content: traditional 'back of the book' and folksonomy word-mapping; (3) Tips on how to build future search capabilities while building the basic controlled vocabulary; (4) How to implement the controlled vocabulary as an ontology that mimics Google's search suggestions; (5) Making the user experience more interactive and intuitive; and (6) Sorting suggestions based on preferred, alternate and related terms using SPARQL queries. In summary, future improvements will be presented, including permitting end-users to add, edit and remove terms, and filtering on different subject domains.

  10. Airport Casualties: Non-Admission and Return Risks at Times of Internalized/Externalized Border Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maybritt Jill Alpes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes what can happen to forced returnees upon arrival in their country of nationality. Subjective configurations of state agents in the Global South have created return risks, which in turn transform subjectivities of post-colonial citizens. The article contributes to this Special Issue by tracing repercussions of the externalization and internalization of border controls. In the case of Cameroon, these connections have resulted in the criminalization of emigration. Aspiring migrants are prosecuted if their departure projects fail to respect the entry requirements of countries in the Global North. The article is based on research conducted in Douala, Cameroon, in the form of discussions with control agents at the international airport, investigations at a prison, a review of related case law, police registers and interviews with Cameroonians returnees (November 2013–January 2014. Border controls and connected anti-fraud programs suppress family-based forms of solidarity and allow only for subjectivities rooted in state-managed forms of national identity. The article illustrates how efforts to combat fraud fuel corruption in returnees’ social networks, whereby, instead of receiving remittances, families in emigration countries have to mobilize financial resources in order to liberate returnees from police stations or prison complexes. Migration related detention of nationals in the Global South highlights the growing significance of exit controls in migration management.

  11. Control Scheme Formulation for the Production of Hydrogen on Demand to Feed an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarniel García Morales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a control strategy is presented to produce hydrogen on demand to feed an internal combustion (IC engine. For this purpose, the modeling of the IC engine fueled by gasoline blended with 10 % v/v of anhydrous ethanol (E10 and hydrogen as an additive is developed. It is considered that the hydrogen gas is produced according to the IC engine demand, and that the hydrogen gas is obtained by an alkaline electrolyzer. The gasoline–ethanol blend added into the combustion chamber is determined according to the stoichiometric ratio and the production of hydrogen gas is regulated by a proportional and integral controller (P.I.. The controller reference is varying according to the mass flow air induced into the cylinder, in order to ensure an adequate production of hydrogen gas for any operating condition of the IC engine. The main contribution of this work is the control scheme developed, through simulation, in order to produce hydrogen on demand for any operating point of an internal combustion engine fueled by an E10 blend. The simulation results showed that the use of hydrogen gas as an additive in an E10 blend decreases the E10 fuel consumption 23 % on average, and the thermal efficiency is increased approximately 2.13 % , without brake power loss in the IC engine.

  12. [Internal audit in medical laboratory: what means of control for an effective audit process?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hejl, Carine; Chianéa, Denis; Dedome, Emmanuel; Sanmartin, Nancy; Bugier, Sarah; Linard, Cyril; Foissaud, Vincent; Vest, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    To prepare the French Accreditation Committee (COFRAC) visit for initial certification of our medical laboratory, our direction evaluated its quality management system (QMS) and all its technical activities. This evaluation was performed owing an internal audit. This audit was outsourced. Auditors had an expertise in audit, a whole knowledge of biological standards and were independent. Several nonconformities were identified at that time, including a lack of control of several steps of the internal audit process. Hence, necessary corrective actions were taken in order to meet the requirements of standards, in particular, the formalization of all stages, from the audit program, to the implementation, review and follow-up of the corrective actions taken, and also the implementation of the resources needed to carry out audits in a pre-established timing. To ensure an optimum control of each step, the main concepts of risk management were applied: process approach, root cause analysis, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA). After a critical analysis of our practices, this methodology allowed us to define our "internal audit" process, then to formalize it and to follow it up, with a whole documentary system.

  13. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington.

  14. THE WORK OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC CONTACTOR WITH A MINIMUM VALUE OF THE VOLTAGE OF THE RINGS CONTROL THE ROLLING STOCK OF RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marenych

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recommendations on securing of the main contacts with normalized opening and their pressing under minimal voltage (allowed in operation in the control circuits have been developed.

  15. Popularity at Minimum Cost

    CERN Document Server

    Kavitha, Telikepalli; Nimbhorkar, Prajakta

    2010-01-01

    We consider an extension of the {\\em popular matching} problem in this paper. The input to the popular matching problem is a bipartite graph G = (A U B,E), where A is a set of people, B is a set of items, and each person a belonging to A ranks a subset of items in an order of preference, with ties allowed. The popular matching problem seeks to compute a matching M* between people and items such that there is no matching M where more people are happier with M than with M*. Such a matching M* is called a popular matching. However, there are simple instances where no popular matching exists. Here we consider the following natural extension to the above problem: associated with each item b belonging to B is a non-negative price cost(b), that is, for any item b, new copies of b can be added to the input graph by paying an amount of cost(b) per copy. When G does not admit a popular matching, the problem is to "augment" G at minimum cost such that the new graph admits a popular matching. We show that this problem is...

  16. Social Security's special minimum benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K A; Hoffmeyer, D

    Social Security's special minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) provision was enacted in 1972 to increase the adequacy of benefits for regular long-term, low-earning covered workers and their dependents or survivors. At the time, Social Security also had a regular minimum benefit provision for persons with low lifetime average earnings and their families. Concerns were rising that the low lifetime average earnings of many regular minimum beneficiaries resulted from sporadic attachment to the covered workforce rather than from low wages. The special minimum benefit was seen as a way to reward regular, low-earning workers without providing the windfalls that would have resulted from raising the regular minimum benefit to a much higher level. The regular minimum benefit was subsequently eliminated for workers reaching age 62, becoming disabled, or dying after 1981. Under current law, the special minimum benefit will phase out over time, although it is not clear from the legislative history that this was Congress's explicit intent. The phaseout results from two factors: (1) special minimum benefits are paid only if they are higher than benefits payable under the regular PIA formula, and (2) the value of the regular PIA formula, which is indexed to wages before benefit eligibility, has increased faster than that of the special minimum PIA, which is indexed to inflation. Under the Social Security Trustees' 2000 intermediate assumptions, the special minimum benefit will cease to be payable to retired workers attaining eligibility in 2013 and later. Their benefits will always be larger under the regular benefit formula. As policymakers consider Social Security solvency initiatives--particularly proposals that would reduce benefits or introduce investment risk--interest may increase in restoring some type of special minimum benefit as a targeted protection for long-term low earners. Two of the three reform proposals offered by the President's Commission to Strengthen

  17. STUDIES AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH CONCERNING THE PERFORMANCES OF THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE, CONTROLLED OVER THE POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis URICANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available the paper present how can be controlled a road vehicle through a powertrain control module, a type of ECU, programmable ECU (Electronic Control Unit, when we want to increase the performances of the engine, compared with the standard performances of the engine. The programmable ECU is a control system which replaces the ECU from the vehicle and is able to manage, better than the standard ECU, the behaviour of the spark ignition engine on increasing the performances. Sports cars need to obtain the best performances from them engine, the specific regimes at which them must function impose certain limits which will be achieved during the competition. Nowadays the vehicles designers and engineering, working for the production cars, have adopted many solutions from the race cars area, due to the advantage offered by these elements (lightweight materials, fasts responses, high speeds and system like programmable ECU. To obtain more power on the engine, we have to find and applied the best solution concerning the internal combustion processes and the consequences concerning the exhaust. This papers present who can be increased the performances of the spark ignition engine through the air-flow ratio, controlled by the programmable ECU and with the sensors help, like water temperature sensor, intake air temperature sensor, throttle position sensor, lambda sensor

  18. A New Tuning Method for Two-Degree-of-Freedom Internal Model Control under Parametric Uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juwari Purwo sutikno; Badhrulhisham Abdul aziz; Chin Sim yee; Rosbi Mamat

    2013-01-01

    Internal model control (IMC) yields very good performance for set point tracking, but gives sluggish response for disturbance rejection problem. A two-degree-of-freedom IMC (2DOF-IMC) has been developed to overcome the weakness. However, the setting of parameter becomes a complicated matter if there is an uncertainty model. The present study proposes a new tuning method for the controller. The proposed tuning method consists of three steps. Firstly, the worst case of the model uncertainty is determined. Secondly, the parameter of set point con-troller using maximum peak (Mp) criteria is specified, and finally, the parameter of the disturbance rejection con-troller using gain margin (GM) criteria is obtained. The proposed method is denoted as Mp-GM tuning method. The effectiveness of Mp-GM tuning method has evaluated and compared with IMC-controller tuning program (IMCTUNE) as bench mark. The evaluation and comparison have been done through the simulation on a number of first order plus dead time (FOPDT) and higher order processes. The FOPDT process tested includes processes with controllability ratio in the range 0.7 to 2.5. The higher processes include second order with underdamped and third order with nonminimum phase processes. Although the two of higher order processes are considered as difficult processes, the proposed Mp-GM tuning method are able to obtain the good controller parameter even under process uncertainties.

  19. Output Containment Control of Linear Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Systems Using Internal Model Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shan; Song, Yongduan; Lewis, Frank L; Davoudi, Ali

    2017-01-04

    This paper studies the output containment control of linear heterogeneous multi-agent systems, where the system dynamics and even the state dimensions can generally be different. Since the states can have different dimensions, standard results from state containment control do not apply. Therefore, the control objective is to guarantee the convergence of the output of each follower to the dynamic convex hull spanned by the outputs of leaders. This can be achieved by making certain output containment errors go to zero asymptotically. Based on this formulation, two different control protocols, namely, full-state feedback and static output-feedback, are designed based on internal model principles. Sufficient local conditions for the existence of the proposed control protocols are developed in terms of stabilizing the local followers' dynamics and satisfying a certain H∞ criterion. Unified design procedures to solve the proposed two control protocols are presented by formulation and solution of certain local state-feedback and static output-feedback problems, respectively. Numerical simulations are given to validate the proposed control protocols.

  20. Internal Thermal Control System Hose Heat Transfer Fluid Thermal Expansion Evaluation Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, P. O.; Hawk, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    During assembly of the International Space Station, the Internal Thermal Control Systems in adjacent modules are connected by jumper hoses referred to as integrated hose assemblies (IHAs). A test of an IHA has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to determine whether the pressure in an IHA filled with heat transfer fluid would exceed the maximum design pressure when subjected to elevated temperatures (up to 60 C (140 F)) that may be experienced during storage or transportation. The results of the test show that the pressure in the IHA remains below 227 kPa (33 psia) (well below the 689 kPa (100 psia) maximum design pressure) even at a temperature of 71 C (160 F), with no indication of leakage or damage to the hose. Therefore, based on the results of this test, the IHA can safely be filled with coolant prior to launch. The test and results are documented in this Technical Memorandum.