WorldWideScience

Sample records for minimize power consumption

  1. Minimal average consumption downlink base station power control strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Holtkamp H.; Auer G.; Haas H.

    2011-01-01

    We consider single cell multi-user OFDMA downlink resource allocation on a flat-fading channel such that average supply power is minimized while fulfilling a set of target rates. Available degrees of freedom are transmission power and duration. This paper extends our previous work on power optimal resource allocation in the mobile downlink by detailing the optimal power control strategy investigation and extracting fundamental characteristics of power optimal operation in cellular downlink. W...

  2. Minimization of power consumption during charging of superconducting accelerating cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban Krishna; Ziemann, Volker; Ruber, Roger; Goryashko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    The radio frequency cavities, used to accelerate charged particle beams, need to be charged to their nominal voltage after which the beam can be injected into them. The standard procedure for such cavity filling is to use a step charging profile. However, during initial stages of such a filling process a substantial amount of the total energy is wasted in reflection for superconducting cavities because of their extremely narrow bandwidth. The paper presents a novel strategy to charge cavities, which reduces total energy reflection. We use variational calculus to obtain analytical expression for the optimal charging profile. Energies, reflected and required, and generator peak power are also compared between the charging schemes and practical aspects (saturation, efficiency and gain characteristics) of power sources (tetrodes, IOTs and solid state power amplifiers) are also considered and analysed. The paper presents a methodology to successfully identify the optimal charging scheme for different power sources to minimize total energy requirement.

  3. Minimization of power consumption during charging of superconducting accelerating cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban Krishna, E-mail: anirban.bhattacharyya@physics.uu.se; Ziemann, Volker; Ruber, Roger; Goryashko, Vitaliy

    2015-11-21

    The radio frequency cavities, used to accelerate charged particle beams, need to be charged to their nominal voltage after which the beam can be injected into them. The standard procedure for such cavity filling is to use a step charging profile. However, during initial stages of such a filling process a substantial amount of the total energy is wasted in reflection for superconducting cavities because of their extremely narrow bandwidth. The paper presents a novel strategy to charge cavities, which reduces total energy reflection. We use variational calculus to obtain analytical expression for the optimal charging profile. Energies, reflected and required, and generator peak power are also compared between the charging schemes and practical aspects (saturation, efficiency and gain characteristics) of power sources (tetrodes, IOTs and solid state power amplifiers) are also considered and analysed. The paper presents a methodology to successfully identify the optimal charging scheme for different power sources to minimize total energy requirement.

  4. Minimizing the Power Consumption of Location-Based Services on Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2012-01-01

    Location-based services have to pay careful attention to their power consumption in order not to drain the batteries of mobile phones. It is not a simple task to build low power location-based services that can run for hours because such services make heavy use of many power consuming features...... of mobile phones. In this article we discuss the power consumption of location-based services and mobile phone features, survey methods for how to minimize power consumption and summarize a number of design considerations for location-based service developers....

  5. Signal Processing for a Lunar Array: Minimizing Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Larry; Simmons, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Motivation for the study is: (1) Lunar Radio Array for low frequency, high redshift Dark Ages/Epoch of Reionization observations (z =6-50, f=30-200 MHz) (2) High precision cosmological measurements of 21 cm H I line fluctuations (3) Probe universe before first star formation and provide information about the Intergalactic Medium and evolution of large scale structures (5) Does the current cosmological model accurately describe the Universe before reionization? Lunar Radio Array is for (1) Radio interferometer based on the far side of the moon (1a) Necessary for precision measurements, (1b) Shielding from earth-based and solar RFI (12) No permanent ionosphere, (2) Minimum collecting area of approximately 1 square km and brightness sensitivity 10 mK (3)Several technologies must be developed before deployment The power needed to process signals from a large array of nonsteerable elements is not prohibitive, even for the Moon, and even in current technology. Two different concepts have been proposed: (1) Dark Ages Radio Interferometer (DALI) (2)( Lunar Array for Radio Cosmology (LARC)

  6. Cognitive radio adaptation for power consumption minimization using biogeography-based optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Pei-Han; Zheng Shi-Lian; Yang Xiao-Niu; Zhao Zhi-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation is one of the key capabilities of cognitive radio, which focuses on how to adjust the radio parameters to optimize the system performance based on the knowledge of the radio environment and its capability and characteristics. In this paper, we consider the cognitive radio adaptation problem for power consumption minimization. The problem is formulated as a constrained power consumption minimization problem, and the biogeography-based optimization (BBO) is introduced to solve this optimization problem. A novel habitat suitability index (HSI) evaluation mechanism is proposed, in which both the power consumption minimization objective and the quality of services (QoS) constraints are taken into account. The results show that under different QoS requirement settings corresponding to different types of services, the algorithm can minimize power consumption while still maintaining the QoS requirements. Comparison with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and cat swarm optimization (CSO) reveals that BBO works better, especially at the early stage of the search, which means that the BBO is a better choice for real-time applications. (paper)

  7. Optimizing cutting conditions on sustainable machining of aluminum alloy to minimize power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Rusdi; Suyuti, Muhammad Arsyad; Susanto, Tri Agus

    2017-06-01

    Aluminum is widely utilized in the industrial sector. There are several advantages of aluminum, i.e. good flexibility and formability, high corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity, and high heat. Despite of these characteristics, however, pure aluminum is rarely used because of its lacks of strength. Thus, most of the aluminum used in the industrial sectors was in the form of alloy form. Sustainable machining can be considered to link with the transformation of input materials and energy/power demand into finished goods. Machining processes are responsible for environmental effects accepting to their power consumption. The cutting conditions have been optimized to minimize the cutting power, which is the power consumed for cutting. This paper presents an experimental study of sustainable machining of Al-11%Si base alloy that was operated without any cooling system to assess the capacity in reducing power consumption. The cutting force was measured and the cutting power was calculated. Both of cutting force and cutting power were analyzed and modeled by using the central composite design (CCD). The result of this study indicated that the cutting speed has an effect on machining performance and that optimum cutting conditions have to be determined, while sustainable machining can be followed in terms of minimizing power consumption and cutting force. The model developed from this study can be used for evaluation process and optimization to determine optimal cutting conditions for the performance of the whole process.

  8. Development of an Empirical Model for Optimization of Machining Parameters to Minimize Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant Garg, Girish; Garg, Suman; Sangwan, K. S.

    2018-04-01

    The manufacturing sector consumes huge energy demand and the machine tools used in this sector have very less energy efficiency. Selection of the optimum machining parameters for machine tools is significant for energy saving and for reduction of environmental emission. In this work an empirical model is developed to minimize the power consumption using response surface methodology. The experiments are performed on a lathe machine tool during the turning of AISI 6061 Aluminum with coated tungsten inserts. The relationship between the power consumption and machining parameters is adequately modeled. This model is used for formulation of minimum power consumption criterion as a function of optimal machining parameters using desirability function approach. The influence of machining parameters on the energy consumption has been found using the analysis of variance. The validation of the developed empirical model is proved using the confirmation experiments. The results indicate that the developed model is effective and has potential to be adopted by the industry for minimum power consumption of machine tools.

  9. Power allocation strategies to minimize energy consumption in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailas, Aravind

    2011-01-01

    The wide scale deployment of wireless body area networks (WBANs) hinges on designing energy efficient communication protocols to support the reliable communication as well as to prolong the network lifetime. Cooperative communications, a relatively new idea in wireless communications, offers the benefits of multi-antenna systems, thereby improving the link reliability and boosting energy efficiency. In this short paper, the advantages of resorting to cooperative communications for WBANs in terms of minimized energy consumption are investigated. Adopting an energy model that encompasses energy consumptions in the transmitter and receiver circuits, and transmitting energy per bit, it is seen that cooperative transmission can improve energy efficiency of the wireless network. In particular, the problem of optimal power allocation is studied with the constraint of targeted outage probability. Two strategies of power allocation are considered: power allocation with and without posture state information. Using analysis and simulation-based results, two key points are demonstrated: (i) allocating power to the on-body sensors making use of the posture information can reduce the total energy consumption of the WBAN; and (ii) when the channel condition is good, it is better to recruit less relays for cooperation to enhance energy efficiency.

  10. Optimization of PHEV Power Split Gear Ratio to Minimize Fuel Consumption and Operation Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhe

    A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is a vehicle powered by a combination of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor with a battery pack. The battery pack can be charged by plugging the vehicle to the electric grid and from using excess engine power. The research activity performed in this thesis focused on the development of an innovative optimization approach of PHEV Power Split Device (PSD) gear ratio with the aim to minimize the vehicle operation costs. Three research activity lines have been followed: • Activity 1: The PHEV control strategy optimization by using the Dynamic Programming (DP) and the development of PHEV rule-based control strategy based on the DP results. • Activity 2: The PHEV rule-based control strategy parameter optimization by using the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). • Activity 3: The comprehensive analysis of the single mode PHEV architecture to offer the innovative approach to optimize the PHEV PSD gear ratio.

  11. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  12. Low-Voltage Consumption Coordination for Loss Minimization and Voltage Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a strategy for minimizing active power losses in low-voltage grids, by coordinating the consumption of electric vehicles and power generation from solar panels. We show that minimizing losses, also reduces voltage variations, and illustrate how this may be employed for increasing...

  13. LTE UE Power Consumption Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Riis; Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    is based on a review of the major power consuming parts in an LTE UE radio modem. The model includes functions of UL and DL power and data rate. Measurements on a commercial LTE USB dongle were used to assign realistic power consumption values to each model parameter. Verification measurements......In this work a novel LTE user equipment (UE) power consumption model is presented. It was developed for LTE system level optimization, because it is important to understand how network settings like scheduling of resources and transmit power control affect the UE’s battery life. The proposed model...... on the dongle show that the model results in an average error of 2.6%. The measurements show that UL transmit power and DL data rate determines the overall power consumption, while UL data rate and DL receive power have smaller impact....

  14. Minimizing fuel wood consumption through the evolution of hot ston ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central objective of this paper is to minimize fuelwood consumption through evolving alternative domestic energy. Data on alternative domestic energy sources, and use fuel wood consumption during scarcity of petroleum were collected using structured questionnaires. Data on time spent to cook yam, race and beans ...

  15. Minimizing the Energy Consumption in ‎Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Saad Talib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy in Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs represents an essential factor in designing, controlling and operating the sensor networks. Minimizing the consumed energy in WSNs application is a crucial issue for the network effectiveness and efficiency in terms of lifetime, cost and operation. Number of algorithms and protocols were proposed and implemented to decrease the energy consumption. WSNs operate with battery powered sensors. Sensors batteries have not easily rechargeable even though having restricted power. Frequently the network failure occurs due to the sensors energy insufficiency. MAC protocols in WSNs achieved low duty-cycle by employing periodic sleep and wakeup. Predictive Wakeup MAC (PW-MAC protocol was made use of the asynchronous duty cycling. It reduces the consumption of the node energy by allowing the senders to predict the receiver′s wakeup times. The WSN must be applied in an efficient manner to utilize the sensor nodes and their energy to ensure efficient network throughput. Prediction of the WSN lifetime previously to its installation represents a significant concern. To ensure energy efficiency the sensors duty cycles must be adjusted appropriately to meet the network traffic demands. The energy consumed in each node due to its switching between the active and the idle states were also estimated. The sensors are assumed to be randomly deployed. This paper aims to improve the randomly deployed network lifetime by scheduling the effects of transmission, reception and sleep states on the sensor node energy consumption. Results for these states with many performance metrics were also studied and discussed

  16. Power Consumption of a MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Selkey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A MOSFET is defined as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. These electrical components are combined or integrated to form control and logic functions for laptop and desktop computers, power controls in printing devices, motor controls and are used in many other electrical circuits. All electrical devices consume electrical power based on current and voltage. For this paper we calculated the power consumption of a Toshiba 2SK3563 MOSFET during its triode mode by finding the area under the current-voltage characteristic curve.

  17. Power Minimization techniques for Networked Data Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Steven; Tang, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Our objective is to develop a mathematical model to optimize energy consumption at multiple levels in networked data centers, and develop abstract algorithms to optimize not only individual servers, but also coordinate the energy consumption of clusters of servers within a data center and across geographically distributed data centers to minimize the overall energy cost and consumption of brown energy of an enterprise. In this project, we have formulated a variety of optimization models, some stochastic others deterministic, and have obtained a variety of qualitative results on the structural properties, robustness, and scalability of the optimal policies. We have also systematically derived from these models decentralized algorithms to optimize energy efficiency, analyzed their optimality and stability properties. Finally, we have conducted preliminary numerical simulations to illustrate the behavior of these algorithms. We draw the following conclusion. First, there is a substantial opportunity to minimize both the amount and the cost of electricity consumption in a network of datacenters, by exploiting the fact that traffic load, electricity cost, and availability of renewable generation fluctuate over time and across geographical locations. Judiciously matching these stochastic processes can optimize the tradeoff between brown energy consumption, electricity cost, and response time. Second, given the stochastic nature of these three processes, real-time dynamic feedback should form the core of any optimization strategy. The key is to develop decentralized algorithms that can be implemented at different parts of the network as simple, local algorithms that coordinate through asynchronous message passing.

  18. Minimization of Distribution Grid Losses by Consumption Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Andersen, Palle; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    for coordinating consumption of electrical energy within the community, with the purpose of reducing grid loading and active power losses. For this we present a simplified model of the electrical grid, including system losses and capacity constraints. Coordination is performed in a distributed fashion, where each...... are obeyed. These objectives are enforced by coordinating consumers through nonlinear tariffs on power consumption. We present simulation test-cases, illustrating that significant reduction of active losses, can be obtained by such coordination. The distributed optimization algorithm, employs the alternating...

  19. A SDP based design of relay precoding for the power minimization of MIMO AF-relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    Relay precoding for multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks has been approached by either optimizing the efficiency performance with given power consumption constraints or minimizing the power consumption with quality-of-service (Qo

  20. PERFORMANCE OF LEAKAGE POWER MINIMIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR CMOS VLSI TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tharaneeswaran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Leakage power of CMOS VLSI Technology is a great concern. To reduce leakage power in CMOS circuits, a Leakage Power Minimiza-tion Technique (LPMT is implemented in this paper. Leakage cur-rents are monitored and compared. The Comparator kicks the charge pump to give body voltage (Vbody. Simulations of these circuits are done using TSMC 0.35µm technology with various operating temper-atures. Current steering Digital-to-Analog Converter (CSDAC is used as test core to validate the idea. The Test core (eg.8-bit CSDAC had power consumption of 347.63 mW. LPMT circuit alone consumes power of 6.3405 mW. This technique results in reduction of leakage power of 8-bit CSDAC by 5.51mW and increases the reliability of test core. Mentor Graphics ELDO and EZ-wave are used for simulations.

  1. Power consumption analysis DBD plasma ozone generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, M.; Restiwijaya, M.; Muchlisin, Z.; Arianto, F.; Susan, I. A.; Widyanto, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the consumption of energy by an ozone generator with various constructions electrodes of dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBDP) reactor has been carried out. This research was done to get the configuration of the reactor, that is capable to produce high ozone concentrations with low energy consumption. BDBP reactors were constructed by spiral- cylindrical configuration, plasma ozone was generated by high voltage AC voltage up to 25 kV and maximum frequency of 23 kHz. The reactor consists of an active electrode in the form of a spiral-shaped with variation diameter Dc, and it was made by using copper wire with diameter Dw. In this research, we variated number of loops coil windings N as well as Dc and Dw. Ozone concentrations greater when the wire's diameter Dw and the diameter of the coil windings applied was greater. We found that impedance greater will minimize the concentration of ozone, in contrary to the greater capacitance will increase the concentration of ozone. The ozone concentrations increase with augmenting of power. Maximum power is effective at DBD reactor spiral-cylinder is on the Dc = 20 mm, Dw = 1.2 mm, and the number of coil windings N = 10 loops with the resulting concentration is greater than 20 ppm and it consumes energy of 177.60 watts (paper)

  2. Energy Efficient Smartphones: Minimizing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone GPUs using DVFS Governors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Enas M.

    2013-05-15

    Modern smartphones are being designed with increasing processing power, memory capacity, network communication, and graphics performance. Although all of these features are enriching and expanding the experience of a smartphone user, they are significantly adding an overhead on the limited energy of the battery. This thesis aims at enhancing the energy efficiency of modern smartphones and increasing their battery life by minimizing the energy consumption of smartphones Graphical Processing Unit (GPU). Smartphone operating systems are becoming fully hardware-accelerated, which implies relying on the GPU power for rendering all application graphics. In addition, the GPUs installed in smartphones are becoming more and more powerful by the day. This raises an energy consumption concern. We present a novel implementation of GPU Scaling Governors, a Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) scheme implemented in the Android kernel to dynamically scale the GPU. The scheme includes four main governors: Performance, Powersave, Ondmand, and Conservative. Unlike previous studies which looked into the power efficiency of mobile GPUs only through simulation and power estimations, we have implemented our approach on a real modern smartphone GPU, and acquired actual energy measurements using an external power monitor. Our results show that the energy consumption of smartphones can be reduced up to 15% using the Conservative governor in 2D rendering mode, and up to 9% in 3D rendering mode, with minimal effect on the performance.

  3. Power Consumption Based Android Malware Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that Android platform’s sand-box mechanism prevents security protection software from accessing effective information to detect malware, this paper proposes a malicious software detection method based on power consumption. Firstly, the mobile battery consumption status information was obtained, and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM was built by using Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC. Then, the GMM was used to analyze power consumption; malicious software can be classified and detected through classification processing. Experiment results demonstrate that the function of an application and its power consumption have a close relationship, and our method can detect some typical malicious application software accurately.

  4. Power Consumption Based Android Malware Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyu Yang; Ruiwen Tang

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that Android platform’s sand-box mechanism prevents security protection software from accessing effective information to detect malware, this paper proposes a malicious software detection method based on power consumption. Firstly, the mobile battery consumption status information was obtained, and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) was built by using Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC). Then, the GMM was used to analyze power consumption; malicious software...

  5. Power Consumption Optimization for Multiple Parallel Centrifugal Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kasper Lund; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Large amounts of energy is being used in a wide range of applications to transport liquid. This paper proposes a generic solution for minimizing power consumption of a generic pumping station equipped with identical variable speed pumps. The proposed solution consists of two sequential steps; fir...

  6. Power Consumption in Refrigeration Systems - Modeling for Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Skovrup, Morten Juel

    2011-01-01

    Refrigeration systems consume a substantial amount of energy. Taking for instance supermarket refrigeration systems as an example they can account for up to 50−80% of the total energy consumption in the supermarket. Due to the thermal capacity made up by the refrigerated goods in the system...... there is a possibility for optimizing the power consumption by utilizing load shifting strategies. This paper describes the dynamics and the modeling of a vapor compression refrigeration system needed for sufficiently realistic estimation of the power consumption and its minimization. This leads to a non-convex function...... with possibly multiple extrema. Such a function can not directly be optimized by standard methods and a qualitative analysis of the system’s constraints is presented. The description of power consumption contains nonlinear terms which are approximated by linear functions in the control variables and the error...

  7. Radwaste minimization successes at Duke Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, C.D.; Johnson, G.T.; Groves, D.C.; Smith, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    At Duke Power Company, open-quotes Culture Changeclose quotes is a common term that we have used to describe the incredible transformation. We are becoming a cost conscious, customer driven, highly competitive business. Nowhere has this change been more evident then in the way we process and dispose of our solid radioactive waste. With top-down management support, we have used team-based, formalized problem solving methods and have implemented many successful waste minimization programs. Through these programs, we have dramatically increased employees' awareness of the importance of waste minimization. As a result, we have been able to reduce both our burial volumes and our waste processing and disposal costs. In June, 1994, we invited EPRI to conduct assessments of our waste minimization programs at Oconee and Catawba nuclear stations. Included in the assessments were in-depth looks at contamination control, an inventory of items in the plant, the volume of waste generated in the plant and how it was processed, laundry reject data, site waste-handling operations, and plant open-quotes housekeepingclose quotes routines and process. One of the most important aspects of the assessment is the open-quotes dumpster dive,close quotes which is an evaluation of site dry active waste composition by sorting through approximately fifteen bags of radioactive waste. Finally, there was an evaluation of consumable used at each site in order to gain knowledge of items that could be standardized at all stations. With EPRI recommendations, we made several changes and standardized the items used. We have made significant progress in waste reduction. We realize, however, that we are aiming at a moving target and we still have room for improvement. As the price of processing and disposal (or storage) increases, we will continue to evaluate our waste minimization programs

  8. Optimization for a fuel cell/battery/capacity tram with equivalent consumption minimization strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenbin; Li, Jianqiu; Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The hybridization of the fuel cell with the energy storage systems is realized for the tram. • A protype tram is tested based on an operation mode switching method. • An equivalent consumption minimization strategy is proposed and verified for optimization. - Abstract: This paper describes a hybrid tram powered by a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) stack supported by an energy storage system (ESS) composed of a Li-ion battery (LB) pack and an ultra-capacitor (UC) pack. This configuration allows the tram to operate without grid connection. The hybrid tram with its full load is tested in the CRRC Qingdao Sifang Co.; Ltd. It firstly works on the operation mode switching method (OPMS) without energy regenerative and proper power management. Therefore, an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) aimed at minimizing the hydrogen consumption is proposed to improve the characteristics of the tram. The results show that the proposed control system enhances drivability and economy, and is effective for application to this hybrid system.

  9. TARIFFS AND REGIMES OF POWER CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Batsova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regimes of electro-consumption at RUP «BMZ» is carried out. It is shown that in conditions of rapid growth of prices for electric power one of the conditions of reduction of production expenses is to be the increase of efficiency of the electro-consumption regimes control.

  10. Power consumption in multicore fibre networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Jain, Saurabh; Jung, Yongmin

    2017-01-01

    We study potential energy savings in MCF-based networks compared to SMF-based ones in a Pan-European network topology based on the power consumption of recently fabricated cladding-pumped multi-core optical fibre amplifiers....

  11. Power consumption monitoring using additional monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truşcă, M. R. C., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Albert, Ş., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Tudoran, C., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Soran, M. L., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Fărcaş, F., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Abrudean, M. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Today, emphasis is placed on reducing power consumption. Computers are large consumers; therefore it is important to know the total consumption of computing systems. Since their optimal functioning requires quite strict environmental conditions, without much variation in temperature and humidity, reducing energy consumption cannot be made without monitoring environmental parameters. Thus, the present work uses a multifunctional electric meter UPT 210 for power consumption monitoring. Two applications were developed: software which carries meter readings provided by electronic and programming facilitates remote device and a device for temperature monitoring and control. Following temperature variations that occur both in the cooling system, as well as the ambient, can reduce energy consumption. For this purpose, some air conditioning units or some computers are stopped in different time slots. These intervals were set so that the economy is high, but the work's Datacenter is not disturbed.

  12. Power consumption optimization strategy for wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Kumar, Sanjay; Marchetti, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    in order to reduce the total power consumption in a multi cellular network. We present an algorithm for power optimization under no interference and in presence of interference conditions, targeting to maximize the network capacity. The convergence of the algorithm is guaranteed if the interference...

  13. Power Consumption Optimization in Tooth Gears Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatnikov, N.; Harlamov, G.; Kanatnikova, P.; Pashmentova, A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper reviews the issue of optimization of technological process of tooth gears production of the power consumption criteria. The authors dwell on the indices used for cutting process estimation by the consumed energy criteria and their applicability in the analysis of the toothed wheel production process. The inventors proposed a method for optimization of power consumptions based on the spatial modeling of cutting pattern. The article is aimed at solving the problem of effective source management in order to achieve economical and ecological effect during the mechanical processing of toothed gears. The research was supported by Russian Science Foundation (project No. 17-79-10316).

  14. Low Power Consumption Wireless Sensor Communication System Integrated with an Energy Harvesting Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad MARSIC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the testing results of a wireless sensor communication system with low power consumption integrated with an energy harvesting power source. The experiments focus on the system’s capability to perform continuous monitoring and to wirelessly transmit the data acquired from the sensors to a user base station, for realization of completely battery-free wireless sensor system. Energy harvesting technologies together with system design optimization for power consumption minimization ensure the system’s energy autonomous capability demonstrated in this paper by presenting the promising testing results achieved following its integration with structural health monitoring and body area network applications.

  15. Coal consumption minimizing by increasing thermal energy efficiency at ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, Marius Cristian

    2006-01-01

    ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant is a large thermal energy consumer using almost all the steam output from ROMAG-TERMO Power Plant - the steam cost weight in the total heavy water price is about 40%. The steam consumption minimizing by modernization of isotopic exchange facilities and engineering development in ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant results in an corresponding decrease of coal amount burned at ROMAG-TERMO boilers. This decrease could be achieved mainly by the followings ways: - Facility wrappings integrity; - High performance heat exchangers; - Refurbished heat insulations; - Modified condenser-collecting pipeline routes; - High performance steam traps; - Heat electric wire. When coal is burned in Power Plant burners to obtain thermal energy, toxic emissions results in flue gases, such as: - CO 2 and NO x with impact on climate warming; - SO 2 which results in ozone layer thinning effect and in acid rain falls. From the value of steam output per burned coal: 1 GCal steam = 1.41 tone steam = 0.86 thermal MW = 1.1911 tones burned coal (lignite), it is obvious that by decreasing the thermal energy consumption provided for ROMAG PROD, a coal amount decrease is estimated at about 45 t/h, or about 394,200 t/year coal, which means about 10% of the current coal consumption at ROMAG-TERMO PP. At the same time, by reducing the burned coal amount, an yearly decrease in emissions into air to about 400,000 tones CO 2 is expected

  16. Minimizing energy consumption of accelerators and storage ring facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion of energy usage falls naturally into three parts. The first is a review of what the problem is, the second is a description of steps that can be taken to conserve energy at existing facilities, and the third is a review of the implications of energy consumption on future facilities

  17. A Low Power Consumption Algorithm for Efficient Energy Consumption in ZigBee Motes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquerizo-Hdez, Daniel; Muñoz, Pablo; R-Moreno, María D; F Barrero, David

    2017-09-22

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly popular since they can gather information from different locations without wires. This advantage is exploited in applications such as robotic systems, telecare, domotic or smart cities, among others. To gain independence from the electricity grid, WSNs devices are equipped with batteries, therefore their operational time is determined by the time that the batteries can power on the device. As a consequence, engineers must consider low energy consumption as a critical objective to design WSNs. Several approaches can be taken to make efficient use of energy in WSNs, for instance low-duty-cycling sensor networks (LDC-WSN). Based on the LDC-WSNs, we present LOKA, a LOw power Konsumption Algorithm to minimize WSNs energy consumption using different power modes in a sensor mote. The contribution of the work is a novel algorithm called LOKA that implements two duty-cycling mechanisms using the end-device of the ZigBee protocol (of the Application Support Sublayer) and an external microcontroller (Cortex M0+) in order to minimize the energy consumption of a delay tolerant networking. Experiments show that using LOKA, the energy required by the sensor device is reduced to half with respect to the same sensor device without using LOKA.

  18. A Low Power Consumption Algorithm for Efficient Energy Consumption in ZigBee Motes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vaquerizo-Hdez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are becoming increasingly popular since they can gather information from different locations without wires. This advantage is exploited in applications such as robotic systems, telecare, domotic or smart cities, among others. To gain independence from the electricity grid, WSNs devices are equipped with batteries, therefore their operational time is determined by the time that the batteries can power on the device. As a consequence, engineers must consider low energy consumption as a critical objective to design WSNs. Several approaches can be taken to make efficient use of energy in WSNs, for instance low-duty-cycling sensor networks (LDC-WSN. Based on the LDC-WSNs, we present LOKA, a LOw power Konsumption Algorithm to minimize WSNs energy consumption using different power modes in a sensor mote. The contribution of the work is a novel algorithm called LOKA that implements two duty-cycling mechanisms using the end-device of the ZigBee protocol (of the Application Support Sublayer and an external microcontroller (Cortex M0+ in order to minimize the energy consumption of a delay tolerant networking. Experiments show that using LOKA, the energy required by the sensor device is reduced to half with respect to the same sensor device without using LOKA.

  19. Power Consumption Analysis of Electrical Installations at Healthcare Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Guillen-Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for power consumption estimation considering harmonic and interharmonic content and then it is compared to the power consumption estimation commonly done by commercial equipment based on the fundamental frequency, and how they can underestimate the power consumption considering power quality disturbances (PQD. For this purpose, data of electrical activity at the electrical distribution boards in a healthcare facility is acquired for a long time period with proprietary equipment. An analysis in the acquired current and voltage signals is done, in order to compare the power consumption centered in the fundamental frequency with the generalized definition of power consumption. The results obtained from the comparison in the power consumption estimation show differences between 4% and 10% of underestimated power consumption. Thus, it is demonstrated that the presence of harmonic and interharmonic content provokes a significant underestimation of power consumption using only the power consumption centered at the fundamental frequency.

  20. On eco-efficient technologies to minimize industrial water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad C.; Mohammadifard, Hossein; Ghaffari, Ghasem

    2016-07-01

    Purpose - Water scarcity will further stress on available water systems and decrease the security of water in many areas. Therefore, innovative methods to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are of paramount importance in the process of extending fresh water resources and happen to be the main life support systems in many arid regions of the world. This paper demonstrates that there are good opportunities for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional with echo-friendly methods. The patented puffing method is an eco-efficient and viable technology for water saving and waste reduction in lime softening process. Design/methodology/approach - Lime softening process (LSP) is a very sensitive process to chemical reactions. In addition, optimal monitoring not only results in minimizing sludge that must be disposed of but also it reduces the operating costs of water conditioning. Weakness of the current (regular) control of LSP based on chemical analysis has been demonstrated experimentally and compared with the eco-efficient puffing method. Findings - This paper demonstrates that there is a good opportunity for many industries to save water and decrease waste water in softening process by substituting traditional method with puffing method, a patented eco-efficient technology. Originality/value - Details of the required innovative works to minimize industrial water usage and waste production are outlined in this paper. Employing the novel puffing method for monitoring of lime softening process results in saving a considerable amount of water while reducing chemical sludge.

  1. LTE RF subsystem power consumption modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musiige, Deogratius; Vincent, Laulagnet; Anton, François

    2012-01-01

    the power consumption. An analysis of modeling approaches was conducted and the modeling approach with the least sum of squared errors is used to compute the emulation model. The neural networks applying the Pseudo-Gauss Newton algorithm for optimization proved to have the least sum of squared errors....... This approach was validated against a real life scenario with a relative error of 5.77%....

  2. Energy Efficient Smartphones: Minimizing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone GPUs using DVFS Governors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Enas M.

    2013-01-01

    , they are significantly adding an overhead on the limited energy of the battery. This thesis aims at enhancing the energy efficiency of modern smartphones and increasing their battery life by minimizing the energy consumption of smartphones Graphical Processing Unit (GPU

  3. Steam consumption minimization model in a multiple evaporation effect in a sugar plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villada, Fernando; Valencia, Jaime A; Moreno, German; Murillo, J. Joaquin

    1992-01-01

    In this work, a mathematical model to minimize the steam consumption in a multiple effect evaporation system is shown. The model is based in the dynamic programming technique and the results are tested in a Colombian sugar mill

  4. A SDP based design of relay precoding for the power minimization of MIMO AF-relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei

    2015-09-11

    Relay precoding for multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks has been approached by either optimizing the efficiency performance with given power consumption constraints or minimizing the power consumption with quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. For the later type design, previous works has worked on minimizing the approximated power consumption. In this paper, exact power consumption for all relays is derived into a quadratic form by diagonalizing the minimum-square error (MSE) matrix, and the relay precoding matrix is designed by optimizing this quadratic form with the help of semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation. Our simulation results show that such a design can achieve a gain of around 3 dB against the previous design, which optimized the approximated power consumption. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. Minimization of water consumption under uncertainty for PC process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, J.; Diwekar, U.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is becoming increasingly important for the development of advanced power generation systems. As an emerging technology different process configurations have been heuristically proposed for IGCC processes. One of these schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion for the CO2 removal prior the fuel gas is fed to the gas turbine reducing its size (improving economic performance) and producing sequestration-ready CO2 (improving its cleanness potential). However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be used to obtain optimal flowsheets and designs. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). For the alternative designs, large differences in the performance parameters (for instance, the utility requirements) predictions from AEA and AP were observed, suggesting the necessity of solving the HENS problem within the AP simulation environment and avoiding the AEA simplifications. A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case.

  6. Power production and energy consumption in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The main electrical resource of Norway comes from its rivers: 99% of the electric power is produced by hydroelectric power plants. Other sources, like wind and natural gas, are envisaged for the enhancement of Norway's energy production capacity. In this document, the part devoted to power production presents the different electricity production sources and their impact on the Norwegian economy. The energy consumption is detailed in the third part with an historical review of its evolution and a description of the main sectors involved in this consumption. The forth part describes the main actors of the energy sector with their industrial structure, the research institutes and universities performing R and D in this domain, and the energy trades with surrounding countries. The fifth part stresses on the research projects, on the government promoting actions through the Norwegian Research Council, and gives some examples of todays research projects. The sixth part deals with international cooperation in the R and D domain with a particular attention given to the relations between Norway, France and Europe. (J.S.)

  7. Energy saving and consumption reducing evaluation of thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiu; Han, Miaomiao

    2018-03-01

    At present, energy saving and consumption reduction require energy saving and consumption reduction measures for thermal power plant, establishing an evaluation system for energy conservation and consumption reduction is instructive for the whole energy saving work of thermal power plant. By analysing the existing evaluation system of energy conservation and consumption reduction, this paper points out that in addition to the technical indicators of power plant, market activities should also be introduced in the evaluation of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant. Ttherefore, a new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction is set up and the example power plant is calculated in this paper. Rresults show that after introducing the new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction, the energy saving effect of the power plant can be judged more comprehensively, so as to better guide the work of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant.

  8. Model-based minimization algorithm of a supercritical helium loop consumption subject to operational constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, F.; Bonnay, P.; Girard, A.; Hoa, C.; Lacroix, B.; Le Coz, Q.; Nicollet, S.; Poncet, J.-M.; Zani, L.

    2017-12-01

    Supercritical helium loops at 4.2 K are the baseline cooling strategy of tokamaks superconducting magnets (JT-60SA, ITER, DEMO, etc.). This loops work with cryogenic circulators that force a supercritical helium flow through the superconducting magnets in order that the temperature stay below the working range all along their length. This paper shows that a supercritical helium loop associated with a saturated liquid helium bath can satisfy temperature constraints in different ways (playing on bath temperature and on the supercritical flow), but that only one is optimal from an energy point of view (every Watt consumed at 4.2 K consumes at least 220 W of electrical power). To find the optimal operational conditions, an algorithm capable of minimizing an objective function (energy consumption at 5 bar, 5 K) subject to constraints has been written. This algorithm works with a supercritical loop model realized with the Simcryogenics [2] library. This article describes the model used and the results of constrained optimization. It will be possible to see that the changes in operating point on the temperature of the magnet (e.g. in case of a change in the plasma configuration) involves large changes on the cryodistribution optimal operating point. Recommendations will be made to ensure that the energetic consumption is kept as low as possible despite the changing operating point. This work is partially supported by EUROfusion Consortium through the Euratom Research and Training Program 20142018 under Grant 633053.

  9. Advanced nuclear power plant design with minimized use of cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a nuclear power plant design with a minimum utilization of cables. The report describes the types of software and hardware that will be needed to minimize hard-wired control and instrumentation circuits and to reduce the quantity of low voltage power cables while maintaining a high availability and reliability of the plant control systems

  10. Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for the Control of Real Driving NOx Emissions of a Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the fact that the real driving NOx emissions (RDE of conventional diesel vehicles can exceed the legislation norms by far, a concept for the control of RDE with a diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV is proposed. By extending the well-known equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS, the power split degree of freedom is used to control the NOx emissions and the battery state of charge (SOC simultaneously. Through an appropriate formulation of the problem, the feedback control is shown to be separable into two dependent PI controllers. By hardware-in-the-loop (HIL experiments, as well as by simulations, the proposed method is shown to minimize the fuel consumption while tracking a given reference trajectory for both the NOx emissions and the battery SOC.

  11. FPGA Dynamic Power Minimization through Placement and Routing Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Agarwal

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are pervasive in embedded systems requiring low-power utilization. A novel power optimization methodology for reducing the dynamic power consumed by the routing of FPGA circuits by modifying the constraints applied to existing commercial tool sets is presented. The power optimization techniques influence commercial FPGA Place and Route (PAR tools by translating power goals into standard throughput and placement-based constraints. The Low-Power Intelligent Tool Environment (LITE is presented, which was developed to support the experimentation of power models and power optimization algorithms. The generated constraints seek to implement one of four power optimization approaches: slack minimization, clock tree paring, N-terminal net colocation, and area minimization. In an experimental study, we optimize dynamic power of circuits mapped into 0.12 μm Xilinx Virtex-II FPGAs. Results show that several optimization algorithms can be combined on a single design, and power is reduced by up to 19.4%, with an average power savings of 10.2%.

  12. Solid-state fast voltage compensator for pulsed power applications requiring constant AC power consumption

    CERN Document Server

    Magallanes, Francisco Cabaleiro; Viarouge, Philippe; Cros, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel topological solution for pulsed power converters based on capacitor-discharge topologies, integrating a Fast Voltage Compensator which allows an operation at constant power consumption from the utility grid. This solution has been retained as a possible candidate for the CLIC project under study at CERN, which requires more than a thousand synchronously-operated klystron modulators producing a total pulsed power of almost 40 GW. The proposed Fast Voltage Compensator is integrated in the modulator such that it only has to treat the capacitor charger current and a fraction of the charging voltage, meaning that its dimensioning power and cost are minimized. This topology can be used to improve the AC power quality of any pulsed converters based on capacitor-discharge concept. A prototype has been built and exploited to validate the operating principle and demonstrate the benefits of the proposed solution.

  13. Power Minimization for Parallel Real-Time Systems with Malleable Jobs and Homogeneous Frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Paolillo, Antonio; Goossens, Joël; Hettiarachchi, Pradeep M.; Fisher, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the potential benefit of parallelization for both meeting real-time constraints and minimizing power consumption. We consider malleable Gang scheduling of implicit-deadline sporadic tasks upon multiprocessors. By extending schedulability criteria for malleable jobs to DVFS-enabled multiprocessor platforms, we are able to derive an offline polynomial-time optimal processor/frequency-selection algorithm. Simulations of our algorithm on randomly generated task system...

  14. Model for evaluation of power consumption of vented box loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Filip Sommer; Thorsen, Søren; Iversen, Niels Elkjær

    In the design of mobile sound systems an estimation of power consumption must be made in order to choose a battery of appropriate size and cost. However poor methods for power estimation tend to result in large and costly batteries. This paper aims to present a more precise method for estimating ...... at estimating the power consumption than simplifying the speaker as a resistor....

  15. Model for evauluating power consumption of vented box loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Filip Sommer; Thorsen, Søren; Iversen, Niels Elkjær

    2017-01-01

    In the design of mobile sound systems an estimation of power consumption must be made in order to choose a battery of appropriate size and cost. However poor methods for power estimation tend to result in large and costly batteries. This paper aims to present a more precise method for estimating ...... at estimating the power consumption than simplifying the speaker as a resistor....

  16. Did the electric power consumption in Norway really go down?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Information about how the high prices in the Nordic power market have affected the power consumption in the North is important for the assessment of the ability of the power market to deal with shortage situations. The market has reacted less than expected, and some of the reduction of consumption is due to other factors than high prices. Energy intensive industry has cut its power consumption considerably, but some of this reduction is due to decline in economic activity. In the boiler market there has also been a strong reduction, but not as much as had been expected. Consumption has gone down in general, but with a considerable lag.

  17. Joint Antenna Selection and Precoding Optimization for Small-Cell Network with Minimum Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the power consumption problem for a downlink multiuser small-cell network (SCN considering both the quality of service (QoS and power constraints. First based on a practical power consumption model taking into account both the dynamic transmit power and static circuit power, we formulate and then transform the power consumption optimization problem into a convex problem by using semidefinite relaxation (SDR technique and obtain the optimal solution by the CVX tool. We further note that the SDR-based solution becomes infeasible for realistic implementation due to its heavy backhaul burden and computational complexity. To this end, we propose an alternative suboptimal algorithm which has low implementation overhead and complexity, based on minimum mean square error (MMSE precoding. Furthermore, we propose a distributed correlation-based antenna selection (DCAS algorithm combining with our optimization algorithms to reduce the static circuit power consumption for the SCN. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that our proposed suboptimal algorithm is very effective on power consumption minimization, with significantly reduced backhaul burden and computational complexity. Moreover, we show that our optimization algorithms with DCAS have less power consumption than the other benchmark algorithms.

  18. Power Play: Calculating Home Electricity Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    With both energy usage and energy costs rising rapidly, people can benefit from paying closer attention to their consumption of energy. Students can gain greater awareness of their personal use of electricity and get some excellent experience with the practical application of mathematics by studying their families' consumption of electricity. A…

  19. Optimizing Ship Speed to Minimize Total Fuel Consumption with Multiple Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Gon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the ship speed optimization problem with the objective of minimizing the total fuel consumption. We consider multiple time windows for each port call as constraints and formulate the problem as a nonlinear mixed integer program. We derive intrinsic properties of the problem and develop an exact algorithm based on the properties. Computational experiments show that the suggested algorithm is very efficient in finding an optimal solution.

  20. Absorbed Power Minimization in Cellular Users with Circular Antenna Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilakis, Vasilis; Votis, Constantinos; Tatsis, Giorgos; Raptis, Vasilis; Kostarakis, Panos

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays electromagnetic pollution of non ionizing radiation generated by cellular phones concerns millions of people. In this paper the use of circular antenna array as a means of minimizing the absorbed power by cellular phone users is introduced. In particular, the different characteristics of radiation patterns produced by a helical conventional antenna used in mobile phones operating at 900 MHz and those produced by a circular antenna array, hypothetically used in the same mobile phones, are in detail examined. Furthermore, the percentage of decrement of the power absorbed in the head as a function of direction of arrival is estimated for the circular antenna array.

  1. Waste Minimization Policy at the Romanian Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Daian, I.

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive waste management system at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Romania was designed to maintain acceptable levels of safety for workers and to protect human health and the environment from exposure to unacceptable levels of radiation. In accordance with terminology of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), this system consists of the ''pretreatment'' of solid and organic liquid radioactive waste, which may include part or all of the following activities: collection, handling, volume reduction (by an in-drum compactor, if appropriate), and storage. Gaseous and aqueous liquid wastes are managed according to the ''dilute and discharge'' strategy. Taking into account the fact that treatment/conditioning and disposal technologies are still not established, waste minimization at the source is a priority environmental management objective, while waste minimization at the disposal stage is presently just a theoretical requirement for future adopted technologies . The necessary operational and maintenance procedures are in place at Cernavoda to minimize the production and contamination of waste. Administrative and technical measures are established to minimize waste volumes. Thus, an annual environmental target of a maximum 30 m3 of radioactive waste volume arising from operation and maintenance has been established. Within the first five years of operations at Cernavoda NPP, this target has been met. The successful implementation of the waste minimization policy has been accompanied by a cost reduction while the occupational doses for plant workers have been maintained at as low as reasonably practicable levels. This paper will describe key features of the waste management system along with the actual experience that has been realized with respect to minimizing the waste volumes at the Cernavoda NPP

  2. Comparison of Preamplifiers for Low-power Consumption Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Han Soo; Lee, Kyu Hong; Choi, Hyo Jeong; Na, Teresa W.; Ha, Jang Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jong Seo [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The commonly used electronic devices in radiation detector system are the preamplifier, the amplifier, ADC, and etc. to extract the signal from the detector and to process the signal. These components are composed of semiconductor devices like BJT, MOSFET, OPAMP, and etc. Performance and power consumption of these components are various according to the composition of semiconductor devices. In this study, preamplifiers, which are composed of high efficiency semiconductor devices, are compared to design low-power consumption and high performance preamplifier. To confirm the purpose, preamplifiers are designed for low-power consumption and high gain by some OPAMP (Operational Amplifier). The comparison was performed by experimental result and design simulation

  3. Minimalism

    CERN Document Server

    Obendorf, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    The notion of Minimalism is proposed as a theoretical tool supporting a more differentiated understanding of reduction and thus forms a standpoint that allows definition of aspects of simplicity. This book traces the development of minimalism, defines the four types of minimalism in interaction design, and looks at how to apply it.

  4. LED power consumption in joint illumination and communication system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.; Wu, Y.; Khalid, A.M.; Long, X.; Linnartz, J.-P.M.G.

    This paper addresses the power penalty in an illumination LED caused by visible light communication (VLC). This study models the extra power consumption of the LED by taking into account the convex relation between the dissipated electrical power versus the LED current on one hand and the concave

  5. Minimizing Crosstalk in Self Oscillating Switch Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard

    2012-01-01

    a method to minimize this phenomenon by improving the integrity of the various power distribution systems of the amplifier. The method is then applied to an amplifier built for this investigation. The results show that the crosstalk is suppressed with 30 dB, but is not entirely eliminated......The varying switching frequencies of self oscillating switch mode audio amplifiers have been known to cause interchannel intermodulation disturbances in multi channel configurations. This crosstalk phenomenon has a negative impact on the audio performance. The goal of this paper is to present...

  6. Maximizing cellulosic ethanol potentials by minimizing wastewater generation and energy consumption: Competing with corn ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Bao, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Energy consumption and wastewater generation in cellulosic ethanol production are among the determinant factors on overall cost and technology penetration into fuel ethanol industry. This study analyzed the energy consumption and wastewater generation by the new biorefining process technology, dry acid pretreatment and biodetoxification (DryPB), as well as by the current mainstream technologies. DryPB minimizes the steam consumption to 8.63GJ and wastewater generation to 7.71tons in the core steps of biorefining process for production of one metric ton of ethanol, close to 7.83GJ and 8.33tons in corn ethanol production, respectively. The relatively higher electricity consumption is compensated by large electricity surplus from lignin residue combustion. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by DryPB is below $2/gal and falls into the range of corn ethanol production cost. The work indicates that the technical and economical gap between cellulosic ethanol and corn ethanol has been almost filled up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Smart HVAC Control in IoT: Energy Consumption Minimization with User Comfort Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serra

    2014-01-01

    of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user’s preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user’s device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost.

  8. Sound Power Minimization of Circular Plates Through Damping Layer Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, H.-W.; Lamancusa, J. S.

    1998-09-01

    Damping layers, widely used for noise and vibration control of thin-walled structures, can be designed to provide an optimal trade-off between performance and weight which is of particular importance in the automotive and aircraft industry. The goal of the presented work is the minimization of sound power radiated from plates under broadband excitation by redistribution of unconstrained damping layers. The total radiated sound power is assumed to be represented by the sound power radiated at the structural resonances. Resonance tracking is performed by means of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF)-approximations based on near-resonance responses and their frequency derivatives. Axisymmetric vibrations of circular plates under several boundary and forcing conditions are considered. Frequency dependent Young's modulus and loss factor of the damping material are taken into account. Vibration analysis is based on the finite element method (FEM) while acoustic radiation is treated by means of Rayleigh's integral formula. It is shown that, starting from a uniform damping layer distribution, substantial reduction in radiated sound power can be achieved through redistribution of the damping layers. Depending on the given situation, these reductions are not only due to amplitude reductions but also to changes in vibration shapes and frequencies.

  9. Power Loss Minimization for Transformers Connected in Parallel with Taps Based on Power Chargeability Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Jaramillo-Duque

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model and solution approach for minimizing internal power losses in Transformers Connected in Parallel (TCP with tap-changers is proposed. The model is based on power chargeability balance and seeks to keep the load voltage within an admissible range. For achieving this, tap positions are adjusted in such a way that all TCP are set in similar/same power chargeability. The main contribution of this paper is the inclusion of several construction features (rated voltage, rated power, voltage ratio, short-circuit impedance and tap steps in the minimization of power losses in TCP that are not included in previous works. A Genetic Algorithm (GA is used for solving the proposed model that is a system of nonlinear equations with discrete decision variables. The GA scans different sets for tap positions with the aim of balancing the power supplied by each transformer to the load. For this purpose, a fitness function is used for minimizing two conditions: The first condition consists on the mismatching between power chargeability for each transformer and a desired chargeability; and the second condition is the mismatching between the nominal load voltage and the load voltage obtained by changing the tap positions. The proposed method is generalized for any given number of TCP and was implemented for three TCP, demonstrating that the power losses are minimized and the load voltage remains within an admissible range.

  10. Smart HVAC control in IoT: energy consumption minimization with user comfort constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Jordi; Pubill, David; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Within this context, this paper addresses the efficient energy consumption management of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user's preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user's device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost.

  11. Design of power controller in CDMA system with power and SIR error minimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulan KONG; Huanshui ZHANG; Zhaosheng ZHANG; Hongxia WANG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an uplink power control problem is considered for code division multiple access (CDMA) systems. A distributed algorithm is proposed based on linear quadratic optimal control theory. The proposed scheme minimizes the sum of the power and the error of signal-to-interference ratio (SIR). A power controller is designed by constructing an optimization problem of a stochastic linear quadratic type in Krein space and solving a Kalman filter problem.

  12. Extending OFDM Symbols to Reduce Power Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Existing communication standards have limited capabilities to adapt to low SNR environments or to exploit low data rate requirements in a power efficient way. Existing techniques like e.g. control coding do not reduce the computational load when reducing data rates. In this paper, we introduce

  13. Methodology for calculating power consumption of planetary mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferov, S. I.; Voronov, V. P.; Evtushenko, E. I.; Yakovlev, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the methodology and equations for calculating the power consumption necessary to overcome the resistance of a dry mixture caused by the movement of cylindrical rods in the body of a planetary mixer, as well as the calculation of the power consumed by idling mixers of this type. The equations take into account the size and physico-mechanical properties of mixing material, the size and shape of the mixer's working elements and the kinematics of its movement. The dependence of the power consumption on the angle of rotation in the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the working member is presented.

  14. A noise reconfigurable current-reuse resistive feedback amplifier with signal-dependent power consumption for fetal ECG monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Shuang; Rooijakkers, M.J.; Harpe, P.; Rabotti, C.; Mischi, M.; Van Roermund, A.H.M.; Cantatore, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a noise-reconfigurable resistive feedback amplifier with current-reuse technique for fetal ECG monitoring. The proposed amplifier allows for both tuning of the noise level and changing the power consumption according to the signal properties, minimizing the total power

  15. Potential of Rainwater Harvesting and Greywater Reuse for Water Consumption Reduction and Wastewater Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel López Zavala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Northeastern Mexico is a semiarid region with water scarcity and a strong pressure on water sources caused by the rapid increase of population and industrialization. In this region, rainwater harvesting alone is not enough to meet water supply demands due to the irregular distribution of rainfall in time and space. Thus, in this study the reliability of integrating rainwater harvesting with greywater reuse to reduce water consumption and minimize wastewater generation in the Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey Campus, was assessed. Potable water consumption and greywater generation in main facilities of the campus were determined. Rainwater that can be potentially harvested in roofs and parking areas of the campus was estimated based on a statistical analysis of the rainfall. Based on these data, potential water savings and wastewater minimization were determined. Characterization of rainwater and greywater was carried out to determine the treatment necessities for each water source. Additionally, the capacity of water storage tanks was estimated. For the selected treatment systems, an economic assessment was conducted to determine the viability of the alternatives proposed. Results showed that water consumption can be reduced by 48% and wastewater generation can be minimized by 59%. Implementation of rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse systems in the Monterrey Campus will generate important economic benefits to the institution. Amortization of the investments will be achieved in only six years, where the net present value (NPV will be on the order of US $50,483.2, the internal rate of return (IRR of 4.6% and the benefits–investment ratio (B/I of 1.7. From the seventh year, the project will present an IRR greater than the minimum acceptable rate of return (MARR. In a decade, the IRR will be 14.4%, more than twice the MARR, the NPV of US $290,412.1 and the B/I of 3.1, denoting economic feasibility. Based on these results, it is clear that

  16. Prediction of Chiller Power Consumption: An Entropy Generation Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Saththasivam, Jayaprakash

    2016-06-21

    Irreversibilities in each component of vapor compression chillers contribute to additional power consumption in chillers. In this study, chiller power consumption was predicted by computing the Carnot reversible work and entropy generated in every component of the chiller. Thermodynamic properties namely enthalpy and entropy of the entire refrigerant cycle were obtained by measuring the pressure and temperature at the inlet and outlet of each primary component of a 15kW R22 water cooled scroll chiller. Entropy generation of each component was then calculated using the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. Good correlation was found between the measured and computed chiller power consumption. This irreversibility analysis can be also effectively used as a performance monitoring tool in vapor compression chillers as higher entropy generation is anticipated during faulty operations.

  17. Energy consumption during simulated minimal access surgery with and without using an armrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Mansoor; Brown, Stuart; Arnold, Graham; Abboud, Rami; Wang, Weijie

    2013-03-01

    Minimal access surgery (MAS) can be a lengthy procedure when compared to open surgery and therefore surgeon fatigue becomes an important issue and surgeons may expose themselves to chronic injuries and making errors. There have been few studies on this topic and they have used only questionnaires and electromyography rather than direct measurement of energy expenditure (EE). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of an armrest could reduce the EE of surgeons during MAS. Sixteen surgeons performed simulated MAS with and without using an armrest. They were required to perform the time-consuming task of using scissors to cut a rubber glove through its top layer in a triangular fashion with the help of a laparoscopic camera. Energy consumptions were measured using the Oxycon Mobile system during all the procedures. Error rate and duration time for simulated surgery were recorded. After performing the simulated surgery, subjects scored how comfortable they felt using the armrest. It was found that O(2) uptake (VO(2)) was 5 % less when surgeons used the armrest. The error rate when performing the procedure with the armrest was 35 % compared with 42.29 % without the armrest. Additionally, comfort levels with the armrest were higher than without the armrest. 75 % of surgeons indicated a preference for using the armrest during the simulated surgery. The armrest provides support for surgeons and cuts energy consumption during simulated MAS.

  18. RF power consumption emulation optimized with interval valued homotopies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musiige, Deogratius; Anton, François; Yatskevich, Vital

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology towards the emulation of the electrical power consumption of the RF device during the cellular phone/handset transmission mode using the LTE technology. The emulation methodology takes the physical environmental variables and the logical interface between...... the baseband and the RF system as inputs to compute the emulated power dissipation of the RF device. The emulated power, in between the measured points corresponding to the discrete values of the logical interface parameters is computed as a polynomial interpolation using polynomial basis functions....... The evaluation of polynomial and spline curve fitting models showed a respective divergence (test error) of 8% and 0.02% from the physically measured power consumption. The precisions of the instruments used for the physical measurements have been modeled as intervals. We have been able to model the power...

  19. Whole-house measurements of standby power consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.P.; Meier, Alan

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the variation in standby power consumption in ten California homes. Total standby power in the homes ranged from 14-169W, with an average of 67 W. This corresponded to 5 percent-26 percent of the homes' annual electricity use. The appliances with the largest standby losses were televisions, set-top boxes and printers. The large variation in the standby power of appliances providing the same service demonstrates that manufacturers are able to reduce standby losses without degrading performance. Replacing existing units with appliances with 1 W or less of standby power would reduce standby losses by 68 percent

  20. LTE modem power consumption, SAR and RF signal strength emulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musiige, Deogratius; Vincent, Laulagnet; Anton, François

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for emulating the LTE modem power consumption, emitted SAR and RF signal strength when transmitting an LTE signal. The inputs of the methodology are: modem logical/protocol commands, time advance, near-field specifier, and antenna characteristics. The power...... emulation model(s) are computed by a two layer 451 neural network based on physical power measurements. SAR is emulated by polynomial interpolation models based on FDTD simulations. The accuracies of the mathematical function approximations for the emulation models of power and SAR are 5.19% and 3...

  1. Controlling Power Consumption for Displays With Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino; Nadernejad, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Backlight dimming of Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) is a technology which aims at saving power and improving visual quality. The evolution of energy standards and the increasing public expectations regarding power consumption have made it necessary for backlight systems to manage their power....... Such a control is challenging to implement, because for LCD displays quality and power are closely interlinked, and one cannot be modified without affecting the other. To address this issue, we present a framework for power controlled backlight dimming defining some key concepts. Two methods to obtain backlights...... with a predefined power level for images are presented: one method has low complexity and the other achieves high performance in terms of quality/power trade-off. Those methods are evaluated on a modeled Light-Emitting Diode edge-lit backlight display. The high-performance method performs significantly better than...

  2. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-09-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  3. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-08-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  4. Low Power Consumption Wireless Sensor Communication System Integrated with an Energy Harvesting Power Source

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad MARSIC; Alessandro GIULIANO; Meiling ZHU

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the testing results of a wireless sensor communication system with low power consumption integrated with an energy harvesting power source. The experiments focus on the system’s capability to perform continuous monitoring and to wirelessly transmit the data acquired from the sensors to a user base station, for realization of completely battery-free wireless sensor system. Energy harvesting technologies together with system design optimization for power consumption minimiza...

  5. Acquiring Consumer Trust: Minimizing the GAP Between Environmental Concern and Environmental Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Frederico

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management has become an important managerial tool for creating conditions for greater competitiveness of organizations. A significant portion of the population considers environmental issues while consuming. However, despite the proposed relationship between environmental concern and consumption, some studies have identified a gap between declared environmental concern and consumer behavior. One possible explanation for this gap is the lack of trust in the ethics of retailers and the perception that environmental appealing offers would be only artifices of marketing. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the moderating effect of trust in the relationship between Environmental concern and environmental purchase intention. To operationalize the study, an online survey was conducted among 696 Brazilian consumers. The sample was characterized as non-probabilistic. Validated scales were used to measure the variables and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results show that there is a significant relationship between environmental concern and environmental purchase intention, however, the low explanatory power of the model points to the gap between discourse and practice. By analyzing the trust of consumers as moderating variable, it is clear that, by increasing consumers’ trust, the gap between environmental concern and consumption is diminished.

  6. Power Consumption Evaluation of Distributed Computing Network Considering Traffic Locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukio; Hasegawa, Go; Murata, Masayuki

    When computing resources are consolidated in a few huge data centers, a massive amount of data is transferred to each data center over a wide area network (WAN). This results in increased power consumption in the WAN. A distributed computing network (DCN), such as a content delivery network, can reduce the traffic from/to the data center, thereby decreasing the power consumed in the WAN. In this paper, we focus on the energy-saving aspect of the DCN and evaluate its effectiveness, especially considering traffic locality, i.e., the amount of traffic related to the geographical vicinity. We first formulate the problem of optimizing the DCN power consumption and describe the DCN in detail. Then, numerical evaluations show that, when there is strong traffic locality and the router has ideal energy proportionality, the system's power consumption is reduced to about 50% of the power consumed in the case where a DCN is not used; moreover, this advantage becomes even larger (up to about 30%) when the data center is located farthest from the center of the network topology.

  7. System-Level Power Consumption Analysis of the Wearable Asthmatic Wheeze Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinko Oletic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term quantification of asthmatic wheezing envisions an m-Health sensor system consisting of a smartphone and a body-worn wireless acoustic sensor. As both devices are power constrained, the main criterion guiding the system design comes down to minimization of power consumption, while retaining sufficient respiratory sound classification accuracy (i.e., wheeze detection. Crucial for assessment of the system-level power consumption is the understanding of trade-off between power cost of computationally intensive local processing and communication. Therefore, we analyze power requirements of signal acquisition, processing, and communication in three typical operating scenarios: (1 streaming of uncompressed respiratory signal to a smartphone for classification, (2 signal streaming utilizing compressive sensing (CS for reduction of data rate, and (3 respiratory sound classification onboard the wearable sensor. Study shows that the third scenario featuring the lowest communication cost enables the lowest total sensor system power consumption ranging from 328 to 428 μW. In such scenario, 32-bit ARM Cortex M3/M4 cores typically embedded within Bluetooth 4 SoC modules feature the optimal trade-off between onboard classification performance and consumption. On the other hand, study confirms that CS enables the most power-efficient design of the wearable sensor (216 to 357 μW in the compressed signal streaming, the second scenario. In such case, a single low-power ARM Cortex-A53 core is sufficient for simultaneous real-time CS reconstruction and classification on the smartphone, while keeping the total system power within budget for uncompressed streaming.

  8. Firefly algorithm based solution to minimize the real power loss in a power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balachennaiah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to minimize the real power loss (RPL of a power system transmission network using a new meta-heuristic algorithm known as firefly algorithm (FA by optimizing the control variables such as transformer taps, UPFC location and UPFC series injected voltage magnitude and phase angle. A software program is developed in MATLAB environment for FA to minimize the RPL by optimizing (i only the transformer tap values, (ii only UPFC location and its variables with optimized tap values and (iii UPFC location and its variables along with transformer tap setting values simultaneously. Interior point successive linear programming (IPSLP technique and real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA are considered here to compare the results and to show the efficiency and superiority of the proposed FA towards the optimization of RPL. Also in this paper, bacteria foraging algorithm (BFA is adopted to validate the results of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Power consumption of programmable controllers; Energieverbrauch von Prozesssteuerungen (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalcher, M.; Battaglia, U.; Busch, E.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy addresses the field of programmable logic controllers and thus investigates a topic that has been neglected up to now - the energy consumption of such controllers. The results of measurements made on programmable logic controllers in use both in operational industrial plants and in the Automation Laboratory at the University of Applied Science in Chur, Switzerland are presented, where a detailed analysis was made on a demonstration plant. Also, technical documentation (catalogues) were evaluated and discussed with experts who had practical experience at their disposal. The results of the study are discussed: these show that the power consumption of any particular programmable logic controller is low in comparison to the energy consumption of the processes that are being controlled. Additionally, it was found that the optimisation of newer devices has to a great extent already been realised and that standard solutions for energy optimisation are not easy to put into practice. It is suggested that savings can possibly be made in the controllers by improving the efficiency of their power supply units and by choosing power ratings to better suit the actual power needed.

  10. Low power consumption mini rotary actuator with SMA wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Luigi; Huan, Yu; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2017-11-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are smart materials widely used as actuators for their high power to weight ratio despite their well-known low energy efficiency and limited mechanical bandwidth. For robotic applications, SMAs exhibit limitations due to high power consumption and limited stroke, varying from 4% to 7% of the total length. Hysteresis, during the contraction and extension cycle, requires a complex control algorithm. On the positive side, the small size and low weight are eminently suited for the design of mini actuators for robotic platforms. This paper describes the design and construction of a light weight and low power consuming mini rotary actuator with on-board contact-less position and force sensors. The design is specifically intended to reduce (i) energy consumption, (ii) dimensions of the sensory system, and (iii) provide a simple control without any need for SMA characterisation. The torque produced is controlled by on-board force sensors. Experiments were performed to investigate the energy consumption and performance (step and sinusoidal angle profiles with a frequency varying from 0.5 to 10 Hz and maximal amplitude of {15}\\circ ). We describe a transient capacitor effect related to the SMA wires during the sinusoidal profile when the active SMA wire is powered and the antagonist one switched-off, resulting in a transient current time varying from 300 to 400 ms.

  11. Reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-06-05

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes that include: executing, by each compute node, an application, the application including power consumption directives corresponding to one or more portions of the application; identifying, by each compute node, the power consumption directives included within the application during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives; and reducing power, by each compute node, to one or more components of that compute node according to the identified power consumption directives during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives.

  12. Electric power economy: comparative study of electric power consumption in many methods of outfloor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Hideo; Tsitiya, Milton Tomoyuki

    1989-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study of the electric power consumption of a water elevatory station in order to verify which method is the most suitable in energy economy through the outflow variation in function of the demand

  13. Low power consumption and high temperature durability for radiation sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yoshinori; Ueno, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Low power consumption and high temperature operation are important in an environmental monitoring system. The power consumption of 3 mW is achieved for the radiation sensor using low voltage operational amplifier and comparator in the signal processing circuit. The leakage reverse current of photodiode causes the charge amplifier saturation over 50degC. High temperature durability was improved by optimizing the circuit configuration and the values of feedback resistance and capacitance in the charge amplifier. The pulse response of the radiation sensor was measured up to 55degC. The custom detection circuit was designed by 0.6 μm CMOS process at 5-V supply voltage. The operation temperature was improved up to 65degC. (author)

  14. Power consumption analysis of operating systems for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajara, Rafael; Pelegrí-Sebastiá, José; Perez Solano, Juan J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper four wireless sensor network operating systems are compared in terms of power consumption. The analysis takes into account the most common operating systems--TinyOS v1.0, TinyOS v2.0, Mantis and Contiki--running on Tmote Sky and MICAz devices. With the objective of ensuring a fair evaluation, a benchmark composed of four applications has been developed, covering the most typical tasks that a Wireless Sensor Network performs. The results show the instant and average current consumption of the devices during the execution of these applications. The experimental measurements provide a good insight into the power mode in which the device components are running at every moment, and they can be used to compare the performance of different operating systems executing the same tasks.

  15. A fast electrostatic chopper of low power consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzeti, P.G.; Fazzini, T.; Taccetti, N.

    1979-01-01

    An electrostatic chopper for the continuous beams of a 7.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator is described. The electrostatic deflector uses complemetary transistors, driven by optoelectronic couplers, as voltage switches. The power consumption of the high voltage system at 30 kHz repetition frequency is approximately 3 W. Rise and fall times are symmetric and of the order of 0.4 μs. Experimental time spectra of prompt and delayed γ-rays are presented. (Auth.)

  16. Power-Consumption Measurements for LTE User Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads

    wireless communications test set and the Agilent N6705B DC power analyzer to establish a power consumption model for LTE user equipment (UE). The model is useful when you need to examine the UE battery life in system-level simulations. We will explain how the Agilent equipment can be used in manual tests......, but we do not discuss how to make automated tests (for example, using VEE software). In this application note, we analyze smartphones adhering to the 3GPP LTE standard [1]....

  17. Consumption of minimally processed food is inversely associated with excess weight in adolescents living in an underdeveloped city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira de; Costa, Clara Andrezza Crisóstomo Bezerra; Santos, João Victor Laurindo Dos; Santos, Aldenir Feitosa Dos; Florêncio, Telma Maria de Menezes Toledo; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of ultra-processed foods may be associated with the development of chronic diseases, both in adults and in children/adolescents. This consumption is growing worldwide, especially in low and middle-income countries. Nevertheless, its magnitude in small, poor cities from the countryside is not well characterized, especially in adolescents. This study aimed to assess the consumption of minimally processed, processed and ultra-processed foods by adolescents from a poor Brazilian city and to determine if it was associated with excess weight, high waist circumference and high blood pressure. Cross-sectional study, conducted at a public federal school that offers technical education together with high school, located in the city of Murici. Adolescents of both sexes and aged between 14-19 years old were included. Anthropometric characteristics (weight, height, waist circumference), blood pressure, and dietary intake data were assessed. Associations were calculated using Poisson regression models, adjusted by sex and age. At total, 249 adolescents were included, being 55.8% girls, with a mean age of 16 years-old. The consumption of minimally processed foods was inversely associated with excess weight (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio: 0.61, 95% Confidence Interval: [0.39-0.96], P = 0.03). Although the consumption of ultra-processed foods was not associated with excess weight, high blood pressure and high waist circumference, 46.2% of the sample reported eating these products more than weekly. Consumption of minimally processed food is inversely associated with excess weight in adolescents. Investments in nutritional education aiming the prevention of chronic diseases associated with the consumption of these foods are necessary.

  18. Controllers with Minimal Observation Power (Application to Timed Systems)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Petr; Cassez, Franck; David, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of controller synthesis under imper- fect information in a setting where there is a set of available observable predicates equipped with a cost function. The problem that we address is the computation of a subset of predicates sufficient for control and whose cost is minimal...

  19. Enhanced GSA-Based Optimization for Minimization of Power Losses in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonggui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA is a heuristic method based on Newton’s law of gravitational attraction and law of motion. In this paper, to further improve the optimization performance of GSA, the memory characteristic of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is employed in GSAPSO for searching a better solution. Besides, to testify the prominent strength of GSAPSO, GSA, PSO, and GSAPSO are applied for the solution of optimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD of power system. Conventionally, ORPD is defined as a problem of minimizing the total active power transmission losses by setting control variables while satisfying numerous constraints. Therefore ORPD is a complicated mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem including many constraints. IEEE14-bus, IEEE30-bus, and IEEE57-bus test power systems are used to implement this study, respectively. The obtained results of simulation experiments using GSAPSO method, especially the power loss reduction rates, are compared to those yielded by the other modern artificial intelligence-based techniques including the conventional GSA and PSO methods. The results presented in this paper reveal the potential and effectiveness of the proposed method for solving ORPD problem of power system.

  20. The Increase of Power Efficiency of Underground Coal Mining by the Forecasting of Electric Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremenko, Vladimir; Belyaevsky, Roman; Skrebneva, Evgeniya

    2017-11-01

    In article the analysis of electric power consumption and problems of power saving on coal mines are considered. Nowadays the share of conditionally constant costs of electric power for providing safe working conditions underground on coal mines is big. Therefore, the power efficiency of underground coal mining depends on electric power expense of the main technological processes and size of conditionally constant costs. The important direction of increase of power efficiency of coal mining is forecasting of a power consumption and monitoring of electric power expense. One of the main approaches to reducing of electric power costs is increase in accuracy of the enterprise demand in the wholesale electric power market. It is offered to use artificial neural networks to forecasting of day-ahead power consumption with hourly breakdown. At the same time use of neural and indistinct (hybrid) systems on the principles of fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms is more preferable. This model allows to do exact short-term forecasts at a small array of input data. A set of the input parameters characterizing mining-and-geological and technological features of the enterprise is offered.

  1. Synapse:neural network for predict power consumption: users guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, C; Mangeas, M; Perrot, N

    1994-08-01

    SYNAPSE is forecasting tool designed to predict power consumption in metropolitan France on the half hour time scale. Some characteristics distinguish this forecasting model from those which already exist. In particular, it is composed of numerous neural networks. The idea for using many neural networks arises from past tests. These tests showed us that a single neural network is not able to solve the problem correctly. From this result, we decided to perform unsupervised classification of the 24 consumption curves. From this classification, six classes appeared, linked with the weekdays: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays, Sundays, holidays and bridge days. For each class and for each half hour, two multilayer perceptrons are built. The two of them forecast the power for one particular half hour, and for a day including one of the determined class. The input of these two network are different: the first one (short time forecasting) includes the powers for the most recent half hour and relative power of the previous day; the second (medium time forecasting) includes only the relative power of the previous day. A process connects the results of every networks and allows one to forecast more than one half-hour in advance. In this process, short time forecasting networks and medium time forecasting networks are used differently. The first kind of neural networks gives good results on the scale of one day. The second one gives good forecasts for the next predicted powers. In this note, the organization of the SYNAPSE program is detailed, and the user`s menu is described. This first version of synapse works and should allow the APC group to evaluate its utility. (authors). 6 refs., 2 appends.

  2. Analytical and Algorithmic Approaches to Determine the Number of Sensor Nodes for Minimum Power Consumption in LWSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soner Kilinc

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A Linear Wireless Sensor Network (LWSN is a kind of wireless sensor network where the nodes are deployed in a line. Since the sensor nodes are energy restricted, energy efficiency becomes one of the most significant design issues for LWSNs as well as wireless sensor networks. With the proper deployment, the power consumption could be minimized by adjusting the distance between the sensor nodes which is known as hop length. In this paper, analytical and algorithmic approaches are presented to determine the number of hops and sensor nodes for minimum power consumption in a linear wireless sensor network including equidistantly placed sensor nodes.

  3. Experiment with flexible electric power consumption; Demonstrationsforsoeg med fleksibelt elforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Thomas Emil (Dong Energy A/S, Fredericia (Denmark))

    2009-09-15

    The emergence of interactive meters with communication module has made it possible that electricity consumption at different customer segments can be activated in a new way of benefit for the customer, the electricity company and the system operator. In this demonstration project customer segment is larger commercial properties and public institutions. In conclusion, it is technically possible to manage and activate the potential for demand response within the segment of large office blocks and public buildings. Practical experiments have shown that it is more expensive to achieve flexibility in power consumption for older properties than for a newly built property. The economics of demand response within office buildings are currently (prices as of 2008) not so attractive for either the customer or the utility company in relation to the investments needed to be made at both the customer and the utility company to build an infrastructure. It should also be noted that there may be relatively much work involved in handling a lot of small systems compared to systems of large effects, for example 500 kW and more. It is therefore the more attractive systems within the industrial customer segments with plants as UPS systems, cooling systems in cold storage rooms and the like which has the potential of a size that should be ground-breaking by building an infrastructure to manage power demand response, so that it eventually becomes marginally cheaper also handle minor power effects like those in office buildings. (ln)

  4. Can We Speculate Running Application With Server Power Consumption Trace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanlong; Hu, Han; Wen, Yonggang; Zhang, Jun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose to detect the running applications in a server by classifying the observed power consumption series for the purpose of data center energy consumption monitoring and analysis. Time series classification problem has been extensively studied with various distance measurements developed; also recently the deep learning-based sequence models have been proved to be promising. In this paper, we propose a novel distance measurement and build a time series classification algorithm hybridizing nearest neighbor and long short term memory (LSTM) neural network. More specifically, first we propose a new distance measurement termed as local time warping (LTW), which utilizes a user-specified index set for local warping, and is designed to be noncommutative and nondynamic programming. Second, we hybridize the 1-nearest neighbor (1NN)-LTW and LSTM together. In particular, we combine the prediction probability vector of 1NN-LTW and LSTM to determine the label of the test cases. Finally, using the power consumption data from a real data center, we show that the proposed LTW can improve the classification accuracy of dynamic time warping (DTW) from about 84% to 90%. Our experimental results prove that the proposed LTW is competitive on our data set compared with existed DTW variants and its noncommutative feature is indeed beneficial. We also test a linear version of LTW and find out that it can perform similar to state-of-the-art DTW-based method while it runs as fast as the linear runtime lower bound methods like LB_Keogh for our problem. With the hybrid algorithm, for the power series classification task we achieve an accuracy up to about 93%. Our research can inspire more studies on time series distance measurement and the hybrid of the deep learning models with other traditional models.

  5. Minimization of the power losses in televisions. Report no. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Leo

    1996-03-01

    In order to achieve a simple and a manageable circuit to analyse, the verical deflection circuit is disregarded and the horizontal deflection/EHT circuit is simplified. In the simplified circuit the EHT generator and the deflection circuit are fully coupled and the east/west modulation and the linearity coil are among other facilities ignored. It is argued for that the simplification does not influence the basic mode of operation of the deflection/EHT circuit and the mode of operation is discussed by means of idealised considerations. A laboratory model of the simplified deflection/EHT circuit has been built and connected in parallel to a 100 HZ television set. By doing this no control circuits are needed in the simplified circuit. Measurements on the simplified defelection/EHT circuit are carried out at three different loads of the DST. The measurements are focused on the voltage and the current waveforms on a circuit level and the influence of the parasitic components is discussed. Besides, a comparison of the waveforms at three different loads is performed and comments and conclusions are presented. A general introduction to the facilities in Saber highlights the primary difference between Spice and Saber with focus on the basic architecture of Saber. The procedure of simulating the simplified deflection/EHT circuit is explained and the demarcations are presented. The simulation is performed with both idealised models of the components and with existing models of the components in Saber. The models of both types of components are shortly presented. The simulated waveforms are in close agreement with the measured waveforms apart from the ringing primary caused by the parasitic components in the DST which are not included in the simulation model. The measuring system, the general measuring process and the data processing used when mapping the power losses in the simplified deflection/EHT circuit are explained. The measurements are performed at the working

  6. EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT OF POWER CONSUMPTION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Koksharov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article distinguishes the methodological and systematic fundamentals for the formation of energy policy of the industrial enterprise. The article performes the analysis of Russian state policy in the field of energy efficiency and conservation , which allows to identify the organizational-economic and regulatory drawbacks proving the existing contradiction between the economic interests of the state and private business in the field of energy efficiency and power supply. Author proposes and formulates the management concept of power consumption of industrial enterprise. The concept includes a number of propositions, the dynamic normal of energy efficiency and energy saving playing the key role. It is regarded as a business model of energy efficiency and energy saving that provides the implementation of both economic and energetic strategies of enterprise.

  7. Tool for a configurable integrated circuit that uses determination of dynamic power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Matthew C. (Inventor); Wang, Li (Inventor); Agarwal, Deepak (Inventor); Davoodi, Azadeh (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A configurable logic tool that allows minimization of dynamic power within an FPGA design without changing user-entered specifications. The minimization of power may use minimized clock nets as a first order operation, and a second order operation that minimizes other factors, such as area of placement, area of clocks and/or slack.

  8. Facilitating Smoking Cessation and Preventing Relapse in Primary Care: Minimizing Weight Gain by Reducing Alcohol Consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobell, Mark B; Peterson, Alan; Sobell, Linda C; Hunter, Christopher; Hunter, Christine

    2008-01-01

    .... Participants are randomly assigned to BCAP or to a Self-Guided Program (SGP) where they receive NRT and a pamphlet discussing change strategies for tobacco cessation, minimizing weight gain, and how to plan for and deal with possible relapses...

  9. Microcontroller Power Consumption Measurement Based on PSoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Janković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcontrollers are often used as central processing elements in embedded systems. Because of different sleep and performance modes that microcontrollers support, their power consumption may have a high dynamic range, over 100 dB. In this paper, a data acquisition (DAQ system for measuring and analyzing the power consumption of microcontrollers is presented. DAQ system consists of a current measurement circuit using potentiostat technique, a DAQ device based on system on chip PSoC 5LP and Python PC program for the analysis, storage and visualization of measured data. Both Successive Approximation Register (SAR and Delta-Sigma (DS ADCs contained in the PSoC 5LP are used for measuring voltage drop across the shunt resistor. SAR ADC samples data at a 10 times higher rate than DS ADC, so the input range of DS ADC can be adjusted based on data measured by SAR ADC, thus enabling the extension of current measuring range by 28%. Implemented DAQ device is connected with a computer through a USB port and tested with developed Python PC program.

  10. Power consumption analysis of constant bit rate data transmission over 3G mobile wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Le; Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the power consumption of data transmission with constant bit rate over 3G mobile wireless networks. Our work includes the description of the transition state machine in 3G networks, followed by the detailed energy consumption analysis and measurement results...... of the radio link power consumption. Based on these description and analysis, we propose power consumption model. The power model was evaluated on the smartphone Nokia N900, which follows a 3GPP Release 5 and 6 supporting HSDPA/HSPA data bearers. Further we propose method of parameters selection for 3GPP...... transition state machine that allows to decrease power consumption on the mobile device....

  11. Integrated Evaluation of Reliability and Power Consumption of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Maciel, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Power consumption is a primary interest in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), and a large number of strategies have been proposed to evaluate it. However, those approaches usually neither consider reliability issues nor the power consumption of applications executing in the network. A central concern is the lack of consolidated solutions that enable us to evaluate the power consumption of applications and the network stack also considering their reliabilities. To solve this problem, we introduce a fully automatic solution to design power consumption aware WSN applications and communication protocols. The solution presented in this paper comprises a methodology to evaluate the power consumption based on the integration of formal models, a set of power consumption and reliability models, a sensitivity analysis strategy to select WSN configurations and a toolbox named EDEN to fully support the proposed methodology. This solution allows accurately estimating the power consumption of WSN applications and the network stack in an automated way. PMID:29113078

  12. Integrated Evaluation of Reliability and Power Consumption of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Dâmaso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption is a primary interest in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, and a large number of strategies have been proposed to evaluate it. However, those approaches usually neither consider reliability issues nor the power consumption of applications executing in the network. A central concern is the lack of consolidated solutions that enable us to evaluate the power consumption of applications and the network stack also considering their reliabilities. To solve this problem, we introduce a fully automatic solution to design power consumption aware WSN applications and communication protocols. The solution presented in this paper comprises a methodology to evaluate the power consumption based on the integration of formal models, a set of power consumption and reliability models, a sensitivity analysis strategy to select WSN configurations and a toolbox named EDEN to fully support the proposed methodology. This solution allows accurately estimating the power consumption of WSN applications and the network stack in an automated way.

  13. SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC SELECTION OF THE SPEED RATE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES FOR REDUCING THE POWER CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Soroka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work is aimed to design a system for automatic selection of the optimal traffic modes and automatic monitoring of the electric energy consumption by electric transport. This automatic system should provide for the minimum energy expenses. Methodology. Current methodologies: 1 mathematical modeling of traffic modes of ground electric vehicles; 2 comparison of modelling results with the statistical monitoring; 3 system development for automatic choice of traffic modes of electric transport with minimal electrical energy consumptions taking into account the given route schedules and the limitations imposed by the general traffic rules. Findings. The authors obtained a mathematical dependency of the energy consumption by electric transport enterprises on the monthly averaged environment temperature was obtained. A system which allows for an automatic selection of the speed limit and provides automatic monitoring of the electrical energy consumption by electric vehicles was proposed in the form of local network, which works together with existing GPS system. Originality. A mathematical model for calculating the motion curves and energy consumption of electric vehicles has been developed. This model takes into account the characteristic values of the motor engine and the steering system, the change of the mass when loading or unloading passengers, the slopes and radii of the roads, the limitations given by the general traffic rules, and other factors. The dependency of the energy consumption on the averaged monthly environment temperature for public electric transport companies has been calculated. Practical value. The developed mathematical model simplifies the calculations of the traffic dynamics and energy consumption. It can be used for calculating the routing maps, for design and upgrade of the power networks, for development of the electricity saving measures. The system simplifies the work of the vehicle driver and allows reducing

  14. Methods for estimating water consumption for thermoelectric power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hutson, Susan S.; Ladd, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Water consumption at thermoelectric power plants represents a small but substantial share of total water consumption in the U.S. However, currently available thermoelectric water consumption data are inconsistent and incomplete, and coefficients used to estimate consumption are contradictory. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has resumed the estimation of thermoelectric water consumption, last done in 1995, based on the use of linked heat and water budgets to complement reported water consumption. This report presents the methods used to estimate freshwater consumption at a study set of 1,284 power plants based on 2010 plant characteristics and operations data.

  15. Polynomial expansion of the precoder for power minimization in large-scale MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem

    2016-07-26

    This work focuses on the downlink of a single-cell large-scale MIMO system in which the base station equipped with M antennas serves K single-antenna users. In particular, we are interested in reducing the implementation complexity of the optimal linear precoder (OLP) that minimizes the total power consumption while ensuring target user rates. As most precoding schemes, a major difficulty towards the implementation of OLP is that it requires fast inversions of large matrices at every new channel realizations. To overcome this issue, we aim at designing a linear precoding scheme providing the same performance of OLP but with lower complexity. This is achieved by applying the truncated polynomial expansion (TPE) concept on a per-user basis. To get a further leap in complexity reduction and allow for closed-form expressions of the per-user weighting coefficients, we resort to the asymptotic regime in which M and K grow large with a bounded ratio. Numerical results are used to show that the proposed TPE precoding scheme achieves the same performance of OLP with a significantly lower implementation complexity. © 2016 IEEE.

  16. Budget-based power consumption for application execution on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Inglett, Todd A; Ratterman, Joseph D

    2012-10-23

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for budget-based power consumption for application execution on a plurality of compute nodes that include: assigning an execution priority to each of one or more applications; executing, on the plurality of compute nodes, the applications according to the execution priorities assigned to the applications at an initial power level provided to the compute nodes until a predetermined power consumption threshold is reached; and applying, upon reaching the predetermined power consumption threshold, one or more power conservation actions to reduce power consumption of the plurality of compute nodes during execution of the applications.

  17. Cost minimization in a full-scale conventional wastewater treatment plant: associated costs of biological energy consumption versus sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sid, S; Volant, A; Lesage, G; Heran, M

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption and sludge production minimization represent rising challenges for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The goal of this study is to investigate how energy is consumed throughout the whole plant and how operating conditions affect this energy demand. A WWTP based on the activated sludge process was selected as a case study. Simulations were performed using a pre-compiled model implemented in GPS-X simulation software. Model validation was carried out by comparing experimental and modeling data of the dynamic behavior of the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration and nitrogen compounds concentration, energy consumption for aeration, mixing and sludge treatment and annual sludge production over a three year exercise. In this plant, the energy required for bioreactor aeration was calculated at approximately 44% of the total energy demand. A cost optimization strategy was applied by varying the MLSS concentrations (from 1 to 8 gTSS/L) while recording energy consumption, sludge production and effluent quality. An increase of MLSS led to an increase of the oxygen requirement for biomass aeration, but it also reduced total sludge production. Results permit identification of a key MLSS concentration allowing identification of the best compromise between levels of treatment required, biological energy demand and sludge production while minimizing the overall costs.

  18. Design and Validation of Real-Time Optimal Control with ECMS to Minimize Energy Consumption for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyun Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A real-time optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs with the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS is presented in this paper, whose purpose is to achieve the total equivalent fuel consumption minimization and to maintain the battery state of charge (SOC within its operation range at all times simultaneously. Vehicle and assembly models of PHEVs are established, which provide the foundation for the following calculations. The ECMS is described in detail, in which an instantaneous cost function including the fuel energy and the electrical energy is proposed, whose emphasis is the computation of the equivalent factor. The real-time optimal control strategy is designed through regarding the minimum of the total equivalent fuel consumption as the control objective and the torque split factor as the control variable. The validation of the control strategy proposed is demonstrated both in the MATLAB/Simulink/Advisor environment and under actual transportation conditions by comparing the fuel economy, the charge sustainability, and parts performance with other three control strategies under different driving cycles including standard, actual, and real-time road conditions. Through numerical simulations and real vehicle tests, the accuracy of the approach used for the evaluation of the equivalent factor is confirmed, and the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and keeping the deviations of SOC at a low level is illustrated.

  19. Power consumption analysis of constant bit rate video transmission over 3G networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny; Wang, Le

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the power consumption of video data transmission with constant bit rate over 3G mobile wireless networks. The work includes the description of the radio resource control transition state machine in 3G networks, followed by a detailed power consumption analysis...... and measurements of the radio link power consumption. Based on this description and analysis, we propose our power consumption model. The power model was evaluated on a smartphone Nokia N900, which follows 3GPP Release 5 and 6 supporting HSDPA/HSUPA data bearers. We also propose a method for parameter selection...... for the 3GPP transition state machine that allows to decrease power consumption on a mobile device taking signaling traffic, buffer size and latency restrictions into account. Furthermore, we discuss the gain in power consumption vs. PSNR for transmitted video and show the possibility of performing power...

  20. Consumption of electric power for space heating of residential buildings and other premises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, E.; Westerlund, R.

    1986-10-01

    The analysis comprises power consumption to 1989 and to 1997 using different energy prices. The effects of oil prices on consumption has been calculated. The level of the consumption of electric power of the year 1989 is estimated to be 2-3 TWh higher than the level of 1997. This is because of not yet accomplished economizing measures and relatively new installations

  1. Digital Power Consumption Estimations for CHIPIX65 Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Marcotulli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    New hybrid pixel detectors with improved resolution capable of dealing with hit rates up to 3 GHz/cm2 will be required for future High Energy Physics experiments in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Given this, the RD53 collaboration works on the design of the next generation pixel readout chip needed for both the ATLAS and CMS detector phase 2 pixel upgrades. For the RD53 demonstrator chip in 65nm CMOS technology, different architectures are considered. In particular the purpose of this work is estimating the power consumption of the digital architecture of the readout ASIC developed by CHIPIX65 project of the INFN National Scientific Committee. This has been done with modern chip design tools integrated with the VEPIX53 simulation framework that has been developed within the RD53 collaboration in order to assess the performance of the system in very high rate, high energy physics experiments.

  2. Optimization of Power Consumption for Centrifugation Process Based on Attenuation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, M. S.; Abd Malek, M. F.; Sabri, Naseer; Omar, M. Iqbal bin; Mohamed, Latifah; Juni, K. M.

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this research is to produce a mathematical model that allows decreasing the electrical power consumption of centrifugation process based on attenuation measurements. The centrifugation time for desired separation efficiency may be measured to determine the power consumed of laboratory centrifuge device. The power consumption is one of several parameters that affect the system reliability and productivity. Attenuation measurements of wave propagated through blood sample during centrifugation process were used indirectly to measure the power consumption of device. A mathematical model for power consumption was derived and used to modify the speed profile of centrifuge controller. The power consumption model derived based on attenuation measurements has successfully save the power consumption of centrifugation process keeping high separation efficiency. 18kW.h monthly for 100 daily time device operation had been saved using the proposed model.

  3. Optimization of Power Consumption for Centrifugation Process Based on Attenuation Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, M S; Iqbal bin Omar, M; Malek, M F Abd; Mohamed, Latifah; Sabri, Naseer; Juni, K M

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to produce a mathematical model that allows decreasing the electrical power consumption of centrifugation process based on attenuation measurements. The centrifugation time for desired separation efficiency may be measured to determine the power consumed of laboratory centrifuge device. The power consumption is one of several parameters that affect the system reliability and productivity. Attenuation measurements of wave propagated through blood sample during centrifugation process were used indirectly to measure the power consumption of device. A mathematical model for power consumption was derived and used to modify the speed profile of centrifuge controller. The power consumption model derived based on attenuation measurements has successfully save the power consumption of centrifugation process keeping high separation efficiency. 18kW.h monthly for 100 daily time device operation had been saved using the proposed model.

  4. Front end power dissipation minimization and optimal transmission rate for wireless receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den J.H.C.; Wu, Y.; Baltus, P.G.M.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Most wireless battery-operated devices spend more energy receiving than transmitting. Hence, minimizing the power dissipation in the receiver front end, which, in many cases, is the prominent power consuming part of the receiver, is an important challenge. This paper addresses this challenge by

  5. Minimization of energy consumption in HVAC systems with data-driven models and an interior-point method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusiak, Andrew; Xu, Guanglin; Zhang, Zijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the energy saving of HVAC systems with a data-driven approach. • We conduct an in-depth analysis of the topology of developed Neural Network based HVAC model. • We apply interior-point method to solving a Neural Network based HVAC optimization model. • The uncertain building occupancy is incorporated in the minimization of HVAC energy consumption. • A significant potential of saving HVAC energy is discovered. - Abstract: In this paper, a data-driven approach is applied to minimize energy consumption of a heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system while maintaining the thermal comfort of a building with uncertain occupancy level. The uncertainty of arrival and departure rate of occupants is modeled by the Poisson and uniform distributions, respectively. The internal heating gain is calculated from the stochastic process of the building occupancy. Based on the observed and simulated data, a multilayer perceptron algorithm is employed to model and simulate the HVAC system. The data-driven models accurately predict future performance of the HVAC system based on the control settings and the observed historical information. An optimization model is formulated and solved with the interior-point method. The optimization results are compared with the results produced by the simulation models

  6. Optimal Intra-Urban Hierarchy of Activity Centers—A Minimized Household Travel Energy Consumption Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An intra-urban hierarchy of activity centers interconnected by non-motorized and public transportation is broadly believed to be the ideal urban spatial structure for sustainable cities. However, the proper hinterland area for centers at each level lacks empirical study. Based on the concentric structure of everyday travel distances, working centers, shopping centers, and neighborhood centers are extracted from corresponding types of POIs in 286 Chinese cities at the prefectural level and above. A U-shaped curve between Household Transportation Energy Consumption (HTEC per capita and center density at each of the three levels has been found through regression analysis. An optimal intra-urban hierarchy of activity centers is suggested to construct energy-efficient cities.

  7. A minimally intrusive monitoring system that utilizes electricity consumption as a proxy for wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D. Hunt

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis: \\'Off-the-shelf domestic electricity meters can be utilised to assist in monitoring the wellbeing of elderly people\\'. Many studies have shown that it is, in theory, possible to use domestic electricity consumption to determine \\'activities of daily living\\' but the availability of systems for actual use is very limited. This work followed the Design Science Research Methodology to create a Java application running on the Google App Engine cloud service that interfaced with both electricity meters and voice and text services. The system was implemented and tested over a three month period with one older person and their carer. Results demonstrated that the technology readily succeeds in meeting the study\\'s initial objectives. The need for more sophisticated decision logic was apparent and a method to determine whether a home is currently occupied is likely to improve the ability to create more timely alerts.

  8. Minimizing Sum-MSE Implies Identical Downlink and Dual Uplink Power Allocations

    OpenAIRE

    Tenenbaum, Adam J.; Adve, Raviraj S.

    2009-01-01

    In the multiuser downlink, power allocation for linear precoders that minimize the sum of mean squared errors under a sum power constraint is a non-convex problem. Many existing algorithms solve an equivalent convex problem in the virtual uplink and apply a transformation based on uplink-downlink duality to find a downlink solution. In this letter, we analyze the optimality criteria for the power allocation subproblem in the virtual uplink, and demonstrate that the optimal solution leads to i...

  9. Research on DTX Technology and Power Consumption Performance of Mobile Communication Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Shui Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the power consumption of GSM and TD-SCDMA mobile communication system terminal, the paper starts with DTX (Discontinuous Transmission technology of GSM and TD-SCDMA systems, offers a detailed analysis of the DTX’s function in optimizing power consumption of GSM and TDSCDMA mobile communication system terminal and reducing system interference, and verifies DTX’s positive role in reducing the power consumption of the mobile terminal by experiment.

  10. Implementing low power consumption in standby mode in the case of power supplies with power factor correction

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Kevin; F., Pablo; G., Diego; Sebastián, Javier; Álvarez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    This work analyzes different options to implement low power consumption in Switching Mode Power Supplies (SMPSs) with Power Factor Correction (PFC) when they are in standby mode. The standard SMPSs for power levels higher than 100 W are made up of two stages: a classical PFC stage based on a Boost Converter operating in the Continuous Conduction Mode and a second stage based on any type of isolated DC-DC converter. The value of the resistive sensors needed by the PFC control stage determines ...

  11. The minimization of the extraneous electromagnetic fields of an inductive power transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, James; Sutton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of inductive wireless power transfer (IPT) systems has been extensively studied. However, the electromagnetic compatibility of such systems is at least as important as the efficiency and has received much less attention. We consider the net magnetic dipole moment of the system as a figure of merit. That is, we seek to minimize the magnitude of the net dipole moment in order to minimize both the near magnetic fields and the radiated power. A 20 kHz, 3.3 kW, IPT system, representative of typical wireless vehicular battery charging systems, is considered and it is seen that one particular value of load impedance minimizes the net dipole moment while another, distinct, value maximizes efficiency. Thus, efficiency must be traded off, at least to some extent, in order to minimize extraneous electromagnetic fields.

  12. Measurements and modelling of base station power consumption under real traffic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Josip; Garma, Tonko; Petrovic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  13. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Petrovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  14. Integrated biofuel facility, with carbon dioxide consumption and power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, E.E.; Hill, G.A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation provided details of an economical design for a large-scale integrated biofuel facility for coupled production of bioethanol and biodiesel, with carbon dioxide capture and power generation. Several designs were suggested for both batch and continuous culture operations, taking into account all costs and revenues associated with the complete plant integration. The microalgae species Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in a novel photobioreactor (PBR) in order to consume industrial carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This photosynthetic culture can also act as a biocathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC), which when coupled to a typical yeast anodic half cell, results in a complete biological MFC. The photosynthetic MFC produces electricity as well as valuable biomass and by-products. The use of this novel photosynthetic microalgae cathodic half cell in an integrated biofuel facility was discussed. A series of novel PBRs for continuous operation can be integrated into a large-scale bioethanol facility, where the PBRs serve as cathodic half cells and are coupled to the existing yeast fermentation tanks which act as anodic half cells. These coupled MFCs generate electricity for use within the biofuel facility. The microalgae growth provides oil for biodiesel production, in addition to the bioethanol from the yeast fermentation. The photosynthetic cultivation in the cathodic PBR also requires carbon dioxide, resulting in consumption of carbon dioxide from bioethanol production. The paper also discussed the effect of plant design on net present worth and internal rate of return. tabs., figs.

  15. On minimally parametric primordial power spectrum reconstruction and the evidence for a red tilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, Licia; Peiris, Hiranya

    2008-01-01

    The latest cosmological data seem to indicate a significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum when parameterized either by a power law or by a spectral index with non-zero 'running'. This deviation, by itself, serves as a powerful tool for discriminating among theories for the origin of cosmological structures such as inflationary models. Here, we use a minimally parametric smoothing spline technique to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum. This technique is well suited to searching for smooth features in the primordial power spectrum such as deviations from scale invariance or a running spectral index, although it would recover sharp features of high statistical significance. We use the WMAP three-year results in combination with data from a suite of higher resolution cosmic microwave background experiments (including the latest ACBAR 2008 release), as well as large-scale structure data from SDSS and 2dFGRS. We employ cross-validation to assess, using the data themselves, the optimal amount of smoothness in the primordial power spectrum consistent with the data. This minimally parametric reconstruction supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt, but not for deviations from a power law power spectrum. Smooth variations in the primordial power spectrum are not significantly degenerate with the other cosmological parameters

  16. Energy-efficient approach to minimizing the energy consumption in an extended job-shop scheduling problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dunbing; Dai, Min

    2015-09-01

    The traditional production planning and scheduling problems consider performance indicators like time, cost and quality as optimization objectives in manufacturing processes. However, environmentally-friendly factors like energy consumption of production have not been completely taken into consideration. Against this background, this paper addresses an approach to modify a given schedule generated by a production planning and scheduling system in a job shop floor, where machine tools can work at different cutting speeds. It can adjust the cutting speeds of the operations while keeping the original assignment and processing sequence of operations of each job fixed in order to obtain energy savings. First, the proposed approach, based on a mixed integer programming mathematical model, changes the total idle time of the given schedule to minimize energy consumption in the job shop floor while accepting the optimal solution of the scheduling objective, makespan. Then, a genetic-simulated annealing algorithm is used to explore the optimal solution due to the fact that the problem is strongly NP-hard. Finally, the effectiveness of the approach is performed smalland large-size instances, respectively. The experimental results show that the approach can save 5%-10% of the average energy consumption while accepting the optimal solution of the makespan in small-size instances. In addition, the average maximum energy saving ratio can reach to 13%. And it can save approximately 1%-4% of the average energy consumption and approximately 2.4% of the average maximum energy while accepting the near-optimal solution of the makespan in large-size instances. The proposed research provides an interesting point to explore an energy-aware schedule optimization for a traditional production planning and scheduling problem.

  17. Analysis of the reactive power consumption and the harmonics in the network by the non-linear electrical loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The non linear electrical loads can give rise to a number of disturbances in electrical power networks. Among them, the high consumption of relative power is to be noted and so is the several harmonic components which may be injected in the industry system and very often in the utility system. So, by using appropriate technical considerations, as well as measurements in typical special electrical loads, such negative effects are analyzed and ways of minimizing them are suggested. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Final Technical Report - Advanced Optical Sensors to Minimize Energy Consumption in Polymer Extrusion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan J. Foulk

    2012-07-24

    significantly reduce energy consumption. Also, because blending and dispersion of additives and components in the final product could be continuously verified, we believe that, in many cases, intermediate compounding steps could be eliminated (saving even more time and energy).

  19. Determination of aggregated load power consumption, under non-sinusoidal supply using an improved load model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, R.; Moghani, J.S.; Gharehpetian, G.B.; Mirtalaei, S.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The harmonic content of supply voltage results in additional power losses and hence increases the load power consumption. The role of the power quality equipments on the power consumption without using an accurate model cannot be determined, too. In this paper, an improved model for aggregated loads proposed, which estimates the effects of voltage harmonics on the power consumption. The distinguished aspect of the proposed model is its parameters identification method which is based on the practical techniques, such as employing a capacitor bank or varying dummy loads in steps. The proposed model has been verified by the comparison of measured and simulated results.

  20. Power supply for nuclear power plant home consumption using inverter sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepar, V.; Tvrdik, J.

    1988-01-01

    A description is presented of the system configuration of a nuclear power plant with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 units and of a system of guaranteed power supply for the plant home consumption network for a WWER-440 power plant. The power supply network consists of 6 inverter supplies for safety systems, 4 supplies for nonsystem facilities and of a minimum of three power supplies for facilities outside the units. A diagram is shown and the principle described of the currently used ABP 1500 power supply system of Soviet origin. Using the experience from its operation, a Czechoslovak inverter supply system was designed featuring parallel operation of the inverter units. The principles are given for the design of a power supply system of an output of 75 kVA, the diagram is shown and the principle described. The design allows implementing and using the system without redundancy or in redundant operation of the 2 from 3 type at an installed capacity of 66%, or of the 1 from 2 type at an installed capacity of 50% of the output. The system is undergoing tests that should verify its reliability. (J.B.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Electric Power Consumption Coefficients for U.S. Industries: Regional Estimation and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-21

    Economic activity relies on electric power provided by electrical generation, transmission, and distribution systems. This paper presents a method developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to estimate electric power consumption by different industries in the United States. Results are validated through comparisons with existing literature and benchmarking data sources. We also discuss the limitations and applications of the presented method, such as estimating indirect electric power consumption and assessing the economic impact of power outages based on input-output economic models.

  2. Evaluation of Timing and Dosage of a Parent-Based Intervention to Minimize College Students’ Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Cleveland, Michael J.; Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Abar, Caitlin; Scaglione, Nichole; Hultgren, Brittney

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study evaluated the timing and dosage of a parent-based intervention to minimize alcohol consumption for students with varying drinking histories. Method: First-year students (N = 1,900) completed Web assessments during the summer before college (baseline) and two follow-ups (fall of first and second years). Students were randomized to one of four conditions (pre-college matriculation [PCM], pre-college matriculation plus boosters [PCM+B], after college matriculation [ACM], and control conditions). Seven indicators of drinking (drink in past month, been drunk in past month, weekday [Sunday to Wednesday] drinking, Thursday drinking, weekend [Friday, Saturday] drinking, heavy episodic drinking in past 2 weeks, and peak blood alcohol concentration students. PMID:23200148

  3. Evaluation of timing and dosage of a parent-based intervention to minimize college students' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A; Cleveland, Michael J; Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Abar, Caitlin; Scaglione, Nichole; Hultgren, Brittney

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the timing and dosage of a parent-based intervention to minimize alcohol consumption for students with varying drinking histories. First-year students (N = 1,900) completed Web assessments during the summer before college (baseline) and two follow-ups (fall of first and second years). Students were randomized to one of four conditions (pre-college matriculation [PCM], pre-college matriculation plus boosters [PCM+B], after college matriculation [ACM], and control conditions). Seven indicators of drinking (drink in past month, been drunk in past month, weekday [Sunday to Wednesday] drinking, Thursday drinking, weekend [Friday, Saturday] drinking, heavy episodic drinking in past 2 weeks, and peak blood alcohol concentration students.

  4. An enhanced model for minimizing fuel consumption under block-queuing in a drive-through service system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, C.H.; Berglin, J. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems

    2004-05-01

    We present a new model for determining the optimal block-size under block-queuing in a simple, single-channel queue at a drive-through service facility. With block-queuing, a queue is partitioned into an active section and a passive section, where drivers are asked to turn off their engines until the active section clears. Our model prescribes a block-size, i.e., a maximum number of vehicles in the active section, which minimizes the expected amount of fuel consumed in the queue. It can assess the effects of the traffic intensity, the service-time variance, and the proportion of compliant drivers in the passive section on the optimal block- size and on fuel consumption in the queue. (author)

  5. Loss Minimizing Operation of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Generation Systems Considering Reactive Power Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baohua, Zhang; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with control techniques for minimizing the operating loss of doubly fed induction generator based wind generation systems when providing reactive power. The proposed method achieves its goal through controlling the rotor side q-axis current in the synchronous reference frame...

  6. Minimal Spanning Tree Graphs and Power Like Scaling in FOREX Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, A. Z.; Kwapień, J.; Oświęcimka, P.; Drożdż, S.

    2008-09-01

    Correlation matrices of foreign exchange rate time series are investigated for 60 world currencies. Minimal spanning tree graphs for the gold, silver and platinum are presented. Inverse power like scaling is discussed for these graphs as well as for four distinct currency groups (major, liquid, less liquid and non-tradable). The worst scaling was found for USD and related currencies.

  7. Value of an option to purchase electric power. The case of uncertain consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, Karan

    2002-01-01

    Large manufacturers and corporations often purchase options on power to protect themselves against unanticipated price increases. This paper analyzes the impact of uncertainty in power consumption by a corporation on the value of an option to purchase electric power. Because there is no economically viable method to store power, these options are exercised to satisfy immediate consumption needs only. The amount exercised may differ from the maximum amount contracted, which in turn alters the payoffs that accrue to the option contract. We apply a Monte Carlo methodology to show that 'consumption uncertainty' may substantively lower the price of an option contract under different conditions

  8. Measuring the power consumption of social media applications on a mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunia, A. I. M.; Suherman; Rambe, A. H.; Fauzi, R.

    2018-03-01

    As fully connected social media applications become popular and require all time connection, the power consumption on mobile device battery increases significantly. As power supplied by a battery is limited, social media application should be designed to be less power consuming. This paper reports the power consumption measurement of social media running on a mobile device. Experimental circuit was developed by using a microcontroller measuring an android smartphone on a 802.11 controlled network. The experiment results show that whatsapp consumes the power less than others in stand by and chat. While other states are dominated by line. The blackberry consumes the power the worst.

  9. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  10. A Hybrid Optimization Method for Reactive Power and Voltage Control Considering Power Loss Minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengxi; Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid optimization method to optimally control the voltage and reactive power with minimum power loss in transmission grid. This approach is used for the Danish automatic voltage control (AVC) system which is typically a non-linear non-convex problem mixed with both...

  11. A minimization procedure for estimating the power deposition and heat transport from the temperature response to auxiliary power modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eester, Dirk van

    2004-01-01

    A method commonly used for determining where externally launched power is absorbed inside a tokamak plasma is to examine the temperature response to modulation of the launched power. Strictly speaking, this response merely provides a first good guess of the actual power deposition rather than the deposition profile itself: not only local heat sources but also heat losses and heat wave propagation affect the temperature response at a given position. Making use of this, at first sight non-desirable, effect modulation becomes a useful tool for conducting transport studies. In this paper a minimization method based on a simple conduction-convection model is proposed for deducing the power deposition and transport characteristics from the experimentally measured (electron) energy density response to a modulation of the auxiliary heating power. An L-mode JET example illustrates the potential of the technique

  12. Performance analysis for minimally nonlinear irreversible refrigerators at finite cooling power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rui; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    The coefficient of performance (COP) for general refrigerators at finite cooling power have been systematically researched through the minimally nonlinear irreversible model, and its lower and upper bounds in different operating regions have been proposed. Under the tight coupling conditions, we have calculated the universal COP bounds under the χ figure of merit in different operating regions. When the refrigerator operates in the region with lower external flux, we obtained the general bounds (0 present large values, compared to a relative small loss from the maximum cooling power. If the cooling power is the main objective, it is desirable to operate the refrigerator at a slightly lower cooling power than at the maximum one, where a small loss in the cooling power induces a much larger COP enhancement.

  13. Multilevel Control System of Regional Power Consumption: Analysis of Infrastructure Elements Interconnections, Efficiency Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nikolaevna Myznikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental strategic programs in the spheres of power and economics adopted at various levels of management, are not always capable to solve the problem of power efficiency. The changes of systemic connections of economy and power elements are one of the basic problems of management at the regional level. The development of market relations has caused the growth of uncertainty factors at all levels of power consumption management. An insufficient estimation of system infrastructural interrelations and an individualization of organizational-economic relations of economic subjects and their localization, have generated the intersystem conflictness in distribution of power resources and have aggravated the problem of estimating power consumption efficiency at a systemic level. The restriction of application of the traditional management methods based on the principles of technological efficiency of the processes of energy manufacture and consumption, is connected with the information ruptures caused by the growth of factors of uncertainty and inconsistency of efficiency criteria. Application of modern methods of power consumption forecasting has a number of essential restrictions. At the present stage the management of power consumption in multilevel systems is aimed at realisation of system integrity and economic coordination of manufacture elements, transfer and consumption at regional level and demands working out of the new effective management methods based on the analysis of system interrelations. Allocation of system interrelations depends on features of development of electropower sector, active and passive elements of the structure of consumption, power balance. The analysis and estimation of interrelations of power and economic sphere allow to improve methodology of management of power consumption at the regional level in the conditions of uncertainty.

  14. An innovative intermittent hypoxia model for cell cultures allowing fast Po2 oscillations with minimal gas consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoves, Mélanie; Morand, Jessica; Perriot, Frédéric; Chatard, Morgane; Gonthier, Brigitte; Lemarié, Emeline; Menut, Jean-Baptiste; Polak, Jan; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Godin-Ribuot, Diane; Briançon-Marjollet, Anne

    2017-10-01

    Performing hypoxia-reoxygenation cycles in cell culture with a cycle duration accurately reflecting what occurs in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is a difficult but crucial technical challenge. Our goal was to develop a novel device to expose multiple cell culture dishes to intermittent hypoxia (IH) cycles relevant to OSA with limited gas consumption. With gas flows as low as 200 ml/min, our combination of plate holders with gas-permeable cultureware generates rapid normoxia-hypoxia cycles. Cycles alternating 1 min at 20% O 2 followed by 1 min at 2% O 2 resulted in Po 2 values ranging from 124 to 44 mmHg. Extending hypoxic and normoxic phases to 10 min allowed Po 2 variations from 120 to 25 mmHg. The volume of culture medium or the presence of cells only modestly affected the Po 2 variations. In contrast, the nadir of the hypoxia phase increased when measured at different heights above the membrane. We validated the physiological relevance of this model by showing that hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression was significantly increased by IH exposure in human aortic endothelial cells, murine breast carcinoma (4T1) cells as well as in a blood-brain barrier model (2.5-, 1.5-, and 6-fold increases, respectively). In conclusion, we have established a new device to perform rapid intermittent hypoxia cycles in cell cultures, with minimal gas consumption and the possibility to expose several culture dishes simultaneously. This device will allow functional studies of the consequences of IH and deciphering of the molecular biology of IH at the cellular level using oxygen cycles that are clinically relevant to OSA. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. A durable, non power consumptive, simple seal for rotary blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Y; Sekine, K; Asakawa, M; Yozu, R; Kawada, S; Okamoto, E

    2001-01-01

    One of the key technologic requirements for rotary blood pumps is the sealing of the motor shaft. A mechanical seal, a journal bearing, magnetic coupling, and magnetic suspension have been developed, but they have drawbacks such as wear, thrombus formation, and power consumption. A magnetic fluid seal was developed for an axial flow pump. A magnetic fluid seal is durable, simple, and non power consumptive. Long-term experiments and finite element modeling (FEM) analyses confirmed these advantages. The seal body was composed of a Ned-Fe magnet and two pole pieces; the seal was formed by injecting ferrofluid into the gap (50 microm) between the pole pieces and the motor shaft. To contain the ferrofluid in the seal and to minimize the possibility of ferrofluid making contact with blood, a shield with a small cavity was attached to the pole piece. While submerged in blood, the sealing pressure of the seal was measured and found to be 188 mm Hg with ferrofluid LS-40 (saturated magnetization, 24.3 kA/m) at a motor speed of 10,000 rpm and 225 mm Hg under static conditions. The magnetic fluid seals performed perfectly at a pressure of 100 mm Hg for 594 + days in a static condition, and 51, 39+, and 34+ days at a motor speed of 8,000 rpm. FEM analyses indicated a theoretical sealing pressure of 260 mm Hg. The state of the magnetic fluid in the seal in water was observed with a microscope. Neither splashing of magnetic fluid nor mixing of the magnetic fluid and water was observed. The specially designed magnetic fluid seal for keeping liquids out is useful for axial flow blood pumps. The magnetic fluid seal was incorporated into an intracardiac axial flow pump.

  16. Empirical multichannel power consumption model for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia; de Paiva, Getulio E. R.; Argentato, Marcio Colazza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on the first experimental power consumption analysis and model of single and multi-stage booster erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with automatic gain control (AGC), accounting for channel number dependency. Results show that the amount of channels being amplified simu......-users, it is relevant to study channel number dependent power consumption for devising EDFA power efficient control and design.......In this paper we report on the first experimental power consumption analysis and model of single and multi-stage booster erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with automatic gain control (AGC), accounting for channel number dependency. Results show that the amount of channels being amplified...... simultaneously contributes significantly, up to 48%, to the total power consumption due to the circuitry used for controlling the EDFA. As the number of simultaneous amplified WDM channels in high capacity long and medium reach transmission links reflects closely traffic patterns generated by end...

  17. Sustainable Development of Regional Power Systems and the Consumption of Electric Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Lisin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the most imminent problems facing power systems in post-industrial countries is the sustainable development of power systems under conditions of increasing power consumption irregularity due to the reduction of the industry’s share in consumers’ demand for electric power. In today’s Russia, this issue is becoming very acute due to the significant share of electric power and heat co-generation that is demonstrating low manoeuvrability and poor adaptation to operations in the daily variation of electric power demand. This paper considers the problem of improving the power system steady-state through the optimization of the production structure of thermal power plants. We propose a combinatorial algorithm that improves the planning of the structural and technological modernization of the power equipment configuration, with a glance at the forecast of the increasing irregularity of power consumption.

  18. A majorization-minimization approach to design of power distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jason K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We consider optimization approaches to design cost-effective electrical networks for power distribution. This involves a trade-off between minimizing the power loss due to resistive heating of the lines and minimizing the construction cost (modeled by a linear cost in the number of lines plus a linear cost on the conductance of each line). We begin with a convex optimization method based on the paper 'Minimizing Effective Resistance of a Graph' [Ghosh, Boyd & Saberi]. However, this does not address the Alternating Current (AC) realm and the combinatorial aspect of adding/removing lines of the network. Hence, we consider a non-convex continuation method that imposes a concave cost of the conductance of each line thereby favoring sparser solutions. By varying a parameter of this penalty we extrapolate from the convex problem (with non-sparse solutions) to the combinatorial problem (with sparse solutions). This is used as a heuristic to find good solutions (local minima) of the non-convex problem. To perform the necessary non-convex optimization steps, we use the majorization-minimization algorithm that performs a sequence of convex optimizations obtained by iteratively linearizing the concave part of the objective. A number of examples are presented which suggest that the overall method is a good heuristic for network design. We also consider how to obtain sparse networks that are still robust against failures of lines and/or generators.

  19. MINIMIZATION OF IMPACTS PERTAINING TO EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ENERGY SECURITY THREATS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Nagornov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a classification of internal and external threats for thermal power plants and recommendations on minimization of these risks. A set of concrete measures aimed at ensuring TPP energy security has been presented in the paper. The system comprises preventive measures aimed at reducing the possibilities of emergence and implementation of internal and external threats. The system also presupposes to decrease susceptibility of fuel- and energy supply systems to the threats, and application of liquidation measures that ensure elimination of emergency situation consequences and restoration of the conditions concerning fuel- and power supply to consumers.

  20. Review of reactive power dispatch strategies for loss minimization in a DFIG-based wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Hou, Peng

    2017-01-01

    power control strategies are investigated. All of the combined strategies are formulated based on the comprehensive loss models of WFs, including the loss models of DFIGs, converters, filters, transformers, and cables of the collection system. Optimization problems are solved by a Modified Particle......This paper reviews and compares the performance of reactive power dispatch strategies for the loss minimization of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)-based Wind Farms (WFs). Twelve possible combinations of three WF level reactive power dispatch strategies and fourWind Turbine (WT) level reactive...... Swarm Optimization (MPSO) algorithm. The effectiveness of these strategies is evaluated by simulations on a carefully designed WF under a series of cases with different wind speeds and reactive power requirements of the WF. The wind speed at each WT inside the WF is calculated using the Jensen wake...

  1. Method for reducing power consumption in a state retaining circuit, state reaining circuit and electronic device.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    A method for reducing the power consumption in a state retaining circuit during a standby mode is disclosed comprising, in an active state, providing a regular power supply (VDD) and a standby power supply (VDD STANDBY) to the state retaining circuit; for a transition from an active state to a

  2. A Supervisory Control Algorithm of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Adaptive Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy with Fuzzy PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqi Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new energy management system based on equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS for hybrid electric vehicles. The aim is to enhance fuel economy and impose state of charge (SoC charge-sustainability. First, the relationship between the equivalent factor (EF of ECMS and the co-state of pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP is derived. Second, a new method of implementing the adaptation law using fuzzy proportional plus integral (PI controller is developed to adjust EF for ECMS in real-time. This adaptation law is more robust than one with constant EF due to the variation of EF as well as driving cycle. Finally, simulations for two driving cycles using ECMS are conducted as opposed to the commonly used rule-based (RB control strategy, indicating that the proposed adaptation law can provide a promising blend in terms of fuel economy and charge-sustainability. The results confirm that ECMS with Fuzzy PI adaptation law is more robust than ECMS with constant EF as well as PI adaptation law and it achieves significant improvements compared with RB in terms of fuel economy, which is enhanced by 4.44% and 14.7% for china city bus cycle and economic commission of Europe (ECE cycle, respectively.

  3. Chaotic improved PSO-based multi-objective optimization for minimization of power losses and L index in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gonggui; Liu, Lilan; Song, Peizhu; Du, Yangwei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New method for MOORPD problem using MOCIPSO and MOIPSO approaches. • Constrain-prior Pareto-dominance method is proposed to meet the constraints. • The limits of the apparent power flow of transmission line are considered. • MOORPD model is built up for MOORPD problem. • The achieved results by MOCIPSO and MOIPSO approaches are better than MOPSO method. - Abstract: Multi-objective optimal reactive power dispatch (MOORPD) seeks to not only minimize power losses, but also improve the stability of power system simultaneously. In this paper, the static voltage stability enhancement is achieved through incorporating L index in MOORPD problem. Chaotic improved PSO-based multi-objective optimization (MOCIPSO) and improved PSO-based multi-objective optimization (MOIPSO) approaches are proposed for solving complex multi-objective, mixed integer nonlinear problems such as minimization of power losses and L index in power systems simultaneously. In MOCIPSO and MOIPSO based optimization approaches, crossover operator is proposed to enhance PSO diversity and improve their global searching capability, and for MOCIPSO based optimization approach, chaotic sequences based on logistic map instead of random sequences is introduced to PSO for enhancing exploitation capability. In the two approaches, constrain-prior Pareto-dominance method (CPM) is proposed to meet the inequality constraints on state variables, the sorting and crowding distance methods are considered to maintain a well distributed Pareto optimal solutions, and moreover, fuzzy set theory is employed to extract the best compromise solution over the Pareto optimal curve. The proposed approaches have been examined and tested in the IEEE 30 bus and the IEEE 57 bus power systems. The performances of MOCIPSO, MOIPSO, and multi-objective PSO (MOPSO) approaches are compared with respect to multi-objective performance measures. The simulation results are promising and confirm the ability of MOCIPSO and

  4. Minimization of Load Variance in Power Grids—Investigation on Optimal Vehicle-to-Grid Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Miao Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of electric vehicles into the transportation sector helps reduce global warming and carbon emissions. The interaction between electric vehicles and the power grid has spurred the emergence of a smart grid technology, denoted as vehicle-to grid-technology. Vehicle-to-grid technology manages the energy exchange between a large fleet of electric vehicles and the power grid to accomplish shared advantages for the vehicle owners and the power utility. This paper presents an optimal scheduling of vehicle-to-grid using the genetic algorithm to minimize the power grid load variance. This is achieved by allowing electric vehicles charging (grid-to-vehicle whenever the actual power grid loading is lower than the target loading, while conducting electric vehicle discharging (vehicle-to-grid whenever the actual power grid loading is higher than the target loading. The vehicle-to-grid optimization algorithm is implemented and tested in MATLAB software (R2013a, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA. The performance of the optimization algorithm depends heavily on the setting of the target load, power grid load and capability of the grid-connected electric vehicles. Hence, the performance of the proposed algorithm under various target load and electric vehicles’ state of charge selections were analysed. The effectiveness of the vehicle-to-grid scheduling to implement the appropriate peak load shaving and load levelling services for the grid load variance minimization is verified under various simulation investigations. This research proposal also recommends an appropriate setting for the power utility in terms of the selection of the target load based on the electric vehicle historical data.

  5. Measurement of power and energy consumption of a competition-mobile-robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Tsing-Tshih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Power and energy consumption are the two most important factors for successful operation; they also play important roles in performance identification. The measurement of power and energy consumption is a common test in the development process of a competition mobile robot. If the power of a competition mobile robot is not sufficient, the running time in the competition will be too long and winning the competition will not be possible. Thus, the power and energy consumption are basic and important measurement parameters for a competition mobile robot. In this paper, five types of hand-made competition mobile robots are successfully developed and their performances are measured. From the measurements, their powers and energy consumptions are evaluated and analyzed, respectively. The test results show large differences in the powers and energy consumptions of the five models, even though the same motors were used. The design and construction of the competition mobile robot are the key parameters that cause these huge differences. It is possible to develop the measurement techniques for power and energy consumption, quickly and precisely, to determine how to modify a competition mobile robot rapidly and efficiently to a condition optimal for a mobile robot competition.

  6. Model Predictive Control for Flexible Power Consumption of Large-Scale Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    A model predictive control (MPC) scheme is introduced to directly control the electrical power consumption of large-scale refrigeration systems. Deviation from the baseline of the consumption is corresponded to the storing and delivering of thermal energy. By virtue of such correspondence...

  7. Power of Doubling: Population Growth and Resource Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Sarika Bahadure

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability starts with conserving resources for future generations. Since human’s existence on this earth, he has been consuming natural resources. The resource consumption pace in the past was very slow, but industrialization in 18th century brought a change in the human lifestyle. New inventions and discoveries upgraded the human workforce to machines. The mass manufacture of goods provided easy access to products. In the last few decades, the globalization and change in technologies br...

  8. The Effect of Information Access Strategy on Power Consumption and Reliability in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different information access strategies on power consumption and information reliability, considering the wireless sensor network as the source of information. Basically, the paper explores three different access strategies, namely; reactive, periodic and hybrid...

  9. Design of a Solid-State Fast Voltage Compensator for klystron modulators requiring constant AC power consumption

    CERN Document Server

    Aguglia, Davide; Viarouge, Philippe; Cros, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel topological solution for klystron modulators integrating a Fast Voltage Compensator which allows an operation at constant power consumption from the utility grid. This kind of solution is mandatory for the CLIC project under study, which requires several hundreds of synchronously operated klystron modulators for a total pulsed power of 39 GW. The topology is optimized for the challenging CLIC specifications, which require a very precise output voltage flat-top as well as fast rise and fall times (3µs). The Fast Voltage Compensator is integrated in the modulator such that it only has to manage the capacitor charger current and a fraction of the charging voltage. Consequently, its dimensioning power and cost is minimized.

  10. Reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2011-10-18

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes that include: receiving, by each compute node, instructions to perform a type of collective operation; selecting, by each compute node from a plurality of collective operations for the collective operation type, a particular collective operation in dependence upon power consumption characteristics for each of the plurality of collective operations; and executing, by each compute node, the selected collective operation.

  11. GPU Performance and Power Consumption Analysis: A DCT based denoising application

    OpenAIRE

    Pi Puig, Martín; De Giusti, Laura Cristina; Naiouf, Marcelo; De Giusti, Armando Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    It is known that energy and power consumption are becoming serious metrics in the design of high performance workstations because of heat dissipation problems. In the last years, GPU accelerators have been integrating many of these expensive systems despite they are embedding more and more transistors on their chips producing a quick increase of power consumption requirements. This paper analyzes an image processing application, in particular a Discrete Cosine Transform denoising algorithm, i...

  12. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER CONSUMPTION FOR SOME OIL PIPE-LINE SECTIONS WITH POOR OPERATIONAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kolesnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of power consumption for technologically completed and non-completed oil pipe-line sections with poor operational stability has been developed on the basis of daily indices concerning oil transportation regimes. The model permits to take into account tendencies in power consumption under various time prediction cycles and ranges of oil freight turnover, changes in the bulk and characteristics of the transported oil, configuration and design parameters of oil pipe-line.

  13. Multi-Time Scale Coordinated Scheduling Strategy with Distributed Power Flow Controllers for Minimizing Wind Power Spillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The inherent variability and randomness of large-scale wind power integration have brought great challenges to power flow control and dispatch. The distributed power flow controller (DPFC has the higher flexibility and capacity in power flow control in the system with wind generation. This paper proposes a multi-time scale coordinated scheduling model with DPFC to minimize wind power spillage. Configuration of DPFCs is initially determined by stochastic method. Afterward, two sequential procedures containing day-head and real-time scales are applied for determining maximum schedulable wind sources, optimal outputs of generating units and operation setting of DPFCs. The generating plan is obtained initially in day-ahead scheduling stage and modified in real-time scheduling model, while considering the uncertainty of wind power and fast operation of DPFC. Numerical simulation results in IEEE-RTS79 system illustrate that wind power is maximum scheduled with the optimal deployment and operation of DPFC, which confirms the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Efficient utilization of wind power: Long-distance transmission or local consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanzhang; Ma, Xiyuan; Xu, Jian; Bao, Yi; Liao, Siyang

    2017-09-01

    Excess wind power produced in wind-intensive areas is normally delivered to remote load centers via long-distance transmission lines. This paper presents a comparison between long-distance transmission, which has gained popularity, and local energy consumption, in which a fraction of the generated wind power can be locally consumed by energy-intensive industries. First, the challenges and solutions to the long-distance transmission and local consumption of wind power are presented. Then, the two approaches to the utilization of wind power are compared in terms of system security, reliability, cost, and capability to utilize wind energy. Finally, the economic feasibility and technical feasibility of the local consumption of wind power are demonstrated by a large and isolated industrial power system, or supermicrogrid, in China. The coal-fired generators together with the short-term interruptible electrolytic aluminum load in the supermicrogrid are able to compensate for the intermittency of wind power. In the long term, the transfer of high-energy-consumption industries to wind-rich areas and their local consumption of the available wind power are beneficial.

  15. Efficient utilization of wind power: Long-distance transmission or local consumption?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanzhang SUN; Xiyuan MA; Jian XU; Yi BAO; Siyang LIAO

    2017-01-01

    Excess wind power produced in wind-intensive areas is normally delivered to remote load centers via long-distance transmission lines.This paper presents a comparison between long-distance transmission,which has gained popularity,and local energy consumption,in which a fraction of the generated wind power can be locally consumed by energy-intensive industries.First,the challenges and solutions to the long-distance transmission and local consumption of wind power are presented.Then,the two approaches to the utilization of wind power are compared in terms of system security,reliability,cost,and capability to utilize wind energy.Finally,the economic feasibility and technical feasibility of the local consumption of wind power are demonstrated by a large and isolated industrial power system,or supermicrogrid,in China.The coal-fired generators together with the shortterm interruptible electrolytic aluminum load in the supermicrogrid are able to compensate for the intermittency of wind power.In the long term,the transfer of highenergy-consumption industries to wind-rich areas and their local consumption of the available wind power are beneficial.

  16. Analysis of Characteristics of Power Consumption for Context-Aware Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeyeon Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a large portion of smartphone applications (Apps has targeted context-aware services. They aim to perceive users’ real-time context like his/her location, actions, or even emotion, and to provide various customized services based on the inferred context. However, context-awareness in mobile environments has some challenging issues due to limitations of devices themselves. Limited power is regarded as the most critical problem in context-awareness on smartphones. Many studies have tried to develop low-power methods, but most of them have focused on the power consumption of H/W modules of smartphones such as CPU and LCD. Only a few research papers have recently started to present some S/W-based approaches to improve the power consumption. That is, previous works did not consider energy consumed by context-awareness of Apps. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on the power consumption of context-aware Apps. We analyze the characteristics of context-aware Apps in a perspective of the power consumption, and then define two main factors which significantly influence the power consumption: a sort of context that context-aware Apps require for their services and a type of ways that a user uses them. The experimental result shows the reasonability and the possibility to develop low-power methods based on our analysis. That is, our analysis presented in this paper will be a foundation for energy-efficient context-aware services in mobile environments.

  17. Minimizing the power peaking factor of fuel lattices using factors of group for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, J. R.; Longoria, L. C.; De la Cruz, E.; Arredondo, C.

    2010-10-01

    A method to design the distribution and composition of nuclear fuel for the array of fuel rods in a lattice for BWRs is presented in this work. The aim of the method is to minimize the power peaking factor until an adequate value is reached. Also, this method uses a few calculations of lattice. The method is based on the classification of the fuel rods in two groups: the group of fuel rods with the higher power level (group pow ), and the other group of fuel rods (no-group pow ). The enrichment of 235 U of each fuel rod of the group pow is multiplied by a factor called group fissile factor (f group ), and the enrichment of 235 U of each fuel rod of the no-group pow is multiplied by a factor called no-group fissile factor (f no-group ). These factors are fitted so that the power peaking factor is minimized. The importance of the method with the use of these two factors is applied to the design of a fuel lattice for BWRs as the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. The calculations of lattice are made by means of the Helios code. (Author)

  18. Warm weather conditions moderated the increase of power consumption in Finland in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, H.

    2001-01-01

    Year 2000 was exceptionally warm in Finland. The amount of rainfalls in Northern Finland was larger than in 1999. This is shown clearly in the production of hydroelectric power. The wind conditions were also better, so the wind power generation doubled in 2000. The increase in power consumption in 2000 was only 1.7%. The power consumption rate was slightly over 79 TWh. The power consumption of household and agricultural sectors decreased by nearly 2% and in the public sector by 0.2%. The industrial power consumption increased by nearly 3%. Year 2000 was excellent for the industrial sector. The industrial production increased by 11%. The increment of power demand in heavy metal industry, chemical industry and forest industry was 5-7%. Power demand of process industry in 2000 exceeded 43.4 TWh, of which the share of building industry was more than 200 GWh. Process industry use about 55% of the total power consumption in Finland in 2000. The power demand of forest industry was 26.3 TWh, which is about 2% higher than in 1999. The corresponding figures for metal industry were 7.1 TWh and growth rate 3%. Chemical industry used in 2000 about 5.9 TWh of electric power. The growth rate was more that 4% higher in 2000 than in 1999. Power consumption of other industrial sectors in 2000 increased about 3% being now about 3.9 TWh. Hydroelectric power generation in 2000 was nearly 14.4 TWh, which is nearly 14.4 % higher than in 1999. The share of hydroelectric power generation of the total power consumption in Finland in 2000 was 18%. The wind power generation in 2000 was nearly 80 GWh, which are about 60% higher than in 1999. The number of wind power plants is 63, and the capacity of them 38 MW. The production of nuclear power in 2000 decreased by about 2% because of the longer and more thorough maintenance stoppages in the Loviisa 1 reactor. The utilisation rates of Finnish nuclear power plants in 2000 were high, Loviisa 1 by nearly 85%, Loviisa 2 by 91%, Olkiluoto 1 by 96

  19. Flexible and Cost Efficient Power Consumption using Economic MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F.S.; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2011-01-01

    the formulation of a new cost function for our proposed power management. Hereby the refrigeration system is enabled to contribute with ancillary services to the balancing power market. Since significant amounts of regulating power is needed for a higher penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources...... such as wind turbines this feature is in high demand in a future intelligent power grid (Smart Grid). Our perspective is seen from the refrigeration system but as it is demonstrated the involvement in the balancing market can be economically beneficial for the system itself while delivering crucial services...... that reduces operation costs by utilizing the thermal storage capabilities. In the study we specifically address advantages coming from daily variations in outdoor temperature and electricity prices but other aims such as peak load reduction are also considered. An important contribution of this paper is also...

  20. Preliminary results on food consumption rates for off-site dose calculation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Bock; Chung, Yang Geun; Bang, Sun Young; Kang, Duk Won

    2005-01-01

    The Internal dose by food consumption mostly account for radiological dose of public around nuclear power plants(NPP). But, food consumption rate applied to off-site dose calculation in Korea which is the result of field investigation around Kori NPP by the KAERI in 1988. is not reflected of the latest dietary characteristics. The Ministry of Health and Welfare Affairs has investigated the food and nutrition of nations every 3 years based on the Law of National Health Improvement. To update the food consumption rates of the maximum individual, the analysis of the national food investigation results and field surveys around nuclear power plant sites have been carried out

  1. The power consumption of mural central heating boilers; La consommation electrique des chaudieres murales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-10-01

    Two huge campaigns of measurements in the residential sector have revealed the unsuspected level of power consumption of heating and ventilation auxiliaries. It is important to know these levels in order to reduce them as they can significantly increase the energy bill of the lodging. This paper analyzes the case of mural central heating boilers with their auxiliaries: circulating pump of the heating loop and of the sanitary hot water production, ventilation systems, impact of the type of control system used (programmable clock, thermostat or none), annual and seasonal power consumption and the different solutions to reduce these over-consumptions. (J.S.)

  2. The Determination of Load Profiles and Power Consumptions of Home Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Issi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increment of distributed electricity generation based on renewable energy sources and improvement of communication technologies have caused the development of next-generation power grids known as smart grids. The structures of smart grids have bidirectional communication capability and enable the connection of energy generated from distributed sources to any point on the grid. They also support consumers in energy efficiency by creating opportunities for management of power consumption. The information on power consumption and load profiles of home appliances is essential to perform load management in the dwelling accurately. In this study, the power consumption data for all the basic home appliances, utilized in a two-person family in Çankırı, Turkey, was obtained with high resolution in one-second intervals. The detailed power consumption analysis and load profile were executed for each home appliance. The obtained data is not only the average power consumption of each appliance but also characterizes different operating modes or their cycles. In addition, the impact of these devices on home energy management studies and their standby power consumptions were also discussed. The acquired data is an important source to determine the load profile of individual home appliances precisely in home energy management studies. Although the results of this study do not completely reflect the energy consumption behavior of the people who live in this region, they can reveal the trends in load demands based on a real sample and customer consumption behavior of a typical two-person family.

  3. Power consumption of lifts and potential for energy savings; Elektrizitaetsverbrauch und Einspar-Potenziale bei Aufzuegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the results of a study made on the electricity consumption of lifts, which estimates that around 0.5% of Swiss power consumption is caused by lift installations. The results of measurements made on 33 various lift installations and their power consumption are presented. The SIA 380/4 model used to determine energy consumption on the basis of the number of movements is described. Stand-by and lighting consumption is examined, which, according to the authors' conclusions, offer considerable room for improvement, especially for lifts in residential buildings. A further significant potential for improvement is also noted which can be achieved when renewing older systems. The avoidance of inefficient concepts by the use of guidelines for architects, planners and customers is recommended.

  4. Energy Efficient Refrigeration and Flexible Power Consumption in a Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Halvgaard, Rasmus; Larsen, Lars F.S.

    2011-01-01

    . With modern Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods we make use of weather forecasts and predictions of varying electricity prices to apply more load to the system when the thermodynamic cycle is most efficient, and to consume larger shares of the electricity when the demand and thereby the prices...... are low. The ability to adjust power consumption according to the demands on the power grid is a highly wanted feature in a future Smart Grid. Efficient utilization of greater amounts of renewable energy calls for solutions to control the power consumption such that it increases when an energy surplus...... is available and decreases when there is a shortage. This should happen almost instantly to accommodate intermittent energy sources as e.g. wind turbines. We expect our power management solution to render systems with thermal storage capabilities suitable for flexible power consumption. The aggregation...

  5. Transmit Power Minimization and Base Station Planning for High-Speed Trains with Multiple Moving Relays in OFDMA Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2016-03-15

    High-speed railway system equipped with moving relay stations placed on the middle of the ceiling of each train wagon is investigated. The users inside the train are served in two hops via the orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) technology. In this work, we first focus on minimizing the total downlink power consumption of the base station (BS) and the moving relays while respecting specific quality of service (QoS) constraints. We first derive the optimal resource allocation solution in terms of OFDMA subcarriers and power allocation using the dual decomposition method. Then, we propose an efficient algorithm based on the Hungarian method in order to find a suboptimal but low complexity solution. Moreover, we propose an OFDMA planning solution for high-speed train by finding the maximal inter-BS distance given the required user data rates in order to perform seamless handover. Our simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed resource allocation schemes in the case of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) and compare them with previously developed algorithms as well as with the direct transmission scenario. Our results also highlight the significant planning gain obtained thanks to the use of multiple relays instead of the conventional single relay scenario.

  6. ACCOUNTING OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION LEVEL AT PAYMENT CALCULATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL CONSUMPTION (LOSSES OF ELECTRIC POWER FOR ITS TRANSMISSION IN POWER NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Zabello

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The method is proposed to make a correction in payment for consumption of reactive energy and power which is attributed to deviation of actual activation energy losses for reactive power compensation from their standard value. It is recommended to calculate standard loss values for every voltage level and actual loss values are to be determined with the help of application of remote electronic accounting means in the current mode of power consumption.

  7. Optimizing wind power generation while minimizing wildlife impacts in an urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Bohrer

    Full Text Available The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown.

  8. Optimizing wind power generation while minimizing wildlife impacts in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Gil; Zhu, Kunpeng; Jones, Robert L; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown.

  9. Study of industrial consumption behavior in the conditions of low power consumption and decrease of pollution using input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragalie, S.; Gaftea, V.

    1996-01-01

    This study, regarding the industrial consumption behaviour at low power consumption and under low pollution constraints, making use of the input-output analysis, is based on models for prices, energy demand, and pollution. Numerical applications were developed by use of MATILDA program and the methods of setting the model parameters and data acquisition are presented. The analysis provided prognoses for pollution coefficients for given price and consumption input data and very important data for industrial consumption behavior. (author) 7 refs

  10. Evaluating the power consumption of wireless sensor network applications using models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Freitas, Davi; Rosa, Nelson; Silva, Bruno; Maciel, Paulo

    2013-03-13

    Power consumption is the main concern in developing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. Consequently, several strategies have been proposed for investigating the power consumption of this kind of application. These strategies can help to predict the WSN lifetime, provide recommendations to application developers and may optimize the energy consumed by the WSN applications. While measurement is a known and precise strategy for power consumption evaluation, it is very costly, tedious and may be unfeasible considering the (usual) large number of WSN nodes. Furthermore, due to the inherent dynamism of WSNs, the instrumentation required by measurement techniques makes difficult their use in several different scenarios. In this context, this paper presents an approach for evaluating the power consumption of WSN applications by using simulation models along with a set of tools to automate the proposed approach. Starting from a programming language code, we automatically generate consumption models used to predict the power consumption of WSN applications. In order to evaluate the proposed approach, we compare the results obtained by using the generated models against ones obtained by measurement.

  11. Fuzzy-TLBO optimal reactive power control variables planning for energy loss minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghadam, Ahmad; Seifi, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new approach to the problem of optimal reactive power control variables planning is proposed. • The energy loss minimization problem has been formulated by modeling the load of system as a Load Duration Curve. • To solving the energy loss problem, the classic methods and the evolutionary methods are used. • A new proposed fuzzy teaching–learning based algorithm is applied to energy loss problem. • Simulations are done to show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithm compared with other methods. - Abstract: This paper offers a new approach to the problem of optimal reactive power control variables planning (ORPVCP). The basic idea is division of Load Duration Curve (LDC) into several time intervals with constant active power demand in each interval and then solving the energy loss minimization (ELM) problem to obtain an optimal initial set of control variables of the system so that is valid for all time intervals and can be used as an initial operating condition of the system. In this paper, the ELM problem has been solved by the linear programming (LP) and fuzzy linear programming (Fuzzy-LP) and evolutionary algorithms i.e. MHBMO and TLBO and the results are compared with the proposed Fuzzy-TLBO method. In the proposed method both objective function and constraints are evaluated by membership functions. The inequality constraints are embedded into the fitness function by the membership function of the fuzzy decision and the problem is modeled by fuzzy set theory. The proposed Fuzzy-TLBO method is performed on the IEEE 30 bus test system by considering two different LDC; and it is shown that using this method has further minimized objective function than original TLBO and other optimization techniques and confirms its potential to solve the ORPCVP problem with considering ELM as the objective function

  12. Minimization of Load Variance in Power Grids—Investigation on Optimal Vehicle-to-Grid Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kang Miao; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.; Yong, Jia Ying

    2017-01-01

    -to-grid optimization algorithm is implemented and tested in MATLAB software (R2013a, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). The performance of the optimization algorithm depends heavily on the setting of the target load, power grid load and capability of the grid-connected electric vehicles. Hence, the performance...... of the proposed algorithm under various target load and electric vehicles’ state of charge selections were analysed. The effectiveness of the vehicle-to-grid scheduling to implement the appropriate peak load shaving and load levelling services for the grid load variance minimization is verified under various...

  13. Power Consumption and Calculation Requirement Analysis of AES for WSN IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chung-Wen; Hsu, Wen-Ting

    2018-05-23

    Because of the ubiquity of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, the power consumption and security of IoT systems have become very important issues. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a block cipher algorithm is commonly used in IoT devices. In this paper, the power consumption and cryptographic calculation requirement for different payload lengths and AES encryption types are analyzed. These types include software-based AES-CB, hardware-based AES-ECB (Electronic Codebook Mode), and hardware-based AES-CCM (Counter with CBC-MAC Mode). The calculation requirement and power consumption for these AES encryption types are measured on the Texas Instruments LAUNCHXL-CC1310 platform. The experimental results show that the hardware-based AES performs better than the software-based AES in terms of power consumption and calculation cycle requirements. In addition, in terms of AES mode selection, the AES-CCM-MIC64 mode may be a better choice if the IoT device is considering security, encryption calculation requirement, and low power consumption at the same time. However, if the IoT device is pursuing lower power and the payload length is generally less than 16 bytes, then AES-ECB could be considered.

  14. Carbon emission coefficient of power consumption in India: baseline determination from the demand side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Barnali; Parikh, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Substantial investments are expected in the Indian power sector under the flexibility mechanisms (CDM/JI) laid down in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol. In this context it is important to evolve a detailed framework for baseline construction in the power sector so as to incorporate the major factors that would affect the baseline values directly or indirectly. It is also important to establish carbon coefficients from electricity generation to help consider accurate project boundaries for numerous electricity conservation and DSM schemes. The objective of this paper is to provide (i) time series estimates of indirect carbon emissions per unit of power consumption (which can also be thought of as emission coefficient of power consumption) and (ii) baseline emissions for the power sector till 2015. Annual time series data on Indian electricity generating industry, for 1974-1998, has been used to develop emission projections till 2015. The impacts of generation mix, fuel efficiency, transmission and distribution losses and auxiliary consumption are studied in a Divisia decomposition framework and their possible future impacts on baseline emissions are studied through three scenarios of growth in power consumption. The study also estimates and projects the carbon emission coefficient per unit of final consumption of electricity that can be used for conducting cost benefit of emission reduction potential for several electricity conserving technologies and benchmarking policy models

  15. A low power consumption and multi-function mini-printer for the portable nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuheng; Zhang Jiahong

    1994-01-01

    The authors presents a method of fitting a commercial printing calculator to the low power consumption and multi-function mini-printer. It can be employed as a compact data recorder and simple data processing device attached to the portable nuclear instruments, which are powered by dry batteries

  16. Active Vibration Control for Helicopter Interior Noise Reduction Using Power Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, J.; Chevva, K.; Sun, F.; Blanc, A.; Kim, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes work performed by United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) for NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) under Contract NNL11AA06C. The objective of this program is to develop technology to reduce helicopter interior noise resulting from multiple gear meshing frequencies. A novel active vibration control approach called Minimum Actuation Power (MAP) is developed. MAP is an optimal control strategy that minimizes the total input power into a structure by monitoring and varying the input power of controlling sources. MAP control was implemented without explicit knowledge of the phasing and magnitude of the excitation sources by driving the real part of the input power from the controlling sources to zero. It is shown that this occurs when the total mechanical input power from the excitation and controlling sources is a minimum. MAP theory is developed for multiple excitation sources with arbitrary relative phasing for single or multiple discrete frequencies and controlled by a single or multiple controlling sources. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of MAP for structural vibration reduction of a realistic rotorcraft interior structure. MAP control resulted in significant average global vibration reduction of a single frequency and multiple frequency excitations with one controlling actuator. Simulations also demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the observed vibration reductions on interior radiated noise.

  17. Output regulation of large-scale hydraulic networks with minimal steady state power consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafał; De Persis, Claudio; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose

    2014-01-01

    An industrial case study involving a large-scale hydraulic network is examined. The hydraulic network underlies a district heating system, with an arbitrary number of end-users. The problem of output regulation is addressed along with a optimization criterion for the control. The fact that the

  18. Virtual Routing Function Allocation Method for Minimizing Total Network Power Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichiro Hida; Shin-Ichi Kuribayashi

    2016-01-01

    In a conventional network, most network devices, such as routers, are dedicated devices that do not have much variation in capacity. In recent years, a new concept of network functions virtualisation (NFV) has come into use. The intention is to implement a variety of network functions with software on general-purpose servers and this allows the network operator to select their capacities and locations without any constraints. This paper focuses on the allocation of NFV-based routing functions...

  19. Research on trading patterns of large users' direct power purchase considering consumption of clean energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guojun, He; Lin, Guo; Zhicheng, Yu; Xiaojun, Zhu; Lei, Wang; Zhiqiang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    In order to reduce the stochastic volatility of supply and demand, and maintain the electric power system's stability after large scale stochastic renewable energy sources connected to grid, the development and consumption should be promoted by marketing means. Bilateral contract transaction model of large users' direct power purchase conforms to the actual situation of our country. Trading pattern of large users' direct power purchase is analyzed in this paper, characteristics of each power generation are summed up, and centralized matching mode is mainly introduced. Through the establishment of power generation enterprises' priority evaluation index system and the analysis of power generation enterprises' priority based on fuzzy clustering, the sorting method of power generation enterprises' priority in trading patterns of large users' direct power purchase is put forward. Suggestions for trading mechanism of large users' direct power purchase are offered by this method, which is good for expand the promotion of large users' direct power purchase further.

  20. Postprandial plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses after consumption of minimally processed wheat bran or wheat aleurone, or wheat aleurone incorporated into bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveney, Edel M; Price, Ruth K; Hamill, Lesley L; Wallace, Julie M W; McNulty, Helene; Ward, Mary; Strain, J J; Ueland, Per M; Molloy, Anne M; Piironen, Vieno; von Reding, Walter; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Welch, Robert W

    2015-02-14

    The bran and particularly the aleurone fraction of wheat are high in betaine and other physiological methyl donors, which may exert beneficial physiological effects. We conducted two randomised, controlled, cross-over postprandial studies to assess and compare plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses following the consumption of minimally processed bran and aleurone fractions (study A) and aleurone bread (study B). For both studies, standard pharmacokinetic parameters were derived for betaine, choline, folate, dimethylglycine (DMG), total homocysteine and methionine from plasma samples taken at 0, 0·5, 1, 2 and 3 h. In study A (n 14), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially elevated from 0·5 to 3 h following the consumption of both bran and aleurone compared with the control; however, aleurone gave significantly higher responses than bran. Small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG measures; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. In study B (n 13), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially higher following consumption of the aleurone bread compared with the control bread; small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG and folate measures in response to consumption of the aleurone bread; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. Peak plasma betaine concentrations, which were 1·7-1·8 times the baseline levels, were attained earlier following the consumption of minimally processed aleurone compared with the aleurone bread (time taken to reach peak concentration 1·2 v. 2·1 h). These results showed that the consumption of minimally processed wheat bran, and particularly the aleurone fraction, yielded substantial postprandial increases in plasma betaine concentrations. Furthermore, these effects appear to be maintained when aleurone was incorporated into bread.

  1. Aerodynamics power consumption for mechanical flapping wings undergoing flapping and pitching motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, N. A.; Dimitriadis, G.; Razaami, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    Lately, due to the growing interest in Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV), interest in flapping flight has been rekindled. The reason lies in the improved performance of flapping wing flight at low Reynolds number regime. Many studies involving flapping wing flight focused on the generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces such as lift and thrust. There is one aspect of flapping wing flight that received less attention. The aspect is aerodynamic power consumption. Since most mechanical flapping wing aircraft ever designed are battery powered, power consumption is fundamental in improving flight endurance. This paper reports the results of experiments carried out on mechanical wings under going active root flapping and pitching in the wind tunnel. The objective of the work is to investigate the effect of the pitch angle oscillations and wing profile on the power consumption of flapping wings via generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces. The experiments were repeated for different airspeeds, flapping and pitching kinematics, geometric angle of attack and wing sections with symmetric and cambered airfoils. A specially designed mechanical flapper modelled on large migrating birds was used. It will be shown that, under pitch leading conditions, less power is required to overcome the unsteady aerodnamics forces. The study finds less power requirement for downstroke compared to upstroke motion. Overall results demonstrate power consumption depends directly on the unsteady lift force.

  2. Self-consumption of electric power from photovoltaic origin. Ademe's advices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-02-01

    As electric power self-consumption progressively becomes economically attractive for individuals as well as for tertiary, industrial and agricultural sectors, this publication supports the development of self-consumption which displays actual benefits for consumers and for the collectivity as it notably contributes to the development of renewable energies and of roof-based photovoltaic energy production. This publication first outlines stakes and challenges (in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, energy dependence, impacts on air quality and on the environment), and then proposes an overview of possible options for a photovoltaic power production (to sell the whole production, or to partly or totally consume it). It indicates some data illustrating photovoltaic production, gives an overview of the situation regulatory knowledge regarding self-consumption, and of benefits of self-consumption in France

  3. A new algorithm for optimum voltage and reactive power control for minimizing transmission lines losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoudjehbaklou, H.; Danai, B.

    2001-01-01

    Reactive power dispatch for voltage profile modification has been of interest to power utilities. Usually local bus voltages can be altered by changing generator voltages, reactive shunts, ULTC transformers and SVCs. Determination of optimum values for control parameters, however, is not simple for modern power system networks. Heuristic and rather intelligent algorithms have to be sought. In this paper a new algorithm is proposed that is based on a variant of a genetic algorithm combined with simulated annealing updates. In this algorithm a fuzzy multi-objective a approach is used for the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. This fuzzy multi-objective function can efficiently modify the voltage profile in order to minimize transmission lines losses, thus reducing the operating costs. The reason for such a combination is to utilize the best characteristics of each method and overcome their deficiencies. The proposed algorithm is much faster than the classical genetic algorithm and cna be easily integrated into existing power utilities software. The proposed algorithm is tested on an actual system model of 1284 buses, 799 lines, 1175 fixed and ULTC transformers, 86 generators, 181 controllable shunts and 425 loads

  4. On protection and operation of home consumption of large thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, J.

    1988-01-01

    The operating reliability of the system of home consumption is affected not only by the operating reliability of the equipment but also by the system of home consumption protection. The existing system of protection in Czechoslovakia and elsewhere and new concepts in the GDR and in Poland are described. In order to improve protection redundancy in the home consumption system, distance protection can be used. The reliability of the home consumption power supply system can be improved by the use of low-ohm grounding of the home consumption transformer or by an additional transformer and a protection system with time-graded overcurrent protection devices to the zero component of the current. (M.D.). 2 figs., 8 refs

  5. Energy consumption reduction in existing HVAC-R systems via a power law controlling kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnola, C.F.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Buiar, C.L.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative solution for reducing energy consumption in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC-R) systems. For that, an existing typical commercial refrigeration system was equipped with a novel control system based on a power law, using a frequency inverter and a programmable logic controller (PLC). Hence, it was possible to compare the operation and energy consumption of the system with the power law control and with the on-off system, quantifying the obtained gains. The experimental unit consisted of a cooling chamber, an enclosing chamber (antechamber), and a vapor compression refrigeration system, i.e., an example of a practical commercial cooling system. A set of graphs shows the experimental measurements performed with the two systems. In this way, the measured temperatures in some selected points of the two systems, as well as the consumption in kWh for a period of 6 h and 10 min were compared in the tests. The main conclusions of this work are: i) The system operating with the power law control with respect to the conventional on-off control, showed energy consumption savings of up to 31% in a test period of 6 h and 10 min, and ii) The system compressor cycling frequency in the system operating with the power law control is smaller than with the traditional on-off system. Therefore, the study shows that the developed power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system with immediate significant energy savings with no need for HVAC-R hardware changes. - Highlights: • An energy consumption reduction strategy for HVAC-R systems is presented. • Power law and on-off control actions are experimentally compared. • Energy savings of 31% were obtained with power law control. • Compressor cycling frequency is smaller with power law control. • Power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system

  6. Experiment with flexible electric power consumption. Appendix; Demonstrationsforsoeg med fleksibelt elforbrug. Bilag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Thomas Emil (Dong Energy A/S, Fredericia (Denmark))

    2009-09-15

    The emergence of interactive meters with communication module has made it possible that electricity consumption at different customer segments can be activated in a new way of benefit for the customer, the electricity company and the system operator. In this demonstration project the customer segment is larger commercial properties and public institutions. The appendix contains information about the pilot software, guide to install equipment to handle flexible power consumption, model for economic calculations, and the experiments at 3 different buildings are described. (ln)

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF PARAMETERS OF CONTROL OF HEATING POWER GENERATING UNITS ON FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchinnikov P.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is presented analysis of the influence of parameters of state of the process of control on the increase of the fuel consumption of heat power generating units. There are presented results of calculations of the increase of the fuel consumption at the deviation of the working steam temperature and pressure from rated values. Result of calculus is compared with the experiment.

  8. Power Consumption Efficiency Evaluation of Multi-User Full-Duplex Visible Light Communication Systems for Smart Home Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tabish Niaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Visible light communication (VLC has recently gained significant academic and industrial attention. VLC has great potential to supplement the functioning of the upcoming radio-frequency (RF-based 5G networks. It is best suited for home, office, and commercial indoor environments as it provides a high bandwidth and high data rate, and the visible light spectrum is free to use. This paper proposes a multi-user full-duplex VLC system using red-green-blue (RGB, and white emitting diodes (LEDs for smart home technologies. It utilizes red, green, and blue LEDs for downlink transmission and a simple phosphor white LED for uplink transmission. The red and green color bands are used for user data and smart devices, respectively, while the blue color band is used with the white LED for uplink transmission. The simulation was carried out to verify the performance of the proposed multi-user full-duplex VLC system. In addition to the performance evaluation, a cost-power consumption analysis was performed by comparing the power consumption and the resulting cost of the proposed VLC system to the power consumed and resulting cost of traditional Wi-Fi based systems and hybrid systems that utilized both VLC and Wi-Fi. Our findings showed that the proposed system improved the data rate and bit-error rate performance, while minimizing the power consumption and the associated costs. These results have demonstrated that a full-duplex VLC system is a feasible solution suitable for indoor environments as it provides greater cost savings and energy efficiency when compared to traditional Wi-Fi-based systems and hybrid systems that utilize both VLC and Wi-Fi.

  9. Low power consumption 4-channel variable optical attenuator array based on planar lightwave circuit technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Mei-Zhen; Zhang Jia-Shun; An Jun-Ming; Wang Yue; Wang Liang-Liang; Li Jian-Guang; Wu Yuan-Da; Yin XiaoJie; Hu Xiong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The power consumption of a variable optical attenuator (VOA) array based on a silica planar lightwave circuit was investigated. The thermal field profile of the device was optimized using the finite-element analysis. The simulation results showed that the power consumption reduces as the depth of the heat-insulating grooves is deeper, the up-cladding is thinner, the down-cladding is thicker, and the width of the cladding ridge is narrower. The materials component and thickness of the electrodes were also optimized to guarantee the driving voltage under 5 V. The power consumption was successfully reduced to as low as 155 mW at an attenuation of 30 dB in the experiment. (paper)

  10. Power Minimization of a Wireless Sensor Node under Different Rate Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Solares, Jose

    2016-03-31

    Future wireless networks are expected to handle a huge number of devices, including sensors, within a low energy consumption. In this scope, we present, in this paper, performance of wireless sensor networks (WSN). Specifically, we aim at finding the optimal transmit power of a node communicating with multiple receivers in a cognitive radio (CR) spectrum sharing framework, i.e., existence of an active primary user. We first present the optimal power with single secondary receiver, under instantaneous or average transmission rate constraints. Then, we propose a suboptimal solution for an easier, yet efficient, implementation and perform insightful asymptotical analysis for both schemes with Rayleigh fading. Afterwards, we extend our results to a multiple secondary receives CR scenario and present the corresponding optimal and suboptimal transmit power while satisfying independent peak/average and sum of peak/average transmission rate constraints. The corresponding numerical results are provided for Rayleigh and Nakagami-m fading channels. We characterize some transmission outage events depending on system parameters.

  11. Power Minimization of a Wireless Sensor Node under Different Rate Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Solares, Jose; Sboui, Lokman; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Future wireless networks are expected to handle a huge number of devices, including sensors, within a low energy consumption. In this scope, we present, in this paper, performance of wireless sensor networks (WSN). Specifically, we aim at finding the optimal transmit power of a node communicating with multiple receivers in a cognitive radio (CR) spectrum sharing framework, i.e., existence of an active primary user. We first present the optimal power with single secondary receiver, under instantaneous or average transmission rate constraints. Then, we propose a suboptimal solution for an easier, yet efficient, implementation and perform insightful asymptotical analysis for both schemes with Rayleigh fading. Afterwards, we extend our results to a multiple secondary receives CR scenario and present the corresponding optimal and suboptimal transmit power while satisfying independent peak/average and sum of peak/average transmission rate constraints. The corresponding numerical results are provided for Rayleigh and Nakagami-m fading channels. We characterize some transmission outage events depending on system parameters.

  12. Evaluation of the power consumption of a high-speed parallel robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xin-Jun

    2018-06-01

    An inverse dynamic model of a high-speed parallel robot is established based on the virtual work principle. With this dynamic model, a new evaluation method is proposed to measure the power consumption of the robot during pick-and-place tasks. The power vector is extended in this method and used to represent the collinear velocity and acceleration of the moving platform. Afterward, several dynamic performance indices, which are homogenous and possess obvious physical meanings, are proposed. These indices can evaluate the power input and output transmissibility of the robot in a workspace. The distributions of the power input and output transmissibility of the high-speed parallel robot are derived with these indices and clearly illustrated in atlases. Furtherly, a low-power-consumption workspace is selected for the robot.

  13. Minimizing Freshwater Consumption in the Wash-Off Step in Textile Reactive Dyeing by Catalytic Ozonation with Carbon Aerogel Hosted Bimetallic Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enling Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In textile reactive dyeing, dyed fabrics have to be rinsed in the wash-off step several times to improve colorfastness. Thus, the multiple rinsing processes drastically increase the freshwater consumption and meanwhile generate massive waste rinsing effluents. This paper addresses an innovative alternative to recycle the waste effluents to minimize freshwater consumption in the wash-off step. Accordingly, catalytic ozonation with a highly effective catalyst has been applied to remedy the waste rinsing effluents for recycling. The carbon aerogel (CA hosted bimetallic hybrid material (Ag–Fe2O3@CA was fabricated and used as the catalyst in the degradation of residual dyes in the waste rinsing effluents by ozonation treatments. The results indicate the participation of Ag–Fe2O3@CA had strikingly enhanced the removal percentage of chemical oxidation demand by 30%. In addition, it has been validated that waste effluents had been successfully reclaimed after catalytic ozonation with Ag–Fe2O3@CA. They could be additionally reused to reduce freshwater consumption in the wash-off step, but without sacrificing the color quality of corresponding fabrics in terms of color difference and colorfastness. This study may be the first to report the feasibility of catalytic ozonation in minimization of freshwater consumption in the wash-off step in textile reactive dyeing.

  14. PRof ILE of ORANGE CONSUMPTION AND CONSUMER ATTITUDES TO MINIMALLY PROCESSED ‘PERA’ ORANGE IN MUNICIPALITIES of THE STATE of SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Arruda PALHARINI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the prof ile of orange consumption and consumer attitude to minimally processed orange. Seven hundred and seventeen questionnaires were applied in commercial establishments in three municipalities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Main results of this research are: orange is a highly appreciated fruit, being consumed in natura and also as its natural juice, moreover orange is purchased weekly at hypermarkets, the purchase intent for minimally processed orange was low and the likely consumers’ willingness of paying for that product would be near 200% over the ‘in natura’ fruit. Considering the high consume of ‘in natura’ orange and the increasing need for convenience and practicality, it is possible to affirm that there is a potential for commercializing minimally processed orange.

  15. Comparative gross domestic production and electricity consumption per capita in the context of nuclear power prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Maragatham Kumar; Nik Arlina Nik Ali; Abi Muttaqin Jalal Bayar; Aisya Raihan Abdul Kadir; Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly; Azlinda Aziz; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim

    2008-08-01

    Malaysia, based on its economic and industrial growth level should be able to absorb nuclear technology and capacity in implementing a nuclear power programme. Malaysia Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and electricity consumption (kWh per capita is higher compared with other developing countries, which have already announced their plans to implement nuclear power programme. Furthermore, Asia reliance on nuclear power plants to meet growing energy needs in the near future is also significantly increasing. This paper presents the comparative GDP and kWh per capita in Asia and globally in the context of nuclear power prospect in Malaysia. (Author)

  16. Cost-minimized combinations of wind power, solar power and electrochemical storage, powering the grid up to 99.9% of the time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budischak, Cory; Sewell, DeAnna; Thomson, Heather

    2013-01-01

    intermittent power, we seek combinations of diverse renewables at diverse sites, with storage, that are not intermittent and satisfy need a given fraction of hours. And 2) we seek minimal cost, calculating true cost of electricity without subsidies and with inclusion of external costs. Our model evaluated over...... renewable generation and the excess capacity together meet electric load with less storage, lowering total system cost. At 2030 technology costs and with excess electricity displacing natural gas, we find that the electric system can be powered 90%–99.9% of hours entirely on renewable electricity, at costs...

  17. Evaluation of the effect of the Power of One campaign on natural gas consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffney, Seán; Lyons, Seán; Malaguzzi Valeri, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study an advertising campaign launched by the Irish government to induce more energy-efficient behaviour and we assess its effect on residential natural gas consumption. We first analyse changes in the daily consumption of natural gas and find that advertising leaflets had a significant, but short-lived, effect on natural gas consumption. We find no persistent effect of the campaign. We then study three surveys administered to 1000 consumers prior to and during the campaign. This repeated cross-section allows us to determine that the efficiency campaign has increased awareness of behaviours that curb natural gas consumption. However we do not find any significant effect of the campaign on self-reported natural gas-saving behaviour. -- Highlights: •We assess the effect of the Irish Power of One campaign on natural gas consumption. •We analyse consumption (and awareness of behaviours) before and after the campaign launch. •There is an effect on consumers' awareness of how to reduce consumption. •We find a short-run effect of the first year of the campaign, but no long run effect

  18. Behavioral System Level Power Consumption Modeling of Mobile Video Streaming applications

    OpenAIRE

    Benmoussa , Yahia; Boukhobza , Jalil; Hadjadj-Aoul , Yassine; Lagadec , Loïc; Benazzouz , Djamel

    2012-01-01

    National audience; Nowadays, the use of mobile applications and terminals faces fundamental challenges related to energy constraint. This is due to the limited battery lifetime as compared to the increasing hardware evolution. Video streaming is one of the most energy consuming applications in a mobile system because of its intensive use of bandwidth, memory and processing power. In this work, we aim to propose a methodology for building and validating a high level global power consumption mo...

  19. Improving Quality of Service and Reducing Power Consumption with WAN accelerator in Cloud Computing Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Shin-ichi Kuribayashi

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of cloud computing services is expected to deteriorate a Quality of Service and toincrease the power consumption of ICT devices, since the distance to a server becomes longer than before. Migration of virtual machines over a wide area can solve many problems such as load balancing and power saving in cloud computing environments. This paper proposes to dynamically apply WAN accelerator within the network when a virtual machine is moved to a distant center, in order to preve...

  20. Optimization of Reliability and Power Consumption in Systems on a Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Simunic, Tajana; Mihic, Kresimir; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive transistor scaling, decreased voltage margins and increased processor power and temperature, have made reliability assessment a much more significant issue in design. Although reliability of devices and interconnect has been broadly studied, here we characterize reliability at the system level. Thus we consider component-based System on Chip designs. Reliability is strongly affected by system temperature, which is in turn driven by power consumption. Thus, component reliability and...

  1. Switzerland - power consumption should not increase by more than 5 percent by 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosatzin-Strobel, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    In this short interview, Swiss energy experts Roland Brueniger and Peter Cunz discuss the main areas of research covered by the Swiss National Research Programme on Electricity. In particular, the difficulties involved in influencing consumers as far as their consumption of electricity is concerned is discussed. Also, the status of the programme as part of the national 'Swiss Energy'-programme is discussed. The main points addressed by the programme and the role played by electricity utilities are examined. Various methods and projects concerning the reduction of electricity consumption are discussed, such as the use of energy-efficient motors and the reduction of the power consumption of data-processing equipment. Finally, Swiss efforts in these areas are compared with those of the European Union. The interviewees' own personal contributions to saving electrical power are also presented

  2. Multi-objective optimization of surface roughness, cutting forces, productivity and Power consumption when turning of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tebassi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel based super alloys are excellent for several applications and mainly in structural components submitted to high temperatures owing to their high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and metallurgical stability such as in cases of jet engine and gas turbine components. The current work presents the experimental investigations of the cutting parameters effects (cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate on the surface roughness, cutting force components, productivity and power consumption during dry conditions in straight turning using coated carbide tool. The mathematical models for output parameters have been developed using Box-Behnken design with 15 runs and Box-Cox transformation was used for improving normality. The results of the analysis have shown that the surface finish was statistically sensitive to the feed rate and cutting speed with the contribution of 43.58% and 23.85% respectively, while depth of cut had the greatest effect on the evolution of cutting force components with the contribution of 79.87% for feed force, 66.92% for radial force and 66.26% for tangential force. Multi-objective optimization procedure allowed minimizing roughness Ra, cutting forces and power consumption and maximizing material removal rate using desirability approach.

  3. A Simple Model for Power Consumption in Gassed and Boiling Stirred Vessels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paglianti, A.; Zedníková, Mária; Montante, G.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2008), s. 646-656 ISSN 0001-1541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ventilated cavity * gas -liquid systems * power consumption Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.883, year: 2008

  4. Does energy consumption by the US electric power sector exhibit long memory behavior?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Alana, Luis A.; Loomis, David; Payne, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes energy consumption by the US electric power by various energy sources through fractional integration. In doing so, we are able to determine the level of persistence of the shocks affecting each energy source. The results indicate long memory behavior as each energy source is highly persistent, displaying long memory along with autoregressive behavior and strong seasonal patterns.

  5. A Distributed Multi-agent Control System for Power Consumption in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed controller for adjusting the electrical consumption of a residential building in response to an external power setpoint in Watts. The controller is based on a multi-agent system and has been implemented in JCSP. It is modularly built, capable of self-configuratio...

  6. Distributed Robust Power Minimization for the Downlink of Multi-Cloud Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dhifallah, Oussama Najeeb

    2017-02-07

    Conventional cloud radio access networks assume single cloud processing and treat inter-cloud interference as background noise. This paper considers the downlink of a multi-cloud radio access network (CRAN) where each cloud is connected to several base-stations (BS) through limited-capacity wireline backhaul links. The set of BSs connected to each cloud, called cluster, serves a set of pre-known mobile users (MUs). The performance of the system becomes therefore a function of both inter-cloud and intra-cloud interference, as well as the compression schemes of the limited capacity backhaul links. The paper assumes independent compression scheme and imperfect channel state information (CSI) where the CSI errors belong to an ellipsoidal bounded region. The problem of interest becomes the one of minimizing the network total transmit power subject to BS power and quality of service constraints, as well as backhaul capacity and CSI error constraints. The paper suggests solving the problem using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). One of the highlight of the paper is that the proposed ADMM-based algorithm can be implemented in a distributed fashion across the multi-cloud network by allowing a limited amount of information exchange between the coupled clouds. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed algorithm provides a similar performance to the centralized algorithm in a reasonable number of iterations.

  7. Optimal power distribution for minimizing pupil walk in a 7.5X afocal zoom lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wanyue; Zhao, Yang; Berman, Rebecca; Bodell, S. Yvonne; Fennig, Eryn; Ni, Yunhui; Papa, Jonathan C.; Yang, Tianyi; Yee, Anthony J.; Moore, Duncan T.; Bentley, Julie L.

    2017-11-01

    An extensive design study was conducted to find the best optimal power distribution and stop location for a 7.5x afocal zoom lens that controls the pupil walk and pupil location through zoom. This afocal zoom lens is one of the three components in a VIS-SWIR high-resolution microscope for inspection of photonic chips. The microscope consists of an afocal zoom, a nine-element objective and a tube lens and has diffraction limited performance with zero vignetting. In this case, the required change in object (sample) size and resolution is achieved by the magnification change of the afocal component. This creates strict requirements for both the entrance and exit pupil locations of the afocal zoom to couple the two sides successfully. The first phase of the design study looked at conventional four group zoom lenses with positive groups in the front and back and the stop at a fixed location outside the lens but resulted in significant pupil walk. The second phase of the design study focused on several promising unconventional four-group power distribution designs with moving stops that minimized pupil walk and had an acceptable pupil location (as determined by the objective and tube lens).

  8. Evaluating the effect placement capacitor and distributed photovoltaic generation for power system losses minimization in radial distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Yuli Asmi; Manjang, Salama; Yusran, Ilham, Amil Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    Power loss minimization have many advantagess to the distribution system radial among others reduction of power flow in feeder lines, freeing stress on feeder loading, deterrence of power procurement from the grid and also the cost of loss compensating instruments. This paper, presents capacitor and photovoltaic (PV) placement as alternative means to decrease power system losses. The paper aims to evaluate the best alternative for decreasing power system losses and improving voltage profile in the radial distribution system. To achieve the objectives of paper, they are used three cases tested by Electric Transient and Analysis Program (ETAP) simulation. Firstly, it performs simulation of placement capacitor. Secondly, simulated placement of PV. Lastly, it runs simulation of placement capacitor and PV simultaneously. The simulations were validated using the IEEE 34-bus test system. As a result, they proved that the installation of capacitor and PV integration simultaneously leading to voltage profile correction and power losses minimization significantly.

  9. ANALYSIS OF GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT FLUCTUATIONS AND ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION IN 2005- 2014. RESERVES FOR DECREASING ELECTRIC POWER PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we considered the trajectories of change in indicators characterizing the status of economics and power industry: gross regional product, electric power consumption, industrial production, energy prices and costs of delivering electric power to consumers in Russian regions for the last 10 years. Low global commodity prices and sanctions led to a sharp decrease of equipment import, which resulted in an acute problem of import substitution. The level of tariffs of natural monopolies is of great importance for industrial development. The goal of this work was to analyze possibilities for reducing electric power prices by changing the institutional and economic conditions of management. We analyzed not only the official information from Rosstat, but also government regulations, figures given in the official government publication «The Rossiyskaya Gazeta» as well as articles and interviews on economic problems of the electric power industry over the recent years published in «The Kommersant» newspaper. High tariffs of network marketing companies for electric energy transmission, state regulation of heating prices, financing the construction of new capacities by charging the payment in power provision contracts, high price of electric power of nuclear power plants lead to an annual increase in electric power prices for end users. In this work we considered possible solutions to limit the growth of electric power prices.

  10. Alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration level and guideline compliance in hospital referred patients with minimal, mild and moderate head injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harr, Marianne Efskind; Heskestad, Ben; Ingebrigtsen, Tor

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee published guidelines for safe and cost-effective management of minimal, mild and moderate head injured patients.The aims of this study were to investigate to what extent the head injury population is under the influence of alcohol, and to evaluate...... whether the physicians' compliance to the guidelines is affected when patients are influenced by alcohol....

  11. A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jinguang; Li Sen

    2014-01-01

    A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption is proposed. The protection circuit has high reliability because the voltage and current of the battery are controlled in a safe range. The protection circuit can immediately activate a protective function when the voltage and current of the battery are beyond the safe range. In order to reduce the circuit's power consumption, a sleep state control circuit is developed. Additionally, the output frequency of the ring oscillation can be adjusted continuously and precisely by the charging capacitors and the constant-current source. The proposed protection circuit is fabricated in a 0.5 μm mixed-signal CMOS process. The measured reference voltage is 1.19 V, the overvoltage is 4.2 V and the undervoltage is 2.2 V. The total power is about 9 μW. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Investigating the water consumption for electricity generation at Turkish power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khozondar, Balkess; Aydinalp Koksal, Merih

    2017-11-01

    The water-energy intertwined relationship has recently gained more importance due to the high water consumption in the energy sector and to the limited availability of the water resources. The energy and electricity demand of Turkey is increasing rapidly in the last two decades. More thermal power plants are expected to be built in the near future to supply the rapidly increasing demand in Turkey which will put pressure on water availability. In this study, the water consumption for electricity generation at Turkish power plants is investigated. The main objectives of this study are to identify the amount of water consumed to generate 1 kWh of electricity for each generation technology currently used in Turkey and to investigate ways to reduce the water consumption at power plants expected to be built in the near future to supply the increasing demand. The various electricity generation technology mixture scenarios are analyzed to determine the future total and per generation water consumption, and water savings based on changes of cooling systems used for each technology. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) program is used to determine the minimum water consuming electricity generation technology mixtures using optimization approaches between 2017 and 2035.

  13. Proposed actions for the US Food and Drug Administration to implement to minimize adverse effects associated with energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Colby, David A; Devine, Paige

    2014-07-01

    Energy drink sales are expected to reach $52 billion by 2016. These products, often sold as dietary supplements, typically contain stimulants. The Dietary Supplement Protection Act claims an exemplary public health safety record. However, in 2011 the number of emergency department visits related to consumption of energy drinks exceeded 20,000. Nearly half of these visits involved adverse effects occurring from product misuse. Political, social, economic, practical, and legal factors shape the landscape surrounding this issue. In this policy analysis, we examine 3 options: capping energy drink caffeine levels, creating a public education campaign, and increasing regulatory scrutiny regarding the manufacture and labeling of energy drinks. Increased regulatory scrutiny may be in order, especially in light of wrongful death lawsuits related to caffeine toxicity resulting from energy drink consumption.

  14. Real time power consumption monitoring for energy efficiency analysis in micro EDM milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tristo, Gianluca; Bissacco, Giuliano; Lebar, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    for manufacturing sustainability. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is considered an attractive solution for the manufacturing of microcomponents. In this paper, a low cost and modular data acquisition system, based on open-hardware and open-source software, for online energy consumption monitoring, is presented......Sustainability has become a major concern in many countries and is leading to strict regulations regarding the impact of products and services during their manufacturing, use, and disposal. Power consumption monitoring in manufacturing companies can lead to a reduction of machine tools energy...

  15. Analysis of Electrical Power Consumption in Container Crane of Container Terminal Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Masroeri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Container crane electrification is a re-powering process of container cranes from diesel to electricity. In electrification process, it is required an analysis of electrical power consumption that is needed in the operational of container crane. It aims to determine whether the amount of electrical power that is supplied by PLN can be optimally used in the operational of container crane to do loading and unloading activities. To perform the analysis of electrical power consumption, it is required various data and calculations. The required data are container crane specifications and other electrical equipment specifications, the amount of electrical power that is supplied by PLN, also the single line diagram from the electrical system at the port. While, the calculations that is needed to be performed are the calculation of electrical power load in motors and other electrical equipments, the calculation of nominal current and start current, the selection of cable and busbar, and the calculation of wiring diagram junction power. From the calculations that has been done, then the next step is to do the load flow analysis simulation by using software simulation, so an accurate and effective load flow analysis can be obtained to optimize loading and unloading activities at the port. The result of this research, it can be seen that container crane electrification will give advantages in both technical and economical for the company and for the ship, such as accelerate the loading and unloading time of containers and reduce idle time, especially in the operational of diesel generator.

  16. Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ramandeep; Brennan, Lorraine; Price, Ruth K; Wallace, Julie M W; Strain, J J; Gibney, Mike J; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Garg, Lalit; Welch, Robert W

    2016-02-17

    Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males) in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions.

  17. Encoder power consumption comparison of Distributed Video Codec and H.264/AVC in low-complexity mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny; Forchhammer, Søren

    2010-01-01

    (ME) and CABAC entropy coder consume much power so we eliminate ME from the codec and use CAVLC instead of CABAC. Some investigations show that low-complexity DVC outperforms other algorithms in terms of encoder side energy consumption . However, estimations of power consumption for H.264/AVC and DVC...

  18. Minimizing the Levelized Cost of Energy in Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems with an Absolute Active Power Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Koutroulis, Eftichios; Sangwongwanich, Ariya

    2015-01-01

    . An increase of the inverter lifetime and a reduction of the energy yield can alter the cost of energy, demanding an optimization of the power limitation. Therefore, aiming at minimizing the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE), the power limit is optimized for the AAPC strategy in this paper. The optimization...... control strategy, the Absolute Active Power Control (AAPC) can effectively solve the overloading issues by limiting the maximum possible PV power to a certain level (i.e., the power limitation), and also benefit the inverter reliability. However, its feasibility is challenged by the energy loss......, compared to the conventional PV inverter operating only in the maximum power point tracking mode. In the presented case study, the minimum of LCOE is achieved for the system when the power limit is optimized to a certain level of the designed maximum feed-in power (i.e., 3 kW). In addition, the proposed...

  19. Resonator-Based Silicon Electro-Optic Modulator with Low Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Maoqing; Danner, Aaron J.; Eng Png, Ching; Thor Lim, Soon

    2009-04-01

    This paper demonstrates, via simulation, an electro-optic modulator based on a subwavelength Fabry-Perot resonator cavity with low power consumption of 86 µW/µm. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest power reported for silicon photonic bandgap modulators. The device is modulated at a doped p-i-n junction overlapping the cavity in a silicon waveguide perforated with etched holes, with the doping area optimized for minimum power consumption. The surface area of the entire device is only 2.1 µm2, which compares favorably to other silicon-based modulators. A modulation speed of at least 300 MHz is detected from the electrical simulator after sidewall doping is introduced which is suitable for sensing or fiber to the home (FTTH) technologies, where speed can be traded for low cost and power consumption. The device does not rely on ultra-high Q, and could serve as a sensor, modulator, or passive filter with built-in calibration.

  20. Energy-saving decomposition and power consumption forecast: The case of liaoning province in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.X.; Zhao, Y.S.; Wang, Y.J. [School of Business Administration, North China Electric Power University, Zhu Xin Zhuang, Bei Nong Lu No. 2, Changping District, Beijing (China); Zhang, S.L. [Finance Department, Nanning Power Supply Bureau, Xingguang Street No. 43, Nanning, Guangxi Autonomous Region (China); Li, F.R. [University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    To achieve sustainable development of the society, the People's Republic of China (PRC) proposed in its 11th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development Program a shift in energy-saving target of decreasing energy intensity by 20% in 2010 compared with that of 2005. Liaoning province is one of the oldest industrial bases in China. Policymakers are often confronted with problems relating to adjustment in the development pattern as a means to secure steady economic growth. The power industry is a fundamental energy industry; it plays an important role in realizing of energy-saving targets. Based on the input-output model, this paper sets extensive, planning and 20% energy-saving scenarios in order to analyze energy-saving and power consumption situations for Liaoning by 2010. Through extensive simulations, the levels of energy-saving and power demand under different scenarios are obtained. Results from the analysis show that under the premises of adjusting the ratio of investment and consumption, optimizing products structure, and improving energy use efficiency, it is possible to achieve the proposed energy-saving target. Liaoning's power consumption can maintain a stable growth trend in the future. The percentage of electricity to the total energy use can also increase to 16% in 2010. (author)

  1. Minimization of the external heating power by long fusion power rise-up time for self-ignition access in the helical reactor FFHR2m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitarai, O.; Sagara, A.; Chikaraishi, H.; Imagawa, S.; Shishkin, A.A.; Motojima, O.

    2006-10-01

    Minimization of the external heating power to access self-ignition is advantageous to increase the reactor design flexibility and to reduce the capital and operating costs of the plasma heating device in a helical reactor. In this work we have discovered that a larger density limit leads to a smaller value of the required confinement enhancement factor, lower density limit margin reduces the external heating power, and over 300 s of the fusion power rise-up time makes it possible to reach a minimized heating power. While the fusion power rise-up time in a tokamak is limited by the OH transformer flux or the current drive capability, any fusion power rise-up time can be employed in a helical reactor for reducing the thermal stresses of the blanket and shields, because the confinement field is generated by the external helical coils. (author)

  2. Fuel consumption and greenhouse gas calculator for diesel and biodiesel-powered vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Factors that influence fuel consumption include environmental conditions, maintenance, poor driving techniques, and driving speed. Developed by Natural Resources Canada, the SmartDriver training programs were designed to help fleet managers, drivers, and instructors to learn methods of improving fuel economy. This fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) calculator for diesel and biodiesel-powered vehicles provides drivers with a method of calculating fuel consumption rates when driving. It includes a log-book in which to record odometer readings and a slide-rule in which to determine the litres of fuel used during a trip. The scale showed the number of kg of GHGs produced by burning a particular amount of fuel for both biodiesel and diesel fuels. 1 fig.

  3. Energy efficient refrigeration and flexible power consumption in a smart grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gybel Hovgaard, T.; Larsen, Lars F.S. (Danfoss Refrigeration and A/C Controls, Nordborg (Denmark)); Halvgaard, R.; Bagterp Joergensen, J. (Technical Univ. of Denmark (DTU). DTU Informatics, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    Refrigeration and heating systems consume substantial amounts of energy worldwide. However, due to the thermal capacity there is a potential for storing 'coldness' or heat in the system. This feature allows for implementation of different load shifting and shedding strategies in order to optimize the operation energywise, but without compromising the original cooling and indoor climate quality. In this work we investigate the potential of such a strategy and its ability to significantly lower the cost related to operating systems such as supermarket refrigeration and heat pumps for residential houses. With modern Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods we make use of weather forecasts and predictions of varying electricity prices to apply more load to the system when the thermodynamic cycle is most efficient, and to consume larger shares of the electricity when the demand and thereby the prices are low. The ability to adjust power consumption according to the demands on the power grid is a highly wanted feature in a future Smart Grid. Efficient utilization of greater amounts of renewable energy calls for solutions to control the power consumption such that it increases when an energy surplus is available and decreases when there is a shortage. This should happen almost instantly to accommodate intermittent energy sources as e.g. wind turbines. We expect our power management solution to render systems with thermal storage capabilities suitable for flexible power consumption. The aggregation of several units will contribute significantly to the shedding of total electricity demand. Using small case studies we demonstrate the potential for utilizing daily variations to deliver a power efficient cooling or heating and for the implementation of Virtual Power Plants in Smart Grid scenarios. (Author)

  4. The Use of Liposomal Bupivacaine in Erector Spinae Plane Block to Minimize Opioid Consumption for Breast Surgery: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amanda; Hulsey, Alina; Martinez-Wilson, Hector; Kim, James; Gadsden, Jeff

    2018-05-01

    The erector spinae plane block is a novel interfascial plane block that can provide thoracic and abdominal analgesia. We describe a patient with opioid intolerance scheduled for breast surgery who received an erector spinae plane block with liposomal bupivacaine as well as a supplemental T1 paravertebral block resulting in profound analgesia throughout her postoperative course. This case report demonstrates that use of liposomal bupivacaine in the erector spinae plane block can be successful in providing extended duration postoperative analgesia and minimizing systemic opioid requirements.

  5. Analysis of opioid consumption in clinical trials: a simulation based analysis of power of four approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Nyberg, Joakim; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Inconsistent trial design and analysis is a key reason that few advances in postoperative pain management have been made from clinical trials analyzing opioid consumption data. This study aimed to compare four different approaches to analyze opioid consumption data. A repeated time-to-event (RTTE...... to determine sample size required to demonstrate efficacy with 80% power using t test, Mann-Whitney rank sum test, time-to-event (TTE) modeling and RTTE modeling. Precision of efficacy estimates for RTTE models were evaluated in 500 simulations. A sample size of 50 patients was required to detect 37% morphine...... sparing effect with at least 80% power in a 24 h trial with RTTE modeling whereas the required sample size was 200 for Mann-Whitney, 180 for t-test and 76 for TTE models. Extending the trial duration from 24 to 96 h reduced the required sample size by 3.1 fold with RTTE modeling. Precise estimate...

  6. [The design of a cardiac monitoring and analysing system with low power consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen-cheng; Ni, Li-li; Zhu, Yan-gao; Wang, Hong-yan; Ma, Yan

    2002-07-01

    The paper deals with a portable analyzing monitor system with liquid crystal display (LCD), which is low in power consumption and suitable for China's specific conditions. Apart from the development of the overall scheme of the system, the paper introduces the design of the hardware and the software. The 80196 single chip microcomputer is used as the central microprocessor to process and real-time electrocardiac signal data. The system have the following functions: five types of arrhythmia analysis, alarm, freeze, and record of automatic paperfeeding. The portable system can be operated by alternate-current (AC) or direct-current (DC). Its hardware circuit is simplified and its software structure is optimized. Multiple low power consumption and LCD unit are adopted in its modular designs.

  7. Design and Implementation of PIR-Array to Reduce Power Consumption for Iraq's Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhal Yousif Nasser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design and implement a model using PIR-sensors for motion detection to reduce the electrical power for designing smart home requirements for Iraq households. Reducing energy consumption of home appliances plays an important role in modern designs of smart homes. The PIR (passive infrared sensor has been designed to detect human motion and has many applications especially in security fields. The main concept of the proposed work in this paper has focused on controlling the electrical devices (appliances, based on the location of a person movement inside the home. The design of the circuit control has also been designed to run specific devices located closed to person position in a room by designing PIR sensor array mounted in different angles. The proposed work has been compared with normal state by finding consumption in power (kWh and tariffs belong to MoE-Iraq.

  8. Minimal Internal Radiation Exposure in Residents Living South of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Junichi; Kato, Shigeaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji; Hayano, Ryugo; Tokiwa, Michio; Shimmura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, assessment of internal radiation exposure was indispensable to predict radiation-related health threats to residents of neighboring areas. Although many evaluations of internal radiation in residents living north and west of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant are available, there is little information on residents living in areas south of the plant, which were similarly affected by radio-contamination from the disaster. To assess the internal radio-contamination in residents living in affected areas to the south of the plant or who were evacuated into Iwaki city, a whole body counter (WBC) screening program of internal radio-contamination was performed on visitors to the Jyoban hospital in Iwaki city, which experienced less contamination than southern areas adjacent to the nuclear plant. The study included 9,206 volunteer subjects, of whom 6,446 were schoolchildren aged 4-15 years. Measurements began one year after the incident and were carried out over the course of two years. Early in the screening period only two schoolchildren showed Cs-137 levels that were over the detection limit (250 Bq/body), although their Cs-134 levels were below the detection limit (220 Bq/body). Among the 2,760 adults tested, 35 (1.3%) had detectable internal radio-contamination, but only for Cs-137 (range: 250 Bq/body to 859 Bq/body), and not Cs-134. Of these 35 subjects, nearly all (34/35) showed elevated Cs-137 levels only during the first year of the screening. With the exception of potassium 40, no other radionuclides were detected during the screening period. The maximum annual effective dose calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels was 0.029 and 0.028 mSv/year for the schoolchildren and adults, respectively, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Although the data for radiation exposure during the most critical first year after the incident are unavailable due to a lack of systemic

  9. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Cambridge, MA; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-04-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  10. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda A [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-01-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  11. Microwatt power consumption maximum power point tracking circuit using an analogue differentiator for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Z. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-12-01

    A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme by tracking the open-circuit voltage from a piezoelectric energy harvester using a differentiator is presented in this paper. The MPPT controller is implemented by using a low-power analogue differentiator and comparators without the need of a sensing circuitry and a power hungry controller. This proposed MPPT circuit is used to control a buck converter which serves as a power management module in conjunction with a full-wave bridge diode rectifier. Performance of this MPPT control scheme is verified by using the prototyped circuit to track the maximum power point of a macro-fiber composite (MFC) as the piezoelectric energy harvester. The MFC was bonded on a composite material and the whole specimen was subjected to various strain levels at frequency from 10 to 100 Hz. Experimental results showed that the implemented full analogue MPPT controller has a tracking efficiency between 81% and 98.66% independent of the load, and consumes an average power of 3.187 μW at 3 V during operation.

  12. Minimization of distribution system losses by exploiting storage and anticipating market-driven behaviour of wind power producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farrokhseresht, M.; Paterakis, N.G.; Gibescu, M.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic bi-level optimization model to determine the optimal dispatch of energy storage systems controlled directly by the distribution system operator (DSO) in order to achieve minimization of active power losses, taking into account the profit-driven participation of

  13. Fuel consumption reduction in urban buses by using power split transmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macor, Alarico; Rossetti, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel consumption is highly influenced by transmission layout and control. • Continuous Variable Transmission allows control of the working point of the engine. • Hydromechanical CVT was numerically tested and compared with usual mechanical solutions. • CVT solution proved to reduce fuel consumption, improving the I.C.E. mean efficiency. • Results obtained from standard emission test cycles: New York and Manhattan Buses. - Abstract: The reduction of fuel consumption of urban vehicles is one of the challenges of the society today. Many promising technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells are the focus of a lot of research and investments, but high costs prevent their development on a large scale, especially in heavy duty vehicles. Simpler solutions, such as continuously variable transmissions, are then interesting alternatives: they preserve some of the advantages of hybrid solutions significantly reducing the overall cost of the system. Since these technologies allow the decoupling of the engine’s velocity from that of the wheels, optimised management of the engine becomes feasible, leading to lower fuel consumption than that of traditional solutions. This work compares the hydromechanical transmission with a traditional power shift in an application where efficiency and comfort are required: a city bus. The performance of a vehicle with a dual stage hydromechanical transmission has been investigated by means of a model implemented in the AMESim environment. A second model of a vehicle with a power shift transmission has been taken as reference solution. During the simulation of two standard test cycles, the first vehicle showed the lower fuel consumption, due to its better engine management, and to the operation of the torque converter during starts, which lowers the efficiency of the reference vehicle

  14. Towards a Cyber Defense Framework for SCADA Systems Based on Power Consumption Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Jimenez, Jarilyn M [ORNL; Chen, Qian [Savannah State University; Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences} [ORNL; Calhoun, Chelsea [Savannah State University; Sykes, Summer [Savannah State University

    2017-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is an industrial automation system that remotely monitor, and control critical infrastructures. SCADA systems are major targets for espionage and sabotage attackers. According to the 2015 Dell security annual threat report, the number of cyber-attacks against SCADA systems has doubled in the past year. Cyber-attacks (i.e., buffer overflow, rootkits and code injection) could cause serious financial losses and physical infrastructure damages. Moreover, some specific cyber-attacks against SCADA systems could become a threat to human life. Current commercial off-the-shelf security solutions are insufficient in protecting SCADA systems against sophisticated cyber-attacks. In 2014 a report by Mandiant stated that only 69% of organizations learned about their breaches from third entities, meaning that these companies lack of their own detection system. Furthermore, these breaches are not detected in real-time or fast enough to prevent further damages. The average time between compromise and detection (for those intrusions that were detected) was 205 days. To address this challenge, we propose an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) that detects SCADA-specific cyber-attacks by analyzing the power consumption of a SCADA device. Specifically, to validate the proposed approach, we chose to monitor in real-time the power usage of a a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). To this end, we configured the hardware of the tetsbed by installing the required sensors to monitor and collect its power consumption. After that two SCADA-specific cyber-attacks were simulated and TracerDAQ Pro was used to collect the power consumption of the PLC under normal and anomalous scenarios. Results showed that is possible to distinguish between the regular power usage of the PLC and when the PLC was under specific cyber-attacks.

  15. Research on intelligent power consumption strategy based on time-of-use pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Gong, Li; Chen, Heli; He, Yu

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, through the analysis of shortcomings of the current domestic and foreign household power consumption strategy: Passive way of power consumption, ignoring the different priority of electric equipment, neglecting the actual load pressure of the grid, ignoring the interaction with the user, to decrease the peak-valley difference and improve load curve in residential area by demand response (DR technology), an intelligent power consumption scheme based on time-of-use(TOU) pricing for household appliances is proposed. The main contribution of this paper is: (1) Three types of household appliance loads are abstracted from different operating laws of various household appliances, and the control models and DR strategies corresponding to these types are established. (2) The fuzzified processing for the information of TOU price, which is based on the time intervals, is performed to get the price priority, in accordance with such DR events as the maximum restricted load of DR, the time of DR and the duration of interruptible load and so on, the DR control rule and pre-scheduling mechanism are led in. (3) The dispatching sequence of household appliances in the control and scheduling queue are switched and controlled to implement the equilibrium of peak and valley loads. The equilibrium effects and economic benefits of power system by pre-scheduling and DR dispatching are compared and analyzed by simulation example, and the results show that using the proposed household appliance control (HAC) scheme the overall cost of consumers can be reduced and the power system load can be alleviated, so the proposed household appliance control (HAC) scheme is feasible and reasonable.

  16. The dual-axis solar tracking system efficiency improving via the drive power consumption optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambhowan, Y.; Oree, V.

    2014-01-01

    A major drawback with active dual-axis solar tracking systems is that the power used by the driving mechanism is often drawn from the output power of the solar panel itself. The net energy gain of the photo-voltaic panel is therefore less than its maximum value. This work presents a novel design which uses a three-fold strategy to minimize the power consumed by the tracking mechanism whilst maintaining the power out-put of the photovoltaic panel near its optimal value. The results reveal that the improved tracking system has a significant energy gain of about 43.6% as compared to a fixed photovoltaic panel. Experiments further show that an increase of 1.6% in energy output is achieved over conventional precise dual-axis tracking system. (author)

  17. The minimization of the fresh water consumption for the paper chemicals; Tuoreveden kaeytoen minimointi paperikemikaalien kaeytoessae - MPKT 06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryoesoe, K [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1999-12-31

    When reducing the consumption of fresh water in the paper making process there are two different things concerning the use of the paper chemicals. First, a lot of fresh water is needed for dilution and feed of the paper chemicals. Secondly, the decreased use of fresh water is often detrimental to the efficiency of the paper chemicals, which leads to an extended need of these chemicals and therefore also to an increased use of fresh water. The aim of this study is to find out the possibilities concerning the choice of chemicals, the internal purification of the circulation water and the feeding procedure of chemicals to decrease the amount of fresh water needed for the dilution and feed of paper chemicals without harmful effects to the efficiency of chemicals. It will be investigated, how the sensitiveness of paper chemicals for impurities of the dilution or feed water depends on their different properties. Also the feasibility to reduce the dosage or increase the concentration of the chemical solution, which is dosed to the process, will be examined. (orig.)

  18. The minimization of the fresh water consumption for the paper chemicals; Tuoreveden kaeytoen minimointi paperikemikaalien kaeytoessae - MPKT 06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryoesoe, K. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1998-12-31

    When reducing the consumption of fresh water in the paper making process there are two different things concerning the use of the paper chemicals. First, a lot of fresh water is needed for dilution and feed of the paper chemicals. Secondly, the decreased use of fresh water is often detrimental to the efficiency of the paper chemicals, which leads to an extended need of these chemicals and therefore also to an increased use of fresh water. The aim of this study is to find out the possibilities concerning the choice of chemicals, the internal purification of the circulation water and the feeding procedure of chemicals to decrease the amount of fresh water needed for the dilution and feed of paper chemicals without harmful effects to the efficiency of chemicals. It will be investigated, how the sensitiveness of paper chemicals for impurities of the dilution or feed water depends on their different properties. Also the feasibility to reduce the dosage or increase the concentration of the chemical solution, which is dosed to the process, will be examined. (orig.)

  19. A Component-Minimized Single-Phase Active Power Decoupling Circuit with Reduced Current Stress to Semiconductor Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    inductor. With such a configuration, this leg can control the current going into the two output capacitors connected in series for power decoupling, and the other leg can control the line current according to active and reactive power requirement. The proposed topology does not require additional passive...... component, e.g. inductors or film capacitors for ripple energy storage because this task can be accomplished by the dc-link capacitors, and therefore its implementation cost can be minimized. Another unique feature of the proposed topology is that the current stress of power semiconductors can be reduced...

  20. Analysis of cumulative energy consumption in an oxy-fuel combustion power plant integrated with a CO2 processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Gładysz, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxy-fuel combustion is promising CCS technology. • Sum of direct and indirect energy consumption ought to be consider. • This sum is expressed by cumulative energy consumption. • Input–output analysis is adequate method of CCS modeling. - Abstract: A balance of direct energy consumption is not a sufficient tool for an energy analysis of an oxy-fuel combustion power plant because of the indirect consumption of energy in preceding processes in the energy-technological set of interconnections. The sum of direct and indirect consumption expresses cumulative energy consumption. Based on the “input–output” model of direct energy consumption the mathematical model of cumulative energy consumption concerning an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant has been developed. Three groups of energy carriers or materials are to be distinguished, viz. main products, by-products and external supplies not supplementing the main production. The mathematical model of the balance of cumulative energy consumption based on the assumption that the indices of cumulative energy consumption of external supplies (mainly fuels and raw materials) are known a’priori. It results from weak connections between domestic economy and an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant. The paper presents both examples of the balances of direct and cumulative energy consumption. The results of calculations of indices of cumulative energy consumption concerning main products are presented. A comparison of direct and cumulative energy effects between three variants has been worked out. Calculations of the indices of cumulative energy consumption were also subjected to sensitive analysis. The influence of the indices of cumulative energy consumption of external supplies (input data), as well as the assumption concerning the utilization of solid by-products of the combustion process have been investigated

  1. Forecasting Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption for Power Generation Using QHSA-Based LSSVM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecasting of fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation is important and fundamental for rational power energy planning in the electricity industry. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM is a powerful methodology for solving nonlinear forecasting issues with small samples. The key point is how to determine the appropriate parameters which have great effect on the performance of LSSVM model. In this paper, a novel hybrid quantum harmony search algorithm-based LSSVM (QHSA-LSSVM energy forecasting model is proposed. The QHSA which combines the quantum computation theory and harmony search algorithm is applied to searching the optimal values of and C in LSSVM model to enhance the learning and generalization ability. The case study on annual fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation in China shows that the proposed model outperforms other four comparative models, namely regression, grey model (1, 1 (GM (1, 1, back propagation (BP and LSSVM, in terms of prediction accuracy and forecasting risk.

  2. Decarbonization of the German energy system due to falling or rising power consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guminski, Andrej; Roon, Serafin von

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the draft ''Climate Protection Plan 2050'' and the ''Green Paper on Energy Efficiency'', it is clear that the Federal Government is focusing on the electrification of the heat and transport sector in order to increase the share of renewable energies in these sectors. This step is not uncontroversial, and represents a paradigm shift in science and politics, because the reduction of the cross electricity consumption move into the background. It is now necessary to clearly distinguish between the conventional power consumption, which must continue to be tested for energy savings and efficiency potential, and the new power consumption, here referred to as the coupling current, which is accepted in order to achieve the objectives of the energy transition. Since the consideration of the energy transition as a purely national project is too short, possible positive and negative effects of the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) deserve particular attention with regard to this reorientation. [de

  3. Modelling altered revenue function based on varying power consumption distribution and electricity tariff charge using data analytics framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, W. N. R. A.; Ramli, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    In 2010, Energy Commission (EC) had introduced Incentive Based Regulation (IBR) to ensure sustainable Malaysian Electricity Supply Industry (MESI), promotes transparent and fair returns, encourage maximum efficiency and maintains policy driven end user tariff. To cater such revolutionary transformation, a sophisticated system to generate policy driven electricity tariff structure is in great need. Hence, this study presents a data analytics framework that generates altered revenue function based on varying power consumption distribution and tariff charge function. For the purpose of this study, the power consumption distribution is being proxy using proportion of household consumption and electricity consumed in KwH and the tariff charge function is being proxy using three-tiered increasing block tariff (IBT). The altered revenue function is useful to give an indication on whether any changes in the power consumption distribution and tariff charges will give positive or negative impact to the economy. The methodology used for this framework begins by defining the revenue to be a function of power consumption distribution and tariff charge function. Then, the proportion of household consumption and tariff charge function is derived within certain interval of electricity power. Any changes in those proportion are conjectured to contribute towards changes in revenue function. Thus, these changes can potentially give an indication on whether the changes in power consumption distribution and tariff charge function are giving positive or negative impact on TNB revenue. Based on the finding of this study, major changes on tariff charge function seems to affect altered revenue function more than power consumption distribution. However, the paper concludes that power consumption distribution and tariff charge function can influence TNB revenue to some great extent.

  4. A method for distributed power consumption based on the combined heat and power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-wei; Han, Shen-zhao; Yu, Bo; Lu, Xin; Qi, Wen

    2018-02-01

    With the development of the society and human progress, now resource problems has become one of the major problems faced by people all over the world, the development of new energy and clean energy is the priority now, is now the main power system. Winter heating is one of the main sources of pollution now, so it is very important to study the electric heating system.

  5. Estimating Energy Consumption of Mobile Fluid Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Lauren [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zigler, Bradley T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This report estimates the market size and energy consumption of mobile off-road applications utilizing hydraulic fluid power, and summarizes technology gaps and implementation barriers. Mobile fluid power is the use of hydraulic fluids under pressure to transmit power in mobile equipment applications. The mobile off-road fluid power sector includes various uses of hydraulic fluid power equipment with fundamentally diverse end-use application and operational requirements, such as a skid steer loader, a wheel loader or an agriculture tractor. The agriculture and construction segments dominate the mobile off-road fluid power market in component unit sales volume. An estimated range of energy consumed by the mobile off-road fluid power sector is 0.36 - 1.8 quads per year, which was 1.3 percent - 6.5 percent of the total energy consumed in 2016 by the transportation sector. Opportunities for efficiency improvements within the fluid power system result from needs to level and reduce the peak system load requirements and develop new technologies to reduce fluid power system level losses, both of which may be facilitated by characterizing duty cycles to define standardized performance test methods. There are currently no commonly accepted standardized test methods for evaluating equipment level efficiency over a duty cycle. The off-road transportation sector currently meets criteria emissions requirements, and there are no efficiency regulations requiring original equipment manufacturers (OEM) to invest in new architecture development to improve the fuel economy of mobile off-road fluid power systems. In addition, the end-user efficiency interests are outweighed by low equipment purchase or lease price concerns, required payback periods, and reliability and durability requirements of new architecture. Current economics, low market volumes with high product diversity, and regulation compliance challenge OEM investment in commercialization of new architecture development.

  6. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  7. Price sensitive electric power consumption in households. Final report; Prisfoelsomt elforbrug i husholdninger. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M.; Hay, C. (Ea Energianalyse A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2009-08-15

    To gain experience with electric power consumption in households based on demand response a demonstration project was carried out for households with electric heating. More than 500 households with high power consumption (over 15,000 kWh / yr) participated. Participating households were divided into four groups: 1) a group with automation equipment ('Devi') installed, which automatically controls the electric heating in relation to electricity price signals based on pre-defined standards, 2) a group with electronics equipment ('Electronic House Keeper') installed which can show price signals so that the participant himself can control the electric heating in relation thereto, 3) a group who daily received an e-mail or a text message indicating the fluctuations in electricity prices, so that the participant can control the electric heating in relation to the received information, 4) a control group who did not have knowledge of or participated in the experiment. The main results of the project are that consumption must be controlled through automation. A real impact of the experiment can only be seen for the Devi group, which had automation equipment installed, and not for the email / text message group who had to manually respond to price signals. There must be opportunities for higher degree of differentiation. The automatics should be coupled to multiple thermostats, and the control should be detailed, for example, with control based on the individual thermostat in each room. The thermal comfort is essential. The participants want to manage and move their electricity consumption directly via 'Electronic House Keeper'. They would welcome the opportunity to have all household appliances connected to the solution, making it possible to turn on / off these depending on prices. Good information and communication are crucial to participants' motivation. (ln)

  8. Storage of intermittent energies. From self-consumption to huge photovoltaic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Marion; Martin, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Power grids are evolving rapidly due to an increased use of decentralized power units, mostly based on intermittent renewable energy resources and due also to new ways of consuming energy (e.g. electrical vehicles). In the same time, the performance increase of new technologies such as telecommunications and storage systems could provide solutions for optimizing the electrical system. In this context, we are more and more talking about the 'smart-grids concept' because in parallel to the power interconnection, we also create communication networks which allow knowing in real time the status of the power grid, and so that the power flows can be controlled in an optimal way. In this article, we investigate challenges and opportunities for managing intermittent energy sources by using energy storage systems, from the consumer level to the grid operator. First we describe how the feed-in tariff could evolve in order to improve grid integration of large solar plants. We showed that behind the constraints due to the coupling of the power plants with a storage system, we could imagine lots of opportunities to diversify the business model. Then we evaluate the medium size PV with storage installation at the community level. For this purpose, we describe the local problems induced by the PV integration before proposing new ways to manage these systems. Finally, the self-consumption business model is investigated in terms of performance for the consumer and for the grid operator. (authors)

  9. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, C; Kandlikar, M

    2007-01-01

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km

  10. Influential parameters for designing and power consumption calculating of cumin mower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodi, E.; Jafari, A. [Tehran Univ., Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agricultural Machinery Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which the consuming power and design of cumin mowers was calculated. The parameters required for calculating power consumption and designing of cumin mowers were measured along with some engineering properties of cumin stems. These included shearing and bending tests on cumin stem and specifying the coefficient of friction between mower knives and cumin stem. The relationships between static and dynamic friction forces being exerted on mower runners by soil with normal load were determined along with the factor affecting soil moisture. Some of the other parameters that are important for calculating the power consumption and design of an optimized mower include harvest moisture content; maximum and average of cumin stem diameter; maximum bio-yield point of force and maximum ultimate point of force in the cutting; average energy required to cut a stem; maximum elasticity module; maximum bending rupture force; average energy required for bending a stem; friction coefficient between the stem and knife edge; relation between bio-yield force, failure force, elasticity and diameter in the cutting; relation between rupture forces and diameter in the bending; and mower weight.

  11. Power Consumption Reduction for Wireless Sensor Networks Using A Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is leading towards the deployment of complex networked systems and the optimal design of WSNs can be a very difficult task because several constraints and requirements must be considered, among all the power consumption. This paper proposes a novel fuzzy logic based mechanism that according to the battery level and to the ratio of Throughput to Workload determines the sleeping time of sensor devices in a Wireless Sensor Network for environmental monitoring based on the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. The main aim here is to find an effective solution that achieves the target while avoiding complex and computationally expensive solutions, which would not be appropriate for the problem at hand and would impair the practical applicability of the approach in real scenarios. The results of several real test-bed scenarios show that the proposed system outperforms other solutions, significantly reducing the whole power consumption while maintaining good performance in terms of the ratio of throughput to workload. An implementation on off-the-shelf devices proves that the proposed controller does not require powerful hardware and can be easily implemented on a low-cost device, thus paving the way for extensive usage in practice.

  12. An OPF based approach for assessing the minimal reactive power support for generators in deregulated power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.; Yu, C.W.; Xu, N.; Lin, X.J.

    2008-01-01

    Reactive power support is an important ancillary service for secure and reliable operation in power markets. It has recently been recognized that the reactive power support for a generator has two components: one for supporting its own real power transmission and the other for supplying reactive demand, improving system security, and controlling system voltage; and that only the second part should receive financial compensation in competitive power markets. This makes the problem of separating these two components a new focus of current research. An OPF based reactive power optimization model along with a power flow tracing based method is proposed in this paper to tackle this problem. The methodology is tested on four test systems. Detailed analysis of the results of the 39-bus test system is reported. (author)

  13. Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch for Output Power Maximizing Based on a Wind Turbine Control Strategy for Load Minimizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Hou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of the wake effect in the wind farm control design (WF) can increase the total captured power by wind turbines (WTs), which is usually implemented by derating upwind WTs. However, derating the WT without a proper control strategy will increase the structural loads, caused by operation...... in stall mode. Therefore, the WT control strategy for derating operation should be considered in the attempt at maximizing the total captured power while reducing structural loads. Moreover, electrical power loss on the transmission system inside a WF is also not negligible for maximizing the total output...... power of the WF. In this paper, an optimal active power dispatch strategy based on a WT derating strategy and considering the transmission loss is proposed for maximizing the total output power. The active power reference of each WT is chosen as the optimization variable. A partial swarm optimizing...

  14. Study of design parameters for minimizing the cost of electricity of tokamak fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Yamaji, K.; Katsurai, M.; Okano, K.; Yoshida, T.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of the design parameters on the cost of electricity (COE) is studied through a parameter survey in order to minimize the COE. Three kinds of operating modes are considered; first stability (FS), second stability (SS) and reversed shear (RS). The COE is calculated by a coupled physics-engineering-cost computer system code. Deuterium-tritium type, 1000 MW(e) at electric bus bar, steady state tokamak reactors with aspect ratios A from 3 to 4.5 are assumed. Several criteria are used for the parameter survey; for example, (a) the thermal to electrical conversion efficiency is assumed to be 34.5% using water as a coolant; (b) the average neutron wall load must not exceed 5 MW/m 2 for plasma major radius R p >5 m; (c) a 2 MeV neutral beam injector (NBI) is applied. It is found that the RS operating mode most minimizes the COE among the three operating modes by reducing the cost of the current drive and the coils and structures. The cost-minimized RS reactor can attain high f bs , high β N and low q 95 at the same time, which results in a short R p of 5.1 m, a low B max of the maximum magnetic toroidal field (TF) of the TF coils of 13 T and a low A of 3.0. It can be concluded that this cost-minimized RS reactor is the most cost-minimized within the frameworks of this study. This cost-minimized RS reactor has two advantages: one is that a B max =13 T TF coil can be made by use of ITER coil technology and the other is that the same cooling technology as that of ITER (water cooling) can be used. (author)

  15. Effect of Forging Allowance Value on the Power Consumption of Machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mal'kova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aim is to develop and study possible energy-efficiency measures for machined forgings drawing on analysis of the impact of the allowance for machining and its scatter.The most sophisticated option to take into consideration the effect of the cut depth is the work-piece machining in which the forging allowance value results from the blank production.Research of power consumption was conducted for turning the cylindrical surface of 144 mm length and  1,5 33 0,5   diameter on forgings of the work-pieces "screw of steering control" made from steel 60PP. A radial dimension allowance at said cylindrical surface at six points of the five sections was sized to assess the allowance value dispersion. The size of the sample measurements at the control points was n = 600. Statistic processing has shown normal law of distribution and sample homogeneity.To analyze the results of experiments was calculated a range of allowances for this workpiece. Calculated minimum and maximum allowance per one side for rough lathing were, respectively, 0.905 mm and 1.905mm. It was found that 77% points under control lie in calculated range of allowance values. And there are no points out of the range on lesser side that proves a lack of rejects; but there are points out of the range on the bigger side, that will require additional costs for machining the specified surface, including the cost of electricity.There were three power consumption calculations based on factory- recommended duty: for processing the entire sample of forgings with an average allowance, for machining forgings allowances of which are within the recommended design range of allowance, and for processing the entire sample of forgings with a minimum value of allowance.It was found that elimination of allowance values which are outside the recommended range enables to reduce the power consumption, at least, by 6%, and the overall power consumption for processing the measured forgings

  16. Evaluation of Surface Roughness and Power Consumption in Machining FCD 450 Cast Iron using Coated and Uncoated Irregular Milling Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan; Arsyad, Fitriyanti

    2016-01-01

    In this project, the effects of different cutting parameters on surface roughness and power consumption when machining FCD450 cast iron were studied using coated and uncoated irregular milling tool geometry of variable helix and pitch. Their responses on roughness and power consumption were evaluated based on the spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut, machining length and machining time. Results showed that except spindle speed and machining length, other parameters such as feed rate, axial and radial depth of cut and also machining time proportionate with surface roughness. The power consumption proportionately increase for all cutting parameters except feedrate. It is showed that the average decrement 27.92 percent for surface roughness and average decrement 9.32 percent for power consumption by using coated compared to uncoated tool. Optimum cutting parameters for both minimum surface roughness and power consumption can be determined. The coated tools performed better than uncoated milling tools for responses of surface roughness and power consumption to increase machining productivity and profit. (paper)

  17. Greybody factors for a minimally coupled scalar field in a three-dimensional Einstein-power-Maxwell black hole background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panotopoulos, Grigoris; Rincón, Ángel

    2018-04-01

    In the present work we study the propagation of a probe minimally coupled scalar field in Einstein-power-Maxwell charged black hole background in (1 +2 ) dimensions. We find analytical expressions for the reflection coefficient as well as for the absorption cross section in the low energy regime, and we show graphically their behavior as functions of the frequency for several values of the free parameters of the theory.

  18. Optimal Design of Stator Interior Permanent Magnet Machine with Minimized Cogging Torque for Wind Power Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cheng, Ming

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to minimize the cogging torque of a stator interior permanent magnet (SIPM) machine. The optimization of stator slot gap and permanent magnet is carried out and the cogging torque ripple is analyzed by using finite element analysis. Experiments on a prototype...

  19. An Efficiency Improved Active Power Decoupling Circuit with Minimized Implementation Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    topology does not require additional passive component, e.g. inductors or film capacitors for ripple energy storage because this task can be accomplished by the dc-link capacitors themselves, and therefore its implementation cost can be minimized. Another unique feature of the proposed topology...

  20. Investigations on the minimization of climatic impacts on the range of electric-powered vehicles; Untersuchungen zur Minimierung der Klimaeinfluesse auf die Reichweite von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauh, Hubert; Hofmann, Maximilian; Maerz, Martin [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Integrierte Systeme und Bauelementetechnologie, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Efficient drives and power electronics are key components for the realisation of drive trains in electric vehicles. A low energy density of the battery and little thermal loss in the electric drive train - in comparison with a combustion engine - requires efforts to acclimatise the vehicle in a way which minimises its impact on the vehicle's cruising range. Using equivalent thermal networks, Fraunhofer IISB thus develops simulation tools of passenger compartment, components of the acclimatisation system and the electric drive train. With these tools the heat flow in the passenger compartment as well as in the components of the electric drive train can be calculated. Furthermore, it is possible to compare different acclimatisation strategies as well as different topologies of the acclimatisation system. To minimize the electrical energy consumption of acclimatisation, the thermal energy needed in this process is provided by a heat pump. By preconditioning cabin, cooling circuit and drive train components while charging the battery, the energy consumption at the beginning of a drive can be further reduced, whereby the maximal cruising range at different ambient temperatures increases. (orig.)

  1. Minimization of the transformer inter-winding parasitic capacitance for modular stacking power supply applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Ouyang, Ziwei; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    In an isolated power supply, the inter-winding parasitic capacitance plays a vital role in the mitigation of common mode noise currents created by fast voltage transient responses. The lower the transformer inter-winding capacitance, the more immune the power supply is to fast voltage transient...... responses. This requirement is even more critical for modular stacking applications in which multiple power supplies are stacked. This paper addresses the issue by presenting a detailed analysis and design of an unconventional isolated power supply that uses a ring core transformer with a very low inter......-winding parasitic capacitance of 10 pF. Considering its output power of 300 W, this approach yields about 0.033 pF/W inter-winding capacitance over output power, approximately thirty times lower than existing approaches in the literature. This makes the converter a suitable solution for modular stacking of fast...

  2. Selected problems of minimization and management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plant decommissioning. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrs, M.; Moravec, A.

    1988-06-01

    The processing prior to storage of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear power plant decommissioning is described as are the types of containers employed for waste transport and/or disposal. Data are summarized on exposure of personnel to radioactivity resulting from nuclear power plant decommissioning activities, and accessible data are collected on the costs of nuclear power plant decommissioning and of waste management. Potential directions of research in this field under Czechoslovak conditions are specified. (author)

  3. Optimum sample size allocation to minimize cost or maximize power for the two-sample trimmed mean test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiin-Huarng; Luh, Wei-Ming

    2009-05-01

    When planning a study, sample size determination is one of the most important tasks facing the researcher. The size will depend on the purpose of the study, the cost limitations, and the nature of the data. By specifying the standard deviation ratio and/or the sample size ratio, the present study considers the problem of heterogeneous variances and non-normality for Yuen's two-group test and develops sample size formulas to minimize the total cost or maximize the power of the test. For a given power, the sample size allocation ratio can be manipulated so that the proposed formulas can minimize the total cost, the total sample size, or the sum of total sample size and total cost. On the other hand, for a given total cost, the optimum sample size allocation ratio can maximize the statistical power of the test. After the sample size is determined, the present simulation applies Yuen's test to the sample generated, and then the procedure is validated in terms of Type I errors and power. Simulation results show that the proposed formulas can control Type I errors and achieve the desired power under the various conditions specified. Finally, the implications for determining sample sizes in experimental studies and future research are discussed.

  4. ARRA: Reconfiguring Power Systems to Minimize Cascading Failures - Models and Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Ian [Iowa State University; Hiskens, Ian [Unversity of Michigan; Linderoth, Jeffrey [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Wright, Stephen [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2013-12-16

    Building on models of electrical power systems, and on powerful mathematical techniques including optimization, model predictive control, and simluation, this project investigated important issues related to the stable operation of power grids. A topic of particular focus was cascading failures of the power grid: simulation, quantification, mitigation, and control. We also analyzed the vulnerability of networks to component failures, and the design of networks that are responsive to and robust to such failures. Numerous other related topics were investigated, including energy hubs and cascading stall of induction machines

  5. Very Low-Power Consumption Analog Pulse Processing ASIC for Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessendorf, K.O.; Lund, J.C.; Brunett, B.A.; Laguna, G.R.; Clements, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a very-low power consumption circuit for processing the pulses from a semiconductor radiation detector. The circuit was designed for use with a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector for unattended monitoring of stored nuclear materials. The device is intended to be battery powered and operate at low duty-cycles over a long period of time. This system will provide adequate performance for medium resolution gamma-ray pulse-height spectroscopy applications. The circuit incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive preamplifier, shaping amplifier, and peak sample and hold circuit. An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) version of the design has been designed, built and tested. With the exception of the input field effect transistor (FET), the circuit is constructed using bipolar components. In this paper the design philosophy and measured performance characteristics of the circuit are described

  6. Hydrogen consumption and power density in a co-flow planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Moussa, Hocine; Zitouni, Bariza [Laboratoire d' etude des systemes energetiques industriels (LESEI), Universite de Batna, Batna (Algeria); Oulmi, Kafia [Laboratoire de chimie et de chimie de l' environnement, Universite de Batna, Batna (Algeria); Mahmah, Bouziane; Belhamel, Maiouf [CDER, BP. 62 Route de l' Observatoire. Bouzareah. Alger (Algeria); Mandin, Philippe [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables (CDER), LECA, UMR 7575 CNRS-ENSCP Paris 6 (France)

    2009-06-15

    In the present work, power density and hydrogen consumption in a co-flow planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are studied according to the inlet functional parameters; such as the operational temperature, the operational pressure, the flow rates and the mass fractions of the species. Furthermore, the effect of the cell size is investigated. The results of a zero and a one-dimensional numerical electro-dynamic model predict the remaining quantity of the fed hydrogen at the output of the anode flow channel. The remaining hydrogen quantities and the SOFC's power density obtained are discussed as a function of the inlet functional parameters, the geometrical configuration of the cell and several operating cell voltages values. (author)

  7. A minimal order observer based frequency control strategy for an integrated wind-battery-diesel power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlader, Abdul Motin; Izumi, Yuya; Uehara, Akie; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi; Saber, Ahmed Yousuf

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is a fluctuating resource which can diverge quickly and causes the frequency deviation. To overcome this problem, the current paper deals with a frequency control scheme for a small power system by a coordinated control strategy of a wind turbine generator (WTG) and a battery energy storage system (BESS). The small power system composes of a wind turbine, a battery storage and a diesel generator. A minimal order observer is utilized as a disturbance observer to estimate the load of the power system. The load deviations are considered in a frequency domain. The low frequency component is reduced by the pitch angle control system of the WTG, while the high frequency component is reduced by the charge/discharge of the BESS, respectively. The output power command of the BESS is determined according to the state of charge, the high frequency component of the frequency deviation and the load variation. The proposed method is compared with the conventional method in different cases. By using the proposed method, the capacity of the battery is decreased by the charge/discharge of the BESS in long term. To enhance the control performance, the generalized predictive control (GPC) method is introduced to the pitch angle control system of the WTG. Effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the numerical simulations. -- Highlights: ► A coordinated control method for a WTG and a BESS in the small power system. ► To achieve this objective, a minimal order observer is utilized. ► The output power command of the WTG is based on the wind speed and the estimated frequency deviations. ► The output power the WTG is controlled by the GPC based robust pitch angle control system. ► The output power command of the BESS is determined by the state of charge and the estimated frequency deviations.

  8. Efficiency Assessment of the Power Supply System of an Industrial Enterprise Through the Assessment of the Modes of Electric Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miatishkin, Gennadii V.; Filinova, Anastasiia S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper reviews the terms of the rational consumption and distribution of the energy resources at an enterprise. The authors analyze the significance and the effect of the change of the profile of the energy consumption per hour by the enterprise. The text explores the factors influencing the discipline of the planned electricity and power consumption. The authors present a calculation of the weighted average deviations for consumers and the terms of their assessment. The authors make conclusions concerning the rationality of the means of defining the energy efficiency system through the assessment of the modes of electric energy consumption of an industrial enterprise.

  9. Frequency dependent loss analysis and minimization of system losses in switchmode audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, frequency dependent losses in switch-mode audio power amplifiers are analyzed and a loss model is improved by taking the voltage dependence of the parasitic capacitance of MOSFETs into account. The estimated power losses are compared to the measurement and great accuracy is achieved...

  10. Trends of world energy consumption and possibilities of environment protective power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischengruber, K.

    1991-01-01

    The population of the world will duplicate within the next three to four decades. The primary energy consumption will increase accordingly. Considering the limited reach of our fossil energy resources and their negative impact on the global climate, alternative strategies for the power generation have to be developed. The contribution of the renewable energy sources will be important, but not sufficient, due to their high generation costs. The nuclear power, which already today participates essentially in the energy supply, will remain one of the most important options for environment protecting energy generation. Especially for the developing countries, which -in general- have currently a not covered energy demand, the build up of reasonable energy generation structures means enormous volumes of investments, which can only be financed with the assistance of the industrialized countries. Those, on the other hand, have to economize their energy consumption and have to undertake any effort in continuing with the development of clean, safe and competitive renewable resources. To provide increasing world population with sufficient energy and at the same time to reduce CO 2 emissions is one of the biggest challenges that mankind has ever faced. (Author)

  11. Effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Bombardiere, John; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester treating chicken litter, under thermophilic conditions, has been studied. Heating strategy was evaluated using three different spans (0.2 degrees C, 0.6 degrees C, and 1.0 degree C) for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature (56.7 degrees C). The hydraulic retention time in the pilot plant digester was in the range of 32 to 37 days, varying the total solids concentration fed from 5% to 6%. The results showed that under the experimental conditions, heating was the most energy-demanding process with 95.5% of the energy used. Increments up to 7.5% and 3.8%, respectively, on mechanical and heating power consumption, were observed as the span, for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature, was increased. Under the experimental conditions studied here, an increment of 30.6% on the global biodigester performance index was observed when a span of 1.0 degree C was compared to the one of 0.2 degrees C.

  12. Reduction of electric power consumption in relation to household appliances. Elbesparelser ved husholdningsapparater; Forprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gydesen, A.

    1989-07-15

    Possibilities were investigated for the reduction of electric power consumption in relation to household appliances, and for cooperation with manufacturers in this respect. It is suggested that in the cases of washing-up machines, and washing and drying machines, hot water from the tap could be utilized. This would mean that the energy consumption would then shift to domestic heating equipment, dual-purpose power plants and district heating plants. Ovens, drying machines, washing machines and washing-up machines could use natural gas, especially in areas where this fuel could be conveyed to each household via pipes. Cooperation with manufacturers seems feasible, especially with regard to electric ovens, saucepans for use in combination with the latter, and water beds. Considering future developments, it is reasonable to expect that ultra sound will be utilized in connection with washing-up and washing machines, moreover it is likely that the use of enzymes in washing powders will mean that washing machines will be able to run on cold water. (AB) 21 refs.

  13. A high speed, low power consumption LVDS interface for CMOS pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhan, E-mail: sz1134@163.com [Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Tang, Zhenan, E-mail: tangza@dlut.edu.cn [Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Tian, Yong [Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Pham, Hung; Valin, Isabelle; Jaaskelainen, Kimmo [IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPSs) offers a promising approach to the design of vertex detectors in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. As the CPS equipping the upgraded Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) pixel detector, ULTIMATE perfectly illustrates the potential of CPSs for HEP applications. However, further development of CPSs with respect to readout speed is required to fulfill the readout time requirement of the next generation HEP detectors, such as the upgrade of A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) Inner Tracking System (ITS), the International Linear Collider (ILC), and the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) vertex detectors. One actual limitation of CPSs is related to the speed of the Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) circuitry implementing the interface between the sensor and the Data Acquisition (DAQ) system. To improve the transmission rate while keeping the power consumption at a low level, a source termination technique and a special current comparator were adopted for the LVDS driver and receiver, respectively. Moreover, hardening techniques are used. The circuitry was designed and submitted for fabrication in a 0.18-µm CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process at the end of 2011. The test results indicated that the LVDS driver and receiver can operate properly at the data rate of 1.2 Gb/s with power consumption of 19.6 mW.

  14. Hydrodynamic thrust generation and power consumption investigations for piezoelectric fins with different aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, S.; Tan, D.; Erturk, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bio-inspired hydrodynamic thrust generation using piezoelectric transduction has recently been explored using Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuators. The MFC technology strikes a balance between the actuation force and structural deformation levels for effective swimming performance, and additionally offers geometric scalability, silent operation, and ease of fabrication. Recently we have shown that mean thrust levels comparable to biological fish of similar size can be achieved using MFC fins. The present work investigates the effect of length-to-width (L/b) aspect ratio on the hydrodynamic thrust generation performance of MFC cantilever fins by accounting for the power consumption level. It is known that the hydrodynamic inertia and drag coefficients are controlled by the aspect ratio especially for L/bdrag coefficients from the vibration response to harmonic actuation for the first bending mode. Experiments are then conducted for various actuation voltage levels to quantify the mean thrust resultant and power consumption levels for different aspect ratios. Variation of the thrust coefficient of the MFC bimorph fins with changing aspect ratio is also semi-empirically modeled and presented.

  15. The Use of Fire Radiative Power to Estimate the Biomass Consumption Coefficient for Temperate Grasslands in the Atlantic Forest Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Salvador Cabral da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Every year, many active fire spots are identified in the satellite images of the southern Brazilian grasslands in the Atlantic Forest biome and Pampa biome. Fire Radiative Power (FRP is a technique that uses remotely sensed data to quantify burned biomass. FRP measures the radiant energy released per time unit by burning vegetation. This study aims to use satellite and field data to estimate the biomass consumption rate and the biomass consumption coefficient for the southern Brazilian grasslands. Three fire points were identified in satellite FRP products. These data were combined with field data, collected through literature review, to calculate the biomass consumption coefficient. The type of vegetation is an important variable in the estimation of the biomass consumption coefficient. The biomass consumption rate was estimated to be 2.237 kg s-1 for the southern Brazilian grasslands in Atlantic Forest biome, and the biomass consumption coefficient was estimated to be 0.242 kg MJ-1.

  16. Comparative analysis of fixed and sun tracking low power PV systems considering energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, George Cristian; Longo, Michela; Roscia, Mariacristina; Pagano, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic system prototype with sun tracking. • Energy analysis of fixed and sun tracking built prototypes. • Experimental tests in different environmental conditions. • Theoretical and experimental validation of the prototype. - Abstract: Photovoltaic technology allows to directly convert solar energy into electrical energy with clear advantages: no environmental impact during operation, reliability and durability of the systems, reduced operating costs and maintenance, ability to both supply remote customers and simply connect to the electrical network. This paper evaluates the performance of two photovoltaic systems: one fixed and one equipped with a sun tracker. The objective of this research is to analyze the increase of daily produced energy by using the sun tracking system. The analysis accounts also the energy consumption of the sun tracker. An analytical approach is proposed. To validate the results through experimental tests, two alternative low power PV systems were built. Each system consists of a PV source, a MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) power converter and a 12 V–40 A h electrochemical battery, which is used as electric load. The sun tracker system evidenced an important growth of power production during morning and evening

  17. Impact of Auxiliary Equipments Consumption on Electricity Generation Cost in Selected Power Plants of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILEEP KUMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on higher generation cost of electricity in selected TPPs (Thermal Power Plants in Sindh, Pakistan. It also investigates the energy consumed by the auxiliary equipment of the selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan. The AC (Auxiliary Consumption of selected TPPs is compared with that in UK and other developed countries. Results show that the AC in selected TPPs in Sindh, Pakistan exceeds the average AC of the TPPs situated in developed countries. Many energy conservation measures such as impeller trimming and de-staging, boiler feed pump, high voltage inverter, variable frequency drive, and upgrading the existing cooling tower fan blades with fiber reinforced plastic are discussed to overcome higher AC. This study shows that harnessing various available energy conservative measures the AC and unit cost can be reduced by 4.13 and 8.8%; also adverse environmental impacts can be mitigated. Results show that the unit cost of electricity can be reduced from Rs.20 to19/kWh in JTPP (Jamshoro Thermal Power Plant, Rs.9 to 8.8/kWh in GTPS (Gas Turbine Power Station Kotri and Rs. 11 to 10.27/ kWh in LPS (Lakhara Power Station. Thus, electricity production can be improved with the existing capacity, which will eventually assist to manage the current energy crisis and ensure its conservation

  18. Estimation of Power Consumption in the Circular Sawing of Stone Based on Tangential Force Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoqin; Zhang, Meiqin; Huang, Hui; Guo, Hua; Xu, Xipeng

    2018-04-01

    Circular sawing is an important method for the processing of natural stone. The ability to predict sawing power is important in the optimisation, monitoring and control of the sawing process. In this paper, a predictive model (PFD) of sawing power, which is based on the tangential force distribution at the sawing contact zone, was proposed, experimentally validated and modified. With regard to the influence of sawing speed on tangential force distribution, the modified PFD (MPFD) performed with high predictive accuracy across a wide range of sawing parameters, including sawing speed. The mean maximum absolute error rate was within 6.78%, and the maximum absolute error rate was within 11.7%. The practicability of predicting sawing power by the MPFD with few initial experimental samples was proved in case studies. On the premise of high sample measurement accuracy, only two samples are required for a fixed sawing speed. The feasibility of applying the MPFD to optimise sawing parameters while lowering the energy consumption of the sawing system was validated. The case study shows that energy use was reduced 28% by optimising the sawing parameters. The MPFD model can be used to predict sawing power, optimise sawing parameters and control energy.

  19. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF POWER CONSUMPTION OF LED DEVICES AND ACCOUNTING THEM IN CALCULATION OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Radkevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The indicators of power consumption of lighting devices based on LEDs are studied depending on the supplied voltage. For the lamp and floodlight with LEDs active and reactive power, current and power factor as a function of voltage (which value changed in the range 200–245 V were experimentally determined. The analysis of experimental data demonstrated that due to the drivers in the specified voltage range the active power consumed by light devices remains practically unchanged. The reactive power of LED devices depends on the supplied voltage and is capacitive in its nature. In contrast with gas-discharge light sources the LED devices under study do not consume reactive power, but generate it. With the change of the supplied voltage from 200 to 245 V the value of the generated reactive power increases to 60 % for the floodlight and 50 % for the lamp. The LED floodlight has a low coefficient of active power. The current consumed by the floodlight has increased by 22 %, and by the lamp – by 13 %. The formulas for determining the maximum value of the length of the calculated section of single-phase group lines were developed, taking into account specific source data. LED light sources tend to feed by electric power by single-phase group lines. The number of lamps connected to single-phase lines is regulated by normative documents. Bearing this in mind as well as the small power of LED sources single-phase group lines are usually performed with conductors of the smallest possible cross section. The limit values of the length of the calculated section that correspond to a predetermined loss of voltage in line with ambient temperature from 15 to 60 °С were determined for them. The calculations demonstrated that for group lines that feed the LEDs, the choice of conductor cross-sections in accordance with permissible voltage loss is not critical. The determinant factor for the choice of the cross-section of the conductors of group electrical

  20. CALCULATING WATER CONSUMPTION AND WITHDRAWAL FROM POWER PLANTS GLOBALLYUsing machine learning, remote sensing and power plant data from the Power Watch platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kressig, A.

    2017-12-01

    BACKGROUND The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHGP), Scope 2 Guidance standardizes how companies measure greenhouse gas emissions from purchased or independently generated electricity (called "scope 2 emissions"). Additionally, the interlinkages between industrial or commercial (nonresidential) energy requirements and water demands have been studied extensively, mostly at the national or provincial scale, focused on industries involved in power generation. However there is little guidance available for companies to systematically and effectively quantify water withdrawals and consumption (herein referred to as "water demand") associated with purchased or acquired electricity(what we call "Scope 2 Water"). This lack of guidance on measuring a company's water demand from electricity use is due to a lack of data on average consumption and withdrawal rates of water associated with purchased electricity. OBJECTIVE There is growing demand from companies in the food, beverage, manufacturing, information communication and technology, and other sectors for a methodology to quantify Scope 2 water demands. By understanding Scope 2 water demands, companies could evaluate their exposure to water-related risks associated with purchased or acquired electricity, and quantify the water benefits of changing to less water-intensive sources of electricity and energy generation such as wind and solar. However, there has never been a way of quantifying Scope 2 Water consumption and withdrawals for a company across its international supply chain. Even with interest in understanding exposure to water related risk and measuring water use reductions, there has been no quantitative way of measuring this information. But WRI's Power Watch provides the necessary data to allow for the Scope 2 Water accounting, because it will provide water withdrawal and consumption rates associated with purchased electricity at the power plant level. By calculating the average consumption and withdrawal rates per

  1. Effects of network node consolidation in optical access and aggregation networks on costs and power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christoph; Hülsermann, Ralf; Kosiankowski, Dirk; Geilhardt, Frank; Gladisch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for higher bit rates in access networks requires fiber deployment closer to the subscriber resulting in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. Besides higher access bit rates optical access network infrastructure and related technologies enable the network operator to establish larger service areas resulting in a simplified network structure with a lower number of network nodes. By changing the network structure network operators want to benefit from a changed network cost structure by decreasing in short and mid term the upfront investments for network equipment due to concentration effects as well as by reducing the energy costs due to a higher energy efficiency of large network sites housing a high amount of network equipment. In long term also savings in operational expenditures (OpEx) due to the closing of central office (CO) sites are expected. In this paper different architectures for optical access networks basing on state-of-the-art technology are analyzed with respect to network installation costs and power consumption in the context of access node consolidation. Network planning and dimensioning results are calculated for a realistic network scenario of Germany. All node consolidation scenarios are compared against a gigabit capable passive optical network (GPON) based FTTH access network operated from the conventional CO sites. The results show that a moderate reduction of the number of access nodes may be beneficial since in that case the capital expenditures (CapEx) do not rise extraordinarily and savings in OpEx related to the access nodes are expected. The total power consumption does not change significantly with decreasing number of access nodes but clustering effects enable a more energyefficient network operation and optimized power purchase order quantities leading to benefits in energy costs.

  2. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which

  3. Power Minimization through Packet Retention in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks under Interference and Delay Constraints: An Optimal Stopping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Y. Elnakeeb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is twofold: First, we study the problem of packets retention in a queue with the aim of minimizing transmission power in delay-tolerant applications. The problem is classified as an optimal stopping problem. The optimal stopping rule has been derived as well. Optimal number of released packets is determined in each round through an Integer Linear Programming (ILP optimization problem. This transmission paradigm is tested via simulations in an interference-free environment leading to a significant reduction in transmission power (at least 55%. Second, we address the problem of applying the scheme of packets retention through the Optimal Stopping Policy (OSP to underlay Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks (CRSNs where strict interference threshold does exist. Simulations proved that our scheme outperforms traditional transmission method as far as dropped packet rate and Average Power per Transmitted Packet (APTP are concerned.

  4. Comprehensive Cost Minimization in Distribution Networks Using Segmented-time Feeder Reconfiguration and Reactive Power Control of Distributed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shuheng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to deal with segmented-time reconfiguration problem of distribution networks coupled with segmented-time reactive power control of distributed generators. The target is to find the optimal dispatching schedule of all controllable switches...... and distributed generators’ reactive powers in order to minimize comprehensive cost. Corresponding constraints, including voltage profile, maximum allowable daily switching operation numbers (MADSON), reactive power limits, and so on, are considered. The strategy of grouping branches is used to simplify...... (FAHPSO) is implemented in VC++ 6.0 program language. A modified version of the typical 70-node distribution network and several real distribution networks are used to test the performance of the proposed method. Numerical results show that the proposed methodology is an efficient method for comprehensive...

  5. A new approach for optimum DG placement and sizing based on voltage stability maximization and minimization of power losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, M.M.; Jasmon, G.B.; Bakar, A.H.A.; Mokhlis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new algorithm is proposed for optimum DG placement and sizing.• I 2 R losses minimization and voltage stability maximization is considered in fitness function.• Bus voltage stability and line stability is considered in voltage stability maximization.• Multi-objective PSO is used to solve the problem.• Proposed method is compared with analytical and grid search algorithm. - Abstract: Distributed Generation (DG) placement on the basis of minimization of losses and maximization of system voltage stability are two different approaches, discussed in research. In the new proposed algorithm, a multi-objective approach is used to combine the both approaches together. Minimization of power losses and maximization of voltage stability due to finding weakest voltage bus as well as due to weakest link in the system are considered in the fitness function. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in this paper to solve the multi-objective problem. This paper will also compare the propose method with existing DG placement methods. From results, the proposed method is found more advantageous than the previous work in terms of voltage profile improvement, maximization of system loadability, reduction in power system losses and maximization of bus and line voltage stability. The results are validated on 12-bus, 30-bus, 33-bus and 69-bus radial distribution networks and also discussed in detailed

  6. Minimization of occupational radiation exposure in KWU built nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, R.; Hecht, G.

    1984-01-01

    The minimization of radiation exposure required by law is performed by engineering judgement. In some areas large sums of money have been spent with little return in collective dose savings. Cost benefit analysis may help to identify such areas. On the other hand uncertainties in cost-benefit analysis are rather large and engineering judgement is necessary to fill the gaps in cost benefit analysis too. Therefore with the exception of a few clear cut cases cost benefit analysis is not a means to make decisions in health physics matters more rational and cannot replace engineering judgement

  7. Minimal RED Cell Pairs Markedly Improve Electrode Kinetics and Power Production in Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cusick, Roland D.

    2013-12-17

    Power production from microbial reverse electrodialysis cell (MRC) electrodes is substantially improved compared to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) solutions in multiple RED cell pair stacks and the cathode chamber. Reducing the number of RED membranes pairs while maintaining enhanced electrode performance could help to reduce capital costs. We show here that using only a single RED cell pair (CP), created by operating the cathode in concentrated AmB, dramatically increased power production normalized to cathode area from both acetate (Acetate: from 0.9 to 3.1 W/m 2-cat) and wastewater (WW: 0.3 to 1.7 W/m2), by reducing solution and charge transfer resistances at the cathode. A second RED cell pair increased RED stack potential and reduced anode charge transfer resistance, further increasing power production (Acetate: 4.2 W/m2; WW: 1.9 W/m2). By maintaining near optimal electrode power production with fewer membranes, power densities normalized to total membrane area for the 1-CP (Acetate: 3.1 W/m2-mem; WW: 1.7 W/m2) and 2-CP (Acetate: 1.3 W/m2-mem; WW: 0.6 W/m2) reactors were much higher than previous MRCs (0.3-0.5 W/m2-mem with acetate). While operating at peak power, the rate of wastewater COD removal, normalized to reactor volume, was 30-50 times higher in 1-CP and 2-CP MRCs than that in a single chamber MFC. These findings show that even a single cell pair AmB RED stack can significantly enhance electrical power production and wastewater treatment. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Minimal RED Cell Pairs Markedly Improve Electrode Kinetics and Power Production in Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cusick, Roland D.; Hatzell, Marta; Zhang, Fang; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Power production from microbial reverse electrodialysis cell (MRC) electrodes is substantially improved compared to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) solutions in multiple RED cell pair stacks and the cathode chamber. Reducing the number of RED membranes pairs while maintaining enhanced electrode performance could help to reduce capital costs. We show here that using only a single RED cell pair (CP), created by operating the cathode in concentrated AmB, dramatically increased power production normalized to cathode area from both acetate (Acetate: from 0.9 to 3.1 W/m 2-cat) and wastewater (WW: 0.3 to 1.7 W/m2), by reducing solution and charge transfer resistances at the cathode. A second RED cell pair increased RED stack potential and reduced anode charge transfer resistance, further increasing power production (Acetate: 4.2 W/m2; WW: 1.9 W/m2). By maintaining near optimal electrode power production with fewer membranes, power densities normalized to total membrane area for the 1-CP (Acetate: 3.1 W/m2-mem; WW: 1.7 W/m2) and 2-CP (Acetate: 1.3 W/m2-mem; WW: 0.6 W/m2) reactors were much higher than previous MRCs (0.3-0.5 W/m2-mem with acetate). While operating at peak power, the rate of wastewater COD removal, normalized to reactor volume, was 30-50 times higher in 1-CP and 2-CP MRCs than that in a single chamber MFC. These findings show that even a single cell pair AmB RED stack can significantly enhance electrical power production and wastewater treatment. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. The consumption of electric power on the tertiary sector - an instrument for economical and social analysis and market studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villela, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    The main subjective of this thesis is to analyse the effects of the growth of the tertiary sector on the electric power demand. In order to accomplish this goal an economical and social, analysis of the tertiary sector is made to identify its dynamic, its relations with the other sectors of the economy and to describe the methodologies for measuring the overall tertiary production. Afterwards it is made an analysis of the electric power consumption evolution in the tertiary sector, in order to identify the consumption per region of the country, per consumers and tertiary subsectors. It is also analysed the product power intensify and, finally its described the present tariff system. (author)

  10. The effect of cojugate energy consumptions on comparative efficiency of alternatives of the development of nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnov, V.P.; Bykov, A.I.; Egorushkin, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of control of conjugate energy consumptions on comparative efficiency of alternatives of the development of nuclear power engineering, including NPPs with thermal and fast reactors has been calculated. Economical-mathematical models of the system of nuclear power engineering including the subsystems of fuel utilization, fuel supply and conjugate industries, have been used. It has been shown, that with allowance for conjugate energy consumptions, the economic characteristics of nuclear power engineering sharply degradate when it develops only on the basis of thermal reactors. Putting the fast reactors into the system of nuclear power engineering has an important effect on reduction of conjugate energy consumptions and favors the increase of the efficiency of the system functioning during the considered time interval (60 years). Positive effects from putting breeders into operation become appreciable only on the latest estimated time intervals

  11. Lightweight steel tidal power barrages with minimal environmental impact: application to the Severn Barrage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, R C T

    2018-01-01

    For tidal power barrages, a breast-shot water wheel, with a hydraulic transmission, has significant advantages over a conventional Kaplan turbine. It is better suited to combined operations with pumping that maintain the tidal range upstream of the barrage (important in reducing the environmental impact), and is much less harmful to fish. It also does not require tapered entry and exit ducts, making the barrage much smaller and lighter, so that it can conveniently be built in steel. For the case of the Severn Estuary, UK, it is shown that a barrage at Porlock would generate an annual average power of 4 GW (i.e. 35 TWh yr -1 ), maintain the existing tidal ranges upstream of it and reduce the tidal ranges downstream of it by only about 10%. The weight of steel required, in relation to the annual average power generated, compares very favourably with a recent offshore wind farm.

  12. Lightweight steel tidal power barrages with minimal environmental impact: application to the Severn Barrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, R. C. T.

    2018-01-01

    For tidal power barrages, a breast-shot water wheel, with a hydraulic transmission, has significant advantages over a conventional Kaplan turbine. It is better suited to combined operations with pumping that maintain the tidal range upstream of the barrage (important in reducing the environmental impact), and is much less harmful to fish. It also does not require tapered entry and exit ducts, making the barrage much smaller and lighter, so that it can conveniently be built in steel. For the case of the Severn Estuary, UK, it is shown that a barrage at Porlock would generate an annual average power of 4 GW (i.e. 35 TWh yr-1), maintain the existing tidal ranges upstream of it and reduce the tidal ranges downstream of it by only about 10%. The weight of steel required, in relation to the annual average power generated, compares very favourably with a recent offshore wind farm.

  13. Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oussanov, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

  14. TOKMINA, Toroidal Magnetic Field Minimization for Tokamak Fusion Reactor. TOKMINA-2, Total Power for Tokamak Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TOKMINA finds the minimum magnetic field, Bm, required at the toroidal coil of a Tokamak type fusion reactor when the input is beta(ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure), q(Kruskal-Shafranov plasma stability factor), and y(ratio of plasma radius to vacuum wall radius: rp/rw) and arrays of PT (total thermal power from both d-t and tritium breeding reactions), Pw (wall loading or power flux) and TB (thickness of blanket), following the method of Golovin, et al. TOKMINA2 finds the total power, PT, of such a fusion reactor, given a specified magnetic field, Bm, at the toroidal coil. 2 - Method of solution: TOKMINA: the aspect ratio(a) is minimized, giving a minimum value for Bm. TOKMINA2: a search is made for PT; the value of PT which minimizes Bm to the required value within 50 Gauss is chosen. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Input arrays presently are dimensioned at 20. This restriction can be overcome by changing a dimension card

  15. Electricity consumption by battery-powered consumer electronics: A household-level survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, J. Andrew; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of battery-powered consumer electronics and their reliance on inefficient linear transformers has been suggested to be an important part of the rapid growth in 'miscellaneous' electricity consumption in recent years, but detailed data are scarce. We conducted a survey of 34 randomly selected households (HHs) in Northern California about the number, type, and usage of consumer electronics. We also measured the energy consumption of 85 typical consumer electronic devices through various parts of the charge cycle. These primary data were supplemented by national sales information for consumer electronics. Results indicate that typical HHs own 8.4 rechargeable devices, which have a total average demand of 12-17 W per HH. Statewide, this amounts to 160-220 MW of demand, with the peak occurring in the late evening, and about 1600 GWh per year. Only about 15% of this energy is used for battery charging, the rest is lost as waste heat during no-load and charge maintenance periods. Technical options to increase the efficiency of these devices, and the research and policy steps needed to realize these savings are discussed

  16. Classifying Sensors Depending on their IDs to Reduce Power Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohammd Brisha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks produce a large amount of data that needs to be processed, delivered, and assessed according to the application objectives. Cluster-based is an effective architecture for data-gathering in wireless sensor networks. Clustering provides an effective way for prolonging the lifetime of a wireless sensor network. Current clustering algorithms usually utilize two techniques, selecting cluster heads with more residual energy and rotating cluster heads periodically, in order to distribute the energy consumption among nodes in each cluster and extend the network lifetime. Clustering sensors are divided into groups, so that sensors will communicate information only to cluster heads and then the cluster heads will communicate the aggregated information to the processing center, and this may save energy. In this paper we show Two Relay Sensor Algorithm (TRSA, which divide wireless Sensor Network (WSN into unequaled clusters, showing that it can effectively save power for maximizing the life time of the network. Simulation results show that the proposed unequal clustering mechanism (TRSA balances the energy consumption among all sensor nodes and achieves an obvious improvement on the network lifetime.

  17. Designing an Inverter-based Operational Transconductance Amplifier-capacitor Filter with Low Power Consumption for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefinezhad, Sajad; Kermani, Saeed; Hosseinnia, Saeed

    2018-01-01

    The operational transconductance amplifier-capacitor (OTA-C) filter is one of the best structures for implementing continuous-time filters. It is particularly important to design a universal OTA-C filter capable of generating the desired filter response via a single structure, thus reducing the filter circuit power consumption as well as noise and the occupied space on the electronic chip. In this study, an inverter-based universal OTA-C filter with very low power consumption and acceptable noise was designed with applications in bioelectric and biomedical equipment for recording biomedical signals. The very low power consumption of the proposed filter was achieved through introducing bias in subthreshold MOSFET transistors. The proposed filter is also capable of simultaneously receiving favorable low-, band-, and high-pass filter responses. The performance of the proposed filter was simulated and analyzed via HSPICE software (level 49) and 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The rate of power consumption and noise obtained from simulations are 7.1 nW and 10.18 nA, respectively, so this filter has reduced noise as well as power consumption. The proposed universal OTA-C filter was designed based on the minimum number of transconductance blocks and an inverter circuit by three transconductance blocks (OTA).

  18. System and method for controlling power consumption in a computer system based on user satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Dick, Robert P; Chen, Xi; Memik, Gokhan; Dinda, Peter A; Shy, Alex; Ozisikyilmaz, Berkin; Mallik, Arindam; Choudhary, Alok

    2014-04-22

    Systems and methods for controlling power consumption in a computer system. For each of a plurality of interactive applications, the method changes a frequency at which a processor of the computer system runs, receives an indication of user satisfaction, determines a relationship between the changed frequency and the user satisfaction of the interactive application, and stores the determined relationship information. The determined relationship can distinguish between different users and different interactive applications. A frequency may be selected from the discrete frequencies at which the processor of the computer system runs based on the determined relationship information for a particular user and a particular interactive application running on the processor of the computer system. The processor may be adapted to run at the selected frequency.

  19. Alcohol Consumption in Family Budgets: Effects of Purchasing Power and Households Demographic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García Arancibia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the problems associated with family alcohol consumption is the effect on household resource distribution, with a larger incidence in those households that are socially more vulnerable. This study examines the influence that household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics have on the share of alcoholic beverages in the household budget, using data from Santa Fe, Argentina for the period 2004-2005. Engel parametric curves are estimated using a sample selection model (Tobit type II. The sample is subdivided using the poverty line as the criterion. The results show that the most relevant characteristics differ depending on whether the household is poor or not. In non-poor households, variables such as the age of the household head, the share of women and the number of minors have a statistically significant effect on alcohol’s share of expenditures. In contrast, only characteristics related to purchasing power are relevant in poor households.

  20. Cause analysis and suggestion of urea consumption in denitrification system of coal-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Dong, Ruifeng; Guo, Yang; Wang, Fangfang; Yang, Shuo

    2018-02-01

    In the daily operation of many power plants, the urea consumption of denitration system is much more than normal. Therefore, the process of site testing and laboratory analysis are carried out. Several suggestions are given out. (1) The position of sampling hole on the exit flue of denitrification system should be redesigned. (2) The denitrification optimization and adjustment should be carried out based on the technical specifications for the operation system. (3) The flue gas CEMS system for single point sampling should be transformed into two or three point sampling mode. (4) When the coal - fired unit is shutting down, examine the ammonia injection and nozzle branch, in order to improve the operation reliability of denitration system.

  1. Design of intelligent power consumption optimization and visualization management platform for large buildings based on internet of things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Shulan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The buildings provide a significant contribution to total energy consumption and CO2 emission. It has been estimated that the development of an intelligent power consumption monitor and control system will result in about 30% savings in energy consumption. This design innovatively integrates the advanced technologies such as the internet of things, the internet, intelligent buildings and intelligent electricity which can offer open, efficient, convenient energy consumption detection platform in demand side and visual management demonstration application platform in power enterprises side. The system was created to maximize the effective and efficient the use of energy resource. It was development around sensor networks and intelligent gateway and the monitoring center software. This will realize the highly integration and comprehensive application in energy and information to meet the needs with intelligent buildings

  2. Operation Cost Minimization of Droop-Controlled DC Microgrids Based on Real-Time Pricing and Optimal Power Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; de Bosio, Federico; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal power flow problem is formulated in order to minimize the total operation cost by considering real-time pricing in DC microgrids. Each generation resource in the system, including the utility grid, is modeled in terms of operation cost, which combines the cost...... problem is solved in a heuristic way by using genetic algorithms. In order to test the proposed algorithm, a six-bus droop-controlled DC microgrid is used as a case-study. The obtained simulation results show that under variable renewable generation, load, and electricity prices, the proposed method can...

  3. A Novel Low-Power-Consumption All-Fiber-Optic Anemometer with Simple System Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Fang; Duan, Zhihui; Liu, Zexu; Liu, Zigeng; Wu, Zhenlin; Gu, Yiying; Sun, Changsen; Peng, Wei

    2017-09-14

    A compact and low-power consuming fiber-optic anemometer based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) coated tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is presented. TFBG as a near infrared in-fiber sensing element is able to excite a number of cladding modes and radiation modes in the fiber and effectively couple light in the core to interact with the fiber surrounding mediums. It is an ideal in-fiber device used in a fiber hot-wire anemometer (HWA) as both coupling and sensing elements to simplify the sensing head structure. The fabricated TFBG was immobilized with an SWCNT film on the fiber surface. SWCNTs, a kind of innovative nanomaterial, were utilized as light-heat conversion medium instead of traditional metallic materials, due to its excellent infrared light absorption ability and competitive thermal conductivity. When the SWCNT film strongly absorbs the light in the fiber, the sensor head can be heated and form a "hot wire". As the sensor is put into wind field, the wind will take away the heat on the sensor resulting in a temperature variation that is then accurately measured by the TFBG. Benefited from the high coupling and absorption efficiency, the heating and sensing light source was shared with only one broadband light source (BBS) without any extra pumping laser complicating the system. This not only significantly reduces power consumption, but also simplifies the whole sensing system with lower cost. In experiments, the key parameters of the sensor, such as the film thickness and the inherent angle of the TFBG, were fully investigated. It was demonstrated that, under a very low BBS input power of 9.87 mW, a 0.100 nm wavelength response can still be detected as the wind speed changed from 0 to 2 m/s. In addition, the sensitivity was found to be -0.0346 nm/(m/s) under the wind speed of 1 m/s. The proposed simple and low-power-consumption wind speed sensing system exhibits promising potential for future long-term remote monitoring and on-chip sensing in

  4. DISTRIBUTION NETWORK RECONFIGURATION FOR POWER LOSS MINIMIZATION AND VOLTAGE PROFILE ENHANCEMENT USING ANT LION ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shokouhi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Distribution networks are designed as a ring and operated as a radial form. Therefore, the reconfiguration is a simple and cost-effective way to use existing facilities without the need for any new equipment in distribution networks to achieve various objectives such as: power loss reduction, feeder overload reduction, load balancing, voltage profile improvement, reducing the number of switching considering constraints that ultimately result in the power loss reduction. In this paper, a new method based on the Ant Lion algorithm (a modern meta-heuristic algorithm is provided for the reconfiguration of distribution networks. Considering the extension of the distribution networks and complexity of their communications networks, and the various parameters, using smart techniques is inevitable. The proposed approach is tested on the IEEE 33 & 69-bus radial standard distribution networks. The Evaluation of results in MATLAB software shows the effectiveness of the Ant Lion algorithm in the distribution network reconfiguration.

  5. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  6. A study on the food consumption rates for off-site radiological dose assessment around Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Bock; Chung, Yang Geun

    2008-01-01

    The internal dose by food consumption mostly accounts for radiological dose of public around Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). But, food consumption rates applied to off-site dose calculation in Korea which are the result of field investigation around Kori NPP by the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) in 1988, are not able to reflect the latest dietary characteristics of Korean. The food consumption rates to be used for radiological dose assessment in Korea are based on the maximum individual of US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) Regulatory Guide 1.109. However, the representative individual of the critical group is considered in the recent ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) recommendation and European nations' practice. Therefore, the study on the re-establishment of the food consumption rates for individual around nuclear power plant sites in Korea was carried out to reflect on the recent change of the Korean dietary characteristics and to apply the representative individual of critical group to domestic regulations. The ministry of Health and Welfare Affairs has investigated the food and nutrition of nations every 3 years based on the Law of National Health Improvement. The statistical data such as mean, standard deviation, various percentile values about food consumption rates to be used for the representative individual of the critical group were analyzed by using the raw data of the national food consumption survey in 2001∼2002. Also, the food consumption rates for maximum individual are re-estimated

  7. Energy-water nexus of wind power in China: The balancing act between CO2 emissions and water consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Feng Kuishuang; Siu, Yim Ling; Hubacek, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    At the end of 2010, China's contribution to global CO 2 emissions reached 25.1%. Estimates show that power generation accounts for 37.2% of the Chinese CO 2 emissions. Even though there is an increasing number of studies using life cycle analysis (LCA) to examine energy consumption and CO 2 emissions required by different types of power generation technologies, there are very few studies focusing on China. Furthermore, the nexus between water consumption and energy production has largely been ignored. In this paper, we adopt input–output based hybrid life cycle analysis to evaluate water consumption and CO 2 emissions of wind power in China. Our results show that China's wind energy consumes 0.64 l/kWh of water and produces 69.9 g/kWh of CO 2 emission. Given that the Chinese government aims to increase the wind power generation capacity to 200 GW by 2020, wind power could contribute a 23% reduction in carbon intensity and could save 800 million m 3 of water which could be sufficient enough for use by 11.2 million households. Thus, given the often postulated water crisis, China's energy policy would reap double benefits through progressive energy policies when increasing the share of wind power as part of overall efforts to diversify its electricity generation technologies. - Highlights: ► The nexus of water consumption and CO 2 emission of China's wind power is examined. ► Wind power consumes 0.64 l/kWh of water and produces 69.9 g/kWh of CO 2 . ► Wind power could save 800 million m 3 of water for use by 11.2 million households. ► Wind power could contribute 23% of China's carbon intensity target by 2020. ► Wind power deemed to be a viable means of achieving carbon and water savings.

  8. Power consumption analysis of pump station control systems based on fuzzy controllers with discrete terms in iThink software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyova, E. A.; Bondarev, A. V.; Sharipov, M. I.; Galiaskarova, G. R.; Kubryak, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, power consumption of pumping station control systems is discussed. To study the issue, two simulation models of oil level control in the iThink software have been developed, using a frequency converter only and using a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. A simulation of the oil-level control was carried out in a graphic form, and plots of pumps power consumption were obtained. Based on the initial and obtained data, the efficiency of the considered control systems has been compared, and also the power consumption of the systems was shown graphically using a frequency converter only and using a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. The models analysis has shown that it is more economical and safe to use a control circuit with a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller.

  9. A New Framework to Minimize Insider Threats in Nuclear Power Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Young A; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In a 2008 report, IAEA presented preventive and protective measures against such threat. These are summarized as : (1) Exclude potential insiders by identifying undesirable behavior or characteristics, which may indicate motivation, prior to allowing them access; (2) Exclude further potential insiders by identifying undesirable behavior or characteristics, which may indicate motivation, after they have access; (3) Minimize opportunities for malicious acts by limiting access, authority and knowledge, and by other measures; (4) Detect, delay and respond to malicious acts. The nuclear security risk, i.e. insider threat, has concerned continuously because the existing physical protection system is only for outsider threats. In addition, with high possibility of use of multicultural workforce in newcomers' NPPs, the detection and prediction of insider threat is a hot potato. Thus, this paper suggested a new framework for predicting and detecting the insider threat. This framework integrates the behavioral indicators, stimulus monitoring and cognitive monitoring. This framework open a chance to detect and predict the insider before commits a crime accurately. This model can be direct application to reduce the security risks in multicultural environment.

  10. Improved design architecture to minimize functional complexity of plant protection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, JaeCheon

    2016-01-01

    An improved design architecture method to minimize the functional complexity of PPS (Plant Protection System) is proposed in this work. Firstly, the design concerns are identified with both AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis. AHP is able to identify the source of design concerns using pairwise comparison. AHP result shows CCF is the primary concern and the complexity is the secondly. Even though complexity is the second largest concern to the effectiveness of digital I&C system, but it has not been highlighted as CCF. This is the reason why this work focuses on the sources of complexity to maximize the effectiveness of digital system in the viewpoint of design architecture. The proposed methods are, separating non-safety functions from bistable logics and simplifying communication links and network. In order to verify the new concept, EFFBD (Enhanced Functional Flow Block Diagram) models are developed for two bistable logics of PPS and the complexities are measured using Halstead’s program maintainability measures. This measure specifies what provokes functional complexity. Periodic testing and operating bypass function are the source of complexity in this analysis.

  11. Improved design architecture to minimize functional complexity of plant protection system for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, JaeCheon, E-mail: jcjung@kings.ac.kr

    2016-12-01

    An improved design architecture method to minimize the functional complexity of PPS (Plant Protection System) is proposed in this work. Firstly, the design concerns are identified with both AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis. AHP is able to identify the source of design concerns using pairwise comparison. AHP result shows CCF is the primary concern and the complexity is the secondly. Even though complexity is the second largest concern to the effectiveness of digital I&C system, but it has not been highlighted as CCF. This is the reason why this work focuses on the sources of complexity to maximize the effectiveness of digital system in the viewpoint of design architecture. The proposed methods are, separating non-safety functions from bistable logics and simplifying communication links and network. In order to verify the new concept, EFFBD (Enhanced Functional Flow Block Diagram) models are developed for two bistable logics of PPS and the complexities are measured using Halstead’s program maintainability measures. This measure specifies what provokes functional complexity. Periodic testing and operating bypass function are the source of complexity in this analysis.

  12. A New Framework to Minimize Insider Threats in Nuclear Power Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Young A; Yim, Man-Sung

    2016-01-01

    In a 2008 report, IAEA presented preventive and protective measures against such threat. These are summarized as : (1) Exclude potential insiders by identifying undesirable behavior or characteristics, which may indicate motivation, prior to allowing them access; (2) Exclude further potential insiders by identifying undesirable behavior or characteristics, which may indicate motivation, after they have access; (3) Minimize opportunities for malicious acts by limiting access, authority and knowledge, and by other measures; (4) Detect, delay and respond to malicious acts. The nuclear security risk, i.e. insider threat, has concerned continuously because the existing physical protection system is only for outsider threats. In addition, with high possibility of use of multicultural workforce in newcomers' NPPs, the detection and prediction of insider threat is a hot potato. Thus, this paper suggested a new framework for predicting and detecting the insider threat. This framework integrates the behavioral indicators, stimulus monitoring and cognitive monitoring. This framework open a chance to detect and predict the insider before commits a crime accurately. This model can be direct application to reduce the security risks in multicultural environment

  13. Development of structural diagram of automated dispatch control system for power consumption at non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyuev, R. V.; Bosikov, I. I.; Madaeva, M. Z.; A-V Turluev, R.

    2018-03-01

    The structural scheme of the automated control system of power consumption at the industrial enterprise is developed in the article. At the non-ferrous metallurgy enterprise, an energy inspection and a rank analysis of the electrical energy consumption of the main processing equipment were carried out. It is established that the enterprises of non-ferrous metallurgy are a complex process system consisting of a set of thousands of jointly functioning technological facilities. For the most effective estimation of power consumption of enterprises, it is reasonable to use the automated system of dispatching control of power consumption (ASDCPC). The paper presents the results of the development of the ASDCPC structural diagram that allows one to perform on-line control and management of the energy and process parameters of the main production units and the enterprise as a whole. As a result of the introduction of ASDCPC at the non-ferrous metallurgy enterprise, the consumed active power was reduced during the peak hours of the load by 20%, the specific electricity consumption - by 14%, the cost of the energy component in the cost of production of hard alloys - by 3%.

  14. Ultra sensitive sea water radioactivity monitoring system. Autonomous low power consumption equipped with wireless data communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet, H.; Debauche, A.; Lellis, C. de; Adam, V.; Lacroix, J.P.; Put, P. van

    2003-01-01

    Following the recognition of their usefulness by the States and the scientific community, the automatic water monitoring networks were developed again to be able to measure sea water. For that purpose they had to be fully autonomous, have low power consumption (solar panels power supply), use wireless communicating (satellite, GSM, Radio) and be very sensitive (few Bq/m 3 ). It is important to note that radioactivity detection in sea has many constraints: The detection system sensitivity must be very high because of the dilution factor of the ocean. The analysis method has to be adapted: the detection of very low levels of artificial contamination is made difficult due to the natural radioactivity in seawater (i.e., more than 10 kBq of 40 K/m 3 ). The system has to be completely autonomous, 'wireless'. Additional conventional measuring probes must be connected to the system to increase its interest (pH, t deg, salinity, position, meteorology). The system maintenance must be very limited (1/year). Wind and corrosion resistance must be high. The probe must be installed on a buoy. Moreover, some improvements are needed to allow: Amplification Gain drifts due to NaI sensitivity to t deg to be compensated. Net peak area computation in a specific energy range. Interference correction to prevent false alarms due to natural radiation. Very long counting time. (author)

  15. Price elastic power consumption as reserve power - a demonstration in the horticultural sector. Final report; Priselastisk elforbrug som reservekraft - et demonstrationsprojekt i gartneribranchen. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Danish greenhouses have a relatively high level of electricity consumption for plant growth lighting. Part of the electricity consumption is flexible, and the main purpose of the project was to find out if the plant growth lighting of the greenhouses is fit for the market for reserve power. The greenhouses' total potential for delivery of upgrading services was up to 80 MW for a short period in spring 2007. Four greenhouses participated in practise on the regulating power market with a flexible consumption. The upscaling of the demonstration was not carried through because e.g. the price development on the regulating power market reduced the gain considerably, and the investments for installation of on-line metering at the greenhouses did not measure up with the earnings. (Author)

  16. Establishing bonds between vehicle certification data and real-world vehicle fuel consumption – A Vehicle Specific Power approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, G.O.; Gonçalves, G.A.; Baptista, P.C.; Farias, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative methodology to estimate VSP fuel consumption based on public available data. • Model validation with accurate fuel consumption results (absolute deviation from 4.7% to 9.2%). • Best-selling vehicles in Portugal case study was developed for different driving cycles. - Abstract: A method to perform the energy characterization of a vehicle according to the specific power required while driving was developed using public vehicle certification data. Using a portable emission measurement system, fuel consumption was quantified in a second-by-second basis under on-road conditions for 19 vehicles (spark-ignition, compression-ignition and hybrids). This data allowed building generic curves of fuel consumption as a function of the specific power, according to Vehicle Specific Power methodology. Comparing on-road measurements and the model estimates, a R 2 higher than 0.9 for conventional and hybrid vehicles was obtained regarding modal fuel consumption. Comparing the fuel consumption measured on the drive cycles performed by each vehicle and the correspondent estimates, an absolute deviation of 9.2% ± 9.2% was found for conventional vehicles and 4.7% ± 1.8% for hybrids vehicles. This methodology was validated and applied to estimate the energy impacts of the best-selling vehicles in Portugal for different driving cycles. This prompt method, that does not require vehicle monitoring, can estimate curves of fuel consumption in g/s, as a function of specific power, which allows quantifying the absolute fuel use for any driving cycle

  17. Minimizing Uncertainties Impact in Decision Making with an Applicability Study for Economic Power Dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Shaobu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fan, Rui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Zhuanfang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report summaries the work performed under the LDRD project on the preliminary study on knowledge automation, where specific focus has been made on the investigation of the impact of uncertainties of human decision making onto the optimization of the process operation. At first the statistics on signals from the Brain-Computing Interface (BCI) is analyzed so as to obtain the uncertainties characterization of human operators during the decision making phase using the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. This is then followed by the discussions of an architecture that reveals the equivalence between optimization and closed loop feedback control design, where it has been shown that all the optimization problems can be transferred into the control design problem for closed loop systems. This has led to a “closed loop” framework, where the structure of the decision making is shown to be subjected to both process disturbances and controller’s uncertainties. The latter can well represent the uncertainties or randomness occurred during human decision making phase. As a result, a stochastic optimization problem has been formulated and a novel solution has been proposed using probability density function (PDF) shaping for both the cost function and the constraints using stochastic distribution control concept. A sufficient condition has been derived that guarantees the convergence of the optimal solution and discussions have been made for both the total probabilistic solution and chanced constrained optimization which have been well-studied in optimal power flows (OPF) area. A simple case study has been carried out for the economic dispatch of powers for a grid system when there are distributed energy resources (DERs) in the system, and encouraging results have been obtained showing that a significant savings on the generation cost can be expected.

  18. Postoperative consumption of opioid analgesics following correction of pectus excavatum is influenced by pectus severity: a single-centre study of 236 patients undergoing minimally invasive correction of pectus excavatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Kasper; Pfeiffer-Jensen, Mogens; Pilegaard, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE) is primarily performed to achieve cosmetic and psychological benefits for the patient. Minimally invasive repair of PE is often associated with severe postoperative pain. This study estimates the effect of the severity of PE...... regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of the severity of PE on the postoperative consumption of opioid analgesics and to adjust for potential confounding. Results: The total morphine consumption following minimally invasive repair of PE ranged between 20 and 370mgday(-1). Multiple linear...... demographics, peri- and postoperative information, including data on pain management. The consumption of opioid analgesics was registered after discontinuation of epidural analgesia and other types of opioid analgesics used during the study period were converted to morphine equivalents. Multiple linear...

  19. Presentations of the 2. national colloquium dedicated to photovoltaic self-consumption - Producing solar power to consume it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Virginie; Bour, Daniel; Emsellem, David-Eric; Charton, Franck; Devoisin-Lagarde, Sophie; Gossement, Arnaud; Moulet, Antoine; Gautier, Charles Antoine; Lextrait, Herve; Joffre, Andre; Marcie, Stephane; Richard, Pascal; Semenjuk, Gerald; Mayaud, Nicolas; Rocchia, Gilles; De GUIO, Sandrine; Dornstetter, Caroline; Perrin, Marion; Ricaud, Claude; Jimenez, Julien; Bourgueil, Christophe; Marchal, David; Brottier, Laetitia

    2017-09-01

    Producing, consuming and sharing electricity is today an emerging trend of the energy mix transition. Self-consumption is the main topic of 2017, even if still limited today, it aims to extend in the coming years especially if the appropriate conditions are in place. This second edition of the national colloquium on self-consumption stresses on two aspects will extend in a near future: collective self-consumption and stationary and mobile power storage. The colloquium is organised in 4 sessions dealing with: 1 - The market of individual self-consumption, economical and contractual models; 2 - Regulatory and economic framework of collective self-consumption: impact on positive-energy buildings and on the fight against fuel poverty; 3 - Digitalized self-consumption as a solution to reach operational efficiency: issues for the grid from the building to the district scale; 4 - Photovoltaic self-consumption, stationary storage and electro-mobility: impact of batteries competition on energy decentralisation. This document brings together the different presentations (slides) given at the colloquium

  20. Potential Evaluation of Energy Supply System in Grid Power System, Commercial, and Residential Sectors by Minimizing Energy Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Takuya; Akisawa, Atushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    If the economic activity in the commercial and residential sector continues to grow, improvement in energy conversion efficiencies of energy supply systems is necessary for CO2 mitigation. In recent years, the electricity driven hot water heat pump (EDHP) and the solar photo voltaic (PV) are commercialized. The fuel cell (FC) of co-generation system (CGS) for the commercial and residential sector will be commercialized in the future. The aim is to indicate the ideal energy supply system of the users sector, which both manages the economical cost and CO2 mitigation, considering the grid power system. In the paper, cooperative Japanese energy supply systems are modeled by linear-programming. It includes the grid power system and energy systems of five commercial sectors and a residential sector. The demands of sectors are given by the objective term for 2005 to 2025. 24 hours load for each 3 annual seasons are considered. The energy systems are simulated to be minimize the total cost of energy supply, and to be mitigate the CO2 discharge. As result, the ideal energy system at 2025 is shown. The CGS capacity grows to 30% (62GW) of total power system, and the EDHP capacity is 26GW, in commercial and residential sectors.

  1. To minimized power outage by the application of 'RTV' (room temperature vulcanizing) silicon on high voltage porcelain insulators in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz Tehzeeb ul Hassan

    2003-01-01

    In Pakistan power network comprises of 500KV, 220KV, 132KV, 66KV and 33KV transmission lines and 11KV power distribution systems. Number of insulators are used in connected units in the shape of strings with transmission line as per insulation requirements with proper design according to the various kinds of pollution stresses. The transmission lines are passing from or near polluted areas and very dusty plains of Punjab and Sindh provinces. Practices are being used in these transmission lines for removal of accumulated contamination of insulators by periodic cleaning twice a year or de-energized transmission lines. Even then discontinuation of supply takes place in the polluted areas in foggy weather. Special technique of using water repellent (Room Temperature Vulcanizing) silicone coating/paint has been introduced on high voltage disc Insulators to minimize the outage in power net work in Pakistan. Especially in high pollution areas near chemical factories and near brick kilns etc comparison study of coated and uncoated disc Insulators have been carried out by ESDD (Equal Salt Deposit Density) measurement in salt fog chamber. (author)

  2. Compact Low-Power-Consumption 28-Gbaud QPSK/16-QAM Integrated Silicon Photonic/Electronic Coherent Receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Verbist, J.; Moeneclaey, B.; van Weerdenburg, J.; van Uden, R.G.H.; Chen, H.; van Campenhout, J.; Okonkwo, C; Yin, X; Bauwelinck, J.; Roelkens, G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the codesign and cointegration of an ultracompact silicon photonic receiver and a low-power-consumption (155 mW/channel) two-channel linear transimpedance amplifier array. Operation below the forward error coding (FEC) threshold both for quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and

  3. Design and Modeling of Polysilicon Electrothermal Actuators for a MEMS Mirror with Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lara-Castro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic optical-coherence tomography (OCT systems require low cost mirrors with small footprint size, out-of-plane deflections and low bias voltage. These requirements can be achieved with electrothermal actuators based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS. We present the design and modeling of polysilicon electrothermal actuators for a MEMS mirror (100 μm × 100 μm × 2.25 μm. These actuators are composed by two beam types (2.25 μm thickness with different cross-section area, which are separated by 2 μm gap. The mirror and actuators are designed through the Sandia Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology V (SUMMiT V® process, obtaining a small footprint size (1028 μm × 1028 µm for actuators of 550 µm length. The actuators have out-of-plane displacements caused by low dc voltages and without use material layers with distinct thermal expansion coefficients. The temperature behavior along the actuators is calculated through analytical models that include terms of heat energy generation, heat conduction and heat energy loss. The force method is used to predict the maximum out-of-plane displacements in the actuator tip as function of supplied voltage. Both analytical models, under steady-state conditions, employ the polysilicon resistivity as function of the temperature. The electrothermal-and structural behavior of the actuators is studied considering different beams dimensions (length and width and dc bias voltages from 0.5 to 2.5 V. For 2.5 V, the actuator of 550 µm length reaches a maximum temperature, displacement and electrical power of 115 °C, 10.3 µm and 6.3 mW, respectively. The designed actuation mechanism can be useful for MEMS mirrors of different sizes with potential application in endoscopic OCT systems that require low power consumption.

  4. Electrothermal modeling, fabrication and analysis of low-power consumption thermal actuator with buckling arm

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun

    2013-10-31

    © 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. This paper reports on a novel thermal actuator with sub-micron metallic structures and a buckling arm to operate with low voltages and to generate very large deflections, respectively. A lumped electrothermal model and analysis were also developed to validate the mechanical design and easily predict the temperature distribution along arms of the sub-micron actuator. The actuator was fabricated via the combination of electron beam lithography to form actuator arms with a minimum feature size of 200 nm and lift-off process to deposit a high aspect ratio nickel structure. Reproducible displacements of up to 1.9 μm at the tip were observed up to 250 mV under confocal microscope. The experimentally measured deflection values and theoretically calculated temperature distribution by the developed model were compared with finite element analysis results and they were in good agreement. This study shows a promising approach to develop more sophisticated nano actuators required larger deflections for manipulation of sub-micron scale objects with low-power consumption.

  5. Consumption of locally grown foods by the populations residing near nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, P.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The studies carried out by the Geographical Institute of Aix-en-Provence and the B.E.G.E.A. are in three forms: the first studies the local rural production (farming, animal rearing and fishing); the second is concerned with the food intake of the population within a radius of 5 to 10 km around the site; the third consists in working out a soil utilization map covering an area of about 2500 hectares around the site in order to determine the agricultural and urban areas as well as the open spaces, and the exact sort of cultivation carried out, plot by plot. The map also represents all the phenomena concerning hydrography, irrigation, watering and the supply of potable water. All these studies concern only a few parishes and enable an accurate knowledge of the environment to be acquired. The food studies seek an order of magnitude of the amount of local produce consumed by the populations of the nuclear power station sites with a view to determining radioactive contamination levels. The results show the specific food consumption features of a population bearing the deep stamp of its environment and its rural origin [fr

  6. Sustainable Modular Adaptive Redundancy Technique Emphasizing Partial Reconfiguration for Reduced Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Al-Haddad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As reconfigurable devices' capacities and the complexity of applications that use them increase, the need for self-reliance of deployed systems becomes increasingly prominent. Organic computing paradigms have been proposed for fault-tolerant systems because they promote behaviors that allow complex digital systems to adapt and survive in demanding environments. In this paper, we develop a sustainable modular adaptive redundancy technique (SMART composed of a two-layered organic system. The hardware layer is implemented on a Xilinx Virtex-4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA to provide self-repair using a novel approach called reconfigurable adaptive redundancy system (RARS. The software layer supervises the organic activities on the FPGA and extends the self-healing capabilities through application-independent, intrinsic, and evolutionary repair techniques that leverage the benefits of dynamic partial reconfiguration (PR. SMART was evaluated using a Sobel edge-detection application and was shown to tolerate stressful sequences of injected transient and permanent faults while reducing dynamic power consumption by 30% compared to conventional triple modular redundancy (TMR techniques, with nominal impact on the fault-tolerance capabilities. Moreover, PR is employed to keep the system on line while under repair and also to reduce repair time. Experiments have shown a 27.48% decrease in repair time when PR is employed compared to the full bitstream configuration case.

  7. Analysis of the maximal possible grid relief from PV-peak-power impacts by using storage systems for increased self-consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshövel, Janina; Kairies, Kai-Philipp; Magnor, Dirk; Leuthold, Matthias; Bost, Mark; Gährs, Swantje; Szczechowicz, Eva; Cramer, Moritz; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Presentation of a MATLAB battery storage model. • Development of a controlled persistence forecast management strategy. • Perfect forecast in comparison to an easy feasible persistence forecast. • More grid relief with forecast than with strategies to maximize self-consumption. - Abstract: For future energy supply systems the effects and benefits of battery storage systems in households with photovoltaic (PV) generators and the effects on distribution and transmission grids need to be identified and analyzed. The development of grid relieving management strategies for the storage system in due consideration of self-consumption is a necessary step forward in order to analyze the potential of private home battery storage systems to reduce stress on the power supply system. A MATLAB-based model of a lithium-ion storage system has been developed. The model is applicable for a wide range of PV generator sizes, different battery storage systems and diverse management strategies. In order to identify the potential of grid relieving forecast strategies, without discharging the storage into the grid, a management strategy based on persistence forecasts of solar radiation and household load demand has been implemented and analyzed. To minimize forecast uncertainties a proportional plus integral controller has been developed. The persistence forecast management strategy is applicable in real-life PV-battery-systems and due to the simple forecast it is easy to equip existing systems with such a management system with only low effort. As a result it will be shown that a storage system management based on forecasts has a significantly higher potential to relieve the grid than a system that only maximizes self-consumption as it is usually used nowadays. Besides, such a management strategy is able to unload the grid more than a static power reduction to 70% of the nominal power rating according to the current German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). At the

  8. Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oussanov, V.I. [State Scientific Center Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

  9. Evaluation of radwaste minimization program of dry and wet active waste in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna-Garza, Hector

    2001-01-01

    A growing rate of radwaste volume production combined with an increase of both, costs and associated dose involved in its treatment and disposition processes have created a serious problem to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (BWR, two Units, 682 Mwe each) in Mexico. Due the lack of a Final Repository in the country, the solution in the short or long terms relies on the success of a continuous and aggressive minimization program mainly based on modifications and upgrades applied to these processes. Technical and administrative strategies adopted by LVNPP for the reduction of Liquid Effluents and Dry and Wet Active Waste in the next three years are described. Based on the results of the LVNPP current radwaste process systems, an estimated accumulation of 11,502 m 3 by the year 2035 will exceed the actual on-site storage capacity. If the strategies succeed, this production would fall to an expected manageable volume of 4067 m 3 . (author)

  10. Increase of the Integration Degree of Wind Power Plants into the Energy System Using Wind Forecasting and Power Consumption Predictor Models by Transmission System Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manusov V.Z.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind power plants’ (WPPs high penetration into the power system leads to various inconveniences in the work of system operators. This fact is associated with the unpredictable nature of wind speed and generated power, respectively. Due to these factors, such source of electricity must be connected to the power system to avoid detrimental effects on the stability and quality of electricity. The power generated by the WPPs is not regulated by the system operator. Accurate forecasting of wind speed and power, as well as power load can solve this problem, thereby making a significant contribution to improving the power supply systems reliability. The article presents a mathematical model for the wind speed prediction, which is based on autoregression and fuzzy logic derivation of Takagi-Sugeno. The new model of wavelet transform has been developed, which makes it possible to include unnecessary noise from the model, as well as to reveal the cycling of the processes and their trend. It has been proved, that the proposed combination of methods can be used simultaneously to predict the power consumption and the wind power plant potential power at any time interval, depending on the planning horizon. The proposed models support a new scientific concept for the predictive control system of wind power stations and increase their degree integration into the electric power system.

  11. Withdrawal and consumption of water by thermoelectric power plants in the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of water use at thermoelectric plants were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey based on linked heat and water budgets, and complement reported thermoelectric water withdrawals and consumption. The heat- and water-budget models produced withdrawal and consumption estimates, including thermodynamically plausible ranges of minimum and maximum withdrawal and consumption, for 1,290 water-using plants in the United States for 2010. Total estimated withdrawal for 2010 was about 129 billion gallons per day (Bgal/d), and total estimated consumption was about 3.5 Bgal/d. In contrast, total withdrawal reported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), was about 24 percent higher than the modeled estimates, and total EIA-reported consumption was about 8 percent lower. Most thermoelectric generation in 2010 was not associated with thermodynamically plausible EIA-reported values of both withdrawal and consumption.

  12. Loss Minimization and Voltage Control in Smart Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a strategy for increasing the installation of electric vehicles and solar panels in low-voltage grids, while obeying voltage variation constraints. Our approach employs minimization of active power losses for coordinating consumption and generation of power, as well as reactive...

  13. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Change in Ambient Air Temperature on Power Consumption of Domestic Refrigerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Olorunmaiye

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the manifestations of climate change is increase.in ambient air temperature usually referred to as global warming. For sustainable development in a country, there is need to identify impacts of climate change and the necessary adaptation and mitigation strategies to adopt. To simulate the effect of global warming on the power consumption of refrigerators, a (model No. 150 THERMOCOOL refrigerator filled with twenty-five 750cl packaged water bottleswas run in an air-conditioned room, in a room with the air-conditioner switched off and near an oven in a bakery. The electric power consumption of the refrigerator was measured using "Watts up?.net" Watt meter and the ambient temperature was measured using FLUKE temperature/humidity meter. The average hourly energy consumption of the refrigerator operating at mean ambient temperatures of 25.4°C, 30.7oC, 38.8°C were 93.844 Wh, 100.32 Wh and 105.08 Wh respectively. Some possible ways to reduce the increase in power consumption of refrigerators due to global warming include using compressors of higher efficiency and condensers of greater effectiveness.

  14. A systematic approach to designing statistically powerful heteroscedastic 2 × 2 factorial studies while minimizing financial costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Show-Li Jan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2 × 2 factorial design is widely used for assessing the existence of interaction and the extent of generalizability of two factors where each factor had only two levels. Accordingly, research problems associated with the main effects and interaction effects can be analyzed with the selected linear contrasts. Methods To correct for the potential heterogeneity of variance structure, the Welch-Satterthwaite test is commonly used as an alternative to the t test for detecting the substantive significance of a linear combination of mean effects. This study concerns the optimal allocation of group sizes for the Welch-Satterthwaite test in order to minimize the total cost while maintaining adequate power. The existing method suggests that the optimal ratio of sample sizes is proportional to the ratio of the population standard deviations divided by the square root of the ratio of the unit sampling costs. Instead, a systematic approach using optimization technique and screening search is presented to find the optimal solution. Results Numerical assessments revealed that the current allocation scheme generally does not give the optimal solution. Alternatively, the suggested approaches to power and sample size calculations give accurate and superior results under various treatment and cost configurations. Conclusions The proposed approach improves upon the current method in both its methodological soundness and overall performance. Supplementary algorithms are also developed to aid the usefulness and implementation of the recommended technique in planning 2 × 2 factorial designs.

  15. Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chengming; Chen, Rongshun

    2015-05-20

    Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN) with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server's fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption.

  16. Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server’s fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption.

  17. Design trade-off between spatial resolution and power consumption in CMOS biosensor circuit based on millimeter-wave LC oscillator array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Maya; Kobayashi, Atsuki; Nakazato, Kazuo; Niitsu, Kiichi

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a trade-off between spatial resolution and power consumption in an LC oscillator-based CMOS biosensor, which can detect biomolecules by observing the resonance frequency shift due to changes in the complex permittivity of the biomolecules. The optimal operating frequency and improvement in the image resolution of the sensor output require a reduction in the size of the inductor. However, it is necessary to increase the transconductance of the cross-coupling transistor to achieve the oscillation condition, although the power consumption increases. We confirmed the trade-off between the spatial resolution and the power consumption of this sensor using SPICE simulation. A test chip was fabricated using a 65 nm CMOS process, and the transition in the peak frequency and the power consumption were measured. When the outer diameter of the inductor was 46 µm, the power consumption was 31.2 mW, which matched well with the simulation results.

  18. Power Consumption Estimation Using Artificial Neural Networks: The Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havva Hilal Metin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of the world energy consumption is by developing countries. As a developing country, Turkey is one of the leading countries in terms of the increase in energy demand. According to the data from the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Turkey is the country with the greatest increase in demand after China in electricity and natural gas consumption since 2000. In 1970, the ratio of total energy production to consumption in Turkey was 76%. In year 2000, this ratio dropped down to 35%, in year 2010 to 26% and predicted to come down to 23% by year 2020. This situation indicates an increase in Turkey’s energy dependency every passing year and the need to implement solutions to reduce this dependency. Today, electric energy has become a very critical and indispensable part of the development of technology. Production and consumption of electrical energy, which facilitates human life and increases labour productivity, are increasing every year. Electricity is a versatile and easily controlled form of energy. Electricity is practically non-existent and non-polluting at the point of use. Electricity can be cleanly produced by completely renewable methods such as wind, water and sunlight at the production point. Electricity market has a unique feature compared to other commodities. This feature requires the consumption of electricity when it is produced. Forecasting the future consumption of electricity in Turkey is crucial in making strategic plans for the future and taking the necessary measures. In Turkey, the consumption of electricity in the estimation studies were generally observed that the use of long-term electricity consumption prediction method of neural networks. In some studies, the results obtained by artificial neural network method are compared with Box-Jenkins models and regression technique. As a result of comparison, artificial neural networks seem to be a good predictor of electricity consumption. In this

  19. Power-based electric vehicle energy consumption model: Model development and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiori, Chiara; Ahn, Kyoungho; Rakha, Hesham A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The study developed an instantaneous energy consumption model (VT-CPEM) for EVs. • The model captures instantaneous braking energy regeneration. • The model can be used for transportation modeling and vehicle applications (e.g. eco-routing). • The proposed model can be easily calibrated using publically available EV data. • Usages of air conditioning and heating systems reduce EV energy consumption by up to 10% and 24%, respectively. - Abstract: The limited drive range (The maximum distance that an EV can travel.) of Electric Vehicles (EVs) is one of the major challenges that EV manufacturers are attempting to overcome. To this end, a simple, accurate, and efficient energy consumption model is needed to develop real-time eco-driving and eco-routing systems that can enhance the energy efficiency of EVs and thus extend their travel range. Although numerous publications have focused on the modeling of EV energy consumption levels, these studies are limited to measuring energy consumption of an EV’s control algorithm, macro-project evaluations, or simplified well-to-wheels analyses. Consequently, this paper addresses this need by developing a simple EV energy model that computes an EV’s instantaneous energy consumption using second-by-second vehicle speed, acceleration and roadway grade data as input variables. In doing so, the model estimates the instantaneous braking energy regeneration. The proposed model can be easily implemented in the following applications: in-vehicle, Smartphone eco-driving, eco-routing and transportation simulation software to quantify the network-wide energy consumption levels for a fleet of EVs. One of the main advantages of EVs is their ability to recover energy while braking using a regenerative braking system. State-of-the-art vehicle energy consumption models consider an average constant regenerative braking energy efficiency or regenerative braking factors that are mainly dependent on the vehicle’s average

  20. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J.; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but...

  1. IMPROVING SPECIFIC POWER CONSUMPTION FOR MECHANICAL MIXING OF THE FEEDSTOCK IN A BIOGAS FERMENTER BY MECHANICAL DISINTEGRATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSE BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kratky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass particles in biogas fermenter batch either sediment towards vessel bottom or rise towards batch surface, where they float and form a compact thick scum. These processes have primarily the negative influence on batch homogeneity, on evenness of batch temperature field, on removal of produced biogas bubbles out of liquid batch and also on mass transfer among microorganisms. These facts result in non-effective usage of biomass energy-potential that entails in low biogas yields. Therefore, good mixing of bioreactor batch is very important in order to stabilize anaerobic digestion process. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the impact of wheat straw disintegration and its hydration on hydrodynamic behaviour and on specific power consumption for mechanical mixing of wheat straw-water suspension. Based on experimental results, it was concluded that both hydration and mechanical disintegration of lignocellulosic biomass significantly improve homogeneity and pump-ability of biomass-water batches. Wheat straw hydration itself decreases specific power consumption for batch mixing by 60 % towards untreated straw. Moreover, mechanical disintegration itself decreases specific power consumption by 50 % at least towards untreated hydrated straw.

  2. Prediction of power consumption and performance in ultrafiltration of simulated latex effluent using non-uniform pore sized membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelrasoul, Amira; Doan, Huu; Lohi, Ali; Cheng, Chil-Hung [Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Tha aim of the present study was to develop a series of numerical models for an accurate prediction of the power consumption in ultrafiltration of simulated latex effluent. The developed power consumption model incorporated fouling attachment, as well as chemical and physical factors in membrane fouling, in order to ensure accurate prediction and scale-up. This model was applied to heterogeneous membranes with non-uniform pore sizes at a given operating conditions and membrane surface charges. Polysulfone flat membrane, with a membrane molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) of 60,000 dalton, at different surface charges was used under a constant flow rate and cross-flow mode. In addition, the developed models were examined using various membranes at a variety of surface charges so as to test the overall reliability and accuracy of these models. The power consumption predicted by the models corresponded to the calculated values from the experimental data for various hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes with an error margin of 6.0% up to 19.1%.

  3. Economic evaluation of methods to substitute consumption of fossil fuel for nuclear one in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veretennikov, G.A.; Boldyrev, V.M.; Sigal, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    Technical-and-economic indices of separate and combind processes of thermal and electric power production are compared for different energy sources (heat-only nuclear stations power and heat nuclear stations condensation nuclear power plants, fossil-fuel condensation power plants, fossil-fuel power and heat nuclear stations and fossil-fuel boiler houses). The data on capital outlays, fuel expenses and total reduced costs are presented. The analysis has shown that all versions of nuclear energy development with the use of heat-only nuclear stations in different combinations prove to be less preferable than the version of cogeneration of heat and electric power at power and heat nuclear stations

  4. Computational fluid dynamics study on mixing mode and power consumption in anaerobic mono- and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yu, Guangren; Yu, Liang; Siddhu, Muhammad Abdul Hanan; Gao, Mengjiao; Abdeltawab, Ahmed A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Chen, Xiaochun

    2016-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was applied to investigate mixing mode and power consumption in anaerobic mono- and co-digestion. Cattle manure (CM) and corn stover (CS) were used as feedstock and stirred tank reactor (STR) was used as digester. Power numbers obtained by the CFD simulation were compared with those from the experimental correlation. Results showed that the standard k-ε model was more appropriate than other turbulence models. A new index, net power production instead of gas production, was proposed to optimize feedstock ratio for anaerobic co-digestion. Results showed that flow field and power consumption were significantly changed in co-digestion of CM and CS compared with those in mono-digestion of either CM or CS. For different mixing modes, the optimum feedstock ratio for co-digestion changed with net power production. The best option of CM/CS ratio for continuous mixing, intermittent mixing I, and intermittent mixing II were 1:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effects of nuclear power plant shutdowns on electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions after the Tohoku Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seong-Hoon; Tanaka, Katsuya; Wu, Junjie; Robert, Roland K.; Kim, Taeyoung

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes how the substitution of fossil fuels for nuclear power due to the shutdown of nuclear power plants after the Tohoku Earthquake affects electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan. Results indicate that Japan generated 4.3 million metric tons (or 0.3%, with a 95% confidence interval) of additional CO_2 emissions in 2011 following the earthquake. The increase in CO_2 emissions stemmed from the combined effects of decreased electricity consumption due to energy conservation efforts and the substitution of fossil fuels for nuclear power following the Tohoku Earthquake. Results also show considerable spatial variation in the impacts of the earthquake on net CO_2 emissions. A majority of the prefectures (40 of 47 prefectures, or 85%) were predicted to experience higher CO_2 emissions after the Tohoku Earthquake while the remaining (7 prefectures) were predicted to experience lower CO_2 emissions. Our findings suggest that Japan and countries under similar risks may want to reformulate energy policy by emphasizing utilization of diverse power and energy sources, including more renewable energy production and electricity conservation. The policy reform should also consider spatial variation in the combined effects of reduced reliance on nuclear power and increased CO_2 conversion factors. - Highlights: • Analyzed effects of Tohoku Earthquake on greenhouse gas emissions in Japan. • Estimated effects on reduced electricity consumption and increased fossil fuel use. • Generated 4.3 million metric tons (or 0.3%) of additional CO_2 emissions in 2011. • Showed spatial variation in the impacts of the earthquake on CO_2 emissions.

  6. A perspective of the Malaysian highway energy consumption and future power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqr, Khalid M.; Musa, Md. Nor

    2011-01-01

    In this short communication, we discuss the energy consumption trends in the Malaysian road transport sector, with a special emphasis on the energy losses due to vehicle aerodynamic drag on highways. The recent trends of energy consumption in the Malaysian road transport sector are reviewed. It is evidently shown that the aerodynamic losses represented exceed 1.2 MTOE annually since 2002. A novel concept of vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) farms for harvesting aerodynamic energy losses on Malaysian highways is preliminarily proposed. The novel concept aims at providing a sustainable and green energy source for the lighting of the highway network in the country.

  7. Low power consumption O-band VCSEL sources for upstream channels in PON systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental validation of a low power optical network unit employing vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers as upstream sources for passive optical networks with an increased power budget, enabling even larger splitting ratios....

  8. Energy consumption and energy-saving potential analysis of pollutant abatement systems in a 1000MW coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Zhang, Yongxin; Zheng, Chenghang; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Linghong; Gao, Xiang; Fu, Joshua S

    2018-05-10

    The pollutant abatement systems are widely applied in the coal-fired power sector and the energy consumption was considered an important part of the auxiliary power. An energy consumption analysis and assessment model of pollutant abatement systems in a power unit was developed based on the dynamic parameters and technology. The energy consumption of pollutant abatement systems in a 1000 MW coal-fired power unit which meet the ultra-low emission limits and the factors of operating parameters including unit load and inlet concentration of pollutants on the operating power were analyzed. The results show that the total power consumption of the pollutant abatement systems accounted for 1.27% of the gross power generation during the monitoring period. The WFGD system consumed 67% of the rate while the SCR and ESP systems consumed 8.9% and 24.1%. The power consumption rate of pollutant abatement systems decreased with the increase of unit load and increased with the increase of the inlet concentration of pollutants. The operation adjustment was also an effective method to increase the energy efficiency. For example, the operation adjustment of slurry circulation pumps could promote the energy-saving operation of WFGD system. Implication Statement The application of pollutant abatement technologies increases the internal energy consumption of the power plant, which will lead to an increase of power generation costs. The real-time energy consumption of the different pollutant abatement systems in a typical power unit is analyzed based on the dynamic operating data. Further, the influence of different operating parameters on the operating power of the system and the possible energy-saving potential are analyzed.

  9. Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity, Consumption and Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE / EERE / NEED Project

    2011-06-07

    The NEED Project and the U.S. Department of Energy have collaborated to bring you this educational four-page guide to energy, electricity, consumption and efficiency. It includes, on the last page, a home energy survey to help you analyze your home energy use.

  10. Waste minimization fundamental principles used in radioactive waste management plan for decommissioning of a CANDU - 600 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barariu, Gheorghe; Georgescu, Roxana Cristiana; Sociu, Florin

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of waste minimization are to limit the generation and spread of radioactive contamination and to reduce the amount of wastes for storage and disposal, thereby limiting any consequent environmental impact, as well as the total costs associated with contaminated material management. This objective will be achieved by: reviewing the sources and characteristics of radioactive materials arising from Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities; reviewing waste minimization principles and current practical applications, together with regulatory, technical, financial and political factors influencing waste minimization practices; and reviewing current trends in improving waste minimization practices during Decontamination and Decommissioning. The main elements of a waste minimization strategy can be grouped into four areas: source reduction, prevention of contamination spread, recycle and reuse, and waste management optimization. For sustaining this objective, the following principles and procedures of wastes management are taken into account: safety and environment protection principles; principles regarding the facility operation; quality assurance procedures; procedures for material classification and releasing. (authors)

  11. Impact of the Air-Conditioning System on the Power Consumption of an Electric Vehicle Powered by Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Mebarki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The car occupies the daily universe of our society; however, noise pollution, global warming gas emissions, and increased fuel consumption are constantly increasing. The electric vehicle is one of the recommended solutions by the raison of its zero emission. Heating and air-conditioning (HVAC system is a part of the power system of the vehicle when the purpose is to provide complete thermal comfort for its occupants, however it requires far more energy than any other car accessory. Electric vehicles have a low-energy storage capacity, and HVAC may consume a substantial amount of the total energy stored, considerably reducing the vehicle range, which is one of the most important parameters for EV acceptability. The basic goal of this paper is to simulate the air-conditioning system impact on the power energy source of an electric vehicle powered by a lithium-ion battery.

  12. Electric power end-consumption for Minas Gerais State until 2005; Projecao do consumo final de energia eletrica para Minas Gerais ate 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechlufft, Paulo C.T. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    This paper analyzes the methodologies for electric power consumption prediction, including the various sectors of the industry, the service sector, the commercial sector and the public sector. The main objective of this methodology is create a energy policy which includes actualized data from the energy consumption and the expansion trends of the main sectors of the statement economy. 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-10-12

    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect. Despite of the urgent requirement of solving the issue, understanding of such a phenomenon is yet vague. Here, we thoroughly analyze and firstly report the flexoelectric effect in in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell. The effect takes place on the area above electrodes due to splay and bend deformations of nematic liquid crystal along oblique electric fields, so that the obvious spatial shift of the optical transmittance is experimentally observed and is clearly demonstrated based on the relation between direction of flexoelectric polarization and electric field polarity. In addition, we report that the IPS mode has inherent characteristics to solve the image-flickering issue in the low-power consumption display in terms of the physical property of liquid crystal material and the electrode structure.

  14. Mitigating an increase of specific power consumption in a cryogenic air separation unit at reduced oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Rohit; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-02-01

    Specific power consumed in a Linde double column air separation unit (ASU) increases as the quantity of oxygen produced at a given purity is decreased due to the changes of system requirement or market demand. As the plant operates in part load condition, the specific power consumption (SPC) increases as the total power consumption remains the same. In order to mitigate the increase of SPC at lower oxygen production, the operating pressure of high pressure column (HPC) can be lowered by extending the low pressure column (LPC) by a few trays and adding a second reboiler. As the duty of second reboiler in LPC is increased, the recovery of oxygen decreases with a lowering of the HPC pressure. This results in mitigation of the increase of SPC of the plant. A Medium pressure ASU with dual reboiler that produces pressurised gaseous and liquid products of oxygen and nitrogen is simulated in Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a commercial process simulator to determine SPC at varying oxygen production. The effects of reduced pressure of air feed into the cold box on the size of heat exchangers (HX) are analysed. Operation strategy to obtain various oxygen production rates at varying demand is also proposed.

  15. Optimal Power Consumption in a Central Heating System with Geothermal Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    , lowering the temperature of forward water alleviates energy consumption. The hypothesis is that the minimum water temperature is achieved when at least one of the hydronic heaters in the building works at full capacity. The setpoint of the forward water temperature is found by solving a model based...... controllers. Simulation results for a case study with simplified subsystems' models show considerable energy savings compared to the traditional control scheme for the heat pump....

  16. Influence of driving style on fuel consumption and Emissions in diesel-powered passenger car

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca González, Natalia Elizabeth; Casanova Kindelán, Jesús; Espinosa Zapata, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the main results of a study on the influence of driving style on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of diesel passenger car in urban traffic. Driving styles (eco, normal or aggressive) patterns were based on the “eco-driving” criteria. The methodology is based on on-board emission measurements in real urban traffic in the city of Madrid. Five diesel passenger cars, have been tested. Through a statistical analysis, a Dynamic Performance Index was defined for die...

  17. The pulling power of chocolate: Effects of approach-avoidance training on approach bias and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Hugh; Kavanagh, David J; MacLeod, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has shown that action tendencies to approach alcohol may be modified using computerized Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), and that this impacted on subsequent consumption. A recent paper in this journal (Becker, Jostman, Wiers, & Holland, 2015) failed to show significant training effects for food in three studies: Nor did it find effects on subsequent consumption. However, avoidance training to high calorie foods was tested against a control rather than Approach training. The present study used a more comparable paradigm to the alcohol studies. It randomly assigned 90 participants to 'approach' or 'avoid' chocolate images on the AAT, and then asked them to taste and rate chocolates. A significant interaction of condition and time showed that training to avoid chocolate resulted in faster avoidance responses to chocolate images, compared with training to approach it. Consistent with Becker et al.'s Study 3, no effect was found on amounts of chocolate consumed, although a newly published study in this journal (Schumacher, Kemps, & Tiggemann, 2016) did do so. The collective evidence does not as yet provide solid basis for the application of AAT training to reduction of problematic food consumption, although clinical trials have yet to be conducted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of the Promotion of Wind Power Consumption Using the Thermal-Electric Decoupling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Rong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the provinces of north China, combined heat and electric power generations (CHP are widely utilized to provide both heating source and electricity. While, due to the constraint of thermal-electric coupling within CHP, a mass of wind turbines have to offline operate during heating season to maintain the power grid stability. This paper proposes a thermal-electric decoupling (TED approach to release the energy waste. Within the thermal-electric decoupling system, heat storage and electric boiler/heat pump are introduced to provide an auxiliary thermal source during hard peak shaving period, thus relying on the participation of an outside heat source, the artificial electric power output change interval could be widened to adopt more wind power and reduce wind power curtailment. Both mathematic models and methods are proposed to calculate the evaluation indexes to weight the effect of TED, by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Numerical simulations have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods, and the results show that the proposed approach could relieve up to approximately 90% of wind power curtailment and the ability of power system to accommodate wind power could be promoted about 32%; moreover, the heating source is extended, about 300 GJ heat could be supplied by TED during the whole heating season, which accounts for about 18% of the total heat need.

  19. Energy-minimized design in all-optical networks using unicast/multicast traffic grooming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche, William S.; Amaya, Ferney O.; Sierra, Javier E.

    2013-09-01

    The increased bandwidth required by applications, tends to raise the amount of optical equipment, for this reason, it is essential to maintain a balance between the wavelength allocation, available capacity and number of optical devices to achieve the lowest power consumption. You could say that we propose a model that minimizes energy consumption, using unicast / multicast traffic grooming in optical networks.

  20. Wavelet-based multi-resolution analysis and artificial neural networks for forecasting temperature and thermal power consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Eynard , Julien; Grieu , Stéphane; Polit , Monique

    2011-01-01

    15 pages; International audience; As part of the OptiEnR research project, the present paper deals with outdoor temperature and thermal power consumption forecasting. This project focuses on optimizing the functioning of a multi-energy district boiler (La Rochelle, west coast of France), adding to the plant a thermal storage unit and implementing a model-based predictive controller. The proposed short-term forecast method is based on the concept of time series and uses both a wavelet-based mu...

  1. Minimal 20% less fuel consumption and emission of the ASD Tug 2810 Hybrid; Minimaal 20% minder brandstofverbruik en emissie bij de ASD Tug 2810 Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Damen Shipyards has introduced its first hybrid tug: the ASD Tug 2810 Hybrid. Depending on how and where the boat is used, fuel consumption (with a combination of diesel-direct with diesel-electric propulsion) will on average be 10% to 30% less. The average local emission is 20% to 60% lower than with conventional tugs [Dutch] Damen Shipyards heeft haar allereerste hybride sleepboot geintroduceerd: de ASD Tug 2810 Hybrid. Afhankelijk van hoe en waar de boot wordt ingezet, is het brandstofverbruik (met een combinatie van 'diesel-direct' en diesel-elektrische voortstuwing) gemiddeld 10% tot 30% minder. De gemiddelde lokale emissie is 20% tot 60% lager dan bij conventionele sleepboten.

  2. Effects of Village Power Quality on Fuel Consumption and Operating Expenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Wies; Ron Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska's rural village electric utilities are isolated from the Alaska railbelt electrical grid intertie and from each other. Different strategies have been developed for providing power to meet demand in each of these rural communities. Many of these communities rely on diesel electric generators (DEGs) for power. Some villages have also installed renewable power sources and automated generation systems for controlling the DEGs and other sources of power. For example, Lime Village has installed a diesel battery photovoltaic hybrid system, Kotzebue and Wales have wind-diesel hybrid systems, and McGrath has installed a highly automated system for controlling diesel generators. Poor power quality and diesel engine efficiency in village power systems increases the cost of meeting the load. Power quality problems may consist of poor power factor (PF) or waveform disturbances, while diesel engine efficiency depends primarily on loading, the fuel type, the engine temperature, and the use of waste heat for nearby buildings. These costs take the form of increased fuel use, increased generator maintenance, and decreased reliability. With the cost of bulk fuel in some villages approaching $1.32/liter ($5.00/gallon) a modest 5% decrease in fuel use can result in substantial savings with short payback periods depending on the village's load profile and the cost of corrective measures. This project over its five year history has investigated approaches to improving power quality and implementing fuel savings measures through the use of performance assessment software tools developed in MATLAB{reg_sign} Simulink{reg_sign} and the implementation of remote monitoring, automated generation control, and the addition of renewable energy sources in select villages. The results have shown how many of these communities would benefit from the use of automated generation control by implementing a simple economic dispatch scheme and the integration of renewable energy sources

  3. Study of the food consumption of nuclear power station site populations (methodology and results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douguedroit, A.

    1980-01-01

    These studies were made in 1976 and 1977 by the Aix Geographical Institute (Aix-Marseille II University), then in 1978 by the B.E.G.E.A. under the scientific control of the Institute. Their subject concerns the food consumption of local populations for the subsequent determination of radioactive contamination levels. They make an inventory of the various local agricultural, animal rearing and fishing productions and determine the part they represent in the diet of the populations living near the sites [fr

  4. Viability of LPG use in low-power outboard engines for reduction in consumption and pollutant emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo, S.; Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J.; Hernandez, J.J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study presents the viability of the use of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) dosage systems in order to solve the fuel supply in four-stroke outboard engines in compliance with regulations concerning emissions of immediate application pollutants. Results obtained show an important decrease in specific fuel consumption (nearly 20%) provoking a small power loss (about 5%), with an extra saving when making use of bottled fuel, which does not suffer spills in the bunkers and maintenance operations. Laboratory tests have been carried out on 8 and 15 HP Yamaha outboard engines, obtaining reductions in pollutants (CO, HC and NO x ) of 60% and of 95% for each power, respectively. These trials have been contrasted with tests carried out in the Vigo estuary and the river Milno waterways, both located in the South of Galicia (Spain). (Author)

  5. Methodologies for assessing the use-phase power consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of telecommunications network services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chien A; Gygax, André F; Wong, Elaine; Leckie, Christopher A; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Kilper, Daniel C

    2013-01-02

    Internet traffic has grown rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue to expand significantly over the next decade. Consequently, the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of telecommunications service-supporting infrastructures have become an important issue. In this study, we develop a set of models for assessing the use-phase power consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of telecom network services to help telecom providers gain a better understanding of the GHG emissions associated with the energy required for their networks and services. Due to the fact that measuring the power consumption and traffic in a telecom network is a challenging task, these models utilize different granularities of available network information. As the granularity of the network measurement information decreases, the corresponding models have the potential to produce larger estimation errors. Therefore, we examine the accuracy of these models under various network scenarios using two approaches: (i) a sensitivity analysis through simulations and (ii) a case study of a deployed network. Both approaches show that the accuracy of the models depends on the network size, the total amount of network service traffic (i.e., for the service under assessment), and the number of network nodes used to process the service.

  6. Optimization of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for Auxiliary Power Unit Based on Multi-Objective Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongpeng Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary power units (APUs are widely used for electric power generation in various types of electric vehicles, improvements in fuel economy and emissions of these vehicles directly depend on the operating point of the APUs. In order to balance the conflicting goals of fuel consumption and emissions reduction in the process of operating point choice, the APU operating point optimization problem is formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem (CMOP firstly. The four competing objectives of this CMOP are fuel-electricity conversion cost, hydrocarbon (HC emissions, carbon monoxide (CO emissions and nitric oxide (NO x emissions. Then, the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO algorithm and weighted metric decision making method are employed to solve the APU operating point multi-objective optimization model. Finally, bench experiments under New European driving cycle (NEDC, Federal test procedure (FTP and high way fuel economy test (HWFET driving cycles show that, compared with the results of the traditional fuel consumption single-objective optimization approach, the proposed multi-objective optimization approach shows significant improvements in emissions performance, at the expense of a slight drop in fuel efficiency.

  7. The development in energy consumption, price sensitivity and allocation of power; Utviklingen i stroemforbruket, prisfoelsomheten og stroemmarkedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Bente

    2012-11-15

    This report discusses the development in energy consumption in households, service industries, primary industries and other small industries, both in the short run (hour to hour, day by day) and over a longer period, back to the 1960. The report discusses the main driving forces behind this development, as well as the demand price sensitivity and its role in the allocation of power between customers and over time. The analysis shows that for the short-term fluctuations in consumption from hour to hour, the temperature of the main driver, while price changes have less influence. For the long-term trend, however, changes in relative energy prices are a key driver, along with population and income growth. Even if the short term price sensitivity is low for end-users, it may still have a big influence on the short-term clearance of the market (from hour to hour), as it affects the short term price sensitivity in the spot market. The long-term price elasticities in the retail markets is more important for determining consumption over a time period, and is important in allocating energy resources over time in the spot market, e.g. over the winter months. Empirical analyses show that the Norwegian demand responds to price changes, both in the short term in the spot market and in the longer term in the retail market. It takes a few weeks before the price signals from spot market affects the consumer prise for most end-users, but by then, most of the price signal has been transmitted. It also follows from the analysis that it is important to let prices vary between regions of the market in the event of scarcity, so customers in regions where shortages occur, have the incentive to change their demand. The faster these price signals affect consumer prices, the more efficient the market will be able to handle a tight power situation.(Author)

  8. Unsupervised Power Profiling for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik

    Today, power consumption is a main limitation for mobile phones. To minimize the power consumption of popular and traditionally power-hungry location-based services requires knowledge of how individual phone features consume power, so that those features can be utilized intelligently for optimal...... power savings while at the same time maintaining good quality of service. This paper proposes an unsupervised API-level method for power profiling mobile phones based on genetic algorithms. The method enables accurate profiling of the power consumption of devices and thereby provides the information...

  9. Unsupervised Power Profiling for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Today, power consumption is a main limitation for mobile phones. To minimize the power consumption of popular and traditionally power-hungry location-based services requires knowledge of how individual phone features consume power, so that those features can be utilized intelligently for optimal...... power savings while at the same time maintaining good quality of service. This paper proposes an unsupervised API-level method for power profiling mobile phones based on genetic algorithms. The method enables accurate profiling of the power consumption of devices and thereby provides the information...

  10. Competitive energy consumption under transmission constraints in a multi-supplier power grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Ivan; Krylatov, Alexander; Zakharov, Victor; Ivanov, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    Power grid architectures need to be revised in order to manage the increasing number of producers and, more generally, the decentralisation of energy production and distribution. In this work, we describe a multi-supplier multi-consumer congestion model of a power grid, where the costs of consumers depend on the congestion in nodes and arcs of the power supply network. The consumer goal is both to meet their energy demand and to minimise the costs. We show that the methods of non-atomic routing can be applied in this model in order to describe current distribution in the network. We formulate a consumer cost minimisation game for this setting, and discuss the challenges arising in equilibrium search for this game.

  11. Accelerating an Ordered-Subset Low-Dose X-Ray Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Reconstruction with a Power Factor and Total Variation Minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in low-dose X-ray cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in many fields, including dentistry, guided radiotherapy and small animal imaging. Despite reducing the radiation dose, low-dose CBCT has not gained widespread acceptance in routine clinical practice. In addition to performing more evaluation studies, developing a fast and high-quality reconstruction algorithm is required. In this work, we propose an iterative reconstruction method that accelerates ordered-subsets (OS) reconstruction using a power factor. Furthermore, we combine it with the total-variation (TV) minimization method. Both simulation and phantom studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method can accelerate conventional OS methods, greatly increase the convergence speed in early iterations. Moreover, applying the TV minimization to the power acceleration scheme can further improve the image quality while preserving the fast convergence rate.

  12. Tobacco talk: reflections on corporate power and the legal framing of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Peter

    2010-12-01

    This article examines how North Carolina tobacco farmers think about the moral ambiguities of tobacco business. Drawing on ethnographic research with tobacco farmers and archival research on the tobacco industry, I specify the core psychological defense mechanisms that tobacco companies have crafted for people associated with the industry. I also document local social, cultural, and economic factors in rural North Carolina that underpin ongoing rural dependence on tobacco despite the negativity that surrounds tobacco and structural adjustments. This article contributes to our knowledge about tobacco farmers and tobacco farming communities, which is important for tobacco-control strategies. I reflect on ethical and economic paradoxes related to the rise of corporate social responsibility in the tobacco industry, where an official legal framing of consumption, focused on informed adult consumer autonomy and health education, is promoted to undermine more robust public health prevention efforts.

  13. Link Quality-Based Transmission Power Adaptation for Reduction of Energy Consumption and Interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Jacobsson, M.; Niemegeers, I.

    2010-01-01

    Today, many wireless devices are mobile and battery powered. Based on the fact that battery capacity is still limited, energy saving is an important issue in wireless communication.Meanwhile, the number of wireless devices continues to increase and this creates interference problems between wireless

  14. 30.2 Digital PWM-driven AMOLED display on flex reducing static power consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genoe, J.; Obata, K.; Ameys, M.; Myny, K.; Ke, T.H.; Nag, M.; Steudel, S.; Schols, S.; Maas, J.; Tripathi, A.; Van Der Steen, J.-L.; Ellis, T.; Gelinck, G.H.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of small-molecule OLED devices increased substantially in recent years, creating opportunities for power-efficient displays, as only light is generated proportional to the subpixel intensity. However, current active matrix OLED (AMOLED) displays on foil do not validate this

  15. Multidimensional Big Spatial Data Modeling Through A Case Study: Lte Rf Subsystem Power Consumption Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Musiige, Deogratius; Mioc, Darka

    2016-01-01

    continuation) was conducted for finding an approach with the highest accuracy for obtaining reliable information about a cell phone consumed power and emitted radiation from streams of measurements of different physical quantities and the uncertainty ranges of these measure ments. The homotopy continuation...

  16. Fukushima- the aftermath. The japanese power consumption has significantly decreased to adapt to a fading nuclear activity. Enerdata- Energy Efficiency and Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a series of analyses supported by graphs assess the power supply evolution in Japan since Fukushima, which has decreased by 11% of reactors in operation since December 2011. Measures implemented in summer 2011 to adapt demand to a lower supply and their significant impact on the power consumption are also analyzed. (authors)

  17. Low Power Consumption Lasers for Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Trace Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhar, S.; Frez, C.; Franz, K. J.; Ksendzov, A.; Qiu, Y.; Soibel, K. A.; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. Achieving a minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 micron wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 micron and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 micron range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft.

  18. Design of a 300-Watt Isolated Power Supply with Minimized Circuit Input-to-Output Parasitic Capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Petersen, Lars Press; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a 300-Watt isolated power supply for MOS gate driver circuit in medium and high voltage applications. The key feature of the developed power supply is having a very low circuit input-to-output parasitic capacitance, thus maximizing its noise immunity. This makes...

  19. Power consumption in positive ion beam converter with electrostatic electron suppressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Sugawara, Tohru

    1985-01-01

    The power recovery characteristics of an in-line direct beam converter provided with electrostatic electron suppressor were studied numerically by tracing the orbits of fast primary ions and secondary charged particles generated along their beam path by collision with background gas molecules. It is shown that, in reference to the electrostatic field potential at the point of impact, the energy distribution of secondary ions impinging on the suppressor has two peaks-one corresponding to a zone of high positive potential surrounding the collector and the other to one of slightly negative potential around the electron suppressor. Secondary electron emission from the suppressor is ascribed mainly to the latter peak, associated with impingement of slower secondary ions. Far much power consumed in secondary particle acceleration is spent for emitting electrons from the suppressor than for secondary ions generated by beam-gas collision. The upper limit of background pressure is discussed on the basis of criteria prescribed for restricting the power consumed in this secondary particle acceleration, as for practical convenience of electrode cooling. Numerical examples are given of calculations based on particle trajectory analysis of both primary ions and secondary particles, for the case of a 100 keV-proton sheet beam 10 cm thick of 35 mA/cm 2 current density. (author)

  20. New developments in the area of intelligent housing and related power consumption; Neuste Entwicklungen im Bereich Intelligentes Wohnen und des damit verbundenen Stromverbrauchs - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieder, T. [Encontrol GmbH, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland); Senn, R. [Raum Consulting, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Gehrig, M. [MG Power Engineering AG, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    For many years the Swiss Federal Office for Energy (SFOE) has followed with interest the development of building services control systems in private households and their influence on the power consumption. The findings from the previous studies were summarized in a leaflet and made available to the involved industry. This report analyses two new buildings and reports on laboratory measurements of three further systems. The bus systems and concepts available on the market are described and evaluated with respect to power consumption and savings potential. The buildings investigated since 2005 all exhibited a high upgrade standard with reference to the network. This induces an additional consumption of 35% to 55% of the typical domestic power consumption. At least one server is in continuous operation in each building, running throughout the year and inducing in some cases a consumption of well over 700 kWh, hence becoming the largest single consumer in the household. On the other hand, systems with a simple upgrade standard can be realised with a comparatively low consumption of about 100 kWh, corresponding to an additional power consumption of less than 3%. By selecting systems and components, both planners and building owners strongly influence the power consumption of the future network. In particular, the interaction of control servers and operator stations demands careful planning. Hitherto, energy-saving control functions display only a slight influence. Formulated in the report are recommendations to the involved industry and the Federal Office for Energy for actions to increase energy efficiency in the domain of intelligent housing. (author)

  1. Consumption, price asymmetries, transmission congestion and market power in the Norwegian electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood

    2011-07-01

    The results from this dissertation add to the ongoing debate in Norway if NordPool spot should shift from zonal price scheme to the nodal price scheme. Academically, the individual papers provide a number of theoretical frameworks that are helpful in analyzing electricity markets around the world. The PhD dissertation investigates price determination process in the Norwegian electricity market and evaluates if the market works at perfectly competitive level or producers exercise market power to drive prices away from their marginal cost of production. Using aggregate hourly electricity supply and demand data, the empirical analysis carried out in this dissertation leads to the following conclusions. 1. Market power at the generation level is not a major problem for the Norwegian electricity market. On average, when we consider the events of binding transmission capacity as exogenous, the average markup in economic terms is small and has not exceeded one percent. 2. Producers can use the information on available transmission capacity between different price areas in Norway and restrict their output to induce transmission congestion in their price area to exercise market power. Average markup during such instances has remained high at 20 percent. 3. Transmission capacity in Norway is not being optimally utilized as import capacity remains at its lowest level during the hours when southern Norway is generally a net importer of electricity, when compared to the rest of the hours of the day. 4. A segment of electricity retailers in the Norwegian electricity market exercises its market power by controlling the pass-through of price changes in the wholesale market to the retail market for variable price contract consumers. The pass-through is asymmetric, whereby cost increase is transmitted completely and quickly when compared to the case of cost decrease. 5.The Daylight saving time (Summer time) policy is helpful in ensuring energy efficiency. It results in electricity

  2. Angry Apps: The Impact of Network Timer Selection on Power Consumption, Signalling Load, and Web QoE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of smartphones and mobile applications has experienced a considerable growth during the recent years, and this growth is expected to continue in the future. Since smartphones have only very limited energy resources, battery efficiency is one of the determining factors for a good user experience. Therefore, some smartphones tear down connectionsto the mobile network soon after a completed data transmission to reduce the power consumption of their transmission unit. However, frequent connection reestablishments caused by apps which send or receive small amounts of data often lead to a heavy signalling load within the mobile network. One of the major contributions of this paper is the investigation of the resulting tradeoff between energy consumption at the smartphone and the generated signalling traffic in the mobile network. We explain that this tradeoff can be controlled by the connection release timeout and study the impact of this parameter for a number of popular apps that cover a wide range of traffic characteristics in terms of bandwidth requirements and resulting signalling traffic. Finally, we study the impact of the timer settings on Quality of Experience (QoE for web traffic. This is an important aspect since connection establishments not only lead to signalling traffic but also increase the load time of web pages.

  3. Removal of pollutants with determination of power consumption from landfill leachate wastewater using an electrocoagulation process: optimization using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, Perumal; Beyene, Dejene; Aziz, Abdul Raman Abdul; Alemayehu, Esayas

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of landfill leachate wastewater by electrocoagulation process using an aluminium electrode was investigated in a batch electrochemical cell reactor. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to optimize the operating parameters for the removal of % color and % total organic carbon (TOC) together with power consumption from landfill leachate. Effects of three important independent parameters such as current density ( X 1), inter-electrode distance ( X 2) and solution pH ( X 3) of the landfill leachate sample on the % color and % TOC removal with power consumption were investigated. A quadratic model was used to predict the % color and % TOC removal with power consumption in different experimental conditions. The significance of each independent variable was calculated by analysis of variance. In order to achieve the maximum % color and % TOC removal with minimum of power consumption, the optimum conditions were about current density ( X 1)—5.25 A/dm2, inter-electrode distance ( X 2)—1 cm and initial solution of effluent pH ( X 3)—7.83, with the yield of color removal of 74.57%, and TOC removal of 51.75% with the power consumption of 14.80 kWh/m3. Electrocoagulation process could be applied to remove pollutants from industrial effluents and wastewater.

  4. Monitoring of a micro-smart grid: Power consumption data of some machineries of an agro-industrial test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Enrico; Biglia, Alessandro; Branciforti, Valeria; Filippi, Marco; Barbero, Silvia; Tecco, Giuseppe; Mollo, Paolo; Molino, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    For the management of a (micro)-smart grid it is important to know the patters of the load profiles and of the generators. In this article the power consumption data obtained through a monitoring activity developed on a micro-smart grid in an agro-industrial test-site are presented. In particular, this reports the synthesis of the monitoring results of 5 loads (5 industrial machineries for crop micronization, corncob crashing and other similar processes). How these data were used within a monitoring and managing scheme of a micro-smart grid can be found in (E. Fabrizio, V. Branciforti, A. Costantino, M. Filippi, S. Barbero, G. Tecco, P. Mollo, A. Molino, 2017) [1]. The data can be useful for other researchers in order to create benchmarks of energy use input appropriate energy demand values in optimization tools for the industrial sector.

  5. Power consumption, discharge capacitance and light emission as measures for thrust production of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegseis, J.; Grundmann, S.; Tropea, C.

    2011-01-01

    A new procedure of determining the time resolved capacitance of a plasma actuator during operation is introduced, representing a simple diagnostic tool that provides insight into the phenomenological behavior of plasma actuators. The procedure is demonstrated by presenting example correlations between consumed electrical energy, size of the plasma region, and the operating voltage. It is shown that the capacitance of a plasma actuator is considerably increased by the presence of the plasma; hence a system that has previously been impedance matched can be considerably de-tuned when varying the operating voltage of the actuator. Such information is fundamental for any attempts to increase the energy efficiency of plasma-actuator systems. A combined analysis of the capacitance, light emission, size of the plasma region, force production, and power consumption is presented.

  6. On power consumption issues in FIR filters with application to communication receivers: complexity, word length, and switching activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havashki, Asghar

    2009-10-15

    Power consumption in CMOS VLSI circuits has in recent years become a major design constraint. This is in particular important for wireless networks, due to the limited life time of the batteries that wireless nodes are operating on. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one example of a technique which in recent years has become widely applied in wireless communication systems. However, the performance of OFDM and other spectrally efficient schemes depends, to a large extend, on advanced digital signal processing (DSP) and on the use of efficient and possibly adaptive resource allocation and transmission techniques. These in turn require that accurate estimates of the channel are available in the receiver and transmitter. However, accurate channel estimation of a time and frequency dispersive wireless fading channel calls for complex estimators, which might lead to significant power dissipation in such devices. Therefore, characterizing and analyzing power consumed by such devices under different channel conditions, and optimizing for power is important to reduce the overall power consumption of the system. In this thesis a certain chosen class of estimators, i.e., a linear FIR estimator, is considered, which is based on finite impulse response (FIR) filters. The work in this thesis considers the power related challenges in such estimators. The power consumed by such estimators depends, in part, on the complexity of the estimator, i.e., the length of the FIR filter. The filter length is one of the factors affecting the estimation accuracy. An analysis of the relation between the performance of such estimators and the required complexity for these devices under different channel conditions, i.e., in the presence of noise, is performed in this thesis. In this study we show that a small increase in this noise can lead to a considerable increase in the required estimator complexity if a given Normalized Mean Square Error (NMSE) performance for the

  7. Low Power Consumption Laser for Next Generation Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Trace Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhar, S.; Frez, C.; Franz, K. J.; Ksendzov, A.; Qiu, Y.; Soibel, K. A.; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. Achieving a minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 mu m wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 mu m and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 mu m range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft

  8. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  9. Model predictive control technologies for efficient and flexible power consumption in refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Edlund, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    . In this paper we describe a novel economic-optimizing Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme that reduces operating costs by utilizing the thermal storage capabilities. A nonlinear optimization tool to handle a non-convex cost function is utilized for simulations with validated scenarios. In this way we...... explicitly address advantages from daily variations in outdoor temperature and electricity prices. Secondly, we formulate a new cost function that enables the refrigeration system to contribute with ancillary services to the balancing power market. This involvement can be economically beneficial...... of the system models allows us to describe and handle model as well as prediction uncertainties in this framework. This means we can demonstrate means for robustifying the performance of the controller....

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from power generation and consumption in a nordic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotzauer, Erik

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been an intensive debate on-going in Sweden about how power generation and use affect global warming. More precisely, the discussion has considered how electricity shall be assessed from an environmental and climate perspective in different situations. This article gives a critical analysis on the main viewpoints. A number of environmental-impact assessment principles are outlined and critically examined. Concepts like average electricity and marginal electricity are discussed, and Electricity Disclosure as a basis for evaluation is addressed. The impact from Emission Trading and Tradable Green Certificates is also considered. Recommendations to concerned stakeholders are given. The clash points in the Swedish debate are highlighted and thus made available to a broader audience outside Scandinavia.

  11. Cutting the electric power consumption of biogas plants. The impact of new technologies; Eigenstromverbrauch an Biogasanlagen senken. Der Einfluss neuer Techniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Julian; Gruessing, Fabian; Naegele, Hans-Joachim; Oechsner, Hans [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Landesanstalt fuer Agrartechnik und Bioenergie Baden-Wuerttemberg

    2013-03-01

    Due to permanently rising energy costs, the assessment of electric energy consumption for particular aggregates of a biogas plant proves to be a significant factor for the economic and technical efficiency calculation of biogas plants. At the University of Hohenheim, students of the Biobased Products and Bioenergy course have analyzed the energy consumption of biogas plants (BGP) in a project work at the State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (Landesanstalt fuer Agrartechnik und Bioenergie). Detailed measurements at two operational plants show the effects of different facilities on the energy consumption. Furthermore, saving potentials and a possible efficient energy use via an exhaust gas power generator (ORC unit) are identified. (orig.)

  12. Design of a high-efficiency train headlamp with low power consumption using dual half-parabolic aluminized reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-Lun; Su, Guo-Dung J

    2018-02-20

    We propose a train headlamp system using dual half-circular parabolic aluminized reflectors. Each half-circular reflector contains five high-efficiency and small-package light-emitting diode (LED) chips, and the halves are 180° rotationally symmetric. For traffic safety, the headlamp satisfies the Code of Federal Regulations. To predict the pattern of illumination, an analytical derivation is developed for the optical path of a ray that is perpendicular to and emitted from the center of an LED chip. This ray represents the main ray emitted from the LED chip and is located at the maximum illuminance of the spot projected by the LED source onto a screen. We then analyze the design systematically to determine the locations of the LED chips in the reflector that minimize electricity consumption while satisfying reliability constraints associated with traffic safety. Compared to a typical train headlamp system with an incandescent or halogen lamp needing several hundred watts, the proposed system only uses 20.18 W to achieve the luminous intensity requirements.

  13. How do electricity consumption excluding power intensive manufacturing, react on changes in the spot price?; Hvordan reagerer stroemforbruket i alminnelig forsyning paa endringer i spotpris?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstad, Magne; Pettersen, Finn Erik L.

    2011-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to analyse how electricity consumption excluding power intensive manufacturing will react on changes in the spot price on the basis of monthly data of the period 1996-2010 and an econometric error correction model. General consumption accounts for approximately 70 percent of the total net consumption of electricity in Norway. Households, services and other manufacturing than the power intensive account for the majority of this consumption. In order to estimate the net effect of the spot price on general electricity consumption, it is important to control for other variables that also affect the consumption. Since much of the electricity in general consumption is used for heating, one obvious and important explanatory variable is temperature. In addition to electricity price and temperature we assume that general consumption also depends on economic activity, price on light heating oil, the share of working days in the current month and a summer holiday dummy. In the consumption equation price can not be considered as an exogenous explanatory variable, since consumption affects price and vice versa. Hence, we have added a price equation that can be considered as an inverted supply equation. Both the consumption and the supply equation are specified dynamically in order to allow for slow adjustment of supply and consumption. The two equations of the model are estimated by two stage least square (2SLS). Full information maximum likelihood (FIML) is the most efficient estimation method in large samples, but a crucial assumption for consistent FIML-estimation is that the disturbance terms are normally distributed. A Jarque-Bera test of the error terms does not support this assumption in our data. R2 in the consumption equation is high. 96 per cent of the variation in the relative change in consumption is explained. In the price equation R2 is considerably lower. We find that if the spot price for Norway increases by 1 percent from one month

  14. Resolving piping analysis issues to minimize impact on installation activities during refueling outage at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhavnani, D.

    1996-01-01

    While it is required to maintain piping code compliance for all phases of installation activities during outages at a nuclear plant, it is equally essential to reduce challenges to the installation personnel on how plant modification work should be performed. Plant betterment activities that incorporate proposed design changes are continually implemented during the outages. Supporting analysis are performed to back these activities for operable systems. The goal is to reduce engineering and craft man-hours and minimize outage time. This paper outlines how plant modification process can be streamlined to facilitate construction teams to do their tasks that involve safety related piping. In this manner, installation can proceed by minimizing on the spot analytical effort and reduce downtime to support the proposed modifications. Examples are provided that permit performance of installation work in any sequence. Piping and hangers including the branch lines are prequalified and determined operable. The system is up front analyzed for all possible scenarios. The modification instructions in the work packages is flexible enough to permit any possible installation sequence. The benefit to this approach is large enough in the sense that valuable outage time is not extended and on site analytical work is not required

  15. Stable single-mode distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers at λ ∼ 4.25 μm with low power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Jinchuan; Liu, Fengqi; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shenqiang; Liu, Junqi; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-10-01

    Short-wavelength (4.25 μm) distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating in continuous wave (cw) mode at room temperature with low power consumption was presented. Stable single-mode operation with a side-mode-suppression-ratio above 25 dB was maintained for the whole measured current and temperature range by enlarging gain difference and strong grating coupling. Because of the strong coupling, very low threshold current and power consumption were achieved. For a device of 9-μm-wide and 2-mm-long, the cw threshold current and power consumption at 293 K were as low as 126 mA and 1.45 W, respectively. All results above were from the device without using buried heterostructure geometry.

  16. Enhanced Power Quality and Minimized Peak Current Control in An Inverter based Microgrid under Unbalanced Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzhao; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Sulligoi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The microgrid inverter experiences the power oscillations and current harmonics in case of the unbalanced grid voltage faults. However, there is a trade-off between power oscillations and current harmonics should be considered in three phase three wire inverter systems during the conventional fault...... ride through control. In order to solve this problem, a novel control strategy is proposed to enhance the output current quality while mitigating the active and reactive output power oscillations. Moreover, a simple current-limited control strategy can be achieved without the necessity of the voltage....../current positive/negative sequence extraction. Finally, the simulation tests of the conventional and proposed control solutions are carried out. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy....

  17. On the Dual-Decomposition-Based Resource and Power Allocation with Sleeping Strategy for Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of radio and power resource management in long term evolution heterogeneous networks (LTE HetNets) is investigated. The goal is to minimize the total power consumption of the network while satisfying the user quality

  18. A fully integral, differential, high-speed, low-power consumption CMOS recovery clock circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pacheco Bautista

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The clock recovery circuit (CRC plays a fundamental role in electronic information recovery systems (hard disks, DVD and CD read/writeable units and baseband digital communication systems in recovering the clock signal contained in the received data. This signal is necessary for synchronising subsequent information processing. Nowadays, this task is difficult to achieve because of the data’s random nature and its high transfer rate. This paper presents the design of a high-performance integral CMOS technology clock recovery circuit (CRC wor-king at 1.2 Gbps and only consuming 17.4 mW using a 3.3V power supply. The circuit was fully differentially designed to obtain high performance. Circuit architecture was based on a conventional phase lock loop (PLL, current mode logic (MCML and a novel two stage ring-based voltage controlled oscillator (VCO. The design used 0.35 μm CMOS AMS process parameters. Hspice simulation results proved the circuit’s high performance, achieving tracking in less than 300 ns.

  19. Phase noise measurements with a cryogenic power-splitter to minimize the cross-spectral collapse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hati, Archita; Nelson, Craig W.; Pappas, David P.; Howe, David A.

    2017-11-01

    The cross-spectrum noise measurement technique enables enhanced resolution of spectral measurements. However, it has disadvantages, namely, increased complexity, inability of making real-time measurements, and bias due to the "cross-spectral collapse" (CSC) effect. The CSC can occur when the spectral density of a random process under investigation approaches the thermal noise of the power splitter. This effect can severely bias results due to a differential measurement between the investigated noise and the anti-correlated (phase-inverted) noise of the power splitter. In this paper, we report an accurate measurement of the phase noise of a thermally limited electronic oscillator operating at room temperature (300 K) without significant CSC bias. We mitigated the problem by cooling the power splitter to liquid helium temperature (4 K). We quantify errors of greater than 1 dB that occur when the thermal noise of the oscillator at room temperature is measured with the power splitter at temperatures above 77 K.

  20. The optimization model for multi-type customers assisting wind power consumptive considering uncertainty and demand response based on robust stochastic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Zhongfu; Ju, Liwei; Reed, Brent; Rao, Rao; Peng, Daoxin; Li, Huanhuan; Pan, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Our research focuses on demand response behaviors of multi-type customers. • A wind power simulation method is proposed based on the Brownian motion theory. • Demand response revenue functions are proposed for multi-type customers. • A robust stochastic optimization model is proposed for wind power consumptive. • Models are built to measure the impacts of demand response on wind power consumptive. - Abstract: In order to relieve the influence of wind power uncertainty on power system operation, demand response and robust stochastic theory are introduced to build a stochastic scheduling optimization model. Firstly, this paper presents a simulation method for wind power considering external environment based on Brownian motion theory. Secondly, price-based demand response and incentive-based demand response are introduced to build demand response model. Thirdly, the paper constructs the demand response revenue functions for electric vehicle customers, business customers, industry customers and residential customers. Furthermore, robust stochastic optimization theory is introduced to build a wind power consumption stochastic optimization model. Finally, simulation analysis is taken in the IEEE 36 nodes 10 units system connected with 650 MW wind farms. The results show the robust stochastic optimization theory is better to overcome wind power uncertainty. Demand response can improve system wind power consumption capability. Besides, price-based demand response could transform customers’ load demand distribution, but its load curtailment capacity is not as obvious as incentive-based demand response. Since price-based demand response cannot transfer customer’s load demand as the same as incentive-based demand response, the comprehensive optimization effect will reach best when incentive-based demand response and price-based demand response are both introduced.

  1. Design and fabrication of micro-hotplates made on a polyimide foil: electrothermal simulation and characterization to achieve power consumption in the low mW range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbat, J; Canonica, M; Briand, D; De Rooij, N F; Teyssieux, D

    2011-01-01

    The design of ultra-low power micro-hotplates on a polyimide (PI) substrate supported by thermal simulations and characterization is presented. By establishing a method for the thermal simulation of very small scale heating elements, the goal of this study was to decrease the power consumption of PI micro-hotplates to a few milliwatts to make them suitable for very low power applications. To this end, the mean heat transfer coefficients in air of the devices were extracted by finite element analysis combined with very precise thermographic measurements. A simulation model was implemented for these hotplates to investigate both the influence of their downscaling and the bulk micromachining of the polyimide substrate to lower their power consumptions. Simulations were in very good agreement with the experimental results. The main parameters influencing significantly the power consumption at such dimensions were identified and guidelines were defined allowing the design of very small (15 × 15 µm) and ultra-low power heating elements (6 mW at 300 °C). These very low power heating structures enable the realization of flexible sensors, such as gas, flow or wind sensors, for applications in autonomous wireless sensors networks or RFID applications and make them compatible with large-scale production on foil such as roll-to-roll or printing processes.

  2. Energy Resources Consumption Minimization in Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balastov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the energy savings analysis during operation of buildings, provides the heat balance of residential premises, considers options for energy-efficient solutions for hot water supply systems in buildings. As technical facilities that allow the use of secondary heat sources and solar energy, there are also considered the systems with heat recovery of “gray” wastewater, heat pumps, solar collectors and photoelectric converters.

  3. NOx, Soot, and Fuel Consumption Predictions under Transient Operating Cycle for Common Rail High Power Density Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Walke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine is presently facing the challenge of controlling NOx and soot emissions on transient cycles, to meet stricter emission norms and to control emissions during field operations. Development of a simulation tool for NOx and soot emissions prediction on transient operating cycles has become the most important objective, which can significantly reduce the experimentation time and cost required for tuning these emissions. Hence, in this work, a 0D comprehensive predictive model has been formulated with selection and coupling of appropriate combustion and emissions models to engine cycle models. Selected combustion and emissions models are further modified to improve their prediction accuracy in the full operating zone. Responses of the combustion and emissions models have been validated for load and “start of injection” changes. Model predicted transient fuel consumption, air handling system parameters, and NOx and soot emissions are in good agreement with measured data on a turbocharged high power density common rail engine for the “nonroad transient cycle” (NRTC. It can be concluded that 0D models can be used for prediction of transient emissions on modern engines. How the formulated approach can also be extended to transient emissions prediction for other applications and fuels is also discussed.

  4. A pixel segmented silicon strip detector for ultra fast shaping at low noise and low power consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misiakos, K.; Kavadias, S.

    1996-01-01

    A new radiation imaging device is proposed based on strips segmented into small pixels. Every pixel contains a submicron transistor that is normally biased in weak inversion. The ionization charge, upon collection by the pixel, changes the bias of the transistor to strong inversion and supplies a current up to several tens of a microA. This is a consequence of the small pixel capacitance (12 fF). The drains and sources of the transistors on the same row and column are shorted to bus lines that effectively become the Y and X coordinates. These bus lines are connected to the off chip ICON amplifiers to provide a 10 ns peaking time at a noise of about 150 electrons and 1 nW power consumption, for a 10x10 cm 2 detector and a MIP excitation. The noise performance is dominated by the ICON transistors. The cross talk between adjacent strips can be kept at a few percentage points provided a low transistor bias current is used

  5. Scandium doped Ge2Sb2Te5 for high-speed and low-power-consumption phase change memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zheng, Yonghui; Liu, Guangyu; Li, Tao; Guo, Tianqi; Cheng, Yan; Lv, Shilong; Song, Sannian; Ren, Kun; Song, Zhitang

    2018-03-01

    To bridge the gap of access time between memories and storage systems, the concept of storage class memory has been put forward based on emerging nonvolatile memory technologies. For all the nonvolatile memory candidates, the unpleasant tradeoff between operation speed and retention seems to be inevitable. To promote both the write speed and the retention of phase change memory (PCM), Sc doped Ge2Sb2Te5 (SGST) has been proposed as the storage medium. Octahedral Sc-Te motifs, acting as crystallization precursors to shorten the nucleation incubation period, are the possible reason for the high write speed of 6 ns in PCM cells, five-times faster than that of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) cells. Meanwhile, an enhanced 10-year data retention of 119 °C has been achieved. Benefiting from both the increased crystalline resistance and the inhibited formation of the hexagonal phase, the SGST cell has a 77% reduction in power consumption compared to the GST cell. Adhesion of the SGST/SiO2 interface has been strengthened, attributed to the reduced stress by forming smaller grains during crystallization, guaranteeing the reliability of the device. These improvements have made the SGST material a promising candidate for PCM application.

  6. Emissions reduction and economic implications of renewable energy market penetration of power generation for residential consumption in the MENA region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Fadel, M.; Rachid, G.; El-Samra, R.; Bou Boutros, G.; Hashisho, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of renewable energy (RE) deployment in power generation for residential consumption in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region under various RE penetration targets. A comparative assessment revealed a great heterogeneity among countries with Turkey dominating as the highest emitter. At the sub-regional level, the Middle East sub-region contributes more than double the GHG emissions estimated for the Gulf and North Africa sub-regions with all sub-regions achieving reductions in the range of 6–38% depending on the RE target penetration and promising up to 54% savings on investment excluding positive externalities associated with the offset of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions savings. - Highlights: ► Heterogeneity in GHG emissions in MENA region with Turkey contributing the most. ► Average regional GHG tCO 2 e/capita of 0.42 decreases to 0.17 with RE penetration. ► GHG emissions regional reduction reaches 8–36% depending on RE target penetration. ► Return on investment in RE promises up to 54% savings excluding positive externalities. ► Carbon credits offer economic incentives rendering RE investment more attractive.

  7. The search of the best mode of the reserve power supply consumption during the nuclear reactor’s emergency shutdown procedures in case of force majeure circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebaev, A. M.; Trifonenkov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the problem of the control mode choice for a power supply system in case of force majeure circumstances. It is not known precisely, when a force majeure incident occurs, but the threatened period is given, when the incident is expected. It is supposed, that force majeure circumstances force nuclear reactor shutdown at the moment of threat coming. In this article the power supply system is considered, which consists of a nuclear reactor and a reserve power supply, for example, a hydroelectric pumped storage power station. The reserve power supply has limited capacity and it doesn’t undergo the threatened incident. The problem of the search of the best reserve supply time-distribution in case of force majeure circumstances is stated. The search is performed according to minimization of power loss and damage to the infrastructure. The software has been developed, which performs automatic numerical search of the approximate optimal control modes for the reserve power supply.

  8. Reconfigurable Ultra-Low Power Miniaturized EVA Radio, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — EVA radio is an important integral part of lunar missions and beyond. To minimize power consumption and mass of an EVA radio, innovative solutions are needed for the...

  9. Zero-Power-Consumption Solar-Blind Photodetector Based on β-Ga2O3/NSTO Heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daoyou; Liu, Han; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Wang, Shunli; Cui, Can; Li, Chaorong; Tang, Weihua

    2017-01-18

    A solar-blind photodetector based on β-Ga 2 O 3 /NSTO (NSTO = Nb:SrTiO 3 ) heterojunctions were fabricated for the first time, and its photoelectric properties were investigated. The device presents a typical positive rectification in the dark, while under 254 nm UV light illumination, it shows a negative rectification, which might be caused by the generation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs in the β-Ga 2 O 3 film layer. With zero bias, that is, zero power consumption, the photodetector shows a fast photoresponse time (decay time τ d = 0.07 s) and the ratio I photo /I dark ≈ 20 under 254 nm light illumination with a light intensity of 45 μW/cm 2 . Such behaviors are attributed to the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs driven by the built-in electric field in the depletion region of β-Ga 2 O 3 and the NSTO interface, and the subsequent transport toward corresponding electrodes. The photocurrent increases linearly with increasing the light intensity and applied bias, while the response time decreases with the increase of the light intensity. Under -10 V bias and 45 μW/cm 2 of 254 nm light illumination, the photodetector exhibits a responsivity R λ of 43.31 A/W and an external quantum efficiency of 2.1 × 10 4 %. The photo-to-electric conversion mechanism in the β-Ga 2 O 3 /NSTO heterojunction photodetector is explained in detail by energy band diagrams. The results strongly suggest that a photodetector based on β-Ga 2 O 3 thin-film heterojunction structure can be practically used to detect weak solar-blind signals because of its high photoconductive gain.

  10. Innovation and Exploration of Local Power Supply and Consumption Legislation System%地方供用电立法的制度创新与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白如银

    2014-01-01

    当前,国家层面关于供用电的立法修订滞后,一些规定与社会发展不适应,与上位法不协调,在此背景下地方立法先行先试,补充完善了供用电法律制度。文章从电力普遍服务、节能减排、强制缔约、电力需求侧管理、用电计量装置、供用电合同、预购电、中止供电、用电检查、窃电规制、电力应急预案、供电故障抢修、供用电事故、禁止非供电企业拉闸停电等14个方面介绍了地方立法中关于供用电法律制度的创新与突破以及供用电立法的新趋势。%At present, the legislation revise about power supply and consumption is lagging in the national level, some rules don′t fit in with the social development, don′t coordinate with the higher-level law. Under this background, the local legislation is tried and carried out to supply and perfect the legal system of power supply and consumption. In the paper, the innovation and breakthrough on the legal system of power supply and consumption and its new trend in the local legislation are introduced, from fourteen aspects such as electric power universal service, energy conservation and emission reduction, forced con-tracting, power demand side management, electricity metering device, power supply contract, purchasing electricity in advance, shutting off power supply, electricity inspection, stealing electricity regulation, power supply emergency plan, power supply breakdown repair, power supply accident, forbidding power cut except for power supply enterprise.

  11. Comparison of Turkey's electrical energy consumption and production with some European countries and optimization of future electrical power supply investments in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunc, Murat; Camdali, Uenal; Parmaksizoglu, Cem

    2006-01-01

    Energy issues are directly related to the development of a country and the living standards of its people. Turkey is currently in a rapid industrialization process with a young and dynamic population of over 65 million. Due to relatively high growth rate of the population, increasing consumer oriented attitudes and as a result of rising levels of affluence, the primary energy demand is rising rapidly at an annual rate of 6.7 percent. In this study Turkey's energy resources, installed electric power capacity, electric energy production and consumption rates are investigated and compared with that of France, Germany and Switzerland. Turkey's electric energy consumption rates are predicted with regression analysis for the years of 2010 and 2020 and finally linear mathematical optimization model is developed to predict the distribution of future electrical power supply investments in Turkey

  12. New renewable energy sources and efficient power consumption at NOK: Promoting - testing - informing. Neue erneuerbare Energien und rationelle Stromanwendung bei den NOK: Foerdern - Pruefen - Informieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueffer, K; Baumberger, H [Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK), Baden (Switzerland)

    1991-09-18

    In accordance with the operating principles, the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke (NOK) has decided on a comprehensive programme dedicated to opening up new sources of renewable energy and also to reducing demand by means of efficient power consumption. Intensive promotion, testing and information should ensure that, on the one hand, a premature condemnation of both possibilities and, on the other hand, exaggerated hopes can be avoided. (orig.).

  13. High-gain subnanowatt power consumption hybrid complementary logic inverter with WSe2 nanosheet and ZnO nanowire transistors on glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouh, Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Pezeshki, Atiye; Ali Raza, Syed Raza; Lee, Hee Sung; Min, Sung-Wook; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Shin, Jae Min; Im, Seongil

    2015-01-07

    A 1D-2D hybrid complementary logic inverter comprising of ZnO nanowire and WSe2 nanosheet field-effect transistors (FETs) is fabricated on glass, which shows excellent static and dynamic electrical performances with a voltage gain of ≈60, sub-nanowatt power consumption, and at least 1 kHz inverting speed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Taxonomic minimalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattle, A J; Oliver, I

    1994-12-01

    Biological surveys are in increasing demand while taxonomic resources continue to decline. How much formal taxonomy is required to get the job done? The answer depends on the kind of job but it is possible that taxonomic minimalism, especially (1) the use of higher taxonomic ranks, (2) the use of morphospecies rather than species (as identified by Latin binomials), and (3) the involvement of taxonomic specialists only for training and verification, may offer advantages for biodiversity assessment, environmental monitoring and ecological research. As such, formal taxonomy remains central to the process of biological inventory and survey but resources may be allocated more efficiently. For example, if formal Identification is not required, resources may be concentrated on replication and increasing sample sizes. Taxonomic minimalism may also facilitate the inclusion in these activities of important but neglected groups, especially among the invertebrates, and perhaps even microorganisms. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Risk management of energy system for identifying optimal power mix with financial-cost minimization and environmental-impact mitigation under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, S.; Li, Y.P.; Liu, J.; Huang, Charley Z.

    2017-01-01

    An interval-stochastic risk management (ISRM) method is launched to control the variability of the recourse cost as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The ISRM method can examine various policy scenarios that are associated with economic penalties under uncertainties presented as probability distributions and interval values. An ISRM model is then formulated to identify the optimal power mix for the Beijing's energy system. Tradeoffs between risk and cost are evaluated, indicating any change in targeted cost and risk level would yield different expected costs. Results reveal that the inherent uncertainty of system components and risk attitude of decision makers have significant effects on the city's energy-supply and electricity-generation schemes as well as system cost and probabilistic penalty. Results also disclose that import electricity as a recourse action to compensate the local shortage would be enforced. The import electricity would increase with a reduced risk level; under every risk level, more electricity would be imported with an increased demand. The findings can facilitate the local authority in identifying desired strategies for the city's energy planning and management in association with financial-cost minimization and environmental-impact mitigation. - Highlights: • Interval-stochastic risk management method is launched to identify optimal power mix. • It is advantageous in capturing the notion of risk in stochastic programming. • Results reveal that risk attitudes can affect optimal power mix and financial cost. • Developing renewable energies would enhance the sustainability of energy management. • Import electricity as an action to compensate the local shortage would be enforced.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of an algorithm to minimize the power error selection of an aspheric intraocular lens by optimizing the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Piñero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the refractive predictability achieved with an aspheric intraocular lens(IOLand to develop a preliminary optimized algorithm for the calculation of its power(PIOL.METHODS: This study included 65 eyes implanted with the aspheric IOL LENTIS L-313(Oculentis GmbHthat were divided into 2 groups: 12 eyes(8 patientswith PIOL≥23.0 D(group A, and 53 eyes(35 patientswith PIOLIOLadjwas calculated considering a variable refractive index for corneal power estimation, the refractive outcome obtained, and an adjusted effective lens position(ELPadjaccording to age and anatomical factors. RESULTS: Postoperative spherical equivalent ranged from -0.75 to +0.75 D and from -1.38 to +0.75 D in groups A and B, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in groups A(P=0.64and B(P=0.82between PIOLadj and the IOL power implanted(PIOLReal. The Bland and Altman analysis showed ranges of agreement between PIOLadj and PIOLReal of +1.11 to -0.96 D and +1.14 to -1.18 D in groups A and B, respectively. Clinically and statistically significant differences were found between PIOLadj and PIOL obtained with Hoffer Q and Holladay I formulas(PCONCLUSION: The refractive predictability of cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric IOL can be optimized using paraxial optics combined with linear algorithms to minimize the error associated to the estimation of corneal power and ELP.

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the stand-by consumption power reduction technology. R and D of the stand-by consumption power reduction technology in relation to machine tools; 2000 nendo taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kosaku kiki ni kanrensuru taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation to machine tools, a method was studied for reducing consumption power at the time of standing-by, keeping the present processing accuracy, processing efficiency and operability, and the results of the study were as follows. As to the chip conveyer, the stand-by consumption power was reduced by approximately 75% by reducing the motor capacity by reviewing the effective operation method and the structure. Concerning the mist collector, a reduction of approximately 85% was confirmed by adopting the efficient operation method and high-efficient motor. Relating to the oil controller, an experiment was made on the frame thermal circulation system and the self-forced air cooling system. In terms of the rise in temperature, the controller is lower than the existing one, but it was found out that the consumption power could be reduced by about 14% and about 98%, respectively. About the coolant pump, the optimum inclination angle/necessary minimum flow rate of oil pan were confirmed, and a reduction of 47% was confirmed. As to the hydraulic pump, study was made of a method to substitute other power source for oil pressure and the intermittent operation of hydraulic unit, and effects of each were confirmed. Further studies were made of the control disc, reduction in air consumption, etc. (NEDO)

  18. Synthesis and presentations of the 1. national colloquium of photovoltaic self-consumption. Producing solar power to consume it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, Daniel; Brottier, Laetitia; Kubista, Marek; Charton, Franck; Lafforgue, Alain; Bubel, Genevieve; Bechu, Olivier; Lextrait, Herve; Gelle, Alexis; Glachant, Jean-Michel; Moretti, Florent; Contreau, Regis; Damian, Jean; Gravier, Emmanuel; Mas, Pierre; Puaud, Teddy; Lebreton, Francois; Coutant, Francoise; Perrin, Gautier; Cereuil, Edouard; Dehaese, Olivier; Mingant, Sylvie; Roesner, Sven; Communal, Serge; Djahel, Thierry; Hu, Zukui; Perez, Yannick; Marchal, David; Laffaille, Didier; Claustre, Raphael; Joffre, Andre

    2016-05-01

    This publication reports on the contributions (slides) presented during several round tables which respectively proposed comments and discussions on the results of a survey on the relationship between French people and self-consumption; on the relationships and stakes of the electricity grid regulatory framework with positive or zero energy building; on an overview of emerging market offers by professionals; on a return on experience and on the role of local communities (region, TEPOS or positive energy territories, energy syndicates, authorities for distribution organisation); on the situation and perspectives of stationary storage and solar electro-mobility; and on prospective visions (2018/2023) for photovoltaic self-consumption in France. A synthesis summarizes the content of this first colloquium on photovoltaic self-consumption

  19. 10 CFR Appendix Z to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of External Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operation when the external power supply is connected to the main electricity supply and the output is (or “all outputs are” for a multiple-voltage external power supply) connected to a load (or “loads” for a... any mechanical, optical, or electronic switches that automatically disconnect mains power from the...

  20. Assessment of Event-Related EEG Power After Single-Pulse TMS in Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome and Minimally Conscious State Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaggio, Emanuela; Cavinato, Marianna; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Tonin, Paolo; Piccione, Francesco; Manganotti, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    In patients without a behavioral response, non-invasive techniques and new methods of data analysis can complement existing diagnostic tools by providing a method for detecting covert signs of residual cognitive function and awareness. The aim of this study was to investigate the brain oscillatory activities synchronized by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivered over the primary motor area in the time-frequency domain in patients with the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state as compared to healthy controls. A time-frequency analysis based on the wavelet transform was used to characterize rapid modifications of oscillatory EEG rhythms induced by TMS in patients as compared to healthy controls. The pattern of EEG changes in the patients differed from that of healthy controls. In the controls there was an early synchronization of slow waves immediately followed by a desynchronization of alpha and beta frequency bands over the frontal and centro-parietal electrodes, whereas an opposite early synchronization, particularly over motor areas for alpha and beta and over the frontal and parietal electrodes for beta power, was seen in the patients. In addition, no relevant modification in slow rhythms (delta and theta) after TMS was noted in patients. The clinical impact of these findings could be relevant in neurorehabilitation settings for increasing the awareness of these patients and defining new treatment procedures.

  1. Test methods for evaluating energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with electric, hybrid and fuel cell power trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Ploumen, S.; Conte, M.; Buning, L.; Meier-Engel, K.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the MATADOR-project measurement methods have been developed for the evaluation of the energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with advanced propulsion systems, such as battery-electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles. Based on an inventory of existing and prospective standard

  2. Structure of the power consumption in hospitals: case of the IMSS development in Aguascalientes; Estructura del consumo energetico en hospitales: caso del conjunto del IMSS en Aguascalientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera Garcia, Antonio [HGZ No. 1 del IMSS en Aguascalientes (Mexico); Morillon Galvez, David [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The hospitals, since they operate 24 hours a day during 365 days per year, are great consumers of energy. They consume up to 75% of fuels for their transformation in thermal energy. Consequently it is important to study and determine the structure of the power consumption in hospitals. In the present work with the study case of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) development in Aguascalientes, Mexico a pattern of power consumption and the distribution of annual consumption of electricity and diesel oil from 1993 to 2001 is obtained. It is observed in the study case, that with the work of the engineering equipment of conservation they managed themselves to reduce to the annual consumption of diesel oil and electricity with economic savings greater than 1'200,000 of 1999 pesos. [Spanish] Los hospitales, como trabajan 24 al dia los 365 dias del ano, son grandes consumidores de energia. Ellos consumen hasta el 75% de combustibles para su transformacion en energia termica. En consecuencia es importante estudiar y determinar la estructura del consumo energetico en hospitales. En el presente trabajo con el estudio de caso del conjunto del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) en Aguascalientes, Mexico se obtiene el patron de consumo energetico y la distribucion de consumo anual de electricidad y diesel de l993 a 2001. Se observa en el caso de estudio, que con el trabajo del equipo de ingenieros de conservacion se lograron reducir los consumos anuales de diesel y electricidad con ahorros economicos mayores a 1,200,000 pesos de 1999.

  3. Life-cycle comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and water consumption for coal and shale gas fired power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yuan; Huang, Runze; Ries, Robert J.; Masanet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    China has the world's largest shale gas reserves, which might enable it to pursue a new pathway for electricity generation. This study employed hybrid LCI (life cycle inventory) models to quantify the ETW (extraction-to-wire) GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and water consumption per kWh of coal- and shale gas-fired electricity in China. Results suggest that a coal-to-shale gas shift and upgrading coal-fired power generation technologies could provide pathways to less GHG and water intensive power in China. Compared to different coal-fired generation technologies, the ETW GHG emissions intensity of gas-fired CC (combined cycle) technology is 530 g CO 2 e/kWh, which is 38–45% less than China's present coal-fired electricity. Gas-fired CT (combustion turbine) technology has the lowest ETW water consumption intensity at 960 g/kWh, which is 34–60% lower than China's present coal-fired electricity. The GHG-water tradeoff of the two gas-fired power generation technologies suggests that gas-fired power generation technologies should be selected based on regional-specific water resource availabilities and electricity demand fluctuations in China. However, the low price of coal-fired electricity, high cost of shale gas production, insufficient pipeline infrastructures, and multiple consumers of shale gas resources may serve as barriers to a coal-to-shale gas shift in China's power sector in the near term. - Highlights: • The GHG and water footprints of coal- and shale gas-fired electricity are estimated. • A coal-to-shale gas shift can enable less GHG and water intensive power in China. • The GHG emissions of shale gas-fired combined cycle technology is 530 g CO 2 e/kWh. • The water consumption of shale gas-fired combustion turbine technology is 960 g/kWh. • Shale gas-fired power generation technologies selection should be regional-specific

  4. Scheduling of Domestic Water Heater Power Demand for Maximizing PV Self-Consumption Using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) strategy for maximizing photo-voltaic (PV) selfconsumption in a household context exploiting the flexible demand of an electric water heater. The predictive controller uses a water heater model and forecast of the hot Water consumption in order...... to predict the future temperature of the water and it manages its state (on and off) according to the forecasted PV production, which are computed starting from forecast of the solar irradiance. Simulations for the proof of concept and for validating the proposed control strategy are proposed. Results...... of the control approach are compared with a traditional thermostatic controller using historical measurements of a 10 kW PV installation. Economic results based on the Italian self consumption tariffs are also reported. The model of the water heater complex is a mixed grey and white box and its parameters have...

  5. THE ROLE OF BELARUS NATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE MINIMIZATION OF CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Stozharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus National Commission on Radiation Protection was established in 1991, based on the former Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Supreme Council Resolution. The Commission works out recommendations on the radiation protection to submit to the state authorities, state institutions under the Republic of Belarus Government and state research institutions, reviews and assesses scientific data in the field of radiation protection and makes suggestions in regards of the implementation of the achieved developments. The Commission engages leading scientists and practitioners from Belarus, involved in the provision of the radiation protection and safety in the state. The methodological cornerstone for the Commission activities was chosen to be the committment to the worldwide accepted approach of the nature and magnitude of the undertaken protective measures justification in the field of radiation safety. The Commission adheres the ALARA optimization criteria as the core of the aforementioned approach. The Commission has also submited to the Government a number of developments which were crucial in the highest level managerial decisions elaboration. The latter impacted directly the state tactics and strategy in the environmental, health and social consequences of the Chernobyl disaster minimization. Following the recommendations of the international institutions (ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR, FAO/WHO, developments of the colleagues in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the local regional experience, the Commission proceeds with the expert observation of the ongoing protective measures to reduce the radiation impact and population exposure resulted from the Chernobyl accident, is actively occupied in the radiation safety ensuring at the Belarussian nuclear power plant being under construction, much contributes to elaboration of the new version of the state Law “On Radiation Protection of Population” and other regulatory documents.

  6. Waste minimization assessment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellythorne, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Perry Nuclear Power Plant began developing a waste minimization plan early in 1991. In March of 1991 the plan was documented following a similar format to that described in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. Initial implementation involved obtaining management's commitment to support a waste minimization effort. The primary assessment goal was to identify all hazardous waste streams and to evaluate those streams for minimization opportunities. As implementation of the plan proceeded, non-hazardous waste streams routinely generated in large volumes were also evaluated for minimization opportunities. The next step included collection of process and facility data which would be useful in helping the facility accomplish its assessment goals. This paper describes the resources that were used and which were most valuable in identifying both the hazardous and non-hazardous waste streams that existed on site. For each material identified as a waste stream, additional information regarding the materials use, manufacturer, EPA hazardous waste number and DOT hazard class was also gathered. Once waste streams were evaluated for potential source reduction, recycling, re-use, re-sale, or burning for heat recovery, with disposal as the last viable alternative

  7. Using Multi-Sited Ethnography: An Exploration of Consumer Resistance, Community and Power at New Consumption Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    The research methods described in this case were used as part of my PhD project, which took place between 2003 and 2007. My aim was to gain an in-depth understanding of new consumption communities, that is, consumers who develop a sense of kind, shared rituals and traditions, and a feeling of responsibility towards each other based on their critical attitudes towards marketing and consumer culture. In the early 2000s, industry and marketing academics were becoming increasingly interested in t...

  8. Investigation of Energy Consumption and Sound Quality for Class-D Audio Amplifiers using Tracking Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Schneider, Henrik; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    power supply tracking and its influence on power losses, audio performance and environmental impact for a 130 W class-D amplifier prototype as well as a commercialized class-D amplifier. Both modeled and experimental results verify that a large improvement of efficiency can be achieved. The total...... harmonic is found to be unaffected by stepless power supply tracking due the high supply rejection ratio of the used amplifiers under test.......The main advantage of Class-D audio amplifiers is high efficiency which is often stated to be more than 90 % but at idle or low power levels the efficiency is much lower. The waste energy is an environmental concern, a concern in mobile applications where long battery operation is required...

  9. Study on the Characteristics of Expander Power Output Used for Offsetting Pumping Work Consumption in Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Wu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The circulation pump in an organic Rankine cycle (ORC increases the pressure of the liquid working fluid from low condensing pressure to high evaporating pressure, and the expander utilizes the pressure difference to generate work. A portion of the expander output power is used to offset the consumed pumping work, and the rest of the expander power is exactly the net work produced by the ORC system. Because of the relatively great theoretical pumping work and very low efficiency of the circulation pump reported in previous papers, the characteristics of the expander power used for offsetting the pumping work need serious consideration. In particular, the present work examines those characteristics. It is found that the characteristics of the expander power used for offsetting the pumping work are satisfactory only under the condition that the working fluid absorbs sufficient heat in the evaporator and its specific volume at the evaporator outlet is larger than or equal to a threshold value.

  10. Performance potential of mechanical ventilation systems with minimized pressure loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    simulations that quantify fan power consumption, heating demand and indoor environmental conditions. The system was designed with minimal pressure loss in the duct system and heat exchanger. Also, it uses state-of-the-art components such as electrostatic precipitators, diffuse ceiling inlets and demand......In many locations mechanical ventilation has been the most widely used principle of ventilation over the last 50 years but the conventional system design must be revised to comply with future energy requirements. This paper examines the options and describes a concept for the design of mechanical...... ventilation systems with minimal pressure loss and minimal energy use. This can provide comfort ventilation and avoid overheating through increased ventilation and night cooling. Based on this concept, a test system was designed for a fictive office building and its performance was documented using building...

  11. The balancing mechanism. How to ensure the power production-consumption balance in a market opened to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmnd, Y.; Nebas-Hamoudia, C.; Larripa, B.; Neupont, B.

    2005-01-01

    As electricity is a non-storable product in large quantities, generation and consumption have to be balanced at all times. In France, this balancing was historically solely supplied by EDF. Recent legislative changes have opened balancing supplies, thus creating competition. RTE, the electricity transmission system operator, has developed, in consultation with the main market players, the balancing mechanism. This enables available capacities to be merged in order to guarantee this balance. It operates like a permanent bidding system open to producers, industrial consumers and foreign players. Bids submitted by players are selected by RTE depending on the system requirements, taking into account merit order criterion and technical constraints. Prices issued from the balancing mechanism are used to provide a legitimate reference price for the settlement of imbalances between supplies and consumptions of the different electricity market players. Transparency, a crucial element of this mechanism, is ensured by a comprehensive system of open data publication. Since its launch, the balancing mechanism has proven its operational strength. (author)

  12. Power consumption in detail of private households in the Federal Republic of Germany 1997 - 2000. Study; Detaillierung des Stromverbrauchs privater Haushalte in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1997 - 2010. Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boede, U.; Bradke, H.; Cremer, C.

    2000-12-01

    The study includes all electric appliances except for those used to heat rooms. 53 of these power-consuming appliances were also examined in detail as to their idle-power consumption (consumption during stand-by and apparent non-activity). The investigations covered specific performance, the typical sort of use and the development of the stocks. 1997 was used as the basic year. The development is estimated for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. To identify the stand-by losses, the operational states were defined accurately. This makes it possible to determine which loss is caused by which operational mode. [German] Die Studie beruecksichtigt alle Elektrogeraete ausser solche fuer Raumwaerme. 53 dieser stromverbrauchenden Geraete wurden darueber hinaus bezueglich ihres Leerlaufverbrauchs (Verbrauch im Bereitschaftsbetrieb und im Schein-Aus-Zustand) detailliert betrachtet. Untersucht wurden die spezifische Leistungsaufnahme, die typische Anwendung und die Bestandsentwicklung. Als Basisjahr wurde 1997 herangezogen. Die Entwicklung wird abgeschaetzt fuer die Jahre 2000, 2005 und 2010. Zur Identifizierung der Leerlaufverluste wurde eine genaue Definition der Betriebszustaende vorgenommen. Dadurch ist es moeglich zuzuordnen, welcher Verlust auf welchen Betriebsmodus entfaellt. (orig.)

  13. Low Power Consumption Complementary Inverters with n-MoS2 and p-WSe2 Dichalcogenide Nanosheets on Glass for Logic and Light-Emitting Diode Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Pyo Jin; Kim, Jin Sung; Lim, June Yeong; Cho, Youngsuk; Pezeshki, Atiye; Lee, Hee Sung; Yu, Sanghyuck; Min, Sung-Wook; Im, Seongil

    2015-10-14

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials with discrete bandgap become important because of their interesting physical properties and potentials toward future nanoscale electronics. Many 2D-based field effect transistors (FETs) have thus been reported. Several attempts to fabricate 2D complementary (CMOS) logic inverters have been made too. However, those CMOS devices seldom showed the most important advantage of typical CMOS: low power consumption. Here, we adopted p-WSe2 and n-MoS2 nanosheets separately for the channels of bottom-gate-patterned FETs, to fabricate 2D dichalcogenide-based hetero-CMOS inverters on the same glass substrate. Our hetero-CMOS inverters with electrically isolated FETs demonstrate novel and superior device performances of a maximum voltage gain as ∼27, sub-nanowatt power consumption, almost ideal noise margin approaching 0.5VDD (supply voltage, VDD=5 V) with a transition voltage of 2.3 V, and ∼800 μs for switching delay. Moreover, our glass-substrate CMOS device nicely performed digital logic (NOT, OR, and AND) and push-pull circuits for organic light-emitting diode switching, directly displaying the prospective of practical applications.

  14. Decarbonization of the German energy system due to falling or rising power consumption?; Dekarbonisierung des deutschen Energiesystems durch sinkenden oder steigenden Stromverbrauch?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guminski, Andrej; Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Since the publication of the draft ''Climate Protection Plan 2050'' and the ''Green Paper on Energy Efficiency'', it is clear that the Federal Government is focusing on the electrification of the heat and transport sector in order to increase the share of renewable energies in these sectors. This step is not uncontroversial, and represents a paradigm shift in science and politics, because the reduction of the cross electricity consumption move into the background. It is now necessary to clearly distinguish between the conventional power consumption, which must continue to be tested for energy savings and efficiency potential, and the new power consumption, here referred to as the coupling current, which is accepted in order to achieve the objectives of the energy transition. Since the consideration of the energy transition as a purely national project is too short, possible positive and negative effects of the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) deserve particular attention with regard to this reorientation. [German] Spaetestens seit der Veroeffentlichung des Entwurfs zum ''Klimaschutzplan 2050'' und des ''Gruenbuch Energieeffizienz'' ist klar, dass die Bundesregierung auf die Elektrifizierung des Waerme- und Verkehrssektors setzt, um den Anteil der erneuerbaren Energien in diesen Sektoren zu steigern. Dieser Schritt ist nicht unumstritten und stellt einen Paradigmenwechsel in Wissenschaft und Politik dar, denn auf einmal rueckt die Senkung des Bruttostromverbrauchs in den Hintergrund. Es gilt jetzt, klar zu trennen zwischen dem herkoemmlichen Stromverbrauch, der weiterhin auf Energieeinspar- und -effizienzpotenziale hin untersucht werden muss, und dem neuen, hier Koppelstrom genannten Stromverbrauch, welcher in Kauf genommen wird, um die Ziele der Energiewende zu erreichen. Da die Betrachtung der Energiewende als rein nationales Projekt zu kurz greift, verdienen moegliche

  15. FY 2000 Development of technologies for reducing power consumption during the stand-by period. Report on the research and development results of rationally reducing power consumption by home electric appliances; 2000 nendo taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaden seihin no taikiji shohi denryoku no goriteki sakugen ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for development of the system which automatically switches off the power source for a standing-by appliance by analyzing life pattern in each home, in order to reduce consumed power during the stand-by period. The actual service conditions of appliances in each home are surveyed through the questionnaires and recording in the diary. The analysis results indicate that as high as 70% of those who are inquired take interest in energy saving, especially high among full-time housewives. The home electric appliances considered by many to wastefully consume power are functional-keeping types, e.g., (jar pots) and (toilet seats equipped with a washing function with warm water), and heating appliances, e.g., (hot carpets). The power consumption trends at each time in each home are measured and grasped by the aid of a tool with built-in personal computer, and the algorithm for predicting use of the appliances in each home is developed for each home, based on the analysis results. The prototype energy-saving adapter and centralized controller are developed, and subjected to various tests to develop the learning/controlling algorithms. The demonstration tests of the energy-saving adapter developed confirm that power consumption during the stand-by period can be reduced at least by 10%. (NEDO)

  16. VSD a compressor that automatically reduces the power consumption; VSD un compresor que reduce automaticamente el consumo energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Anda L, Pedro [Atlas Copco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    With the purpose of verifying the behavior in the demand of air in the different plants Copco Atlas made a sampling of 135 measurements, from which it was concluded, that the air consumption of the plants behaves under three main profiles. In the following graphs the behavior of the demand of air with one color for every day of the week and 24 hours per day. In this sample Profile No. 1 is typical of the industries that work 24 hours a day and have low demand of air at night. This type of profile represents a percentage of 64% of the total of the measurements made. The second profile represents industries that work 5 days per week with two shifts and represents a percentage of 28%. The third profile is typical for applications of fixed consumption during the 5 days of the week, this represents an 8% of the measurements. With the purpose of improving the efficiency in the compressors energy consumption, Atlas Copco has been pioneering in the development of compressors with Variable Speed Drive (VSD), that offers the possibility of adapting with extreme precision the capacity of the compressor to the variable demand of compressed air of the plant. [Spanish] Con la finalidad de verificar el comportamiento en la demanda de aire en las diferentes plantas Atlas Copco realizo un muestreo de 135 mediciones, del cual se concluyo, que el consumo de aire de las plantas se comporta bajo tres perfiles principales. En las siguientes graficas se muestra el comportamiento de la demanda de aire con un color por cada dia de la semana y 24 horas al dia . En esta muestra el Perfil No. 1 es tipico de las Industrias que trabajan las 24 horas del dia y tiene baja demanda de aire en las noches. Este tipo de perfil representa un porcentaje de 64% del total de las mediciones realizadas. El segundo perfil representa industrias que traban 5 dias a la semana con dos turnos y representa un porcentaje de 28%. El tercer perfil estetico para aplicaciones de consumo fijo durante 5 dias a la semana

  17. Precipitation and total power consumption in the ionosphere: Global MHD simulation results compared with Polar and SNOE observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palmroth

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We compare the ionospheric electron precipitation morphology and power from a global MHD simulation (GUMICS-4 with direct measurements of auroral energy flux during a pair of substorms on 28-29 March 1998. The electron precipitation power is computed directly from global images of auroral light observed by the Polar satellite ultraviolet imager (UVI. Independent of the Polar UVI measurements, the electron precipitation energy is determined from SNOE satellite observations on the thermospheric nitric oxide (NO density. We find that the GUMICS-4 simulation reproduces the spatial variation of the global aurora rather reliably in the sense that the onset of the substorm is shown in GUMICS-4 simulation as enhanced precipitation in the right location at the right time. The total integrated precipitation power in the GUMICS-4 simulation is in quantitative agreement with the observations during quiet times, i.e., before the two substorm intensifications. We find that during active times the GUMICS-4 integrated precipitation is a factor of 5 lower than the observations indicate. However, we also find factor of 2-3 differences in the precipitation power among the three different UVI processing methods tested here. The findings of this paper are used to complete an earlier objective, in which the total ionospheric power deposition in the simulation is forecasted from a mathematical expression, which is a function of solar wind density, velocity and magnetic field. We find that during this event, the correlation coefficient between the outcome of the forecasting expression and the simulation results is 0.83. During the event, the simulation result on the total ionospheric power deposition agrees with observations (correlation coefficient 0.8 and the AE index (0.85.

  18. Low Power Consumption Lasers for Next Generation Miniature Optical Spectrometers for Major Constituent and Trace Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhar, Siamak; Soibel, Alexander; Frez, Clifford; Qiu, Yueming; Chen, J.; Hosoda, T.; Kipshidze, G.; Shterengas, L.; Tsvid, G.; Belenky, G.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The air quality of any manned spacecraft needs to be continuously monitored in order to safeguard the health of the crew. Air quality monitoring grows in importance as mission duration increases. Due to the small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor laser-based instruments are viable candidates for this purpose. The minimum instrument size requires lasers with emission wavelength coinciding with the absorption of the fundamental frequency of the target gases which are mostly in the 3.0-5.0 micrometers wavelength range. In this paper we report on our progress developing high wall plug efficiency type-I quantum-well GaSb-based diode lasers operating at room temperatures in the spectral region near 3.0-3.5 micrometers and quantum cascade (QC) lasers in the 4.0-5.0 micrometers range. These lasers will enable the development of miniature, low-power laser spectrometers for environmental monitoring of the spacecraft.

  19. Possibilities of using thermal mass in buildings to save energy, cut power consumption peaks and increase the thermal comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this project was to generate knowledge to enable us to take advantage of heat storage in heavy building structures with regard to as energy savings, better thermal indoor climate, and reduced peak powers. This could include buildings that can function without energy input during cold periods, buildings that give a robust indoor climate without installed cooling, and buildings with good thermal comfort also in case of higher outdoor temperatures resulting from global warming. To rea...

  20. Performance model to assist solar thermal power plant siting in northern Chile based on backup fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrain, Teresita; Escobar, Rodrigo; Vergara, Julio [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-08-15

    In response to environmental awareness, Chile introduced sustainability goals in its electricity law. Power producers must deliver 5% from renewable sources by 2010 and 10% by 2024. The Chilean desert has a large available surface with one of the highest radiation levels and clearest skies in the World. These factors imply that solar power is an option for this task. However, a commercial plant requires a fossil fuel system to backup the sunlight intermittency. The authors developed a thermodynamical model to estimate the backup fraction needed in a 100 MW hybrid -solar-fossil- parabolic trough power plant. This paper presents the model aiming to predicting the performance and exploring its usefulness in assisting site selection among four locations. Since solar radiation data are only available in a monthly average, we introduced two approaches to feed the model. One data set provided an average month with identical days throughout and the other one considered an artificial month of different daylight profiles on an hourly basis for the same monthly average. We recommend a best plant location based on minimum fossil fuel backup, contributing to optimal siting from the energy perspective. Utilities will refine their policy goals more closely when a precise solar energy data set becomes available. (author)

  1. Effects of fast breeders' characteristics on consumptions and expenditures related to electric power generation. An assessment for the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G.; Zanantoni, C.

    1976-12-01

    The effects of the physical characteristics of the FBR (breeding ratio, inventory) and of the associated fuel cycle (out-of-pile time) on the results of strategy calculations performed for an electric power system are discussed. Attention is focused on the penetration of FBR, on the demand of uranium and separative work and on the economical performance of the breeders. It is pointed out that uncertainties about the out-of-pile time are as important as those concerning FBR breeding ratio and inventory

  2. Techno-economical Analysis of Hybrid PV-WT-Hydrogen FC System for a Residential Building with Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a techno-economical analysis on performance indicators of hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power generation system which supply with electricity a low - energy building, located in Cluj-Napoca. The case study had the main objectives, as follows: cost estimation, evaluation of energy and environmental performance for a fuel cell integrated into a small-scale hybrid system power generation and estimation of electrolytic hydrogen production based on renewable energy resources available on the proposed site. The results presented in this paper illustrate a case study for location Cluj-Napoca. The wind and solar resource can play an important role in energy needs for periods with "peak load" or intermittent energy supply. However, hydrogen production is dependent directly proportional to the availability of renewable energy resources, but the hydrogen can be considered as a storage medium for these renewable resources. It can be said that this study is a small-scale model analysis, a starting point for a detailed analysis of Romania's potential electrolytic production of hydrogen from renewable resources and supply electricity using fuel cells integrated into hybrid energy systems.

  3. Effect of mixing on enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated spruce: a quantitative analysis of conversion and power consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiman Magnus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When scaling up lignocellulose-based ethanol production, the desire to increase the final ethanol titer after fermentation can introduce problems. A high concentration of water-insoluble solids (WIS is needed in the enzymatic hydrolysis step, resulting in increased viscosity, which can cause mass and heat transfer problems because of poor mixing of the material. In the present study, the effects of mixing on the enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated spruce were investigated using a stirred tank reactor operated with different impeller speeds and enzyme loadings. In addition, the results were related to the power input needed to operate the impeller at different speeds, taking into account the changes in rheology throughout the process. Results A marked difference in hydrolysis rate at different impeller speeds was found. For example, the conversion was twice as high after 48 hours at 500 rpm compared with 25 rpm. This difference remained throughout the 96 hours of hydrolysis. Substantial amounts of energy were required to achieve only minor increases in conversion during the later stages of the process. Conclusions Impeller speed strongly affected both the hydrolysis rate of the pretreated spruce and needed power input. Similar conversions could be obtained at different energy input by altering the mixing (that is, energy input, enzyme load and residence time, an important issue to consider when designing large-scale plants.

  4. Data driven transmission power control for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    kotian, Roshan; Exarchakos, Georgios; Liotta, Antonio; Di Fatta, G.; Fortino, G.; Li, W.; Pathan, M.; Stahl, F.; Guerrieri, A.

    2015-01-01

    Transmission Power Control (TPC) is employed in the sensor nodes with the main objective of minimizing transmission power consumption. However, major drawbacks with well-known TPC are time consuming and energy inefficient initialization phase. Moreover, they employ Received Signal Strength Indicator

  5. Power and prestige in argar culture societies. The commensal consumption of bovids and ovicaprids during funerary rituals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda Jiménez, Gonzalo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The regular appearance of meat offerings in Argaric pmbs enables us to point out that the slaughter and consumption of cattle and sheep or goat took place as a part of rituals of commensality. A portion of meat of theses animals, always belonging to a leg, was introduced as grave goods involving the symbolic performance of the death in the ritual itself. The type of meat consumed in these rituals was linked to the social status of Argaric people. Cattle would be slaughtered during the commensal practices associated with the highest social groups in contrast to the performance developed in the lowest social levels that include goat or sheep but never cattle. The ritual of commensality in Argaric societies would contribute to maintaining the social solidarity at the same time that it legitimated and naturalised a clear situation of social asymmetry. Cohesion and social distance play an important role in the commensal practices of Argaric funerary rituals.

    La fuerte normalización de los ajuares cárnicos en las sepulturas argáricas permite plantear que, como parte de ritual funerario, se procedió al sacrificio de bóvidos y ovicápridos que serían consumidos en rituales de comensalidad. Un trozo de carne de estas especies animales, siempre correspondiente a una de las extremidades, formaría parte del ajuar funerario, lo que supondría la participación simbólica del muerto en el propio ritual. La adscripción social de los individuos determinaría el tipo de carne consumida. Los bóvidos serían sacrificados sólo como parte de la ceremonia de comensalidad de los sectores sociales más elevados, frente a aquellos individuos de un nivel social inferior y con menor capacidad de amortización cuyo ritual incluirían el sacrificio y consumo de ovicápridos. En las sociedades argáricas el ritual de comensalidad contribuiría a la creación de un sentido de comunidad al tiempo que legitima y naturaliza una situación de clara asimetr

  6. Shaping of the axial power density distribution in the core to minimize the vapor volume fraction at the outlet of the VVER-1200 fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savander, V. I.; Shumskiy, B. E., E-mail: borisshumskij@yandex.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation); Pinegin, A. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The possibility of decreasing the vapor fraction at the VVER-1200 fuel assembly outlet by shaping the axial power density field is considered. The power density field was shaped by axial redistribution of the concentration of the burnable gadolinium poison in the Gd-containing fuel rods. The mathematical modeling of the VVER-1200 core was performed using the NOSTRA computer code.

  7. Power Optimization of Wireless Media Systems With Space-Time Block Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi'zadeh, Homayoun; Jafarkhani, Hamid; Moshfeghi, Mehran

    2004-01-01

    We present analytical and numerical solutions to the problem of power control in wireless media systems with multiple antennas. We formulate a set of optimization problems aimed at minimizing total power consumption of wireless media systems subject to a given level of QoS and an available bit rate. Our formulation takes in to consideration the power consumption related to source coding, channel coding, and transmission of multiple-transmit antennas. In our study, we consider Gauss-Markov and...

  8. A numerical simulation of the piston cooling in view of consumption capabilities and enhanced power density; Numerische Simulation der Kolbenkuehlung im Hinblick auf Verbrauchspotentiale und erhoehte Leistungsdichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Johannes [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    To meet stringent emission regulations and high power requirements, peak cylinder pressures and specific power of petrol engines have increased dramatically in recent years. Nevertheless, regarding customer expectations and in the interest of driving dynamics, modern engines should still adhere to the established wide speed range, resulting in higher thermal loading of in-cylinder components such as piston. To ensure durability and reliability, it is vital for piston cooling concepts to keep maximum temperatures securely below an acceptable limit. In addition, reducing piston cooling at part load can help to gain efficiency and decrease fuel consumption. These exacting demands on the cooling concept require an exact analysis of thermal boundary conditions and their influence on the piston temperature. While good verified models for the combustion simulation already exist, the thermal cooling boundaries involve a greater level of uncertainty. The reason for this lies in the inadequately investigated heat transfer conditions on the piston undercrown and the running surface at present, due to complex fluid dynamics of the oil jet cooling and strong ring movements during a load cycle. This study refines the thermal boundary conditions and leads to precise knowledge of the transient and averaged heat flow through the piston and the cylinder liner. Based on these results, optimized cooling strategies to gain efficiency can be developed with the help of well validated one dimensional thermal engine models. (orig.)

  9. The minimally tuned minimal supersymmetric standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, Rouven; Fortin, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    The regions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with the minimal amount of fine-tuning of electroweak symmetry breaking are presented for general messenger scale. No a priori relations among the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters are assumed and fine-tuning is minimized with respect to all the important parameters which affect electroweak symmetry breaking. The superpartner spectra in the minimally tuned region of parameter space are quite distinctive with large stop mixing at the low scale and negative squark soft masses at the high scale. The minimal amount of tuning increases enormously for a Higgs mass beyond roughly 120 GeV

  10. Thermoeconomic and environmental analyses of a low water consumption combined steam power plant and refrigeration chillers – Part 1: Energy and economic modelling and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifaei, Pouya; Rashidi, Jouan; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing two energy systems by combining refrigeration chillers and power plants. • Model-based comparison of the systems through energy and economic standpoints. • Reducing total annual costs of the base system up to 4.7% by process integration. • Decreasing the water loss in wet cooling towers by up to 18% in the proposed system. • Suggesting a water-fuel economic management strategy based on parametric analysis. - Abstract: Two novel configurations are proposed to replace the conventional Rankine cycle based steam power plants (SPP) with natural draft wet cooling towers (NDWCT) as cooling units. Closed feedwater heater unit of the base SPP-NDWCT system is eliminated in order to combine a vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) and an absorption heat pump (ABHP) with the base SPP-NDWCT system. Both VCR-SPP-NDWCT and ABHP-SPP-NDWCT systems are integrated to decrease the NDWCT load which could result in water losses decrease. In part one of the presented two-part paper, model-based energy and economic analyses are performed to compare systems performance and applicability. The temperature difference at pinch point and temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of the heat exchangers which were used for systems integration in VCR-SPP-NDWCT, and the absorber pressure and temperature in ABHP-SPP-NDWCT system are studied using parametric analysis procedure. A water-fuel management strategy is also introduced for the ABHP-SPP-NDWCT system according to the influence of the absorber pressure changes on system water and fuel consumption. In part 2, environmental and thermoeconomic analyses are performed to complete a comprehensive study on designing steam power plants. The results of part 1 showed that water losses and total annual costs decreased by 1–18% and 0–4.7% for the ABHP-SPP-NDWCT system but increased by 11% and 60% for the VCR-SPP-NDWCT system, respectively.

  11. A new hybrid pneumatic combustion engine to improve fuel consumption of wind–Diesel power system for non-interconnected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model thermodynamic ideal cycle of a new hybrid pneumaticcombustion engine. ► We optimize commands of all modes and calculate maps of fuel and air consumption. ► We evaluate fuel economy for Wind–Diesel system function of tank volume and wind penetration. ► We find up to 10% of fuel economy i.e. 80 t/year with 100% wind penetration. ► Fuel economy increases with wind penetration and with volume but has asymptotic value. -- Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of an optimized Hybrid Pneumatic-Combustion Engine (HPCE) concept that permits reducing fuel consumption for electricity production in non-interconnected remote areas, originally equipped with hybrid Wind–Diesel System (WDS). Up to now, most of the studies on the pneumatic hybridization of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) have dealt with two-stroke pure pneumatic mode. The few studies that have dealt with hybrid pneumatic-combustion four-stroke mode require adding a supplementary valve to charge compressed air in the combustion chamber. This modification means that a new cylinder head should be fabricated. Moreover, those studies focus on spark ignition engines and are not yet validated for Diesel engines. Present HPCE is capable of making a Diesel engine operate under two-stroke pneumatic motor mode, two-stroke pneumatic pump mode and four-stroke hybrid mode, without needing an additional valve in the combustion chamber. This fact constitutes this study’s strength and innovation. The evaluation of the concept is based on ideal thermodynamic cycle modeling. The optimized valve actuation timings for all modes lead to generic maps that are independent of the engine size. The fuel economy is calculated for a known site during a whole year, function of the air storage volume and the wind power penetration rate.

  12. Photovoltaic energy in France. Individual domestic self-consumption: until 20 pc of savings on electric power bills and a return on investment greater than 100 pc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorgeril, Charlotte de; Ribeyrolles, Charlyne; Robert-Baby, Xavier; Landesman, Olga; Lausseure, Martine

    2017-11-01

    This analysis presents the context within which domestic energy self-consumption is integrated into the French market, perspectives of development of the sector, and profitability potential assessments for households. It describes the context and mechanisms of self-consumption, outlines dynamics which favour self-consumption in France, identifies conditions for a profitable business model, and discusses levers of support of the self-consumption sector in France

  13. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  14. Motivation for a near term gun launch to space demonstration and a variable induction power supply concept to minimize initial demonstration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The history of the Gun Launch to Space (GLTS) concept is briefly reviewed along with recent progress and motivations for a near term launch demonstration. A current multiplying reconfigurable inductor design is developed which could couple to an existing battery system to power a GLTS railgun demonstration at the 300 megajoule muzzle energy level. The design is developed using proven approaches and performance levels and appears capable of reducing the power supply cost for an initial GLTS demonstration below that of a simple battery charged inductor system. Possible uses are (1) launching of space weapons; (2) launching of communication satellites; (3) and launching of satellites for space disposal of radioactive wastes

  15. Papers of the Canadian Institute conference on buying power in Ontario : critical starting-gate information evolving strategies to reduce costs and minimize risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Industry executives and senior government officials attended this conference to learn what to expect when the electricity market opens in Ontario. Topics of discussion included the new risks as well as hedging strategies to manage volatile electricity prices. Papers presented a status update regarding what services to expect from utilities and marketers in a deregulated market. Several presentations described Alberta's experience with deregulation and presented lessons that Ontario can learn to save time, money and how to best deal with electricity contracts. Methods to control and monitor energy consumption and energy costs internally were also described. A total of 14 papers were presented, of which 4 were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. tabs., figs

  16. The minimal non-minimal standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bij, J.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter I discuss a class of extensions of the standard model that have a minimal number of possible parameters, but can in principle explain dark matter and inflation. It is pointed out that the so-called new minimal standard model contains a large number of parameters that can be put to zero, without affecting the renormalizability of the model. With the extra restrictions one might call it the minimal (new) non-minimal standard model (MNMSM). A few hidden discrete variables are present. It is argued that the inflaton should be higher-dimensional. Experimental consequences for the LHC and the ILC are discussed

  17. The debate on minimal deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbatov, A.; Karp, R.C.; Toth, T.

    1993-01-01

    Revitalization of debates on minimal nuclear deterrence at the present time is induced by the end of the Cold War and a number of unilateral and bilateral actions by the great powers to curtail nuclear arms race and reduce nuclear weapons arsenals

  18. The use of phase modulation optimization for power lasers. Minimizing the FM-AM conversion while preserving spectral broadening functionalities required for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocquet, St.

    2009-11-01

    This research thesis deals with the problem of phase modulations in power lasers (such as the MegaJoule laser which is developed in France) and their impact of different physical phenomena like the suppression of the stimulated Brillouin scattering (which is necessary to avoid optics damage) and the optical smoothing which allows a spatial homogenisation of focal stains. The author deeply discusses the phase modulation counterparts, and more particularly the FM-AM conversion which is the source of unwanted intensity modulation and of energy loss. He reports the development of a comprehensive modelling of phenomena generating FM-AM conversion on a power laser chain. He theoretically and experimentally studies two methods allowing the FM-AM conversion to be reduced to a given spectral distortion: the compensation of transfer functions and the modification of the phase modulation signal to make it less sensitive to spectral distortion effects. For this last method, he determines the ideal spectrum shape for the phase modulation, and proposes a method to approach it. He shows the feasibility of such a method and reports experiments showing to which extent these solutions may improve performance of power lasers. Finally, he proposed optimised solutions for the MegaJoule Laser

  19. A new model predictive control algorithm by reducing the computing time of cost function minimization for NPC inverter in three-phase power grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Asghar; Zhalebaghi, Mohammad Hadi

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a new control strategy based on finite-control-set model-predictive control (FCS-MPC) for Neutral-point-clamped (NPC) three-level converters. Containing some advantages like fast dynamic response, easy inclusion of constraints and simple control loop, makes the FCS-MPC method attractive to use as a switching strategy for converters. However, the large amount of required calculations is a problem in the widespread of this method. In this way, to resolve this problem this paper presents a modified method that effectively reduces the computation load compare with conventional FCS-MPC method and at the same time does not affect on control performance. The proposed method can be used for exchanging power between electrical grid and DC resources by providing active and reactive power compensations. Experiments on three-level converter for three Power Factor Correction (PFC), inductive and capacitive compensation modes verify the good and comparable performance. The results have been simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The world energy consumption in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Enerdata 2005 data, this analysis presents the situation of the world energy consumption in 2005, the electric power consumption per region and production per source, the consumption increase for each energy source and the petroleum and gas consumption increase. (A.L.B.)

  1. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  2. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  3. Increasing the Benefit from Cost-Minimizing Loads via Centralized Adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Alahäivälä

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several demand response (DR strategies rely on real-time pricing and selfish local optimization, which may not result in optimal electricity consumption patterns from the viewpoint of an energy supplier or a power system. Thus, this paper proposes a strategy enabling centralized adjustments to cost-minimize consumers’ load. By employing the strategy, an aggregator is able to alter electricity consumption in order to remove power imbalances and to participate in the balancing power market (BPM. In this paper, we focus on direct electric space heating (DESH loads that aim to minimize their heating cost locally. The consumers and an aggregator agree about an indoor temperature band, within which the aggregator is allowed to alter the temperature, and thus the electricity consumption. Centrally, the aggregator procures its electricity demand from a day-ahead (DA market by utilizing the allowed temperature band and employs the band later in real-time (RT operation for the balancing of its own imbalances or regulating power in the BPM.

  4. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  5. Potential power density and power generation of wind parks. Share of regional wind power generation in consumption for a ''2% scenario''; Potenzielle Leistungsdichte und Stromerzeugung von Windparks. Anteil der regionalen Windstromerzeugung am Verbrauch fuer ein ''2 %-Szenario''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konetschny, Claudia; Schmid, Tobias; Jetter, Fabian [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft (FfE) e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Targets for wind energy use are given in different units. In addition to the number of plants, the power and the annual electricity generation, an information of a surface to be used for the use of wind power has become increasingly established. However, the relationships between area consumption, installed power and generated current are not approximately linear. On the basis of a small-scale modeling of the addition of wind energy installations using the wind resource tools WiSTl developed by the Research Center for Energy Economics (FfE), the article provides recommendations for the conversion of the area identified. In addition, the share of electricity generation based on a 2% scenario of power generation from wind power plants of the electricity consumption will be determined for each Federal State. [German] Ziele zur Windenergienutzung werden in verschiedenen Einheiten angegeben. Neben der Anzahl an Anlagen, der Leistung und der jaehrlichen Stromerzeugung hat sich zunehmend die Angabe einer fuer die Windkraftnutzung auszuweisenden Flaeche etabliert. Die Zusammenhaenge zwischen Flaechenverbrauch, installierter Leistung und erzeugter Strommenge sind jedoch nicht annaehernd linear. Anhand einer kleinteiligen Modeliierung des Zubaus von Windenergieanlagen mithilfe des von der Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft (FfE) entwickelten Windszenario-Tools WiSTl gibt der Artikel Empfehlungen zur Umrechnung der ausgewiesenen Flaeche. Zusaetzlich wird basierend auf einem 2 %-Szenario der Anteil der Stromerzeugung aus Windenergieanlagen am Stromverbrauch je Bundesland bestimmt.

  6. Loss minimization control and efficiency determination of electric drives in traction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, Thomas; Hofmann, Wilfried [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Elektrische Maschinen und Antriebe

    2012-11-01

    High-power electric drives in automotive traction applications consume a large part of the disposable electric energy. For this reason the energy efficiency of the drives is of great importance for range and fuel consumption of the hybrid electric vehicle. The paper describes two possible drives with different electric motors from a control point of view. The electric power losses in the drive system are determined depending on the operating point of the machine. With these loss characteristics the control of the drives is optimized to produce minimal losses. Finally the energy efficiency for a realistic urban bus drive cycle is calculated to compare the two types. (orig.)

  7. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Fiscal 1999 achievement report. Development of technology for reducing power consumption during standby (Research and development of technologies for application of standby power reduction to domestic and office-automation appliances); 1999 nendo taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaden oyobi OA kiki no taiki denryoku sakugen jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Efforts are exerted to develop power-efficient modules to be built into electrical products for reduction in power consumption in the standby state for domestic and office-automation appliances. In this study, television sets, audio sets, and air conditioners were selected out of domestic appliances and, out of office-automation appliances, notebook-size and desktop personal computers were selected. The standby power consumption is to be reduced to 3mW for domestic appliances, to 0.2W for notebook-size personal computers, and to 1/10-1/200 of the level being currently consumed in the case of desktop personal computers. For domestic appliances, a power efficient module not insulated from the AC power line was developed, to be built into a CPU-aided appliance to be turned on and off by remote control for the reduction of its standby power to 3mW. For notebook-size personal computers, a power-efficient power source insulated from the AC power line was developed, which consumes but 0.2W of standby power. It was built into a marketed notebook-size personal computer and tested for performance. For desktop personal computers, a 25mW power source insulated from the AC power line was fabricated, and tested for performance. (NEDO)

  9. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  10. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-parties, etc.). Originality/value – The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  11. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-­‐‑parties, etc.). Originality/value: The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  12. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  13. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  14. Ice on wind power plants. Detection, frequency, minimizing risk for injuries to humans and production loss; Is paa vindkraftverk. Detektering, utbredning, personskaderiskminimering och produktionsbortfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerlund, Rolf (HoloOptics, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    The project had three different objectives:- To calibrate an icing sensor, developed with the support of Vindforsk, according to the amount of ice on the rotor blades.- To determine at which degree of icing measures has to be taken to reduce the risk of public health hazards due to ice throws.- To give a general indication of the performance losses due to icing In the study a coastal shore based turbine (Vestas V44, situated close to Haernoesand in the northern Sweden) was used as the test object, a turbine placed at 176 m above sea level and 4 km away from the open sea. The turbine is also close to an attractive alpine ski-slope. Due to this the plant is closed 2-3 weeks per year to reduce the risk of ice throw. In the study two ice sensors were used, one with automatic de-icing and one without de-icing. The icing signal was sent to the operator and HoloOptics via SMS. The SMS sender was also connected to a temperature sensor. Furthermore, 12 'IceMarkers' were mounted on one of the rotor blades to verify the distribution of ice. To log the output of the turbine a logger was installed. The logger measured the 10 minutes mean power output. Wind-speed, wind-direction and temperatures were available from a mast located at a distance of 400 m to the wind turbine. Study period: March-December 2008 of which, at this location, four month are prone to icing. By the use of the IceMarkers it was found that shortly after the icing began the whole blade was relatively simultaneous covered with, minimum, a thin layer of ice (maybe less than 0,1 mm in thickness). The distribution of ice on the blade was verified by the use of a flash and a camera. However it was found to be difficult to verify at times with fog or precipitation. When temperatures varied around zero C the relation between indication and actual icing was less obvious. Sometimes the blades became/were de-iced without any indication from the corresponding indicator. The indicators themselves, without any

  15. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  16. The industrial energy consumption in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The statistics present the industry's energy consumption and composition, and the development from 1973 to 2003. In this period the composition of the energy consumption has changed considerably: a decrease in the consumption of liquid fuels and an increase in the consumption of natural gas and electric power. The energy consumption in the Danish industry decreased with almost 9 % from 2001 to 2003. This relatively large decrease was mainly due to the closing down of a steel factory. In the wood industry the energy consumption decreased with 36 % from 2001 to 2003, while the energy consumption in the electronics industry increased. (ln)

  17. Energy minimization of mobile video devices with a hardware H.264/AVC encoder based on energy-rate-distortion optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Donghun; Lee, Jungeon; Jung, Jongpil; Lee, Chul-Hee; Kyung, Chong-Min

    2014-09-01

    In mobile video systems powered by battery, reducing the encoder's compression energy consumption is critical to prolong its lifetime. Previous Energy-rate-distortion (E-R-D) optimization methods based on a software codec is not suitable for practical mobile camera systems because the energy consumption is too large and encoding rate is too low. In this paper, we propose an E-R-D model for the hardware codec based on the gate-level simulation framework to measure the switching activity and the energy consumption. From the proposed E-R-D model, an energy minimizing algorithm for mobile video camera sensor have been developed with the GOP (Group of Pictures) size and QP(Quantization Parameter) as run-time control variables. Our experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides up to 31.76% of energy consumption saving while satisfying the rate and distortion constraints.

  18. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Our dominant way of living is not sustainable and our activities as private individuals and households directly and indirectly account for a large and increasing share of total environmental impacts. These impacts are related to the structure as well as the level of consumption. In this article, ...

  19. Consumption bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of consumption in relation to the growing world population. Over the past 25 years, world population increased by 53%, while world consumption per person increased by only 39%. If consumption continues to grow at 1.4%, the world consumption per person will rise by 100% over the next 50 years with the population increasing by only half that amount. The burden of reducing the environmental impact brought about by this increase lies on technology. Technology needs to deliver major changes in improving resource productivity, and decreasing the amount of waste created. Productivity such as global food production has kept up with demand. Malnutrition persists due to poverty, and not because of the inability of the world to produce enough food. However, the prospects are much worse for resources that are not traded on markets or subject to sustainable management such as groundwater, state forests, ocean fish, and communal waste sinks like rivers, lakes, and the global atmosphere. These resources are not under the direct control of people affected by shortage. People who want to change the way these resources are used or managed have to pass through the legal or political system. Usually, political responses are slow and there has to be a very widespread environmental damage before action is taken.

  20. Research on the power consumption of the biological stages of wastewater treatment plant; Untersuchung ueber den Stromverbrauch biologischer Reinigungsverfahren auf Klaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempf, S.; Sigel, O.

    2006-07-01

    The largest electricity consumption in municipal sewage treatment plants occurs during biological treatment. This fact has been the motivation for a closer look at the electricity consumption of three biological treatment processes that will be applied more frequently in the future. The wastewater treatment plants in Lyss (Fixed Bed Biological Reactor), Wohlen (Moving Bed Biological Reactor), and Waedenswil (Membrane Biological Reactor submerged in an activated sludge process) provided the basis for this analysis, which was done both in absolute terms as well as in relation to each plant's loading. The specific energy consumption of the Fixed Bed Reactor, averaging 20 - 25 kWh/p.e. per annum (p.e. = person equivalent), is comparable to the one of a conventional activated sludge process (benchmark/standard value = 23 kWh/p.e. per annum; optimal value 18 kWh/p.e. per annum). The Moving Bed Reactor uses less than 30 kWh/p.e per annum when working at or close to full capacity, and more than 40 kWh/p.e. per annum at low fill. The Membrane Biological Reactor submerged in an activated sludge process shows the highest specific energy consumption values (> 40 kWh/p.e. per annum). In order to be able to run the biological treatment at optimal electricity consumption levels, the plants should be designed in such a way as to automatically run on partial or intermittent mode in times of low waste load. Further implementation of these new biological purification processes will lead to an increase in electricity consumption unless the significant energy savings potential wastewater treatment plants still offer is tapped. In order to be able to exploit this potential, electricity consumption has to be considered as of equal relevance as treated effluent quality. (author)