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Sample records for mineralize atrazine lacked

  1. Isolation and characterization of atrazine mineralizing Bacillus subtilis strain HB-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Wang

    Full Text Available Atrazine is a widely used herbicide with great environmental concern due to its high potential to contaminate soil and waters. An atrazine-degrading bacterial strain HB-6 was isolated from industrial wastewater and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified HB-6 as a Bacillus subtilis. PCR assays indicated that HB-6 contained atrazine-degrading genes trzN, atzB and atzC. The strain HB-6 was capable of utilizing atrazine and cyanuric acid as a sole nitrogen source for growth and even cleaved the s-triazine ring and mineralized atrazine. The strain demonstrated a very high efficiency of atrazine biodegradation with a broad optimum pH and temperature ranges and could be enhanced by cooperating with other bacteria, suggesting its huge potential for remediation of atrazine-contaminated sites. To our knowledge, there are few Bacillus subtilis strains reported that can mineralize atrazine, therefore, the present work might provide some new insights on atrazine remediation.

  2. Atrazine and its metabolites degradation in mineral salts medium and soil using an enrichment culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anup; Singh, Neera

    2016-03-01

    An atrazine-degrading enrichment culture was used to study degradation of atrazine metabolites viz. hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine in mineral salts medium. Results suggested that the enrichment culture was able to degrade only hydroxyatrazine, and it was used as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Hydroxyatrazine degradation slowed down when sucrose and/or ammonium hydrogen phosphate were supplemented as the additional sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. The enrichment culture could degrade high concentrations of atrazine (up to 110 μg/mL) in mineral salts medium, and neutral pH was optimum for atrazine degradation. Further, except in an acidic soil, enrichment culture was able to degrade atrazine in three soil types having different physico-chemical properties. Raising the pH of acidic soil to neutral or alkaline enabled the enrichment culture to degrade atrazine suggesting that acidic pH inhibited atrazine-degrading ability. The study suggested that the enrichment culture can be successfully utilized to achieve complete degradation of atrazine and its persistent metabolite hydroxyatrazine in the contaminated soil and water.

  3. Atrazine degradation by bioaugmented sediment from constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runes, H B; Jenkins, J J; Bottomley, P J

    2001-10-01

    The potential to establish pesticide biodegradation in constructed wetland sediment was investigated. Under microcosm conditions, bioaugmentation of sediment with small quantities of an atrazine spill-site soil (1:100 w/w) resulted in the mineralization of 25-30% of 14C ethyl atrazine (1-10 microg g(-1) sediment) as 14CO2 under both unsaturated and water-saturated conditions; atrazine and its common metabolites were almost undetectable after 30 days incubation. By comparison, unbioaugmented sediment supplemented with organic amendments (cellulose or cattail leaves) mineralized only 2-3% of 14C ethyl atrazine, and extractable atrazine and its common metabolites comprised approximately 70% of the original application. The population density of atrazine-degrading microorganisms in unbioaugmented sediment was increased from approximately 10(2)/g to 10(4)/g by bioaugmentation (1:100 w/w), and increased by another 60-fold (6.0x10(5) g(-1)) after incubation with 10 microg g(-1) of atrazine. A high population of atrazine degraders (approximately 10(6) g(-1)) and enhanced rates of atrazine mineralization also developed in bioaugmented sediment after incubation in flooded mesocosms planted with cattails (Typha latifolia) and supplemented with atrazine (3.2 mg l(-1), 1 microg g(-1) sediment). In the absence of atrazine, neither the population of atrazine degraders, nor the atrazine mineralizing potential of bioaugmented sediment increased, regardless of the presence or absence of cattails. Bioaugmentation might be a simple method to promote pesticide degradation in nursery run-off channeled through constructed wetlands, if persistence of degraders in the absence of pesticide is not a serious constraint.

  4. Vertical variation of atrazine mineralization capacity in soils Variación vertical de la capacidad de mineralización de atrazina en suelos

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    S. Hang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The variation of atrazine mineralization capacity was investigated in two soil profiles selected with (adapted soil and without (non-adapted soil atrazine application history in Córdoba, Argentina. Atrazine evolution was characterized by balance of 14C-U-ring atrazine radioactivity between mineralized, extractable and non-extractable fractions by means of incubations under laboratory conditions in two soil situations: with dry heat treatment (T105 and without heat treatment (Control. The strong decrease of atrazine mineralization after microbial inactivation during all the incubation period in adapted soil suggests that the atrazine degraders were distributed throughout the entire adapted soil profile and were responsible for atrazine mineralization in subsurface horizons. In the non-adapted soil profile, the cometabolic process of mineralizing atrazine was corroborated. The atrazine mineralization capacity of subsurface horizons, where herbicide accumulation increases, should be considered and stimulated as a mechanism for the natural bioremediation of soils with frequent atrazine application.Se estudió la variación de la capacidad de mineralización de atrazina en dos suelos de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina. Se seleccionaron dos perfiles de suelos con (suelo adaptado y sin (suelo no adaptado historia de aplicación de atrazina. La evolución de atrazina fue caracterizada mediante el balance de la radioactividad del 14C del anillo triazínico identificando las fracciones mineralizada, extractable y no extractable, durante incubaciones en condiciones de laboratorio con suelo tratado con calor (T105 y sin él (Control. La disminución de la capacidad de degradación de atrazina después de la inactivación microbiana y la limitada recuperación de esa capacidad observada en el perfil de suelo adaptado sugirió que los microorganismos degradadores de atrazina estarían distribuidos en todo el perfil siendo los responsables de la

  5. Atrazine removal in Danish anaerobic aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Grinder; Arildskov, N.P.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    process was abiotic since atrazine was also removed from microbially inhibited autoclaved and chloroform amended controls, although in controls amended with mercury, atrazine removal was slowed down. (ring-U-C-14)- atrazine amended samples showed no mineralization to (CO2)-C-14 or transformation...

  6. Laboratory degradation studies of 14C-atrazine and -isoproturon in soil from sugarcane cultivated fields under Kenyan tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getenga, Z M; Dörfler, U; Schroll, R

    2009-06-01

    A study to compare the degradation rates of atrazine (6-chloro-N(2)-ethyl-N(4)-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diammine) and isoproturon [3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] in soils from sugarcane fields with different practices of herbicides application was carried out. (14)C-atrazine was poorly mineralized to (14)CO(2) (1.10% +/- 0.22%) after 139 days of incubation in soil without previous exposure to atrazine. In the same soil also with no previous isoproturon exposure isoproturon was mineralized to (14)CO(2) by 7.70% +/- 0.94%. Atrazine mineralization after 98 days was 13.4% +/- 0.30% in soil which discontinued the use of atrazine in 1997 while it was 89.9% +/- 1.23% in soil in which atrazine is currently being used. The isoproturon mineralization values were 7.24% +/- 0.85% and 22.97% +/- 0.96% in soil which discontinued atrazine and soil currently using atrazine, respectively.

  7. Atrazine is not readily mineralised in 24 temperate soils regardless of pre-exposure to triazine herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaesner, Nadia; Baelum, Jacob; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2010-01-01

    Mineralisation of atrazine in soil has been shown to depend on previous exposure of the herbicide. In this study, 24 Danish soils were collected and screened for potential to mineralise atrazine. Six soils were chosen, because they had never been exposed to atrazine, whereas 18 soils were chosen because of their history of application of atrazine or the related compound terbuthylazine. None of the 24 soils revealed a mineralisation potential of more than 4% of the added atrazine within a 60 day timeframe. In an atrazine adapted French soil, we found 60% mineralisation of atrazine in 30 days. Cattle manure was applied in order to boost the microbial activity, and a 2-3% increase in the atrazine mineralisation was found in some of the temperate soils, while in the highly adapted French soil it caused a 5% reduction. - The study highlights that pre-exposure of soils to triazine herbicides do not result in rapid mineralization in temperate soils.

  8. Preparation of Bio-beads and Their Atrazine Degradation Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Hai-tao; ZHANG Lan-ying; LIU Na; ZHU Bo-lin

    2011-01-01

    Screened atrazine-mineralizing bacterium-Pseudomonas W4 was embedded inside an improved PVAH3BO3 embedment matrix to make bio-beads to degrade atrazine. The atrazine degradation characteristics were studied. The preparation procedure of bio-beads was as follows: (1) preparing a mixture of 100, 12.5, 10, 1.5 and 1 g/L PVA, bentonite(Ca), activated carbon powder, sodium alginate and centrifuged Pseudomonas W4 bacterium, respectively; (2) the mixture was dropped into a gently stirred cross linker solution(pH=6.7) and cured at 10 ℃ for 24 h.The optimal atrazine degradation conditions by bio-beads were as follows: pH=7, the auxiliary carbon source was glucose, and the concentration of glucose was greater than 325 mg/L. The bio-beads demonstrated stronger tolerance ability than the free microorganism to the increase of PCBs, hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion. SEM images show the uniform distribution of the microorganism inside bio-beads and the porous cross-linked structure of bio-beads which provides excellent mass transfer capacity.

  9. Effect of compost age and composition on the atrazine removal from solution

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    Tsui, L.; Roy, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    Compost samples from two composting facilities, the Urbana (Illinois) Landscape Recycling Center (ULRC) and Illinois State University (ISU), were selected to examine the effect of compost age on atrazine removal from solution. The ULRC samples were made from yard waste without an additional nitrogen source. The ISU samples were made from yard waste or sawdust with the addition of manure. The 6-month-old ULRC compost had the greater capacity to remove atrazine from solution, which we attributed to its greater organic carbon content. The addition of nitrate into ULRC compost could influence the extent of atrazine removal, but did not have a significant impact on atrazine removal when applied to ISU compost, probably because manure was added to the yard waste to produce the compost. For both ULRC and ISU samples, the presence of sodium azide inhibited atrazine removal, suggesting that microbial activity contributed to the atrazine removal. Metabolic analysis demonstrated that hydroxyatrazine was the major identified metabolite that accumulated in solution before significant ring mineralization could occur. When compared with the ISU compost, the ULRC compost sample had a greater capacity to remove atrazine from solution during the 120 days of study because of the larger humic acid content. The experimental results suggested that less-mature compost may be better suited for environmental applications such as removing atrazine from tile-drainage waters. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of compost age and composition on the atrazine removal from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Lo; Roy, William R

    2007-01-02

    Compost samples from two composting facilities, the Urbana (Illinois) Landscape Recycling Center (ULRC) and Illinois State University (ISU), were selected to examine the effect of compost age on atrazine removal from solution. The ULRC samples were made from yard waste without an additional nitrogen source. The ISU samples were made from yard waste or sawdust with the addition of manure. The 6-month-old ULRC compost had the greater capacity to remove atrazine from solution, which we attributed to its greater organic carbon content. The addition of nitrate into ULRC compost could influence the extent of atrazine removal, but did not have a significant impact on atrazine removal when applied to ISU compost, probably because manure was added to the yard waste to produce the compost. For both ULRC and ISU samples, the presence of sodium azide inhibited atrazine removal, suggesting that microbial activity contributed to the atrazine removal. Metabolic analysis demonstrated that hydroxyatrazine was the major identified metabolite that accumulated in solution before significant ring mineralization could occur. When compared with the ISU compost, the ULRC compost sample had a greater capacity to remove atrazine from solution during the 120 days of study because of the larger humic acid content. The experimental results suggested that less-mature compost may be better suited for environmental applications such as removing atrazine from tile-drainage waters.

  11. Treatment of atrazine in nursery irrigation runoff by a constructed wetland.

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    Runes, Heather B; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Moore, James A; Bottomley, Peter J; Wilson, Bruce D

    2003-02-01

    To investigate the treatment capability of a surface flow wetland at a container nursery near Portland, Oregon, atrazine was introduced during simulated runoff events. Treatment efficiency was evaluated as the percent atrazine recovered (as percent of applied) in the water column at the wetland's outlet. Atrazine treatment efficiency at the outlet of the constructed wetland during a 7-d period ranged from 18-24% in 1998 (experiments 1-3) and 16-17% in 1999 (experiments 4 and 5). Changes in total flow, or frequency and intensity of runoff events did not affect treatment. For experiment 6 in 1999, where the amount, frequency, and duration of runoff events exceeded all other experiments, treatment was compromised. For all experiments, deethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA) accounted for 13-21% of the initial application. Hydroxyatrazine (HA) was rarely detected in the water. Organic carbon adsorption coefficients (Koc) were determined from batch equilibrium sorption isotherms with wetland sediment, and they decreased in the order of HA > DIA > atrazine > DEA. Static water-sediment column experiments indicated that sorption is an important mechanism for atrazine loss from water passing through the constructed wetland. The results of the MPN assay indicated the existence in the wetland of a low-density population of microorganisms with the potential to mineralize atrazine's ethyl side chain.

  12. Combined soil washing and CDEO for the removal of atrazine from soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira dos Santos, Elisama [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova CEP 59078-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Sáez, Cristina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla – La Mancha, Enrique Costa Building, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova CEP 59078-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel Andres [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla – La Mancha, Enrique Costa Building, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Sequential soil washing-waste electrolysis is an efficient treatment for removing atrazine. • Ratio surfactant/soil influences on the size of micelles and organic load. • Electrolysis with diamond anodes oxidizes pollutants from soils washing wastes. • Electrolysis of soil washing fluids promotes the reduction in size of micelles. • Sulphate ions release from the oxidation of SDS participates in the oxidation process. - Abstract: In this work, it is studied the removal of atrazine from spiked soils by soil washing using surfactant fluids, followed by the treatment of the resulting washing waste by electrolysis with boron doped diamond (BDD) anode. Results confirm that combination of both technologies is efficient for the removal and total mineralization of atrazine. Ratio surfactant/soil is a key parameter for the removal of atrazine from soil and influences significantly in the characteristic of the wastewater produced, affecting not only to the total organic load but also to the mean size of micelles. The higher the ratio surfactant soil, the lower is the size of the particles. Electrolyses of this type of waste attain the complete mineralization. TOC and COD are removed from the start of the treatment but the key of the treatment is the reduction in size of the micelles, which lead to a higher negative charge in the surface and to the faster depletion of the surfactant as compared with the pesticide.

  13. Enzymatic vegetable organic extracts as soil biochemical biostimulants and atrazine extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Ana María; Tejada, Manuel; Díaz, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Bautista, Juan; Parrado, Juan

    2010-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to gather information on the potential effects of organic biostimulants on soil activity and atrazine biodegradation. Carob germ enzymatic extract (CGEE) and wheat condensed distiller solubles enzymatic extract (WCDS-EE) have been obtained using an enzymatic process; their main organic components are soluble carbohydrates and proteins in the form of peptides and free amino acids. Their application to soil results in high biostimulation, rapidly increased dehydrogenase, phosphatase and glucosidase activities, and an observed atrazine extender capacity due to inhibition of its mineralization. The extender capacity of both extracts is proportional to the protein/carbohydrate ratio content. As a result, these enzymatic extracts are highly microbially available, leading to two independent phenomena, fertility and an atrazine persistence that is linked to increased soil activity.

  14. Assessing the phytoremediation potential of crop and grass plants for atrazine-spiked soils.

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    Sánchez, Virtudes; López-Bellido, Francisco Javier; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodríguez, Luis

    2017-10-01

    Pollution of soil and groundwater by atrazine has become an increasing environmental concern in the last decade. A phytoremediation test using plastic pots was conducted in order to assess the ability of several crops and grasses to remove atrazine from a soil of low permeability spiked with this herbicide. Four plant species were assessed for their ability to degrade or accumulate atrazine from soils: two grasses, i.e., ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), and two crops, i.e., barley (Hordeum vulgare) and maize (Zea mays). Three different doses of atrazine were used for the contamination of the pots: 2, 5 and 10 mg kg -1 . 16 days after spiking, the initial amount of atrazine was reduced by 88.6-99.6% in planted pots, while a decrease of only 63.1-78.2% was found for the unplanted pots, thus showing the contribution of plants to soil decontamination. All the plant species were capable of accumulating atrazine and its N-dealkylated metabolites, i.e., deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, in their tissues. Some toxic responses, such as biomass decreases and/or chlorosis, were observed in plants to a greater or lesser extent for initial soil doses of atrazine above 2 mg kg -1 . Maize was the plant species with the highest ability to accumulate atrazine derivatives, reaching up to 38.4% of the initial atrazine added to the soil. Rhizosphere degradation/mineralization by microorganisms or plant enzymes, together with degradation inside the plants, have been proposed as the mechanisms that contributed to a higher extent than plant accumulation to explain the removal of atrazine from soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of smectite hydration and swelling on atrazine sorption behavior.

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    Chappell, Mark A; Laird, David A; Thompson, Michael L; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J; Aggarwal, Vaneet; Johnston, Cliff T; Boyd, Stephen A

    2005-05-01

    Smectites, clay minerals commonly found in soils and sediments, vary widely in their ability to adsorb organic chemicals. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of surface charge density and properties of exchangeable cations in controlling the affinity of smectites for organic molecules. In this study, we induced hysteresis in the crystalline swelling of smectites to test the hypothesis that the extent of crystalline swelling (or interlayer hydration status) has a large influence on the ability of smectites to adsorb atrazine from aqueous systems. Air-dried K-saturated Panther Creek (PC) smectite swelled less (d(001) = 1.38 nm) than never-dried K-PC (d(001) = 1.7 nm) when rehydrated in 20 mM KCl. Correspondingly, the air-dried-rehydrated K-PC had an order of magnitude greater affinity for atrazine relative to the never-dried K-PC. Both air-dried-rehydrated and never-dried Ca-PC expanded to approximately 2.0 nm in 10 mM CaCl2 and both samples had similar affinities for atrazine that were slightly lower than that of never-dried K-PC. The importance of interlayer hydration status in controlling sorption affinity was confirmed by molecular modeling, which revealed much greater interaction between interlayer water molecules and atrazine in a three-layer hydrate relative to a one-layer hydrate. The entropy change on moving atrazine from a fully hydrated state in the bulk solution to a partially hydrated state in the smectite interlayers is believed to be a major factor influencing sorption affinity. In an application test, choice of background solution (20 mM KCl versus 10 mM CaCl2) and air-drying treatments significantly affected atrazine sorption affinities for three-smectitic soils; however, the trends were not consistent with those observed for the reference smectite. Further, extending the initial rehydration time from 24 to 240 h (prior to adding atrazine) significantly decreased the soil's sorption affinity for atrazine. We conclude that interlayer

  16. Atrazine remediation in wetland microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runes, H B; Bottomley, P J; Lerch, R N; Jenkins, J J

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory wetland microcosms were used to study treatment of atrazine in irrigation runoff by a field-scale-constructed wetland under controlled conditions. Three experiments, in which 1 ppm atrazine was added to the water column of three wetland, one soil control, and one water control microcosm, were conducted. Atrazine dissipation from the water column and degradate formation (deethylatrazine [DEA]; deisopropylatrazine [DIA]; and hydroxyatrazine [HA]) were monitored. Atrazine dissipation from the water column of wetland microcosms was biphasic. Less than 12% of the atrazine applied to wetland microcosms remained in the water column on day 56. Atrazine degradates were observed in water and sediment, with HA the predominant degradate. Analysis of day 56 sediment samples indicated that a significant portion of the initial application was detected as the parent compound and HA. Most probable number (MPN) assays demonstrated that atrazine degrader populations were small in wetland sediment. Wetland microcosms were able to reduce atrazine concentration in the water column via sorption and degradation. Based on results from this study, it is hypothesized that plant uptake contributed to atrazine dissipation from the water column.

  17. Soil mesocosm studies on atrazine bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarkar, Sneha; Nousiainen, Aura; Shaligram, Shraddha; Björklöf, Katarina; Lindström, Kristina; Jørgensen, Kirsten S; Kapley, Atya

    2014-06-15

    Accumulation of pesticides in the environment causes serious issues of contamination and toxicity. Bioremediation is an ecologically sound method to manage soil pollution, but the bottleneck here, is the successful scale-up of lab-scale experiments to field applications. This study demonstrates pilot-scale bioremediation in tropical soil using atrazine as model pollutant. Mimicking field conditions, three different bioremediation strategies for atrazine degradation were explored. 100 kg soil mesocosms were set-up, with or without atrazine application history. Natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation were tested, where augmentation with an atrazine degrading consortium demonstrated best pollutant removal. 90% atrazine degradation was observed in six days in soil previously exposed to atrazine, while soil without history of atrazine use, needed 15 days to remove the same amount of amended atrazine. The bacterial consortium comprised of 3 novel bacterial strains with different genetic atrazine degrading potential. The progress of bioremediation was monitored by measuring the levels of atrazine and its intermediate, cyanuric acid. Genes from the atrazine degradation pathway, namely, atzA, atzB, atzD, trzN and trzD were quantified in all mesocosms for 60 days. The highest abundance of all target genes was observed on the 6th day of treatment. trzD was observed in the bioaugmented mesocosms only. The bacterial community profile in all mesocosms was monitored by LH-PCR over a period of two months. Results indicate that the communities changed rapidly after inoculation, but there was no drastic change in microbial community profile after 1 month. Results indicated that efficient bioremediation of atrazine using a microbial consortium could be successfully up-scaled to pilot scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rate of atrazine mineralisation in New Zealand topsoils and subsoils depends on numbers of specialist atrazine-degrading microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparling, G.; Fraser, R.; Aislabie, J.; Dragten, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-s-triazine) is widely used in horticulture and arable farming in New Zealand and there is a trend towards increasing concentrations in aquifers and ground waters. Microbial degradation is considered a major route whereby atrazine is decomposed in soil. Microbial activity declines rapidly with depth of soil, so to predict the risks of atrazine reaching aquifers, we need to know the rates of mineralisation at different depths in the soil profile. We measured the rates of mineralisation of [U] 14 C-ring-labelled atrazine in topsoils and subsoils of two sandy loam soils and an allophanic soil under a range of temperature and moisture conditions. The numbers of atrazine-degrading organisms were measured using a most-probable number method based on the mineralisation of [U] 14 C-ring-labelled atrazine to 14 CO 2 . Numbers of atrazine-degraders and rates of mineralisation were generally very low in subsoils. However, one subsoil had unusually high numbers of atrazine-degrading microbes and showed equivalent rates of mineralisation rates to those in the surface soil. The rate of atrazine mineralisation could be predicted from the number of atrazine-degrading microbes and the cation exchange capacity of the soil (R 2 = 0.86). A large amount (54-77%) of 14 C remained in the soil as non-extractable residues after 263 days but only trace amounts of atrazine were detectable

  19. Effects of Atrazine on Soil Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the herbicide atrazine on soil microorganisms was investigated. Trials were set up in laboratory, on a clay loam soil. Atrazine was applied at 8.0, 40.0 and 80.0 mg/kg soil rates. The abundance of total microorganisms, fungi, actinomycetes, cellulolytic microorganisms and amino-heterotrophs was recorded. Soil samples were collected 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days after atrazine treatment for microbiological analyses.The results showed that the intensity of atrazine effect on soil microorganisms depended on treatment rate, exposure time and group of microorganisms. Atrazine had an inhibiting effect on cellulolytic microorganisms and amino-heterotrophs. Initially, it inhibited fungiand actinomycetes but its effect turned into a stimulating one once a population recovered. Atrazine had a stimulating effect on total abundance of microorganisms.

  20. Atrazine sorption by hydroxy-interlayered clays and their organic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraratne, Srimathie P; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Goh, Tee Boon

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the sorption of atrazine by hydroxy-Fe interlayered montmorillonite (FeMt) and its hydroquinone (FeMtHQ), citrate (FeMtCt) and catechol (FeMtCC) complexes as well as by hydroxy-Al interlayered montmorillonite (AlMt) and its hydroquinone (AlMtHQ) and citrate (AlMtCt) complexes. Found among the clays were sorption distribution coefficients (K(d)) ranging from 24 to 123 mL g(-1) and maximum sorption (M) ranging from 2.2 to 16.8 microg g(-1). Both K(d) and M decreased in the order of FeMtCC > FeMtHQ > AlMtHQ > (AlMt = FeMt) > (AlMtCt = FeMtCt). The pH was negatively correlated with both K(d) (r = -0.90, p 0.96, p 0.94, p AlMt). This suggests that functional groups of Fe-OH and Al-OH in FeMt and AlMt reduced the available sorption sites for atrazine by making complexes with citrate ions while forming FeMtCt and AlMtCt. The atrazine was sorbed through the hydrophobic interactions with organic compound surfaces as well as through H-bonding and ionic bonding with clay-mineral surfaces.

  1. Impact of repeated long term application of atrazine on soil properties and bound residues formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behki, R.; Khan, S.U.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of repeated long term application of the herbicide atrazine on the activities of microorganisms, enzymes, as well as on the bound residues formation, was investigated. Bacteria, fungi and soil respiration were in general inhibited in the first year of application. However, in the second and third year no such trend was observed. Similarly, a decreasing trend in the Fe(III)-reduction, nitrification and arginine deamination was observed in the first year whereas in the subsequent two years no such trend was prominent. The dehydrogenase and arylsulfatase activities showed an increasing trend after the application of the herbicide. Column studies showed that extractable residues of atrazine and carbofuran gradually decreased after the application of the pesticides. Amendments of the soil containing 14 C-bound residues did not increase 14 CO 2 evolution. Unextractable 14 C was higher and mineralization of 14 C-2,4-D was lower in previously untreated soil than in soils with histories of atrazine and carbofuran application. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Crops Sensitivity to Atrazine Soil Residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the sensitivity of 9 crops to atrazine soil residual, two separate experiments were conducted in field and greenhouse conditions. First experiment was conducted in a field with treated soil by atrazine based on split plot and the results evaluated in greenhouse conditions. Treatments in the field experiment included two organic manure application rates (0 and 50 t/ha as main plots and 2 atrazine application rates (2 and 4 kg/ha atrazine a.i. as sob plots. After corn harvesting soil was sampled at 0-15 cm surface layer in each plots in 15 points, after mixing the samples. Wheat, barley, sugar beet, pea, lens and colza planted in pots at greenhouse. Second experiment conducted in greenhouse conditions for evaluation of atrazine soil residual in completely randomized design. Treatments included atrazine soil residual concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg soil and crops included wheat, barley, sugar beet, pea, lens, rape, bean and tomato. Results showed that atrazine residue had no effect on crops growth in field experiment treated with atrazine. It seems that atrazine residue in filed soil is lower that its damage threshold for crops or maybe for its fast removal in field than in control conditions. But in bioassay experiment (greenhouse experiment crops response to atrazine residues were different. Results showed that onion and pea were most susceptible ant tolerant crops between studied species and based of ED50 parameter the other crops tolerance to total residue ranked as: pea< bean< lentil< sugar beet< tomato< barley< wheat< rape< onion. Keywords: Atrazine residue, Pea, Bean, Lentil, Sugar beet, Barley, Wheat, Rape, Tomato

  3. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus caledonium) on the accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize (Zea mays L.) and atrazine dissipation in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Honglin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: szzhang@mail.rcees.ac.cn; Shan Xiaoquan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Chen Baodong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, 18th Shuangqinglu, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Bell, J. Nigel B. [Center for Environmental Policy, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus caledonium) on accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize grown in soil contaminated with different concentrations of atrazine were investigated in a series of pot experiments. Roots of mycorrhizal plants accumulated more atrazine than non-mycorrhizal roots. In contrast, atrazine accumulation in shoot decreased in mycorrhizal compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. No atrazine derivatives were detected in the soil, either with or without mycorrhizal colonization. However, atrazine metabolites, deethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA), were detected in plant roots and the AM colonization enhanced the metabolism. After plant harvest atrazine concentrations decreased markedly in the soils compared to the initial concentrations. The decreases were the most in rhizosphere soil and then near-rhizosphere soil and the least in bulk soil. Mycorrhizal treatment enhanced atrazine dissipation in the near-rhizosphere and bulk soils irrespective of atrazine application rates. - Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus increases the accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize.

  4. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus caledonium) on the accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize (Zea mays L.) and atrazine dissipation in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Honglin; Zhang Shuzhen; Shan Xiaoquan; Chen Baodong; Zhu Yongguan; Bell, J. Nigel B.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus caledonium) on accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize grown in soil contaminated with different concentrations of atrazine were investigated in a series of pot experiments. Roots of mycorrhizal plants accumulated more atrazine than non-mycorrhizal roots. In contrast, atrazine accumulation in shoot decreased in mycorrhizal compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. No atrazine derivatives were detected in the soil, either with or without mycorrhizal colonization. However, atrazine metabolites, deethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA), were detected in plant roots and the AM colonization enhanced the metabolism. After plant harvest atrazine concentrations decreased markedly in the soils compared to the initial concentrations. The decreases were the most in rhizosphere soil and then near-rhizosphere soil and the least in bulk soil. Mycorrhizal treatment enhanced atrazine dissipation in the near-rhizosphere and bulk soils irrespective of atrazine application rates. - Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus increases the accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize

  5. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  6. Label-free impedimetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of atrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionescu, Rodica E. [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire de Sciences Analytiques, UMR CNRS 5180, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Batiment CPE, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Gondran, Chantal; Bouffier, Laurent [Departement de Chimie Moleculaire, UMR CNRS 5250, ICMG FR CNRS 2607, Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.jaffrezic@univ-lyon1.f [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire de Sciences Analytiques, UMR CNRS 5180, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Batiment CPE, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Martelet, Claude [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire de Sciences Analytiques, UMR CNRS 5180, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Batiment CPE, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Cosnier, Serge, E-mail: serge.cosnier@ujf-grenoble.f [Departement de Chimie Moleculaire, UMR CNRS 5250, ICMG FR CNRS 2607, Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-08-30

    Impedance spectroscopy transduction combined with the immunosensor technology has been used for the determination of atrazine, a herbicide The sensor electrode was based on the immobilization of anti-atrazine antibody by affinity binding onto a polypyrrole film N-substituted by nitrilotriacetic acid NTA electrogenerated on a gold electrode. The poly NTA film was previously modified by the coordination of Cu2 ions by the chelating NTA centers. The anti-atrazine antibody Fab fragment K47 modified with histidine-tag was then anchored by affinity interactions between the histidine-tag and the coordinated Cu2. Cyclic voltammetry experiments confirm that the antibody immobilization and the resulting immunosensor were applied to the impedimetric detection of atrazine without reagent and labelling step. The immunoreaction of atrazine on the attached anti-atrazine antibody directly triggers an increase in the charge transfer resistance proportional to the atrazine concentration, allowing the detection of extremely low atrazine concentration, namely 10 pg mL{sup -1}.

  7. Effects of atrazine on endocrinology and physiology in juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Hook, Sharon E; Jones, Dean; Metcalfe, Suzanne; Osborn, Hannah L

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to certain environmental contaminants such as agricultural pesticides can alter normal endocrine and reproductive parameters in wild fish populations. Recent studies have found widespread pesticide contamination across the rivers that discharge into the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Potential impacts on native fish species exposed to known endocrine disrupting chemicals such as atrazine, simazine, and diuron have not been assessed. In the present study, the authors examined the endocrine and physiological effects of short-term, acute exposure of environmentally relevant concentrations of analytical grade atrazine in juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer) in a controlled laboratory experiment. Expression of hepatic vitellogenin was not affected, supporting results of previous studies that showed that atrazine does not have a direct estrogenic effect via mediation of estrogen receptors. The lack of effect on brain cytochrome P19B (CYP19B) expression levels, combined with increases in testosterone (T) and 17β estradiol and a stable T:17β estradiol ratio, does not support the hypothesis that atrazine has an indirect estrogenic effect via modulation of aromatase expression. Gill ventilation rate, a measure of oxidative stress, did not change in contrast to other studies finding enhanced osmoregulatory disturbance and gill histopathology after atrazine exposure. To more closely reflect field conditions, the authors recommend that laboratory studies should focus more on examining the effects of commercial pesticide formulations that contain additional ingredients that have been found to be disruptive to endocrine function. © 2014 SETAC.

  8. Atrazine distribution measured in soil and leachate following infiltration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, Susan K; Sadeghi, Ali M; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Isensee, Allan R; Torrents, Alba

    2004-01-01

    Atrazine transport through packed 10 cm soil columns representative of the 0-10 cm soil horizon was observed by measuring the atrazine recovery in the total leachate volume, and upper and lower soil layers following infiltration of 7.5 cm water using a mechanical vacuum extractor (MVE). Measured recoveries were analyzed to understand the influence of infiltration rate and delay time on atrazine transport and distribution in the column. Four time periods (0.28, 0.8, 1.8, and 5.5 h) representing very high to moderate infiltration rates (26.8, 9.4, 4.2, and 1.4 cm/h) were used. Replicate soil columns were tested immediately and following a 2-d delay after atrazine application. Results indicate atrazine recovery in leachate was independent of infiltration rate, but significantly lower for infiltration following a 2-d delay. Atrazine distribution in the 0-1 and 9-10 cm soil layers was affected by both infiltration rate and delay. These results are in contrast with previous field and laboratory studies that suggest that atrazine recovery in the leachate increases with increasing infiltration rate. It appears that the difference in atrazine recovery measured using the MVE and other leaching experiments using intact soil cores from this field site and the rain simulation equipment probably illustrates the effect of infiltrating water interacting with the atrazine present on the soil surface. This work suggests that atrazine mobilization from the soil surface is also dependent on interactions of the infiltrating water with the soil surface, in addition to the rate of infiltration through the surface soil.

  9. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE AND AN ATRAZINE METABOLITE MIXTURE ON DIFFERENTIATED MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL MILK PROTEIN PRODUCTION IN CULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Atrazine and an Atrazine Metabolite Mixture on Differentiated Mammary Epithelial Cell Milk Protein Production in CultureE.P. Hines, R. Barbee, M. Blanton, M.S. Pooler, and S.E. Fenton. US EPA, ORD/NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC, 27711, USA.Previous studies have ...

  10. Effects of atrazine on embryos, larvae, and adults of anuran amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allran, J W; Karasov, W H

    2001-04-01

    We examined the effects of atrazine (0-20 mg/L) on embryos, larvae, and adult anuran amphibian species in the laboratory. Atrazine treatments did not affect hatchability of embryos or 96-h posthatch mortality of larvae of Rana pipiens, Rana sylvatica, or Bufo americanus. Furthermore, atrazine had no effect on swimming speed (measured for R. pipiens only). However, there was a dose-dependent increase in deformed larvae of all three species with increasing atrazine concentration. In adult R. pipiens, atrazine increased buccal and thoracic ventilation, indicating respiratory distress. However, because atrazine had no affect on hemoglobin, this respiratory distress was probably not indicative of reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Frogs exposed to the highest atrazine concentration stopped eating immediately after treatment began and did not eat during the 14-d experiment. However, no decreases in mass were measured even for frogs that were not eating, probably because of compensatory fluid gain from edema. Atrazine concentrations found to be deleterious to amphibian embryos and adults are considerably higher than concentrations currently found in surface waters in North America. Therefore, direct toxicity of atrazine is probably not a significant factor in recent amphibian declines.

  11. 2004 National Atrazine Occurrence Monitoring Program using the Abraxis ELISA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Nicole; McGuire, Michael J; Roberson, Alan; Adams, Craig; Jiang, Hua; Blute, Nicole

    2006-02-15

    The goal of this project was to gain a better understanding of atrazine occurrence in the United States by surveying drinking water utilities' sources and finished water for atrazine on a weekly basis for seven months. Atrazine is a contaminant of interest because the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has found short-term atrazine exposure above the drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) to potentially cause heart, lung, and kidney congestion, low blood pressure, muscle spasms, weight loss, and damage to the adrenal glands. Long-term exposure to atrazine concentrations above the drinking water MCL has been linked to weight loss, cardiovascular damage, retinal and muscle degeneration, and cancer. This survey effort improved upon previously conducted atrazine surveys through intensive, high frequency sampling (participating plants sampled their raw and finished water on a weekly basis for approximately seven months). Such an intensive effort allowed the authors to gain a better understanding of short-term atrazine occurrence and its variability in drinking water sources. This information can benefit the drinking water industry by facilitating (1) better atrazine occurrence management (i.e., awareness when plants may be more susceptible to atrazine), (2) more efficient atrazine control (e.g., effective treatment alternatives and more effective response to atrazine occurrence), and (3) treatment cost reduction (e.g., efficient atrazine control can result in substantial cost savings). Forty-seven drinking watertreatment plants located primarily in the Midwestern United States participated in the survey and sampled their raw and finished water on a weekly basis from March through October. Samples were analyzed using the Abraxis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Confirmation samples for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) purposes were analyzed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography mass

  12. Adsorption-desorption behavior of atrazine on agricultural soils in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lin; Ge, ChengJun; Feng, Dan; Yu, Huamei; Deng, Hui; Fu, Bomin

    2017-07-01

    Adsorption and desorption are important processes that affect atrazine transport, transformation, and bioavailability in soils. In this study, the adsorption-desorption characteristics of atrazine in three soils (laterite, paddy soil and alluvial soil) were evaluated using the batch equilibrium method. The results showed that the kinetics of atrazine in soils was completed in two steps: a "fast" adsorption and a "slow" adsorption and could be well described by pseudo-second-order model. In addition, the adsorption equilibrium isotherms were nonlinear and were well fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir models. It was found that the adsorption data on laterite, and paddy soil were better fitted by the Freundlich model; as for alluvial soil, the Langmuir model described it better. The maximum atrazine sorption capacities ranked as follows: paddy soil>alluvial soil>laterite. Results of thermodynamic calculations indicated that atrazine adsorption on three tested soils was spontaneous and endothermic. The desorption data showed that negative hysteresis occurred. Furthermore, lower solution pH value was conducive to the adsorption of atrazine in soils. The atrazine adsorption in these three tested soils was controlled by physical adsorption, including partition and surface adsorption. At lower equilibrium concentration, the atrazine adsorption process in soils was dominated by surface adsorption; while with the increase of equilibrium concentration, partition was predominant. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Atrazine- tolerant native microorganisms isolated from agricultural soils in the department of Cordoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Oviedo Z

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify and evaluate atrazine tolerant native microorganisms isolated from a soil destined to the maize crop for ensiling, where this pesticide is usually used as preemergence. To determine their tolerance, they were subjected to growth at different concentrations of atrazine, different temperatures (30 ° C, 37 ° C and 40 ° C and pH (5.0, 6.0 and 9.0. The results show native strains that tolerated concentrations of 1000 ppm atrazine, identified as Pseudomonas sp (strain 1L1a, Pseudomona sp (strain 1L2, Streptomyces sp and Arthrobacterium sp, which show higher growth at 37 °C (7. 98E+06 CFU/mL, lower at 30 °C (3.63E+06 CFU/mL and tolerance at 40 °C (5.80E+06 CFU/mL. The strain Streptomyces sp reached its highest growth (4.73E+06 UFC/mL at pH 9.0, while Pseudomonas sp strain 1L1a (3.43E+06 UFC/mL, Arthrobacter sp (3.40E+06 UFC/mL and Pseudomonas sp strain 1L2a (2.63E+06 CFU/mL was at pH 6.0. All microorganisms showed sensitivity to pH 5.0. The growths reached at different temperatures and pH are in agreement with the adaptation to the tropical climate predominant in the region and related to the genus of microorganisms. The study indicates that the native strains are able to tolerate high concentrations of atrazine and to mineralize it in soils with low content of organic matter and nutrients.

  14. Spatial variability of atrazine dissipation in an allophanic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Karin; Smith, Roger E; James, Trevor K; Holland, Patrick T; Rahman, Anis

    2003-08-01

    The small-scale variability (0.5 m) of atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) concentrations and soil water contents in a volcanic silt loam soil (Haplic Andosol, FAO system) was studied in an area of 0.1 ha. Descriptive and spatial statistics were used to analyse the data. On average we recovered 102% of the applied atrazine 2 h after the herbicide application (CV = 35%). An increase in the CV of the concentrations with depth could be ascribed to a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Both variables, atrazine concentrations and soil water content, showed a high horizontal variability. The semivariograms of the atrazine concentrations exhibited the pure nugget effect, no pattern could be determined along the 15.5-m long transects on any of the seven sampling days over a 55-day period. Soil water content had a weak spatial autocorrelation with a range of 6-10 m. The dissipation of atrazine analysed using a high vertical sampling resolution of 0.02 m to 0.2 m showed that 70% of the applied atrazine persisted in the upper 0.02-m layer of the soil for 12 days. After 55 days and 410 mm of rainfall the centre of the pesticide mass was still at a soil depth of 0.021 m. The special characteristics of the soil (high organic carbon content, allophanic clay) had a strong influence on atrazine sorption and mobility. The mass recovery after 55 days was low. The laboratory degradation rate for atrazine, determined in a complementary incubation study and corrected for the actual field temperature using the Arrhenius equation, only accounted for about 35% of the losses that occurred in the field. Results suggest field degradation rates to be more changeable in time and much faster than under controlled conditions. Preferential flow is discussed as a component of the field transport process.

  15. Influence of lead on atrazine uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings from nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Hong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2005-01-01

    Atrazine is a widely used herbicide, and its persistence in soil and water causes environmental concerns. In the past, plant uptake processes are mainly investigated for single contaminants. However, in many cases, contaminants co-exist in environmental matrix, such as soil, and plant uptake of one contaminant may be influenced by its co-existing ones. The uptake of atrazine by rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) from nutrient solution through the roots was investigated in a solution culture, over an exposure period of 4 weeks. Atrazine accumulation in plant tissues was determined by gas chromatography, and lead was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. With different ratios of atrazine and Pb2+ concentrations in solution, the observed atrazine concentrations in shoots and roots varied significantly. In atrazine-Pb2+ mixture systems, the added Pb2+ either increased or decreased the concentrations or BCFs of atrazine in seedlings (relative to those without Pb2+), depending on the atrazine-Pb2+ ratio in nutrient solution. The enhanced atrazine uptake results presumably from atrazine-Pb2+ complex formation. The reduced atrazine uptake, which occurred mainly at high atrazine concentrations, is attributed to atrazine toxicity that inhibited seedling growth and transpiration. The formation of atrazine-Pb2+ complex both in the solution and within plant tissues may affect the accumulation of both contaminants by rice plants.

  16. Response of ligninolytic macrofungi to the herbicide atrazine: dose-response bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupul, Wilberth Chan; Abarca, Gabriela Heredia; Vázquez, Refugio Rodríguez; Salmones, Dulce; Hernández, Rigoberto Gaitán; Gutiérrez, Enrique Alarcón

    2014-01-01

    The effect of atrazine concentrations on mycelial growth and ligninolytic enzyme activities of eight native ligninolytic macrofungi isolated in Veracruz, México, were evaluated in a semi-solid culture medium. Inhibition of mycelial growth and growth rates were significantly affected (p=0.05) by atrazine concentrations (468, 937, 1875, and 3750 mg/l). In accordance with the median effective concentration (EC50), Pleurotus sp. strain 1 proved to be the most tolerant isolate to atrazine (EC50=2281.0 mg/l), although its enzyme activity was not the highest. Pycnoporus sanguineus strain 2, Daedalea elegans and Trametes maxima showed high laccase activity (62.7, 31.9, 29.3 U mg/protein, respectively) without atrazine (control); however, this activity significantly increased (p<0.05) (to 191.1, 83.5 and 120.6 U mg/protein, respectively) owing to the effect of atrazine (937 mg/l) in the culture medium. Pleurotus sp. strain 2 and Cymatoderma elegans significantly increased (p<0.05) their manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities under atrazine stress at 468 mg/l. The isolates with high EC50 (Pleurotus sp. strain 1) and high enzymatic activity (P. sanguineus strain 2 and T. maxima) could be considered for future studies on atrazine mycodegradation. Furthermore, this study confirms that atrazine can increase laccase and MnP activities in ligninolytic macrofungi. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. New aspects on atrazine biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Sene

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The world practice of using agrochemicals for long periods, in an indiscriminated and abusive way, has been a concern of the authorities involved in public health and sustainability of the natural resources, as a consequence of environmental contamination. Agrochemicals refer to a broad range of insecticides, fungicides and herbicides, and among them stands out atrazine, a herbicide intensively used in sugarcane, corn and sorghum cultures, among others. Researches have demonstrated that atrazine has toxic effects in algae, aquatic plants, aquatic insects, fishes and mammals. Due to the toxicity and persistence of atrazine in the environment, the search of microbial strains capable of degrading it is fundamental to the development of bioremediation processes, as corrective tools to solve the current problems of the irrational use of agrochemicals. This review relates the main microbial aspects and research on atrazine degradation by isolated microbial species and microbial consortia, as well as approaches on the development of techniques for microbial removal of atrazine in natural environments.A prática mundial do uso de agroquímicos por períodos extensos, de maneira indiscriminada e abusiva, tem mobilizado as autoridades envolvidas em saúde pública e sustentabilidade de fontes naturais, como uma conseqüência da contaminação ambiental. Agroquímicos referem-se a uma ampla variedade de inseticidas, fungicidas e herbicidas, entre estes a atrazina, um herbicida intensivamente usado em culturas de cana-de-açúcar, milho, sorgo, entre outros. Pesquisadores têm demonstrado que a atrazina tem efeitos tóxicos em algas, plantas aquáticas, insetos aquáticos, peixes e mamíferos. Devido à toxicidade e à persistência da atrazina no ambiente, a busca de linhagens microbianas capazes de degradá-la é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de processos de biorremediação, com uma ferramenta corretiva para solucionar problemas decorridos do uso

  18. Uptake of C14-atrazine by prairie grasses in a phytoremediation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrunyk, Yuliya; Schiewer, Silke; Carstens, Keri L; Hu, Dingfei; Coats, Joel R

    2017-02-01

    Agrochemicals significantly contribute to environmental pollution. In the USA, atrazine is a widely used pesticide and commonly found in rivers, water systems, and rural wells. Phytoremediation can be a cost-effective means of removing pesticides from soil. The objective of this project was to investigate the ability of prairie grasses to remove atrazine. 14 C-labeled atrazine was added to sterilized sand and water/nutrient cultures, and the analysis was performed after 21 days. Switchgrass and big bluestem were promising species for phytoremediation, taking up about 40% of the applied [ 14 C] in liquid hydroponic cultures, and between 20% and 33% in sand cultures. Yellow Indiangrass showed low resistance to atrazine toxicity and low uptake of [ 14 C] atrazine in liquid hydroponic cultures. Atrazine degradation increased progressively from sand to roots and leaves. Most atrazine taken up by prairie grasses from sand culture was degraded to metabolites, which accounted for 60-80% of [ 14 C] detected in leaves. Deisopropylatrazine (DIA) was the main metabolite detected in sand and roots, whereas in leaves further metabolism took place, forming increased amounts of didealkylatrazine (DDA) and an unidentified metabolite. In conclusion, prairie grasses achieved high atrazine removal and degradation, showing a high potential for phytoremediation.

  19. Antibody conjugated glycine doped polyaniline nanofilms as efficient biosensor for atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K.; Sharma, Amit L.; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash

    2017-12-01

    Atrazine is an important member of triazine family of pesticides. The development of its detection methods gained great attention due to the potential health risks associated with its contamination in various media including water, soil, and food. The contamination of atrazine in drinking water beyond the legal permissible limit of EPA (e.g. 3 ng ml-1) may cause various damages to living organisms (e.g. heart, urinary, and limb defects). In this research, we discuss the potential significance of a highly sensitive conductometric immunosensor for sensing the atrazine pesticide. To this end, electrochemical assembly of glycine doped polyaniline (PAni) nanofilms on silicon (Si) substrate was built and modified further with anti-atrazine antibodies. The herein developed immunosensor offered highly sensitive detection of atrazine with a low detection limit of 0.07 ng ml-1. The proposed biosensor was simple in design with excellent performance in terms of its sensitivity, stability and specificity. Highlights •Glycine doped PAni nanofilms have been electropolymerized on Silicon substrates. •Functionality of the above thin films provides opportunity to develop an immunosensing platform. •Highly sensitive and specific detection of atrazine has been realized over a wide concentration range with a LOD of 0.07 ng ml-1. Novelty statement Atrazine is a widely used pesticide in the agriculture sector. It is highly recommended to develop simple biosensing systems for enabling the prospect of routine monitoring. The present research for the first time proposes the design of a glycine doped PAni based simple and highly effective biosensor for the atrazine pesticide. The doping of glycine has easily generated functional groups on the nano-PAni material for further convenient immobilization of anti-atrazine antibodies. The proposed sensor can be highlighted with advantages like ease of fabrication, use of environment friendly functionalization agent, specificity, wide

  20. Atrazine acts as an endocrine disrupter by inhibiting cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucka, Marek; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Fa, Svetlana; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Kovacevic, Radmila

    2012-01-01

    Atrazine, one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide, acts as an endocrine disruptor, but the mechanism of its action has not been characterized. In this study, we show that atrazine rapidly increases cAMP levels in cultured rat pituitary and testicular Leydig cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but less effectively than 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, a competitive non-specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In forskolin (an activator of adenylyl cyclase)- and probenecid (an inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide transporters)-treated cells, but not in 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine-treated cells, atrazine further increased cAMP levels, indicating that inhibition of PDEs accounts for accumulation of cAMP. In contrast to cAMP, atrazine did not alter cGMP levels, further indicating that it inhibits cAMP-specific PDEs. Atrazine-induced changes in cAMP levels were sufficient to stimulate prolactin release in pituitary cells and androgen production in Leydig cells, indicating that it acts as an endocrine disrupter both in cells that secrete by exocytosis of prestored hormones and in cells that secrete by de novo hormone synthesis. Rolipram abolished the stimulatory effect of atrazine on cAMP release in both cell types, suggesting that it acts as an inhibitor of PDE4s, isoforms whose mRNA transcripts dominate in pituitary and Leydig cells together with mRNA for PDE8A. In contrast, immortalized lacto-somatotrophs showed low expression of these mRNA transcripts and several fold higher cAMP levels compared to normal pituitary cells, and atrazine was unable to further increase cAMP levels. These results indicate that atrazine acts as a general endocrine disrupter by inhibiting cAMP-specific PDE4s. -- Highlights: ► Atrazine stimulates cAMP accumulation in pituitary and Leydig cells. ► Atrazine also stimulates PRL and androgens secretion. ► Stimulatory effects of atrazine were abolished in cells with IBMX-inhibited PDEs. ► Atrazine specificity toward c

  1. Effectiveness of narrow grass hedges in reducing atrazine runoff under different slope gradient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghai; Li, Cui; Chen, Chao; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Ruilun; Que, Xiaoe

    2018-03-01

    Atrazine is frequently detected in surface runoff and poses a potential threat to the environment. Grass hedges may minimize runoff loss of atrazine from crop fields. Therefore, the effectiveness of two grass hedges (Melilotus albus and Pennisetum alopecuroides) in controlling atrazine runoff was investigated using simulated rainfall on lands at different slope gradients (15 and 20%) in northern China. Results showed that a storm (40 mm in 1 h), occurring 4 h after atrazine application, caused a loss of 3% of the applied amount. Atrazine loss under 20% slope was significantly greater than that under 15% slope in control plots. Atrazine exports associated with the water fraction accounted for the majority of total loss. Pennisetum hedges were more efficient in controlling atrazine loss with runoff compared to Melilotus hedges. No significant difference in the capacity of grass hedges to reduce atrazine exports was observed between 15 and 20% slopes. These findings suggest grass hedges are effective in minimizing atrazine runoff in northern China, and Pennisetum hedges should be preferentially used on sloping croplands in similar climatic regions.

  2. In vitro atrazine exposure affects the phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinchuk, Lesya M.; Lee, Sang-Ryul; Filipov, Nikolay M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent data suggest that some of the immunotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine, a very widely used pesticide, may be due to perturbations in dendritic cell (DC) function. As consequences of atrazine exposure on the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC have not been studied, our objective was, using the murine DC line, JAWSII, to determine whether atrazine will interfere with DC maturation. First, we characterized the maturation of JAWSII cells in vitro by inducing them to mature in the presence of growth factors and selected maturational stimuli in vitro. Next, we exposed the DC cell line to a concentration range of atrazine and examined its effects on phenotypic and functional maturation of DC. Atrazine exposure interfered with the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Among the phenotypic changes caused by atrazine exposure was a dose-dependent removal of surface MHC-I with a significant decrease being observed at 1 μM concentration. In addition, atrazine exposure decreased the expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86 and it downregulated the expression of the CD11b and CD11c accessory molecules and the myeloid developmental marker CD14. When, for comparative purposes, we exposed primary thymic DC to atrazine, MHC-I and CD11c expression was also decreased. Phenotypic changes in JAWSII DC maturation were associated with functional inhibition of maturation as, albeit at higher concentrations, receptor-mediated antigen uptake was increased by atrazine. Thus, our data suggest that atrazine directly targets DC maturation and that toxicants such as atrazine that efficiently remove MHC-I molecules from the DC surface are likely to contribute to immune evasion

  3. Potential of macrophytes for removing atrazine from aqueous solution Potencial de macrófitas para remoção de atrazine de solução aquosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of three macrophytes, Azolla caroliniana, Salvinia minima, and Lemna gibba was assessed in this study to select plants for use in environmental remediation contaminated with atrazine. Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse over six days in pots containing Hoagland 0.25 strength nutritive solution at the following atrazine concentrations: 0; 0.01; 0.1; 1.0; 10.0 mg L-1. Decrease in biomass accumulation was observed in the three macrophytes, as well as toxic effects evidenced by the symptomatology developed by the plants which caused their deaths. The chlorosis and necrosis allowed to observe in the plants the high sensitivity of the three species to the herbicide. Plants presented low potential for removal of atrazine in solution when exposed to low concentrations of the herbicide. However, at the 10.0 mg L-1 atrazine concentration, L. gibba and A. caroliniana showed potential to remove the herbicide from the solution (0.016 and 0.018 mg atrazine per fresh mass gram, respectively. This fact likely resulted from the processes of atrazine adsorption by the dead material. The percentage of atrazine removed from the solution by the plants decreased when the plants were exposed to high concentrations of the pollutant. Azolla caroliniana, S. minima, and L. gibba were not effective in removing the herbicide from solution. The use of these species to remedy aquatic environments was shown to be limited.Avaliou-se, neste estudo, o potencial de três macrófitas - Azolla caroliniana, Salvinia minima e Lemna gibba - com vistas à seleção de plantas para remediação de ambientes contaminados por atrazine. Foram realizados experimentos em casa de vegetação durante seis dias, em vasos contendo solução nutritiva Hoagland (0,25 de força iônica, nas seguintes concentrações de atrazine: 0; 0,01; 0,1; 1,0; e 10,0 mg L-1. A redução da biomassa acumulada pelas macrófitas foi observada, bem como os efeitos de toxidez evidenciados pela

  4. Treatment of atrazine by integrating photocatalytic and biological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.Y.; Tao, S.; Dawson, R.; Wong, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    This research examines the degradation of atrazine by photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) under different experimental conditions. Deisopropylatrazine, deethylatrazine and deethyldeisopropylatrazine were formed as major intermediates based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The reaction mixture was found to be toxic towards two bioassays, i.e. the Microtox[reg] and amphipods survival tests even when atrazine was completely degraded by PCO within 2 h under optimized conditions. The results indicate that adding H 2 O 2 could significantly enhance the degradation of atrazine by PCO. Ammeline, ammelide and cyanuric acid (CA) became the major intermediates/products as detected by high performance liquid chromatography from 6th to the 40th h of PCO treatment. After 72 h PCO treatment, only CA was detectable in the reaction mixture. Further degradation of CA was carried out by a newly isolated CA-degrading bacterium, Sphingomonas capsulata. The photochemical pretreatment integrated with microbial degradation lead to the complete degradation and detoxification of atrazine

  5. Determination of the atrazine migration parameters in Vertisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo-Raymundo, E.; Hernandez-Vargas, J.; Nikol'Skii, Yu. N.; Guber, A. K.; Gavi-Reyes, F.; Prado-Pano, B. L.; Figueroa-Sandoval, B.; Mendosa-Hernandez, J. R.

    2010-05-01

    The parameters of the atrazine migration in columns with undisturbed Vertisol sampled from an irrigated plot in Guanajuato, Mexico were determined. A model of the convection-dispersion transport of the chemical compounds accounting for the decomposition and equilibrium adsorption, which is widely applied for assessing the risk of contamination of natural waters with pesticides, was used. The model parameters were obtained by solving the inverse problem of the transport equation on the basis of laboratory experiments on the transport of the 18O isotope and atrazine in soil columns with an undisturbed structure at three filtration velocities. The model adequately described the experimental data at the individual selection of the parameters for each output curve. Physically unsubstantiated parameters of the atrazine adsorption and degradation were obtained when the parameter of the hydrodynamic dispersion was determined from the data on the 18O migration. The simulation also showed that the use of parameters obtained at water content close to saturation in the calculations for an unsaturated soil resulted in the overestimation of the leaching rate and the maximum concentration of atrazine in the output curve compared to the experimental data.

  6. Phytoremediation potential of the novel atrazine tolerant Lolium multiflorum and studies on the mechanisms involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merini, Luciano J.; Bobillo, Cecilia; Cuadrado, Virginia; Corach, Daniel; Giulietti, Ana M.

    2009-01-01

    Atrazine impact on human health and the environment have been extensively studied. Phytoremediation emerged as a low cost, environmental friendly biotechnological solution for atrazine pollution in soil and water. In vitro atrazine tolerance assays were performed and Lolium multiflorum was found as a novel tolerant species, able to germinate and grow in the presence of 1 mg kg -1 of the herbicide. L. multiflorum presented 20% higher atrazine removal capacity than the natural attenuation, with high initial degradation rate in microcosms. The mechanisms involved in atrazine tolerance such as mutation in psbA gene, enzymatic detoxification via P 450 or chemical hydrolysis through benzoxazinones were evaluated. It was demonstrated that atrazine tolerance is conferred by enhanced enzymatic detoxification via P 450 . Due to its atrazine degradation capacity in soil and its agronomical properties, L. multiflorum is a candidate for designing phytoremediation strategies for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils, especially those involving run-off avoiding. - Finding of a novel atrazine-tolerant species, as a potential candidate for phytoremediating herbicide-contaminated agriculture soils and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tolerance.

  7. Phytoremediation potential of the novel atrazine tolerant Lolium multiflorum and studies on the mechanisms involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merini, Luciano J. [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bobillo, Cecilia [Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, BS As (Argentina); Cuadrado, Virginia [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Corach, Daniel [Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, BS As (Argentina); Giulietti, Ana M., E-mail: agiule@ffyb.uba.a [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    Atrazine impact on human health and the environment have been extensively studied. Phytoremediation emerged as a low cost, environmental friendly biotechnological solution for atrazine pollution in soil and water. In vitro atrazine tolerance assays were performed and Lolium multiflorum was found as a novel tolerant species, able to germinate and grow in the presence of 1 mg kg{sup -1} of the herbicide. L. multiflorum presented 20% higher atrazine removal capacity than the natural attenuation, with high initial degradation rate in microcosms. The mechanisms involved in atrazine tolerance such as mutation in psbA gene, enzymatic detoxification via P{sub 450} or chemical hydrolysis through benzoxazinones were evaluated. It was demonstrated that atrazine tolerance is conferred by enhanced enzymatic detoxification via P{sub 450}. Due to its atrazine degradation capacity in soil and its agronomical properties, L. multiflorum is a candidate for designing phytoremediation strategies for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils, especially those involving run-off avoiding. - Finding of a novel atrazine-tolerant species, as a potential candidate for phytoremediating herbicide-contaminated agriculture soils and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tolerance.

  8. Atrazine in a corn cultivated area and its relation with the landscape position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regimeire Freitas Aquino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine is still being used in no-till corn production in Brazil. This herbicide can be moved by overland flow and leached in the soil profile. In both ways, it can pollute water, either by reaching the groundwater or lakes and streams close to the crop field. This study evaluated the presence of atrazine in a dystrophic Yellow-Red Argisol and a dystrophic Melanic Gleisol in a corn field, where atrazine has been applied for 11 years. Overland flow was the main process of atrazine transport on hillslope and leaching was the most important process in the floodplain. Frequency and location of atrazine application in the landscape define this herbicide contamination process.

  9. Introduction of Atrazine-Degrading Pseudomonas SP. Strain ADP to Enhance Phytoremediation of Atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrazine (ATR) has been widely applied in the US Midwestern states. Public health and ecological concerns have been raised about contamination of surface and ground water by ATR and its chlorinated metabolites, due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenic or endocrinology effects. Phytoremediati...

  10. Toxicity and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products: A literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority`s Environmental Research Center has been developing a means of detoxifying atrazine waste waters using TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. The toxicity and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products will probably be required information in obtaining permits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency for the demonstration of any photocatalytic treatment of atrazine waste waters. The following report is a literature survey of the toxicological and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products.

  11. FATE OF ATRAZINE IN THE AGRICULTURAL SOIL OF CORN FIELDS IN FARS PROVINCE OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nasseri ، M. Dehghani ، S. Amin ، K. Naddafi ، Z. Zamanian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine, a herbicide widely used in corn production, is frequently detected as pesticide in water resources. In this research, four agricultural fields with a long history of atrazine application in Shiraz and its vicinity in Fars province of Iran, have been studied to determine the fate of atrazine through the passage of time. These four farms were cultivated under a crop rotation (corn-wheat during the past 10 years. Samples were collected from four soil profiles of 0-10, 10-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm soil depth at different times. The time intervals for soil sampling started before atrazine application and continued until no atrazine was detected. According to the general linear model, there was no significant difference between atrazine residual concentrations and the soil moisture and depth (p≥0.05. But, significant difference between atrazine residual concentrations and the sampling regions was observed (p<0.001. Based on the data, atrazine leaching and dissipation rate in different soil profiles in the four sampling regions were high and significant. Therefore, there is a high risk of atrazine pollution in groundwater resources of the region.

  12. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Halley; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia; Sousa, Gustavo; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo; Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1), maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth.

  13. Fate of the herbicide 14C-atrazine during sewage treatment on a lab-scale bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime L. M. Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethylamino-6-(isopropylamino-s-triazine is a persistent herbicide used on some crops and it has been found both in ground and surface water and drainage systems. This work studied the behaviour of atrazine during a sewage treatment process by activated sludge. The process was conducted on a laboratory scale using an under fed-batch system with a hydraulic retention time of 24 hours. After this period, the raw sewage (with atrazine was changed and another batch was begun (the sludge age was 7 days old. Radiolabel molecules (14C-atrazine were used for to trace their fate and to measure to the 14C-CO2 and the residues of atrazine were analysed by HPLC/UV. Initially about 50% of radioactivity was sorbed by the settled sludge but it was desorbed with successive additions of raw sewage without atrazine. The final balance of radioactivity showed that 98% of the atrazine was released into the treated effluent, probably without any biodegradation. Therefore, other organic micropollutants with similar characteristics to atrazine may behave a similar way.

  14. Dimethoate and atrazine retention from aqueous solution by nanofiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A L; Tan, L S; Shukor, S R Abd

    2008-02-28

    In order to produce sufficient food supply for the ever-increasing human population, pesticides usage is indispensable in the agriculture sector to control crop losses. However, the effect of pesticides on the environment is very complex as undesirable transfers occur continually among different environmental sections. This eventually leads to contamination of drinking water source especially for rivers located near active agriculture practices. This paper studied the application of nanofiltration membrane in the removal of dimethoate and atrazine in aqueous solution. Dimethoate was selected as the subject of study since it is being listed as one of the pesticides in guidelines for drinking water by World Health Organization. Nevertheless, data on effectiveness of dimethoate rejection using membranes has not been found so far. Meanwhile, atrazine is classified as one of the most commonly used pesticides in Malaysia. Separation was done using a small batch-type membrane separation cell with integrated magnetic stirrer while concentration of dimethoate and atrazine in aqueous solution was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Four nanofiltration membranes NF90, NF200, NF270 and DK were tested for their respective performance to separate dimethoate and atrazine. Of all four membranes, NF90 showed the best performance in retention of dimethoate and atrazine in water.

  15. Persistence of 14C-labeled atrazine and its residues in a field lysimeter soil after 22 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonowski, Nicolai D.; Koeppchen, Stephan; Hofmann, Diana; Schaeffer, Andreas; Burauel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two years after the last application of ring- 14 C-labeled atrazine at customary rate (1.7 kg ha -1 ) on an agriculturally used outdoor lysimeter, atrazine is still detectable by means of accelerated solvent extraction and LC-MS/MS analysis. Extractions of the 0-10 cm soil layer yielded 60% of the residual 14 C-activity. The extracts contained atrazine (1.0 μg kg -1 ) and 2-hydroxy-atrazine (42.5 μg kg -1 ). Extractions of the material of the lowest layer 55-60 cm consisting of fine gravel yielded 93% of residual 14 C-activity, of which 3.4 μg kg -1 was detected as atrazine and 17.7 μg kg -1 was 2-hydroxy-atrazine. The detection of atrazine in the lowest layer was of almost four times higher mass than in the upper soil layer. These findings highlight the fact that atrazine is unexpectedly persistent in soil. The overall persistence of atrazine in the environment might represent a potential risk for successive groundwater contamination by leaching even after 22 years of environmental exposure. - Atrazine and its metabolite 2-hydroxy-atrazine are still present in soil after long-term aging.

  16. The impact of atrazine on several biochemical properties of chernozem soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJ. RADIVOJEVIC

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the pesticide atrazine on biochemical processes in soil was investigated. Atrazine loadings of 8.0, 40.0 and 80.0 mg/kg soil were laboratory tested in an experiment set up on a clay loam soil. Dehydrogenase activity, change in biomass carbon, soil respiration and metabolic coefficient were examined. The samples were collected for analysis 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days after atrazine application. The acquired data indicated that the effect of atrazine on the biochemical activity of the soil depended on its application rate and duration of activity, and the effect was either stimulating or inhibiting. However, the detected changes were found to be transient, indicating that there is no real risk of the compound disrupting the balance of biochemical processes in soil.

  17. Response to variable light intensity in photoacclimated algae and cyanobacteria exposed to atrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deblois, Charles P.; Dufresne, Karine [Department of Biological Sciences-TOXEN, Ecotoxicology of Aquatic Microorganisms Laboratory, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Juneau, Philippe, E-mail: juneau.philippe@uqam.ca [Department of Biological Sciences-TOXEN, Ecotoxicology of Aquatic Microorganisms Laboratory, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Atrazine is frequently detected in freshwater ecosystems exposed to agricultural waste waters and runoffs worldwide and it can affect non-target organisms (mainly photoautotrophic) and modify community structure. Meanwhile, light environment is known to vary between aquatic ecosystems, but also before and during the exposure to atrazine and these variations may modify the sensitivity to atrazine of photoautotroph organisms. In this study, 10 species of phytoplankton (chlorophytes, baccilariophytes and cyanophytes) acclimated to low or high light intensities were exposed to atrazine and light of different intensities to compare their combined effect. Our data showed that chlorophytes and baccilariophytes were more resistant to atrazine compared to cyanophytes for all light conditions. Atrazine was found to inhibit {Phi}{sup Prime }{sub M}, {Psi}{sub 0}, P{sub M} and non-photochemical quenching for all species indicating an effect on electron transport, primary production and photoregulation processes. These data also indicate a higher sensitivity of {Psi}{sub 0} (average {Psi}{sub 0}-EC{sub 50} of 91 {+-} 11 nM or 19.6 {+-} 0.9 {mu}g L{sup -1}) compared to {Phi}{sup Prime }{sub M} (average {Phi}{sup Prime }{sub M}-EC{sub 50} of 217 {+-} 19 nM or 46.8 {+-} 4.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and suggest that photoregulation processes activated in presence of light decrease the effect of atrazine. We also showed that increasing light intensity decreased {Phi}{sup Prime }{sub M}-EC{sub 50} in both low (except baccilariophytes) and high light acclimated conditions. Despite this similarity, most species acclimated to high light were found to have higher or similar {Phi}{sup Prime }{sub M}-EC{sub 50} compared to low light acclimated cells and thus, were less sensitive to atrazine in low light and high light environments. We concluded that an increase in the plastoquinone pool induced by acclimation to high light decreased the sensitivity to atrazine in phytoplankton and we hypothesized

  18. Potencial alelopático de 2-benzoxazolinona (boa e sua interação com atrazine no crescimento de plantas Allelopathic potential of 2-benzoxazolinone (boa and its interactions with atrazine on lant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar F. Souza

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos de laboratório foram conduzidos na Universidade de South Dakota, Vemillion, SD, EUA, em 1990, para determinar os efeitos do ácido hidroxâmico benzoxazolinona (BOA, do herbicida atrazine e de suas misturas sobre o crescimento e teor de clorofila de lentilha dágua (Lemna minor. BOA na concentração de 0,5 mM foi aplicado em combinação com atrazine a 0,001 e 0,005 mM em caixas plásticas com 24 células de 2,5 ml, contendo 3 frondes de lentilha dágua em solução nutritiva. BOA e atrazine, aplicados isoladamente, inibiram o número, o peso sêco e o teor de clorofila. Atrazine apresentou uma maior ação inibitória que BOA. A combinação BOA (0,05 mM e atrazine à 0,001 mM foi antagonística. A inibição induzida pelo atrazine a 0,001 mM foi, em parte, neutralizada, porém, com a dose 0,005 mM a sua ação inibitória não foi alterada.Two laboratoy experiments were carried out at the University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, USA, in 1990, to determine the effects of hydroxamic acid benzoxazolinone (BOA, the herbicide atrazine, and a mixture there of on duckweed growth and its chlorophyll content. BOA at 0.5 mM concentration was applied in combination with atrazine at 0.001 and 0.005 mM in a 2.5 ml cell tissue cluster dish containing three fronds of duckweed in nutrient solution. Single applications of BOA and atrazine inhibited duckweed frond number, frond dry weight, and its chlorophyll content. Atrazine showed stronger inbibition effect than BOA. The combination BOA and atrazine at 0.001 mM was antagonistic where the inhibition induced by the herbicide was counteracted. Unlike atrazine at 0.00I mM, BOA added to atrazine at 0,005 mM did not counteract the inhibitio caused by the herbicide.

  19. Demasculinization and feminization of male gonads by atrazine: Consistent effects across vertebrate classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Tyrone B.; Anderson, Lloyd L.; Beasley, Val R.; de Solla, Shane R.; Iguchi, Taisen; Ingraham, Holly; Kestemont, Patrick; Kniewald, Jasna; Kniewald, Zlatko; Langlois, Valerie S.; Luque, Enrique H.; McCoy, Krista A.; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Oka, Tomohiro; Oliveira, Cleida A.; Orton, Frances; Ruby, Sylvia; Suzawa, Miyuki; Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E.; Trudeau, Vance L.; Victor-Costa, Anna Bolivar; Willingham, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground water, surface water, and precipitation. Atrazine is also an endocrine disruptor that, among other effects, alters male reproductive tissues when animals are exposed during development. Here, we apply the nine so-called “Hill criteria” (Strength, Consistency, Specificity, Temporality, Biological Gradient, Plausibility, Coherence, Experiment, and Analogy) for establishing cause–effect relationships to examine the evidence for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes the gonads of male vertebrates. We present experimental evidence that the effects of atrazine on male development are consistent across all vertebrate classes examined and we present a state of the art summary of the mechanisms by which atrazine acts as an endocrine disruptor to produce these effects. Atrazine demasculinizes male gonads producing testicular lesions associated with reduced germ cell numbers in teleost fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, and induces partial and/or complete feminization in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. These effects are strong (statistically significant), consistent across vertebrate classes, and specific. Reductions in androgen levels and the induction of estrogen synthesis – demonstrated in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals – represent plausible and coherent mechanisms that explain these effects. Biological gradients are observed in several of the cited studies, although threshold doses and patterns vary among species. Given that the effects on the male gonads described in all of these experimental studies occurred only after atrazine exposure, temporality is also met here. Thus the case for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes male vertebrates meets all nine of the “Hill criteria”. PMID:21419222

  20. Atrazine Contamination in Groundwater at Ejura in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaye, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study the levels Atrazine, deethylatrazine(DEA) and deisopropylatrazine(DIA) in groundwater at Ejura within the Ejura-Sekyedumase District in the Ashanti region of Ghana which is a major maize growing area in the country. A total of twenty five (25) groundwater samples were collected from six(6) sampling sites within the sampling area and were analyzed using a Varian ProstaHPLC system (410) + autosampler, photodiote array (PDA) detector, UV and fluorescence detectors. The mean concentration of atrazine in the groundwater at Ejura is 0.255 μ/L. The maximum concentration of atrazine was 1.530μ/L and a minimum concentration of 0.20μ/L. The maximum and minimum concentrations for deethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA) are 0.423μ/L and 0.101μ/L and 0.204μ/L and 0.102μL respectively. The Deethylatrazine to Atrazine Ratio (DAR) was calculated; the values were much less than one suggesting a discrete source of contamination. This gives an indication of the pathway of atrazine contamination as being preferential flow. The levels of Atrazine deethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA) from the samples analyzed were all below WHO's maximum contamination levels (MCL), 2μ/L. (author)

  1. Plastic antibody based surface plasmon resonance nanosensors for selective atrazine detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yılmaz, Erkut [Department of Chemistry, Aksaray University, 68100 Aksaray (Turkey); Özgür, Erdoğan; Bereli, Nilay; Türkmen, Deniz [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: denizli@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-04-01

    This study reports a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based affinity sensor system with the use of molecular imprinted nanoparticles (plastic antibodies) to enhance the pesticide detection. Molecular imprinting based affinity sensor is prepared by the attachment of atrazine (chosen as model pesticide) imprinted nanoparticles onto the gold surface of SPR chip. Recognition element of the affinity sensor is polymerizable form of aspartic acid. The imprinted nanoparticles were characterized via FTIR and zeta-sizer measurements. SPR sensors are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and contact angle measurements. The imprinted nanoparticles showed more sensitivity to atrazine than the non-imprinted ones. Different concentrations of atrazine solutions are applied to SPR system to determine the adsorption kinetics. Langmuir adsorption model is found as the most suitable model for this affinity nanosensor system. In order to show the selectivity of the atrazine-imprinted nanoparticles, competitive adsorption of atrazine, simazine and amitrole is investigated. The results showed that the imprinted nanosensor has high selectivity and sensitivity for atrazine. - Highlights: • SPR based affinity sensor system was developed via molecular imprinting. • Recognition element of the affinity sensor is polymerizable form of an amino acid. • Combination of SPR and MIP offers highly selective sensor with long shelf-life. • Plastic antibody based biomimetic sensors offer relatively cheaper production. • Plastic antibody based biomimetic sensors offer high physical, chemical stability.

  2. Plastic antibody based surface plasmon resonance nanosensors for selective atrazine detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yılmaz, Erkut; Özgür, Erdoğan; Bereli, Nilay; Türkmen, Deniz; Denizli, Adil

    2017-01-01

    This study reports a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based affinity sensor system with the use of molecular imprinted nanoparticles (plastic antibodies) to enhance the pesticide detection. Molecular imprinting based affinity sensor is prepared by the attachment of atrazine (chosen as model pesticide) imprinted nanoparticles onto the gold surface of SPR chip. Recognition element of the affinity sensor is polymerizable form of aspartic acid. The imprinted nanoparticles were characterized via FTIR and zeta-sizer measurements. SPR sensors are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and contact angle measurements. The imprinted nanoparticles showed more sensitivity to atrazine than the non-imprinted ones. Different concentrations of atrazine solutions are applied to SPR system to determine the adsorption kinetics. Langmuir adsorption model is found as the most suitable model for this affinity nanosensor system. In order to show the selectivity of the atrazine-imprinted nanoparticles, competitive adsorption of atrazine, simazine and amitrole is investigated. The results showed that the imprinted nanosensor has high selectivity and sensitivity for atrazine. - Highlights: • SPR based affinity sensor system was developed via molecular imprinting. • Recognition element of the affinity sensor is polymerizable form of an amino acid. • Combination of SPR and MIP offers highly selective sensor with long shelf-life. • Plastic antibody based biomimetic sensors offer relatively cheaper production. • Plastic antibody based biomimetic sensors offer high physical, chemical stability.

  3. Lichen microalgae are sensitive to environmental concentrations of atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traba, Helena Moreno; Domínguez-Morueco, Noelia; Barreno, Eva; Catalá, Myriam

    2017-04-03

    The identification of new organisms for environmental toxicology bioassays is currently a priority, since these tools are strongly limited by the ecological relevance of taxa used to study global change. Lichens are sensitive bioindicators of air quality and their microalgae are an untapped source for new low-cost miniaturized bioassays with ecological importance. In order to increase the availability of a wider range of taxa for bioassays, the sensitivity of two symbiotic lichen microalgae, Asterochloris erici and Trebouxia sp. TR9, to atrazine was evaluated. To achieve this goal, axenic cultures of these phycobionts in suspension were exposed to a range of environmental concentrations of the herbicide atrazine, a common water pollutant. Optical density and chlorophyll autofluorescence were used as endpoints of ecotoxicity and ecophysiology on cell suspensions. Results show that lichen microalgae show high sensitivity to very low doses of atrazine, being higher in Asterochloris erici than in Trebouxia sp. TR9. We conclude that environmental concentrations of atrazine could modify population dynamics probably through a shift in reproduction strategies of these organisms. This seminal work is a breakthrough in the use of lichen microalgae in the assessment of micropollution effects on biodiversity.

  4. Response of reservoir atrazine concentrations following regulatory and management changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the early 1990s, atrazine concentrations in United States drinking water supplies exceeding the drinking water standard of 3 parts per billion (ppb) have been identified as a costly and major water quality concern. Atrazine levels in Columbus, Ohio tap water reached 8.74 ppb in the early 1990s...

  5. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley Caixeta Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(epsilon-caprolactone (PCL nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species, as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.. One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1, maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1, a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting

  6. Degradation of the Pesticides Mecoprop and Atrazine in Unpolluted Sandy Aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klint, Mikala; Arvin, Erik; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1993-01-01

    The potential for biodegradation of the pesticides mecoprop ((+/-)-2-(4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxy)propionic acid) and atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) in an aerobic aquifer was investigated in laboratory batch experiments. The experiments were performed with groundwater...... the aquifer. Atrazine was not degraded during an incubation period of 539 d in groundwater and 174 d in suspensions of groundwater and aquifer sediment. The addition of nutrients, primary substrates (acetate and naphthalene), and a pH or temperature increase had not effect on the recalcitrance of atrazine....

  7. Transport of atrazine and dicamba through silt and loam soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Friedel, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the role of preferential flow paths in the transport of atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) and dicamba (3-6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) through silt and loam soils overlying the High Plains aquifer in Nebraska. In a previous study, 3 of 6 study areas demonstrated high percentages of macropores; those three areas were used in this study for analysis of chemical transport. As a subsequent part of the study, 12 intact soil cores (30-cm diameter by 40-cm height), were excavated sequentially, two from each of the following depths: 0-40cm and 40-80cm. These cores were used to study preferential flow characteristics using dye staining and to determine hydraulic properties. Two undisturbed experimental field plots, each with a 3-m2 surface area, were installed in three study areas in Nebraska. Each was instrumented with suction lysimeters and tensiometers at depths of 10cm to 80cm in 10-cm increments. Additionally, each plot was planted with corn (Zea mays). A neutron probe access tube was installed in each plot to determine soil w ater content at 15-cm intervals. All plots were enclosed w ith a raised frame (of 8-cm height) to prevent surface runoff. All suction lysimeters were purged monthly for three months and were sampled immediately prior to pre-plant herbicide application to obtain background chemical concentrations. Atrazine and dicamba moved rapidly through the soil, but only after a heavy rainfall event, probably owing to the presence of preferential flow paths and lack of microbial degradation in these soil areas. Staining of laboratory cores showed a positive correlation between the percent area stained by depth and the subsequent breakthrough of Br- in the laboratory and leaching of field-applied herbicides owing to large rainfall events. Suction lysimeter samples in the field showed increases in concentrations of herbicides at depths where laboratory data indicated greater

  8. In vitro atrazine-exposure inhibits human natural killer cell lytic granule release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Alexander M.; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Barnett, John B.

    2007-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine is a known immunotoxicant and an inhibitor of human natural killer (NK) cell lytic function. The precise changes in NK cell lytic function following atrazine exposure have not been fully elucidated. The current study identifies the point at which atrazine exerts its affect on the stepwise process of human NK cell-mediated lyses of the K562 target cell line. Using intracellular staining of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, it was determined that a 24-h in vitro exposure to atrazine did not decrease the level of NK cell lytic proteins granzyme A, granzyme B or perforin. Thus, it was hypothesized that atrazine exposure was inhibiting the ability of the NK cells to bind to the target cell and subsequently inhibit the release of lytic protein from the NK cell. To test this hypothesis, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy were employed to analyze NK cell-target cell co-cultures following atrazine exposure. These assays demonstrated no significant decrease in the level of target cell binding. However, the levels of NK intracellular lytic protein retained and the amount of lytic protein released were assessed following a 4-h incubation with K562 target cells. The relative level of intracellular lytic protein was 25-50% higher, and the amount of lytic protein released was 55-65% less in atrazine-treated cells than vehicle-treated cells following incubation with the target cells. These results indicate that ATR exposure inhibits the ability of NK cells to lyse target cells by blocking lytic granule release without affecting the ability of the NK cell to form stable conjugates with target cells

  9. Effects of in ovo exposure of Imazalil and Atrazine on sexual differentiation in chick gonads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, J.; Ikeda, M. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Matsushita, S.; Iwasawa, T.; Ikeya, M. [Shizuoka Swine and Poultry Experiment Station, Kikugawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In contrast to mammals, the heterogametic sex (sex chromosome: ZW) in avian species is the genetic female whereas the homogametic (sex chromosome: ZZ) is the genetic male. The W chromosome positively controls early aromatase synthesis and consequently estrogen production. The presence of estrogens and their receptors plays a crucial role in female sexual differentiation. Chicken embryonic gonads are bipotential at an early stage. During development of the female, the left gonad differentiates to a single ovary/oviduct, and the right gonad regresses, developing a permanent female phenotype. This sexual differentiation occurs as a result of aromatase expression in the left gonad at day 6.5 and the production of estrogen from testosterone. In the male genotype, both gonads develop into two testes. The time- and sex-dependent expression of enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, which determine the ratio of androgens/estrogens produced by the gonads, has been extensively investigated during the last 5-6 year. These results show that the lack of estrogen synthesis in the male appears to be due to the extremely low levels of P450 aromatase expression. In female, extensive expression of the aromatase gene (around day 5-6 incubation), leading to estrogen synthesis, and specific expression of the estrogen receptor-mRNA in the left gonad result in the development of a functional left ovary. Experimental sex reversal has been performed using anti-estrogens, androgens, aromatase inhibitors and synthetic steroid. Differences between male and female gonadal differentiation and development are depended on the absence of aromatase and estrogen. On the one hand, differences between left and right ovarian development are depended on the specific expression of the estrogen receptor in the left gonad. Persistent chlorine-containing pesticide, imazalil is structurally similar to various imidazolecontaining chemicals used clinically such as the potent aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole and

  10. Atrazine and Diuron partitioning within a soil-water-surfactant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Keller, A.

    2006-12-01

    The interaction between pesticide and soil and water is even more complex in the presence of surfactants. In this study, batch equilibrium was employed to study the sorption of surfactants and the partitioning behaviors of Atrazine and Diuron within a soil-water-surfactant system. Five soils and four surfactants (nonionic Triton- 100, cationic Benzalkonium Chloride (BC), anionic Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS), and anionic Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)) were used. All surfactant sorption isotherms exhibited an initial linear increase at low surfactant concentrations but reached an asymptotic value as the surfactant concentrations increased. Among the surfactants, BC had the highest sorption onto all soils, followed by Triton-100 and then by LAS and SDS, implying that the nature of the charge significantly influences surfactant sorption. Sorption of either Triton-100 or BC was highly correlated with soil Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) while that of LAS and SDS was complicated by the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the aqueous phase and the CEC sites. Both LAS and SDS formed complexes with Ca2+ and Mg2+, resulting in a significant decrease in the detergency of the surfactants. At high surfactant concentrations and with micelles present in the aqueous phase, the micelles formed a more competitive partitioning site for the pesticides, resulting in less pesticide sorbed to the soil. At low Triton-100 and BC concentration, the sorption of the surfactants first resulted in less Atrazine sorption but more Diuron sorption, implying competition between the surfactants and Atrazine, which serves as an indirect evidence that there is a different sorption mechanism for Atrazine. Atrazine is a weak base and it protonates and becomes positively charged near particle surfaces where the pH is much lower than in the bulk solution. The protonated Atrazine may then be held on the CEC sites via electrostatic attraction. Triton-100, LAS and SDS sorbed on the soil showed similar

  11. Embryo-larval exposure to atrazine reduces viability and alters oxidative stress parameters in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Fernanda Hernandes; Aguiar, Lais Mattos de; Rosa, Carlos Eduardo da

    2017-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine has been used worldwide with subsequent residual contamination of water and food, which may cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Animal exposure to this herbicide may affect development, reproduction and energy metabolism. Here, the effects of atrazine regarding survival and redox metabolism were assessed in the fruit fly D. melanogaster exposed during embryonic and larval development. The embryos (newly fertilized eggs) were exposed to different atrazine concentrations (10μM and 100μM) in the diet until the adult fly emerged. Pupation and emergence rates, developmental time and sex ratio were determined as well as oxidative stress parameters and gene expression of the antioxidant defence system were evaluated in newly emerged male and female flies. Atrazine exposure reduced pupation and emergence rates in fruit flies without alterations to developmental time and sex ratio. Different redox imbalance patterns were observed between males and females exposed to atrazine. Atrazine caused an increase in oxidative damage, reactive oxygen species generation and antioxidant capacity and decreased thiol-containing molecules. Further, atrazine exposure altered the mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (keap1, sod, sod2, cat, irc, gss, gclm, gclc, trxt, trxr-1 and trxr-2). Reductions in fruit fly larval and pupal viability observed here are likely consequences of the oxidative stress induced by atrazine exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Short Term Exposure of Atrazine on the Liver and Kidney of Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Babu Jestadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effects of short term (15 days exposure of low dose (300 μg kg−1 of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine on antioxidant status and markers of liver and kidney damage in normal (nondiabetic and diabetic male Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I as normal control, Group II as atrazine treated, Group III as diabetic control, and Group IV as atrazine treated diabetic rats. Atrazine administration resulted in increased MDA concentration as well as increased activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in both liver and kidney of atrazine treated and atrazine treated diabetic rats. However, GSH level was decreased in both liver and kidney of atrazine treated and atrazine treated diabetic rats. Atrazine administration led to significant increase in liver damage biomarkers such as AST, ALT, and ALP as well as kidney damage biomarkers such as creatinine and urea in both normal and diabetic rats, but this increase was more pronounced in diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate that short term exposure of atrazine at a dose of 300 μg kg−1 could potentially induce oxidative damage in liver and kidney of both normal and diabetic rats.

  13. Lixiviação de trifluralin, atrazine e bromacil em três diferentes solos Leaching of trifluralin, atrazine and bromacil in three different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Signori

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a taxa de lixiviação dos herbicidas trifluralin. atrazine e bromacil em três la. tossolos de texturas diferentes, utilizando-se as doses normais de uso de cada um. Foram utilizadas colunas não deformadas de cada solo e, após a percolação de precipitação simulada de 110 ou 220 mm, semearam-se capim-arroz (Echinochloa cruz-galli (L. Beauv. e alface (Lactuca sativa L. var. La Chaume longitudinalmente nas metades de cada uma. A lixiviação dos herbicidas foi avaliada aos 21 e 33 dias após a semeação. Com indicação dada pelo capim-arroz verificou-se que o trifluralin apresentou lixiviação pequena em quantidade e extensão no perfil, sendo semelhante nos três solos. No solo argiloso e areno-argiloso, com 110 ou 220 mm de chuva, o bromacil apresentou lixiviação bem maior que o atrazine. O bioensaio indicou que as concentrações de bromacil e de atrazine decresciam com a profundidade do perfil. As taxas de lixiviação dos herbicidas foram, de modo geral, proporcionais à sua solubilidade.The leaching rate of trifluralin, atrazine and bromacil in three latossols, with different textures, applying normal dosages of each. was studied. Intact columns of each soil were used and simula ted precip itations of 110 or 220 mm of water, Echinochloa cruz-galli L. Beauv. and Lactuca sativa cv. La Chaume were sown lenghtwise in the two halves of each colum. The leaching rate of the herbic ides was evaluated 21 and 23 days after seedling. With the indication given by E. cruz_galli it was verified that trifluralin showed very little leaching in the soil prof ile, and was similar in the three soils. In the clay and sandy-clay soils with 110 or 220 mm of rain, bromacil showed higher leaching rate than atrazine. In the loamy soil both herbicides showed simila r leaching due to the presence of caulinite, with has a low adsorbing capacity for atrazine. The bio-assay indicated that the bromacil and atrazine concentrations diminished with

  14. Sorption of Atrazine in Tropical Soil by Biochar Prepared from Cassava Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Deng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biochar (BC is a carbonaceous and porous product generated from the incomplete combustion of biomass and has been recognized as an efficient adsorbent. This study evaluated the ability of BC to sorb atrazine pesticide in tropical soil, and explored potential environmental values of BC on mitigating organic micro-pollutants. BC was produced from cassava waste via pyrolyzation under oxygen-limiting conditions at 350, 550, and 750 °C (MS350, MS550, and MS750, respectively. Three biochars were characterized and investigated as sorbents for the removal atrazine from tropical soil. BC pyrolyzed at higher temperatures more quickly reached equilibrium. The pseudo-second-order model perfectly simulated the sorption kinetics for atrazine with the coefficients R2 above 0.996, and the sorption amount at equilibrium (qe was 0.016 mg/g for MS350, 0.025 mg/g for MS550 and 0.050 mg/g for MS750. The isotherms of MS350 displayed relatively linear behavior, whereas the sorption of atrazine on MS550 and MS750 followed a nonlinear isotherm. The sorption data were well described by the Freundlich model with logKF of 0.476 for MS350, 0.771 for MS550, 1.865 for MS750. A thermodynamic study indicated that the sorption of atrazine in BC-added soil was a spontaneous and endothermic process and was primarily controlled by physisorption. In addition, lower pH was conducive to the sorption of atrazine in BC-added soil.

  15. The impact of the herbicide atrazine on growth and photosynthesis of seagrass, Zostera marina (L.), seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yaping; Fang Jianguang; Zhang Jihong; Ren Lihua; Mao Yuze; Li Bin; Zhang Mingliang; Liu Dinghai; Du Meirong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Impact of the widely used herbicide atrazine on eelgrass seedlings was studied. → Atrazine presents a threat to eelgrass seedlings growth and photosynthesis. → The impact of atrazine on eelgrass seedlings is much higher than for adult plants. - Abstract: The impact of the widely used herbicide atrazine on seedling growth and photosynthesis of eelgrass was determined. The long-term impact of the herbicide atrazine (1, 10 and 100 μg/L) on growth of eelgrass Zostera marina (L.) seedlings, maintained in outdoor aquaria, was monitored over 4 weeks. Exposure to 10 μg/L atrazine resulted in significantly lower plant fresh weight and total chlorophyll concentration and up to 86.67% mortality at the 100 μg/L concentration. Short-term photosynthetic stress on eelgrass seedlings was determined and compared with adult eelgrass using chlorophyll fluorescence. The effective quantum yield in eelgrass seedlings was significantly depressed at all atrazine concentrations (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 μg/L) even within 2 h and remained at a lower level than for adult plants for each concentration. These results indicate that atrazine presents a potential threat to seagrass seedling functioning and that the impact is much higher than for adult plants.

  16. Effect of dairy manure rate and the stabilization time of amended soils on atrazine degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Paula; Briceño, Gabriela; Candia, Maribel; Mora, Maria de la Luz; Demanet, Rolando; Palma, Graciela

    2009-10-01

    The application rate of liquid cow manure (LCM) in the field and the stabilization time of amended soils before application of pre-plant herbicides are factors that determine their efficiency. This study includes evaluation of residual atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) in soil and amended soils with equivalent rate of 100,000; 200,000; and 300,000 L ha(-1) of LCM and the effect of pre-incubation time of amended soils on atrazine degradation. The study was carried out under controlled conditions using an Andisol with previous historical application of atrazine. The respiratory activity and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) studies indicated that the time necessary for stabilization of amended soils is over 20-30 d. During the measurement of respiratory and FDA activity, no significant differences were observed when atrazine was applied. The half-life of atrazine ranged from 5 to 8d and the relative distribution of degradation products seem to be affected by the application of LCM. The pre-incubation time of amended soil and LCM dose would not affect atrazine degradation rate, when the soil has a history of herbicide application. However, repeated applications of LCM in a long period of time could change the soil pH and increase the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which could further contribute to a faster degradation of atrazine. Both effects would reduce the effectiveness of atrazine in weed control.

  17. 20 years of long-term atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonberg, David; Vanderborght, Jan; Cremer, Nils; Pütz, Thomas; Herbst, Michael; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-03-01

    Atrazine was banned in Germany in 1991 due to findings of atrazine concentrations in ground- and drinking waters exceeding threshold values. Monitoring of atrazine concentrations in the groundwater since then provides information about the resilience of the groundwater quality to changing agricultural practices. In this study, we present results of a monitoring campaign of atrazine concentrations in the Zwischenscholle aquifer. This phreatic aquifer is exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells (OWs) have been monitored since 1991, of which 15 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the "regression on order statistics" (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the groundwater concentrations of sampled OWs remain on a level close to the threshold value of 0.1 μg l(-1) without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with OWs exhibiting permanently concentrations above the regulatory threshold on the one hand and OWs were concentrations are mostly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the monitoring dataset demonstrated relationships between the metabolite desisopropylatrazine, which was found to be exclusively associated with the parent compound simazine but not with atrazine, and between deethylatrazine, atrazine, nitrate, and the specific electrical conductivity. These parameters indicate agricultural impacts on groundwater quality. The findings presented in this study point at the difficulty to estimate mean concentrations

  18. Removal of atrazine in water by combination of activated carbon and dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanraes, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.vanraes@ugent.be [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Willems, Gert; Nikiforov, Anton [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic [Separation Science Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4-bis, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Vandamme, Jeroen; Van Durme, Jim [Research Group Molecular Odor Chemistry, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M2S), KU Leuven, Technology Campus, Gebroeders De Smetstraat 1, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Verheust, Yannick P.; Van Hulle, Stijn W.H.; Dumoulin, Ann [Department of Industrial Biological Sciences, Ghent University, Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5, 8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Leys, Christophe [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. • Chlorine containing oxidation by-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis, in agreement with literature. • Desorption analysis shows lower atrazine concentration and higher by-product concentration on activated carbon textile after plasma treatment. • Comparison with plasma reactors described in literature for atrazine decomposition confirms relatively high energy efficiency of our reactor. - Abstract: Efficiency of modern wastewater treatment plants to remove or decompose persistent contaminants in low concentration is often insufficient to meet the demands imposed by governmental laws. Novel, efficient and cheap methods are required to address this global issue. We developed a new type of plasma reactor, in which atrazine decomposition by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in dry air is combined with micropollutant adsorption on activated carbon textile and with extra bubbling of generated ozone. Investigation of reaction kinetics and by-product analysis shows that increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. By-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis in water and adsorbed on the activated carbon textile. Our reactor is compared in energy efficiency with reactors described in literature, showing that combination of plasma discharge with pollutant adsorption and ozone recycling is attractive for future applications of water treatment.

  19. Removal of atrazine in water by combination of activated carbon and dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanraes, Patrick; Willems, Gert; Nikiforov, Anton; Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic; Vandamme, Jeroen; Van Durme, Jim; Verheust, Yannick P.; Van Hulle, Stijn W.H.; Dumoulin, Ann; Leys, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. • Chlorine containing oxidation by-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis, in agreement with literature. • Desorption analysis shows lower atrazine concentration and higher by-product concentration on activated carbon textile after plasma treatment. • Comparison with plasma reactors described in literature for atrazine decomposition confirms relatively high energy efficiency of our reactor. - Abstract: Efficiency of modern wastewater treatment plants to remove or decompose persistent contaminants in low concentration is often insufficient to meet the demands imposed by governmental laws. Novel, efficient and cheap methods are required to address this global issue. We developed a new type of plasma reactor, in which atrazine decomposition by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in dry air is combined with micropollutant adsorption on activated carbon textile and with extra bubbling of generated ozone. Investigation of reaction kinetics and by-product analysis shows that increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. By-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis in water and adsorbed on the activated carbon textile. Our reactor is compared in energy efficiency with reactors described in literature, showing that combination of plasma discharge with pollutant adsorption and ozone recycling is attractive for future applications of water treatment.

  20. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics of atrazine removal using a banana peel based sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparadza, Allen; Hossenlopp, Jeanne M

    2012-01-01

    Atrazine removal from water by treated banana peels was studied. The effect of pH, contact time, initial atrazine concentration, and temperature were investigated. Batch experiments demonstrated that 15 g L(-1) adsorbent dosage removed 90-99% of atrazine from 1-150 ppm aqueous solutions. The removal was both pH and temperature dependent with the most atrazine removed between pH 7 and 8.2 and increased with increasing temperature. Equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models in the concentration and temperature ranges investigated, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 14 mg g(-1). Simple mass transfer models were applied to the experimental data to examine the adsorption mechanism and it was found that both external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion played important roles in the adsorption mechanisms. The enthalpy of atrazine adsorption was evaluated to be 67.8 ± 6.3 kJ mol(-l) with a Gibbs free energy of -5.7 ± 1.2 kJ mol(-1).

  1. Degradation of atrazine by microwave-assisted electrodeless discharge mercury lamp in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Na; Hong, Jun; Liu, Tingfeng; Sun, Cheng

    2006-11-02

    The present study investigates the degradation of atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethyl amino)-6-isopropyl amino-s-triazine) in aqueous solution by a developed new method, namely by means of a microwave-assisted electrodeless discharge mercury lamp (MW-EDML). An experimental design was conducted to assess the influence of various parameters: pH value, initial concentration, amount of EDML, initial volume and coexisted solvent. Atrazine was degraded completely by EDML in a relatively short time (i.e. t(1/2)=1.2 min for 10 mg/l). Additionally, the identification of main degradation products during atrazine degradation process was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This study proposes the degradation mechanism including four possible pathways for atrazine degradation according to the degradation products.

  2. Watershed regressions for pesticides (WARP) for predicting atrazine concentration in Corn Belt streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models, previously developed for atrazine at the national scale, can be improved for application to the U.S. Corn Belt region by developing region-specific models that include important watershed characteristics that are influential in predicting atrazine concentration statistics within the Corn Belt. WARP models for the Corn Belt (WARP-CB) were developed for predicting annual maximum moving-average (14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day durations) and annual 95th-percentile atrazine concentrations in streams of the Corn Belt region. All streams used in development of WARP-CB models drain watersheds with atrazine use intensity greater than 17 kilograms per square kilometer (kg/km2). The WARP-CB models accounted for 53 to 62 percent of the variability in the various concentration statistics among the model-development sites.

  3. Atrazine fate and transport within the coastal zone in southeastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide transport from crop-land to coastal waters may adversely impact water quality. This work examined potential atrazine impact from use on a farm field adjacent to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve on Puerto Rico’s southeastern coast. Atrazine application was linked to residu...

  4. Modeling atrazine transport in soil columns with HYDRUS-1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leju Celestino Ladu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Both physical and chemical processes affect the fate and transport of herbicides. It is useful to simulate these processes with computer programs to predict solute movement. Simulations were run with HYDRUS-1D to identify the sorption and degradation parameters of atrazine through calibration from the breakthrough curves (BTCs. Data from undisturbed and disturbed soil column experiments were compared and analyzed using the dual-porosity model. The study results show that the values of dispersivity are slightly lower in disturbed columns, suggesting that the more heterogeneous the structure is, the higher the dispersivity. Sorption parameters also show slight variability, which is attributed to the differences in soil properties, experimental conditions and methods, or other ecological factors. For both of the columns, the degradation rates were similar. Potassium bromide was used as a conservative non-reactive tracer to characterize the water movement in columns. Atrazine BTCs exhibited significant tailing and asymmetry, indicating non-equilibrium sorption during solute transport. The dual-porosity model was verified to best fit the BTCs of the column experiments. Greater or lesser concentration of atrazine spreading to the bottom of the columns indicated risk of groundwater contamination. Overall, HYDRUS-1D successfully simulated the atrazine transport in soil columns.

  5. The potential protective role of Akropower against Atrazine- induced humoral immunotoxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ashraf M; Ibrahim, Marwa A; Hussien, Ahmed M

    2017-12-01

    Introduction to the herbicide Atrazine (ATR) can bring about immunotoxicity, aside from other unfavorable results for the creature and human wellbeing. We went for clarifying the genotoxic mechanisms required in humoral immunotoxicity of Gesaprim ® (ATR) and their constriction by Akropwer. Forty rabbits (1.5kg±20%) were utilized and appointed into 4 equal groups. group 1: control; group 2: Received Atrazine at 1/10 LD 50 via food; group 3: Received Akropwer at 1ml/1l/day by means of drinking water; group 4: Received both Atrazine and Akropwer associatively by the same said dosage and course. Atrazine and Akropower exposure were accomplished for 60days. The genotoxic mechanisms of Atrazine- induced humoral immunotoxicity were explained by increased serum total protein and albumin levels, decreased RHDV antibody titer only after four weeks of vaccination and increased level of spleen Fas and Caspase-III genes expression in Atrazine-exposed rabbits. Marked splenocytes apoptosis were detected in the immunohistochemical examination by caspase-III technique and TUNEL assay. Akropower attenuated ATR-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of Fas and Caspase-III genes expression and suppression of their signaling pathway. In conclusion, induction of apoptosis by overexpression of Fas and Caspase-III genes gives a new insight into the mechanism of ATR immunotoxicity. The protective part of Akropower, on the other hand, was characterized by attenuation of Fas and Caspase-III genes mediated apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Menstrual cycle characteristics and reproductive hormone levels in women exposed to atrazine in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragin, Lori A; Kesner, James S; Bachand, Annette M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Meadows, Juliana W; Krieg, Edward F; Reif, John S

    2011-11-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U.S. and a wide-spread groundwater contaminant. Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence exists that atrazine disrupts reproductive health and hormone secretion. We examined the relationship between exposure to atrazine in drinking water and menstrual cycle function including reproductive hormone levels. Women 18-40 years old residing in agricultural communities where atrazine is used extensively (Illinois) and sparingly (Vermont) answered a questionnaire (n=102), maintained menstrual cycle diaries (n=67), and provided daily urine samples for analyses of luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol and progesterone metabolites (n=35). Markers of exposures included state of residence, atrazine and chlorotriazine concentrations in tap water, municipal water and urine, and estimated dose from water consumption. Women who lived in Illinois were more likely to report menstrual cycle length irregularity (odds ratio (OR)=4.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58-13.95) and more than 6 weeks between periods (OR=6.16; 95% CI: 1.29-29.38) than those who lived in Vermont. Consumption of >2 cups of unfiltered Illinois water daily was associated with increased risk of irregular periods (OR=5.73; 95% CI: 1.58-20.77). Estimated "dose" of atrazine and chlorotriazine from tap water was inversely related to mean mid-luteal estradiol metabolite. Atrazine "dose" from municipal concentrations was directly related to follicular phase length and inversely related to mean mid-luteal progesterone metabolite levels. We present preliminary evidence that atrazine exposure, at levels below the US EPA MCL, is associated with increased menstrual cycle irregularity, longer follicular phases, and decreased levels of menstrual cycle endocrine biomarkers of infertile ovulatory cycles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Species-dependent effects of biochar amendment on bioaccumulation of atrazine in earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fang; Ji, Rong; Jiang, Zhongwei; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We observed that at a contamination level of 4.25 mg-atrazine/kg-soil, the biota–soil accumulation factor (BSAF) for the anecic M. guillelmi is approximately 5 times that for the epigeic E. foetida. This is attributable to the fact that bio-uptake by E. foetida is mainly through dermal absorption, whereas bio-uptake by M. guillelmi is largely affected by the gut processes, through which the physical grinding and surfactant-like materials facilitate the desorption of atrazine from soil. Strikingly, biochar amendment resulted in much greater reduction in BSAF for M. guillelmi than for E. foetida. At a biochar dose of 0.5% (wt:wt) the difference in BSAF between the two species became much smaller, and at a dose of 2% no statistical difference was observed. A likely explanation is that gut processes by M. guillelmi were much less effective in extracting atrazine from the biochar (the predominant phase wherein atrazine resided) than from soil particles. -- Highlights: • Greater bio-uptake was observed for anecic M. guillelmi than for epigeic E. foetida. • Gut processes of M. guillelmi can facilitate desorption of contaminants from soil. • Biochar amendment caused greater reduction in bioaccumulation for M. guillelmi. • Gut processes are much less effective in extracting atrazine from biochar. -- Amendment of contaminated soils/sediments with biochar is more effective for earthworm species with greater bioaccumulation capabilities

  8. New Technologys in Atrazine Removal from Environment with Emphasis on Biodegradation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Derakhshan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Considering the lack of agricultural lands and the loss of products by pests, utilization of pesticides like atrazine has increased. Due to low vapor pressure, high half-life, and high mobility, this herbicide results in pollution of different ecosystems. In regard with its toxicity, US Environmental Protection Agency has ranked atrazine in III class. Due to its potential capacity in polluting groundwater, it is highly significant. Methods: Many chemical and physical methods have been introduced to remove this herbicide from soil and water environments; however, these methods involve high expenses and cause the creation of other toxic products. Due to development of the science of interaction between man and nature, nowadays biological treatment is uniquely significant. Biological treatment is a process in which microorganisms are utilized to convert and decompose pollutants existing in the environment. Conclusion: Biodegradation is economically and environmentally the best approach to remove long-standing pollutants from the environment. Nowadays, genetic engineering extensively utilizes local or modified microorganisms in treating the environments polluted with pesticides. Finally, in order to further utilize this green technology, it is necessary to specify the soil properties and also conduct ecotoxicological studies in order to identify the capacity of local microorganisms of water and soil.

  9. Immunomodulatory effects of maternal atrazine exposure on male Balb/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Alexander M.; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Atrazine is a widely used herbicide applied to corn, sugar and other crops as a broad leaf weed inhibitor. Using the Balb/c mouse model, we have determined that prenatal/lactational exposure to atrazine alters adult immune function. Pregnant Balb/c dams were exposed subcutaneously for 21 days via time release pellets to 700 μg per day of atrazine beginning between days 10 and 12 of pregnancy. Prenatal/Lactational exposure caused no overt physical malformations in the offspring and had no effect on the number of litters carried to term or the litter size. Upon reaching early adulthood (approximately 3 months of age), the state of their immune system was evaluated. There were no changes in body weight or in the organ to body weight ratio of the spleen. Additionally, no changes were observed in the number of CD8 + T cell, CD4 + T cell, or B220 + B cell subpopulations in the spleen. T cell function was assessed by measuring proliferation and cytolytic activity after in vitro allogeneic stimulation. Male mice which had been prenatally/lactationally exposed to atrazine had an increase in both T cell proliferation and cytolytic activity. The humoral immune response was assessed after immunization with heat killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (HKSP). There was a significant increase in the number of HKSP-specific IgM secreting B cells in the spleen of prenatal/lactational exposed male mice. Inasmuch as atrazine is a widespread environmental contaminant, this immunopotentiation raises concerns that it may potentiate clinical diseases, such as autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity, and needs to be carefully monitored and studied

  10. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of carbaryl and atrazine on pig manure-derived biochars: Impact of structural properties of biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Sun, Hongwen; Yu, Li; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► High ash content biochar can increase solution pH and released metal ions. ► Ash in biochar can combine pesticide through specific interactions. ► Composition and structure of biochar is favor for the hydrolysis of pesticides. -- Abstract: Biochars were produced from pig manure to elucidate the influence of biochars with high ash contents on the fate of pesticides. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of carbaryl and atrazine on original biochars and deashed biochars were investigated. The two pesticides were substantially adsorbed by the biochars, with organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (K oc ) values of 10 2.65 –10 3.66 L/kg for carbaryl and 10 1.90 –10 3.57 L/kg for atrazine at C e of 0.5 mg/L. Hydrophobic effect alone could not explain the sorption, and several other processes including pore-filling and π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions were involved in pesticide adsorption. Adsorption increased greatly on the deashed biochar, indicating that some organic sorption sites in the original biochars were blocked or difficult to access due to their interactions with inorganic moiety. The pesticides were found to hydrolyze faster in the presence of biochars, and in the presence of biochar pyrolyzed at 700 °C, carbaryl and atrazine were decomposed by 71.8% and 27.9% in 12 h, respectively. The elevated solution pH was the main reason for the enhanced hydrolysis; however both the mineral surface and dissolved metal ions released from the biochars were confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis

  11. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of carbaryl and atrazine on pig manure-derived biochars: Impact of structural properties of biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peng, E-mail: phevos1983@yahoo.com.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun, Hongwen, E-mail: sunhongwen@nankai.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Yu, Li [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun, Tieheng [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► High ash content biochar can increase solution pH and released metal ions. ► Ash in biochar can combine pesticide through specific interactions. ► Composition and structure of biochar is favor for the hydrolysis of pesticides. -- Abstract: Biochars were produced from pig manure to elucidate the influence of biochars with high ash contents on the fate of pesticides. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of carbaryl and atrazine on original biochars and deashed biochars were investigated. The two pesticides were substantially adsorbed by the biochars, with organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (K{sub oc}) values of 10{sup 2.65}–10{sup 3.66} L/kg for carbaryl and 10{sup 1.90}–10{sup 3.57} L/kg for atrazine at C{sub e} of 0.5 mg/L. Hydrophobic effect alone could not explain the sorption, and several other processes including pore-filling and π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions were involved in pesticide adsorption. Adsorption increased greatly on the deashed biochar, indicating that some organic sorption sites in the original biochars were blocked or difficult to access due to their interactions with inorganic moiety. The pesticides were found to hydrolyze faster in the presence of biochars, and in the presence of biochar pyrolyzed at 700 °C, carbaryl and atrazine were decomposed by 71.8% and 27.9% in 12 h, respectively. The elevated solution pH was the main reason for the enhanced hydrolysis; however both the mineral surface and dissolved metal ions released from the biochars were confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis.

  12. Microscopic examination on cytological changes in Allium cepa and shift in phytoplankton population at different doses of Atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Finger, Kristen; Usnick, Samantha; Rogers, William J.; Das, A. B.; Smith, Don W.

    2010-06-01

    Atrazine is a wide-range herbicide. For over 50 years, atrazine has been used as a selective broadleaf herbicide in many capacities, from pre-plant to pre-emergence to post-emergence, depending on the crop and application. Currently, 96% of all atrazine used is for commercial applications in fields for the control of broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as sorghum, corn, sugarcane, pineapple and for the control of undesirable weeds in rangeland. Many panhandle wells have also detected atrazine in samples taken. The concern for the public is the long-term effect of atrazine with its increasing popularity, and the impact on public health. We investigated the effect of different concentrations of atrazine on Allium cepa (onion), a standard plant test system. We established a control with the Allium bulbs grown on hydroponics culture. Varying concentrations of atrazine was used on the standard plant test system, Allium cepa grown hydroponically. The mitotic indices varied and with higher doses, we observed various chromosomal abnormalities including sticky bridges, early and late separations, and lag chromosomes with higher doses of treatments. In the second part of the experiment, 0.1ppb, 1ppb, 10ppb, and 100ppb concentrations of atrazine were applied to established phytoplankton cultures from the Lake Tanglewood, Texas. Study with a Sedgwick-Rafter counter, a BX-40 Olympus microscope with DP-70 camera revealed a gradual shift in the phytoplankton community from obligatory to facultative autotroph and finally to a parasitic planktonic community. This explains the periodic fish kill in the lakes after applications of atrazine in crop fields.

  13. Monitoring bioremediation of atrazine in soil microcosms using molecular tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagarkar, Sneha; Mukherjee, Shinjini; Nousiainen, Aura; Björklöf, Katarina; Purohit, Hemant J.; Jørgensen, Kirsten S.; Kapley, Atya

    2013-01-01

    Molecular tools in microbial community analysis give access to information on catabolic potential and diversity of microbes. Applied in bioremediation, they could provide a new dimension to improve pollution control. This concept has been demonstrated in the study using atrazine as model pollutant. Bioremediation of the herbicide, atrazine, was analyzed in microcosm studies by bioaugmentation, biostimulation and natural attenuation. Genes from the atrazine degrading pathway atzA/B/C/D/E/F, trzN, and trzD were monitored during the course of treatment and results demonstrated variation in atzC, trzD and trzN genes with time. Change in copy number of trzN gene under different treatment processes was demonstrated by real-time PCR. The amplified trzN gene was cloned and sequence data showed homology to genes reported in Arthrobacter and Nocardioides. Results demonstrate that specific target genes can be monitored, quantified and correlated to degradation analysis which would help in predicting the outcome of any bioremediation strategy. - Highlights: ► Degradation of herbicide, atrazine. ► Comparison of bioremediation via bioaugmentation, biostimulation and natural attenuation. ► Gene profile analysis in all treatments. ► Variation in trzN gene numbers correlated to degradation efficiency. ► Cloning and sequence analysis of trzN gene demonstrates very high homology to reported gene. - This study demonstrates the use of molecular tools in bioremediation to monitor and track target genes; correlates the results with degradation and thereby predicts the efficiency of treatment.

  14. Atrazine Molecular Imprinted Polymers: Comparative Analysis by Far-Infrared and Ultraviolet Induced Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs were comparatively synthesized using identical polymer formulation by far-infrared (FIR radiation and ultraviolet (UV-induced polymerization, respectively. Equilibrium binding experiments were carried out with the prepared MIPs; the results showed that MIPuv possessed specific binding to atrazine compared with their MIPFIR radiation counterparts. Scatchard plot’s of both MIPs indicated that the affinities of the binding sites in MIPs are heterogeneous and can be approximated by two dissociation-constants corresponding to the high- and low-affinity binding sites. Moreover, several common pesticides including atrazine, cyromazine, metamitron, simazine, ametryn, terbutryn were tested to determine their specificity, similar imprinting factor (IF and different selectivity index (SI for both MIPs. Physical characterization of the polymers revealed that the different polymerization methods led to slight differences in polymer structures and performance by scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR, and mercury analyzer (MA. Finally, both MIPs were used as selective sorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE of atrazine from lake water, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. Compared with commercial C18 SPE sorbent (86.4%–94.8%, higher recoveries of atrazine in spiked lake water were obtained in the range of 90.1%–97.1% and 94.4%–101.9%, for both MIPs, respectively.

  15. Atrazine Contamination and Potential Health Effects on Freshwater Mussel Uniandra contradens Living in Agricultural Catchment at Nan Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongchai Thitiphuree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cultivation in northern part of Thailand leads to widely uses of agrochemicals especially atrazine herbicide. To examine whether an intensive use of atrazine could lead to contamination in aquatic environment, sediment and water were collected from an agricultural catchment in Nan Province during 2010-2011 and subjected to analysis for atrazine by GC-MS. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in water (0.16 µg/ml and sediment (0.23 µg/g of the catchment. To monitor potential effects of atrazine on aquatic animals, a freshwater mussel Uniandra contradens was used as a sentinel species for bioaccumulation and potential health effects. Mussels collected from the catchment during 2010-2011 were subjected to analysis for atrazine residue in tissue and condition factor based on body weight and shell length. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in mussel tissue with the highest level (8.40  2.06 ng/g in late wet season when runoff from heavy rain was evidenced. Condition factor, an indicative of overall health, showed a significant negative correlation with atrazine residue in the tissue. This information could be used as part of the monitoring program for herbicide contamination and potential health effects in agricultural environment.

  16. Watershed regressions for pesticides (warp) models for predicting atrazine concentrations in Corn Belt streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models, previously developed for atrazine at the national scale, are improved for application to the United States (U.S.) Corn Belt region by developing region-specific models that include watershed characteristics that are influential in predicting atrazine concentration statistics within the Corn Belt. WARP models for the Corn Belt (WARP-CB) were developed for annual maximum moving-average (14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day durations) and annual 95th-percentile atrazine concentrations in streams of the Corn Belt region. The WARP-CB models accounted for 53 to 62% of the variability in the various concentration statistics among the model-development sites. Model predictions were within a factor of 5 of the observed concentration statistic for over 90% of the model-development sites. The WARP-CB residuals and uncertainty are lower than those of the National WARP model for the same sites. Although atrazine-use intensity is the most important explanatory variable in the National WARP models, it is not a significant variable in the WARP-CB models. The WARP-CB models provide improved predictions for Corn Belt streams draining watersheds with atrazine-use intensities of 17 kg/km2 of watershed area or greater.

  17. Biodegradation of 14 C-atrazine under outdoor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Brigida Pimentel Villar de

    1997-10-01

    Uniformly 14 C-ring labeled atrazine (5 L/ha) was applied to a Typical Hapludox Brazilian Soil sample which was incubated under outdoor conditions. Sample of 200 g (dry weight base) of fresh soil were distributed in Erlenmeyer flasks and the moisture was adjusted for 2/3 rds of the soil field capacity. The flasks were then buried in the Lysimeter Station when they were incubated. The experiment started jointly with a corn planting. The 14 C O 2 was analyzed every 15 day, during a period of 150 days. The desorbed, extracted and bound residues were analyzed. The extracted soil was fractionated and the residues in the humin, fulvic and humic acids were determined. At the end of the incubation period (150 days), the 14 CO 2 evolved reached up to 36% of the total applied activity, the bound residues were detected in about the same (34%) during the inoculation period, and were distributed in the fractions of fulvic acids (29,91%), humic acids (6,83%) and humin (63,26%). The metabolites formed in the desorbed residues and in the extracted residues were determined using thin layer chromatography with 14 C-detector. After 150 days incubation, desorbed soil residues were identified as atrazine (52,72%), hydroxiatrazine (44%) and desisopropilatrazine (3,28%). The extractable residues contained atrazine (79,29%), hydroxiatrazine (16,22%), desisopropilatrazine (2,25%) and desetylatrazine (2,24%). (author)

  18. Effective sorption of atrazine by biochar colloids and residues derived from different pyrolysis temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Gao, Yan; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Shuaishuai; Li, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Ying

    2018-04-26

    Biochar has attracted much attention, which owns many environmental and agronomic benefits, including carbon sequestration, improvement of soil quality, and immobilization of environmental contaminants. Biochar has been also investigated as an effective sorbent in recent publications. Generally, biochar particles can be divided into colloids and residues according to particle sizes, while understanding of adsorption capacities towards organic pollutants in each section is largely unknown, representing a critical knowledge gap in evaluations on the effectiveness of biochar for water treatment application. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method are used to examine the structures and surface properties of biochar colloids and residues derived from corn straws prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures. Also, their roles in atrazine (a typical organic pollutant) removal are investigated by batch adsorption experiments and fitted by different kinetic and thermodynamic models, respectively. The adsorption capacities of biochar colloids are much more than those of residues, resulting from the colloids containing abundant oxygen functional groups and mineral substances, and the adsorption capacities of biochar colloids and residues increase with the increase of pyrolysis temperatures. The highest adsorption performance of 139.33 mg g -1 can be obtained in biochar colloids prepared at 700 °C, suggesting the important functions of biochar colloids in the application of atrazine removal by biochar.

  19. Effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine on gonadal development of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, Shane R; Martin, Pamela A; Fernie, Kimberly J; Park, Brad J; Mayne, Gregory

    2006-02-01

    The herbicide atrazine has been suspected of affecting sexual development by inducing aromatase, resulting in the increased conversion of androgens to estrogens. We used snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina), a species in which sex is dependent on the production of estrogen through aromatase activity in a temperature-dependent manner, to investigate if environmentally relevant exposures to atrazine affected gonadal development. Eggs were incubated in soil to which atrazine was applied at a typical field application rate (3.1 L/ha), 10-fold this rate (31 L/ha), and a control rate (no atrazine) for the duration of embryonic development. The incubation temperature (25 degrees C) was selected to produce only males. Although some males with testicular oocytes and females were produced in the atrazine-treated groups (3.3-3.7%) but not in the control group, no statistical differences were found among treatments. Furthermore, snapping turtle eggs collected from natural nests in a corn field were incubated at the pivotal temperature (27.5 degrees C) at which both males and females normally would be produced, and some males had oocytes in the testes (15.4%). The presence of low numbers of males with oocytes may be a natural phenomenon, and we have limited evidence to suggest that the presence of normal males with oocytes may represent a feminizing effect of atrazine. Histological examination of the thyroid gland revealed no effect on thyroid morphology.

  20. Simulation of branched serial first-order decay of atrazine and metabolites in adapted and nonadapted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Richard M.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Jason L. Krutz,; Dale L. Shaner,

    2011-01-01

    In the present study a branched serial first-order decay (BSFOD) model is presented and used to derive transformation rates describing the decay of a common herbicide, atrazine, and its metabolites observed in unsaturated soils adapted to previous atrazine applications and in soils with no history of atrazine applications. Calibration of BSFOD models for soils throughout the country can reduce the uncertainty, relative to that of traditional models, in predicting the fate and transport of pesticides and their metabolites and thus support improved agricultural management schemes for reducing threats to the environment. Results from application of the BSFOD model to better understand the degradation of atrazine supports two previously reported conclusions: atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N′-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) and its primary metabolites are less persistent in adapted soils than in nonadapted soils; and hydroxyatrazine was the dominant primary metabolite in most of the soils tested. In addition, a method to simulate BSFOD in a one-dimensional solute-transport unsaturated zone model is also presented.

  1. The impact of the herbicide atrazine on growth and photosynthesis of seagrass, Zostera marina (L.), seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaping; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Ren, Lihua; Mao, Yuze; Li, Bin; Zhang, Mingliang; Liu, Dinghai; Du, Meirong

    2011-08-01

    The impact of the widely used herbicide atrazine on seedling growth and photosynthesis of eelgrass was determined. The long-term impact of the herbicide atrazine (1, 10 and 100 μg/L) on growth of eelgrass Zostera marina (L.) seedlings, maintained in outdoor aquaria, was monitored over 4 weeks. Exposure to 10 μg/L atrazine resulted in significantly lower plant fresh weight and total chlorophyll concentration and up to 86.67% mortality at the 100 μg/L concentration. Short-term photosynthetic stress on eelgrass seedlings was determined and compared with adult eelgrass using chlorophyll fluorescence. The effective quantum yield in eelgrass seedlings was significantly depressed at all atrazine concentrations (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 μg/L) even within 2 h and remained at a lower level than for adult plants for each concentration. These results indicate that atrazine presents a potential threat to seagrass seedling functioning and that the impact is much higher than for adult plants. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of atrazine on fish, amphibians, and aquatic reptiles: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Carr, James A; Du Preez, Louis H; Giesy, John P; Kendall, Ronald J; Smith, Ernest E; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2008-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine is widely used in agriculture for the production of corn and other crops. Because of its physical and chemical properties, atrazine is found in small concentrations in surface waters--habitats for some species. A number of reports on the effects of atrazine on aquatic vertebrates, mostly amphibians, have been published, yet there is inconsistency in the effects reported, and inconsistency between studies in different laboratories. We have brought the results and conclusions of all of the relevant laboratory and field studies together in this critical review and assessed causality using procedures for the identification of causative agents of disease and ecoepidemiology derived from Koch's postulates and the Bradford-Hill guidelines. Based on a weight of evidence analysis of all of the data, the central theory that environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine affect reproduction and/or reproductive development in fish, amphibians, and reptiles is not supported by the vast majority of observations. The same conclusions also hold for the supporting theories such as induction of aromatase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to estradiol. For other responses, such as immune function, stress endocrinology, parasitism, or population-level effects, there are no indications of effects or there is such a paucity of good data that definitive conclusions cannot be made.

  3. Epidermal transmittance and phenolic composition in leaves of atrazine-tolerant and atrazine-sensitive cultivars of Brassica napus grown under enhanced UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, L.C.; Veit, M.; Bornman, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on the atrazine-tolerant mutant Stallion and the atrazine-sensitive cv. Paroll of Brassica napus L., which were grown under either visible light or with the addition of UV-B radiation (280–320 nm) for 15 days. The mutant has been shown to be sensitive to high levels of visible light as compared to the atrazine-sensitive cultivar and therefore we wished to determine plant response to UV-B radiation with respect to potential pigment changes, certain anatomical features, radiation penetration and partial photosynthesis. With regard to pigment changes, we were particularly interested in whether the compositional shift in flavonol pigments under enhanced UV-B radiation, previously suggested to favour increased antioxidant activity, is confined to the adaxial epidermis, which generally receives most UV-B radiation or whether the pigment shift is also inducible in the abaxial epidermis.As was to be expected, the penetration of UV-B radiation (310 nm) was lower in the UV-B-exposed plants, which was correlated with an increased amount of UV-screening pigments in the adaxial and abaxial epidermal layers. The main flavonoid glycosides showed the largest shift from kaempferol to quercetin as aglycone moiety in the adaxial epidermal layer. However, in the abaxial epidermal layer the hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives and kaempferol glycosides were predominant. Penetration of 430 nm light was higher after UV-B exposure, and probably contributed to the fact that photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II was unchanged or higher after UV-B exposure. UV-B radiation decreased leaf area in the atrazine-tolerant mutant only. Both cultivars showed an increased leaf thickness after UV-B exposure due to cell elongation mainly of the palisade tissue. This was especially evident in the mutant

  4. Examining the joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine in the aquatic species: Lepomis macrochirus, Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler Mehler, W.; Schuler, Lance J.; Lydy, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine was compared to that of chlorpyrifos alone to discern any greater than additive response using both acute toxicity testing and whole-body residue analysis. In addition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and biotransformation were investigated to evaluate the toxic mode of action of chlorpyrifos in the presence of atrazine. The joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos exhibited no significant difference in Lepomis macrochirus compared to chlorpyrifos alone; while studies performed with Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans, did show significant differences. AChE activity and biotransformation showed no significant differences between the joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos and that of chlorpyrifos alone. From the data collected, the combination of atrazine and chlorpyrifos pose little additional risk than that of chlorpyrifos alone to the tested fish species. - The joint toxicity between atrazine and chlorpyrifos caused greater than additive responses in invertebrates, but the interactions in vertebrates was less pronounced

  5. Examining the joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine in the aquatic species: Lepomis macrochirus, Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Mehler, W.; Schuler, Lance J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States)], E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu

    2008-03-15

    The joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine was compared to that of chlorpyrifos alone to discern any greater than additive response using both acute toxicity testing and whole-body residue analysis. In addition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and biotransformation were investigated to evaluate the toxic mode of action of chlorpyrifos in the presence of atrazine. The joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos exhibited no significant difference in Lepomis macrochirus compared to chlorpyrifos alone; while studies performed with Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans, did show significant differences. AChE activity and biotransformation showed no significant differences between the joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos and that of chlorpyrifos alone. From the data collected, the combination of atrazine and chlorpyrifos pose little additional risk than that of chlorpyrifos alone to the tested fish species. - The joint toxicity between atrazine and chlorpyrifos caused greater than additive responses in invertebrates, but the interactions in vertebrates was less pronounced.

  6. Assessment of atrazine levels in Kintampo-North and Techiman municipalities in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwarteng, L.

    2013-06-01

    Successes in Ghana's agriculture and saving lives from vector borne diseases would not have happened without the application of pesticides. The increasing maize farming activities in the Techiman and Kintampo-North Municipalities of the Brong-Ahafo Region have resulted in a corresponding increase in atrazine usage. The presence of pesticides in the environment and food impacts negatively on human health and create barriers to trade in agricultural commodities. Atrazine is a herbicide of concern because of its persistent in the environment. There is growing evidence of cacinogenicity, genotoxicity and endocrine disruption capacity being attributed to the ingestion of or exposure to atrazine. In this study a field survey was conducted to assess farmers' knowledge of safe handling and use of pesticides. The study also evaluated the levels of atrazine in soil at different depth and water from the study area using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and also assessed the potential health risk associated with atrazine contamination of water in the Techiman and Kintampo North Municipalities. Generally a high proportion of farmers were at a high risk of pesticide poisoning from occupational exposure. More than 80% of farmers did not practice safety precautions during pesticide mixing and application leading to considerable prevalence of pesticide related illness in this agricultural community. Atrazine residues were detected in 20% of the total soil samples analysed and the levels ranged between 0.001µg/Kg and 0.011µg/Kg. The estimated doses of atrazine do not pose any direct hazard to human health although present in water samples. Although residue levels of atrazine were low the results implicitly revealed that improper pesticide use in the study area has led to contamination of soil and poor water quality. (au)

  7. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of atrazine by boron-fluorine co-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-Xuan; Zhu, Li-Nan; Guo, Fu-Qiao

    2018-06-23

    Atrazine, one of the most widespread herbicides in the world, is considered as an environmental estrogen and has potential carcinogenicity. In this study, atrazine was degraded on boron-fluorine co-doped TiO 2 nanotube arrays (B, F-TiO 2 NTAs), which had similar morphology with the pristine TiO 2 NTAs. The structure and morphology of TiO 2 nanotube samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). It showed that the decoration of fluorine and boron made both the absorption in the visible region enhanced and the band edge absorption shifted. The efficiency of atrazine degradation by B, F-TiO 2 NTAs through photoelectrocatalysis was investigated by current, solution pH, and electrolyte concentration, respectively. The atrazine removal rate reached 76% through photoelectrocatalytic reaction by B, F-TiO 2 NTAs, which was 46% higher than that under the photocatalysis process. Moreover, the maximum degradation rate was achieved at pH of 6 in 0.01 M of Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte solution under a current of 0.02 A and visible light for 2 h in the presence of B, F-TiO 2 NTAs. These results showed that B, F-TiO 2 NTAs exhibit remarkable photoelectrocatalytic activity in degradation of atrazine.

  8. Evaluation of the agronomic performance of atrazine-tolerant transgenic japonica rice parental lines for utilization in hybrid seed production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.. To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer, and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9-7.0% or 0.8-8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0-59.2% or 28.1-30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production.

  9. Immobilization of the white-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor to degrade the herbicide atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, S; Santos, C; Lima, N; Diez, M C

    2016-12-01

    Herbicides cause environmental concerns because they are toxic and accumulate in the environment, food products and water supplies. There is a need to develop safe, efficient and economical methods to remove them from the environment, often by biodegradation. Atrazine is such herbicide. White-rot fungi have the ability to degrade herbicides of potential utility. This study formulated a novel pelletized support to immobilize the white-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor to improve its capability to degrade the atrazine using a biopurification system (BS). Different proportions of sawdust, starch, corn meal and flaxseed were used to generate three pelletized supports (F1, F2 and F3). In addition, immobilization with coated and uncoated pelletized supports (CPS and UPS, respectively) was assessed. UPS-F1 was determined as the most effective system as it provided high level of manganese peroxidase activity and fungal viability. The half-life (t 1/2 ) of atrazine decreased from 14 to 6 days for the control and inoculated samples respectively. Inoculation with immobilized A. discolor produced an increase in the fungal taxa assessed by DGGE and on phenoloxidase activity determined. The treatment improves atrazine degradation and reduces migration to surface and groundwater.

  10. Exposure to Atrazine and Selected Non-Persistent Pesticides among Corn Farmers during a Growing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Berit; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Barr, Dana B.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura Beane; Lynch, Charles F.; Allen, Ruth H.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Vermeulen, Roel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to develop quantitative estimates of farmers’ pesticide exposure to atrazine and to provide an overview of background levels of selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers in a longitudinal molecular epidemiologic study. Methods The study population consisted of 30 Agricultural Health Study farmers from Iowa and 10 nonfarming controls. Farmers completed daily and weekly diaries from March to November in 2002 and 2003 on pesticide use and other exposure determinants. Urine samples were collected at 10 timepoints relative to atrazine application and other farming activities. Pesticide exposure was assessed using urinary metabolites and diaries. Results The analytical limit of detection (LOD) ranged between 0.1–0.2 μg/l for all pesticide analytes except for isazaphos (1.5 μg/l) and diazinon (0.7 μg/l). Farmers had higher geometric mean urinary atrazine mercapturate (AZM) values than controls during planting (1.1 vs. urine collection (38% vs. 6%, p<0.0001). A similar pattern was observed for 2,4-D and acetochlor (92% vs. 47%, p<0.0001 and 45% vs. 4%, p<0.0001, respectively). Conclusion Urinary AZM levels in farmers were largely driven by recent application of atrazine. Therefore, the amount of atrazine applied is likely to provide valid surrogates of atrazine exposure in epidemiologic studies. Elevated background levels of non-persistent pesticides, especially 2,4-D, indicate importance in epidemiologic studies of capturing pesticide exposures that might not be directly related to the actual application. PMID:19052531

  11. BIOREMEDIATION PERSPECTIVES USING AUTOCHTHONOUS SPECIES OF Trichoderma sp. FOR DEGRADATION OF ATRAZINE IN AGRICULTURAL SOIL FROM THE TULANCINGO VALLEY, HIDALGO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Islas Pelcastre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show an in vitro bioremediation methodology for atrazine-contaminated soils through the use of local strains of native fungi isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L rhizosphere present in cultivable soils as well as to evaluate its resistance and capacity for atrazine degradation. A Trichoderma sp. species was identified in three cultivable soils from the Tulancingo Hidalgo, México region (contaminated with and without atrazine, which resisted atrazine concentrations of 10,000 mg L-1.  Tests showed that the strain grows exponentially in atrazine-contaminated soil over a range of 105-106 CFU g-1 in 15 days using atrazine as the only carbon and nitrogen source, while the control and witress showed a decrease of 100-103 UFC g-1 in the same period of time. For the atrazine degradation experiments, a treatment of the application of Trichoderma (104 - 105 CFU mL-1 was applied to sterilized and non-sterilized soil contaminated with 500 mg Kg-1 of atrazine, evaluated at four time intervals (5, 10, 20 and 40 days. Statistical differences were found (α=0.050, Tukey among treatments with the fungi and the test days. The native Trichoderma strain degraded 89% of the atrazine in 40 days. It showed that it is viable and cultivable in soil bioremediation.

  12. Role of e{sub aq}{sup −}, ·OH and H· in radiolytic degradation of atrazine: A kinetic and mechanistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Javed Ali, E-mail: javed_chemistry@yahoo.com [Radiation Chemistry Laboratory, National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120 (Pakistan); Shah, Noor S. [Radiation Chemistry Laboratory, National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120 (Pakistan); Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Swat, Swat 19130 (Pakistan); Nawaz, Shah; Ismail, M.; Rehman, Faiza [Radiation Chemistry Laboratory, National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120 (Pakistan); Khan, Hasan M., E-mail: hmkhan@upesh.edu.pk [Radiation Chemistry Laboratory, National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120 (Pakistan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Atrazine was efficiently removed from aqueous solution by γ-ray irradiation. • e{sub aq}{sup −} was found to have more crucial role in removal of atrazine than ·OH. • Atrazine degradation was reduced in the presence of t-BuOH and i-PrOH. • Atrazine showed high stability at neutral pH than at very low and high pH conditions. • Potential degradation mechanism was evaluated by GC–MS analysis. - Abstract: The degradation of atrazine was investigated in aqueous solution by gamma-ray irradiation. 8.11 μM initial atrazine concentration could be completely removed in N{sub 2} saturated solution by applying 3500 Gy radiation dose at a dose rate of 296 Gy h{sup −1}. Significant removal of atrazine (i.e., 39.4%) was observed at an absorbed dose of 1184 Gy in air saturated solution and the removal efficiency was promoted to 50.5 and 65.4% in the presence of N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} gases, respectively. The relative contributions of hydrated electron, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen radical toward atrazine degradation were determined as ratio of observed dose constant (k{sub obs}) and found to be 5: 3: 1 for k{sub eaq}{sup −}: k{sub ·OH}: k{sub H}·, respectively. The degradation efficiency of atrazine was 69.5, 55.6 and 37.3% at pH 12.1, 1.7 and 5.7, respectively. A degradation mechanism was proposed based on the identified degradation by-products by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Taking the relative contributions of oxidative and reductive species to atrazine degradation into account, reductive pathway proved to be a better approach for the radiolytic treatment of atrazine contaminated water.

  13. Genotoxic Effect of Atrazine, Arsenic, Cadmium and Nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atrazine has clastogenic effects and may also act as tumor promoter as it induces the aromatase enzyme. ... bladder cancer. This study ... in MCF-10A cells, suggesting that estrogen receptor modulated the genotoxicity of estrogen. Cd caused ...

  14. Fish short-term reproduction assay with atrazine and the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmer, Alan J; Schneider, Suzanne Z; Anderson, Julie C; Knopper, Loren D; Brain, Richard A

    2017-09-01

    Breeding groups of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to atrazine at measured concentrations of 0.6, 5.5, and 53 μg/L for 35 d. Evaluated endpoints included survival, fecundity, fertility, growth (weight and length), behavior, secondary sex characteristics (anal fin papillae), gonad histopathology, and hepatic vitellogenin. No statistically significant effects of atrazine exposure on survival and growth of medaka were noted during the test, and mean survival was ≥97.5% in all treatment groups on day 35. No significant effects of atrazine exposure on reproduction were observed. The number of mean cumulative eggs produced in the negative control and the 0.6, 5.5, and 53 μg/L treatment groups was 7158, 6691, 6883, and 6856, respectively. The mean number of eggs per female reproductive day was 40.9, 38.2, 40.2, and 39.2, respectively. There were also no dose-dependent effects on mean anal fin papillae counts among male fish or expression of vtg-II in males or females. In addition, atrazine exposure was not related to the developmental stage of test fish, with testes stages ranging from 2 to 3 in all groups and ovaries ranging from stage 2 to 2.5. Overall, exposure to atrazine up to 53 µg/L for 35 d did not result in significant, treatment-related effects on measured endpoints related to survival, growth, or reproduction in Japanese medaka. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2327-2334. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  15. Impact of long-term wastewater irrigation on sorption and transport of atrazine in Mexican agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, K.; Duwig, Céline; Prado, B.; Siebe, C.; Hidalgo, C.; Etchevers, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, crops have been irrigated with untreated municipal wastewater for more than a century. Atrazine has been applied to maize and alfalfa grown in the area for weed control for 15 years. Our objectives were to analyse (i) how wastewater irrigation affects the filtering of atrazine, and (ii) if the length of irrigation has a significant impact. We compared atrazine sorption to Phaeozems that have been irrigated with raw wastewater for 35 (P35) and 85 (P85) years wi...

  16. Regression models for estimating concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine in shallow groundwater in agricultural areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackelberg, Paul E.; Barbash, Jack E.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Stone, Wesley W.; Wolock, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Tobit regression models were developed to predict the summed concentration of atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] and its degradate deethylatrazine [6-chloro-N-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5,-triazine-2,4-diamine] (DEA) in shallow groundwater underlying agricultural settings across the conterminous United States. The models were developed from atrazine and DEA concentrations in samples from 1298 wells and explanatory variables that represent the source of atrazine and various aspects of the transport and fate of atrazine and DEA in the subsurface. One advantage of these newly developed models over previous national regression models is that they predict concentrations (rather than detection frequency), which can be compared with water quality benchmarks. Model results indicate that variability in the concentration of atrazine residues (atrazine plus DEA) in groundwater underlying agricultural areas is more strongly controlled by the history of atrazine use in relation to the timing of recharge (groundwater age) than by processes that control the dispersion, adsorption, or degradation of these compounds in the saturated zone. Current (1990s) atrazine use was found to be a weak explanatory variable, perhaps because it does not represent the use of atrazine at the time of recharge of the sampled groundwater and because the likelihood that these compounds will reach the water table is affected by other factors operating within the unsaturated zone, such as soil characteristics, artificial drainage, and water movement. Results show that only about 5% of agricultural areas have greater than a 10% probability of exceeding the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 3.0 μg L-1. These models are not developed for regulatory purposes but rather can be used to (i) identify areas of potential concern, (ii) provide conservative estimates of the concentrations of atrazine residues in deeper potential drinking water supplies, and (iii) set priorities

  17. Atrazine dissipation in a biobed system inoculated with immobilized white-rot fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Elgueta, Sebastian; Santos, Cledir; Santos, C.; Lima, Nelson; Diez, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the environmental concerns about the herbicide atrazine accumulation in food products and water reservoirs, there is a need to develop safe and economical methods for its dissipation. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the atrazine dissipation in a biobed system inoculated with immobilized white-rot fungi in a pelletized support (PS). All fungal isolates evaluated were efficient in colonizing the surface and inner parts of the PS and without differences observed in the coloniza...

  18. Atrazine in public water supplies and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in the Iowa Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Weyer, Peter J; Jones, Rena R; Booth, Benjamin J; Cantor, Kenneth P; Robien, Kim; Ward, Mary H

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated environmental chemical exposures in relation to ovarian cancer. We previously found an increased risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa associated with higher nitrate levels in public water supplies (PWS). However, elevated nitrate levels may reflect the presence of other agricultural chemicals, such as atrazine, one of the most commonly detected pesticides in Iowa PWS. We evaluated the association between atrazine in drinking water and incident ovarian cancer (N=145, 1986-2010) among 13 041 postmenopausal women in the Iowa Women's Health Study who used their PWS for ≥11 years as reported in 1989. Average levels of atrazine (1986-1987), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N, 1955-1988) and estimated levels of total trihalomethanes (TTHM, 1955-1988) from PWS monitoring data were linked to the participants' cities of residence. We computed HRs and 95% CIs by categories of the average atrazine level (not detected, ≤ or >0.37 parts per billion=median) using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusting for ovarian cancer risk factors. Atrazine was detected in water samples from 69 cities where 4155 women (32%) lived and levels were moderately correlated with NO3-N (ρ=0.35) and TTHM (ρ=0.24). Atrazine levels were not associated with ovarian cancer risk with or without adjusting for NO3-N and TTHM levels (p-trend=0.50 and 0.81, respectively). Further, there was no evidence for effect modification of the atrazine association by NO3-N or TTHM levels. In our study with low atrazine detection rates, we found no association between atrazine in PWS and postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Properties comparison of biochars from corn straw with different pretreatment and sorption behaviour of atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuchen; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Lin, Chunye; Wang, Fangli; Han, Sheng; Geng, Xiaojun

    2013-11-01

    Biochar has been recognised as an efficient pollution control material. In this study, biochars (CS450 and ADPCS450) were produced using corn straw with different pretreatment techniques (without and with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP)). The character of the two biochars was compared using elemental analysis, specific surface area (SSA) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). ADPCS450 had a higher residue yield and a much larger specific surface area than CS450. The Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models were used to interpret the sorption behaviour of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and the results fit the Redlich-Peterson equation best. The isothermal sorption parameters indicated that the sorption capacity of atrazine on ADPCS450 was much larger than the sorption capacity of atrazine on CS450. Atrazine sorption was also favoured in acidic solution and under higher temperature conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectrophotometric and visual detection of the herbicide atrazine by exploiting hydrogen bond-induced aggregation of melamine-modified gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guangyang; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Zhou, Pan; Li, Tengfei; Yu, Hailong; Du, Xinwei; She, Yongxin; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shanshan; Jin, Fen; Jin, Maojun; Shao, Hua; Zheng, Lufei

    2015-01-01

    We report on a method for the determination of the herbicide atrazine in tap water samples using melamine-modified gold nanoparticles (Mel-AuNPs). If a solution containing atrazine is added to a solution of such NPs, a color change occurs from wine-red to blue. This is due to a transition from monodisperse to aggregated Mel-AuNPs and caused by strong hydrogen bonding between atrazine and melamine. The color change can be monitored by a UV–vis spectrophotometer or with bare eyes. The ratio of the absorbances at 640 and 523 nm is linearly related to the logarithm of the atrazine concentration in the 0.165 to 16.5 μM range, and (with different slope) in the 16.5 μM to 330 μM range. The detection limit of atrazine is as low as 16.5 nM (S/N = 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of atrazine in spiked tap water and gave recoveries that ranged from 72.5 % to 102.3 %. (author)

  1. Development of a bacterial bioassay for atrazine and cyanuric acid detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eHUA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The s-triazine herbicides are compounds which can disseminate into soils and water. Due to their toxic effects on living organisms, their concentrations in drinking water are legislated by WHO recommendations. Here we have developed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, an alternative method for physicochemical quantification using two bioluminescent bacterial biosensors: E. coli SM003 for cyanuric acid detection and E. coli SM004 for both atrazine and cyanuric acid detection. The concentration of cyanuric acid detection for E. coli SM003 ranges from 7.83 µM to 2.89 mM, and for E. coli SM004 ranges from 0.22 µM to 15 µM. Moreover, atrazine detection by E. coli SM004 ranges from 1.08 µM to 15 µM. According to WHO recommendations, the cyanuric acid detection range is sensitive enough to discriminate between polluted and drinking water. Nevertheless, the detection of atrazine by E. coli SM004 is only applicable for high concentrations of contaminants.

  2. Involvement of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in atrazine action on FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 expression in rat granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide used herbicide atrazine is linked to reproductive dysfunction in females. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of atrazine action in the ovary using a primary culture of immature granulosa cells. In granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascades, with cAMP pathway being more important for luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA expression. We report that 48 h after atrazine exposure the FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA expression and estradiol synthesis were decreased, with LHR mRNA being more sensitive to atrazine than CYP19A1 mRNA. Inadequate acquisition of LHR in the FSH-stimulated and atrazine-exposed granulosa cells renders human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ineffective to stimulate amphiregulin (Areg), epiregulin (Ereg), and progesterone receptor (Pgr) mRNA expression, suggesting anti-ovulatory effect of atrazine. To dissect the signaling cascade involved in atrazine action in granulosa cells, we used U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK1/2. U0126 prevents atrazine-induced decrease in LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in the FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. ERK1/2 inactivation restores the ability of hCG to induce expression of the ovulatory genes in atrazine-exposed granulosa cells. Cell-based ELISA assay revealed that atrazine does not change the FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells. The results from this study reveal that atrazine does not affect but requires ERK1/2 phosphorylation to cause decrease in the FSH-induced LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in immature granulosa cells, thus compromising ovulation and female fertility. - Highlights: • Atrazine inhibits estradiol production in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine inhibits LHR and Cyp19a1 mRNA expression in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine

  3. Involvement of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in atrazine action on FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 expression in rat granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa, E-mail: nebojsa.andric@dbe.uns.ac.rs

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide used herbicide atrazine is linked to reproductive dysfunction in females. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of atrazine action in the ovary using a primary culture of immature granulosa cells. In granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascades, with cAMP pathway being more important for luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA expression. We report that 48 h after atrazine exposure the FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA expression and estradiol synthesis were decreased, with LHR mRNA being more sensitive to atrazine than CYP19A1 mRNA. Inadequate acquisition of LHR in the FSH-stimulated and atrazine-exposed granulosa cells renders human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ineffective to stimulate amphiregulin (Areg), epiregulin (Ereg), and progesterone receptor (Pgr) mRNA expression, suggesting anti-ovulatory effect of atrazine. To dissect the signaling cascade involved in atrazine action in granulosa cells, we used U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK1/2. U0126 prevents atrazine-induced decrease in LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in the FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. ERK1/2 inactivation restores the ability of hCG to induce expression of the ovulatory genes in atrazine-exposed granulosa cells. Cell-based ELISA assay revealed that atrazine does not change the FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells. The results from this study reveal that atrazine does not affect but requires ERK1/2 phosphorylation to cause decrease in the FSH-induced LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in immature granulosa cells, thus compromising ovulation and female fertility. - Highlights: • Atrazine inhibits estradiol production in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine inhibits LHR and Cyp19a1 mRNA expression in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine

  4. GESTATIONAL ATRAZINE EXPOSURE IN THE RAT: EFFECTS ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION IN MULTIPLE GENERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chlorotriazine herbicides currently represent the most heavily used of all agricultural pesticides, with atrazine being the most common of these chemicals. Rodent toxicology studies indicate that atrazine can disrupt endocrine function and among its effects is an increased in...

  5. Assessment of Atrazine contamination in water and soil in Ghana: A preliminary study in the Yilo Krobo and Mfantsiman Districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darku, E. K.

    2013-07-01

    The thesis presents a study to determine the levels of atrazine in water and soil samples in selected farming communities in the Central and Eastern regions of Ghana, and provide baseline information on the contamination levels using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Instrumental Nuclear Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for the determination of concentration of chlorine residue in all the atrazine extracts. Twenty-four (24) water samples, comprising twelve (12) each from Obawale and Bafikrom farming communities and their environs in the Eastern and Central Regions respectively and sixteen (16) soil samples from farms in the same location. Solid-phase extraction C 18 Sep-Pak cartridges were used for the isolation of atrazine residues from water samples in this investigation. Methanol (HPLC grade) was used to elute the atrazine, concentrated and transferred into vials for the determination of the atrazine contents. The same procedure was used for the determination of atrazine in soil samples using acetonitrile for the extraction. Residue of atrazine was detected in all water samples from Obawale with concentration ranging from 0.012 to 0.042µg/L with a mean concentration of 0.026µg/L whilst that of Baifikrom ranged from 0.01 to 0.04µg/L with a mean value of 0.007µg/L. Residue of atrazine was detected in ground water samples from Obawale with concentration ranging from 0.030µg/L to 0.930µg/L and from 0.038µg/L to 0.116µg/L at Bafikrom. The relative higher concentration of atrazine in the ground water sample was ro be expected since atrazine tend to be more stable in ground water. For soil samples, 8 out of the 16 samples recorded atrazine residue. For Obawale and Baifikrom, residues were detected in 5 and 3 samples ranging from 0.011µg/L to 0.041µg/L and 0.001µg/L to 0.009µg/L respectively. Using the INAA, concentration of chlorine residue was detected in all the atrazine extracts. The chlorine values ranged from 0.004µg/L to 0.01µg/L. In

  6. SORPTION OF VINCLOZOLIN AND ATRAZINE ON FOUR GEOSORBENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the magnitude and kinetics of vinclozolin and atrazine sorption on one surface soil and three freshwater sediments using batch and column techniques. Data from miscible displacement column studies were analyzed using a two-domain, fir...

  7. The possible role of hydroxylation in the detoxification of atrazine in mature vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides Nash) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcacci, Sylvie; Raventon, Muriel; Ravanel, Patrick; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The resistance mechanism of vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) to atrazine was investigated to evaluate its potential for phytoremediation of environment contaminated with the herbicide. Plants known to metabolise atrazine rely on hydroxylation mediated by benzoxazinones, conjugation catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferases and dealkylation probably mediated by cytochromes P450. All three possibilities were explored in mature vetiver grown in hydroponics during this research project. Here we report on the chemical role of benzoxazinones in the transformation of atrazine. Fresh vetiver roots and leaves were cut to extract and study their content in benzoxazinones known to hydroxylate atrazine, such as 2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA), 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) and their mono- and di-glucosylated forms. Identification of benzoxazinones was performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and comparison of retention factors (Rf) and UV spectra with standards: although some products exhibited the same Rf as standards, UV spectra were different. Furthermore, in vitro hydroxylation of atrazine could not be detected in the presence of vetiver extracts. Finally, vetiver organs exposed to [14C]-atrazine did not produce any significant amount of hydroxylated products, such as hydroxyatrazine (HATR), hydroxy-deethylatrazine (HDEA), and hydroxy-deisopropylatrazine (HDIA). Altogether, these metabolic features suggest that hydroxylation was not a major metabolic pathway of atrazine in vetiver.

  8. Atrazine degradation and enzyme activities in an agricultural soil under two tillage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahía, Jorge; Martín, Angela; Carballas, Tarsy; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat

    2007-05-25

    The content of atrazine and its metabolites (hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine) as well as the activities of two soil enzymes (urease and beta-glucosidase) were evaluated in an acid agricultural soil, located in a temperate humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain), with an annual ryegrass-maize rotation under conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT). Samples were collected during two consecutive years from the arable layer at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-20 cm) and different times after atrazine application. Hydroxyatrazine and deisopropylatrazine were the main metabolites resulting from atrazine degradation in the acid soil studied, the highest levels being detected in the surface layer of the NT treatment. A residual effect of atrazine was observed since hydroxyatrazine was detected in the arable layer (0-5 cm, 5-20 cm) even one year after the herbicide application. Soil enzyme activities in the upper 5 cm layer under NT were consistently higher than those in the same layer under CT. Urease and beta-glucosidase activities decreased with depth in the profile under NT but they did not show any differences between the two depths for the plots under CT. For both tillage systems enzyme activities also reflected temporal changes during the maize cultivation; however, no consistent effect of the herbicide application was observed.

  9. Predicting where enhanced atrazine degradation will occur based on soil pH and herbicide use history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil bacteria on all continents except Antartica have developed the ability to rapidly degrade the herbicide atrazine, a phenomenon referred to as enhanced degradation. The agronomic significance of enhanced degradation is the potential for reduced residual weed control with atrazine in Corn, Sorgh...

  10. Atrazine alters expression of reproductive and stress genes in the developing hypothalamus of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russart, Kathryn L G; Rhen, Turk

    2016-07-29

    Atrazine is an herbicide used to control broadleaf grasses and a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical. Snapping turtles lay eggs between late May and early June, which could lead to atrazine exposure via field runoff. Our goal was to determine whether a single exposure to 2ppb or 40ppb atrazine during embryogenesis could induce short- and long-term changes in gene expression within the hypothalamus of snapping turtles. We treated eggs with atrazine following sex determination and measured gene expression within the hypothalamus. We selected genes a priori for their role in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axes of the endocrine system. We did not identify any changes in gene expression 24-h after treatment. However, at hatching AR, Kiss1R, and POMC expression was upregulated in both sexes, while expression of CYP19A1 and PDYN was increased in females. Six months after hatching, CYP19A1 and PRLH expression was increased in animals treated with 2ppb atrazine. Our study shows persistent changes in hypothalamic gene expression due to low-dose embryonic exposure to the herbicide atrazine with significant effects in both the HPG and HPA axes. Effects reported here appear to be conserved among vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence, diversity and community structure of culturable atrazine degraders in industrial and agricultural soils exposed to the herbicide in Shandong Province, P.R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhanov, Dmitry P; Li, Chengyun; Li, Hongmei; Li, Jishun; Zhang, Xinjian; Chen, Xiangfeng; Yang, Hetong

    2016-11-08

    Soil populations of bacteria rapidly degrading atrazine are critical to the environmental fate of the herbicide. An enrichment bias from the routine isolation procedure prevents studying the diversity of atrazine degraders. In the present work, we analyzed the occurrence, diversity and community structure of soil atrazine-degrading bacteria based on their direct isolation. Atrazine-degrading bacteria were isolated by direct plating on a specially developed SM agar. The atrazine degradation genes trzN and atzABC were detected by multiplex PCR. The diversity of atrazine degraders was characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) genotyping followed by 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. The occurrence of atrazine-degrading bacteria was also assessed by conventional PCR targeting trzN and atzABC in soil DNA. A total of 116 atrazine-degrading isolates were recovered from bulk and rhizosphere soils sampled near an atrazine factory and from geographically distant maize fields. Fifteen genotypes were distinguished among 56 industrial isolates, with 13 of them representing eight phylogenetic groups of the genus Arthrobacter. The remaining two were closely related to Pseudomonas alcaliphila and Gulosibacter molinativorax and constituted major components of the atrazine-degrading community in the most heavily contaminated industrial plantless soil. All isolates from the adjacent sites inhabited by cogon grass or common reed were various Arthrobacter spp. with a strong prevalence of A. aurescens group. Only three genotypes were distinguished among 60 agricultural strains. Genetically similar Arthrobacter ureafaciens bacteria which occurred as minor inhabitants of cogon grass roots in the industrial soil were ubiquitous and predominant atrazine degraders in the maize rhizosphere. The other two genotypes represented two distant Nocardioides spp. that were specific to their geographic origins. Direct plating on SM agar enabled rapid isolation

  12. Adsorption of pesticides onto quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and α-alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Madsen, L.

    2001-01-01

    adsorption characteristics of selected pesticides. Investigated mineral phases included quartz, calcite, kaolinite, and alpha -alumina. Selected pesticides comprised atrazine (6-chloro-N-2-ethyl-N-4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine isoproturon [3-(4-isopropyl-phenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea)], mecoprop [(RS)-2...... due to formation of Ca-pesticide-surface complexes. Adsorption of the uncharged pesticides (atrazine and isoproturon) was detected only on kaolinite. The lack of adsorption on alpha -alumina indicates that the uncharged pesticides have a greater affinity for the silanol surface sites (= SiOH) than...

  13. Hydroponic Uptake of Atrazine and Lambda-cyhalothrin in Aquatic Macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, J. L.; Farris, J. L.; Moore, M. T.; Smith, S.; Cooper, C. M.

    2005-05-01

    Phytoremediation encompasses an array of plant-associated processes known to mitigate contaminants from soil, sediment, and water. Modification of pesticides associated with agricultural runoff includes processes directly associated with aquatic macrophytes in addition to soil geochemical modifications and associated rhizospheric degradation. Remediation attributes of two vegetative species common to agricultural drainages in the Mississippi Delta, USA, were assessed using atrazine and lambda-cyhalothrin. Concentrations used in 8-d hydroponic exposures were calculated using recommended field applications and a 5% runoff model from a 0.65-cm rainfall event on a 2.02-ha field. While greater atrazine uptake was measured in Juncus effusus, greater lambda-cyhalothrin uptake occurred in Ludwigia peploides. Maximum pesticide uptake was reached within 48 h for each exposure and subsequent translocation of pesticides to upper plant biomass occurred in macrophytes exposed to atrazine. Sequestration of 98.2% of lambda-cyhalothrin in roots of L. peploides was measured after 8 d. Translocation of lambda-cyhalothrin in J. effusus resulted in 25.4% of pesticide uptake partitioned to upper plant biomass. These individual macrophyte remediation studies measured species- and pesticide-specific uptake rates, indicating that the seasonality of pesticide applications and macrophyte emergence might interact strongly to enhance mitigation capabilities in edge-of-field conveyance structures.

  14. Biochar-supported reduced graphene oxide composite for adsorption and coadsorption of atrazine and lead ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Cao, Bo; Zhao, Lulu; Sun, Lili; Gao, Yan; Li, Jiaojiao; Yang, Fan

    2018-01-01

    To explore potential in application for simultaneous removal of atrazine and lead ions (Pd2+), the adsorption and coadsorption of atrazine and Pd2+ is evaluated onto a novel biochar-supported reduced graphene oxide composite (RGO-BC), which has been successfully developed via slow pyrolysis of graphene oxide (GO) pretreated corn straws. Structure and morphology analysis reveal that GO nanosheets are coated on the surface of biochar (BC) mainly through π-π interactions, notably, GO nanosheets after annealing reduction can basically retain the original morphology, meanwhile, the change of physico-chemical properties on the surface endow excellent adsorption capaities of 26.10 mg g-1 for Pb2+ and 67.55 mg g-1 for atrazine. A significant difference is in sorption of Pb2+ and atrazine on RGO-BC sample in both single- and binary-solute systems. The adsorption capacity of RGO-BC still remained above 54.58 mg g-1 after four times regeneration (81% adsorption capacity remained), demonstrating a promising candidate for the application of removal contaminant in the environment.

  15. Effects of endosulfan, thiamethoxam, and indoxacarb in combination with atrazine on multi-biomarkers in Gammarus kischineffensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Özlem; Güven, Kemal; Asma, Dilek; Öğüt, Serdal; Uğurlu, Pelin

    2018-01-01

    Studies addressing the toxicity of pesticides towards non-target organisms focus on the median lethal concentration and biochemical response of individual pesticides. However, when determining environmental risks, it is important to test the combined effects of pesticides, such as insecticides and herbicides, which are frequently used together in agricultural areas. Here we aimed to investigate the toxic effects of the combined use of the herbicide atrazine and the insecticides, endosulfan, indoxacarb, and thiamethoxam on Gammarus kischineffensis. To do this, we tested the activities of oxidative stress, detoxification, and neurotoxicity biomarkers. Compared to atrazine alone, we detected higher glutathione-S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities (oxidative stress biomarkers) when atrazine was combined with either endosulfan or indoxacarb. However, higher IBR values were determined in organisms where pesticide mixtures were used according to individual use. Based on these results, mixtures of atrazine and other pesticides may cause synergistic effects and may be evidence of increased toxicity and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and Application of Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) for Estimating Atrazine Concentration Distributions in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steven J.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Regression models were developed for predicting atrazine concentration distributions in rivers and streams, using the Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) methodology. Separate regression equations were derived for each of nine percentiles of the annual distribution of atrazine concentrations and for the annual time-weighted mean atrazine concentration. In addition, seasonal models were developed for two specific periods of the year--the high season, when the highest atrazine concentrations are expected in streams, and the low season, when concentrations are expected to be low or undetectable. Various nationally available watershed parameters were used as explanatory variables, including atrazine use intensity, soil characteristics, hydrologic parameters, climate and weather variables, land use, and agricultural management practices. Concentration data from 112 river and stream stations sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment and National Stream Quality Accounting Network Programs were used for computing the concentration percentiles and mean concentrations used as the response variables in regression models. Tobit regression methods, using maximum likelihood estimation, were used for developing the models because some of the concentration values used for the response variables were censored (reported as less than a detection threshold). Data from 26 stations not used for model development were used for model validation. The annual models accounted for 62 to 77 percent of the variability in concentrations among the 112 model development stations. Atrazine use intensity (the amount of atrazine used in the watershed divided by watershed area) was the most important explanatory variable in all models, but additional watershed parameters significantly increased the amount of variability explained by the models. Predicted concentrations from all 10 models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentrations at most

  17. Impact of long-term wastewater irrigation on sorption and transport of atrazine in Mexican agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K; Duwig, C; Prado, B; Siebe, C; Hidalgo, C; Etchevers, J

    2012-01-01

    In the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, crops have been irrigated with untreated municipal wastewater for more than a century. Atrazine has been applied to maize and alfalfa grown in the area for weed control for 15 years. Our objectives were to analyse (i) how wastewater irrigation affects the filtering of atrazine, and (ii) if the length of irrigation has a significant impact. We compared atrazine sorption to Phaeozems that have been irrigated with raw wastewater for 35 (P35) and 85 (P85) years with sorption to a non-irrigated (P0) Phaeozem soil under rainfed agriculture. The use of bromide as an inert water tracer in column experiments and the subsequent analysis of the tracers' breakthrough curves allowed the calibration of the hydrodynamic parameters of a two-site non equilibrium convection-dispersion model. The quality of the irrigation water significantly altered the soils' hydrodynamic properties (hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity and the size of pores that are hydraulically active). The impacts on soil chemical properties (total organic carbon content and pH) were not significant, while the sodium adsorption ratio was significantly increased. Sorption and desorption isotherms, determined in batch and column experiments, showed enhanced atrazine sorption and reduced and slower desorption in wastewater-irrigated soils. These effects increased with the length of irrigation. The intensified sorption-desorption hysteresis in wastewater-irrigated soils indicated that the soil organic matter developed in these soils had fewer high-energy, easily accessible sorption sites available, leading to lower and slower atrazine desorption rates. This study leads to the conclusion that wastewater irrigation decreases atrazine mobility in the Mezquital valley Phaeozems by decreasing the hydraulic conductivity and increasing the soil's sorption capacity.

  18. Spatial and temporal variation of algal assemblages in six Midwest agricultural streams having varying levels of atrazine and other physicochemical attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, J. Malia, E-mail: andrusm@waterborne-env.com [Waterborne Environmental, Inc., 2001 South First Street, Suite 109, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); Winter, Diane, E-mail: dwinter1@juno.com [Rhithron Associates, Inc., 33 Fort Missoula Rd., Missoula, MT 59804 (United States); Algal Analysis, LLC, Missoula, MT (United States); Scanlan, Michael, E-mail: mscanlan@maptech-inc.com [MapTech, Inc., 3154 State Street, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Sullivan, Sean, E-mail: ssullivan@rhithron.com [Rhithron Associates, Inc., 33 Fort Missoula Rd., Missoula, MT 59804 (United States); Bollman, Wease, E-mail: wbollman@rhithron.com [Rhithron Associates, Inc., 33 Fort Missoula Rd., Missoula, MT 59804 (United States); Waggoner, J.B., E-mail: jwaggoner@inovatia.com [Inovatia, Inc., 120 East Davis Street, Fayette, MO 65248 (United States); Hosmer, Alan J., E-mail: alan.hosmer@syngenta.com [Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC, 410 Swing Rd., Greensboro, NC 27419 (United States); Brain, Richard A., E-mail: richard.brain@syngenta.com [Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC, 410 Swing Rd., Greensboro, NC 27419 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Potential effects of pesticides on stream algae occur alongside complex environmental influences; in situ studies examining these effects together are few, and have not typically controlled for collinearity of variables. We monitored the dynamics of periphyton, phytoplankton, and environmental factors including atrazine, and other water chemistry variables at 6 agricultural streams in the Midwest US from spring to summer of 2011 and 2012, and used variation partitioning of community models to determine the community inertia that is explained uniquely and/or jointly by atrazine and other environmental factors or groups of factors. Periphyton and phytoplankton assemblages were significantly structured by year, day of year, and site, and exhibited dynamic synchrony both between site–years and between periphyton and phytoplankton in the same site–year. The majority of inertia in the models (55.4% for periphyton, 68.4% for phytoplankton) was unexplained. The explained inertia in the models was predominantly shared (confounded) between variables and variable groups (13.3, 30.9%); the magnitude of inertia that was explained uniquely by variable groups (15.1, 18.3%) was of the order hydroclimate > chemistry > geography > atrazine for periphyton, and chemistry > hydroclimate > geography > atrazine for phytoplankton. The variables most influential to the assemblage structure included flow and velocity variables, and time since pulses above certain thresholds of nitrate + nitrite, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, and atrazine. Time since a ≥ 30 μg/L atrazine pulse uniquely explained more inertia than time since pulses ≥ 10 μg/L or daily or historic atrazine concentrations; this result is consistent with studies concluding that the effects of atrazine on algae typically only occur at ≥ 30 μg/L and are recovered from. - Highlights: • We monitored algal communities at 6 Midwest streams receiving atrazine in 2011 and 2012. • Partitioning of CCA models of

  19. Spatial and temporal variation of algal assemblages in six Midwest agricultural streams having varying levels of atrazine and other physicochemical attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrus, J. Malia; Winter, Diane; Scanlan, Michael; Sullivan, Sean; Bollman, Wease; Waggoner, J.B.; Hosmer, Alan J.; Brain, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Potential effects of pesticides on stream algae occur alongside complex environmental influences; in situ studies examining these effects together are few, and have not typically controlled for collinearity of variables. We monitored the dynamics of periphyton, phytoplankton, and environmental factors including atrazine, and other water chemistry variables at 6 agricultural streams in the Midwest US from spring to summer of 2011 and 2012, and used variation partitioning of community models to determine the community inertia that is explained uniquely and/or jointly by atrazine and other environmental factors or groups of factors. Periphyton and phytoplankton assemblages were significantly structured by year, day of year, and site, and exhibited dynamic synchrony both between site–years and between periphyton and phytoplankton in the same site–year. The majority of inertia in the models (55.4% for periphyton, 68.4% for phytoplankton) was unexplained. The explained inertia in the models was predominantly shared (confounded) between variables and variable groups (13.3, 30.9%); the magnitude of inertia that was explained uniquely by variable groups (15.1, 18.3%) was of the order hydroclimate > chemistry > geography > atrazine for periphyton, and chemistry > hydroclimate > geography > atrazine for phytoplankton. The variables most influential to the assemblage structure included flow and velocity variables, and time since pulses above certain thresholds of nitrate + nitrite, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, and atrazine. Time since a ≥ 30 μg/L atrazine pulse uniquely explained more inertia than time since pulses ≥ 10 μg/L or daily or historic atrazine concentrations; this result is consistent with studies concluding that the effects of atrazine on algae typically only occur at ≥ 30 μg/L and are recovered from. - Highlights: • We monitored algal communities at 6 Midwest streams receiving atrazine in 2011 and 2012. • Partitioning of CCA models of

  20. Toxicity Assessment of Atrazine and Related Triazine Compounds in the Microtox Assay, and Computational Modeling for Their Structure-Activity Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Leszczynski

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The triazines are a group of chemically similar herbicides including atrazine, cyanazine, and propazine, primarily used to control broadleaf weeds. About 64 to 80 million lbs of atrazine alone are used each year in the United States, making it one of the two most widely used pesticides in the country. All triazines are somewhat persistent in water and mobile in soil. They are among the most frequently detected pesticides in groundwater. They are considered as possible human carcinogens (Group C based on an increase in mammary gland tumors in female laboratory animals. In this research, we performed the Microtox Assay to investigate the acute toxicity of a significant number of triazines including atrazine, atraton, ametryne, bladex, prometryne, and propazine, and some of their degradation products including atrazine desethyl, atrazine deisopropyl, and didealkyled triazine. Tests were carried out as described by Azur Environmental [1]. The procedure measured the relative acute toxicity of triazines, producing data for the calculation of triazine concentrations effecting 50% reduction in bioluminescence (EC50s. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR were examined based on the molecular properties obtained from quantum mechanical predictions performed for each compound. Toxicity tests yielded EC50 values of 39.87, 273.20, 226.80, 36.96, 81.86, 82.68, 12.74, 11.80, and 78.50 mg/L for atrazine, propazine, prometryne, atraton, atrazine desethyl, atrazine deisopropyl, didealkylated triazine, ametryne, and bladex, respectively; indicating that ametryne was the most toxic chemical while propazine was the least toxic. QSAR evaluation resulted in a coefficient of determination (r2 of 0.86, indicating a good value of toxicity prediction based on the chemical structures/properties of tested triazines.

  1. Performance of a novel microwave-based treatment technology for atrazine removal and destruction: Sorbent reusability and chemical stability, and effect of water matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Erdan; Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu"2"+ and Fe"3"+ in zeolite pores enhance atrazine sorption and MW-induced degradation. • Exchanged zeolites perform well over multiple sorption–regeneration cycles. • Fe"3"+ species in the zeolite micropores have much greater stability than those of Cu"2"+. • DOC in natural waters can compromise the sorption capacity of exchanged zeolites. • Iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites hold great promise for practical applications. - Abstract: Transition metal-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites were used to adsorb atrazine from aqueous solutions, followed by regeneration of the sorbents and destruction of the sorbed atrazine with microwave irradiation. Exchange of copper and iron into the zeolite's micropores significantly enhanced its sorption capacity and selectivity toward atrazine, and increased the microwave-induced degradation rate of the sorbed atrazine by 3–4-folds. Both the copper- and iron-exchanged zeolites could be regenerated and reused multiple times, while the catalytic activity of the latter was more robust due to the much greater chemical stability of Fe"3"+ species in the micropores. The presence of humic acid, and common cations and anions had little impact on the sorption of atrazine on the transition metal-exchanged zeolites. In the treatment of atrazine spiked in natural surface water and groundwater samples, sorptive removal of atrazine was found to be impacted by the level of dissolved organic carbon, probably through competition for the micropore spaces and pore blocking, while the water matrices exhibited no strong effect on the microwave-induced degradation of sorbed atrazine. Overall, iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites show great potential for removal and destruction of atrazine from contaminated surface water and groundwater in practical implementation of the novel treatment technology.

  2. Effect of Cell-to-matrix Ratio in Polyvinyl Alcohol Immobilized Pure and Mixed Cultures on Atrazine Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siripattanakul, Sumana; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak

    2008-01-01

    Atrazine biodegradation by immobilized pure and mixed cultures was examined. A pure atrazine-degrading culture, Agrobacterium radiobacter J14a (J14a), and a mixed culture (MC), isolated from an atrazine-contaminated crop field, were immobilized using phosphorylated-polyvinyl alcohol (PPVA). An existing cell immobilization procedure was modified to enhance PPVA matrix stability. The results showed that the matrices remained mechanically and chemically stable after shaking with glass beads over 15 days under various salt solutions and pH values. The immobilization process had a slight effect on cell viability. With the aid of scanning electron microscopy, a suitable microstructure of PPVA matrices for cell entrapment was observed. There were two porous layers of spherical gel matrices, the outside having an encapsulation property and the inside containing numerous pores for bacteria to occupy. J14a and MC were immobilized at three cell-to-matrix ratios of 3.5, 6.7, and 20 mg dry cells/mL matrix. The atrazine biodegradation tests were conducted in an aerobic batch system, which was inoculated with cells at 2,000 mg/L. The tests were also conducted using free (non-immobilized) J14a and MC for comparative purpose. The cell-to-matrix ratio of 3.5 mg/mL provided the highest atrazine removal efficiency of 40-50% in 120 h for both J14a and MC. The free cell systems, for both cultures, presented much lower atrazine removal efficiencies compared to the immobilized cell systems at the same level of inoculation

  3. Agro-waste biosorbents: Effect of physico-chemical properties on atrazine and imidacloprid sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Singh, Neera; Nain, Lata

    2017-09-02

    Low cost agro-waste biosorbents namely eucalyptus bark (EB), corn cob (CC), bamboo chips (BC), rice straw (RS) and rice husk (RH) were characterized and used to study atrazine and imidacloprid sorption. Adsorption studies suggested that biosorbents greatly varied in their pesticide sorption behaviour. The EB was the best biosorbent to sorb both atrazine and imidacloprid with K F values of 169.9 and 85.71, respectively. The adsorption isotherm were nonlinear in nature with slope (1/n) values imidacloprid sorption parameter [K F .(1/n)] with the physicochemical properties of the biosorbents suggested that atrazine adsorption correlated significantly to the aromaticity, polarity, surface area, fractal dimension, lacunarity and relative C-O band intensity parameters of biosorbents. Probably, both physisorption and electrostatic interactions were responsible for the pesticide sorption. The eucalyptus bark can be exploited as low cost adsorbent for the removal of these pesticides as well as a component of on-farm biopurification systems.

  4. Study of the Bioremediation of Atrazine under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil in Fars Province of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Simin; Hashemi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5–8.5) on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22%) among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76%) compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5%) as compared to uninoculated control soils (12%) at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil. PMID:23533452

  5. Effects of nitrate and atrazine on larval development and sexual differentiation in the northern leopard frog Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Carr, James A; Handy, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    Pollution from agrochemicals may be contributing to the global decline in amphibian populations. Environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate and/or atrazine on anuran development and gonadal differentiation were tested. Four replicates of 20 tadpoles per tank (80/treatment) were exposed from Taylor-Kollros stage 2 to 3 to stage 23 to 34 to either 10 mg/L nitrate, 10 microg/L atrazine, a combined exposure of 10 mg/L nitrate plus 10 microg/L atrazine, or untreated controls. No treatment-dependent effects on weight, snout-vent or hind limb length, or time to forelimb emergence were observed. The proportions of females increased in all treatments compared to the controls, especially in the combined treatment (chi2 = 17.90, df = 6, p = 0.0065, combined = 66.4% female, control = 41% female). The frequency of intersex was low in all treatments. No treatment-related effects on the total number of spermatogenic cells were observed, but the ratio of cell types differed in that testes from animals in the treated groups exhibited more spermatogonia, fewer spermatocytes, and more spermatids than the control (significantly different, Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). Ovaries from animals treated with nitrate or atrazine exhibited larger immature (previtellogenic) and mature (vitellogenic) follicles, but ovaries from the combined treatment had larger immature follicles only. Testicular oocytes were observed in the nitrate-only and atrazine-only treatments, and the control treatment, but not the combined treatment. Overall, this study has demonstrated changes in sex ratios that are more marked in response to combined nitrate/atrazine exposure than with these chemicals alone. Histological evidence suggests that premature maturation of gonad may occur as a result of nitrate and/or atrazine exposure during larval development.

  6. Magnetic bionanoparticles of Penicillium sp. yz11-22N2 doped with Fe3O4 and encapsulated within PVA-SA gel beads for atrazine removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaping; He, Huijun; Yang, William L; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Wu, Xin

    2018-07-01

    A novel magnetic bionanomaterial, Penicillium sp. yz11-22N2 doped with nano Fe 3 O 4 entrapped in polyvinyl alcohol-sodium alginate gel beads (PFEPS), was successfully synthesized. The factors including nutrient substance, temperature, pH, initial concentrations of atrazine and rotational speeds were presented and discussed in detail. Results showed that the highest removal efficiency of atrazine by PFEPS was 91.2% at 8.00 mg/L atrazine. The maximum removal capacity for atrazine was 7.94 mg/g. Meanwhile, it has been found that most of atrazine were removed by metabolism and degradation of Penicillium sp. yz11-22N2, which could use atrazine as the sole source of either carbon or nitrogen. Degradation kinetics of atrazine conformed to first-order kinetics model. The intermediates indicated that the possible pathway for atrazine degradation by PFEPS mainly included hydrolysis dechlorination, dealkylation, side-chain oxidation and ring-opening. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of Impurities of Atrazine by HPLP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canping, Pan [Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University Beijing (China)

    2009-07-15

    The determination of the main impurities of the herbicide atrazine by GC/FID, GC/MS and LC/MS is described. The most relevant technical impurities were synthesized and characterized by IR and UV spectroscopy as well. The impurity profiles of different technical grade formulated products were tested and the typical impurities identified. (author)

  8. Performance of a novel microwave-based treatment technology for atrazine removal and destruction: Sorbent reusability and chemical stability, and effect of water matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Erdan; Hu, Yuanan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Cheng, Hefa, E-mail: hefac@umich.edu [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); MOE Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} in zeolite pores enhance atrazine sorption and MW-induced degradation. • Exchanged zeolites perform well over multiple sorption–regeneration cycles. • Fe{sup 3+} species in the zeolite micropores have much greater stability than those of Cu{sup 2+}. • DOC in natural waters can compromise the sorption capacity of exchanged zeolites. • Iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites hold great promise for practical applications. - Abstract: Transition metal-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites were used to adsorb atrazine from aqueous solutions, followed by regeneration of the sorbents and destruction of the sorbed atrazine with microwave irradiation. Exchange of copper and iron into the zeolite's micropores significantly enhanced its sorption capacity and selectivity toward atrazine, and increased the microwave-induced degradation rate of the sorbed atrazine by 3–4-folds. Both the copper- and iron-exchanged zeolites could be regenerated and reused multiple times, while the catalytic activity of the latter was more robust due to the much greater chemical stability of Fe{sup 3+} species in the micropores. The presence of humic acid, and common cations and anions had little impact on the sorption of atrazine on the transition metal-exchanged zeolites. In the treatment of atrazine spiked in natural surface water and groundwater samples, sorptive removal of atrazine was found to be impacted by the level of dissolved organic carbon, probably through competition for the micropore spaces and pore blocking, while the water matrices exhibited no strong effect on the microwave-induced degradation of sorbed atrazine. Overall, iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites show great potential for removal and destruction of atrazine from contaminated surface water and groundwater in practical implementation of the novel treatment technology.

  9. Occurrence, diversity and community structure of culturable atrazine degraders in industrial and agricultural soils exposed to the herbicide in Shandong Province, P.R. China

    OpenAIRE

    Bazhanov, Dmitry P.; Li, Chengyun; Li, Hongmei; Li, Jishun; Zhang, Xinjian; Chen, Xiangfeng; Yang, Hetong

    2016-01-01

    Background Soil populations of bacteria rapidly degrading atrazine are critical to the environmental fate of the herbicide. An enrichment bias from the routine isolation procedure prevents studying the diversity of atrazine degraders. In the present work, we analyzed the occurrence, diversity and community structure of soil atrazine-degrading bacteria based on their direct isolation. Methods Atrazine-degrading bacteria were isolated by direct plating on a specially developed SM agar. The atra...

  10. Study of the Bioremediation of Atrazine under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil in Fars Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5–8.5 on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22% among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76% compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5% as compared to uninoculated control soils (12% at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil.

  11. Influence of light intensity on the toxicity of atrazine to the submerged freshwater aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Richard A; Hoberg, James; Hosmer, Alan J; Wall, Steven B

    2012-05-01

    Light intensity can have a profound influence on the degree of phytotoxicity experienced by plants exposed to photosystem II (PSII) inhibiting herbicides. This relationship was evaluated in the submerged aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis exposed to three different concentrations of atrazine (510, 1000 and 2000 μg a.i./L) plus an untreated control at three different light intensities (0, 500 and 6000 lx) under static-renewal conditions for 14 days. Under 500 lx light intensity, control plants demonstrated a rapid increase in shoot length but minimal increase in dry shoot weight, suggesting limited photosynthesis. Based on shoot-length and biomass, growth was not affected by any atrazine exposure relative to controls under dark conditions (0 lx). Under low-light conditions at 500 lx, exposures to 510, 1000 and 2000 μg a.i./L atrazine significantly decreased net shoot lengths by 34%, 38% and 35%, respectively, relative to corresponding (500 lx) controls. However, atrazine exposure under this light condition did not significantly decrease biomass (dry shoot weight). Compared to 6000 lx, only approximately 8% of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured under 500 lx intensity, indicating that minimal PAR was available for photosynthesis. Under optimal light conditions (6000 lx), net shoot lengths significantly decreased in the treated atrazine groups by 48%, 51% and 68%, and net dry shoot weights (biomass) were significantly decreased by 79%, 81% and 91%, respectively, relative to corresponding (6000 lx) controls. These data show that under low light conditions, atrazine-induced effects on dry shoot weight (biomass) are dependent on available PAR and active photosynthesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomarker Analysis of American Toad (Anaxyrus Americanus) and Grey Tree Frog (Hyla Versicolor) Tadpoles Following Exposure to Atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the mode of action of atrazine in amphibians, we utilized mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to investigate the biochemical changes in two species of larval amphibians exposed to atrazine. Our objectives were to 1) Use changes in endogenous metabolites to f...

  13. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles following exposure to atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environme...

  14. Human health risk assessment of atrazine in water and soil in selected municipalities in Ashanti and Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, F. A.

    2013-06-01

    Atrazine, one of the triazine herbicides, helps control the growth of weeds through inhibition of photosynthetic reactions. It is used extensively because it is economical and effective in reducing crop losses due to weed interference. It has gained much attention because of its frequent detection in surface and groundwater supplies. Even though most countries have banned the usage of atrazine due to health risk and associated environmental contamination, its is still used in Ghana. Knowledge of levels of Atrazine in the environment is essential for the protection of human health and the environment. The main objective of the study is to do a health risk assessment to show the implications of atrazine levels on human population. This is aimed at informing policy makers in pesticide management, especially Atrazine, and also to assist in protecting water resources. The study areas were maize farms in Dormaa, Sunyani and Nkoranza Districts all in the Brong Ahafo Regions as well as Offinso District in Ashanti Region, where a lot of atrazine has been used in maize production over the past ten years. Thirty-six water samples and twelve soil samples were collected in December 2011 from surface and groundwater distributed in the study areas. The herbicide was extracted from the samples using sonication and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). There were no detectable concentrations of Atrazine in some water bodies however others ranged from 0.004µg/L to 0.105µg/L. The highest mean value occurred at Dandwe River with mean concentration of 0.076±0.023µg/L. The streams have concentrations between 0.033µg/L and 0.111µg/L with an average of 0.071µg/L. Out of the three streams sampled. two streams showed the presence of Atrazine with averages of 0.089µg/L and 0.053µg/L. Most of the hand dug wells did not contain Atrazine above the limit of determination of 0.001µg/L. It was only in the Sunyani 1 area that the wells recorded an average of 0.004µg

  15. Bioconcentration of atrazine and chlorophenols into roots and shoots of rice seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yuhong; Zhu Yongguan

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation of o-chlorophenol (CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), and atrazine (ATR), as single and mixed contaminants, from hydroponic solutions into roots and shoots of rice seedlings was studied following 48-h exposure of the plant roots. As single contaminants at low levels, the observed bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of CP and DCP with roots approximated the equilibrium values according to the partition-limited model. The BCF of atrazine with roots was about half the partition limit for unknown reasons. The BCFs of CP and ATR with shoots also approximated the partition limits, while the BCF for more lipophilic DCP with shoots was about half the estimated limit, due to insufficient water transport into plants for DCP. As mixed contaminants at low levels, the BCFs with both roots and shoots were comparable with those for the single contaminants; at high levels, the BCFs generally decreased because of the enhanced mixed-contaminant phytotoxicity, as manifested by the greatly reduced plant transpiration rate. - Uptakes of o-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and atrazine at various levels from nutrient solution by roots and shoots of rice seedlings were investigated using a partition-limited model

  16. Optimization of culturing conditions for isolated Arthrobacter sp. ZXY-2, an effective atrazine-degrading and salt-adaptive bacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Wang, Li; Du, Linna; Yang, Jixian; Dong, Jing; Ma, Fang

    2017-01-01

    The increasing salinity in aquatic environments has had a negative impact on the biodegradation of atrazine, an extensively used herbicide which has been proven to pollute soil and water ecosystems. In the present study, a novel atrazine-degrading strain (ZXY-2) was isolated from industrial

  17. Evaluation of potential mechanisms of atrazine-induced reproductive impairment in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Cathy; Papoulias, Diana M.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    Atrazine has been implicated in reproductive dysfunction of exposed organisms, and previous studies documented decreased egg production in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) during 30-d to 38-d exposures to 0.5 µg/L, 5 µg/L, and 50 µg/L atrazine. The authors evaluated possible mechanisms underlying the reduction in egg production. Gene expression in steroidogenesis pathways and the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonad axis of male and female fish was measured. Atrazine did not significantly induce gonad aromatase (cyp19a1a) expression. An atrazine-induced shift in the number of females in an active reproductive state was observed. Expression of the egg maturation genes vitellogenin 1 (vtg1) and zona pellucida glycoprotein 3.1 (zp3.1) in medaka females was correlated and had a bimodal distribution. In both species, females with low vtg1 or zp3.1 expression also had low expression of steroidogenesis genes in the gonad, estrogen receptor in the liver, and gonadotropins in the brain. In the medaka, the number of females per tank that had high expression of zp3.1 was significantly correlated with egg production per tank. The number of medaka females with low expression of zp3.1 increased significantly with atrazine exposure. Thus, the decline in egg production observed in response to atrazine exposure may be the result of a coordinated downregulation of genes required for reproduction in a subset of females.

  18. Environmentally-relevant concentrations of atrazine induce non-monotonic acceleration of developmental rate and increased size at metamorphosis in Rhinella arenarum tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Julie C; Sassone, Alina; Hermida, Gladys N; Codugnello, Nadia

    2013-06-01

    Despite of the various studies reporting on the subject, anticipating the impacts of the widely-used herbicide atrazine on anuran tadpoles metamorphosis remains complex as increases or decreases of larval period duration are almost as frequently reported as an absence of effect. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of environmentally-relevant concentrations of atrazine (0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000μg/L) on the timings of metamorphosis and body size at metamorphosis in the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum (Anura: bufonidae). None of the atrazine concentrations tested significantly altered survival. Low atrazine concentrations in the range of 1-100μg/L were found to accelerate developmental rate in a non-monotonic U-shaped concentration-response relationship. This observed acceleration of the metamorphic process occurred entirely between stages 25 and 39; treated tadpoles proceeding through metamorphosis as control animals beyond this point. Together with proceeding through metamorphosis at a faster rate, tadpoles exposed to atrazine concentrations in the range of 1-100μg/L furthermore transformed into significantly larger metamorphs than controls, the concentration-response curve taking the form of an inverted U in this case. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.1μg atrazine/L for both size at metamorphosis and timings of metamorphosis. Tadpoles exposed to 100μg/L 17β-estradiol presented the exact same alterations of developmental rate and body size as those treated with 1, 10 and 100μg/L of atrazine. Elements of the experimental design that facilitated the detection of alterations of metamorphosis at low concentrations of atrazine are discussed, together with the ecological significance of those findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ação dos herbicidas atrazine e glufosinate de amônio no aproveitamento de nitrogênio pelas plantas de milho Herbicides atrazine and ammonium glufosinate action on nitrogen usage by corn plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Fleck

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A absorção vegetal do nitrogênio (N presente no solo ou fornecido via fertilização é regulada por um complexo enzimático que age de forma conjunta e ordenada na planta. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar efeitos dos herbicidas atrazine e glufosinate de amônio na absorção do N pelas plantas e os efeitos que exercem em características de plantas de milho. Em um dos experimentos (experimento 1 foram testadas três doses de atrazine (0, 200 e 2.000 g i.a. ha-1 e de glufosinate de amônio (0; 40 e 80 g i.a. ha-1 e duas doses de N (0 e 90 kg ha-1. No segundo experimento (experimento 2 foram testados três tratamentos herbicidas (atrazine, 200 g i.a. ha-1; glufosinate de amônio, 40 g i.a. ha-1; atrazine + glufosinate de amônio, 200 + 40 g i.a. ha-1; e testemunha, duas fontes de N (uréia e nitrato de amônio e duas doses de N (0 e 100 kg ha-1. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram avaliados aos 10 e 20 dias após a aplicação (DAA dos herbicidas, no experimento 1, e quando as plantas de milho apresentavam 10 folhas desenvolvidas (15 DAA e no pendoamento do milho (40 DAA, no experimento 2. A partir da análise dos resultados obtidos, constatou-se que aplicação de N em cobertura na cultura do milho promove aumento na maioria dos componentes do rendimento e incrementa em 35% o rendimento de grãos e que esse efeito ocorre de forma independente da fonte de N utilizada: uréia ou nitrato de amônio. Não ocorre interação entre os fatores relacionados aos herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II (atrazine e da síntese de glutamina (glufosinate de amônio e aplicação de N em cobertura no milho. O uso destes herbicidas em doses reduzidas (abaixo da recomendada, aplicados isoladamente ou combinados, não afetou o rendimento de grãos nem os componentes do rendimento da cultura do milho. O herbicida atrazine tem pequena influência nos teores de clorofila e de N em milho, mas, em algumas situações, sua ação é favorável, especialmente

  20. Toxicity of three selected pesticides (Alachlor, Atrazine and Diuron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to evaluate acute toxicity tests for three selected herbicides: Alachlor, Atrazine and Diuron using turbot flatfish. Larvae were more sensitive than turbot embryos to all pesticides. Median lethal concentrations of the selected pesticides during a 48 h and 96 h exposure for turbot embryos and larvae ...

  1. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua; Zha, Jinmiao; Li, Wei; Li, Zhaoli; Wang, Zijian

    2010-05-05

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333microg/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10microg/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10microg/l. The expressions of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100microg/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  2. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Lihua; Zha Jinmiao; Li Wei; Li Zhaoli [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road 18, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Zijian, E-mail: wangzj@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road 18, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-05-05

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333 {mu}g/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10 {mu}g/l. The expressions of Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100 {mu}g/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  3. Atrazine affects kidney and adrenal hormones (AHs) related genes expressions of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lihua; Zha Jinmiao; Li Wei; Li Zhaoli; Wang Zijian

    2010-01-01

    Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, has been proved to interfere with sexual hormones. However few studies have considered the effects of atrazine on adrenal hormones (AH). In this study, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33, 100 and 333 μg/l atrazine for 28 days. The histopathology of kidney and gill was examined and the expressions of AHs-related genes including Na + ,K + -ATPase, glucocorticoid receptor (gr), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) in kidney and gill were quantitatively determined. Histopathological observation revealed obvious lesions in gill including hyperplasia, necrosis in epithelium region, aneurysm and lamellar fusion at concentrations as low as 10 μg/l. The observed lesions in kidney included extensive expansion in the lumen, degenerative and necrotic changes of the tubular epithelia, shrinkage of the glomerulus as well as increase of the Bowman's space at concentrations as low as 10 μg/l. The expressions of Na + ,K + -ATPase, gr, hsp70 and hsp90 in the kidney of females were significantly decreased at all concentrations. For males, the expressions of hsp90 in the kidney of all treated groups were significantly down-regulated, while gr at all concentrations and hsp70 at 10, 33, 100 μg/l were significantly up-regulated. However in the gill, the expressions of these genes were not significantly different from the control. These results indicated that exposure to atrazine caused impairments of kidney and gill of fish at environmental related concentrations. Histopathological lesions could partly attribute to the changes of the expressions of AHs-related genes in kidney. We concluded also that atrazine is a potential AHs-disruptor and AHs-related genes in kidney of fish could be used as sensitive molecular biomarkers.

  4. Differential metamorphosis alters the endocrine response in anuran larvae exposed to T3 and atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Jennifer L.; Beccue, Nathan; Rayburn, A. Lane

    2005-01-01

    Pesticide chemical contamination is one of the suspected contributors of the amphibian population decline. The herbicide atrazine is one of the major surface water contaminants in the U.S. A previous study has shown that atrazine at concentrations as low as 100 parts per billion (ppb) increased the time to metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. However, questions remain as to the applicability of a study of a non-native species to a native organism. The possible effects of atrazine on developing Bufo americanus were explored. Atrazine at potentially (albeit high) environmental concentrations was found not to delay the metamorphosis of developing B. americanus tadpoles as observed in X. laevis. Several studies have indicated that atrazine affects thyroid hormones. Since thyroid hormones are critical in amphibian metamorphosis, B. americanus and X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ). X. laevis were found to be more responsive to the effects of exogenous T 3 compared to B. americanus, indicating that X. laevis may be more sensitive to endocrine active chemicals than B. americanus. In X. laevis, nuclear heterogeneity has been associated with metamorphosis. Flow cytometric analysis of the nuclei of normal metamorphing B. americanus indicates a decrease in the amount of thyroid mediated chromatin alterations relative to the nuclei of metamorphing X. laevis. Indications are that the differential response to endocrine disruption is due to the differential role of chromatin associated gene expression during metamorphosis of B. americanus versus X. laevis. A second native species, Hyla versicolor, was observed to have the X. laevis nuclear pattern with respect to metamorphosis. As such, sensitivity to endocrine disruption is hypothesized not to be limited to laboratory non-native species

  5. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jennifer L., E-mail: Jennifer.l.walters@wmich.edu [Western Michigan University, Department of Psychology, 1903 W Michigan Ave, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5439 (United States); Lansdell, Theresa A., E-mail: lansdel1@msu.edu [Michigan State University, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1355 Bogue Street, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lookingland, Keith J., E-mail: lookingl@msu.edu [Michigan State University, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1355 Bogue Street, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Baker, Lisa E., E-mail: lisa.baker@wmich.edu [Western Michigan University, Department of Psychology, 1903 W Michigan Ave, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5439 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 μg/kg atrazine, 10 mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24 h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10 mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest that exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning. - Highlights: • Male rats received gestational and chronic exposure to ATZ (10 mg/kg and 100 μg/kg). • ATZ altered locomotor activity and impaired motor coordination. • ATZ lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. • ATZ produced a potential anxiogenic effect. • ATZ did not impair performance in learning and memory assessments.

  6. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Jennifer L.; Lansdell, Theresa A.; Lookingland, Keith J.; Baker, Lisa E.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 μg/kg atrazine, 10 mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24 h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10 mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest that exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning. - Highlights: • Male rats received gestational and chronic exposure to ATZ (10 mg/kg and 100 μg/kg). • ATZ altered locomotor activity and impaired motor coordination. • ATZ lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. • ATZ produced a potential anxiogenic effect. • ATZ did not impair performance in learning and memory assessments.

  7. Extended fish short term reproduction assays with the fathead minnow and Japanese medaka: No evidence of impaired fecundity from exposure to atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Richard A; Schneider, Suzanne Z; Anderson, Julie C; Knopper, Loren D; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Hanson, Mark L

    2018-08-01

    Short-term reproduction assays were conducted with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to evaluate responses from atrazine exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations and above. Breeding groups of fish with multiple males and females were exposed to atrazine under flow-through conditions. Fathead minnows were exposed to mean measured concentrations of 1.0, 10, 26, 52, and 105 μg atrazine/L for 28 days. Medaka were exposed to mean measured concentrations of 9.4, 48, 74, 97, and 244 μg atrazine/L for 28 or 29 days. Fish were evaluated for survival, fecundity, fertility, total length, wet weight, secondary sex characteristics, gonadosomatic index (GSI) (P. promelas only), plasma or hepatic vitellogenin (VTG), and histopathology of gonads. General observations of health and behaviour were also conducted. There were no statistically significant effects (i.e., p < 0.05) of atrazine on survival, size, reproduction, behaviour, GSI, VTG, or secondary sex characteristics in either species at any exposure level. In fathead minnows, there were no histopathological findings associated with atrazine exposure in male fish, but there was an increased proportion of Stage 4.0 ovaries accompanied by an increase in proportion of Grade 3 post-ovulatory follicles in females of the 105 μg/L treatment group. Without a concomitant increase in oocyte atresia, neither of these findings are considered adverse for the health of the fish. In medaka, there were no significant effects of atrazine exposure on histopathology in either sex. These data support current weight-of-evidence assessments that atrazine does not cause direct adverse effects on fish reproduction at environmentally realistic concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biodegradation of a commercial mixture of the herbicides atrazine and S-metolachlor in a multi-channel packed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Orozco, Alberto; Galíndez-Nájera, Silvia Patricia; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Atrazine and S-metolachlor are two of the most widely used herbicides for agricultural purposes; consequently, residues of both compounds and their metabolites had been detected in ground and superficial waters. Unlike atrazine, the complete degradation of metolachlor has not been achieved. Hence, the purpose of this research is to study the biodegradation of a commercial mixture of atrazine and S-metolachlor in a prototype of a multi-channel packed-bed-biofilm reactor (MC-PBR) designed with the aim of solving the problems of pressure drop and oxygen transfer, typically found on this type of bioreactors.Because the removal efficiency of the herbicides was increased when Candida tropicalis was added to the original microbial community isolated, the reactor was inoculated with this enriched community. The operational conditions tested in batch and continuous mode did not affect the removal efficiency of atrazine; however, this was not the case for S-metolachlor. The removal rates and efficiencies showed a notable variation along the MC-PBR operation.

  9. Differential metamorphosis alters the endocrine response in anuran larvae exposed to T{sub 3} and atrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Jennifer L. [University of Illinois, Department of Crop Sciences, 1201 W. Gregory Drive, 320 ERML, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Beccue, Nathan [University of Illinois, Department of Crop Sciences, 1201 W. Gregory Drive, 320 ERML, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rayburn, A. Lane [University of Illinois, Department of Crop Sciences, 1201 W. Gregory Drive, 320 ERML, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)]. E-mail: arayburn@uiuc.edu

    2005-11-10

    Pesticide chemical contamination is one of the suspected contributors of the amphibian population decline. The herbicide atrazine is one of the major surface water contaminants in the U.S. A previous study has shown that atrazine at concentrations as low as 100 parts per billion (ppb) increased the time to metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. However, questions remain as to the applicability of a study of a non-native species to a native organism. The possible effects of atrazine on developing Bufo americanus were explored. Atrazine at potentially (albeit high) environmental concentrations was found not to delay the metamorphosis of developing B. americanus tadpoles as observed in X. laevis. Several studies have indicated that atrazine affects thyroid hormones. Since thyroid hormones are critical in amphibian metamorphosis, B. americanus and X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}). X. laevis were found to be more responsive to the effects of exogenous T{sub 3} compared to B. americanus, indicating that X. laevis may be more sensitive to endocrine active chemicals than B. americanus. In X. laevis, nuclear heterogeneity has been associated with metamorphosis. Flow cytometric analysis of the nuclei of normal metamorphing B. americanus indicates a decrease in the amount of thyroid mediated chromatin alterations relative to the nuclei of metamorphing X. laevis. Indications are that the differential response to endocrine disruption is due to the differential role of chromatin associated gene expression during metamorphosis of B. americanus versus X. laevis. A second native species, Hyla versicolor, was observed to have the X. laevis nuclear pattern with respect to metamorphosis. As such, sensitivity to endocrine disruption is hypothesized not to be limited to laboratory non-native species.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of Boron-Doped Iron Oxides for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Atrazine under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of atrazine by boron-doped iron oxides under visible light irradiation was investigated. In this work, boron-doped goethite and hematite were successfully prepared by sol-gel method with trimethylborate as boron precursor. The powders were characterized by XRD, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, and porosimetry analysis. The results showed that boron doping could influence the crystal structure, enlarge the BET surface area, improve light absorption ability, and narrow their band-gap energy. The photocatalytic activity of B-doped iron oxides was evaluated in the degradation of atrazine under the visible light irradiation, and B-doped iron oxides showed higher atrazine degradation rate than that of pristine iron oxides. Particularly, B-doped goethite exhibited better photocatalytic activity than B-doped hematite.

  11. Sorption mechanisms of phenanthrene, lindane, and atrazine with various humic acid fractions from a single soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilong; Guo, Xiaoying; Yang, Yu; Tao, Shu; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-03-15

    The sorption behavior of organic compounds (phenanthrene, lindane, and atrazine) to sequentially extracted humic acids and humin from a peat soil was examined. The elemental composition, XPS and (13)C NMR data of sorbents combined with sorption isotherm data of the tested compounds show that nonspecific interactions govern sorption of phenanthrene and lindane by humic substances. Their sorption is dependent on surface and bulk alkyl carbon contents of the sorbents, rather than aromatic carbon. Sorption of atrazine by these sorbents, however, is regulated by polar interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding). Carboxylic and phenolic moieties are key components for H-bonding formation. Thermal analysis reveals that sorption of apolar (i.e., phenanthrene and lindane) and polar (i.e., atrazine) compounds by humic substances exhibit dissimilar relationships with condensation and thermal stability of sorption domains, emphasizing the major influence of domain spatial arrangement on sorption of organic compounds with distinct polarity. Results of pH-dependent sorption indicate that reduction in sorption of atrazine by the tested sorbents is more evident than phenanthrene with increasing pH, supporting the dependence of organic compound sorption on its polarity and structure. This study highlights the different interaction mechanisms of apolar and polar organic compounds with humic substances.

  12. Effects of tillage and application rate on atrazine transport to subsurface drainage: Evaluation of RZWQM using a six-year field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Robert W.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Ma, Liwang; Kanwar, Rameshwar S.; Pederson, Carl H.; Heilman, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Well tested agricultural system models can improve our understanding of the water quality effects of management practices under different conditions. The Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) has been tested under a variety of conditions. However, the current model's ability to simulate pesticide transport to subsurface drain flow over a long term period under different tillage systems and application rates is not clear. Therefore, we calibrated and tested RZWQM using six years of data from Nashua, Iowa. In this experiment, atrazine was spring applied at 2.8 (1990–1992) and 0.6 kg/ha/yr (1993–1995) to two 0.4 ha plots with different tillage (till and no-till). The observed and simulated average annual flow weighted atrazine concentrations (FWAC) in subsurface drain flow from the no-till plot were 3.7 and 3.2 μg/L, respectively for the period with high atrazine application rates, and 0.8 and 0.9 μg/L, respectively for the period with low application rates. The 1990–1992 observed average annual FWAC difference between the no-till and tilled plot was 2.4 μg/L while the simulated difference was 2.1 μg/L. These observed and simulated differences for 1993–1995 were 0.1 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively. The Nash–Sutcliffe model performance statistic (EF) for cumulative atrazine flux to subsurface drain flow was 0.93 for the no-till plot testing years (1993–1995), which is comparable to other recent model tests. The value of EF is 1.0 when simulated data perfectly match observed data. The order of selected parameter sensitivity for RZWQM simulated FWAC was atrazine partition coefficient > number of macropores > atrazine half life in soil > soil hydraulic conductivity. Simulations from 1990 to 1995 with four different atrazine application rates applied at a constant rate throughout the simulation period showed concentrations in drain flow for the no-till plot to be twice those of the tilled plot. The differences were more pronounced in the early

  13. Hydroponic uptake of atrazine and lambda-cyhalothrin in Juncus effusus and Ludwigia peploides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, J L; Farris, J L; Moore, M T; Smith, S; Cooper, C M

    2006-11-01

    Phytoremediation encompasses an array of plant-associated processes known to mitigate contaminants from soil, sediment, and water. Modification of pesticides associated with agricultural runoff includes processes directly associated with aquatic macrophytes in addition to changes in soil geochemistry and associated rhizospheric degradation. Remediation attributes of two vegetative species common to agricultural drainages in the Mississippi Delta, USA, were assessed using atrazine and lambda-cyhalothrin. Concentrations used in 8-d hydroponic exposures were calculated using recommended field applications and a 5% runoff model from a 0.65-cm rainfall event on a 2.02-ha field. While greater atrazine uptake was measured in Juncus effusus, greater lambda-cyhalothrin uptake occurred in Ludwigia peploides. Maximum pesticide uptake was reached within 48h for each exposure and subsequent translocation of pesticides to upper plant biomass occurred in macrophytes exposed to atrazine. Sequestration of 98.2% of lambda-cyhalothrin in roots of L. peploides was measured after 8d. Translocation of lambda-cyhalothrin in J. effusus resulted in 25.4% of pesticide uptake partitioned to upper plant biomass. These individual macrophyte remediation studies measured species- and pesticide-specific uptake rates, indicating that seasonality of pesticide applications and macrophyte emergence might interact strongly to enhance mitigation capabilities in edge-of-field conveyance structures.

  14. Atrazine and nitrate in drinking water and the risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight in four Midwestern states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stayner, Leslie Thomas; Almberg, Kirsten; Jones, Rachael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Atrazine and nitrate are common contaminants in water, and there is limited evidence that they are associated with adverse birth outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine whether atrazine and nitrate in water are associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (PTD...... weeks), term LBW (nitrate in finished water. Multivariable negative binomial models were fitted to examine the association...... between the exposures and the adverse birth outcomes. Models were fitted with varying restrictions on the percentage of private well usage in the counties in order to limit the degree of exposure misclassification. Results: Estimated water concentrations of atrazine (mean=0.42 ppb) and nitrate (mean=0...

  15. Ação dos herbicidas atrazine e glufosinate de amônio no aproveitamento de nitrogênio pelas plantas de milho Herbicides atrazine and ammonium glufosinate action on nitrogen usage by corn plants

    OpenAIRE

    N.G. Fleck; M.A. Rizzardi; R. Neves; D. Agostinetto

    2001-01-01

    A absorção vegetal do nitrogênio (N) presente no solo ou fornecido via fertilização é regulada por um complexo enzimático que age de forma conjunta e ordenada na planta. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar efeitos dos herbicidas atrazine e glufosinate de amônio na absorção do N pelas plantas e os efeitos que exercem em características de plantas de milho. Em um dos experimentos (experimento 1) foram testadas três doses de atrazine (0, 200 e 2.000 g i.a. ha-1) e de glufosinate de amônio (...

  16. Comparison of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassay techniques on concentrations of atrazine in storm runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydy, Michael J.; Carter, D.S.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1996-01-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques were used to measure concentrations of dissolved atrazine in 149 surface-water samples. Samples were collected during May 1992–September 1993 near the mouth of the White River (Indiana) and in two small tributaries of the river. GC/MS was performed on a Hewlett-Packard 5971 A, with electron impact ionization and selected ion monitoring of filtered water samples extracted by C-18 solid phase extraction; ELISA was performed with a magnetic-particle-based assay with photometric analysis. ELISA results compared reasonably well to GC/MS measurements at concentrations below the Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (3.0 μg/L), but a systematic negative bias was observed at higher concentrations. When higher concentration samples were diluted into the linear range of calibration, the relation improved. A slight positive bias was seen in all of the ELISA data compared to the GC/MS results, and the bias could be partially explained by correcting the ELISA data for cross reactivity with other triazine herbicides. The highest concentrations of atrazine were found during the first major runoff event after the atrazine was applied. Concentrations decreased throughout the rest of the sampling period even though large runoff events occurred during this time, indicating that most atrazine loading to surface waters in the study area occurs within a few weeks after application.

  17. Green Tea Protects Testes against Atrazine-induced Toxicity in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kheirandish

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrazine (ATZ is a common herbicide in agriculture for control of grass and broad-leaved weeds. It persists in the environment and causes reproductive problems in both human and animals. The present study was aimed at protective effect of green tea against ATZ toxicity in the reproductive system of male rats. Methods: The present study was performed in Veterinary School, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2016. ATZ and treatment groups received ATZ daily 200 mg/kg BW orally for 14 d. In addition, 0.2% methanolic green tea extract was administrated in the treatment group. Results: In histopathologic investigation, number of germinal layers reduced in the most seminiferous tubules in the ATZ group and spermatids were absence. Necrotic spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa were evident in the testicular tubules. In the morphometric measurements, tubular diameter, germinal epithelium height, and meiosis index decreased significantly. Conclusion: Green tea extract had reduced testicular toxicity of atrazine significantly. ATZ induces toxicity through oxidative damage and green tea extract can protect the testes due to antioxidant activity of its polyphenols especially flavonoids.

  18. Atrazine biodegradation modulated by clays and clay/humic acid complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besse-Hoggan, Pascale; Alekseeva, Tatiana; Sancelme, Martine; Delort, Anne-Marie; Forano, Claude

    2009-01-01

    The fate of pesticides in the environment is strongly related to the soil sorption processes that control not only their transfer but also their bioavailability. Cationic (Ca-bentonite) and anionic (Layered Double Hydroxide) clays behave towards the ionisable pesticide atrazine (AT) sorption with opposite tendencies: a noticeable sorption capacity for the first whereas the highly hydrophilic LDH showed no interactions with AT. These clays were modified with different humic acid (HA) contents. HA sorbed on the clay surface and increased AT interactions. The sorption effect on AT biodegradation and on its metabolite formation was studied with Pseudomonas sp. ADP. The biodegradation rate was greatly modulated by the material's sorption capacity and was clearly limited by the desorption rate. More surprisingly, it increased dramatically with LDH. Adsorption of bacterial cells on clay particles facilitates the degradation of non-sorbed chemical, and should be considered for predicting pesticide fate in the environment. - The biodegradation rate of atrazine was greatly modulated by adsorption of the pesticide and also bacterial cells on clay particles.

  19. Bioremediation model for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils using phytoremediation (using Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and a locally adapted microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madariaga-Navarrete, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Pastrana, Blanca Rosa; Villagómez-Ibarra, José Roberto; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio Arturo; Perry, Gregory; Islas-Pelcastre, Margarita

    2017-06-03

    The objective of the present study was to examine a biological model under greenhouse conditions for the bioremediation of atrazine contaminated soils. The model consisted in a combination of phytoremediation (using Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and rhizopheric bio-augmentation using native Trichoderma sp., and Rhizobium sp. microorganisms that showed no inhibitory growth at 10,000 mg L -1 of herbicide concentration. 33.3 mg of atrazine 50 g -1 of soil of initial concentration was used and an initial inoculation of 1 × 10 9 UFC mL -1 of Rhizobium sp. and 1 × 10 5 conidia mL -1 of Trichoderma sp. were set. Four treatments were arranged: Bean + Trichoderma sp. (B+T); Bean + Rhizobium sp. (BR); Bean + Rhizobium sp. + Trichoderma sp. (B+R+T) and Bean (B). 25.51 mg of atrazine 50 g -1 of soil (76.63%) was removed by the B+T treatment in 40 days (a = 0.050, Tukey). This last indicate that the proposed biological model and methodology developed is useful for atrazine contaminated bioremediation agricultural soils, which can contribute to reduce the effects of agrochemical abuse.

  20. Evaluation of atrazine plus isoxaflutole (Atoll®) mixture for weed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were set up in three ecological zones of southwestern Nigeria to evaluate the effectiveness of Atoll® (atrazine + isoxaflutole), a new herbicide mixture, for weed control in maize. Crop i njury rating indicated pronounced phytotoxic effect on crops from 1.34 to 1.61 kg a.i. ha-1 Atoll in all locations. Acceptable ...

  1. Effect of atrazine (Herbicide) on blood parameters of common carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    could be used as an important tool for the assessment of pathological conditions of fish. ... agricultural or industrial areas have high probability of ... The use of herbicides to control aquatic weeds has ... Five hundred fish were stocked in a large cement tank (4 m × 6 m × 3 m) ..... Ecological risk assessment of atrazine in North.

  2. Effects of atrazine on egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and its endosymbiotic alga (Oophila amblystomatis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, Leilan; Brain, Richard A.; Hosmer, Alan J.; Nema, Mohini; Müller, Kirsten M.; Solomon, Keith R.; Hanson, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic growth of the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) is enhanced by the presence of the green alga Oophila amblystomatis, in the egg capsule. To further assess potential impacts of herbicides on this relationship, A. maculatum egg masses were exposed to atrazine (0–338 μg/L) until hatching (up to 66 days). Exposure to atrazine reduced PSII yield of the symbiotic algae in a concentration-dependent manner, but did not significantly affect visible algal growth or any metrics associated with salamander development. Algal cells were also cultured in the laboratory for toxicity testing. In the 96-h growth inhibition test (0–680 μg/L), ECx values were generally greater than those reported for standard algal test species. Complete recovery of growth rates occurred within 96-h of transferring cells to untreated media. Overall, development of A. maculatum embryos was not affected by exposure to atrazine at concentrations and durations exceeding those found in the environment. - Highlights: • The yellow-spotted salamander produces eggs that are colonized by a symbiotic green alga. • We tested the sensitivity of this system to the herbicide atrazine. • Embryo development was not significantly affected by exposure at up to 300 μg/L. • The alga was isolated and 96-h growth tests were performed in the laboratory. • EC50s for Oophila sp. were >100 μg/L. - Development of Ambystoma maculatum embryos in egg masses was not impacted by exposure to atrazine at concentrations and durations exceeding those commonly found in the environment.

  3. Bound residues in corn plants treated with 14C-atrazine and bioavailability to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.U.

    1986-01-01

    Corn plants, about 3.5 months old and treated with 14 C-atrazine, were used in an experiment in which the aerial portion of the plants was exhaustively extracted with solvents. The extracted dried material containing bound 14 C-residues was fed to rats. The extracted aerial portion of control corn plants fortified with 14 C-atrazine was also fed to rats. After four days, 88% and 32% of the radioactivity was excreted in the faeces, and 10% and 60% radioactivity was voided in the urine from rats fed plant material containing bound and fortified 14 C-residues, respectively. The data suggest that the bioavailability to rats of bound 14 C-residues in corn material is low. (author)

  4. Review of Atrazine Sampling by POCIS and Chemcatcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Kees; Chen, Sunmao

    2018-04-24

    A key success factor for the performance of passive samplers is the proper calibration of sampling rates. Sampling rates for a wide range of polar organic compounds are available for Chemcatchers and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), but the mechanistic models that are needed to understand the effects of exposure conditions on sampling rates need improvement. Literature data on atrazine sampling rates by these samplers were reviewed with the aim to assess what can be learned from literature reports of this well studied compound and to identify knowledge gaps related to the effects of flow and temperature. The flow dependency of sampling rates could be described by a mass transfer resistance model with one (POCIS) or two (Chemcatcher) adjustable parameters. Literature data were insufficient to evaluate the temperature effect on the sampling rates. An evaluation of reported sampler configurations showed that standardization of sampler design can be improved: for POCIS with respect to surface area and sorbent mass, and for Chemcatcher with respect to housing design. Several reports on atrazine sampling could not be used because the experimental setups were insufficiently described with respect to flow conditions. Recommendations are made for standardization of sampler layout and documentation of flow conditions in calibration studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. A New Environmentally Safe Formulation and of Low Cost for Prolonged Release System of Atrazine and Diuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracy karla da Rocha Cortes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diuron and atrazine were incorporated in new formulations developed with the purpose to improve herbicides action through release systems, as well as to reduce the environmental toxicity. A low cost formulation (ALG/ESC was obtained by combining sodium alginate (ALG with fish scales of the Piau fish (ESC from the Leporinus elongatus species. From the crosslinking of ALG/ESC with CaCl2, the formulation ALG/ESC-CaCl2 was obtained. For ALG/ESC-CaCl2, the results are successful, showing a prolonged release of 3.5 and 4.5 days for atrazine and diuron, respectively. Based on parameters of an empirical equation used to fit the herbicide release data, it appears that the release systems of diuron and atrazine from ALG/ESC-CaCl2 are by diffusion processes due to anomalous transport, which did not follow Fick’s laws of diffusion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i3.994

  6. Reversible electrokinetic adsorption barriers for the removal of atrazine and oxyfluorfen from spiked soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Dos Santos, E; Sáez, C; Cañizares, P; Martínez-Huitle, C A; Rodrigo, M A

    2017-01-15

    This study demonstrates the application of reversible electrokinetic adsorption barrier (REKAB) technology to soils spiked with low-solubility pollutants. A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) of granular activated carbon (GAC) was placed between the anode and cathode of an electrokinetic (EK) soil remediation bench-scale setup with the aim of enhancing the removal of two low-solubility herbicides (atrazine and oxyfluorfen) using a surfactant solution (sodium dodecyl sulfate) as the flushing fluid. This innovative study focused on evaluating the interaction between the EK system and the GAC-PRB, attempting to obtain insights into the primary mechanisms involved. The obtained results highlighted the successful treatment of atrazine and oxyfluorfen in contaminated soils. The results obtained from the tests after 15days of treatment were compared with those obtained using the more conventional electrokinetic soil flushing (EKSF) technology, and very important differences were observed. Although both technologies are efficient for removing the herbicides from soils, REKAB outperforms EKSF. After the 15-day treatment tests, only approximately 10% of atrazine and oxyfluorfen remained in the soil, and adsorption onto the GAC bed was an important removal mechanism (15-17% of herbicide retained). The evaporation loses in REKAB were lower than those obtained in EKSF (45-50% compared to 60-65%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A collection of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes involved in modification and detoxification of herbicide atrazine in rice (Oryza sativa) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong Tan, Li; Chen Lu, Yi; Jing Zhang, Jing; Luo, Fang; Yang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases constitute one of the largest families of protein genes involved in plant growth, development and acclimation to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, whether these genes respond to organic toxic compounds and their biological functions for detoxifying toxic compounds such as herbicides in rice are poorly understood. The present study identified 201 genes encoding cytochrome P450s from an atrazine-exposed rice transcriptome through high-throughput sequencing. Of these, 69 cytochrome P450 genes were validated by microarray and some of them were confirmed by real time PCR. Activities of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and p-nitroanisole O-demethylase (PNOD) related to toxicity were determined and significantly induced by atrazine exposure. To dissect the mechanism underlying atrazine modification and detoxification by P450, metabolites (or derivatives) of atrazine in plants were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS). Major metabolites comprised desmethylatrazine (DMA), desethylatrazine (DEA), desisopropylatrazine (DIA), hydroxyatrazine (HA), hydroxyethylatrazine (HEA) and hydroxyisopropylatrazine (HIA). All of them were chemically modified by P450s. Furthermore, two specific inhibitors of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and malathion (MAL) were used to assess the correlation between the P450s activity and rice responses including accumulation of atrazine in tissues, shoot and root growth and detoxification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dissolved nutrients and atrazine removal by column-scale monophasic and biphasic rain garden model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hanbae; McCoy, Edward L; Grewal, Parwinder S; Dick, Warren A

    2010-08-01

    Rain gardens are bioretention systems that have the potential to reduce peak runoff flow and improve water quality in a natural and aesthetically pleasing manner. We compared hydraulic performance and removal efficiencies of nutrients and atrazine in a monophasic rain garden design versus a biphasic design at a column-scale using simulated runoff. The biphasic rain garden was designed to increase retention time and removal efficiency of runoff pollutants by creating a sequence of water saturated to unsaturated conditions. We also evaluated the effect of C substrate availability on pollutant removal efficiency in the biphasic rain garden. Five simulated runoff events with various concentrations of runoff pollutants (i.e. nitrate, phosphate, and atrazine) were applied to the monophasic and biphasic rain gardens once every 5d. Hydraulic performance was consistent over the five simulated runoff events. Peak flow was reduced by approximately 56% for the monophasic design and 80% for the biphasic design. Both rain garden systems showed excellent removal efficiency of phosphate (89-100%) and atrazine (84-100%). However, significantly (prain garden (29-39%). Addition of C substrate in the form of glucose increased removal efficiency of nitrate significantly (prain gardens. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Variation in the response of the invasive species Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Smith) to natural (cyanobacterial toxin) and anthropogenic (herbicide atrazine) stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Claudia; Poullain, Virginie

    2005-01-01

    In the context of increasing freshwater pollution, the impact on life-traits (survival, growth and fecundity) and locomotion of Potamopyrgus antipodarum of a 5-week field-concentration exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR and the triazine herbicide, atrazine was studied. Whatever the age of exposed snails (juveniles, subadults, adults), microcystin-LR induced a decrease in survival, growth and fecundity but had no effect on locomotion. Atrazine induced a decrease in locomotory activity but had no significant effect on the life-traits. These results are discussed in terms of consequences to field populations. - At concentrations relevant to the field, cyanobacterial toxins (natural) and atrazine (anthropogenic) are detrimental to the gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum, with a greater toxicity for the natural (vs anthropogenic) stressor

  10. Variation in the response of the invasive species Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Smith) to natural (cyanobacterial toxin) and anthropogenic (herbicide atrazine) stressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, Claudia [UMR CNRS Ecobio 6553, Equipe Physiologie et Ecophysiologie, Universite de Rennes 1, Avenue du General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes cedex (France)]. E-mail: claudia.gerard@univ-rennes1.fr; Poullain, Virginie [UMR CNRS Ecobio 6553, Equipe Physiologie et Ecophysiologie, Universite de Rennes 1, Avenue du General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes cedex (France)

    2005-11-15

    In the context of increasing freshwater pollution, the impact on life-traits (survival, growth and fecundity) and locomotion of Potamopyrgus antipodarum of a 5-week field-concentration exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR and the triazine herbicide, atrazine was studied. Whatever the age of exposed snails (juveniles, subadults, adults), microcystin-LR induced a decrease in survival, growth and fecundity but had no effect on locomotion. Atrazine induced a decrease in locomotory activity but had no significant effect on the life-traits. These results are discussed in terms of consequences to field populations. - At concentrations relevant to the field, cyanobacterial toxins (natural) and atrazine (anthropogenic) are detrimental to the gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum, with a greater toxicity for the natural (vs anthropogenic) stressor.

  11. Effect of 2,4-D and atrazine when applied with glyphosate ripener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of late-season morningglory infestations in sugarcane is accomplished with aerial applications of the postemergence herbicides 2,4-D, dicamba, or atrazine. Likewise, the aerial application of glyphosate prior to harvest to improve stalk sucrose levels is a common practice for many Louisia...

  12. Decomposition of atrazine traces in water by combination of non-thermal electrical discharge and adsorption on nanofiber membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanraes, Patrick; Willems, Gert; Daels, Nele; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; De Clerck, Karen; Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic; Vandamme, Jeroen; Van Durme, Jim; Nikiforov, Anton; Leys, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, several types of persistent substances are detected in the aquatic environment at very low concentrations. Unfortunately, conventional water treatment processes are not able to remove these micropollutants. As such, advanced treatment methods are required to meet both current and anticipated maximally allowed concentrations. Plasma discharge in contact with water is a promising new technology, since it produces a wide spectrum of oxidizing species. In this study, a new type of reactor is tested, in which decomposition by atmospheric pulsed direct barrier discharge (pDBD) plasma is combined with micropollutant adsorption on a nanofiber polyamide membrane. Atrazine is chosen as model micropollutant with an initial concentration of 30 μg/L. While the H2O2 and O3 production in the reactor is not influenced by the presence of the membrane, there is a significant increase in atrazine decomposition when the membrane is added. With membrane, 85% atrazine removal can be obtained in comparison to only 61% removal without membrane, at the same experimental parameters. The by-products of atrazine decomposition identified by HPLC-MS are deethylatrazine and ammelide. Formation of these by-products is more pronounced when the membrane is added. These results indicate the synergetic effect of plasma discharge and pollutant adsorption, which is attractive for future applications of water treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Drinking-water exposure to a mixture of nitrate and low-dose atrazine metabolites and small-for-gestational age (SGA) babies: a historic cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migeot, V; Albouy-Llaty, M; Carles, C; Limousi, F; Strezlec, S; Dupuis, A; Rabouan, S

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater, surface water and drinking water are contaminated by nitrates and atrazine, an herbicide. They are present as a mixture in drinking water and with their endocrine-disrupting activity, they may alter fetal growth. To study an association between drinking-water atrazine metabolites/nitrate mixture exposure and small-for-gestational-age(SGA). A historic cohort study based on birth records and drinking-water nitrate and pesticide measurements in Deux-Sèvres (France) between 2005 and 2009 was carried out. Exposure to drinking-water atrazine metabolites/nitrate mixture was divided into 6 classes according to the presence or absence of atrazine metabolites and to terciles of nitrate concentrations in each trimester of pregnancy. Regression analysis of SGA by mixture exposure at second trimester was subsequently conducted. We included 11,446 woman-neonate couples of whom 37.0% were exposed to pesticides, while 99.9% of the women were exposed to nitrates. Average nitrate concentration was from 0 to 63.30 mg/L. In the second trimester of pregnancy, the risk of SGA was different with mixture exposure when drinking-water atrazine metabolites, mainly 2 hydroxyatrazine and desethylatrazine, were present and nitrate dose exposure increased: compared to single first tercile of nitrate concentration exposure, single second tercile exposure OR was 1.74 CI 95% [1.10; 2.75] and atrazine metabolites presence in the third tercile of nitrate concentration exposure OR was 0.87 CI 95% [0.45;1.67]. It is possible that the association found at the second trimester of exposure with regard to birth weight may likewise be observed before birth, with regard to the estimated fetal weight, and that it might change in the event that the atrazine metabolites dose were higher or the nitrate dose lower. It would appear necessary to further explore the variability of effects. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxicity estimates for diuron and atrazine for the tropical marine cnidarian Exaiptasia pallida and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. using PAM chlorophyll-a fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Pelli Louise; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda Jean; Clark, Malcolm William; Seery, Cliff Ross

    2017-06-01

    Effective ecotoxicological risk assessments for herbicides in tropical marine environments are restricted by a lack of toxicity data, sensitive test methods and endpoints for relevant species, and this requires rectification. The symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida is a suitable test species, representing the phylum Cnidaria and allowing for assessments of toxicological responses of both the animal host and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll-a fluorometry is recognised as a valuable ecotoxicological tool, and here newly-developed test methods are presented using PAM fluorometry to measure herbicide effects on photosynthetic efficiency of in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. Additionally, measurements on healthy laboratory-reared E. pallida provide baseline data demonstrating the normal effective quantum yield (EQY) and the maximum electron transport rate (ETR m ) for Symbiodinium spp. in the absence of herbicide stress. Concentration-dependant reductions in the EQY and ETR m occurred during diuron and atrazine exposures; a mean 48-h EC50 (effective concentration; 50%) of 8μg/L of diuron was estimated, however atrazine elicited a much lower toxicity. Twelve-day exposures to 10-200μg/L diuron showed that the greatest EQY effect occurred during the first 48h, with little subsequent change. However, longer exposures to the lowest diuron treatment (1μg/L) showed the lowest EQYs after 96h followed by recovery to control levels within 12d. Furthermore, asexual reproduction was inhibited during 12-d exposures to diuron, and 12-d EC50 values of 100 and 132μg/L were estimated to inhibit successful reproduction of pedal lacerates and juveniles by 50% respectively. This study provides much needed data contributions to species sensitivity curves for development of diuron and atrazine water quality guidelines in tropical marine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Exposure to atrazine affects the expression of key genes in metabolic pathways integral to energy homeostasis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaya, Renee M.; Amini, Zakariya; Whitaker, Ashley S.; Ide, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    In our laboratory, Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed throughout development to 200 or 400 μg/L atrazine, concentrations reported to periodically occur in puddles, vernal ponds and runoff soon after application, were smaller and had smaller fat bodies (the tadpole's lipid storage organ) than controls. It was hypothesized that these changes were due to atrazine-related perturbations of energy homeostasis. To investigate this hypothesis, selected metabolic responses to exposure at the transcriptional and biochemical levels in atrazine-exposed tadpoles were measured. DNA microarray technology was used to determine which metabolic pathways were affected after developmental exposure to 400 μg/L atrazine. From these data, genes representative of the affected pathways were selected for assay using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to measure changes in expression during a 2-week exposure to 400 μg/L. Finally, ATP levels were measured from tadpoles both early in and at termination of exposure to 200 and 400 μg/L. Microarray analysis revealed significant differential gene expression in metabolic pathways involved with energy homeostasis. Pathways with increased transcription were associated with the conversion of lipids and proteins into energy. Pathways with decreased transcription were associated with carbohydrate metabolism, fat storage, and protein synthesis. Using qRT-PCR, changes in gene expression indicative of an early stress response to atrazine were noted. Exposed tadpoles had significant decreases in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (AD) and glucocorticoid receptor protein (GR) mRNA after 24 h of exposure, and near-significant (p = 0.07) increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β (PPAR-β) mRNA by 72 h. Decreases in AD suggested decreases in fatty acid β-oxidation while decreases in GR may have been a receptor desensitization response to a glucocorticoid surge. Involvement of PPAR-β, an energy homeostasis regulatory molecule

  16. Exposure to atrazine affects the expression of key genes in metabolic pathways integral to energy homeostasis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaya, Renee M., E-mail: renee.zaya@wmich.edu [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Amini, Zakariya, E-mail: zakariya.amini@wmich.edu [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Whitaker, Ashley S., E-mail: ashley.s.whitaker@wmich.edu [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Ide, Charles F., E-mail: charles.ide@wmich.edu [Great Lakes Environmental and Molecular Sciences Center, Department of Biological Sciences, 3425 Wood Hall, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    In our laboratory, Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed throughout development to 200 or 400 {mu}g/L atrazine, concentrations reported to periodically occur in puddles, vernal ponds and runoff soon after application, were smaller and had smaller fat bodies (the tadpole's lipid storage organ) than controls. It was hypothesized that these changes were due to atrazine-related perturbations of energy homeostasis. To investigate this hypothesis, selected metabolic responses to exposure at the transcriptional and biochemical levels in atrazine-exposed tadpoles were measured. DNA microarray technology was used to determine which metabolic pathways were affected after developmental exposure to 400 {mu}g/L atrazine. From these data, genes representative of the affected pathways were selected for assay using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to measure changes in expression during a 2-week exposure to 400 {mu}g/L. Finally, ATP levels were measured from tadpoles both early in and at termination of exposure to 200 and 400 {mu}g/L. Microarray analysis revealed significant differential gene expression in metabolic pathways involved with energy homeostasis. Pathways with increased transcription were associated with the conversion of lipids and proteins into energy. Pathways with decreased transcription were associated with carbohydrate metabolism, fat storage, and protein synthesis. Using qRT-PCR, changes in gene expression indicative of an early stress response to atrazine were noted. Exposed tadpoles had significant decreases in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (AD) and glucocorticoid receptor protein (GR) mRNA after 24 h of exposure, and near-significant (p = 0.07) increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {beta} (PPAR-{beta}) mRNA by 72 h. Decreases in AD suggested decreases in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation while decreases in GR may have been a receptor desensitization response to a glucocorticoid surge. Involvement of PPAR-{beta}, an energy

  17. New competitive dendrimer-based and highly selective immunosensor for determination of atrazine in environmental, feed and food samples: the importance of antibody selectivity for discrimination among related triazinic metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, Marco; Umiltà, Eleonora; Careri, Maria

    2014-01-02

    A new voltammetric competitive immunosensor selective for atrazine, based on the immobilization of a conjugate atrazine-bovine serum albumine on a nanostructured gold substrate previously functionalized with poliamidoaminic dendrimers, was realized, characterized, and validated in different real samples of environmental and food concern. Response of the sensor was reliable, highly selective and suitable for the detection and quantification of atrazine at trace levels in complex matrices such as territorial waters, corn-cultivated soils, corn-containing poultry and bovine feeds and corn flakes for human use. Selectivity studies were focused on desethylatrazine, the principal metabolite generated by long-term microbiological degradation of atrazine, terbutylazine-2-hydroxy and simazine as potential interferents. The response of the developed immunosensor for atrazine was explored over the 10(-2)-10(3) ng mL(-1) range. Good sensitivity was proved, as limit of detection and limit of quantitation of 1.2 and 5 ng mL(-1), respectively, were estimated for atrazine. RSD values <5% over the entire explored range attested a good precision of the device. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Banana peel as an adsorbent for removing atrazine and ametryne from waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudineia R; Gomes, Taciana F; Andrade, Graziela C R M; Monteiro, Sergio H; Dias, Ana C R; Zagatto, Elias A G; Tornisielo, Valdemar L

    2013-03-13

    The feasibility of using banana peel for removal of the pesticides atrazine and ametryne from river and treated waters has been demonstrated, allowing the design of an efficient, fast, and low-cost strategy for remediation of polluted waters. The conditions for removal of these pesticides in a laboratory scale were optimized as sample volume = 50 mL, banana mass = 3.0 g, stirring time = 40 min, and no pH adjustment necessary. KF(sor) values for atrazine and ametryne were evaluated as 35.8 and 54.1 μg g(-1) (μL mL(-1)) by using liquid scintillation spectrometry. Adsorption was also evaluated by LC-ESI-MS/MS. As quantification limits were 0.10 and 0.14 μg L(-1) for both pesticides, sample preconcentration was not needed. Linear analytical curves (up to 10 μg L(-1)), precise results (RSD 90% removal efficiency were attained for both pesticides. Water samples collected near an intensively cultivated area were adequately remedied.

  19. Phytotoxicity of atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron to submersed macrophytes in outdoor mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauert, Stefanie; Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane; Knauer, Katja

    2010-01-01

    The submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton lucens were constantly exposed over a five-week period to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine, isoproturon, diuron, and their mixture in outdoor mesocosms. Effects were evaluated investigating photosynthetic efficiency (PE) of the three macrophytes and growth of M. spicatum and E. canadensis. Adverse effects on PE were observed on days 2 and 5 after application. M. spicatum was found to be the more sensitive macrophyte. E. canadensis and P. lucens were less sensitive to atrazine, diuron and the mixture and insensitive to isoproturon. PE of M. spicatum was similarly affected by the single herbicides and the mixture demonstrating concentration addition. Growth of E. canadensis and M. spicatum was not reduced indicating that herbicide exposure did not impair plant development. Although PE measurements turned out to be a sensitive method to monitor PSII herbicides, plant growth remains the more relevant ecological endpoint in risk assessment.

  20. Lack of the nucleoside transporter ENT1 results in the Augustine-null blood type and ectopic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Geoff; Ballif, Bryan A; Helias, Virginie; Saison, Carole; Grimsley, Shane; Mannessier, Lucienne; Hustinx, Hein; Lee, Edmond; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Peyrard, Thierry; Arnaud, Lionel

    2015-06-04

    The Augustine-negative alias At(a-) blood type, which seems to be restricted to people of African ancestry, was identified half a century ago but remains one of the last blood types with no known genetic basis. Here we report that a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in SLC29A1 (rs45458701) is responsible for the At(a-) blood type. The resulting p.Glu391Lys variation in the last extracellular loop of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1; also called SLC29a1) is known not to alter its ability to transport nucleosides and nucleoside analog drugs. Furthermore, we identified 3 individuals of European ancestry who are homozygous for a null mutation in SLC29A1 (c.589+1G>C) and thus have the Augustine-null blood type. These individuals lacking ENT1 exhibit periarticular and ectopic mineralization, which confirms an important role for ENT1/SLC29A1 in human bone homeostasis as recently suggested by the skeletal phenotype of aging Slc29a1(-/-) mice. Our results establish Augustine as a new blood group system and place SLC29A1 as a new candidate gene for idiopathic disorders characterized with ectopic calcification/mineralization. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Atrazine degradation using chemical-free process of USUV: Analysis of the micro-heterogeneous environments and the degradation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L.J.; Chu, W.; Graham, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Two chemical-free AOP processes are combined to enhance atrazine degradation. • ATZ degradation in sonophotolytic process was analyzed using a previous proposed model. • The micro-bubble/liquid heterogeneous environments in sonolytic processes were investigated. • The salt effects on different sonolytic processes were examined. • ATZ degradation mechanisms were investigated and pathways were proposed. - Abstract: The effectiveness of sonolysis (US), photolysis (UV), and sonophotolysis (USUV) for the degradation of atrazine (ATZ) was investigated. An untypical kinetics analysis was found useful to describe the combined process, which is compatible to pseudo first-order kinetics. The heterogeneous environments of two different ultrasounds (20 and 400 kHz) were evaluated. The heterogeneous distribution of ATZ in the ultrasonic solution was found critical in determining the reaction rates at different frequencies. The presence of NaCl would promote/inhibit the rates by the growth and decline of “salting out” effect and surface tension. The benefits of combining these two processes were for the first time investigated from the aspect of promoting the intermediates degradation which were resistant in individual processes. UV caused a rapid transformation of ATZ to 2-hydroxyatrazine (OIET), which was insensitive to UV irradiation; however, US and USUV were able to degrade OIET and other intermediates through • OH attack. On the other hand, UV irradiation also could promote radical generation via H 2 O 2 decomposition, thereby resulting in less accumulation of more hydrophilic intermediates, which are difficult to degradation in the US process. Reaction pathways for ATZ degradation by all three processes are proposed. USUV achieved the greatest degree of ATZ mineralization with more than 60% TOC removed, contributed solely by the oxidation of side chains. Ammeline was found to be the only end-product in both US and USUV

  2. Atrazine degradation using chemical-free process of USUV: Analysis of the micro-heterogeneous environments and the degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, L.J., E-mail: xulijie827@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Chu, W., E-mail: cewchu@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Graham, Nigel, E-mail: n.graham@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Two chemical-free AOP processes are combined to enhance atrazine degradation. • ATZ degradation in sonophotolytic process was analyzed using a previous proposed model. • The micro-bubble/liquid heterogeneous environments in sonolytic processes were investigated. • The salt effects on different sonolytic processes were examined. • ATZ degradation mechanisms were investigated and pathways were proposed. - Abstract: The effectiveness of sonolysis (US), photolysis (UV), and sonophotolysis (USUV) for the degradation of atrazine (ATZ) was investigated. An untypical kinetics analysis was found useful to describe the combined process, which is compatible to pseudo first-order kinetics. The heterogeneous environments of two different ultrasounds (20 and 400 kHz) were evaluated. The heterogeneous distribution of ATZ in the ultrasonic solution was found critical in determining the reaction rates at different frequencies. The presence of NaCl would promote/inhibit the rates by the growth and decline of “salting out” effect and surface tension. The benefits of combining these two processes were for the first time investigated from the aspect of promoting the intermediates degradation which were resistant in individual processes. UV caused a rapid transformation of ATZ to 2-hydroxyatrazine (OIET), which was insensitive to UV irradiation; however, US and USUV were able to degrade OIET and other intermediates through • OH attack. On the other hand, UV irradiation also could promote radical generation via H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition, thereby resulting in less accumulation of more hydrophilic intermediates, which are difficult to degradation in the US process. Reaction pathways for ATZ degradation by all three processes are proposed. USUV achieved the greatest degree of ATZ mineralization with more than 60% TOC removed, contributed solely by the oxidation of side chains. Ammeline was found to be the only end-product in both US

  3. Comparative Cytotoxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine to Four Inbred Maize Lines (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, Afaf I; AlGhethar, Haila A; AlHomaidan, Ali A; Arif, Ibrahim A

    2008-01-01

    Atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Recent reports have indicated that it has adverse impacts on the endocrine systems and on the early developments of wild animals and it has been banned in many European countries including Switzerland, the home of the manufacturing company. The genotoxic effects of Atrazine on four inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated. The herbicide showed mitoinhibition and clastogenic effects on the mitotic index of maize lines and they were proportional to the concentrations and time. The frequency of abnormality, chromosomal breakage, stickiness, lagging, C-metaphase and C-anaphase were observed at different stages of mitosis in treated cells. The harmful effect of this environmental pollutant proved that it may act as a strong mutagen. (author)

  4. Degradation of atrazine and isoproturon in surface and sub-surface soil materials undergoing different moisture and aeration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Salah; Wood, Martin

    2005-02-01

    The influence of different moisture and aeration conditions on the degradation of atrazine and isoproturon was investigated in environmental samples aseptically collected from surface and sub-surface zones of agricultural land. The materials were maintained at two moisture contents corresponding to just above field capacity or 90% of field capacity. Another two groups of samples were adjusted with water to above field capacity, and, at zero time, exposed to drying-rewetting cycles. Atrazine was more persistent (t(1/2) = 22-35 days) than isoproturon (t(1/2) = 5-17 days) in samples maintained at constant moisture conditions. The rate of degradation for both herbicides was higher in samples maintained at a moisture content of 90% of field capacity than in samples with higher moisture contents. The reduction in moisture content in samples undergoing desiccation from above field capacity to much lower than field capacity enhanced the degradation of isoproturon (t(1/2) = 9-12 days) but reduced the rate of atrazine degradation (t(1/2) = 23-35 days). This demonstrates the variability between different micro-organisms in their susceptibility to desiccation. Under anaerobic conditions generated in anaerobic jars, atrazine degraded much more rapidly than isoproturon in materials taken from three soil profiles (0-250 cm depth). It is suggested that some specific micro-organisms are able to survive and degrade herbicide under severe conditions of desiccation. Copyright (c) 2005 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. An improved high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method to measure atrazine and its metabolites in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuwet, Parinya; Restrepo, Paula A; Magsumbol, Melina; Jung, Kyung Y; Montesano, M Angela; Needham, Larry L; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2010-04-15

    We report an improved solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method with isotope dilution quantification to measure seven atrazine metabolites in urine. The metabolites measured were hydroxyatrazine (HA), diaminochloroatrazine (DACT), desisopropylatrazine (DIA), desethylatrazine (DEA), desethylatrazine mercapturate (DEAM), atrazine mercapturate (ATZM), and atrazine (ATZ). Using offline mixed-mode reversed-phase/cation-exchange solid-phase extraction dramatically increased recovery and sensitivity by reducing the influence of matrix components during separation and analysis. DACT extraction recovery improved to greater than 80% while the other analytes had similar extraction efficiencies as previously observed. Limits of detection were lower than our previous method (0.05-0.19 ng/mL) with relative standard deviations less than 10%. The total runtime was shorter (18 min) than the previous on-line method, thus it is suitable for large-scale sample analyses. We increased the throughput of our method twofold by using the newer extraction technique. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Exposure to atrazine affects the expression of key genes in metabolic pathways integral to energy homeostasis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaya, Renee M; Amini, Zakariya; Whitaker, Ashley S; Ide, Charles F

    2011-08-01

    In our laboratory, Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed throughout development to 200 or 400 μg/L atrazine, concentrations reported to periodically occur in puddles, vernal ponds and runoff soon after application, were smaller and had smaller fat bodies (the tadpole's lipid storage organ) than controls. It was hypothesized that these changes were due to atrazine-related perturbations of energy homeostasis. To investigate this hypothesis, selected metabolic responses to exposure at the transcriptional and biochemical levels in atrazine-exposed tadpoles were measured. DNA microarray technology was used to determine which metabolic pathways were affected after developmental exposure to 400 μg/L atrazine. From these data, genes representative of the affected pathways were selected for assay using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to measure changes in expression during a 2-week exposure to 400 μg/L. Finally, ATP levels were measured from tadpoles both early in and at termination of exposure to 200 and 400 μg/L. Microarray analysis revealed significant differential gene expression in metabolic pathways involved with energy homeostasis. Pathways with increased transcription were associated with the conversion of lipids and proteins into energy. Pathways with decreased transcription were associated with carbohydrate metabolism, fat storage, and protein synthesis. Using qRT-PCR, changes in gene expression indicative of an early stress response to atrazine were noted. Exposed tadpoles had significant decreases in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (AD) and glucocorticoid receptor protein (GR) mRNA after 24 h of exposure, and near-significant (p=0.07) increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β (PPAR-β) mRNA by 72 h. Decreases in AD suggested decreases in fatty acid β-oxidation while decreases in GR may have been a receptor desensitization response to a glucocorticoid surge. Involvement of PPAR-β, an energy homeostasis regulatory molecule, also

  7. Phytotoxicity of atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron to submersed macrophytes in outdoor mesocosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauert, Stefanie; Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane; Knauer, Katja

    2010-01-01

    The submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton lucens were constantly exposed over a five-week period to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine, isoproturon, diuron, and their mixture in outdoor mesocosms. Effects were evaluated investigating photosynthetic efficiency (PE) of the three macrophytes and growth of M. spicatum and E. canadensis. Adverse effects on PE were observed on days 2 and 5 after application. M. spicatum was found to be the more sensitive macrophyte. E. canadensis and P. lucens were less sensitive to atrazine, diuron and the mixture and insensitive to isoproturon. PE of M. spicatum was similarly affected by the single herbicides and the mixture demonstrating concentration addition. Growth of E. canadensis and M. spicatum was not reduced indicating that herbicide exposure did not impair plant development. Although PE measurements turned out to be a sensitive method to monitor PSII herbicides, plant growth remains the more relevant ecological endpoint in risk assessment. - Short-term effects on photosynthesis did not result in growth reduction of submerse macrophytes exposed to PSII inhibitors.

  8. Phytotoxicity of atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron to submersed macrophytes in outdoor mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauert, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.knauert@basf.co [University of Basel, Department of Environmental Sciences, Hebelstrasse 1, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Knauer, Katja [University of Basel, Program Sustainability Research, Klingelbergstr. 50, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    The submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton lucens were constantly exposed over a five-week period to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine, isoproturon, diuron, and their mixture in outdoor mesocosms. Effects were evaluated investigating photosynthetic efficiency (PE) of the three macrophytes and growth of M. spicatum and E. canadensis. Adverse effects on PE were observed on days 2 and 5 after application. M. spicatum was found to be the more sensitive macrophyte. E. canadensis and P. lucens were less sensitive to atrazine, diuron and the mixture and insensitive to isoproturon. PE of M. spicatum was similarly affected by the single herbicides and the mixture demonstrating concentration addition. Growth of E. canadensis and M. spicatum was not reduced indicating that herbicide exposure did not impair plant development. Although PE measurements turned out to be a sensitive method to monitor PSII herbicides, plant growth remains the more relevant ecological endpoint in risk assessment. - Short-term effects on photosynthesis did not result in growth reduction of submerse macrophytes exposed to PSII inhibitors.

  9. Research Paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adewunmi

    microbial consortium utilize the hydrocarbon component of atrazine and thereby mineralize the somewhat recalcitrant .... Table 1: Physico - chemical properties of soil samples. Description .... atrazine in soil and Aquifer Solids. J. of Environ.

  10. Hydrologic and atrazine simulation of the Cedar Creek Watershed using the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, M; Heathman, G C; Norton, L D; Engel, B

    2007-01-01

    One of the major factors contributing to surface water contamination in agricultural areas is the use of pesticides. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a hydrologic model capable of simulating the fate and transport of pesticides in an agricultural watershed. The SWAT model was used in this study to estimate stream flow and atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) losses to surface water in the Cedar Creek Watershed (CCW) within the St. Joseph River Basin in northeastern Indiana. Model calibration and validation periods consisted of five and two year periods, respectively. The National Agricultural Statistics Survey (NASS) 2001 land cover classification and the Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database were used as model input data layers. Data from the St. Joseph River Watershed Initiative and the Soil and Water Conservation Districts of Allen, Dekalb, and Noble counties were used to represent agricultural practices in the watershed which included the type of crops grown, tillage practices, fertilizer, and pesticide application rates. Model results were evaluated based on efficiency coefficient values, standard statistical measures, and visual inspection of the measured and simulated hydrographs. The Nash and Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients (E(NS)) for monthly and daily stream flow calibration and validation ranged from 0.51 to 0.66. The E(NS) values for atrazine calibration and validation ranged from 0.43 to 0.59. All E(NS) values were within the range of acceptable model performance standards. The results of this study indicate that the model is an effective tool in capturing the dynamics of stream flow and atrazine concentrations on a large-scale agricultural watershed in the midwestern USA.

  11. Effects of chronic low concentrations of pesticides chlorpyrifos and atrazine in indoor freshwater microcosms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den P.J.; Donk, van E.; Gylstra, R.; Crum, S.J.H.; Brock, T.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Standards for pesticide concentrations in water are based on the laboratory toxicity of the most susceptible standard test organisms (algae, crustaceans or fish). Field studies have shown that the standards for the insecticide chlorpyrifos and the herbicide atrazine will protect aquatic ecosystems

  12. Leaching of Br-, metolachlor, alachlor, atrazine, deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine in clayey vadoze zone: a field scale experiment in north-east Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vryzas, Zisis; Papadakis, Emmanuel Nikolaos; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, E

    2012-04-15

    An extensive four-year research program has been carried out to explore and acquire knowledge about the fundamental agricultural practices and processes affecting the mobility and bioavailability of pesticides in soils under semi-arid Mediterranean conditions. Pesticide leaching was studied under field conditions at five different depths using suction cups. Monitoring of metolachlor, alachlor, atrazine, deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), and bromide ions in soil water, as well as dye patterns made apparent the significant role of preferential flow to the mobility of the studied compounds. Irrespective to their adsorption capacities and degradation rates, atrazine, metolachlor and bromide ions were simultaneously detected to 160 cm depth. Following 40 mm irrigation, just after their application, both alachlor and atrazine were leached to 160 cm depth within 18 h, giving maximum concentrations of 211 and 199 μg L(-1), respectively. Metolachlor was also detected in all depth when its application was followed by a rainfall event (50 mm) two weeks after its application. The greatest concentrations of atrazine, alachlor and metolachlor in soil water were 1795, 1166 and 845 μg L(-1), respectively. The greatest concentrations of atrazine's degradation products (both DEA and DIA) appeared later in the season compared to the parent compound. Metolachlor exhibited the greatest persistence with concentrations up to 10 μg L(-1) appearing in soil water 18 months after its application. Brilliant blue application followed by 40 mm irrigation clearly depict multi-branching network of preferential flow paths allowing the fast flow of the dye down to 150 cm within 24 h. This network was created by soil cracks caused by shrinking of dry soils, earthworms and plant roots. Chromatographic flow of the stained soil solution was evident only in the upper 10-15 cm of soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissipation of atrazine, enrofloxacin, and sulfamethazine in wood chip bioreactors and impact on denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood chip bioreactors are receiving increasing attention as a means of reducing nitrate in subsurface tile drainage systems. Agrochemicals in tile drainage water entering wood chip bioreactors can be retained or degraded and may impact denitrification. The degradation of 5 mg L-1 atrazine, enrofloxa...

  14. Effects of an atrazine, metolachlor and fipronil mixture on Hyalella azteca (Saussure) in a modified backwater wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Richard E; Knight, Scott S; Shields, F Douglas; Bryant, Charles T

    2009-12-01

    We examined the toxicity mitigation efficiency of a hydrologically modified backwater wetland amended with a pesticide mixture of atrazine, metolachlor, and fipronil, using 96 h survival bioassays with Hyalella azteca. Significant H. azteca 96 h mortality occurred within the first 2 h of amendment at the upstream amendment site but not at any time at the downstream site. H. azteca survival varied spatially and temporally in conjunction with measured pesticide mixture concentrations. Hyalella azteca 96 h survival pesticide mixture effects concentrations ranges were 10.214–11.997, 5.822–6.658, 0.650–0.817, and 0.030–0.048 μg L−1 for atrazine, metolachlor, fipronil, and fipronil-sulfone, respectively.

  15. The potential applications of using compost chars for removing the hydrophobic herbicide atrazine from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Lo; Roy, William R

    2008-09-01

    One commercial compost sample was pyrolyzed to produce chars as a sorbent for removing the herbicide atrazine from solution. The sorption behavior of compost-based char was compared with that of an activated carbon derived from corn stillage. When compost was pyrolyzed, the char yield was greater than 45% when heated under air, and 52% when heated under N(2). In contrast, when the corn stillage was pyrolyzed under N(2), the yield was only 22%. The N(2)-BET surface area of corn stillage activated carbon was 439 m(2)/g, which was much greater than the maximum compost char surface area of 72 m(2)/g. However, the sorption affinity of the compost char for dissolved atrazine was comparable to that of the corn stillage activated carbon. This similarity could have resulted from the initial organic waste being subjected to a relatively long period of thermal processes during composting, and thus, the compost was more thermally stable when compared with the raw materials. In addition, microorganisms transformed the organic wastes into amorphous humic substances, and thus, it was likely that the microporisity was enhanced. Although this micropore structure could not be detected by the N(2)-BET method, it was apparent in the atrazine sorption experiment. Overall, the experimental results suggested that the compost sample in current study was a relatively stable material thermally for producing char, and that it has the potential as a feed stock for making high-quality activated carbon.

  16. Comparative sensitivity of five species of macrophytes and six species of algae to atrazine, metribuzin, alachlor, and metolachlor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, James F.; Ruessler, Shane; Carlson, A. Ron

    1998-01-01

    This study determined the relative sensitivity of five species of aquatic macrophytes and six species of algae to four commonly used herbicides (atrazine, metribuzin, alachlor, and metolachlor). Toxicity tests consisted of 96-h (duckweed and algae) or 14-d (submerged macrophytes) static exposures. The triazine herbicides (atrazine and metribuzin) were significantly more toxic to aquatic plants than were the acetanilide herbicides (alachlor and metolachlor). Toxicity studies ranked metribuzin > atrazine > alachlor > metolachlor in decreasing order of overall toxicity to aquatic plants. Relative sensitivities of macrophytes to these herbicides decreased in the order of Ceratophyllum > Najas > Elodea > Lemna > Myriophyllum. Relative sensitivities of algae to herbicides decreased in the order of Selenastrum > Chlorella > Chlamydomonas > Microcystis > Scenedesmus > Anabaena. Algae and macrophytes were of similar overall sensitivities to herbicides. Data indicated that Selenastrum, a commonly tested green alga, was generally more sensitive compared to other plant species. Lemna minor, a commonly tested floating vascular plant, was of intermediate sensitivity, and was fivefold less sensitive than Ceratophyllum, which was the most sensitive species tested. The results indicated that no species was consistently most sensitive, and that a suite of aquatic plant test species may be needed to perform accurate risk assessments of herbicides.

  17. Degradation rates of alachlor, atrazine and bentazone in the profiles of Polish Luvisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszko, Tadeusz; Muszyński, Paweł

    2017-07-01

    The degradation rates of three herbicides (alachlor, atrazine, and bentazone) were examined according to OECD Guideline 307 in three profiles of grey-brown podzolic soil (Luvisol) in a laboratory experiment. The aim of the experiment was to determine herbicide degradation parameters and their relationships with soil properties. Degradation processes were effectively described by a first-order model. However, in some cases, the best results were produced by bi-phasic kinetics (hockey-stick and bi-exponential model). The degradation rates of the tested herbicides at 25°C and 40% maximum water holding capacity, established based on half-life values in the Ap horizon, increased in the following order: atrazine (32.6-42.8 days) herbicide degradation rates and the organic matter content of soils. The depth-dependent degradation factors obtained for topsoil and two subsoil horizons (1: 0.42: 0.11 - based on average values, and 1: 0.31: 0.12 - based on median values) reflect the degradation abilities of Polish Luvisols. The values noted are soil-specific; therefore, they can also be applied to other pesticides in Polish Luvisols.

  18. Atrazine and picloram adsorption in organic horizon forest samples under laboratory conditions Adsorção de atrazina e picloram em amostras florestais de horizonte orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Pinho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of two herbicides, atrazine and picloram, displaying different sorption characteristics, were evaluated for O (organic horizon samples collected from SMZs (streamside management zones in Piedmont (Ultisol of Georgia, USA. Samples were randomly collected from within 5 SMZs selected for a study of surface flow in field trials. The five SMZs represented five different slope classes, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Results indicate that 0 horizons have the potential for sorbing atrazine from surface water moving through forested SMZs. Atrazine adsorption was nearly linear over a 24-hour period. Equilibrium adsorption, determined through 24-hour laboratory tests, resulted in a Freundlich coefficient of 67.5 for atrazine. For picloram, negative adsorption was observed in laboratory experiments. This seemed to be due to interference with ELISA analyses; however, this was not confirmed. The adsorption coefficient (Kd obtained for atrazine in 0 horizons was greater than it would have been expected for mineral soil (from 1 to 4. Picloram was not sorbed in 0 horizons at any significant degree. Although there is a significant potential for the direct adsorption of soluble forms of herbicides in SMZs, the actual value of this adsorption for protecting water is likely to be limited even for relatively strongly sorbed chemicals, such as atrazine, due to relatively slow uptake kinetics.Este trabalho avaliou a adsorção de dois herbicidas - atrazina e picloram - com diferentes características de sorção, em amostras florestais de horizonte orgânico (HO coletadas em matas ciliares de manejo (MCM localizadas em uma região de Piedmond (Ultisol, no estado da Geórgia, EUA. As amostras foram coletadas aleatoriamente dentro de cinco áreas de mata ciliar distintas, em classes de declividade de 2, 5, 10, 15 e 20%, as quais foram selecionadas para desenvolver experimentos de campo sobre o transporte de herbicidas por escoamento superficial. Os resultados indicam

  19. Semifield testing of a bioremediation tool for atrazine-contaminated soils: evaluating the efficacy on soil and aquatic compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelinho, Sónia; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Silva, Cátia; Costa, Catarina; Viana, Paula; Viegas, Cristina A; Fialho, Arsénio M; Ribeiro, Rui; Sousa, José Paulo

    2012-07-01

    The present study evaluated the bioremediation efficacy of a cleanup tool for atrazine-contaminated soils (Pseudomonas sp. ADP plus citrate [P. ADP + CIT]) at a semifield scale, combining chemical and ecotoxicological information. Three experiments representing worst-case scenarios of atrazine contamination for soil, surface water (due to runoff), and groundwater (due to leaching) were performed in laboratory simulators (100 × 40 × 20 cm). For each experiment, three treatments were set up: bioremediated, nonbioremediated, and a control. In the first, the soil was sprayed with 10 times the recommended dose (RD) for corn of Atrazerba and with P. ADP + CIT at day 0 and a similar amount of P. ADP at day 2. The nonbioremediated treatment consisted of soil spraying with 10 times the RD of Atrazerba (day 0). After 7 d of treatment, samples of soil (and eluates), runoff, and leachate were collected for ecotoxicological tests with plants (Avena sativa and Brassica napus) and microalgae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) species. In the nonbioremediated soils, atrazine was very toxic to both plants, with more pronounced effects on plant growth than on seed emergence. The bioremediation tool annulled atrazine toxicity to A. sativa (86 and 100% efficacy, respectively, for seed emergence and plant growth). For B. napus, results point to incomplete bioremediation. For the microalgae, eluate and runoff samples from the nonbioremediated soils were extremely toxic; a slight toxicity was registered for leachates. After only 7 d, the ecotoxicological risk for the aquatic compartments seemed to be diminished with the application of P. ADP + CIT. In aqueous samples obtained from the bioremediated soils, the microalgal growth was similar to the control for runoff samples and slightly lower than control (by 11%) for eluates. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  20. Evaluation of the the temperature and humidity effect in the Atrazine degradation in the Saldana soil (Tolima) for liquid chromatography of high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Buitrago Baudilio; Guerrero Jairo A; Lozano Amanda; Fuentes Cilia

    2000-01-01

    In this study was designed an experiment under laboratory conditions with temperature and soil moisture controlled. The effect of these two factors was evaluated in atrazine degradation in silty loam soil, pH 6.23 (1:1 w), and 1.48% organic carbon. The extraction process of AT and deetilatrazine (DEA), and deisopropilatrazine (DIA) metabolites of the soil was carried out with methanol followed by a clean up with dichloromethane-buffer phosphate pH 10,0.01 M. Separation and quantification of the compounds was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Soil moisture was not a significant factor in atrazine degradation process, while the temperature was the factor that regulates the herbicide degradation. Atrazine degradation at 30oC was faster than at 20o C. DIA and DEA metabolites were not detected in any soil field samples

  1. Influence of the chain length of surfactant in the modification of zeolites and clays. Removal of atrazine from water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Jaldin, Helen Paola; Blanco-Flores, Alien; Sánchez-Mendieta, Víctor; Martín-Hernández, Osnieski

    2017-08-30

    Removal potentials of a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) and clay (SMC) for atrazine adsorption were evaluated. Materials were modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) and benzyl octadecyl dimethyl ammonium (BODA) chloride considering the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of each one (0.94 and 0.041 meq/L, respectively). The influence of the surfactant was analyzed in detail, particularly the formation of surfactant layers (complete or partial) connected with the length of the surfactant tail (16 and 18 methyl groups or number of carbons in the chain). Raw materials were characterized by XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), SMZ and SMC were analyzed by FTIR. Results obtained from kinetic adsorption experiments shown that equilibrium time is less for materials modified with HDTMA (8 h) than materials with BODA (10 and 12 h). Materials modified with the largest chain surfactant (BODA) showed more resistance to atrazine masse transference. The chemisorption was presented in the adsorption mechanisms of atrazine and adsorbent materials. Based on the results of adsorption isotherms Langmuir isotherms showed the better correlation coefficients value. The q max is greater for materials modified with BODA (0.9232 and 4.2448 mg/g) than for materials modified with HDTMA (0.6731 and 3.9121 mg/g). Therefore, SMZ and SMC modified with the largest chain surfactant has more affinity for the pesticide. The removal process at high concentration of atrazine depends of the partition process but at lower concentration, it occurs not only by this process but also by absorption process.

  2. Dynamic speciation analysis of atrazine in aqueous latex nanoparticle dispersions using solid phase microextraction (SPME)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benhabib, K.; Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is applied in the dynamic speciation analysis of the pesticide atrazine in an aqueous medium containing sorbing latex nanoparticles. It is found that the overall rate of extraction of the analyte is faster than in the absence of nanoparticles and governed by the

  3. Monod kinetics rather than a first-order degradation model explains atrazine fate in soil mini-columns: Implications for pesticide fate modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheyns, K.; Mertens, J.; Diels, J.; Smolders, E.; Springael, D.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticide transport models commonly assume first-order pesticide degradation kinetics for describing reactive transport in soil. This assumption was assessed in mini-column studies with associated batch degradation tests. Soil mini-columns were irrigated with atrazine in two intermittent steps of about 30 days separated by 161 days application of artificial rain water. Atrazine concentration in the effluent peaked to that of the influent concentration after initial break-through but sharply decreased while influx was sustained, suggesting a degradation lag phase. The same pattern was displayed in the second step but peak height and percentage of atrazine recovered in the effluent were lower. A Monod model with biomass decay was successfully calibrated to this data. The model was successfully evaluated against batch degradation data and mini-column experiments at lower flow rate. The study suggested that first-order degradation models may underestimate risk of pesticide leaching if the pesticide degradation potential needs amplification during degradation. - Population dynamics of pesticide degrading population should be taken into account when predictions of pesticide fate are made to avoid underestimation of pesticide break-through towards groundwater.

  4. Atrazine triggers developmental abnormality of ovary and oviduct in quails (Coturnix Coturnix coturnix) via disruption of hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Lei; Du, Zheng-Hai; Zhu, Shi-Yong; Li, Xue-Nan; Li, Nan; Guo, Jing-Ao; Li, Jin-Long; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    There has been a gradual increase in production and consumption of atrazine (ATR) in agriculture to meet the population rising demands. Female reproduction is necessary for growth and maintenance of population. However, ATR impact on females and particularly ovarian developmental toxicity is less clear. The aim of this study was to define the pathways by which ATR exerted toxic effects on ovarian development of ovary and hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. Female quails were dosed by oral gavage from sexual immaturity to maturity with 0, 50, 250 and 500 mg ATR/kg/d for 45 days. ATR had no effect on mortality but depressed feed intake and growth and influenced the biochemical parameters. Notably, the arrested development of ovaries and oviducts were observed in ATR-exposed quails. The circulating concentrations of E2, P, LH and PRL were unregulated and FSH and T was downregulated in ATR-treated quails. The mRNA expression of GnRH in hypothalamo and LH in pituitary and FSH in ovary was downregulated significantly by ATR exposure and FSH and PRL in pituitary were upregulated. ATR exposure upregulated the level of P450scc, P450arom, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD in ovary and downregulated ERβ expression in female quails. However, ATR did not change ERα expression in ovary. This study provides new insights regarding female productive toxicology of ATR exposure. Ovary and oviduct in sexually maturing females were target organs of ATR-induced developmental toxicity. We propose that ATR-induced developmental abnormality of ovary and oviduct is associated with disruption of gonadal hormone balance and HPO axis in female quails. - Highlights: • ATR triggers arrested development of ovarian and oviduct. • Ovary and oviduct are target organs of ATR-induced developmental toxicity. • Atrazine causes hormone adjustment disorder in female quails. • Atrazine upregulates steroidogenic factor and downregulates ERβ factor in ovary. • Atrazine disrupted the hypothalamo

  5. Fast algal eco-toxicity assessment: Influence of light intensity and exposure time on Chlorella vulgaris inhibition by atrazine and DCMU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuel, Alexandre; Guieysse, Benoit; Alcántara, Cynthia; Béchet, Quentin

    2017-06-01

    In order to develop a rapid assay suitable for algal eco-toxicity assessments under conditions representative of natural ecosystems, this study evaluated the short-term (Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to these herbicides under 'standard' low light intensity (as prescribed by OECD201 guideline), the 20min-EC 50 values recorded via oxygen productivity (atrazine: 1.32±0.07μM; DCMU: 0.31±0.005μM) were similar the 96-h EC 50 recorded via algal growth (atrazine: 0.56μM; DCMU: 0.41μM), and within the range of values reported in the literature. 20min-EC50 values increased by factors of 3.0 and 2.1 for atrazine and DCMU, respectively, when light intensity increased from 60 to 1400μmolm -2 s -1 of photosynthetically active radiation, or PAR. Further investigation showed that exposure time significantly also impacted the sensitivity of C. vulgaris under high light intensity (>840μmolm -2 s -1 as PAR) as the EC 50 for atrazine and DCMU decreased by up to 6.2 and 2.1 folds, respectively, after 50min of exposure at a light irradiance of 1400μmolm -2 s -1 as PAR. This decrease was particularly marked at high light intensities and low algae concentrations and is explained by the herbicide disruption of the electron transfer chain triggering photo-inhibition at high light intensities. Eco-toxicity assessments aiming to understand the potential impact of toxic compounds on natural ecosystems should therefore be performed over sufficient exposure times (>20min for C. vulgaris) and under light intensities relevant to these ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Pseudomonas species on the release of bound 14C residues from soil treated with [14C]atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.U.; Behki, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    The release of bound (nonextractable) 14 C residues from soil previously treated with [ 14 C]atrazine was investigated by incubation of the solvent-extracted soil with two species of Pseudomonas capable of metabolizing atrazine. The two species, 192 and 194, released bound 14 C residues from the soil. Addition of glucose, known to increase microbiological activities, to the incubated soil appeared to enhance the release of soil-bound 14 C residues, in particular in the presence of Pseudomonas species 192. The 14 C bound residues in soil, mainly present as the parent compound and its hydroxy and monodealkylated analogues, were released into the incubation mixture and were subsequently metabolized by the two species involving dechlorination and dealkylation

  7. Liquid-liquid extraction assisted by a carbon nanoparticles interface. Electrophoretic determination of atrazine in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Díaz, Encarnación; Simonet, Bartolomé; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2013-10-21

    A novel method for the determination of atrazine, using liquid-liquid extraction assisted by a nanoparticles film formed in situ and composed of organic solvent stabilized-carbon nanoparticles, is described. The presence of nanoparticles located at the liquid-liquid interface reinforced the extraction of analyte from matrix prior to capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis. Some influential experimental variables were optimized in order to enhance the extraction efficiency. The developed procedure confirmed that carbon nanoparticles, especially multi-walled carbon nanotubes, are suitable to be used in sample treatment processes introducing new mechanisms of interaction with the analyte. The application of the proposed preconcentration method followed by CE detection enabled the determination of atrazine in spiked river water providing acceptable RSD values (11.6%) and good recoveries (about 87.0-92.0%). Additionally, a similar extraction scheme was tested in soil matrices with a view to further applications in real soil samples.

  8. Effects of atrazine in fish, amphibians, and reptiles: an analysis based on quantitative weight of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Hosmer, Alan J; Hanson, Mark L; Kloas, Werner; Solomon, Keith R

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative weight of evidence (WoE) approach was developed to evaluate studies used for regulatory purposes, as well as those in the open literature, that report the effects of the herbicide atrazine on fish, amphibians, and reptiles. The methodology for WoE analysis incorporated a detailed assessment of the relevance of the responses observed to apical endpoints directly related to survival, growth, development, and reproduction, as well as the strength and appropriateness of the experimental methods employed. Numerical scores were assigned for strength and relevance. The means of the scores for relevance and strength were then used to summarize and weigh the evidence for atrazine contributing to ecologically significant responses in the organisms of interest. The summary was presented graphically in a two-dimensional graph which showed the distributions of all the reports for a response. Over 1290 individual responses from studies in 31 species of fish, 32 amphibians, and 8 reptiles were evaluated. Overall, the WoE showed that atrazine might affect biomarker-type responses, such as expression of genes and/or associated proteins, concentrations of hormones, and biochemical processes (e.g. induction of detoxification responses), at concentrations sometimes found in the environment. However, these effects were not translated to adverse outcomes in terms of apical endpoints. The WoE approach provided a quantitative, transparent, reproducible, and robust framework that can be used to assist the decision-making process when assessing environmental chemicals. In addition, the process allowed easy identification of uncertainty and inconsistency in observations, and thus clearly identified areas where future investigations can be best directed.

  9. Sorption of diuron, atrazine, and copper ion on chars with long-term natural oxidation in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C.; Lin, T.; Lai, C.

    2011-12-01

    Biochar has been proposed as a measure to sequestrate carbon (C) and to increase soil fertility in sustainable agriculture. However, its sorption characteristics to herbicides, such as lowing herbicides efficacy, may constrain its agricultural application. This assertion may be arguable because most studies so far were conducted with the newly produced char and barely considered the "ageing effect" of old char since it could be oxidized over long time. In this study, historical char samples were collected and compared with the newly produced char. Batch sorption studies of diuron, atrazine, and copper ion onto chars was performed. Greater sorption of Cu was observed on the historical char samples and reached a saturated sorption at 30 mg g-1 for Cu, much higher adsorption value than newly produced char at 4 mg g-1. In contrast, sorption of diuron and atrazine on newly produced char had the highest sorption capacity than the historical char samples. The historical chars also had much higher negative charge than the newly produced char, but its surface area were lower than the new char. The results indicated that change in surface functional groups through natural oxidation rather than the change of surface area may have more pronounced influences on sorption characteristics, in which the negative charge on the historical chars' surface could hinder the adsorption of diuron and atrazine while enhance the sorption to copper ion. Biological assay to test the toxicity of diuron and copper ion for both historical and new chars on rye seed were conducted and will be presented in our poster.

  10. The inhibition of myometrial contractions by chlorinated herbicides (atrazine and linuron), and their disruptive effect on the secretory functions of uterine and ovarian cells in cow, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Michał H; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw

    2017-10-01

    The effect of atrazine and linuron, the popular and widely used chlorinated herbicides, on both myometrial contractions and secretory functions of bovine uterus and ovaries in vitro, was investigated. The pesticides inhibited (Pherbicides affected PGs secretion from myometrium and PGF2α from endometrium. Only the lowest dose of both tested compounds decreased PGE2 secretion from endometrium. The pesticides increased (P<0.05) the OT secretion from granulosa. However, only linuron stimulated (P<0.05) the OT secretion from the luteal cells, and it increased (P<0.05) the expression of mRNA for the OT precursor. Both compounds stimulated (P<0.05) the secretion of testosterone and atrazine increased (P<0.05) also the secretion of estradiol from the granulosa cells. While atrazine and linuron reduced (P<0.05) the progesterone secretion from the luteal cells. The data show that atrazine and linuron altered the secretory functions of ovarian cells and inhibited the myometrial contractions in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Atrazine and nitrate in drinking water and the risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight in four Midwestern states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayner, Leslie Thomas; Almberg, Kirsten; Jones, Rachael; Graber, Judith; Pedersen, Marie; Turyk, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Atrazine and nitrate are common contaminants in water, and there is limited evidence that they are associated with adverse birth outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine whether atrazine and nitrate in water are associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (PTD) and term low birth weight (LBW). The study included a total of 134,258 singletons births born between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008 from 46 counties in four Midwestern states with public water systems that were included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s atrazine monitoring program (AMP). Counties with a population of >300,000 were eliminated from the analyses in order to avoid confounding by urbanicity. Monthly child's sex, race and Hispanic ethnicity specific data were obtained from the states for estimating rates of PTD (nitrate in finished water. Multivariable negative binomial models were fitted to examine the association between the exposures and the adverse birth outcomes. Models were fitted with varying restrictions on the percentage of private well usage in the counties in order to limit the degree of exposure misclassification. Estimated water concentrations of atrazine (mean=0.42 ppb) and nitrate (mean=0.95ppm) were generally low. Neither contaminant was associated with an increased risk of term LBW. Atrazine exposure was associated with a significant increased rate of PTD when well use was restricted to 10% and the exposure was averaged over 4-6 months prior to birth (Rate Ratio for 1ppm increase [RR 1ppm ]=1.08, 95%CI=1.05,1.11) or over 9 months prior to birth (RR 1ppm =1.10, 95%CI=1.01,1.20). Atrazine exposure was also associated with an increased rate of VPTD when when well use was restricted to 10% and the exposure was averaged over 7-9 months prior to birth (RR 1ppm =1.19, 95%CI=1.04,1.36). Exposure to nitrate was significantly associated with an increased rate of VPTD (RR 1ppm =1.08, 95%CI=1.02,1.15) and VLBW (RR 1ppm =1.17, 95%CI=1

  12. A highly sensitive immunoassay for atrazine based on covalently linking the small molecule hapten to a urea-glutaraldehyde network on a polystyrene surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Na; Sun, Wenjing; Wu, Yuntang; Sun, Zhong; Yu, Guanggui; Huang, Guowei

    2016-11-01

    A new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for atrazine was developed based on covalent bonding of the small molecule hapten, 2-mercaptopropionic acid-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine (MPA-atrazine), to urea-glutaraldehyde (UGA)-treated microtiter plates. In this assay, the microtiter plate surface was treated with the UGA network to both introduce amino groups, which were used to cross-link with the hapten carboxylate groups, and efficiently prevent non-specific adsorption of antibodies, which successfully eliminated the time-consuming routine blocking step. Compared with HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 -APTES-hapten coated ELISA (modified with a HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 -APTES mixture and covalent-linked hapten) and conventional ELISA (coated with hapten-carrier protein conjugates), the novel ELISA format increased the sensitivity by approximately 3.5-fold and 7.5-fold, respectively, and saved 2.5h and 34h of coating hapten time, respectively. The method's 50% inhibition concentration for atrazine was 5.54ngmL -1 , and the limit of detection was 0.16ngmL -1 after optimization of reaction conditions. Furthermore, the ELISA was adapted for analysis of atrazine in corn, rice, and water samples, demonstrating recoveries of 90%-108%. Thus, the assay provides a convenient alternative to conventional, laborious immunoassays for routine supervision of residue detection in food and the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Atrazine determination and some of their degradation products in soils and water by means of liquid chromatography of high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olarte, Israel; Guerrero, Jairo Arturo; Fuentes, Cilia

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the validation of the analytical method for the simultaneous determination of atrazine (AT) and its metabolites deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deetylatrazine (DEA) in irrigation water and agricultural soil. Field samples were collected in a cornfield located in Saldana, (Tolima, Colombia) and treated with 2.9 kg. a.i/ha of atrazine. Samples were collected for three months starting after herbicide treatment. The quantitative determination of the compounds of interest was carried out by HPLC with UV detection in a lichrospher RP-18 column of 125 x 4 mm, 5 , using a gradient of acetonitrile-water as mobile phase. The compounds were extracted from the water matrix and concentrated using solid phase extraction (SPE). From the soil matrix the compounds were extracted with methanol followed by a clean up with dichloromethane and buffer phosphate 0.01 M, pH 10.0. Calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 6 /L- 30 /L in water and 30 /kg - 200 /kg in soil. The method is specific and sensitive with a detection limit of 0.6 /L for DIA, 0.7 /L for DIA and AT in water, 2.0 /kg for DIA, 2.3 /kg for DIA and AT in soil. Recovery experiments were performed with irrigation water samples yielding average recoveries between 80-100% and performed on soil samples yielding average recoveries between 45-65%. DIA and DEA were not detected in neither water nor soil field samples, but atrazine was found in water after the first month following herbicide application at a concentration level of 5,8 /L, and in soil AT a concentration level of 97 /kg - at the second month, no atrazine was found in water but 42 /kg were detected in soil

  14. Plasma concentrations of estradiol and testosterone, gonadal aromatase activity and ultrastructure of the testis in Xenopus laevis exposed to estradiol or atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, Markus; Kim, Wan Jong; Park, June-Woo; Murphy, Margaret B.; Villeneuve, Daniel; Coady, Katherine K.; Jones, Paul D.; Solomon, Keith R.; Kraak, Glen van der; Carr, James A.; Smith, Ernest E.; Preez, Louis du; Kendall, Ronald J.; Giesy, John P.

    2005-01-01

    The ultrastructure of testicular cells of adult male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) exposed to either estradiol (0.1 μg/L) or 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropyl-amino-s-triazine (atrazine; 10 or 100 μg/L) was examined by electron microscopy and compared to plasma concentrations of the steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), testicular aromatase activity and gonad growth expressed as the gonado-somatic index (GSI). Exposure to E2 caused significant changes both at the sub-cellular and biochemical levels. Exposure to E2 resulted in significantly fewer sperm cells, inhibition of meiotic division of germ cells, more lipid droplets that are storage compartments for the sex steroid hormone precursor cholesterol, and lesser plasma T concentrations. Although not statistically significant, frogs exposed to E2 had slightly smaller GSI values. These results may be indicative of an inhibition of gonad growth and disrupted germ cell development by E2. Concentrations of E2 in plasma were greater in frogs exposed to E2 in water. Exposure to neither concentration of atrazine caused effects on germ cell development, testicular aromatase activity or plasma hormone concentrations. These results suggest that atrazine does not affect testicular function. In contrast, exposure of male X. laevis to E2 led to sub-cellular events that are indicative of disruption of testicular development, and demasculinization processes (decrease of androgen hormone titers). These results indicate that atrazine does not cause responses that are similar to those caused by exposure to E2

  15. Biodegradation of Aged Residues of Atrazine and Alachlor in a Mix-Load Site Soil by Fungal Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia E. M. Chirnside

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils from bulk pesticide mixing and loading (mix-load sites are often contaminated with a complex mixture of pesticides, herbicides, and other organic compounds used in pesticide formulations that limits the success of remediation efforts. Therefore, there is a need to find remediation strategies that can successfully clean up these mix-load site soils. This paper examined the degradation of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-S-triazine; AT and alachlor (2-chloro-2, 6-diethyl-N-[methoxymethyl]-acetanilide in contaminated mix-load site soil utilizing an extracellular fungal enzyme solution derived from the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, grown in a packed bed bioreactor. Thirty-two percent of AT and 54% of AL were transformed in the biometers. The pseudo first-order rate constant for AT and AL biodegradation was 0.0882 d−1 and 0.2504 d−1, respectively. The half-life (1/2 for AT and AL was 8.0 and 3.0 days, respectively. Compared to AT, the initial disappearance of AL proceeded at a faster rate and resulted in a greater amount of AL transformed. Based on the net Co2 evolved from the biometers, about 4% of the AT and AL initially present in the soil was completely mineralized.

  16. Health risks resulting from contaminants transfers in soil-plants systems: case study of Atrazine in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Camoin

    2015-04-01

    Food safety is presently at the center of great part of scientific and political debates. This represents a field of study in its own right of health risks, including ingestion by humans of hazardous biological, physical, chemical or radiological substances, from contaminated foods during different stages of production. Plant cultivation step is often one of the main sources of contamination, whether of voluntary (pesticide application) or accidental (nuclear, industrial waste, etc.) origin. As a result, the plants growth in an contaminated environment may increase the risk of transfer within the plant, and finally the exposure of humans. Furthermore, pesticides are among the main contaminants investigated in the frame of human health risks resulting from food intakes. However, most of these scientific works focus mainly on their occurrence and persistence in water bodies, and few of them are interested in soil/plants transfer. In this context, the understanding of the processes governing transfers of pesticides in plants is become a necessity, in particular to prevent human risks linked the ingestion of food produced in contaminated environments. This objective can be reached by studying the pollutants behavior in soils/plants transfers, and using various substances/plants couples. In our study, we selected a salad/pesticide couple as our experimental model. Atrazine was chosen as model contaminant because of its problematic presence in a large amount of environmental compartments, its physico-chemical properties and because of its long-term toxicity. Lactuca sativa has been selected as model plant because of its importance in French agriculture, and specifically in Languedoc-Roussillon. Salad has been cultivated in peats and irrigated with an atrazine spiked water solution (concentrations from 10 to 100 μg/L). Plant growth in such conditions has been compared to a growth in clean condition (irrigation with non spiked water). Measurements of atrazine contents in

  17. Rapid detection of atrazine and metolachlor in farm soils: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based analysis using the bubble-in-drop single drop microextraction enrichment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D Bradley G; George, Mosotho J; Marjanovic, Ljiljana

    2014-08-06

    Tracking of metolachlor and atrazine herbicides in agricultural soils, from spraying through to harvest, was conducted using our recently reported "bubble-in-drop single-drop microextraction" method. The method showed good linearity (R(2) = 0.999 and 0.999) in the concentration range of 0.01-1.0 ng/mL with LOD values of 0.01 and 0.02 ng/mL for atrazine and metolachlor, respectively. Sonication methods were poor at releasing these herbicides from the soil matrixes, while hot water extraction readily liberated them, providing an efficient accessible alternative to sonication techniques. Good recoveries of 97% and 105% were shown for atrazine and metolachlor, respectively, from the soil. The spiking protocol was also investigated, resulting in a traceless spiking method. We demonstrate a very sensitive technique by which to assess, for example, the length of residence of pesticides in given soils and thus risk of exposure.

  18. Study of the ‘lifeline’ as the measure allowing for safe self-rescue of miners in conditions of lack of visibility caused by underground fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badura, Henryk; Grodzicka, Aneta; Musioł, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    The article presents statistical data regarding the evacuation of miners affected by underground fire hazards. The data indicates that the hazard remains considerable. Due to the increasing lengths of escape routes, measures should be introduced in the longwall regions, which shall improve the safe evacuation of miners, especially in conditions of highly limited visibility or the lack thereof. Within the research project No. 12, entitled: ‘The development of orientation systems and systems for signalling the direction of crew withdrawal for escape routes in longwall gates’, which is a part of the Strategic Research Project entitled ‘The improvement of work safety in mines’ financed by the National Centre for Research and Development, a ‘lifeline’ was designed - that is, a measure that is very effective in the evacuation of staff. Subsequently, tests of time of passage were conducted in the ‘Krupiński’ coal mine in conditions of lack of visibility. The tests have confirmed the suitability of the ‘lifeline’ as the measure used for orientation towards the correct direction of evacuation, which increases the pace and the confidence while travelling through the escape route. The mean speed of passage through the heading with an upwards inclination of 11° was 22 m/min, while in case of a nearly horizontal longwall gate, it was 39 m/min.

  19. Negative cross resistance in atrazine resistant junglerice (Echinochloa colona (L. Link populations in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Elahifard

    2018-01-01

    -resistance to other photosystem-II inhibitors, such as bentazon and pyridate; triazine-resistant weeds can also exhibit negative cross-resistance to herbicides that do not affect photosystem II. Negative cross resistance may be the major reason that atrazine resistance did not evolve where herbicide mixtures were used, when the mixed herbicide (usually a non-PS II inhibiting acetanilide also controlled triazine-sensitive weeds. The value of negative cross-resistance linked with the general lack of fitness of almost all triazine-resistant weeds may be greater than we measured herein. The competition exerted by a crop in the field may further accentuate and exacerbate the lack of fitness and further lower the RI.

  20. Evaluated fate and effects of atrazine and lambda-cyhalothrin in vegetated and unvegetated microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, J L; Farris, J L; Moore, M T; Smith, S; Stephens, W W; Cooper, C M

    2005-10-01

    Contaminants such as nutrients, metals, and pesticides can interact with constructed wetlands and existing drainage ditches used as agricultural best-management practices. Our research has shown that the presence of macrophytes and a hydrologic regime aid in the transfer and transformation of pesticides associated with agricultural runoff. This study consisted of application of both atrazine (triazine herbicide) and lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroid insecticide) to vegetated and unvegetated microcosms in order to measure the fate and effects of pesticides applied at suggested field application rates. Exposures focused on monocultures of Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) and Juncus effusus (soft rush). Pesticide sorption was evident through concentrations of atrazine and lambda-cyhalothrin in plant tissue as high as 2461.4 and 86.50 microg/kg, respectively. Toxicity was measured in water from unvegetated microcosms for 28 days and in Chironomus tentans (midge larvae) exposed to sediment collected from 3 h to 56 days in microcosms receiving the pesticide combination. The comparative survival of test organisms in this study suggests that effective mitigation of pesticides from runoff can depend on the macrophyte contact and vegetative attributes associated with ditches. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of atrazine, metolachlor, carbaryl and chlorothalonil on benthic microbes and their nutrient dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elias

    Full Text Available Atrazine, metolachlor, carbaryl, and chlorothalonil are detected in streams throughout the U.S. at concentrations that may have adverse effects on benthic microbes. Sediment samples were exposed to these pesticides to quantify responses of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate uptake by the benthic microbial community. Control uptake rates of sediments had net remineralization of nitrate (-1.58 NO3 µg gdm⁻¹ h⁻¹, and net assimilation of phosphate (1.34 PO4 µg gdm⁻¹ h⁻¹ and ammonium (0.03 NH4 µg gdm⁻¹ h⁻¹. Metolachlor decreased ammonium and phosphate uptake. Chlorothalonil decreased nitrate remineralization and phosphate uptake. Nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate uptake rates are more pronounced in the presence of these pesticides due to microbial adaptations to toxicants. Our interpretation of pesticide availability based on their water/solid affinities supports no effects for atrazine and carbaryl, decreasing nitrate remineralization, and phosphate assimilation in response to chlorothalonil. Further, decreased ammonium and phosphate uptake in response to metolachlor is likely due to affinity. Because atrazine target autotrophs, and carbaryl synaptic activity, effects on benthic microbes were not hypothesized, consistent with results. Metolachlor and chlorothalonil (non-specific modes of action had significant effects on sediment microbial nutrient dynamics. Thus, pesticides with a higher affinity to sediments and/or broad modes of action are likely to affect sediment microbes' nutrient dynamics than pesticides dissolved in water or specific modes of action. Predicted nutrient uptake rates were calculated at mean and peak concentrations of metolachlor and chlorothalonil in freshwaters using polynomial equations generated in this experiment. We concluded that in natural ecosystems, peak chlorothalonil and metolachlor concentrations could affect phosphate and ammonium by decreasing net assimilation, and nitrate uptake rates by

  2. Analytical method for the determination of atrazine and its dealkylated chlorotriazine metabolites in water using SPE sample preparation and GC-MSD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sung-Ben; Stanton, Jeffrey S; Lin, Yi; Yokley, Robert A

    2003-12-03

    A method is reported for the determination of atrazine and its dealkylated chlorotriazine metabolites in ground, surface, and deionized water. Water samples are adjusted to pH 3-4 prior to loading onto two SPE cartridges in series: C-18 and C-18/cation exchange mixed-mode polymeric phases. The analytes are eluted from each of the two cartridges separately, and the pooled and concentrated fraction is analyzed using gas chromatography-mass selective detection in the selected ion monitoring mode. The lower limit of method validation is 0.10 micrograms/L (ppb) for 2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine (atrazine), 2-amino-4-chloro-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine (G-30033, deethylatrazine), 2-amino-4-chloro-6-(ethylamino)-s-triazine (G-28279, deisopropylatrazine), and 2,4-diamino-6-chloro-s-triazine (G-28273, didealkyatrazine). The overall mean procedural recoveries (and standard deviations) are 96 (6.9), 96 (5.5), 95 (6.8), and 100% (10%) for atrazine, G-30033, G-28279, and G-28273, respectively (n = 49). The method validation study was conducted under U.S. EPA FIFRA Good Laboratory Practice Guidelines 40 CFR 160. The reported procedure accounts for residues of G-28273 in water.

  3. A NEW APPROACH FOR CULTURING LEMNA MINOR (DUCKWEED) AND STANDARDIZED METHOD FOR USING ATRAZINE AS A REFERENCE TOXICANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemna minor (Duckweed) is commonly used in aquatic toxicity investigations. Methods for culturing and testing with reference toxicants, such as atrazine, are somewhat variable among researchers. Our goal was to develop standardized methods of culturing and testing for use with L....

  4. Sorption Energies for Atrazine onto Devolatalized Vitellaria paradoxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itodo, A. U.; Abdulrahman, F. W.; Hassan, L. G.; Happiness, U. I.

    2012-01-01

    We utilize isotherm models in contributing to scholarly knowledge in simple terms, to measure the forces or energy defining certain adsorption phenomenon. Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrophotometer detector was utilized to measure equilibrium phase atrazine after adsorption onto Shea nut Shells acid derived activated carbon. Data were fitted into the D-R and Temkin isotherm relationships for energy data estimation of Sorption energy value (B D ), mean free energy (E D ) and heat of sorption (B). They were estimated as 0.7600mol 2 KJ -2 , 0.8111 kjmor -1 and 0.790Jmol -1 respectively. The parameter predicting the type of adsorption was evaluated B D , B D 2 = 0.979 proves a better choice in explaining sorption energies. Generally, shea nut shells can be used as alternative precursors for activated carbon production via the two steps and acid treatment method.

  5. The ability of indigenous micro-organisms to degrade isoproturon, atrazine and mecoprop within aerobic UK aquifer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C; White, Craig; Bhardwaj, C Lal; Dixon, Andy

    2003-12-01

    The potential for the herbicides isoproturon, atrazine and mecoprop to degrade in the major UK aquifers of chalk, sandstone and limestone was studied using laboratory microcosms spiked at 100 microg litre(-1). Significant mecoprop degradation was only observed in sandstone groundwater samples. Atrazine transformation, based on the formation of metabolites, did occur in most groundwater samples, but only at a rate of 1-3% per year. A potential to degrade isoproturon was observed in groundwater samples from each of the aquifer types, with the most rapid and consistent degradation occurring at the sandstone field site. Biodegradation was confirmed by the formation of monodesmethyl- and didesmethyl-isoproturon. Isoproturon degradation potential rates obtained from the groundwater microcosms could not be correlated with either dissolved organic carbon or numbers of bacteria in the groundwater. It was noted that the ability of the groundwater at a field site to degrade a pesticide was not related to performance of the soil above.

  6. Novel molecular events associated with altered steroidogenesis induced by exposure to atrazine in the intact and castrate male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology is increasingly focused on molecular events comprising adverse outcome pathways. Atrazine activates the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, but relationships to gonadal alterations are unknown. We characterized hormone profiles and adrenal (intact and castrate) and te...

  7. Biodegradation of {sup 14} C-atrazine under outdoor conditions; Biodegradacao de {sup 14} C-atrazina em condicoes semi controladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Brigida Pimentel Villar de

    1997-10-01

    Uniformly {sup 14} C-ring labeled atrazine (5 L/ha) was applied to a Typical Hapludox Brazilian Soil sample which was incubated under outdoor conditions. Sample of 200 g (dry weight base) of fresh soil were distributed in Erlenmeyer flasks and the moisture was adjusted for 2/3 rds of the soil field capacity. The flasks were then buried in the Lysimeter Station when they were incubated. The experiment started jointly with a corn planting. The {sup 14} C O{sub 2} was analyzed every 15 day, during a period of 150 days. The desorbed, extracted and bound residues were analyzed. The extracted soil was fractionated and the residues in the humin, fulvic and humic acids were determined. At the end of the incubation period (150 days), the {sup 14} CO{sub 2} evolved reached up to 36% of the total applied activity, the bound residues were detected in about the same (34%) during the inoculation period, and were distributed in the fractions of fulvic acids (29,91%), humic acids (6,83%) and humin (63,26%). The metabolites formed in the desorbed residues and in the extracted residues were determined using thin layer chromatography with {sup 14} C-detector. After 150 days incubation, desorbed soil residues were identified as atrazine (52,72%), hydroxiatrazine (44%) and desisopropilatrazine (3,28%). The extractable residues contained atrazine (79,29%), hydroxiatrazine (16,22%), desisopropilatrazine (2,25%) and desetylatrazine (2,24%). (author)

  8. Impacts of Extraction Methods in the Rapid Determination of Atrazine Residues in Foods using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: Microwave Solvent vs. Supercritical Fluid Extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. El-Saeid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is an accepted fact that many food products that we eat today have the possibility of being contaminated by various chemicals used from planting to processing. These chemicals have been shown to cause illnesses for which some concerned government agencies have instituted regulatory mechanisms to minimize the risks and the effects on humans. It is for these concerns that reliable and accurate rapid determination techniques are needed to effect proper regulatory standards for the protection of people's nutritional health. This paper, therefore, reports the comparative evaluation of the extraction methods in the determination of atrazine (commonly used in agricultural as a herbicide residues in foods using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA techniques. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and microwave solvent extraction (MSE methods were used to test samples of frozen vegetables, fruit juice, and jam from local food markets in Houston. Results showed a high recovery percentage of atrazine residues using supercritical fluid coupled with ELISA and SFC than with MSE. Comparatively, however, atrazine was detected 90.9 and 54.5% using SFC and ELISA techniques, respectively. ELISA technique was, however, less time consuming, lower in cost, and more sensitive with low detection limit of atrazine residues than SFC technique.

  9. Short-term effects of benzalkonium chloride and atrazine on Elodea canadensis using a miniaturised microbioreactor system for an online monitoring of physiologic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco; Ritzenthaler, Raphael; Normann, Johannes; Wagner, Edgar

    2008-02-01

    The study evaluated the effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and atrazine on the macrophyte Elodea canadensis (Michaux) using a miniaturised monitoring test system consisting of a microbioreactor of reduced volume and integrated sensors for the online measurement of physiologic parameters, like oxygen production and different parameters of fluorescence. Different concentrations of both chemicals were applied to leaves of E. canadensis and the physiologic endpoints evaluated after 1h. A concentration-dependent reduction of the oxygen production and of the effective quantum yield of energy conversion was recorded. The mini-PAM technique implemented in the presented system allowed for a clear monitoring of the kinetic of BAC and atrazine, showing their distinct mode of action. No observable adverse effects were recorded up to concentrations of 2.5 mg/L and 10 microg/L, for BAC and atrazine, respectively. These values are in accordance with available results in the literature, hence indicating that the microbioreactor test system might be suitable, on the one hand, for the laboratory screening of potential short-term toxicity of contaminants on aquatic plants, and on the other hand, serve as an in situ field biomonitoring system for the rapid detection of pollutants in water.

  10. Catalytic Study on TiO2 Photo catalyst Synthesised Via Microemulsion Method on Atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslimie, C.A.; Hasmizam Razali; Khairul, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide photo catalyst was synthesised by microemulsions method under controlled hydrolysis of titanium butoxide, Ti(O(CH 2 ) 3 )CH 3 . The synthesised TiO 2 photo catalyst was compared with Sigma-commercial TiO 2 by carrying out the investigation on its properties using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The photo catalytic activities for both photo catalysts were studied for atrazine photodegradation. (author)

  11. RESPONSES OF MOLECULAR INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE IN MESOCOSMS: COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDES ALACHLOR AND ATRAZINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...

  12. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) and herbicide mineralization potential in groundwater affected by agricultural land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Spliid, Henrik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse groundwater pollution from agricultural land use may impact the microbial groundwater community, which was investigated as Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using EcoPlate™. Water was sampled from seven piezometers and a spring in a small agricultural catchment with diffuse......-galacturonic acid, tween 40, and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid as substrates, whereas none preferred 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, α-d-lactose, d,l-α-glycerol phosphate, α-ketobutyric acid, l-threonine and glycyl-l-glutamic acid. Principal Component Analysis of the CLPP's clustered the most agriculturally affected groundwater...... samples, indicating that the agricultural land use affects the groundwater microbial communities. Furthermore, the ability to mineralize atrazine and isoproturon, which have been used in the catchment, was also associated with this cluster....

  13. Método alternativo de avaliação da absorção de atrazine por plantas de Brachiaria plantaginea Alternative method for evaluation of atrazine asorption by Brachiaria plantaginea plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.G. Maciel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação da Universidade Estadual de Maringá-PR, objetivando desenvolver metodologia alternativa para avaliar a absorção foliar e radicular de herbicidas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 11 e 5 tratamentos para os solos arenoso e argiloso, respectivamente, ambos os experimentos com quatro repetições, constituídos por plantas de B. plantaginea em dois estádios. O herbicida atrazine foi aplicado nas doses de 2,5 e 3,0 kg ha¹ em solos arenoso e argiloso, utilizando um pulverizador costal pressurizado por CO2. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por plantas protegidas com canudos plásticos em solo descoberto e plantas desprotegidas em solo coberto com papel-alumínio, associadas a condições de solo seco e úmido, ou em ambas as condições, acrescidas de irrigação de 20 mm apenas ao solo após aplicação. A absorção foliar da atrazine foi eficiente no controle de B. plantaginea com duas a três folhas em solo arenoso e argiloso, ao contrário do estádio de quatro a cinco folhas, onde houve necessidade de associar os efeitos da absorção foliar e radicular para se obter controle satisfatório. A irrigação de 20 mm ampliou o controle da absorção radicular de B. plantaginea em diferentes estádios de plantas, solo e umidade do solo. A metodologia apresentou-se viável como ferramenta alternativa para avaliação da absorção foliar e radicular de herbicidas, no controle de gramíneas em estádio inicial de desenvolvimento.Two trials were carried out at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá, PR-Brazil, to develop an alternative method to evaluate foliar and root absorption of herbicides. A random experimental design was arranged, with eleven or five treatments, for sandy or clay soils, respectively,both with four replicates. Atrazine was applied at rates of 2.5 or 3.0 kg ha-1 in sandy or clay soil samples, respectively, with a CO2-pressured

  14. Estimation of placental and lactational transfer and tissue distribution of atrazine and its main metabolites in rodent dams, fetuses, and neonates with physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Wang, Ran; Ross, Matthew K.; Filipov, Nikolay M.

    2013-01-01

    Atrazine (ATR) is a widely used chlorotriazine herbicide, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, and a potential developmental toxicant. To quantitatively evaluate placental/lactational transfer and fetal/neonatal tissue dosimetry of ATR and its major metabolites, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were developed for rat dams, fetuses and neonates. These models were calibrated using pharmacokinetic data from rat dams repeatedly exposed (oral gavage; 5 mg/kg) to ATR followed by model evaluation against other available rat data. Model simulations corresponded well to the majority of available experimental data and suggest that: (1) the fetus is exposed to both ATR and its major metabolite didealkylatrazine (DACT) at levels similar to maternal plasma levels, (2) the neonate is exposed mostly to DACT at levels two-thirds lower than maternal plasma or fetal levels, while lactational exposure to ATR is minimal, and (3) gestational carryover of DACT greatly affects its neonatal dosimetry up until mid-lactation. To test the model's cross-species extrapolation capability, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted with pregnant C57BL/6 mice exposed (oral gavage; 5 mg/kg) to ATR from gestational day 12 to 18. By using mouse-specific parameters, the model predictions fitted well with the measured data, including placental ATR/DACT levels. However, fetal concentrations of DACT were overestimated by the model (10-fold). This overestimation suggests that only around 10% of the DACT that reaches the fetus is tissue-bound. These rodent models could be used in fetal/neonatal tissue dosimetry predictions to help design/interpret early life toxicity/pharmacokinetic studies with ATR and as a foundation for scaling to humans. - Highlights: • We developed PBPK models for atrazine in rat dams, fetuses, and neonates. • We conducted pharmacokinetic (PK) study with atrazine in pregnant mice. • Model predictions were in good agreement with experimental rat and mouse PK data.

  15. Estimation of placental and lactational transfer and tissue distribution of atrazine and its main metabolites in rodent dams, fetuses, and neonates with physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zhoumeng [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Wang, Ran [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Institute of Food Safety, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Ross, Matthew K. [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Filipov, Nikolay M., E-mail: filipov@uga.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Atrazine (ATR) is a widely used chlorotriazine herbicide, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, and a potential developmental toxicant. To quantitatively evaluate placental/lactational transfer and fetal/neonatal tissue dosimetry of ATR and its major metabolites, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were developed for rat dams, fetuses and neonates. These models were calibrated using pharmacokinetic data from rat dams repeatedly exposed (oral gavage; 5 mg/kg) to ATR followed by model evaluation against other available rat data. Model simulations corresponded well to the majority of available experimental data and suggest that: (1) the fetus is exposed to both ATR and its major metabolite didealkylatrazine (DACT) at levels similar to maternal plasma levels, (2) the neonate is exposed mostly to DACT at levels two-thirds lower than maternal plasma or fetal levels, while lactational exposure to ATR is minimal, and (3) gestational carryover of DACT greatly affects its neonatal dosimetry up until mid-lactation. To test the model's cross-species extrapolation capability, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted with pregnant C57BL/6 mice exposed (oral gavage; 5 mg/kg) to ATR from gestational day 12 to 18. By using mouse-specific parameters, the model predictions fitted well with the measured data, including placental ATR/DACT levels. However, fetal concentrations of DACT were overestimated by the model (10-fold). This overestimation suggests that only around 10% of the DACT that reaches the fetus is tissue-bound. These rodent models could be used in fetal/neonatal tissue dosimetry predictions to help design/interpret early life toxicity/pharmacokinetic studies with ATR and as a foundation for scaling to humans. - Highlights: • We developed PBPK models for atrazine in rat dams, fetuses, and neonates. • We conducted pharmacokinetic (PK) study with atrazine in pregnant mice. • Model predictions were in good agreement with experimental rat and mouse PK data

  16. Atrazine Does Not Induce Pica Behavior at Doses that Increase Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activation and Cause Conditioned Taste Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous work has shown that a single oral administration of atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, induces dose-dependent increases in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum corticosterone (CORT) and progesterone. The mechanism for these effects is unknown. To tes...

  17. Interactions in the fate of chemicals in terrestrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, I.; Korte, F.

    1985-01-01

    In outdoor lysimeters, [ 14 C]atrazine (0.9 mg/kg dry soil), [ 14 C]atrazine combined with the detergent n-dodecylbenzenesulfonate (0.9 and 10 mg/kg, respectively), [ 14 C]n-dodecylbenzene-sulfonate (10 mg/kg), and [ 14 C]n-dodecylbenzenesulfonate combined with atrazine (10 and 0.9 mg/kg, respectively) were applied to soils. Maize was grown in the first year and barley in the second year. n-Dodecylbenzenesulfonate increased the mobility of atrazine and its metabolites in soil as well as its leaching into water, its uptake by maize plants, and its volatilization from soil. Atrazine had a negative influence on mineralization, mobility in soil, leaching, plant uptake by both species, and binding rates of radiocarbon derived from the surfactant in soil and plants. The results were confirmed by short-term laboratory tests. Whereas the effects of the detergent on the fate of atrazine and its conversion products were apparent only in the first growing season, those of atrazine on the fate of detergent-derived residues could also be observed in the second year due to the persistence of atrazine in soil

  18. Atrazine movement in a dark red latosol of the tropics Movimento da atrazina numa terra roxa estrutrada eutrófica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. de Souza

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine displacement was studied in a soil profile as a function of water movement and time after herbicide application, taking into account possible influence of preferential flow on leaching. The experiment consisted of two 7 x 7m plots of a dark red latosol (Kanduidalfic Eutrudox, located at Piracicaba, SP, Brazil (22º 43'S and 47º 25'W, 250km inside continent, at an altitude of 580m. One plot was previously treated with 1,000 kg/ha of lime, in order to increase base saturation to 88%, and 500kg/ha of gypsum. Each plot was instrumented with tensiometers, neutron probe access tubes and soil solution extractors, in order to monitor water and atrazine flows. Atrazine was applied at the high rate of 6 kg/ha of active principle. Results showed intensive leaching of atrazine in the whole soil profile, up to the instrumented depth of 150cm, already ate the first sampling, seven days after herbicide application. The limed plot showed much higher atrazine leaching losses than the other plot. The atrazine adsorption capacity of the soil is very low, its maximum value being of the order of 10%, for the 0-15cm surface layer.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o deslocamento de atrazina no perfil do solo, em função do movimento da água e do tempo de aplicação, e possíveis influências de fluxos preferenciais sobre a lixiviação. O trabalho foi conduzido em uma Terra Roxa Estruturada eutrófica de textura argilosa, em Piracicaba (SP, no período de junho de 1992 a fevereiro de 1993. Foram instalados dois experimentos, sendo um com a cultura do milho irrigado (experimento 1 e o outro em solo nu (experimento 2. O experimento 1 foi instalado em uma área de 1000m² sobre a qual se demarcou duas parcelas de 12m x 12m separadas uma da outra por 18m. Uma parcela foi irrigada e a outra fertirrigada. O experimento 2 foi instalado em duas parcelas de 7m x 7m, separadas uma da outra por 5m. Em uma das parcelas do experimento 2 aplicou

  19. Oral absorption and oxidative metabolism of atrazine in rats evaluated by physiological modeling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, Tami S.; Hanneman, William H.; Cranmer, Brian K.; Tessari, John D.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2007-01-01

    Atrazine (ATRA) is metabolized by cytochrome P450s to the chlorinated metabolites, 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-amino-1,3,5-triazine (ETHYL), 2-chloro-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-1, 3, 5-triazine (ISO), and diaminochlorotriazine (DACT). Here, we develop a set of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models that describe the influence of oral absorption and oxidative metabolism on the blood time course curves of individual chlorotriazines (Cl-TRIs) in rat after oral dosing of ATRA. These models first incorporated in vitro metabolic parameters to describe time course plasma concentrations of DACT, ETHYL, and ISO after dosing with each compound. Parameters from each individual model were linked together into a final composite model in order to describe the time course of all 4 Cl-TRIs after ATRA dosing. Oral administration of ISO, ETHYL and ATRA produced double peaks of the compounds in plasma time courses that were described by multiple absorption phases from gut. An adequate description of the uptake and bioavailability of absorbed ATRA also required inclusion of additional oxidative metabolic clearance of ATRA to the mono-dealkylated metabolites occurring in GI a tract compartment. These complex processes regulating tissue dosimetry of atrazine and its chlorinated metabolites likely reflect limited compound solubility in the gut from dosing with an emulsion, and sequential absorption and metabolism along the GI tract at these high oral doses

  20. On alleviation of atrazine and imidacloprid contamination from single component aqueous systems using rice straw biochars: An Optimization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Singh, Neera

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of surface and ground water by pesticides from agricultural runoff and industrial discharge is one of the main causes of aqueous contaminations world over. Adsorption of pesticide on adsorbents is considered as the most feasible approach of decontamination. Biochar, agricultural waste derived highly aromatic substance produced after pyrolysis and carbonification of biomass have exhibited good adsorption capacity for pesticides and can be used to develop on-site bio-purification systems for organic contaminant removal from polluted waters. Normal (RSBC) and phosphoric acid treated (T-RSBC) rice straw biochars were characterized for their physico-chemical properties. The yield parameters of biochar suggested higher biomass-biochar conversion ratio for the rice biochar. T-RSBC (pH=6.93) was neutral whereas RSBC was alkaline in nature. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the biochars were quite high. Elemental analysis (C, H, N, O) of biochars suggested a higher total carbon content (47.7-49.5%) and degree of aromaticity (H/C 0.62-0.63) indicating increased stability of biochars than the parent feedstocks. Polarity increased when T-RSBC (O/C 0.416) was synthesized from RSBC (O/C 0.410). The surface area, pore volume and micropore volume of the biochars, calculated using BET N2 adsorption method, suggested that RSBC was the most porous biochar (220.2 m2 g-1) amongst the two studied. IR, SEM and XRD analysis of biochars suggested the presence of inorganic minerals, carbonates, aromatic moieties and carboxylic groups. Zeta potential measurement indicated that biochars' surfaces carried negative charges while Boehm titration results suggested abundant presence of surface acidic functional groups on both the biochars. Fairly good atrazine and imidacloprid removal were shown by RSBC (KFads,Atrz = 1363; KFads,Imida =1706) and T-RSBC (KFads,Atrz=2716; KFads,Imida= 3140). Results obtained by fitting the atrazine and imidacloprid adsorption data to the Freundlich

  1. Atrazine is primarily responsible for the toxicity of long-term exposure to a combination of atrazine and inorganic arsenic in the nigrostriatal system of the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardullas, Ulises; Giordano, Magda; Rodríguez, Verónica Mireya

    2013-01-01

    Chronic and simultaneous exposure to a variety of chemicals present in the environment is an unavoidable fact. However, given the complexity of studying chemical mixtures, most toxicological studies have focused on the effects of short-term exposure to single substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on the nigrostriatal system of the chronic, simultaneous exposure to two widely distributed substances that have been identified as potential dopaminergic system toxicants, inorganic arsenic (iAs) and atrazine (ATR). Six groups of rats were treated daily for one year with atrazine (10mg ATR/kg), inorganic arsenic (0.5 or 50mgiAs/L of drinking water), or a combination of ATR+0.5mgiAs/L or ATR+50mgiAs/L. The 50mgiAs/L group showed locomotor hypoactivity, while all treatments decreased motor coordination in contrast no effects of treatment were found on the place and response learning tasks. Regarding markers for liver and muscle damage, there were no differences between groups in creatine kinase (CK) or aspartate transaminase (AST) activities, while decreases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were found in some exposed groups. The striatal DA content was significantly reduced in ATR, 0.5mgiAs/L, ATR+0.5mgiAs/L, and ATR+50mgiAs/L groups, in comparison to the control group. The number of mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells decreased in the ATR and ATR+0.5mgiAs/L groups compared to the control. In contrast, immunoreactivity to cytochrome oxidase was reduced compared to the control in all treated groups, except for the group treated with 0.5iAsmg alone. Our results indicate that ATR has deleterious effects on dopaminergic neurons and that the combination of ATR and iAs does not exacerbate these effects. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lacking Community Out-Reach of Chinese Mining Investors in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Jesper Willaing

    Lacking Community Out-Reach of Chinese Mining Investors in the Arctic Despite China’s bad reputation as a mining investor, in a context of dramatically falling mineral prices, Chinese investments seem to be needed in order to realize most new mining projects across the globe. In Greenland...... and Arctic Canada, potential Chinese investors have been met with even more suspicion than elsewhere. National governments are worried about what state owned Chinese investors will mean for their control over national resources while local governments and the public fear what Chinese investors will mean...... for labour conditions and local environment. They fear a lack of social corporate responsibility (CSR) from Chinese investors. This paper assumes that the possible interest in Arctic mineral resources by the Chinese state combined with a strong demand from Greenland and Canada would make the Arctic a most...

  3. Atividade de glutationa S-transferase na metabolização de acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em milho (Zea mays L., sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. e trigo (Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae Glutathione S-transferase activity in acetochlor, atrazine and oxyfluorfen metabolization in maize (Zea mays L., sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and wheat (Triticum aestivumL. (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa Novelli

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a seletividade em plantas dos herbicidas acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em relação à atividade da glutationa S-transferase (GST em plantas de milho (Zea mays L., sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. e trigo (Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae. A atividade da GST foi detectada às 24, 48 e 72 horas após as aplicaç��es dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos do experimento consistiram de aplicação com água (controle, acetochlor (3 L.ha-1, atrazine (4 L.ha-1 e oxyfluorfen (1 L.ha-1. As maiores atividades de GST foram observadas na presença de acetochlor, principalmente às 48 horas após o tratamento. Esses aumentos foram 105, 148 e 118% em relação ao controle para milho, sorgo e trigo, respectivamente. É sugerido que a GST pode ter papel na degradação de acetochlor e pode ser uma das razões para a seletividade desse herbicida para essas culturas.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the acetochlor, atrazine and oxyfluorfen herbicides plant selectivity, in relation to glutathione S-transferase activity (GST in maize (Zea mays L., sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L (Poaceae plants. GST activity was detected 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment applications. The experiment's treatments consisted of spraying plants with water (control, acetochlor (3 L.ha-1`, atrazine (4 L.ha-1 and oxyfluorfen (1 L.ha-1. The highest GST activities were observed in presence of acetochlor, mainly at 48 hours after treatment. These increments were 105, 148 and 118% when compared to maize, sorghum and wheat control groups, respectively. It is suggested that the GST may have a role in acetochlor degradation and it may be a reason for this herbicide's selectivity in these crops.

  4. Does area deprivation modify the association between exposure to a nitrate and low-dose atrazine metabolite mixture in drinking water and small for gestational age? A historic cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousi, F; Albouy-Llaty, M; Carles, C; Dupuis, A; Rabouan, S; Migeot, V

    2014-04-01

    Birth weight may be influenced by environmental and socio-economic factors that could interact. The main objective of our research was to investigate whether area deprivation may modify the association between drinking water exposure to a mixture of atrazine metabolites and nitrates during the second trimester of pregnancy and prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. We conducted a historic cohort study in Deux-Sèvres, France between 2005 and 2010, using birth records, population census and regularly performed drinking water withdrawals at community water systems. Exposure to an atrazine metabolite/nitrate mixture in drinking water was divided into six classes according to the presence or absence of atrazine metabolites and to the terciles of nitrate concentrations in each trimester of pregnancy. We used a logistic regression to model the association between SGA and mixture exposure at the second trimester while taking into account the area deprivation measured by the Townsend index as an effect modifier and controlling for the usual confounders. We included 10,784 woman-neonate couples. The risk of SGA when exposed to second tercile of nitrate without atrazine metabolites was significantly greater in women living in less deprived areas (OR = 2.99; 95 % CI (1.14, 7.89)), whereas it was not significant in moderately and more deprived areas. One of the arguments used to explain this result is the presence of competing risk factors in poorer districts.

  5. Effects of the Atrazine herbicide over the diazotrophic microorganisms associated with corn in a Saldana soil (Tolima)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, Alba R; Lozano de Yunda, A; Fuentes, C

    1999-01-01

    In this study, it was evaluated, at greenhouse in soil pots, the effect of the herbicide atrazine in different dose (corresponding to o, 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 kg of soil hectare) over time (15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days after the application) on the diazotrophic micro-organisms associated with rhizosphere soil and root of a corn cultivation in a clay loam soil of Saldana - Tolima. It was determined the population of diazotrophic microorganisms in soil by the most probable number technique; also it was observed the characteristic growth in the specific cultivation semisolid Nfb-malic acid medium and was evaluated the nitrogenase activity by means of the acetylene reduction technique. Of the same form, it was observed the characteristic growth and it was evaluated the nitrogenase activity of direct fragment sowings of root in the Nfb-malic acid medium. The 60.8% of soil isolates presented characteristic cultural growth in the form of whitish pellicle under the surface of the medium. in the root 83.3% showed this type of growth. The population of diazotrophic microorganisms of soil did not present significant differences (α = 0.05) between treatments neither over time the nitrogenase activity of soil dilutions demonstrated that there is no a significant effect (α = 0.05) of the treatments (dose) but if there is significant effect of the time. The highest values were presented to 45 days of application of the herbicide, with the application of the highest dose. the nitrogenase activity in the root to what is long of the time was different from rhizosphere soil. The treatment without application of atrazine presented greater values to what is long of the time, however, also in this case were not presented significant differences (α = 0.05) between the treatments (dose) neither to what is long of the time. For so much, as a conclusion, they were not presented effects on the population and the nitrogenase activity of the diazotrophic microorganisms until 90 days of after the

  6. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and atrazine residues in Maize Produced in Ghana using GC-ECD/ GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miensah, E.D.

    2015-07-01

    Maize is consumed by over 95% of the Ghanaian populace and the practice of using atrazine, lindane and other organochlorine pesticides in its production has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on human health and the environment. A field survey was conducted in this study to assess farmers’ knowledge of safe handling and use of these chemicals as well as toxicity awareness and symptoms among farmers and traders. Residues of the pesticides in maize samples as well as the potential health risk associated with exposure to them were also evaluated. Data obtained from the field survey indicate that a large proportion of farmers are at risk of pesticide poisoning through occupational exposure. Over 80 % of applicators do not apply safety precautions during pesticide mixing and application; resulting in considerable prevalence of pesticide related illnesses in the study area. Residues of lindane and atrazine were below detection limits of 0.005 mg/kg and 0.010 mg/kg respectively of the GC-ECD/MS used for the analysis; except in the Ashanti region where atrazine was 0.05 mg/kg which is within the EU-MRL of 0.1 mg/kg. However, minute concentrations of other organochlorines (endrin- 0.007 mg/kg; heptachlor- 0.023 mg/kg; alpha-endosulfan- 0.013 mg/kg) were found in maize samples from Brong Ahafo, Eastern, Central and Upper west regions. Though endrin and alpha-endosulfan were below the EU-MRL of 0.01 mg/kg and 0.10 mg/kg respectively, heptachlor was slightly above the EU-MRL of 0.01 mg/kg. The estimated doses for all these other organochlorines pesticides do not pose direct hazard to human health because their estimated dose values were lower than toxic thresholds and reference doses. However, due to the unsafe application practices by applicators, there exists a potential risk for systemic and carcinogenic health effects by these chemicals in the study area. (au)

  7. A Discussion of Water Pollution in the United States and Mexico; with High School Laboratory Activities for Analysis of Lead, Atrazine, and Nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Grundman, Julie; Hage, David S.; Carr, James D.; Castro-Acuna, Carlos Mauricio

    1997-01-01

    Presents discussions on sources, health impacts, methods of analysis as well as lengthy discussions of lead, nitrates, and atrazine as related to water pollution and the interdisciplinary nature of the modern chemistry curriculum. (DKM)

  8. Sorption and leaching potential of isoproturon and atrazine in low organic carbon soil of Pakistan under a wheat-maize rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited data are available on the sorption and leaching of pesticides in agricultural soils of Pakistan with low soil organic carbon (OC). Sorption potential of two widely used pesticides, isoproturon and atrazine, was determined using the batch equilibration method on soils from 0-35 cm, 35-70 and ...

  9. MINERAL WATERS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORGES, TIAGO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disorder affecting nearly 1% of adult population. First-line therapies include disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, but creno-balneotherapyis often prescribed in rheumatic disorders and RA is no exception. Objectives: To know the efficacy of creno-balneotherapy in RA. Methods: A Medline based search was made using MeSH terms “balneology” and “rheumatoid arthritis”. Articles concerning the use of mineral waters in RA treatment were included. Results: In RA, two traditional ways of employing mineral waters are commonly used: immersion and peliotherapy. Each owns their benefits to non-specific or hydrotherapeutic effects and specific or crenotherapeutic effects. Mineral waters must be regarded as an adjuvant therapy in quiescent, stable or non-progressive RA. Significant benefits have been accomplished with radonenriched and sulphurous waters. Isothermal or hyperthermal waters should be preferred. Conclusions: Although there is a global lack of evidence, mineral waters are a safe and effective therapy to be considered in RA.

  10. Lack of transgene and glyphosate effects on yield, and mineral and amino acid content of glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O; Rimando, Agnes M; Reddy, Krishna N; Cizdziel, James V; Bellaloui, Nacer; Shaw, David R; Williams, Martin M; Maul, Jude E

    2018-05-01

    There has been controversy as to whether the glyphosate resistance gene and/or glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean affect the content of cationic minerals (especially Mg, Mn and Fe), yield and amino acid content of GR soybean. A two-year field study (2013 and 2014) examined these questions at sites in Mississippi, USA. There were no effects of glyphosate, the GR transgene or field crop history (for a field with both no history of glyphosate use versus one with a long history of glyphosate use) on grain yield. Furthermore, these factors had no consistent effects on measured mineral (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V, Zn) content of leaves or harvested seed. Effects on minerals were small and inconsistent between years, treatments and mineral, and appeared to be random false positives. No notable effects on free or protein amino acids of the seed were measured, although glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), were found in the seed in concentrations consistent with previous studies. Neither glyphosate nor the GR transgene affect the content of the minerals measured in leaves and seed, harvested seed amino acid composition, or yield of GR soybean. Furthermore, soils with a legacy of GR crops have no effects on these parameters in soybean. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Atrazine analysis using an amperometric immunosensor based on single-chain antibody fragments and regeneration-free multi-calibrant measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grennan, Kathleen; Strachan, Gillian; Porter, Andrew J.; Killard, Anthony J.; Smyth, Malcolm R.

    2003-01-01

    This work describes the development of an electrochemical immunosensor for the analysis of atrazine using recombinant single-chain antibody (scAb) fragments. The sensors are based on carbon paste screen-printed electrodes incorporating the conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI)/poly(vinylsulphonic acid) (PVSA), which enables direct mediatorless coupling to take place between the redox centres of antigen-labelled horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the electrode surface. Competitive immunoassays can be performed in real-time using this separation-free system. Analytical measurements based on the pseudo-linear relationship between the slope of a real-time amperometric signal and the concentration of analyte, yield a novel immunosensor set-up capable of regenerationless amperometric analysis. Multiple, sequential measurements of standards and samples can be performed on a single scAb-modified surface in a matter of minutes. No separation of bound and unbound species was necessary prior to detection. The system is capable of measuring atrazine to a detection limit of 0.1 ppb (0.1 μg l -1 ). This system offers the potential for rapid, cost-effective immunosensing for the analysis of samples of environmental, medical and pharmaceutical significance

  12. A systematic study of multiple minerals precipitation modelling in wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Tait, Stephan; Flores-Alsina, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    coefficient values. This suggests that a large kinetic coefficient could be used when actual measured data is lacking for a particular precipitate-matrix combination. Correlation between the kinetic rate coefficients of different minerals was low, indicating that parameter values for individual minerals could...

  13. The relationship between study sponsorship, risks of bias, and research outcomes in atrazine exposure studies conducted in non-human animals: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bero, L; Anglemyer, A; Vesterinen, H; Krauth, D

    2016-01-01

    A critical component of systematic review methodology is the assessment of the risks of bias of studies that are included in the review. There is controversy about whether funding source should be included in a risk of bias assessment of animal toxicology studies. To determine whether industry research sponsorship is associated with methodological biases, the results, or conclusions of animal studies examining the effect of exposure to atrazine on reproductive or developmental outcomes. We searched multiple electronic databases and the reference lists of relevant articles to identify original research studies examining the effect of any dose of atrazine exposure at any life stage on reproduction or development in non-human animals. We compared methodological risks of bias, the conclusions of the studies, the statistical significance of the findings, and the magnitude of effect estimates between industry sponsored and non-industry sponsored studies. Fifty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. There were no differences in methodological risks of bias in industry versus non-industry sponsored studies. 39 studies tested environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine (11 industry sponsored, 24 non-industry sponsored, 4 with no funding disclosures). Non-industry sponsored studies (12/24, 50.0%) were more likely to conclude that atrazine was harmful compared to industry sponsored studies (2/11, 18.1%) (p value=0.07). A higher proportion of non-industry sponsored studies reported statistically significant harmful effects (8/24, 33.3%) compared to industry-sponsored studies (1/11; 9.1%) (p value=0.13). The association of industry sponsorship with decreased effect sizes for harm outcomes was inconclusive. Our findings support the inclusion of research sponsorship as a risk of bias criterion in tools used to assess risks of bias in animal studies for systematic reviews. The reporting of other empirically based risk of bias criteria for animal studies, such as blinded

  14. Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture on pubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanko, Jason [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Enoch, Rolondo [North Carolina Central University, Durham; Rayner, Jennifer L [ORNL; Davis, Christine [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Wolf, Douglas [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Malarkey, David [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Fenton, Suzanne [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

    2010-12-01

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated by gavage with 0.09, 0.87, or 8.73 mg AMM/kg body weight (BW), vehicle, or 100 mg ATR/kg BW positive control, on gestation days 15 19. Preputial separation was significantly delayed in 0.87 mg and 8.73 mg AMM-exposed males. AMM-exposed males demonstrated a significant treatment-related increase in incidence and severity of inflammation in the prostate on postnatal day (PND) 120. A dose-dependent increase in epididymal fat masses and prostate foci were grossly visible in AMM-exposed offspring. These results indicate that a short, late prenatal exposure to mixture of chlorotriazine metabolites can cause chronic prostatitis in male LE rats. The mode of action for these effects is presently unclear.

  15. Lack of direct effects of agrochemicals on zoonotic pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Senkbeil, Jacob K; Rohr, Jason R; Harwood, Valerie J

    2012-11-01

    Agrochemicals, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and pathogens frequently contaminate water simultaneously. No significant direct effects of fertilizer, atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil on the survival of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica, human polyomaviruses, and adenovirus were detected, supporting the assertion that previously observed effects of agrochemicals on FIB were indirect.

  16. Minerals in thalassaemia major patients: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Zeynep; Genc, Gizem Esra; Gumuslu, Saadet

    2017-05-01

    Thalassaemia major (TM) is a hereditary blood disease characterised by reduced or absent production of beta globin chains. Erythrocyte transfusions are given to raise the haemoglobin level in patients with thalassaemia major. However, transfusions have been related to increased risk of iron overload and tissue damage related to excess iron. Both elevated oxidative stress due to iron overload and increased hemolysis lead to over utilisation of minerals required for antioxidant enzymes activities. Iron chelators have been used to prevent iron overload in thalassaemia major patients, but these chelators have the possibility of removing minerals from the body. Thalassaemia patients are more at risk for mineral deficiency because of increased oxidative stress and iron chelation therapies. Growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis are the complications of thalassaemia. Minerals may play a particular role to prevent these complications. In the current review, we provide an overview of minerals including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in thalassaemia major patients. We, also, underline that some complications of thalassaemia can be caused by an increased need for minerals or lack of the minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Atrazine Concentrations in Stream Water and Streambed Sediment Pore Water in the St. Joseph and Galien River Basins, Michigan and Indiana, May 2001 - September 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duris, Joseph W; Reeves, Howard W; Kiesler, James L

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled multiple stream sites across the St. Joseph and Galien River Basins to detect and quantify the herbicide atrazine using a field enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) triazine test...

  18. Biodegradation of Aged Residues of Atrazine and Alachlor in a Mix-Load Site Soil by Fungal Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Chirnside, Anastasia E. M.; Ritter, William F.; Radosevich, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Soils from bulk pesticide mixing and loading (mix-load) sites are often contaminated with a complex mixture of pesticides, herbicides, and other organic compounds used in pesticide formulations that limits the success of remediation efforts. Therefore, there is a need to find remediation strategies that can successfully clean up these mix-load site soils. This paper examined the degradation of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-S-triazine; AT) and alachlor (2-chloro- 2  , 6  -...

  19. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

  20. Rapid treatment of water contaminated with Atrazine and Parathion with sero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rima, Jamil; Amine, Charbel; Ghauch, Antoine; Martin-Bouyer, Michel

    1999-01-01

    Full text.Experiments were conducted in order to assess the utility of fine-grained iron metal in the remediation of water contaminated with pesticides. The two pesticides that were chosen for this study were Atrazine and Parathion. batch procedures under water treatment conditions (ambient temperature and circumneutral pH) indicated that these pesticides degrade rapidly in the presence of iron powder (40-60 mes, 40 g/L). The decline in the concentration of pesticide was monitored by HPLC analysis supplemented with programmable multiwavelength UV/VIS detector. Experiments were run in buffered solutions. Tests were also performed on an industrial effluent solution containing a variety of pesticides. Our HPLC results indicating the disappearance of all the parent pollutants

  1. Atrazine transport within a coastal zone in Southeastern Puerto Rico: a sensitivity analysis of an agricultural field model and riparian zone management model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality models are used to predict effects of conservation practices to mitigate the transport of herbicides to water bodies. We used two models - the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) and the Riparian Ecosystem Management Model (REMM) to predict the movement of atrazine from ...

  2. Potential for isoproturon, atrazine and mecoprop to be degraded within a chalk aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C.; White, Craig; Lal Bhardwaj, C.

    2000-06-01

    The potential for herbicide degradation in an unconfined chalk aquifer was examined by collecting and spiking fresh samples and incubating them in the laboratory. The microcosms were incubated at 20°C under aerobic conditions and spiked with either isoproturon, atrazine or mecoprop at a concentration of 100 μg/l. The samples were obtained from a single fieldsite within the Upper Chalk aquifer in Hampshire, UK. Groundwater samples required the presence of sterile chalk in a ratio of at least 1:13 to promote isoproturon degradation. An isoproturon degradation potential existed in the soil, and the chalk unsaturated and saturated zones. However, no degradation of isoproturon in the unsaturated zone was observed when a more appropriate simulation of in-situ moisture conditions was carried out. Apart from the soil, no potential for atrazine or mecoprop degradation could be detected in the same samples over a 200-day incubation. In a series of groundwater samples taken from different boreholes, 10-300 m apart, large differences in isoproturon degradation potential were observed. Removal rates for 100 μg/l isoproturon varied from 83-425 ng/day, but in some samples no degradation potential could be detected. The primary metabolite which could be distinguished from isoproturon degradation in chalk and groundwater was monodesmethyl-isoproturon. When a chalk groundwater sample was spiked with isoproturon at 0.9 μg/l, this was not degraded over a 300-day incubation period. Further experiments with fresh groundwater from a Triassic Sandstone site illustrated that groundwater bacteria could degrade isoproturon at the more realistic temperature of 10°C as well as at 20°C.

  3. Developing a continuous flow-square wave voltammetry method for determination of atrazine in soil solutions using the hanging mercury drop electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Luciana B. O. dos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the development of a Continuous Flow-Square Wave Voltammetry method for determination of atrazine using the hanging mercury drop electrode. The best signal to noise ratio was obtained at the square wave frequency of 350 Hz and flow rate of 0.47 mL min-1. Under these conditions, the analytical curve obtained in 0.010 mol L-1 CaCl2 soil extracts in presence of 40 mmol L-1 BR buffer and 0.25 mol L-1 NaNO3 was linear for atrazine concentrations between 0.10 and 2.0 µg mL-1, with detection and quantification limits of 0.030 and 0.10 µg mL-1, respectively. The proposed method increased the analytical throughput in comparison with the batch methodology, allowing a sampling frequency of 72 h-1 to be accomplished. Besides, the sample consumption is significantly reduced, and only 341 µL are necessary for each analysis. The results obtained were similar to the ones obtained by HPLC, but the proposed method is faster and does not use organic solvents.

  4. Acetylcholinesterase in honey bees (Apis mellifera) exposed to neonicotinoids, atrazine and glyphosate: laboratory and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boily, Monique; Sarrasin, Benoit; Deblois, Christian; Aras, Philippe; Chagnon, Madeleine

    2013-08-01

    In Québec, as observed globally, abnormally high honey bee mortality rates have been reported recently. Several potential contributing factors have been identified, and exposure to pesticides is of increasing concern. In maize fields, foraging bees are exposed to residual concentrations of insecticides such as neonicotinoids used for seed coating. Highly toxic to bees, neonicotinoids are also reported to increase AChE activity in other invertebrates exposed to sub-lethal doses. The purpose of this study was therefore to test if the honey bee's AChE activity could be altered by neonicotinoid compounds and to explore possible effects of other common products used in maize fields: atrazine and glyphosate. One week prior to pollen shedding, beehives were placed near three different field types: certified organically grown maize, conventionally grown maize or non-cultivated. At the same time, caged bees were exposed to increasing sub-lethal doses of neonicotinoid insecticides (imidacloprid and clothianidin) and herbicides (atrazine and glyphosate) under controlled conditions. While increased AChE activity was found in all fields after 2 weeks of exposure, bees close to conventional maize crops showed values higher than those in both organic maize fields and non-cultivated areas. In caged bees, AChE activity increased in response to neonicotinoids, and a slight decrease was observed by glyphosate. These results are discussed with regard to AChE activity as a potential biomarker of exposure for neonicotinoids.

  5. Oxidative degradation of triazine- and sulfonylurea-based herbicides using Fe(VI): The case study of atrazine and iodosulfuron with kinetics and degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of common herbicides (Atrazine, ATZ and Iodosufuron, IDS), in waters presents potential risk to human and ecological health. The oxidative degradation of ATZ and IDS by ferrate(VI) (FeVIO42-, Fe(VI)) is studied at different pH levels where kinetically observed se...

  6. Does S-metolachlor affect the performance of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP as bioaugmentation bacterium for atrazine-contaminated soils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A Viegas

    Full Text Available Atrazine (ATZ and S-metolachlor (S-MET are two herbicides widely used, often as mixtures. The present work examined whether the presence of S-MET affects the ATZ-biodegradation activity of the bioaugmentation bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP in a crop soil. S-MET concentrations were selected for their relevance in worst-case scenarios of soil contamination by a commercial formulation containing both herbicides. At concentrations representative of application of high doses of the formulation (up to 50 µg g(-1 of soil, corresponding to a dose approximately 50× higher than the recommended field dose (RD, the presence of pure S-MET significantly affected neither bacteria survival (~10(7 initial viable cells g(-1 of soil nor its ATZ-mineralization activity. Consistently, biodegradation experiments, in larger soil microcosms spiked with 20× or 50 × RD of the double formulation and inoculated with the bacterium, revealed ATZ to be rapidly (in up to 5 days and extensively (>96% removed from the soil. During the 5 days, concentration of S-MET decreased moderately to about 60% of the initial, both in inoculated and non-inoculated microcosms. Concomitantly, an accumulation of the two metabolites S-MET ethanesulfonic acid and S-MET oxanilic acid was found. Despite the dissipation of almost all the ATZ from the treated soils, the respective eluates were still highly toxic to an aquatic microalgae species, being as toxic as those from the untreated soil. We suggest that this high toxicity may be due to the S-MET and/or its metabolites remaining in the soil.

  7. Lack of Association between Body Weight, Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Normal and Osteoporotic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Poggi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In an ethnically homogeneous population of women living in Tuscany, Italy, the relationships between age, body weight, bone mineral density and the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene polymorphism were studied, with the objective of recognizing patients at risk for osteoporosis. In 275 women bone mineral density was measured by Dual Energy X-rays Absorptiometry (DEXA. In 50 of them the individual genetic pattern for VDR was evaluated by DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification of the VDR gene, and digestion with the restriction enzyme BsmI. Age and bone mineral density were inversely related (R2 = 0.298. Body weight was associated with bone mineral density (R2 = 0.059, but not with age. In osteoporotic women, mean (± SD body weight was 59.9 ± 6.5 Kg, lower than that recorded in non osteoporotic women (64.2 ± 9.4 Kg, even though not significantly different (p = 0.18. No association was found between VDR gene polymorphism, bone density or body weight. The performance of anthropometric and genetic components appear to be poor, and, at least for the time being, bone mineral density measurement by means of MOC-DEXA represents the optimal method to detect women at risk for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  8. Minerals in deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    Almost any kind of mineral deposit can occur in desert areas, and the lack of vegetation and soil cover makes finding them easier. Some kinds of deposits, though, are more likely to occur in deserts than elsewhere. Some of these result from processes genetically related to the present desert climate that improved lower grade deposits of ore. One such process, termed secondary enrichment, is most effective in areas with deep water tables, and many low-grade copper, silver, and uranium deposits have been converted into mineable ore by the downward migration and redeposition of soluble metals. In a desert terrane, placer processes are effective whenever running water flowing over steep slopes erodes outcropping ore bodies and transports and concentrates the heavier ore minerals at lower levels, thus converting low-grade or hard-to-mine bedrock deposits into economically workable concentrations. Other kinds of deposits are better preserved in deserts because the lower rainfall at the surface, and the lower volume of flow and the greater depths to groundwater, result in less destruction of soluble ores; deposits of salines and phosphates are the most notable ores affected by these factors. Still other ore deposits are created as a consequence of the arid climate, mostly because the high evaporation rates operating on standing bodies of water produce brines that can lead directly to concentrations of salts and indirectly to secondary minerals, such as zeolites, that are produced by reaction of silicate minerals with saline waters

  9. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elvations in progesterone (P4) on the LH Surge in the ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depen...

  10. THE EFFECT OF ATRAZINE ON PUBERTY IN THE MALE WISTAR RATS: AN EVALUATION IN THE PROTOCOL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, has been shown previously to alter the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) through a direct effect on the central nervous system (CNS), we hypothesized that exposure to ATR in the EDSTAC male pubertal protoco...

  11. Rock geochemistry related to mineralization processes in geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, A. Al; Indarto, S.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-02-01

    Abundant geothermal systems in Indonesia suggest high heat and mass transfer associated with recent or paleovolcanic arcs. In the active geothermal system, the upflow of mixed fluid between late stage hydrothermal and meteoric water might contain mass of minerals associated with epithermal mineralisation process as exemplified at Lihir gold mine in Papua New Guinea. In Indonesia, there is a lack of study related to the precious metals occurrence within active geothermal area. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the possibility of mineralization process in active geothermal area of Guci, Central Java by using geochemical analysis. There are a lot of conducted geochemical analysis of water, soil and gas by mapping the temperature, pH, Hg and CO2 distribution, and estimating subsurface temperature based on geothermometry approach. Then we also apply rock geochemistry to find minerals that indicate the presence of mineralization. The result from selected geothermal area shows the presence of pyrite and chalcopyrite minerals on the laharic breccias at Kali Putih, Sudikampir. Mineralization is formed within host rock and the veins are associated with gold polymetallic mineralization.

  12. Fast detection of atrazine in corn using thermometric biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Zhiwei; Ning, Baoan; Liu, Ming; Bai, Jialei; Peng, Yuan; Song, Nan; Lv, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ying; Sun, Siming; Su, Xuan; Zhang, Yihong; Gao, Zhixian

    2013-09-07

    Fast detection is important in screening large-scale samples. This study establishes a direct competitive ELISA method (dcTELISA) based on an enzyme thermistor for fast atrazine (ATZ) detection. ATZ competes with β-lactamase-labeled ATZ (ATZ-E) for the binding sites on anti-ATZ monoclonal antibody (mAb). The mAb are covalently bound to Controlled Pore Glass (CPG) in an immunoreactor to form immunocomplexes with ATZ and ATZ-E. Several parameters of biosensor performance were optimized, such as the ATZ-E concentration, concentration and nature of the substrate, flow rate, and effect of temperature on the sensor response. After optimization, the assay time for a single sample was 12 min. The work process and result were compared with those of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The detection results exhibited a recovery rate of 88% to 107% in ATZ-spiked fresh cut corn stalks and silage samples. The results obtained via dcTELISA had good correlation with that of HPLC, and the biosensor response was reproducible and stable even when used continuously for over 4 months. All these properties suggested that the fast detection method, dcTELISA, may be used to detect pesticide residue in large-scale samples.

  13. Rice (Oryza sativa) Laccases Involved in Modification and Detoxification of Herbicides Atrazine and Isoproturon Residues in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng Tian; Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Luo, Fang; Yang, Hong

    2016-08-24

    Atrazine (ATR) and isoproturon (IPU) as herbicides have become serious environmental contaminants due to their overuse in crop production. Although ATR and IPU in soils are easily absorbed by many crops, the mechanisms for their degradation or detoxification in plants are poorly understood. This study identified a group of novel genes encoding laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) that are possibly involved in catabolism or detoxification of ATR and IPU residues in rice. Transcriptome profiling shows at least 22 differentially expressed laccase genes in ATR/IPU-exposed rice. Some of the laccase genes were validated by RT-PCR analysis. The biochemical properties of the laccases were analyzed, and their activities in rice were induced under ATR/IPU exposure. To investigate the roles of laccases in degrading or detoxifying ATR/IPU in rice, transgenic yeast cells (Pichia pastoris X-33) expressing two rice laccase genes (LOC_Os01g63180 and LOC_Os12g15680) were generated. Both transformants were found to accumulate less ATR/IPU compared to the control. The ATR/IPU-degraded products in the transformed yeast cells using UPLC-TOF-MS/MS were further characterized. Two metabolites, hydroxy-dehydrogenated atrazine (HDHA) and 2-OH-isopropyl-IPU, catalyzed by laccases were detected in the eukaryotic cells. These results indicate that the laccase-coding genes identified here could confer degradation or detoxification of the herbicides and suggest that the laccases could be one of the important enzymatic pathways responsible for ATR/IPU degradation/detoxification in rice.

  14. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  15. Mixture toxicity of three photosystem II inhibitors (atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron) toward photosynthesis of freshwater phytoplankton studied in outdoor mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauert, Stefanie; Escher, Beate; Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane; Knauer, Katja

    2008-09-01

    Mixture toxicity of three herbicides with the same mode of action was studied in a long-term outdoor mesocosm study. Photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton as the direct target site of the herbicides was chosen as physiological response parameter. The three photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron were applied as 30% hazardous concentrations (HC30), which we derived from species sensitivity distributions calculated on the basis of EC50 growth inhibition data. The respective herbicide mixture comprised 1/3 of the HC30 of each herbicide. Short-term laboratory experiments revealed that the HC30 values corresponded to EC40 values when regarding photosynthetic activity as the response parameter. In the outdoor mesocosm experiment, effects of atrazine, isoproturon, diuron and their mixture on the photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton were investigated during a five-week period with constant exposure and a subsequent five-month postexposure period when the herbicides dissipated. The results demonstrated that mixture effects determined at the beginning of constant exposure can be described by concentration addition since the mixture elicited a phytotoxic effect comparable to the single herbicides. Declining effects on photosynthetic activity during the experiment might be explained by both a decrease in water herbicide concentrations and by the induction of community tolerance.

  16. Vibrational spectroscopy of the borate mineral kotoite Mg₃(BO₃)₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei

    2013-02-15

    Vibrational spectroscopy has been used to assess the structure of kotoite a borate mineral of magnesium which is isostructural with jimboite. The mineral is orthorhombic with point group: 2/m 2/m 2/m. The mineral has the potential as a new memory insulator material. The mineral has been characterised by a combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The Raman spectrum is dominated by a very intense band at 835 cm(-1), assigned to the symmetric stretching mode of tetrahedral boron. Raman bands at 919, 985 and 1015 cm(-1) are attributed to the antisymmetric stretching modes of tetrahedral boron. Kotoite is strictly an hydrous borate mineral. An intense Raman band observed at 3559 cm(-1) is attributed to the stretching vibration of hydroxyl units, more likely to be associated with the borate mineral hydroxyborate. The lack of observation of water bending modes proves the absence of water in the kotoite structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Overview of the Malaysian mineral industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahan, A.R.B. (Department of Mines (Malaysia))

    1992-08-01

    The article describes the status of the mining industry in Malaysia. Tin dominated the industry until a price fall caused closure of many mines in 1987-1990. Other minerals mined include copper, gold, iron ore, bauxite, barite, kaolin, limestone, clays, sand and gravel. Coal production in Malaysia resumed when an opencast mine was opened in July 1988 in Sarawak. Another started operation in early 1989 by the underground method. At the end of 1990 there was a total of 53 exploration rights granted for gold, coal, base metals and industrial minerals. A few coalfields have been identified. Generally the industry has suffered a decline because of lack of new investment. 1 fig.

  18. MODELING THE INTERACTION OF AGROCHEMICALS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES: PESTICIDES ON RUTILE AND ORGANO-RUTILE SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-bonded interactions between model pesticides and organo-mineral surfaces have been studied using molecular mechanical conformational calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. The minimum energy conformations and relative binding energies for the interaction of atrazine...

  19. Integral Study of Atrazine Behaviour in Field Lysimeters in Argentinean Humid Pampas Soils Estudio Integral del Comportamiento de Atrazina en Lisímetros de Campo en Suelos de la Pampa Húmeda Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Hang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine behavior during crop maize (Zea mays L. production in soils of Argentine humid pampas was investigated. Lysimeters (3.3 x 3.3 x 1.4 m with a Typic Argiudoll (Pergamino and others with a Typic Hapludoll (Junín were monitored for drainage water content and atrazine concentrations in soil and water. Soil profiles were sampled in four depths in three dates, and water drainage pooled in four periods. Most of atrazine loss in drainage occurred within 30 d of atrazine application being 0.13% and 0.03% of the total atrazine applied for Pergamino and Junín, respectively. Under laboratory conditions half-life average in both profiles was 16 d. Atrazine extractable residues (AER in lysimeters showed differences in quantity and distribution between both profiles. Extractable residues were 25.7 (Pergamino and 69.4 g ha-1 (Junín. At the 30th day of application, AER represented 25% of total AER in Junín and 88% in Pergamino in the first 30 cm. Occurrence of preferential flow through the Bt horizon (Pergamino may explain differences detected. High proportion of AER in Junín profile suggests low atrazine affinity and should be followed through time in order to evaluate actual stability of these residues and if they constitute a potential risk for aquifers.Se estudió el comportamiento de atrazina durante el ciclo de un cultivo de maíz (Zea mays L. en suelos de la pampa húmeda Argentina. Se monitoreó el total de agua drenada y la concentración de atrazina en suelo y agua, mediante el uso de seis lisímetros (3.3 x 3.3 x 1.4 m tres de ellos llenados con un Argiudoll Típico (Pergamino y otros tres con un Hapludoll Típico (Junín. Se tomaron muestras de cuatro horizontes en cada perfil de suelo en tres fechas y el agua drenada se agrupó en cuatro períodos. La mayor parte de las pérdidas de atrazina en el drenaje ocurrieron dentro de los primeros 30 días desde la aplicación de atrazina. Los porcentajes recuperados respecto de la cantidad

  20. Cytochrome P450 genes from the aquatic midge Chironomus tentans: Atrazine-induced up-regulation of CtCYP6EX3 contributing to oxidative activation of chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    The open reading frames of 19 cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) genes were sequenced from Chironomus tentans, a commonly used freshwater invertebrate model. Functional analysis of CtCYP6EX3 confirmed its atrazine-induced oxidative activation for chlorpyrifos by using a nanoparticle-based RNA inter...

  1. Atrazine-induced apoptosis of splenocytes in BALB/C mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Jing

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR, is the most commonly applied broad-spectrum herbicide in the world. Unintentional overspray of ATR poses an immune function health hazard. The biomolecular mechanisms responsible for ATR-induced immunotoxicity, however, are little understood. This study presents on our investigation into the apoptosis of splenocytes in mice exposed to ATR as we explore possible immunotoxic mechanisms. Methods Oral doses of ATR were administered to BALB/C mice for 21 days. The histopathology, lymphocyte apoptosis and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins from the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL apoptotic pathway were examined from spleen samples. Results Mice administered ATR exhibited a significant decrease in spleen and thymus weight. Electron microscope histology of ultrathin sections of spleen revealed degenerative micromorphology indicative of apoptosis of splenocytes. Flow cytometry revealed that the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes increased in a dose-dependent manner after ATR treatment. Western blots identified increased expression of Fas, FasL and active caspase-3 proteins in the treatment groups. Conclusions ATR is capable of inducing splenocytic apoptosis mediated by the Fas/FasL pathway in mice, which could be the potential mechanism underlying the immunotoxicity of ATR.

  2. MODELING THE INTERACTION OF AGROCHEMICALS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactions between agrochemicals and organo-mineral surfaces were studied using molecular mechanical conformational calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), 2,4-D (1, 2-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and DD...

  3. Mineral composition of pastures and mineral deficiencies in cattle of some properties in Middle Paraiba, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Lopes Marques

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Marques A.P.L., Botteon R.C.C.M., Amorim E.B., Botteon P.T.L &Zonta E. [Mineral composition of pastures and mineral deficiencies in cattle of some properties in Middle Paraiba, RJ, Brazil.] Composição mineral das pastagens e deficiências minerais dos bovinos em algumas propriedades da região do Médio Paraíba, RJ, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:71-78, 2014. Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23851-900, Brasil. E-mail: marquesapl@ufrrj.br We studied levels and nutrient availability in the soil and grazing of cattle in Middle Paraíba, RJ, Brazil in the early dry season (May-June and rainy (November-December in seven cattle herds with a history of clinical deficiencies of Na, Cu, Co and P, identified through visits to farmers. The mineral contents in the samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and values obtained were compared with clinical signs found. Low values of P and Na were confirmed and although the lack of Ca and Mg is uncommon, some samples showed low rates. We found high values of Fe with possible interference in the absorption of Cu, the main clinical deficiency identified in the region, and high values of Al, Zn and Mn. The results indicate that most mineral deficiencies diagnosed in those herds is due to antagonistic effects of minerals that are not deficient.

  4. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  5. Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Srivastava

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L-1, respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05 in LC10-90 values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC50 = ~10.600 mg·L-1, 1/8 LC50 = ~5.300 mg·L-1 and 1/10 LC50 = ~4.238 mg·L-1 induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes.

  6. Picloram and Aminopyralid Sorption to Soil and Clay Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminopyralid sorption data are lacking, and these data are needed to predict off-target transport and plant available herbicide in soil solution. The objective of this research was to determine the sorption of picloram and aminopyralid to five soils and three clay minerals and determine if the pote...

  7. MACRO simulator (version 5.0 for predicting atrazine herbicide behavior in brazilian latosols Simulador MACRO (versão 5.0 na predição do comportamento do herbicida atrazina em latossolos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carla Wasner Vasconcelos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of pesticides behavior is fundamental for understanding the environmental impact caused by these products. However, related field experiments are time consuming and expensive. The MACRO® simulator allows to predicting the leaching of pesticides through the soil profile and the possible environmental contamination. The objective of this work was to study the percolate behavior and the atrazine leaching in two contrasting Latosols using the MACRO® simulator. The MACRO® simulator was adequate to predict atrazine behavior under the studied conditions and it can be used for the risk evaluation of atrazine contamination in surface and underground waters.O conhecimento do comportamento de pesticidas é fundamental para a compreensão do impacto ambiental causado por esses produtos. No entanto, os experimentos de campo consomem tempo e investimento. O simulador MACRO® permite prever a lixiviação de pesticidas ao longo do perfil do solo e a possível contaminação ambiental. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar o comportamento do percolado e a lixiviação do herbicida atrazina em dois Latossolos contrastantes, usando o simulador MACRO® . A simulação pelo MACRO® foi adequada para prever o comportamento da atrazina sob as condições estudadas e pode ser utilizada para a avaliação dos riscos de contaminação por esse herbicida em águas superficiais e profundas.

  8. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  9. Comparative effects of glyphosate and atrazine in chloroplast ultrastructure of wheat and downy brome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, R.M.; Gealy, D.R.; Ogg, A.G.; Franceschi, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    Developing and mature leaves of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Daws) and the weed species downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) were subjected to 10 mM (foliar application) and 1 mM (root application) herbicide solutions. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) and atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethyl-amino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) were prepared in a carrier composed of 5% soybean oil concentrate, 35% acetone and 60% water. Penetration experiments with 3 H-labelled herbicides assessed what percentage of herbicide entered leaves, and microautoradiography was used to determine qualitatively how much herbicide was present in the sections viewed with TEM. Tissue was excised at 4, 18, 62 and 200 hours, and then either freeze-substituted or fixed chemically. Ultrastructural effects of each herbicide on chloroplasts from leaves of newly-germinated seedlings and of well-tillered plants are depicted and discussed. Temporal differences in response of chloroplasts to each herbicide are noted

  10. A safe strategy for addition of vitamins and minerals to foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Dragsted, L.O.

    2006-01-01

    Addition of vitamins and minerals to foods must be done without health risk to any consumer group. International expert groups have aimed at establishing tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for vitamins and minerals although lack of solid data on their safety is a major obstacle to this work....... The levels are applied in a model for calculation of safe fortification levels for all ages.We have estimated the upper 95(th) percentile intake of vitamins and minerals from food in various Danish age and gender groups and suggest that a daily multivitaminmineral pill is included in the calculation of total...... dietary intake levels of all vitamins and minerals. By subtracting this dietary intake level from the UL, GL or TGL, we calculate the amount that can be safely used for fortification. Since safety must be assured for all age groups, the smallest difference relative to energy intake calculated for any age...

  11. Gene expression responses linked to reproduction effect concentrations (EC 10,20,50,90 of dimethoate, atrazine and carbendazim, in Enchytraeus albidus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C Novais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular mechanisms of response to pesticides are scarce and information on such responses from soil invertebrates is almost inexistent. Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta is a standard soil ecotoxicology model species for which effects of many pesticides are known on survival, reproduction and avoidance behaviour. With the recent microarray development additional information can be retrieved on the molecular effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments were performed to investigate the transcription responses of E. albidus when exposed to three pesticides - dimethoate (insecticide, atrazine (herbicide and carbendazim (fungicide - in a range of concentrations that inhibited reproduction by 10%, 20%, 50% and 90% (EC(10, EC(20, EC(50 and EC(90, respectively. The goal of this study was to further identify key biological processes affected by each compound and if dose-related. All three pesticides significantly affected biological processes like translation, regulation of the cell cycle or general response to stress. Intracellular signalling and microtubule-based movement were affected by dimethoate and carbendazim whereas atrazine affected lipid and steroid metabolism (also by dimethoate or carbohydrate metabolism (also by carbendazim. Response to DNA damage/DNA repair was exclusively affected by carbendazim. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in gene expression were significantly altered after 2 days of exposure in a dose-related manner. The mechanisms of response were comparable with the ones for mammals, suggesting across species conserved modes of action. The present results indicate the potential of using gene expression in risk assessment and the advantage as early markers.

  12. Bisphophonates in CKD Patients with Low Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chih Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD have a high risk of bone fracture because of low bone mineral density and poor bone quality. Osteoporosis also features low bone mass, disarranged microarchitecture, and skeletal fragility, and differentiating between osteoporosis and CKD-MBD in low bone mineral density is a challenge and usually achieved by bone biopsy. Bisphosphonates can be safe and beneficial for patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 30 mL/min or higher, but prescribing bisphosphonates in advanced CKD requires caution because of the increased possibility of low bone turnover disorders such as osteomalacia, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, and adynamic bone, even aggravating hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, bone biopsy in advanced CKD is an important consideration before prescribing bisphosphonates. Treatment also may induce hypocalcemia in CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, but vitamin D supplementation may ameliorate this effect. Bisphosphonate treatment can improve both bone mineral density and vascular calcification, but the latter becomes more unlikely in patients with stage 3-4 CKD with vascular calcification but no decreased bone mineral density. Using bisphosphonates requires considerable caution in advanced CKD, and the lack of adequate clinical investigation necessitates more studies regarding its effects on these patients.

  13. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  14. Minerals from Macedonia: XV. Sivec mineral assemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Jovanovski, Gligor; Makreski, Petre; Bermanec, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents investigations carried out on the collected minerals from the Sivec deposit. It is situated in the vicinity of the town of Prilep, representing a rare occurrence of sugary white dolomite marbles. The application of suitable methods of exploitation of decorative-dimension stones makes possible to obtain large amounts of commercial blocks well known in the world. Despite the existence of dolomite marbles, a series of exotic minerals are typical in Sivec mineralization. Among them, the most significant are: calcite, fluorite, rutile, phlogopite, corundum, diaspore, almandine, kosmatite (clintonite or margarite), clinochlore, muscovite, quartz, pyrite, tourmaline and zoisite. An attempt to identify ten collected minerals using the FT IR spectroscopy is performed. The identification of the minerals was based on the comparison of the infrared spectra of our specimens with the corresponding literature data for the mineral species originating all over the world. The coloured pictures of all studied silicate minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  15. Strontium isotopic composition of hot spring and mineral spring waters, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notsu, Kenji; Wakita, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    In Japan, hot springs and mineral springs are distributed in Quaternary and Neogene volcanic regions as well as in granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic regions lacking in recent volcanic activity. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio was determined in hot spring and mineral spring waters obtained from 47 sites. The ratios of waters from Quaternary and Neogene volcanic regions were in the range 0.703-0.708, which is lower than that from granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic regions (0.706-0.712). The geographical distribution of the ratios coincides with the bedrock geology, and particularly the ratios of the waters in Quaternary volcanic regions correlate with those of surrounding volcanic rocks. These features suggest that subsurface materials control the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of soluble components in the hot spring and mineral spring waters. (author)

  16. Methodological Study on Dose Reconstruction for Uranium Miners in China (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, J.; Ma, J.; Zhou, J.; Li, X.; Yang, M.; Wang, W.

    1998-01-01

    Occupational exposure of uranium miners is very important in the nuclear industry. The individual dose to the miners in the earlier times in China suffers from a lack of information. To reconstruct the individual doses of uranium miners, a retrospective method was developed, the integration of annual effective working time and annual average alpha potential energy in working areas is used to calculate the individual dose to the miner by this method. In order to verify the validation of the method, some experiments were carried out in a uranium mine. Both internal and external individual doses received by the selected miners were monitored with individual dosemeters, area monitoring was also conducted: meanwhile, the working time and working places of the selected miners were recorded clearly. The result shows that the retrospective method can be used to estimate the collective dose and the dose level of miners with an unfixed working area in the mine, but there is a large difference between the results of the retrospective method and the monitoring result when the method is used to estimate the individual dose of miners with a relatively fixed working area. On the other hand, the collective dose and individual dose estimated according to the clearly recorded working history of the miners and alpha potential energy closely agree with the individual monitoring result. Based on the result, the importance of clearly recording the working history of the miners and area monitoring has been indicated when the individual monitoring of miners is inadequate. A simplified method with acceptable uncertainty has also been suggested to estimate the individual dose of uranium miners. (author)

  17. Mineralization of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by a four-member aerobic bacterial consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, L.; Breen, A.; Thomas, N.; Sayler, G.S.; Federle, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    A bacterial consortium capable of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) mineralization under aerobic conditions was isolated from a chemostat inoculated with activated sludge. The consortium, designated KJB, consisted of four members, all of which were gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that grew in pairs and short chains. Three isolates had biochemical properties characteristic of Pseudomonas spp.; the fourth showed characteristics of the Aeromonas spp. Cell suspensions were grown together in minimal medium with [ 14 C]LAS as the only carbon source. After 13 days of incubation, more than 25% of the [ 14 C]LAS was mineralized to 14 CO 2 by the consortium. Pure bacterial cultures and combinations lacking any one member of the KJB bacterial consortium did not mineralize LAS. Three isolates carried out primary biodegradation of the surfactant, and one did not. This study shows that the four bacteria complemented each other and synergistically mineralized LAS, indicating catabolic cooperation among the four consortium members

  18. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  19. Thermodynamic properties of minerals: Macroscopic and microscopic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richet, P.; Gillet, P.; Fiquet, G.

    1992-01-01

    Thermodynamic modeling of experimental or natural-phase equilibria has become an integral part of petrology. In this respect, the isobaric heat capacity (C p ) has manifold importance. First, C p data constitute the basis of third-law determinations of the entropy of minerals. Second, these data are needed to calculate the variation with temperature of the entropy, the entropy, and the Gibbs free energy. As a result, it necessary to know accurately heat capacities when retrieving thermodynamic information from phase equilibria data, especially when trying to separate the effects of the enthalpies and entropies of transformation. In this paper, we broadly review the main empiricial and theoretical aspects of the heat capacity of minerals. We begin with a brief review of the three main techniques that are currently in use for determining heat capacities from 0 to 2000 K, namely, adiabatic, differential scanning (DSC), and drop colarimetry, paying attention to the experimental constraints that limit measurements to certain conditions. When minerals can be subjected at best to limited calorimetric measurements, either because of lack of gram-sized samples or of instability at high temperatures (as if often the case with high-pressure minerals), other ways have to be found for predicting standard entropies and high-temperature properties. The validity of empiricial methods of prediction of the heat capacity as a function of temperature and composition will thus be discussed

  20. Management of Canadian mineral resources: an industry viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powis, A

    1976-03-01

    Federal and provincial governments in Canada are developing strategies for a national mineral policy, the theme being to obtain optimum benefit for Canada from present and future use of minerals. The provisions of the British North America Act, the centerpiece of Canada's constitution, place ownership of natural resources under the jurisdiction of the province in which they are found, although it retains exclusive authority for the Federal government over the export and interprovincial trade of such resources. Contradiction and challenges are now being experienced between these two levels of government, resulting in excess taxation policies in the minerals industry. Mr. Powis discussed these issues at the 32nd Annual Conference of Provincial Ministers of Mines in Saskatoon on September 15, 1975. The roles of the private sector and governments, the Economic Council of Canada trade strategy report, the mineral area planning study, and the public and political perceptions are reviewed. Options for the future are summarized. Mr. Powis concludes that the atmosphere of confrontation in Canadian mineral policy leads to irrational management of Canadian resources; further, he sees a lack of communication between industry and government as complicating the issue. The Canadian mining industry also faces the other serious problems: (1) mining problems in inhospitable areas; (2) continuing difficulty in attracting and retaining trained labor forces; (3) increasing costs of exploration and transport; (4) competing with larger and more accessible deposits in other parts of the world; and (5) the impact of inflation in all areas of the industry. (MCW)

  1. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ricardo, E-mail: ldv1452@gmail.com [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Huels, Matthias [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Nadeau, Marie-Josee; Grootes, Pieter M. [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Garbe-Schoenberg, C.-Dieter [Institute of Geosciences, Marine Climate Research and ICPMS Lab, Kiel University, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Hollund, Hege I. [Institute for Geo- and Bioarchaeology, The VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lotnyk, Andriy [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  2. Improved methods for urinary atrazine mercapturate analysis-Assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method utilizing online solid phase extraction (SPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivunen, Marja E.; Dettmer, Katja; Vermeulen, Roel; Bakke, Berit; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Elimination of interfering substances in urine by solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis resulted in 10-fold improvement in the sensitivity of atrazine mercapturate (AM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) compared to previous reports. Of the two tested SPE systems, Oasis[reg] HLB and MCX, the mixed-mode MCX gave good recoveries (82%) of AM in spiked samples measured by ELISA, whereas the reverse-phase HLB phase was not compatible with the immunochemical method. At relatively high concentrations of urinary AM (>20 ng mL -1 ), sample dilution was effective enough for the elimination of interfering substances. The new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method developed for AM utilizes online-SPE with Oasis[reg] HLB, column switching and a stable-isotope internal standard. The limit of quantification (0.05 ng mL -1 ) indicates improved sensitivity compared with most previously published LC-MS methods for AM. Validation of all three methods, LC-MS, ELISA + SPE and ELISA + dilution with spiked urine samples showed good correlation between the known and measured concentrations with R 2 values of 0.996, 0.957 and 0.961, respectively. When a set (n = 70 plus 12 blind duplicates) of urine samples from farmers exposed to atrazine was analyzed, there was a good agreement (R 2 = 0.917) between the log normalized data obtained by ELISA + SPE and LC-MS. High correlation among the data obtained by the two tested methods and the LC-MS method by the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), together with low variability among the blind duplicates, suggests that both methods reported here would be suitable for the analysis of urinary AM as a biomarker for human exposure of atrazine

  3. Lack of biochemical hypogonadism in elderly Arab males with low bone mineral density disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attia, Haider M; Jaysundaram, Krishnasamy; Saraj, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to study the relationship between androgen levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Arab males. Forty-five elderly Arab males underwent Dual X-ray absorptiometry for measurement of BMD. The outcomes were defined as per WHO description. Assays for testosterone (T), gonadotropins (LH and FSH) and estradiol (E2), in the serum were carried out. The ratio of T/LH was used as a surrogate for the cFT assay. We excluded patients receiving hormonal ablation for prostatic neoplasm and patients with chronic liver or renal disease and patients receiving corticosteroids. Twelve were osteoporotic (26.5%); 22 osteopenic (49%); and 11(24.5%) had normal outcome. Osteoporotic patients were significantly older (78.17 +/- 7.59 years) than the osteopenic (70.14 +/- 5.92, P Arab males had reduced bone density that appears to be independent of androgen levels. Osteoporotics were significantly older than those with osteopenia or normal bone density. Aging seemed to have overridden the effect of normal sex hormones on bone density in these patients. Before considering these results as a possible exception to the widely established role of the hypoandrogenemia in male osteoporosis, other potential factors impacting on bone density need to be considered.

  4. Brazil's mineral development: potential and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, B; Wheeler, E

    1977-03-01

    Brazil's vast mineral wealth still lies in the ground largely unexploited. Lack of adequate communications and the past political instability of the country has greatly hampered mineral exploration, and risk capital for major schemes has only recently been forthcoming. In 1975, Brazil's oil imports alone cost US $3073 million, creating an unhealthy balance of payments deficit and causing the external national debt to reach US $22 billion by the end of that year--an increase of a further 25% in this debt took place during 1976. Substantial price rises in imported machinery followed that of oil, while the prices of Brazil's main exports, coffee, sugar and soya, have continued to fluctuate widely. As a result of the oil price rise Brazil has moved from a traditional trade balance to substantial deficit, although this has fallen from its 1974 peak of 4.6 billion, largely as a result of government policies. Brazil has untapped deposits of bauxite, tin, zinc, iron ore, nickel, as well as oil, and is firmly set on the path that will make her one of the world's major sources of raw materials by the year 2000. The government has made the exploitation of natural resources, particularly the previously neglected oil and gas sectors, one of the cornerstones of its economic strategy. Yet in 1975 the mineral sector produced less than 2% of Brazil's GNP, although it did contribute 11% of exports. Apart from iron oreand manganese, mineral production is small and the country is still a net importer of copper, zinc, nickel, tin, and lead. Without a substantial increase in exports the government's whole economic/social and political strategy will be at risk.

  5. Release of bound residues of atrazine from soils through autoclaving and gamma radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, L.E.; Andréa, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The sterilization methods are particularly important to study the influence of microorganisms on the pesticide dissipation in soils. This study, conducted in the laboratories of the Instituto Biológico of São Paulo in august 1996, tested the influence of two methods of soil sterilization - moist heat (autoclaving) and γ radiation - on the release of nonextractable or bound residues. It was studied, as example, bound residues of the herbicide atrazine in two types of soil (gley humic and dark red latosol). In the soil samples submitted to the moist heat sterilization, the recovery of the previously bound residues as reextractable residues was 5.6 and 5.9 times higher than in the control soils, not submitted to any sterilization process. Therefore, the method itself released the residues, indicating that the autoclaving is not the most appropriate method for studies on the influence of microorganisms on the release of bound residues. Otherwise, the γ radiation did not modify the residues recovery when compared to the controls. (author) [pt

  6. Rich mineralized boulders of the Rirang River, west Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjokrokardono, S.; Sastratenaya, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Rirang River is a small tributary of the Kalan River. It is 1.5 km long and flows in a N60 deg. E direction. To the west it is separated from the Sampurno Valley by an asymmetric pass with a relatively gentle slope on the Rirang side and a very steep slope down to the Sampurno River. The Rirang Valley lacks outcrops because of a high degree of alteration. It is known to contain mineralized boulders, most of which are of centimetric to decimetric size, but some may exceed 1 m. The uranium content in these boulders varies between 0.6 and 6.67%. Two types of mineralized boulders exist: banded and non-banded types. The former usually have a rounded shape due to erosion on their angles. They are composed of dark centimetric fragments of breccia, roughly aligned, giving a banded aspect, and are cemented by lighter coloured materials of monazite. The mineral composition of the fragments is of fine brown monazite, molybdenite, pyrite, rutile and tourmaline. Uranium minerals are located at the edges of the dark components. Most of the non-banded type boulders are of metasiltstone containing mineralized stringers of uraninite, molybdenite, pyrite, and a little monazite and tourmaline. Some investigations have been carried out, but the geological context and the origin of the boulders are, as yet, not fully understood. (author). 2 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Re-Os molybdenite dating of granite-related Sn-W-Mo mineralization at Hnilec, Gemeric Superunit, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, M.; Stein, H.

    2005-01-01

    Re-Os molybdenite ages from the exocontact of the Hnilec granite-greisen body provide temporal constraints for tin, tungsten and molybdenite mineralization in the Gemeric Superunit, Slovakia. Two molybdenite separates were taken from a representative sample of the Sn-W-Mo mineralization at Hnilec and their Re-Os ages of 262.2 ± 0.9 and 263.8 ± 0.8 Ma (2-sigma) are in excellent agreement. The obtained Re-Os molybdenite ages are similar to recent but less precise electron microprobe monazite (276 ± 13 Ma) and U-Pb single zircon (250 ± 18 Ma) ages from the Hnilec granite intrusion, supporting a granite-related greisen origin for the Sn-W-Mo mineralization. Our precise Re-Os molybdenite ages resolve the long time controversy over the timing of high-temperature mineralization in the Gemeric Superunit. These Permian ages eliminate suggestions of an Alpine age. The sulphur isotope composition of the studied molybdenite is δ 34 S (CDT) = 1.71 ± 0.2 %o and is consistent with a magmatic sulphur source. Field observations indicate the lack of a broad contact aureole in the vicinity of the Hnilec granite body. Shallow level granite emplacement in schistose host rocks was accompanied by alteration and formation of tin-tungsten greisen in the upper part of the granite and exocontact molybdenite mineralization, both commonly lacking in other granite bodies within the Gemeric Superunit. (author)

  8. Atrazine enhances progesterone production through activation of multiple signaling pathways in FSH-stimulated rat granulosa cells: evidence for premature luteinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Fa, Svetlana; Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Andric, Nebojsa

    2014-11-01

    Premature luteinization is a possible cause of infertility in women. It is currently unknown whether environmental chemicals can induce changes associated with premature luteinization. Using rat granulosa cells (GC) in vitro, we demonstrated that exposure to atrazine (ATR), a widely used herbicide, causes GC phenotype that resembles that of human premature luteinization. At the end of the 48-h stimulation with FSH, ATR-exposed GC showed (1) higher levels of progesterone, (2) overexpression of luteal markers (Star and Cyp11a1), and (3) an increase in progesterone:estradiol ratio above 1. Mechanistic experiments were conducted to understand the signaling events engaged by ATR that lead to this phenotype. Western blot analysis revealed prolonged phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in ATR- and FSH-exposed GC. An increased level of ERK1/2-dependent transcriptional factor CCATT/enhancer-binding protein beta (CEBPB) was observed after 4 h of ATR exposure. Inhibitors of PI3K (wortmannin) and MEK (U0126) prevented ATR-induced rise in progesterone level and expression of luteal markers in FSH-stimulated GC. Atrazine intensified AKT and CEBPB signaling and caused Star overexpression in forskolin-stimulated GC but not in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated GC. In the presence of rolipram, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), ATR was not able to further elevate AKT phosphorylation, CEBPB protein level, and Star mRNA in FSH-stimulated GC, suggesting that ATR inhibits PDE4. Overall, this study showed that ATR acts as a FSH sensitizer leading to enhanced cAMP, AKT, and CEBPB signaling and progesterone biosynthesis, which promotes premature luteinization phenotype in GC. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  9. A 100-Year Review: From ascorbic acid to zinc-Mineral and vitamin nutrition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W P

    2017-12-01

    Mineral and vitamin nutrition of dairy cows was studied before the first volume of the Journal of Dairy Science was published and is still actively researched today. The initial studies on mineral nutrition of dairy cows were simple balance experiments (although the methods available at the time for measuring minerals were anything but simple). Output of Ca and P in feces, urine, and milk was subtracted from intake of Ca and P, and if values were negative it was often assumed that cows were lacking in the particular mineral. As analytical methods improved, more minerals were found to be required by dairy cows, and blood and tissue concentrations became primary response variables. Those measures often were poorly related to cow health, leading to the use of disease prevalence and immune function as a measure of mineral adequacy. As data were generated, mineral requirements became more accurate and included more sources of variation. In addition to milk yield and body weight inputs, bioavailability coefficients of minerals from different sources are used to formulate diets that can meet the needs of the cow without excessive excretion of minerals in manure, which negatively affects the environment. Milk, or more accurately the lack of milk in human diets, was central to the discovery of vitamins, but research into vitamin nutrition of cows developed slowly. For many decades bioassays were the only available method for measuring vitamin concentrations, which greatly limited research. The history of vitamin nutrition mirrors that of mineral nutrition. Among the first experiments conducted on vitamin nutrition of cows were those examining the factors affecting vitamin concentrations of milk. This was followed by determining the amount of vitamins needed to prevent deficiency diseases, which evolved into research to determine the amount of vitamins required to promote overall good health. The majority of research was conducted on vitamins A, D, and E because these

  10. Remoção de atrazina e metabólitos pela filtração lenta com leito de areia e carvão ativado granular Removal of atrazine and metabolites through slow filtration by sand and granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edumar Ramos Cabral Coelho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A atrazina (ATZé um herbicida largamente utilizado no mundo, sendo encontrada associada aos seus produtos de degradação em águas superficiais e subterrâneas. Pertence à classe das s-triazinas e, juntamente com os metabólitos clorados deetilatrazina (DEA e deisopropilatrazina (DIA, possui potencial carcinogênico e toxicidade como disruptores endócrinos. A limitação dos processos que empregam a coagulação química na remoção de ATZ, a conhecida capacidade do carvão ativado em remover microcontaminantes em água e o risco que a ATZ e seus metabólitos apresentam à saúde motivaram o estudo da filtração lenta com leito de areia e carvão ativado granular. Os resultados apontaram a eficiência do processo de filtração lenta com camada intermediária de carvão ativado granular na remoção de ATZ e a limitação deste na remoção dos metabólitos DEA, DIA e deetilhidroxiatrazina (DEHA.Atrazine (ATZ is widely used as herbicide, commonly found in association to its degradation products in surface water and groundwater. It belongs to the class of s-triazines and together with the chlorinated metabolites dieethylatrazine (DEA and deisopropilatrazine (DIA have carcinogenic potential and toxicity as endocrine disruptors. The limitation of the processes employing chemical coagulation in the removal of atrazine, the known ability of activated carbon to remove microcontaminants in water and the risk that atrazine and the potential toxicity to human health of its metabolits motivated the study of slow sand filtration bed combined with granular activated carbon. The results showed the high efficiency of the slow filtration process with intermediate layer of granular activated carbon in the removal of atrazine and its limitation on the removal of the metabolites DEA, DIA and diethylhidroxiatrazine (DEHA.

  11. [Pay attention to the human health risk of drinking low mineral water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Weiqun

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of low mineral drinking water has been increasing around the world with the shortage of water resources and the development of advanced water treatment technologies. Evidences from systematic document reviews, ecological epidemiological observations, and experimental drinking water intervention studies indicate that lack of minerals in drinking water may cause direct or indirect harm to human health, among which, the associations of magnesium in water with cardiovascular disease, as well as calcium in water with osteoporosis, are well proved by sufficient evidence. This article points out that it is urgent to pay more attention to the issues about establishment of health risk evaluation system on susceptible consuming population, establishment of lab evaluation system on water quality and health effect for non-traditional drinking water, and program of safety mineralization for demineralized or desalinated water and so on.

  12. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) and herbicide mineralization potential in groundwater affected by agricultural land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Spliid, Henrik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Diffuse groundwater pollution from agricultural land use may impact the microbial groundwater community, which was investigated as Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using EcoPlate™. Water was sampled from seven piezometers and a spring in a small agricultural catchment with diffuse herbicide and nitrate pollution. Based on the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson's diversity indices the diversity in the microbial communities was high. The response from the EcoPlates™ showed which substrates support groundwater bacteria, and all 31 carbon sources were utilized by organisms from at least one water sample. However, only nine carbon sources were utilized by all water samples: D-Mannitol, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, putrescine, D-galacturonic acid, itaconic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, tween 40, tween 80, and L-asparagine. In all water samples the microorganisms preferred D-mannitol, D-galacturonic acid, tween 40, and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid as substrates, whereas none preferred 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, α-D-lactose, D,L-α-glycerol phosphate, α-ketobutyric acid, L-threonine and glycyl-L-glutamic acid. Principal Component Analysis of the CLPP's clustered the most agriculturally affected groundwater samples, indicating that the agricultural land use affects the groundwater microbial communities. Furthermore, the ability to mineralize atrazine and isoproturon, which have been used in the catchment, was also associated with this cluster.

  13. Bone mineral density scans in veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bass

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Bass1,2, Etienne Pracht1,3, Philip Foulis4,51VISN 8 Patient Safety Center of Inquiry, Tampa, FL; 2School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 4James A Haley VA Hospital, Tampa, FL, USA; 5Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAGoals: Recent findings suggest the prevalence of osteoporosis among men is under-recognized. The patient population of the Veterans Health Administration (VA is predominantly male and many elderly veterans may be at risk of osteoporosis. Given the lack of data on male osteoporosis, we provide initial insight into diagnostic procedures for patients at one VA medical center. Procedures: A review and descriptive analysis of patients undergoing radiological evaluation for osteoporosis at one VA medical center.Results: We identified 4,919 patients who had bone mineral density scans from 2001–2004. VA patients receiving bone mineral density scans were commonly white, male, over age 70 and taking medications with potential bone-loss side effects.Conclusions: While further research is needed, preliminary evidence suggests that the VA screens the most vulnerable age groups in both genders. Heightened awareness among primary care providers of elderly male patients at risk of osteoporosis can lead to early intervention and improved management of this age-related condition.Keywords: bone mineral density scans, osteoporosis, veterans

  14. Minerals in the foods and diet of diademed sifakas: Are they nutritional challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Mitchell T; Raharison, Jean-Luc; Chapman, Colin A; Junge, Randall E; Rothman, Jessica M

    2017-04-01

    Minerals, though needed in small quantities, are essential to metabolic processes, and deficiencies can seriously threaten health, reproduction and survival. Despite this, few studies have measured mineral composition of wild primate foods and fewer have quantified mineral intake. Here we measured the concentration of nine minerals in 75 foods of diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema; five groups) in habitats with varying levels of disturbance at Tsinjoarivo and estimated daily intakes using focal-animal feeding data and intake rates over one year. For six minerals (Ca, P, Na, Fe, Zn, and Cu), mean concentrations in foods fell short of the National Research Council's (NRC) recommendations for captive primates. Concentrations were highest in lianas, herbs, and epiphytes, and hemiparasites had exceptionally high Na. Leaves tended to have higher concentrations than fruits or flowers, but overlap was extensive. Mineral concentrations in daily diets varied little seasonally, but absolute intakes (g/day) were higher in the abundant season, due to the increase in food ingested. Disturbed habitat groups' diets had higher mineral concentrations for five minerals, but this translated into increased intakes only for Cu, as these groups ate less food overall. Overall, comparisons with percentage-based NRC recommendations suggests deficiencies, but this is contradicted by: (1) the fact that mass-specific intakes exceeded human recommendations, and (2) the lack of observed signs of deficiency. Ongoing efforts to quantify mineral consumption across wild primate populations and better understanding requirements on both a percentage and absolute basis will help in understanding effects on food selection, managing primate habitats and formulating captive diets. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The mineralization and mechanism of the endogenetic mineral deposit in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    In the process of mineralization, due to the difference in rank, scale and order of structures orebody, mine colomn or rich ore bag are often produced in the specific structural parts. Obviously, it is controlled by favourite structure. The important and direct control of the structure to metal endogenetic mineralization evolution are representative on the affect of pulse action of structure to the multi-stage of mineralization evolution. According to the formation environment of the mineralization, it can be classified as collision orogeny mineralization, release(extension)mineralization, slide draw-division basin mineralization and shear zone extension mineralization. Throng the discuss of endogenetic deposit in the geological evolution, structure and formation machenism, the metallogenic model was preliminary established,and the criteria for delineating favourable metallogenic area was identified. (authors)

  16. Mid-IR Spectra of Refractory Minerals Relevant to Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Shekeab

    2008-09-01

    On 4 July 2005 the Spitzer Space Telescope obtained mid-IR ( 5-40 µm) spectra of the ejecta from the hypervelocity impact of the Deep Impact projectile with comet 9P/Tempel 1. Spectral modeling demonstrates that there are abundant minerals present in the ejecta including Ca/Fe/Mg-rich silicates, carbonates, phyllosilicates, water ice, amorphous carbon, and sulfides [1]. However, precise mineralogical identifications are hampered by the lack of comprehensive 5 - 40 µm spectral measurements of the emissivity for a broad compositional range of these materials. Here, we present our initial results for 2 - 50 µm transmission spectra and absorption constants for materials relevant to comets, including pyrrhotite, pyrite, and several phyllosilicate (clay) minerals. Measuring the transmission of materials over the full spectral range sensitive by Spitzer requires grinding the minerals into submicron powders and then mixing them with KBr (for the 1-25 um region) and polyethylene (16-50 um region) to form pellets. Transmission measurements of sub-micron sulfides are particularly difficult to obtain because the minerals oxidize rapidly upon grinding and subsequent handling unless special care is taken. A detailed description of our sample preparation and measurement technique will be provided to assist other researchers in their attempts to acquire similar spectra. References: [1] Lisse, C.M. et al., Science 313, 635 - 640 (2006)

  17. 77 FR 22622 - AP Henderson Group, BPO Management Services, Inc., Capital Mineral Investors, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] AP Henderson Group, BPO Management Services, Inc., Capital Mineral Investors, Inc., CardioVascular BioTherapeutics, Inc., and 1st Centennial... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of 1st Centennial...

  18. Estudo das interações entre o complexo polieletrolítico trimetilquitosana/carboximetilcelulose e Cu+2, ácido húmico e atrazina em solução aquosa Study of the interactions between the polyelectrolyte complex trimethylchitosan/carboxymethylcellulose and Cu+2, humic acid and atrazine in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio P. Campana-Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The polyelectrolyte complex (PEC resulting from the reaction of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and N,N,N-trimethylchitosan hydrochloride (TMQ was prepared and then characterized by infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X rays analysis. The interactions involving the PEC and Cu2+ ions, humic acid and atrazine in aqueous medium were studied. From the adsorption isotherms the maximum amount adsorbed (Xmax was determined as 61 mg Cu2+/g PEC, 171 mg humic acid/g PEC and 5 mg atrazine/g PEC. The results show that the CMC/TMQ complex has a high affinity for the studied species, indicating its potential application to remove them from aqueous media.

  19. A systematic study of multiple minerals precipitation modelling in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi Mbamba, Christian; Tait, Stephan; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Batstone, Damien J

    2015-11-15

    Mineral solids precipitation is important in wastewater treatment. However approaches to minerals precipitation modelling are varied, often empirical, and mostly focused on single precipitate classes. A common approach, applicable to multi-species precipitates, is needed to integrate into existing wastewater treatment models. The present study systematically tested a semi-mechanistic modelling approach, using various experimental platforms with multiple minerals precipitation. Experiments included dynamic titration with addition of sodium hydroxide to synthetic wastewater, and aeration to progressively increase pH and induce precipitation in real piggery digestate and sewage sludge digestate. The model approach consisted of an equilibrium part for aqueous phase reactions and a kinetic part for minerals precipitation. The model was fitted to dissolved calcium, magnesium, total inorganic carbon and phosphate. Results indicated that precipitation was dominated by the mineral struvite, forming together with varied and minor amounts of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. The model approach was noted to have the advantage of requiring a minimal number of fitted parameters, so the model was readily identifiable. Kinetic rate coefficients, which were statistically fitted, were generally in the range 0.35-11.6 h(-1) with confidence intervals of 10-80% relative. Confidence regions for the kinetic rate coefficients were often asymmetric with model-data residuals increasing more gradually with larger coefficient values. This suggests that a large kinetic coefficient could be used when actual measured data is lacking for a particular precipitate-matrix combination. Correlation between the kinetic rate coefficients of different minerals was low, indicating that parameter values for individual minerals could be independently fitted (keeping all other model parameters constant). Implementation was therefore relatively flexible, and would be readily expandable to include other

  20. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  1. Eficiência do nicosulfuron no controle de capim-massambara na cultura do milho Nicosulfuron efficacy on johnsongrass control in field corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel I. Fahl

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi conduzido em Rio Claro, SP, em 1991/92 para estudar a eficiência do nicosulfuron no controle do capimmass ambará (Sorghum halepense, como infestante da cultura do milho. O nicosulfuron foi aplicado em pós-emergência inicial, quando o capim-massambará estava com 3 a 5 folhas, nas doses de 40, 50, 60, e 80g/ ha, e em pós-emergência tardia (capim-massambará com 4 a 6 folhas, nas doses de 50, 60 e 80g/ha. Foram acrescentados tratamentos com atrazine + simazine (1500 + 1500g/ha, com e sem a adição de óleo mineral, nas mesmas épocas de aplicação do nicosulfuron. Verificou-se que o nicosulfuron apresentou excelente controle do capim massambará, atingindo 100% de controle aos 50 dias após a aplicação, independente das doses e épocas de aplicação. As aplicações de atrazine + simazine não mostraram controle satisfatório do capim massambará em pós-emergência, principalmente quando efetuadas tardias e com adição de óleo mineral. O controle do capimmassambará com nicosulfuron em pós-emergência inicial e tardia aumentou a produção de milho, respectivamente em 44 e 34%, em relação à testemunha não capinada. Não foi observado qualquer sinal de fitotoxicidade nas plantas de milho, em todos os tratamentos efetuados.A field experiment was conducted at Rio Claro, SP, Brazil, during 1991/92 to evaluate the efficacy of nicosulfur on for post emergence control of johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense in field com grown under conventional conditions. Nicosulfuron was applied on early postemergence, on johnsongrass with 2 to 5 leaves, at rates of 40, 50, 60 e 80g/ha, and late post emergence (4 to 6 leaves at rates of 50 , 60 an d 80 g/ ha . Two additional treatments of atrazine + simazine (1500 + 1500g/ha, with and without mineral oil, were applied at the same time of nicosulfuron. Treatments of nicosulfuron showed an exellent control of Johnsongrass, irrespectively of rate and timing appli catio n, reaching

  2. Mortality of Talc Miners and Millers From Val Chisone, Northern Italy: An Updated Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico; Coggiola, Maurizio; Ciocan, Catalina; Romano, Canzio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Pelucchi, Claudio; Boffetta, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to update the analysis of mortality of a cohort of talc miners and millers in Northern Italy. We analyzed the mortality during 1946 to 2013 of 1722 male workers in an asbestos-free talc mine (1166 miners and 556 millers) employed during 1946 to 1995. The overall standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.24 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.17 to 1.32]; no deaths were observed from pleural cancer; mortality from lung cancer was not increased. Mortality from pneumoconiosis was increased (SMR 26.62; 95% CI 20.71 to 33.69), in particular among miners, and was associated with duration of employment and time since first employment. We confirmed the lack of association between exposure to asbestos-free talc, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Increased mortality from pneumoconiosis among miners is attributable to past exposure to silica.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  4. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  5. Low bone mineral density in ambulatory persons with cerebral palsy? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mus-Peters, Cindy T R; Huisstede, Bionka M A; Noten, Suzie; Hitters, Minou W M G C; van der Slot, Wilma M A; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G

    2018-05-22

    Non-ambulatory persons with cerebral palsy are prone to low bone mineral density. In ambulatory persons with cerebral palsy, bone mineral density deficits are expected to be small or absent, but a consensus conclusion is lacking. In this systematic review bone mineral density in ambulatory persons with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification Scales I-III) was studied. Medline, Embase, and Web of Science were searched. According to international guidelines, low bone mineral density was defined as Z-score ≤ -2.0. In addition, we focused on Z-score ≤ -1.0 because this may indicate a tendency towards low bone mineral density. We included 16 studies, comprising 465 patients aged 1-65 years. Moderate and conflicting evidence for low bone mineral density (Z-score ≤ -2.0) was found for several body parts (total proximal femur, total body, distal femur, lumbar spine) in children with Gross Motor Function Classification Scales II and III. We found no evidence for low bone mineral density in children with Gross Motor Function Classification Scale I or adults, although there was a tendency towards low bone mineral density (Z-score ≤ -1.0) for several body parts. Although more high-quality research is needed, results indicate that deficits in bone mineral density are not restricted to non-ambulatory people with cerebral palsy. Implications for Rehabilitation Although more high-quality research is needed, including adults and fracture risk assessment, the current study indicates that deficits in bone mineral density are not restricted to non-ambulatory people with CP. Health care professionals should be aware that optimal nutrition, supplements on indication, and an active lifestyle, preferably with weight-bearing activities, are important in ambulatory people with CP, also from a bone quality point-of-view. If indicated, medication and fall prevention training should be prescribed.

  6. Study on mineral processing technology for abrasive minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Woong; Yang, Jung Il; Hwang, Seon Kook; Choi, Yeon Ho; Cho, Ken Joon; Shin, Hee Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Buyeo Materials in Buyeogun, Choongnam province is a company producing feldspar concentrate, but does not yet utilize the garnet as abrasive material and other useful heavy minerals wasted out from the process of feldspar ore. The purpose of this study is to develop technology and process for the recovery of garnet concentrate. As results, the garnet is defined as ferro manganese garnet. The optimum process for recovery of garnet concentrate is to primarily concentrate heavy minerals from tailings of feldspar processing. And secondly the heavy minerals concentrated is dried and separated garnet concentrate from other heavy minerals. At this time, the garnet concentrate is yield by 0.176%wt from 0.31%wt of heavy minerals in head ore. The garnet concentrate contains 33.35% SiO{sub 2}, 12.20% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 28.47% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.96% MnO. As for utilization of abrasive materials, a fundamental data was established on technology of grinding and classification. (author). 13 refs., 47 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Cobalt mineral exploration and supply from 1995 through 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The global mining industry has invested a large amount of capital in mineral exploration and development over the past 15 years in an effort to ensure that sufficient resources are available to meet future increases in demand for minerals. Exploration data have been used to identify specific sites where this investment has led to a significant contribution in global mineral supply of cobalt or where a significant increase in cobalt production capacity is anticipated in the next 5 years. This report provides an overview of the cobalt industry, factors affecting mineral supply, and circumstances surrounding the development, or lack thereof, of key mineral properties with the potential to affect mineral supply. Of the 48 sites with an effective production capacity of at least 1,000 metric tons per year of cobalt considered for this study, 3 producing sites underwent significant expansion during the study period, 10 exploration sites commenced production from 1995 through 2008, and 16 sites were expected to begin production by 2013 if planned development schedules are met. Cobalt supply is influenced by economic, environmental, political, and technological factors affecting exploration for and production of copper, nickel, and other metals as well as factors affecting the cobalt industry. Cobalt-rich nickel laterite deposits were discovered and developed in Australia and the South Pacific and improvements in laterite processing technology took place during the 1990s and early in the first decade of the 21st century when mining of copper-cobalt deposits in Congo (Kinshasa) was restricted because of regional conflict and lack of investment in that country's mining sector. There was also increased exploration for and greater importance placed on cobalt as a byproduct of nickel mining in Australia and Canada. The emergence of China as a major refined cobalt producer and consumer since 2007 has changed the pattern of demand for cobalt, particularly from Africa and

  8. Wolfram Syndrome protein, Miner1, regulates sulphydryl redox status, the unfolded protein response, and Ca2+ homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Sandra E; Andreyev, Alexander Y; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Karisch, Robert; Perkins, Guy; Wall, Estelle A; van der Geer, Peter; Chen, Yi-Fan; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Simon, Melvin I; Neel, Benjamin G; Dixon, Jack E; Murphy, Anne N

    2013-06-01

    Miner1 is a redox-active 2Fe2S cluster protein. Mutations in Miner1 result in Wolfram Syndrome, a metabolic disease associated with diabetes, blindness, deafness, and a shortened lifespan. Embryonic fibroblasts from Miner1(-/-) mice displayed ER stress and showed hallmarks of the unfolded protein response. In addition, loss of Miner1 caused a depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores, a dramatic increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+) load, increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, an increase in the GSSG/GSH and NAD(+)/NADH ratios, and an increase in the ADP/ATP ratio consistent with enhanced ATP utilization. Furthermore, mitochondria in fibroblasts lacking Miner1 displayed ultrastructural alterations, such as increased cristae density and punctate morphology, and an increase in O2 consumption. Treatment with the sulphydryl anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine reversed the abnormalities in the Miner1 deficient cells, suggesting that sulphydryl reducing agents should be explored as a treatment for this rare genetic disease. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  9. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  10. Role of Mineral Deposits in Global Geochemical Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Wilkinson, B.

    2009-12-01

    Mineral deposits represent the most extreme degree of natural concentration for most elements and their formation and destruction are important parts of global geochemical cycles. Quantitative estimates of the role that mineral deposits play in these geochemical cycles has been limited, however, by the lack of information on actual amounts of elements that are concentrated in these deposits, and their rates of formation and destruction at geologic time scales. Recent use of a “tectonic diffusion” model for porphyry copper deposits, the most important source of world copper, in conjunction with estimates of their copper content (Kesler and Wilkinson, 2008), allows an assessment of the role of copper deposits in Earth’s global copper cycles. These results indicate that ~4.5*10^8 Gg of Cu have been concentrated in porphyry copper deposits through Phanerozoic time, that deposits containing ~2.8*10^8 Gg of Cu have been removed by uplift and erosion over the same time period, and that deposits containing ~1.7*10^8 Gg remain in Earth’s crust. If styles of formation and destruction of other copper-bearing mineral deposits are similar, then all crustal deposits contain ~3*10^8 Gg of copper. This constitutes about 0.03% of the copper that resides in crustal rocks and provides a first-ever estimate of the rate at which natural geochemical cycles produce the extreme concentrations that constitute mineral deposits. Another ~8*10^8 Gg of copper have been destroyed during the uplift and erosion of mineral deposits over Phanerozoic time, a flux amounting to an annual contribution of about 1.5 Gg of copper to the near-surface environment. This amount is similar in magnitude to copper released by volcanic outgassing, but only ~2.5% of the 56 Gg of copper estimated to be released annually by weathering of average crustal rocks (Rauch and Graedel, 2007). The amount of copper removed from mineral deposits by mining, 1.1*10^4 Gg/year, is much larger than any natural

  11. Influence of oil and mineral characteristics on oil-mineral interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.A.; Lunel, T.; Daniel, F.; Swannell, R.; Lee, K.; Stoffyn-Egli, P.

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to simulate the process of oil-mineral interaction in seawater. Thirteen different crudes, emulsions and oil products were used in the study. The objective was to improve the fundamental understanding of the characteristics of oils and minerals that influence the process. The findings of an initial phase of studies based on the swirling flask and marine simulation procedures were also described. Oil content associated with flocs to oil and mineral characteristics were discussed. Emulsions were prepared at 10 degrees C by vigorously mixing the oil with excess artificial seawater in a Kilner jar using a high shear homogenizer. Topped oils were prepared by distillation to 250 degrees C. The biodegraded oil was prepared from the topped crude oil. Biodegradation was achieved over a 28 day period using natural seawater and naturally occurring hydrocarbon degraders. The relationships between oil concentration, oil density and mineral exchange capacity were determined. The study showed that greater oil concentrations in the water column could be expected with (1) the presence of mineral fines, (2) minerals with greater cation exchange rates, (3) minerals with finer sizes, and (4) oils of lower viscosity and density. It was determined that in coastal waters the viscosity of the oil/emulsion will likely be the main factor affecting oil-mineral interactions. The viscosity limit for allowing oil fines interaction is likely to be dependent on the energy in the coastal zone affected by the oil pollution. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs

  12. [Vitamin-mineral supplements in nutrition of adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Pogozheva, A V; Gromova, O A; Shikh, E V

    2015-01-01

    The diet of population consisting of natural products is quite adequate and even excessive of energy consumption, but is not able to meet fully the need of organism in a number of micronutrients. Due to lack of sun exposure and long presence indoors endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in the skin by ultraviolet radiation does not provide the body’s need for this vitamin. Intake of vitaminmineral supplements (VMS) is appropriate because combined deficiency of vitamins and minerals takes place in population. Prophylactic doses (equal to physiological needs) provide a diet completeness and reduce the risk of vitamin deficiency and its consequences. The high incidence of combined deficiency of vitamins among population and the existence of vitamin interactions are the basis for the application of the multivitamins. The simultaneous intake of vitamins is more physiological, their combination is more effective than a separate or isolated destination of each of them. Efficacy of the VMS has been shown in the treatment and prevention of some diseases. The main requirements for the VMS are full list of vitamins and minerals, the lack of which is detected most frequently, in doses covering the needs of organism. For the health of the pregnant woman and her unborn child preference should be given for complexes, containing DHA and/or probiotics along with vitamins. The principles of the selection of the composition and vitamin doses in the VMS for using patients suffering from various pathologies should be based on data on the patient’s sufficiency with vitamins, the understanding of the role of vitamin deficiency in the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as on the composition of the diet and its modifications.

  13. Detoxification of Atrazine by Low Molecular Weight Thiols in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Jing; Xu, Jiang Yan; Lu, Feng Fan; Jin, She Feng; Yang, Hong

    2017-10-16

    Low molecular weight (LMW) thiols in higher plants are a group of sulfur-rich nonprotein compounds and play primary and multiple roles in cellular redox homeostasis, enzyme activities, and xenobiotics detoxification. This study focused on identifying thiols-related protein genes from the legume alfalfa exposed to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) residues in environment. Using high-throughput RNA-sequencing, a set of ATZ-responsive thiols-related protein genes highly up-regulated and differentially expressed in alfalfa was identified. Most of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were involved in regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses. By analyzing the genes involved in thiols-mediated redox homeostasis, we found that many of them were thiols-synthetic enzymes such as γ-glutamylcysteine synthase (γECS), homoglutathione synthetase (hGSHS), and glutathione synthetase (GSHS). Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we further characterized a group of ATZ-thiols conjugates, which are the detoxified forms of ATZ in plants. Cysteine S-conjugate ATZ-HCl+Cys was the most important metabolite detected by MS. Several other ATZ-conjugates were also examined as ATZ-detoxified metabolites. Such results were validated by characterizing their analogs in rice. Our data showed that some conjugates under ATZ stress were detected in both plants, indicating that some detoxified mechanisms and pathways can be shared by the two plant species. Overall, these results indicate that LMW thiols play critical roles in detoxification of ATZ in the plants.

  14. Assessment of subclinical right ventricular systolic dysfunction in coal miners using myocardial isovolumic acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan Abacıoglu, Ozge; Kaplan, Mehmet; Abacıoglu, Serkan; Quisi, Ala

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have been conducted regarding the effects of coal mining on the respiratory system. However, there is a lack of data concerning potential effects of coal mining on the cardiovascular system. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential subclinical right and left ventricular dysfunction in coal miners. This single-center, prospective study included a total of 102 patients. Patient and control groups consisted of 54 coal miners and 48 healthy men, respectively. All patients underwent 12-lead electrocardiography, transthoracic echocardiography, and pulmonary function test. As compared to control group, coal miners had significantly higher right ventricular myocardial performance index (RVMPI) (0.41 ± 0.03 vs 0.37 ± 0.02, P right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC) (33.55% ± 6.70% vs 37.04 ± 9.26 P right and left ventricular dysfunction, including RVMPI, RVFAC, TAPSE, IVA, and AD, are impaired in coal miners. © 2017 The Authors Echocardiography Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  16. In-situ atrazine biodegradation dynamics in wheat (Triticum) crops under variable hydrologic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Cecilia, Daniele; Maggi, Federico

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive biodegradation reaction network of atrazine (ATZ) and its 18 byproducts was coupled to the nitrogen cycle and integrated in a computational solver to assess the in-situ biodegradation effectiveness and leaching along a 5 m deep soil cultivated with wheat in West Wyalong, New South Wales, Australia. Biodegradation removed 97.7% of 2 kg/ha ATZ yearly applications in the root zone, but removal substantially decreased at increasing depths; dechlorination removed 79% of ATZ in aerobic conditions and 18% in anaerobic conditions, whereas deethylation and oxidation removed only 0.11% and 0.15% of ATZ, respectively. The residual Cl mass fraction in ATZ and 4 byproducts was 2.4% of the applied mass. ATZ half-life ranged from 150 to 247 days in the soil surface. ATZ reached 5 m soil depth within 200 years and its concentration increased from 1 ×10-6 to 4 ×10-6 mg/kgdry-soil over time. The correlation between ATZ specific biomass degradation affinity Φ0 and half-life t1/2, although relatively uncertain for both hydrolyzing and oxidizing bacteria, suggested that microorganisms with high Φ0 led to low ATZ t1/2. Greater ATZ applications were balanced by small nonlinear increments of ATZ biodegraded fraction within the root zone and therefore less ATZ leached into the shallow aquifer.

  17. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  18. Effects of mineral nutrients on ozone susceptibility of Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L E

    1971-01-01

    Susceptibility of Lemna minor L. to ozone injury was influenced by the mineral nutrients available to the Lemna plants. Additional nitrogen or additional iron in the nutrient media respectively enhanced or reduced chlorophyll loss of Lemna plants fumigated with ozone. Lemna plants growing on a nutrient medium lacking copper had significantly less injury from ozone fumigation than Lemna plants growing on a complete nutrient medium. There were apparent interactions among phosphorus and potassium nutrient levels in determing the Lemna plant's susceptibility to ozone.

  19. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  20. Evolutionary selection of enzymatically synthesized semiconductors from biomimetic mineralization vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawazer, Lukmaan A; Izumi, Michi; Kolodin, Dmitriy; Neilson, James R; Schwenzer, Birgit; Morse, Daniel E

    2012-06-26

    The way nature evolves and sculpts materials using proteins inspires new approaches to materials engineering but is still not completely understood. Here, we present a cell-free synthetic biological platform to advance studies of biologically synthesized solid-state materials. This platform is capable of simultaneously exerting many of the hierarchical levels of control found in natural biomineralization, including genetic, chemical, spatial, structural, and morphological control, while supporting the evolutionary selection of new mineralizing proteins and the corresponding genetically encoded materials that they produce. DNA-directed protein expression and enzymatic mineralization occur on polystyrene microbeads in water-in-oil emulsions, yielding synthetic surrogates of biomineralizing cells that are then screened by flow sorting, with light-scattering signals used to sort the resulting mineralized composites differentially. We demonstrate the utility of this platform by evolutionarily selecting newly identified silicateins, biomineralizing enzymes previously identified from the silica skeleton of a marine sponge, for enzyme variants capable of synthesizing silicon dioxide (silica) or titanium dioxide (titania) composites. Mineral composites of intermediate strength are preferentially selected to remain intact for identification during cell sorting, and then to collapse postsorting to expose the encoding genes for enzymatic DNA amplification. Some of the newly selected silicatein variants catalyze the formation of crystalline silicates, whereas the parent silicateins lack this ability. The demonstrated bioengineered route to previously undescribed materials introduces in vitro enzyme selection as a viable strategy for mimicking genetic evolution of materials as it occurs in nature.

  1. Does a mineral wristband affect balance? A randomized, controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Beckman, Anders; Persson, Liselott

    2015-06-26

    Having good balance is a facilitating factor in the performance of everyday activities. Good balance is also essential in various sport activities in order to both get results and prevent injury. A common measure of balance is postural sway, which can be measured both antero-posteriorly and medio-laterally. There are several companies marketing wristbands whose intended function is to improve balance, strength and flexibility. Randomized controlled trials have shown that wristbands with holograms have no effect on balance but studies on wristbands with minerals seem to be lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate if the mineral wristband had any effect on postural sway in a group of healthy individuals. Randomized, controlled, double-blind study. The study group consisted of 40 healthy persons. Postural sway was measured antero-posteriorly and medio-laterally on a force plate, to compare: the mineral wristband, a placebo wristband, and without any wristband. The measurements were performed for 30 s, in four situations: with open eyes and closed eyes, standing on a firm surface and on foam. Analyses were made with multilevel technique. The use of wristband with or without minerals did not alter postural sway. Closed eyes and standing on foam both prolonged the dependent measurement, irrespective if it was medio-lateral or antero-posterior. Wearing any wristband (mineral or placebo) gave a small (0.22-0.36 mm/s) but not statistically significant reduction of postural sway compared to not wearing wristband. This study showed no effect on postural sway by using the mineral wristband, compared with a placebo wristband or no wristband. Wearing any wristband at all (mineral or placebo) gave a small but not statistically significant reduction in postural sway, probably caused by sensory input.

  2. Grouping Minerals by Their Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget

    2018-01-01

    Minerals are commonly taught in ways that emphasize mineral identification for its own sake or maybe to help identify rocks. But how do minerals fit in with other science content taught? The author uses mineral formulas to help Earth science students wonder about the connection between elements, compounds, mixtures, minerals, and mineral formulas.…

  3. Multigeneration reproduction and male developmental toxicity studies on atrazine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSesso, John M; Scialli, Anthony R; White, Tacey E K; Breckenridge, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Reproductive toxicity of Atrazine (ATR) was evaluated in two rat multigenerational studies. Development of male reproductive parameters was evaluated in separate studies after prenatal or postnatal exposure. In multigenerational studies, rats received dietary concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 or 500 ppm ATR. In separate studies in female rats, ATR was administered by gavage at 0, 1, 5, 25 or 125 mg/kg/day during pregnancy (GD6-21) or lactation (LD2-21). Plasma testosterone concentration, testicular and epididymal weights, and sperm counts were measured in male offspring on PND70 and 170. In the multigenerational studies, parental systemic toxicity occurred at 500 ppm (38.7 mg/kg/day), but reproductive endpoints were unaffected. In the prenatal study, maternal toxicity and embryo-fetal mortality occurred at 125 mg/kg/day. In male offspring, testosterone levels and sperm counts were unaffected, although the percentage of abnormal sperm increased at 125 mg/kg/day (PND 70) and 25 mg/kg/day (PND170). In the postnatal study, maternal toxicity and reduced body weights of male offspring occurred at 125 mg/kg/day. Additionally, reduced testicular (PND70, PND170) and epididymal (PND70) weights and increased numbers of abnormal sperm (PND70, PND170) were seen, but no changes in plasma testosterone or sperm counts. Dietary administration of ATR did not affect rat reproduction up to a parentally toxic dose of 38.7 mg/kg/day. Some effects on male reproductive system development occurred after high dose, bolus administration to dams, but doses were much higher than expected under normal use conditions. Thus, oral RfDs for ATR would be protective for reproductive effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The development of the asparagus miner (Ophiomyia simplex Loew; Diptera: Agromyzidae) in temperate zones: a degree-day model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William R; Andresen, Jeffrey; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-07-01

    The asparagus miner is a putative vector of Fusarium spp., which have been implicated in globally declining asparagus production. Growers currently apply broad-spectrum insecticides for the asparagus miner, but lack management guidelines for adequately controlling the pest. Our aims were (1) to determine the lower developmental threshold of the asparagus miner, (2) develop and validate a degree-day model describing its phenology, and (3) create a developmental time budget for the asparagus miner to help guide growers' management decisions. We found that the lower developmental threshold for the asparagus miner was 12.1 °C, and that the phenology of the asparagus miner could be reliably predicted over the course of a two-year study. Predictions from the model match well with previously published information on the bionomics of the asparagus miner, but fit better for sampling data collected from the midwestern and eastern United States than for the United Kingdom. The life cycle of the asparagus miner likely requires between 1500 and 2000 degree-days to complete; the longest developmental time requirement was for the pupal stagen This study provides tools for the targeted management of the asparagus miner by offering a degree-day model that may be used to predict its life stages in the north-eastern United States. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral potential represents the likelihood (probability) that an economic mineral deposit could have formed in an area. Mineral potential assessment and prospectivity analysis use a probabilistic concepts to mineral deposits, where the probability of an event (formation of a mineral deposit) is conditional on two factors : i) geological processes occurring in the area, and ii) the presence of geological features indicative of those process. For instance, one of the geological processes critical for the formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in an area is transport of uranium in groundwaters. Geological features indicative of this process in an area comprise, i) presence of leachable source rocks of uranium; ii) presence of highly permeable sandstone; and iii) suitable hydrogeological gradient driving flow groundwaters. Mineral deposits can also be conceptualised as mineral systems with more emphasis on mineralising processes. This concept has some clear parallels with the petroleum systems approach which has proven to be a useful in oil and gas exploration. Mineral systems are defined as ‘all geological factors that control the generation and preservation of mineral deposits’. Seven important geological factors are outlined to define the characteristics of a hydrothermal mineral system. These factors include: i) source of the mineralising fluids and transporting legends; ii) source of metals and other ore components; iii) migration pathways which may include inflow as well as outflow zones; iv) thermal gradients; v) source of energy to mobilised fluids; vi) mechanical and structural focusing mechanism at the trap site; and vii) chemical and/or physical cause for precipitation of ore minerals at the trap site. This approach, commonly known as the ‘source’, ‘transport’ and ‘trap’ paradigm has been redefined to introduce five questions as a basis to understand spatial and temporal evolution of a mineral system at all scales (regional to

  6. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.Aa.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  7. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...

  8. Effects of mineral nutrients on ozone susceptibility of Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L.E.

    1971-01-01

    Susceptibility of Lemna minor L. to ozone injury was influenced by the mineral nutrients available to the Lemna plants. Additional nitrogen or additional iron in the nutrient media respectively enhanced or reduced chlorophyll loss of Lemna plants fumigated with ozone. Lemna plants growing on a nutrient medium lacking copper had significantly less injury from ozone fumigation than Lemna plants growing on a complete nutrient medium. There were apparent interactions among phosphorus and potassium nutrient levels in determing the Lemna plant's susceptibility to ozone.

  9. Geology and potential of the formation of sandstone type uranium mineralization at Hatapang region, North Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin

    2013-01-01

    The Study based on geological setting of Hatapang region, North Sumatera, identified as a favourable area to the formation of sandstone type uranium mineralization. This characterized by the occurred of anomalous radioactivity, uranium contents of the upper cretaceous granite intrusions and radioactivity anomalous of tertiary sedimentary rocks deposited in terrestrial environments. The study is objective to find out the potential formation of sandstone type-uranium mineralization within tertiary sedimentary rocks based on data’s studies of geological, geochemical, mineralogy, radioactivity of rocks. Stratigraphy of Hatapang area of the oldest to youngest are quartz units (permian-carboniferous), sandstone units (upper Triassic), granite (upper cretaceous), conglomerate units (Lower –middle Miocene) and tuff units (Pleistocene). Hatapang’s granite is S type granite which is not only potential as source of radioactive minerals, particularly placer type monazite, but also potential as source rocks of sandstone type-uranium mineralization on lighter sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rock of conglomerate units has potential as host rock, even though uranium did not accumulated in its rocks since the lack number of carbon as precipitant material and dissolved U"+"6 in water did not reduced into U"+"4 caused the uranium mineralization did not deposited. (author)

  10. [Content of mineral elements in the diet of students of physical education faculty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokshanova, A L; Nikitiyk, D B; Pozdniakov, A L

    2013-01-01

    Research of the diet of students of the Faculty of Physical Education found discrepancy of caloric content and correlation of macro- and micronutrients to physiological norms accompanied by a deficiency of some mineral elements. Thus, this research found discrepancy of a diet in caloric content and correlation of macro- and micronutrients to physiological norms. Calorie deficiency in both groups is caused for lack of all macro- and micronutrients, but mostly for lack of carbohydrates with an average glycemic index, fruit, and vegetables that have prebiotic properties and mineral-rich elements. Deficiency in the diet of young men 9.6% of the total protein and 23.5% of carbohydrates was accompanied for lack 15.5% of calcium. In the group of girls the results showed a decrease of the required amounts of calcium, magnesium and iron of 36.4; 7.5 and 1.5% respectively, which was displayed against a background of reducing the consumption of the total protein 25.1 and 36.0% of carbohydrates. As a result, basic nutrition of students practicing sports requires rationalization and adjustment. To improve the biological value of the diet it is advisable for students to use daily dairy products and other sources of animal protein in their diets. It is also necessary to introduce fruit and vegetables as a source of dietary fibers and mineral elements. Created in both groups deficiency of calcium and biologically high-grade proteins of animal origin can be eliminated by various dairy products in which calcium and phosphorus are in easily digestible form and in a balanced quantity. Despite the considerable amount of calcium in many foods (meat, bread, cereals, vegetables) calcium is assimilated with difficulty from these products. The exception is the calcium of milk, curd, cheese and other dairy products. The ration between calcium and phosphorus in milk is 1:1-1.4:1. For example, taking 0.5 liters of milk provides 600 mg of assimilable calcium intake.

  11. International mineral economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)

  12. Reagan issues mineral policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  13. Peritubular dentin lacks piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habelitz, S; Rodriguez, B J; Marshall, S J; Marshall, G W; Kalinin, S V; Gruverman, A

    2007-09-01

    Dentin is a mesenchymal tissue, and, as such, is based on a collagenous matrix that is reinforced by apatite mineral. Collagen fibrils show piezoelectricity, a phenomenon that is used by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) to obtain high-resolution images. We applied PFM to image human dentin with 10-nm resolution, and to test the hypothesis that zones of piezoactivity, indicating the presence of collagen fibrils, can be distinguished in dentin. Piezoelectricity was observed by PFM in the dentin intertubular matrix, while the peritubular dentin remained without response. High-resolution imaging of chemically treated intertubular dentin attributed the piezoelectric effect to individual collagen fibrils that differed in the signal strength, depending on the fibril orientation. This study supports the hypothesis that peritubular dentin is a non-collagenous tissue and is thus an exception among mineralized tissues that derive from the mesenchyme.

  14. Integrated Approaches for the Study of Real Mineral Flotation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is more common than not, for mineral processing studies to proceed via the examination of model flotation systems with the resulting data often lacking statistical verification. The resultant concentrates and tails may then be subjected to a restricted range of analyses, for diagnosis of the flotation behavior variations observed, that themselves bias the outcomes. For instance surface analysis may be undertaken without reference to solution speciation, or liberation may be studied but surface speciation may not be taken into account. We propose an integrated approach whereby firstly the flotation data are vigorously scrutinized and the mineralogy, liberation, surface and solution speciation are examined in parallel to establish a chemical over view of the system. It is proposed that to make progress in the understanding of flotation systems, in terms of the minerals chemistry, that a multi-dimensional analytical approach is utilized and that the focus shifts towards the analysis of real ores and industrial flotation systems.

  15. Of minerals and men. [Discovery of new mineral species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, S.W. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))

    1983-01-01

    The rate of discovery of new mineral species appears to be on the increase in Southern Africa and classification and nomenclature, once haphazard, are now subject to international scientific screening and rules. Earlier names entrenched in the literature provide a fascinating background to the minerals scene.

  16. Mineral transformations during the dissolution of uranium ore minerals by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, S.; Weidler, P.; Fakra, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D.

    2011-12-01

    Carnotite minerals [X2(UO2)2(VO4)2]; X = K, Ca, Ba, Mn, Na, Cu or Pb] form the major ore of uranium in the Colorado Plateau. These deposits are highly oxidized and contain U(VI) and V(IV). The biotransformation of U(VI) bound in carnotite by bacteria during dissimilatory metal reduction presents a complex puzzle in mineral chemistry. Both U(VI) and V(V) can be respired by metal reducing bacteria, and the mineral structure can change depending on the associated counterion. We incubated anaerobic cultures of S. putrefaciens CN32 with natural carnotite minerals from southeastern Utah in a nutrient-limited defined medium. Strain CN32 is a gram negative bacterium and a terrestrial isolate from New Mexico. The mineral and metal transformations were compared to a system that contained similar concentrations of soluble U(VI) and V(V). Electron (SEM, TEM) microscopies and x-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) were used in conjunction with XRD to track mineral changes, and bacterial survival was monitored throughout the incubations. Slow rates of metal reduction over 10 months for the treatment with carnotite minerals revealed distinct biotic and abiotic processes, providing insight on mineral transformation and bacteria-metal interactions. The bacteria existed as small flocs or individual cells attached to the mineral phase, but did not adsorb soluble U or V, and accumulated very little of the biominerals. Reduction of mineral V(V) necessarily led to a dismantling of the carnotite structure. Bioreduction of V(V) by CN32 contributed small but profound changes to the mineral system, resulting in new minerals. Abiotic cation exchange within the carnotite group minerals induced the rearrangement of the mineral structures, leading to further mineral transformation. In contrast, bacteria survival was poor for treatments with soluble U(VI) and V(V), although both metals were reduced completely and formed solid UO2 and VO2; we also detected V(III). For these treatments, the bacteria

  17. Recovering byproduct heavy minerals from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.M.; Martinez, G.M.; Wong, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, as part of an effort to maximize minerals and metals recovery from domestic resources, has investigated the feasibility of recovering heavy minerals as byproducts from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations in northern California. Sand samples from about 50 locations were treated by gravity separation to yield heavy-mineral cocentrates (black sands). Mineral compositions of the concentrates were determined by chemical analysis and mineralogical examination. Individual zircon, ilmenite, magnetite, platinum-group metals, thoria, and silica products were prepared from heavy-mineral concentrates by selective separation using low- and high-intensity magnetic, high-tension, and flotation equipment.

  18. Radioactive mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1948-01-01

    This publication was designed as a guide for uranium and thorium prospectors in Australia. Physical properties, such as color, streak, luster, hardness, fracture, and specific gravity of the uranium and thorium-bearing minerals are summarized and the various methods suitable for detecting radioactivity in minerals are described. Two colored plates show samples of pitchblende (uraninite), autunite, carnotite, monazite, and others of the most important minerals sources of uranium and thorium.

  19. Environmental Impacts on the Strength Parameters of Mineral-Acrylic (PMMA/ATH Facade Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Byrdy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite mineral-acrylic panels consist in 80% of natural minerals produced from bauxite (aluminium hydroxides (ATH and in 20% from acrylic resin (polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA. This material due to high usability is widely used in interior finishes. Recently, the mineral-acrylic panels have been used as external claddings of buildings. So far, there are several dozen elevations realized worldwide. Due to the variability of the strength parameters of PMMA acrylic resins depending on the environmental influence, a number of tests on samples of mineral-acrylic panels to verify their suitability for use in climate conditions in Central Europe were performed. The studies determined the change of the material parameters after being subjected to aging process in conditions of high temperature, high relative humidity, freeze-thaw cycles, and UV radiation. In the studies parameters such as flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were measured at a reference temperature of 23°C. In raised and lowered temperatures only the tensile strength tests were conducted. Due to the lack of information in the available literature, the authors carried out tests of the temperature influence on the PMMA/ATH composite modulus of elasticity and flexural strength which is crucial in designing process.

  20. Bioleaching of serpentine group mineral by fungus Talaromyces flavus: application for mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Lianwen, L.; Zhao, L.; Teng, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many studies of serpentine group mineral dissolution for mineral carbonation have been published in recent years. However, most of them focus mainly on either physical and chemical processes or on bacterial function, rather than fungal involvement in the bioleaching of serpentine group mineral. Due to the excessive costs of the magnesium dissolution process, finding a lower energy consumption method will be meaningful. A fungal strain Talaromyces flavus was isolated from serpentinic rock of Donghai (China). No study of its bioleaching ability is currently available. It is thus of great significance to explore the impact of T. flavus on the dissolution of serpentine group mineral. Serpentine rock-inhabiting fungi belonging to Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Clavicipitaceae, Cosmospora, Fusarium, Monascus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Trichoderma were isolated. These strains were chosen on the basis of resistance to magnesium and nickel characterized in terms of minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC). Specifically, the strain Talaromyces flavus has a high tolerance to both magnesium (1 mol/L) and nickel (10 mM/L), and we examine its bioleaching ability on serpentine group mineral. Contact and separation experiments (cut-off 8 000-14 000 Da), as well as three control experiments, were set up for 30 days. At least three repeated tests were performed for each individual experiment. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the bioleaching ability of T. flavus towards serpentine group mineral is evident. 39.39 wt% of magnesium was extracted from lizardite during the bioleaching period in the contact experiment, which showed a dissolution rate at about a constant 0.126 mM/d before reaching equilibrium in 13 days. The amount of solubilized Mg from chrysotile and antigorite were respectively 37.79 wt% and 29.78 wt% in the contact experiment. These results make clear the influence of mineral structure on mineral bioleaching

  1. Effect of soil metal contamination on glyphosate mineralization: role of zinc in the mineralization rates of two copper-spiked mineral soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bojeong; Kim, Young Sik; Kim, Bo Min; Hay, Anthony G; McBride, Murray B

    2011-03-01

    A systematic investigation into lowered degradation rates of glyphosate in metal-contaminated soils was performed by measuring mineralization of [(14)C]glyphosate to (14)CO(2) in two mineral soils that had been spiked with Cu and/or Zn at various loadings. Cumulative (14)CO(2) release was estimated to be approximately 6% or less of the amount of [(14)C]glyphosate originally added in both soils over an 80-d incubation. For all but the highest Cu treatments (400 mg kg(-1)) in the coarse-textured Arkport soil, mineralization began without a lag phase and declined over time. No inhibition of mineralization was observed for Zn up to 400 mg kg(-1) in either soil, suggesting differential sensitivity of glyphosate mineralization to the types of metal and soil. Interestingly, Zn appeared to alleviate high-Cu inhibition of mineralization in the Arkport soil. The protective role of Zn against Cu toxicity was also observed in the pure culture study with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggesting that increased mineralization rates in high Cu soil with Zn additions might have been due to alleviation of cellular toxicity by Zn rather than a mineralization specific mechanism. Extensive use of glyphosate combined with its reduced degradation in Cu-contaminated, coarse-textured soils may increase glyphosate persistence in soil and consequently facilitate Cu and glyphosate mobilization in the soil environment. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  2. Effect of HIP/ribosomal protein L29 deficiency on mineral properties of murine bones and teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloofman, Laura G; Verdelis, Kostas; Spevak, Lyudmila; Zayzafoon, Majd; Yamauchi, Mistuo; Opdenaker, Lynn M; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Boskey, Adele L; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B

    2010-07-01

    Mice lacking HIP/RPL29, a component of the ribosomal machinery, display increased bone fragility. To understand the effect of sub-efficient protein synthetic rates on mineralized tissue quality, we performed dynamic and static histomorphometry and examined the mineral properties of both bones and teeth in HIP/RPL29 knock-out mice using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). While loss of HIP/RPL29 consistently reduced total bone size, decreased mineral apposition rates were not significant, indicating that short stature is not primarily due to impaired osteoblast function. Interestingly, our microspectroscopic studies showed that a significant decrease in collagen crosslinking during maturation of HIP/RPL29-null bone precedes an overall enhancement in the relative extent of mineralization of both trabecular and cortical adult bones. This report provides strong genetic evidence that ribosomal insufficiency induces subtle organic matrix deficiencies which elevates calcification. Consistent with the HIP/RPL29-null bone phenotype, HIP/RPL29-deficient teeth also showed reduced geometric properties accompanied with relative increased mineral densities of both dentin and enamel. Increased mineralization associated with enhanced tissue fragility related to imperfection in organic phase microstructure evokes defects seen in matrix protein-related bone and tooth diseases. Thus, HIP/RPL29 mice constitute a new genetic model for studying the contribution of global protein synthesis in the establishment of organic and inorganic phases in mineral tissues. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The interface interaction behavior between E. coli and two kinds of fibrous minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qunwei; Han, Linbao; Deng, Jianjun; Zhao, Yulian; Dang, Zheng; Tan, Daoyong; Dong, Faqin

    2017-11-09

    In the present, studies of interaction between human normal flora and fibrous mineral are still lacking. Batch experiments were performed to deal with the interaction of Escherichia coli and two fibrous minerals (brucite and palygorskite), and the interface and liquid phase characteristics in the short-term interaction processes were discussed. The bacterial concentrations, the remnant glucose (GLU), pyruvic acid, and the activity of β-galactosidase and six elements were measured, and the results show that the promoting effect of brucite on the growth of E. coli was more significant than that of palygorskite. FTIR and XRD analysis results also confirmed E. coli has obviously dissolved on brucite and damage effect on palygorskite silicon structure. SEM results show that the interfacial contact degree between E. coli cells and brucite fibers was higher than that of palygorskite. These may be due to the zeta potential difference between E. coli and palygorskite was 14.57-22.37 mV, while it of brucite was 44.04-64.24 mV. The elements dissolving of two fibrous minerals not only increased regularly to liquid EC but also had a good buffer effect to the decrease of liquid pH. Studies of short-term interaction between E. coli and brucite and palygorskite can help to understand the effect of fibrous minerals on microeubiosis of human normal flora and the contribution of microbial behaviors on the fibrous minerals weathering in the natural environment.

  4. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  5. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  6. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  7. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  8. Accelerated enamel mineralization in Dspp mutant mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelis, Kostas; Szabo-Rogers, Heather L.; Xu, Yang; Chong, Rong; Kang, Ryan; Cusack, Brian J.; Jani, Priyam; Boskey, Adele L.; Qin, Chunlin; Beniash, Elia

    2016-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is one of the major non-collagenous proteins present in dentin, cementum and alveolar bone; it is also transiently expressed by ameloblasts. In humans many mutations have been found in DSPP and are associated with two autosomal-dominant genetic diseases — dentinogenesis imperfecta II (DGI-II) and dentin dysplasia (DD). Both disorders result in the development of hypomineralized and mechanically compromised teeth. The erupted mature molars of Dspp–/– mice have a severe hypomineralized dentin phenotype. Since dentin and enamel formations are interdependent, we decided to investigate the process of enamel onset mineralization in young Dspp–/– animals. We focused our analysis on the constantly erupting mouse incisor, to capture all of the stages of odontogenesis in one tooth, and the unerupted first molars. Using high-resolution microCT, we revealed that the onset of enamel matrix deposition occurs closer to the cervical loop and both secretion and maturation of enamel are accelerated in Dspp–/– incisors compared to the Dspp+/– control. Importantly, these differences did not translate into major phenotypic differences in mature enamel in terms of the structural organization, mineral density or hardness. The only observable difference was the reduction in thickness of the outer enamel layer, while the total enamel thickness remained unchanged. We also observed a compromised dentin-enamel junction, leading to delamination between the dentin and enamel layers. The odontoblast processes were widened and lacked branching near the DEJ. Finally, for the first time we demonstrate expression of Dspp mRNA in secretory ameloblasts. In summary, our data show that DSPP is important for normal mineralization of both dentin and enamel. PMID:26780724

  9. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  10. Isotope analysis of closely adjacent minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method of determining an indicator of at least one of hydrocarbon formation, migration, and accumulation during mineral development. It comprises: searching for a class of minerals in a mineral specimen comprising more than one class of minerals; identifying in the mineral specimen a target sample of the thus searched for class; directing thermally pyrolyzing laser beam radiation onto surface mineral substance of the target sample in the mineral specimen releasing surface mineral substance pyrolysate gases therefrom; and determining isotope composition essentially of the surface mineral substance from analyzing the pyrolysate gases released from the thus pyrolyzed target sample, the isotope composition including isotope(s) selected from the group consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen isotopes; determining an indicator of at least one of hydrocarbon formation, migration, and accumulation during mineral development of the target mineral from thus determined isotope composition of surface mineral substance pyrolysate

  11. Lava cave microbial communities within mats and secondary mineral deposits: implications for life detection on other planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, D E; Melim, L A; Spilde, M N; Hathaway, J J M; Garcia, M G; Moya, M; Stone, F D; Boston, P J; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Riquelme, C

    2011-09-01

    Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai'i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai'i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai'i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies.

  12. Micropore clogging by leachable pyrogenic organic carbon: A new perspective on sorption irreversibility and kinetics of hydrophobic organic contaminants to black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingyu; Zhang, Wei; Li, Hui; Fu, Heyun; Qu, Xiaolei; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2017-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) plays a crucial role in sequestering hydrophobic organic contaminants in the environment. This study investigated key factors and mechanisms controlling nonideal sorption (e.g., sorption irreversibility and slow kinetics) of model hydrophobic organic contaminants (nitrobenzene, naphthalene, and atrazine) by rice-straw-derived BC. After removing the fraction of leachable pyrogenic organic carbon (LPyOC) (referring to composites of dissoluble non-condensed organic carbon and associated mineral components) with deionized water or 0.5 M NaOH, sorption of these sorbates to BC was enhanced. The sorption enhancement was positively correlated with sorbate molecular size in the order of atrazine > naphthalene > nitrobenzene. The removal of LPyOC also accelerated sorption kinetics and reduced sorption irreversibility. These observations were attributed to increased accessibility of BC micropores initially clogged by the LPyOC. Comparison of BC pore size distributions before and after atrazine sorption further suggested that the sorbate molecules preferred to access the micropores that were more open, and the micropore accessibility was enhanced by the removal of LPyOC. Consistently, the sorption of nitrobenzene and atrazine to template-synthesized mesoporous carbon (CMK3), a model sorbent with homogeneous pore structures, showed decreased kinetics, but increased irreversibility by impregnating sorbent pores with surface-grafted alkylamino groups and by subsequent loading of humic acid. These findings indicated an important and previously unrecognized role of LPyOC (i.e., micropore clogging) in the nonideal sorption of organic contaminants to BC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Active Vitamin D Compounds and a Calcimimetic in Mineral Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Yamamoto, Loan; Bolivar, Isabel; Strugnell, Stephen A.; Goltzman, David

    2010-01-01

    The differential effects between cinacalcet and active vitamin D compounds on parathyroid function, mineral metabolism, and skeletal function are incompletely understood. Here, we studied cinacalcet and active vitamin D compounds in mice expressing the null mutation for Cyp27b1, which encodes 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase, thereby lacking endogenous 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. Vehicle-treated mice given high dietary calcium had hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and marked secon...

  14. Two types of mineral-related matrix vesicles in the bone mineralization of zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L; Zhang, Y; Cui, F Z

    2007-01-01

    Two types of mineral-related matrix vesicle, multivesicular body (MVB) and monovesicle, were detected in the skeletal bone of zebrafish. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of the vesicular inclusions reveal that both types of vesicles contain calcium and phosphorus, suggesting that these vesicles may be involved in mineral ion delivery for the bone mineralization of zebrafish. However, their size and substructure are quite different. Monovesicles, whose diameter ranges from 100 nm to 550 nm, are similar to the previously reported normal matrix vesicles, while MVBs have a larger size of 700-1000 nm in nominal diameter and possess a substructure that is composed of smaller vesicles with their average size around 100 nm. The presence of mineral-related MVBs, which is first identified in zebrafish bone, indicates that the mineralization-associated transportation process of mineral ions is more complicated than is ordinarily imagined

  15. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  16. Mode of distribution of uranium mineralization and sequence of the formation of minerals in albitites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechishnikov, N.P.; Kramar, O.A.; Rapovich, F.I.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of analysis and generalization of factural material data on the distribution nature of accessory uranium mineralization in albitites permitting to judge of the role and textural-structural peculiarities of enclosing rocks in mineralization localization are given. It is shown that the uranium mineral formation is closely related with the albitite formation and proceeded during two stages. A main mass of primary uranium minerals (brannerites and uraninites) in the form of impregnated mineralization was formed during the first uraninite-brannerite-albitite stage. Uranium oxides, silicates and titanates in the shape of veines formed. During the second coffinite-pitchblende-chloritic stage the formation of uranium oxides, silicates and titanates occured. Uranium mineralization in albitites developes in zones of cataclasm, small jointing, mylonitization localizing in fine-grained aggregates. A main mass of primary uranium minerals in albitites (brannerite, uraninite relates to neogenic during metasomatosis dark-coloured minerals (riebenite, aegirine, chlorite)

  17. Mineral statistics yearbook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of mineral production in Saskatchewan was compiled and presented as a reference manual. Statistical information on fuel minerals such as crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and coal, and of industrial and metallic minerals, such as potash, sodium sulphate, salt and uranium, was provided in all conceivable variety of tables. Production statistics, disposition and value of sales of industrial and metallic minerals were also made available. Statistical data on drilling of oil and gas reservoirs and crown land disposition were also included. figs., tabs

  18. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremberg, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  19. Use of chlorination, ozonization and GAC adsorption to eliminate triazine pesticides in water supplies; Eliminacion de plaguicidas en aguas de abastecimiento mediante cloracion, ozonizacion y adsorcion con GAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormad Melero, M. P.; Garcia Castillo, F. J.; Munarriz Cid, B.

    2009-07-01

    This study is focused on the research made between Facsa and Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain) related to the oxidation techniques application by chlorination and ozonization, and their combination with granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption of mineral origin, in order to control triazine pesticides in water supplies. Experiments are carried out is a pilot plant. Although the chlorination or ozonization can partially degrade pesticides under study (atrazine, simazine, terbutilazine and bromacil), their passing through an adsorption column with GAC mineral, achieves their total removal when their initial concentrations are about 500 ng/l. These concentrations are obtained by fortification of studied sample. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Use of chlorination, ozonization and GAC adsorption to eliminate triazine pesticides in water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormad Melero, M. P.; Garcia Castillo, F. J.; Munarriz Cid, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study is focused on the research made between Facsa and Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain) related to the oxidation techniques application by chlorination and ozonization, and their combination with granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption of mineral origin, in order to control triazine pesticides in water supplies. Experiments are carried out is a pilot plant. Although the chlorination or ozonization can partially degrade pesticides under study (atrazine, simazine, terbutilazine and bromacil), their passing through an adsorption column with GAC mineral, achieves their total removal when their initial concentrations are about 500 ng/l. These concentrations are obtained by fortification of studied sample. (Author) 9 refs

  1. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  2. Effects of the Atrazine herbicide over the diazotrophic microorganisms associated with corn in a Saldana soil (Tolima); Efecto del herbicida Atrazina sobre los microorganismos diazotrofos asociados a un cultivo de maiz en un suelo de Saldana (Tolima)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, Alba R; Lozano de Yunda, A; Fuentes, C

    1999-12-01

    In this study, it was evaluated, at greenhouse in soil pots, the effect of the herbicide atrazine in different dose (corresponding to o, 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 kg of soil hectare) over time (15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days after the application) on the diazotrophic micro-organisms associated with rhizosphere soil and root of a corn cultivation in a clay loam soil of Saldana - Tolima. It was determined the population of diazotrophic microorganisms in soil by the most probable number technique; also it was observed the characteristic growth in the specific cultivation semisolid Nfb-malic acid medium and was evaluated the nitrogenase activity by means of the acetylene reduction technique. Of the same form, it was observed the characteristic growth and it was evaluated the nitrogenase activity of direct fragment sowings of root in the Nfb-malic acid medium. The 60.8% of soil isolates presented characteristic cultural growth in the form of whitish pellicle under the surface of the medium. in the root 83.3% showed this type of growth. The population of diazotrophic microorganisms of soil did not present significant differences ({alpha} = 0.05) between treatments neither over time the nitrogenase activity of soil dilutions demonstrated that there is no a significant effect ({alpha} = 0.05) of the treatments (dose) but if there is significant effect of the time. The highest values were presented to 45 days of application of the herbicide, with the application of the highest dose. the nitrogenase activity in the root to what is long of the time was different from rhizosphere soil. The treatment without application of atrazine presented greater values to what is long of the time, however, also in this case were not presented significant differences ({alpha} = 0.05) between the treatments (dose) neither to what is long of the time. For so much, as a conclusion, they were not presented effects on the population and the nitrogenase activity of the diazotrophic microorganisms until 90

  3. Physicochemical characterization of mineral (iron/zinc) bound caseinate and their mineral uptake in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpashree, B G; Arora, Sumit; Kapila, Suman; Sharma, Vivek

    2018-08-15

    Milk proteins (especially caseins) are widely accepted as good vehicle for the delivery of various bioactive compounds including minerals. Succinylation is one of the most acceptable chemical modification techniques to enhance the mineral binding ability of caseins. Addition of minerals to succinylated proteins may alter their physicochemical and biochemical properties. Physicochemical characteristics of succinylated sodium caseinate (S.NaCN)-mineral (iron/zinc) complexes were elucidated. Chromatographic behaviour and fluorescence intensity confirmed the structural modification of S.NaCN upon binding with minerals. The bound mineral from protein complexes showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) in vitro bioavailability (mineral uptake) than mineral salts in Caco-2 cells. Also, iron bound S.NaCN showed higher cellular ferritin formation than iron in its free form. These mineral bound protein complexes with improved bioavailability could safely replace inorganic fortificants in various functional food formulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Minerals Policy Statement 2: controlling and mitigating the environmental effects of minerals extraction in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    Minerals Policy Statement 2 (MPS2) sets out the policies and considerations that the UK Government expects Mineral Planning Authorities to follow when preparing development plans and in considering application for minerals development. This supercedes Minerals Policy Guidance 11 (MPG 11). Annex 1: Dust to MPS2 sets out the policy considerations in relation to dust from mineral workings and associated operations, and how they should be dealt with in local development plans and in considering individual applications. Annex 2: Noise to MPS2 addresses policy in relation to noise from mineral workings. These have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database. 58 refs., 2 apps.

  5. Modeling CO2-Water-Mineral Wettability and Mineralization for Carbon Geosequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yunfeng; Tsuji, Shinya; Jia, Jihui; Tsuji, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2017-07-18

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) is an important climate change mitigation option along with improved energy efficiency, renewable energy, and nuclear energy. CO 2 geosequestration, that is, to store CO 2 under the subsurface of Earth, is feasible because the world's sedimentary basins have high capacity and are often located in the same region of the world as emission sources. How CO 2 interacts with the connate water and minerals is the focus of this Account. There are four trapping mechanisms that keep CO 2 in the pores of subsurface rocks: (1) structural trapping, (2) residual trapping, (3) dissolution trapping, and (4) mineral trapping. The first two are dominated by capillary action, where wettability controls CO 2 and water two-phase flow in porous media. We review state-of-the-art studies on CO 2 /water/mineral wettability, which was found to depend on pressure and temperature conditions, salt concentration in aqueous solutions, mineral surface chemistry, and geometry. We then review some recent advances in mineral trapping. First, we show that it is possible to reproduce the CO 2 /water/mineral wettability at a wide range of pressures using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. As the pressure increases, CO 2 gas transforms into a supercritical fluid or liquid at ∼7.4 MPa depending on the environmental temperature. This transition leads to a substantial decrease of the interfacial tension between CO 2 and reservoir brine (or pure water). However, the wettability of CO 2 /water/rock systems depends on the type of rock surface. Recently, we investigated the contact angle of CO 2 /water/silica systems with two different silica surfaces using MD simulations. We found that contact angle increased with pressure for the hydrophobic (siloxane) surface while it was almost constant for the hydrophilic (silanol) surface, in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Furthermore, we found that the CO 2 thin films at the CO 2 -hydrophilic

  6. Minerals industry survey, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of the statistical survey commissioned by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents the most comprehensive review of the financial position of the Australian minerals industry and provides timely financial data on the minerals industry. The tables of this survey have been prepared for AMIC by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies. For the purpose of the survey, the minerals industry has been defined as including exploration for, and extraction and primary processing of, minerals in Australia. The oil and gas industry is not included.

  7. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  8. Environmental exposure to mineral fibers in New Caledonia: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, F.; Ambrosi, J.

    2013-05-01

    Inhalation of asbestos and other fibrous minerals causes lung cancer and other malignancies, specifically malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM is an aggressive pleural tumor that presents with a median latency period of 30-40 years from initial fiber exposure. Due to occupational exposure, MM incidence is 4-8 times higher in men as compared to women. In New Caledonia (NC), very high incidences of MM and lung cancer were observed in both men and women, suggesting an environmental origin of exposure. Although nickel mining and the traditional use of tremolite-containing whitewash were suspected causes of MM, numerous MM cases have been observed in areas lacking these risk factors. We carried out an ecological study of MM incidence in NC and identified a study area that included those counties having the highest MM incidences as well as counties lacking MM. We conducted epidemiological and environmental investigations for each of the 100 tribes living within this area. Residential history was assessed for each MM case, and samples of each quarry, road, and whitewash were analyzed to determine the nature of any mineral fibers. We analyzed the environmental determinants of MM, including geology, mineralogy, plant cover, land shape and human activities as well as use of whitewash, by using two univariate and multivariate statistical methods: 1) a logistic regression to compare tribes with and without MM cases and calculate the odds ratios, (OR) 2) the Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for each factor. While most MM cases among Caucasians were observed in men with a mean age of 72, indicating occupational exposure, Melanesians exhibited elevated MM incidence in both men and women at a mean age of 60. A sex ratio close to 1 compounded with the relatively young ages of MM cases confirmed environmental causation within the Melanesian population. We found one significant and two secondary spatial clusters of MM in tribal areas. No temporal cluster was

  9. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  10. 3D visualization and quantification of bone and teeth mineralization for the study of osteo/dentinogenesis in mice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchadier, A.; Vidal, C.; Ordureau, S.; Lédée, R.; Léger, C.; Young, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2011-03-01

    Research on bone and teeth mineralization in animal models is critical for understanding human pathologies. Genetically modified mice represent highly valuable models for the study of osteo/dentinogenesis defects and osteoporosis. Current investigations on mice dental and skeletal phenotype use destructive and time consuming methods such as histology and scanning microscopy. Micro-CT imaging is quicker and provides high resolution qualitative phenotypic description. However reliable quantification of mineralization processes in mouse bone and teeth are still lacking. We have established novel CT imaging-based software for accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis of mouse mandibular bone and molars. Data were obtained from mandibles of mice lacking the Fibromodulin gene which is involved in mineralization processes. Mandibles were imaged with a micro-CT originally devoted to industrial applications (Viscom, X8060 NDT). 3D advanced visualization was performed using the VoxBox software (UsefulProgress) with ray casting algorithms. Comparison between control and defective mice mandibles was made by applying the same transfer function for each 3D data, thus allowing to detect shape, colour and density discrepencies. The 2D images of transverse slices of mandible and teeth were similar and even more accurate than those obtained with scanning electron microscopy. Image processing of the molars allowed the 3D reconstruction of the pulp chamber, providing a unique tool for the quantitative evaluation of dentinogenesis. This new method is highly powerful for the study of oro-facial mineralizations defects in mice models, complementary and even competitive to current histological and scanning microscopy appoaches.

  11. Determination of Atrazine, Acetochlor, Clomazone, Pendimethalin and Oxyfluorfen in Soil by a Solid Phase Microextraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Đurović

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A solid phase microextraction (SPME method for simultaneous determination of atrazine, acetochlor, clomazone, pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen in soil samples was developed. The method is based on a combination of conventional liquid-solid procedure and a following SPME determination of the selected pesticides. Initially, various microextraction conditions, such as the fibre type, desorption temperature and time, extraction time and NaCl content, were investigated and optimized. Then, extraction efficiencies of severalsolvents (water, hexane, acetonitrile, acetone and methanol and the optimum number of extraction steps within the sample preparation step were optimized. According to the results obtained in these two sets of experiments, two successive extractions with methanol as the extraction solvent were the optimal sample preparation procedure, while the following conditions were found to be most efficient for SPME measurements: 100 μm PDMS fibre, desorption for 7 min at 2700C, 30 min extraction time and 5% NaCl content (w/v. Detection and quantification were done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC/MS. Relative standard deviation (RSD values for multiple analysis of soil samples fortified at 30 μg/kg of each pesticide were below 19%. Limits of detection (LOD for all the compounds studied were less than 2 μg/kg.

  12. Effects of atrazine on hepatic metabolism and endocrine homeostasis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaberria, Iurgi; Hansen, Bjorn Henrik; Asensio, Vega; Olsvik, Pal A.; Andersen, Rolf A.; Jenssen, Bjorn Munro

    2009-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine (ATZ) is one of the most widely used pesticides in the world and is now under scrutiny for its alleged capacity to disrupt the endocrine system. Exhibiting negligible interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER), ATZ's mode of action remains to be elucidated. ATZ may act as an inducer of the enzyme aromatase, which converts androgens to estrogens, although other mechanisms should also be taken into consideration such as impairment of hepatic metabolism. Therefore we administered juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) a dose of either 2 or 200 μg ATZ/kg, or of carrier control phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and we measured plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (Vtg) 6 days after exposure. Simultaneously we analyzed hepatic gene expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A and pi-class glutathione S-transferase (GST-P), and catalase (CAT) activity. Although sex steroid levels showed no significant alterations, we found a dose-dependent increase in Vtg and a concomitant decrease in CYP1A. There was no effect of ATZ on GST-P mRNA levels but GST-P was positively correlated with CYP1A. Also, CYP1A was negatively correlated with liver CAT and E2, and varied with T concentrations in a hormetic manner. The results showed that ATZ can alter hepatic metabolism, induce estrogenic effects and oxidative stress in vivo, and that these effects are linked

  13. Radioisotopes in plant mineral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-01-01

    Extensive investigations on mineral composition of different plant species growing on various soils, helped in realizing that neither the presence nor the concentration of a mineral element in a plant can be regarded as a criterion for essentially. Plants have a limited capability for selective uptake of those mineral elements which are essential for their growth. They also take up mineral element which are not necessary for growth and may even be toxic. The mineral composition of plants growing in soils cannot, therefore, be used to establish essentially of a mineral element. Once this fact was appreciated, both water and sand culture experiments were carried out in which particular mineral elements were omitted. Von Sach and Knop are credited with reintroduction of the solution culture method using which they demonstrated the absolute requirement of ten macronutrients. As evident, these techniques made possible a more precise characterization of essentially of mineral elements and led to a better understanding of their role in plant metabolism. By the beginning of 20"t"h century importance of micronutrients like B, Mn, Cu, Mo and CI was also established

  14. Oral Exposure to Atrazine Induces Oxidative Stress and Calcium Homeostasis Disruption in Spleen of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuying Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide atrazine (ATR can cause many adverse effects including immunotoxicity, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The current study investigated the role of oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis in ATR-induced immunotoxicity in mice. ATR at doses of 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg body weight was administered to Balb/c mice daily for 21 days by oral gavage. The studies performed 24 hr after the final exposure showed that ATR could induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the spleen of the mice, increase the level of advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP in the host serum, and cause the depletion of reduced glutathione in the serum, each in a dose-related manner. In addition, DNA damage was observed in isolated splenocytes as evidenced by increase in DNA comet tail formation. ATR exposure also caused increases in intracellular Ca2+ within splenocytes. Moreover, ATR treatment led to increased expression of genes for some antioxidant enzymes, such as HO-1 and Gpx1, as well as increased expression of NF-κB and Ref-1 proteins in the spleen. In conclusion, it appears that oxidative stress and disruptions in calcium homeostasis might play an important role in the induction of immunotoxicity in mice by ATR.

  15. Outlook 96: Minerals and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Papers discussing the future of Australia's minerals and energy are presented under the following headings: Australia in the global minerals and energy markets; minerals exploration; steelmaking raw materials; aluminium and alumina; gold; nickel; base metals; titanium minerals; energy for a sustainable future; electricity; electricity in Asia; crude oil; coal trade; natural gas in Australia and uranium. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs., figs., refs

  16. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  17. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  18. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Minerals Minerals are those elements on the earth and ...

  19. Minerals yearbook: The mineral industry of Brazil. 1988 international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Brazil's gross domestic product (GDP) grew only slightly in 1988 to $277 billion at current prices. The growth rate was the smallest registered since 1983, when the rate was minus 2.8%. The economy's performance was strongly influenced by a 2% to 3% decrease in industrial production and civil construction. The mineral industry, however, countered the downward trend in the industrial sector and grew a modest 1.4%. Topics discussed in the report include the following: Government policies and programs; Production; Trade; Commodity review--Metals (Aluminum, Aluminia, and Bauxite, Columbium, Copper, Gold, Iron and Steel, Manganese, Tin, Titanium); Industrial Minerals (Gem stones, Phosphate rock, Quartz); Mineral fuels (Coal, Natural gas, Petroleum, Nuclear power); Nonmineral energy sources (Alcohol, Hydroelectric)

  20. Spatial variation in microbial processes controlling carbon mineralization within soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendorf, Scott [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kleber, Markus [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Nico, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    the importance of aggregate-based heterogeneity in microbial redox processes and the resulting lack of oxygen on the rate of carbon mineralization. Collectively, our research shows that anaerobic microsites are prevalent in soils and are important regulators of soil carbon persistence, shifting microbial metabolism to less efficient anaerobic respiration and selectively protecting otherwise bioavailable, reduced organic compounds such as lipids and waxes from decomposition. Further, shifting from anaerobic to aerobic conditions leads to a 10-fold increase in volume-specific mineralization rate, illustrating the sensitivity of anaerobically protected carbon to disturbance. Vulnerability of anaerobically protected carbon to future climate or land use change thus constitutes a yet unrecognized soil carbon-climate feedback that should be incorporated into terrestrial ecosystem models.

  1. Carbon dioxide sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O' Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    The dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since the Industrial Revolution has caused concerns about global warming. Fossil-fuel-fired power plants contribute approximately one third of the total human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide. Increased efficiency of these power plants will have a large impact on carbon dioxide emissions, but additional measures will be needed to slow or stop the projected increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. By accelerating the naturally occurring carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals it is possible to sequester carbon dioxide in the geologically stable mineral magnesite (MgCO3). The carbonation of two classes of magnesium silicate minerals, olivine (Mg2SiO4) and serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4), was investigated in an aqueous process. The slow natural geologic process that converts both of these minerals to magnesite can be accelerated by increasing the surface area, increasing the activity of carbon dioxide in the solution, introducing imperfections into the crystal lattice by high-energy attrition grinding, and in the case of serpentine, by thermally activating the mineral by removing the chemically bound water. The effect of temperature is complex because it affects both the solubility of carbon dioxide and the rate of mineral dissolution in opposing fashions. Thus an optimum temperature for carbonation of olivine is approximately 185 degrees C and 155 degrees C for serpentine. This paper will elucidate the interaction of these variables and use kinetic studies to propose a process for the sequestration of the carbon dioxide.

  2. Arsenic mineral dissolution and possible mobilization in mineral-microbe-groundwater environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A B M R; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Bundschuh, Jochen; Chen, Chien-Yen; Bhowmik, Bejon Kumar; Tazaki, Kazue

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic (As) is widely distributed in the nature as ores or minerals. It has been attracted much attention for the global public health issue, especially for groundwater As contamination. The aim of this study was to elucidate the characteristics of microbes in groundwater where As-minerals were dissolved. An ex situ experiment was conducted with 7 standard As-minerals in bacteria-free groundwater and stored in experimental vessels for 1 year without supplementary nutrients. The pH (6.7-8.4) and EhS.H.E. (24-548 mV) changed between initial (0 day) and final stages (365 days) of experiment. The dissolution of As was detected higher from arsenolite (4240 ± 8.69 mg/L) and native arsenic (4538 ± 9.02 mg/L), whereas moderately dissolved from orpiment (653 ± 3.56 mg/L) and realgar (319 ± 2.56 mg/L) in compare to arsenopyrite (85 ± 1.25mg/L) and tennantite (3 ± 0.06 mg/L). Optical microscopic, scanning electron microscopic observations and flurometric enumeration revealed the abundance of As-resistant bacillus, coccus and filamentous types of microorganisms on the surface of most of As-mineral. 4'-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained epifluorescence micrograph confirmed the presence of DNA and carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) staining method revealed the enzymatically active bacteria on the surface of As-minerals such as in realgar (As4S4). Therefore, the microbes enable to survive and mobilize the As in groundwater by dissolution/bioweathering of As-minerals. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Interplay between black carbon and minerals contributes to long term carbon stabilization and mineral transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, B.; Weng, Y. T.; Wang, C. C.; Chiang, C. C.; Liu, C. C.; Lehmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon receives increasing global wide research attention due to its role in carbon sequestration, soil fertility enhancement and remediation application. Generally considered chemically stable in bulk, the reactive surface of BC can interplays with minerals and form strong chemical bondage, which renders physical protection of BC and contributes to its long term stabilization. Using historical BC-rich Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), we probe the in-situ organo-mineral association and transformation of BC and minerals over a millennium scale using various synchrotron-based spectroscopic (XANES, FTIR) and microscopic (TXM) methods. Higher content of SRO minerals was found in BC-rich ADE compare to adjacent tropical soils. The iron signature found in BC-rich ADE was mainly ferrihydrite/lepidocrocite, a more reactive form of Fe compared to goethite, which was dominant in adjacent soil. Abundant nano minerals particles were observed in-situ associated with BC surface, in clusters and layers. The organo-mineral interaction lowers BC bioavailability and enhances its long-term stabilization in environment, while at the same time, transforms associated minerals into more reactive forms under rapid redox/weathering environment. The results suggest that mineral physical protection for BC sequestration may be more important than previous understanding. The scale up application of BC/biochar into agricultural systems and natural environments have long lasting impact on the in-situ transformation of associated minerals.

  4. Diseases of uranium miners and other underground miners exposed to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Excess lung cancer has been demonstrated in many groups of underground miners exposed to radon, including uranium miners and those mining other substances in radon-contaminated mines. In the United States, most underground uranium mines had shut down by the late 1980s, but occupational exposure to radon progeny remains a concern for many other types of underground miners and other underground workers. Worldwide, uranium mining continues, with documented production in Canada, South Africa and other African countries, and Australia. Thus, radon in underground mines remains a significant occupational hazard as the end of the twentieth century approaches.39 references

  5. Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:20948934

  6. Identification of novel candidate genes involved in mineralization of dental enamel by genome-wide transcript profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Smith, Charles E; Bringas, Pablo; Chen, Yi-Bu; Smith, Susan M; Snead, Malcolm L; Kurtz, Ira; Hacia, Joseph G; Hubbard, Michael J; Paine, Michael L

    2012-05-01

    The gene repertoire regulating vertebrate biomineralization is poorly understood. Dental enamel, the most highly mineralized tissue in mammals, differs from other calcifying systems in that the formative cells (ameloblasts) lack remodeling activity and largely degrade and resorb the initial extracellular matrix. Enamel mineralization requires that ameloblasts undergo a profound functional switch from matrix-secreting to maturational (calcium transport, protein resorption) roles as mineralization progresses. During the maturation stage, extracellular pH decreases markedly, placing high demands on ameloblasts to regulate acidic environments present around the growing hydroxyapatite crystals. To identify the genetic events driving enamel mineralization, we conducted genome-wide transcript profiling of the developing enamel organ from rat incisors and highlight over 300 genes differentially expressed during maturation. Using multiple bioinformatics analyses, we identified groups of maturation-associated genes whose functions are linked to key mineralization processes including pH regulation, calcium handling, and matrix turnover. Subsequent qPCR and Western blot analyses revealed that a number of solute carrier (SLC) gene family members were up-regulated during maturation, including the novel protein Slc24a4 involved in calcium handling as well as other proteins of similar function (Stim1). By providing the first global overview of the cellular machinery required for enamel maturation, this study provide a strong foundation for improving basic understanding of biomineralization and its practical applications in healthcare. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  8. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  9. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S; Padma Suvarna, K; Udayabhaska Reddy, G; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R L

    2014-01-03

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. International availability of energy minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, N A [Norman White Associates, London (UK)

    1979-06-01

    Whereas the ultimate world supply of energy minerals - defined as fossil fuels and fissile minerals - is controlled by geological factors, the actual supply at any particular time is controlled by economic feasibility, technological innovations and/or political decisions. This paper identifies and discusses the principal uncertainties surrounding the international availability of energy minerals from now until the end of the century. A brief comparison is also made between energy and non-energy minerals.

  11. Hand-arm vibration syndrome in South African gold miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyantumbu, Busi; Barber, Chris M; Ross, Mary; Curran, Andrew D; Fishwick, David; Dias, Belinda; Kgalamono, Spo; Phillips, James I

    2007-01-01

    Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is associated with the use of hand-held vibrating tools. Affected workers may experience symptoms of tingling, numbness, loss of grip strength and pain. Loss of dexterity may impair everyday activities, and potentially increase the risk of occupational accidents. Although high vibration levels (up to 31 m/s(2)) have been measured in association with rock drills, HAVS has not been scientifically evaluated in the South African mining industry. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of HAVS in South African gold miners, and to identify the tools responsible. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a single South African gold-mine. Participants were randomly selected from mineworkers returning from annual leave, comprising 156 subjects with occupational exposure to vibration, and 140 workers with no exposure. Miners who consented to participate underwent a clinical HAVS assessment following the UK Health and Safety Laboratory protocol. The prevalence of HAVS in vibration-exposed gold miners was 15%, with a mean latent period of 5.6 years. Among the non-exposed comparison group, 5% had signs and symptoms indistinguishable from HAVS. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). All the cases of HAVS gave a history of exposure to rock drills. The study has diagnosed the first cases of HAVS in the South African mining industry. The prevalence of HAVS was lower than expected, and possible explanations for this may include a survivor population, and lack of vascular symptom reporting due to warm-ambient temperatures.

  12. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  13. Nitrogen stabilization in organo-mineral fractions from soils with different land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetta, Beatrice; Zaccone, Claudio; Rovira, Pere; Vischetti, Costantino; Plaza, César

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the processes that control quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) interacting with mineral surfaces is of paramount importance. Although several physical fractionation methods have been proposed to date to obtain fractions that mirror SOM degree of stability and protection, a detailed quantification of stabilisation modes through which SOM bounds to the mineral matrix is still lacking. In this research we determined C and N distribution in several soils including coniferous and broadleaved forest soils, grassland soils, technosols and an agricultural soil amended with biochar at rates of 0 and 20 t/ha in a factorial combination with two types of organic amendment (municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge). We performed a physical size fractionation by ultrasonic dispersion and wet sieving, splitting particles into four different size fractions: coarse sand (2000-200 µm diameter), fine sand (200-50 µm), coarse silt (50-20 µm) and fine silt plus clay (stabilization modes. This method, in fact, allows resolving the nature of different bonds between mineral and organic components by the use of sequential extractions with chemical reagents (potassium sulphate, sodium tetraborate, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide after weak acid attack, sodium hydroxide after sodium dithionite pretreatment, and sodium hydroxide after hydrofluoric acid pretreatments). Elemental analysis (CHN) was then carried out on SOM pools isolated from different fractions. Preliminary data show that, for all land uses in general, and for grassland soils in particular, most of the total N is found in organo-mineral complexes (fraction soil N content. Although a small N loss was observed during the fractionation procedure, especially in N-rich samples, and data analysis is still ongoing, these preliminary results could already represent a valuable insight into organic N stabilization by mineral matrix.

  14. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  15. Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Hirai, Yasuo; Seimiya, Yumiko; Hasumi, Katsuhiko; Masubuchi, Kazumasa (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital); Shiraki, Masataka

    1991-10-01

    Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E{sub 2} (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author).

  16. Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Hirai, Yasuo; Seimiya, Yumiko; Hasumi, Katsuhiko; Masubuchi, Kazumasa; Shiraki, Masataka.

    1991-01-01

    Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E 2 (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author)

  17. Mineral oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.; Suess, M.J.; Grefen, K.; Reinisch, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter a general picture is presented of the air pollution aspects in the mineral oil industry. The complete field is covered, starting from drilling operations and the well head up to the delivery of the products to the consumer. A large field of activities as is given by the mineral oil

  18. The Impact of Organo-Mineral Complexation on Mineral Weathering in the Soil Zone under Unsaturated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H. A.; Tan, F.; Yoo, K.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    While organo-mineral complexes can protect organic matter (OM) from biodegradation, their impact on soil mineral weathering is not clear. Previous bench-scale experiments that focused on specific OM and minerals showed that the adsorption of OM to mineral surfaces accelerates the dissolution of some minerals. However, the impact of natural organo-mineral complexes on mineral dissolution under unsaturated conditions is not well known. In this study, soil samples prepared from an undisturbed forest site were used to determine mineral weathering rates under differing conditions of OM sorption to minerals. Two types of soil samples were generated: 1) soil with OM (C horizon soil from 84-100cm depth), and 2) soil without OM (the same soil as in 1) but with OM removed by heating to 350°for 24 h). Soil samples were column-packed and subjected to intermittent infiltration and drainage to mimic natural rainfall events. Each soil sample type was run in duplicate. The unsaturated condition was created by applying gas pressure to the column, and the unsaturated chemical weathering rates during each cycle were calculated from the effluent concentrations. During a single cycle, when applying the same gas pressure, soils with OM retained more moisture than OM-removed media, indicating increased water retention capacity under the impact of OM. This is consistent with the water retention data measured by evaporation experiments (HYPROP) and the dew point method (WP4C Potential Meter). Correspondingly, silicon (Si) denudation rates indicated that dissolution of silicate minerals was 2-4 times higher in OM soils, suggesting that organo-mineral complexes accelerate mineral dissolution under unsaturated conditions. When combining data from all cycles, the results showed that Si denudation rates were positively related to soil water content: denundation rate increased with increasing water content. Therefore, natural mineral chemical weathering under unsaturated conditions, while

  19. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  20. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  1. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH 3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH 2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  2. 30 CFR 281.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 281.8 Section 281.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.8 Rights to minerals. (a) Unless...

  3. Radio nuclides in mineral rocks and beach sand minerals in south east coast, Odisha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidya Sagar, D.; Sahoo, S.K.; Essakki, Chinna; Tripathy, S.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.; Mohanty, D.

    2014-01-01

    The primordial and metamorphic mineral rocks of the Eastern Ghats host minerals such as rutile, ilmenite, Silmenite, zircon, garnet and monazite in quartz matrix. The weathered material is transported down to the sea by run-off through Rivers and deposited back in coastal beach as heavy mineral concentrates. The minerals are mined by M/S Indian Rare Earths Ltd at the Chatrapur plant in Odisha coast to separate the individual minerals. Some of these minerals have low level radioactivity and may pose external and internal radiation hazard. The present paper deals with natural Thorium and Uranium in the source rocks with those observed in the coastal deposits. The study correlates the nuclide activity ratios in environmental samples in an attempt to understand the ecology of the natural radio nuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 226 Ra in environmental context. Further work is in progress to understand the geological process associated with the migration and reconcentration of natural radio-nuclides in the natural high background radiation areas

  4. Remote sensing of geologic mineral occurrences for the Colorado mineral belt using LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Trexler, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT imagery was examined as a practical and productive tool for mineral exploration along the Colorado Mineral Belt. An attempt was made to identify all large, active and/or abandoned mining districts on the imagery which initially were discovered by surface manifestations. A number of strong photolinements, circular features, and color anomalies were identified. Some of these form a part of the structural and igneous volcanic framework in which mineral deposits occur. No specific mineral deposits such as veins or porphyries were identified. Promising linear and concentric features were field checked at several locations. Some proved to be fault zones and calderas; others were strictly topographic features related to stream or glacial entrenchment. The Silverton Caldera region and the Idaho Springs-Central City district were chosen and studied as case histories to evaluate the application of LANDSAT imagery to mineral exploration. Evidence of specific mineralization related to ore deposits in these two areas were observed only on low level photography.

  5. Destructive textures around radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montel, J.M.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In most of the rocks, natural uranium and thorium are concentrated in some minerals which provide favourable crystallographic sites. These minerals are thus submitted to an intense auto-irradiation which may transform them. Using conventional investigation methods (petrographic or scanning electronic microscopy, electronic micro-probe) and less conventional ones (transmission electronic microscopy), the authors studied the interfaces between radioactive minerals and their host minerals. They comment the possible mechanical and structural aspects of this interaction by irradiation, and the influence of geological events

  6. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule...'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary to the functionality or... body of its annual report whether its conflict minerals originated in the Democratic Republic of the...

  7. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  8. From bulk soil to intracrystalline investigation of plant-mineral interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarchand, D.; Voinot, A.; Chabaux, F.; Turpault, M.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the controls and feedbacks regulating the flux of matter between bio-geochemical reservoirs in forest ecosystems receives a fast growing interest for the last decades. A complex question is to understand how minerals and vegetation interact in soils to sustain life and, to a broader scope, how forest ecosystems may respond to human activity (acid rain, harvesting,...) and climate perturbations (temperature, precipitation,...). Many mineralogical and biogeochemical approaches have longtime been developed, and occasionally coupled, in order to investigate the mechanisms by which chemical elements either are exchanged between soil particles and solutions, or are transferred to plants or to deeper soil layers and finally leave the system. But the characterization of particular processes like the contribution of minor reactive minerals to plant nutrition and global fluxes or the mechanisms by which biology can modify reaction rates and balance the bioavailability of nutrients in response to environmental perturbation sometimes fails because of the lack of suitable tracers. Recent analytical and conceptual advances have opened new perspectives for the use of light "non traditional" stable isotopes. Showing a wild range of concentrations and isotopic compositions between biogeochemical reservoirs in forest ecosystem, boron has physico-chemical properties particularly relevant to the investigation of water/rock interactions even when evolving biologically-mediated reactions. In this study, we focused on the distribution of boron isotopes from intracrystalline to bulk soil scales. An overview of the boron distribution and annual fluxes in the soil-plant system clearly indicates that the vegetation cycling largely controls the mobility of boron. We also observe that the mineral and biological B pools have drastically different isotopic signature that makes the transfer of B between them very easy to follow. In particular, the podzol soil we analyzed shows a

  9. Flotation of sulphide minerals 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forssberg, K S.E. [ed.; Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden). Division of Mineral Processing

    1991-01-01

    A total of 27 papers presented at the workshop on flotation of sulphide minerals, reprinted from the International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 33, nos. 1-4, are included in this book. They cover various aspects of flotation of such minerals as chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, malachite and pyrite.

  10. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably incident...

  11. Minerals Yearbook, volume II, Area Reports—Domestic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  12. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  13. Mineral Malnutrition Following Bariatric Surgery12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Wright, Breanne N.

    2013-01-01

    Moderate/severe obesity is on the rise in the United States. Weight management includes bariatric surgery, which is effective and can alleviate morbidity and mortality from obesity-associated diseases. However, many individuals are dealing with nutritional complications. Risk factors include: 1) preoperative malnutrition (e.g., vitamin D, iron); 2) decreased food intake (due to reduced hunger and increased satiety, food intolerances, frequent vomiting); 3) inadequate nutrient supplementation (due to poor compliance with multivitamin/multimineral regimen, insufficient amounts of vitamins and/or minerals in supplements); 4) nutrient malabsorption; and 5) inadequate nutritional support (due to lack of follow-up, insufficient monitoring, difficulty in recognizing symptoms of deficiency). For some nutrients (e.g., protein, vitamin B-12, vitamin D), malnutrition issues are reasonably addressed through patient education, routine monitoring, and effective treatment strategies. However, there is little attention paid to other nutrients (e.g., zinc, copper), which if left untreated may have devastating consequences (e.g., hair loss, poor immunity, anemia, defects in neuro-muscular function). This review focuses on malnutrition in essential minerals, including calcium (and vitamin D), iron, zinc, and copper, which commonly occur following popular bariatric procedures. There will be emphasis on the complexities, including confounding factors, related to screening, recognition of symptoms, and, when available, current recommendations for treatment. There is an exceptionally high risk of malnutrition in adolescents and pregnant women and their fetuses, who may be vulnerable to problems in growth and development. More research is required to inform evidence-based recommendations for improving nutritional status following bariatric surgery and optimizing weight loss, metabolic, and nutritional outcomes. PMID:24038242

  14. Mineral formation and organo-mineral controls on the bioavailability of carbon at the terrestrial-aquatic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, K. A.; Smith, A. P.; Renslow, R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence highlights the importance of organo-mineral interactions in regulating the source or sink capacity of soil. High surface area soils, such as allophane-rich or clay-rich soils, retain organic matter (OM) via sorption to mineral surfaces which can also contribute physical isolation in interlayer spaces. Despite the direct correlation between mineral surfaces and OM accumulation, the pedogenic processes controlling the abundance of reactive surface areas and their distribution in the mineral matrix remains unclear. As global soil temperatures rise, the dissolution of primary minerals and formation of new secondary minerals may be thermodynamically favored as part of soil weathering process. Newly formed minerals can supply surfaces for organo-metallic bonding and may, therefore, stabilize OM by surface bonding and physical exclusion. This is especially relevant in environments that intersect terrestrial and aquatic systems, such as the capillary fringe zone in riparian ecosystems. To test the mechanisms of mineral surface area protection of OM, we facilitated secondary precipitation of alumino-silicates in the presence of OM held at two different temperatures in natural Nisqually River sediments (Mt Rainier, WA). This was a three month reaction intended to simulate early pedogenesis. To tease out the influence of mineral surface area increase during pedogenesis, we incubated the sediments at two different soil moisture contents to induce biodegradation. We measured OM desorption, biodegradation, and the molecular composition of mineral-associated OM both prior to and following the temperature manipulation. To simulate the saturation of capillary fringe sediment and associated transport and reaction of OM, column experiments were conducted using the reacted sediments. More co-precipitation was observed in the 20°C solution compared to the 4°C reacted solution suggesting that warming trends alter mineral development and may remove more OM from solution

  15. Field Integration of Worldview-3 as new Frontier of Mineral Exploration for Tropical Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, P.; Maiti, S.

    2017-12-01

    Worldview-3 (WV-3) is a newly launched satellite program (2014) with total of 8 VNIR bands and 8 SWIR bands covering all possible absorption features of alteration minerals. Therefore integration of WV-3 dataset with conventional geological studies can be new frontier for mineral exploration. In the present study, we successfully accomplished that by identifying alteration mineral assemblage, field investigation, XRD, XRF and microscopic study etc. The chosen study area SPSZ, 120km long and 4-5km width corridor of highly sheared and deformed rock masses is unexplored in comparison to adjacent Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ). It demarcates the boundary between Proterozoic Chottanagpur Granite Gneissic Complex (CGGC) in north and Paleo proterozoic North Singhbhum Mobile belt (NSMB) in south. Discrete local studies indicated the presence of U, REE, Clay, Fe & Mn along with some Au and other polymetallic deposits of low concentration. Earlier attempts of remote sensing studies were hindered due to coarse spatial resolution, similarity between spectra of vegetation and alteration group of minerals like clay and mica, and lack of ground truthing with field spectra and laboratory analysis. Here involving WV-3, we identified and mapped alteration minerals kaolinite, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, white mica, sericite, goethite, lemonite, hematite and quartz with better resolution and accuracy (78%). Further, field spectra and XRD analyses supports these results and confirm the presence of alterations. XRF analysis identified the presence of Cu (0.06±0.03), Ti (1.7±1), and V (0.03±0.02) anomaly pointing towards possible mineralization. Occurrences of alteration as vertically dipping and alternating with iron (red and black) and mica rich (white and gray) zones in hills as well as microscopic evidences of chloritization and sericitization of feldspars were collectively pointing towards their hydrothermal origin. Finally, we conclude that WV-3 will add a new direction to

  16. Bone mineral density and computer tomographic measurements in correlation with failure strength of equine metacarpal bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Tóth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding bone mineral density and fracture characteristics of the equine metacarpus are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between mechanical properties of the equine metacarpal bone and its biomechanical and morphometric properties. Third metacarpal bones were extracted from horses euthanized unrelated to musculoskeletal conditions. In total, bone specimens from 26 front limbs of 13 horses (7.8 ± 5.8 years old including Lipizzaner (n = 5, Hungarian Warmblood (n = 2, Holsteiner (n = 2, Thoroughbred (n = 1, Hungarian Sporthorse (n = 1, Friesian (n = 1, and Shagya Arabian (n = 1 were collected. The horses included 7 mares, 4 stallions and 2 geldings. Assessment of the bone mineral density of the whole bone across four specific regions of interest was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The bones were scanned using a computer tomographic scanner to measure cross-sectional morphometric properties such as bone mineral density and cross-sectional dimensions including cortical area and cortical width. Mechanical properties (breaking force, bending strength, elastic modulus were determined by a 3-point bending test. Significant positive linear correlations were found between the breaking force and bone mineral density of the entire third metacarpal bones (P P P in vivo investigations.

  17. Inhibition of Mineralization of Urinary Stone Forming Minerals by Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Mohamed Farook

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of mineralization of urinary stone forming minerals by medicinal plants i.e. Achyranthes aspera Linn, Passiflora leschenaultii DC, Solena amplexicaulis (Lam. Gandhi, Scoparia dulcis Linn and Aerva lanata (Linn. been investigated. The inhibition efficiency was studied. Increased intake of fruits juice and seed extract of our plants would be helpful in urinary stone prophylaxis.

  18. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  19. 30 CFR 48.26 - Experienced miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the physical and health hazards of chemicals in the miner's work area, the protective measures a miner... occurred during the miner's absence and that could adversely affect the miner's health or safety. (1) A... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING...

  20. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the definition...

  1. Plasmid-mediated mineralization of 4-chlorobiphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, M.S.; Hooper, S.W.; Sayler, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Strains of Alcaligenes and Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from a mixed culture already proven to be proficient at complete mineralization of monohalogenated biphenyls. These strains were shown to harbor a 35 x 10(6)-dalton plasmid mediating a complete pathway for 4-chlorobiphenyl (4CB) oxidation. Subsequent plasmid curing of these bacteria resulted in the abolishment of the 4CB mineralization phenotype and loss of even early 4CB metabolism by Acinetobacter spp. Reestablishment of the Alcaligenes plasmid, denoted pSS50, in the cured Acinetobacter spp. via filter surface mating resulted in the restoration of 4CB mineralization abilities. 4CB mineralization, however, proved to be an unstable characteristic in some subcultured strains. Such loss was not found to coincide with any detectable alteration in plasmid size. Cultures capable of complete mineralization, as well as those limited to partial metabolism of 4CB, produced 4-chlorobenzoate as a metabolite. Demonstration of mineralization of a purified 14 C-labeled chlorobenzoate showed it to be a true intermediate in 4CB mineralization. Unlike the mineralization capability, the ability to produce a metabolite has proven to be stable on subculture. These results indicate the occurrence of a novel plasmid, or evolved catabolic plasmid, that mediates the complete mineralization of 4CB

  2. The radioactivity of bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrakova, M.; Babarikova, F.; Belanova, A.

    2005-01-01

    Mineral waters with increased contents of minerals (total mineralization ranging from 1000 to 4000 mg.dm -3 ) can also contain increased concentrations of natural radionuclides. For this reason it is necessary to monitor radioactivity of mineral and thermal springs. Hundreds of springs which are used for drinking purposes are spread in many regions all over Slovakia. In our laboratory we determined these radionuclides in mineral waters: total alpha, total beta, volume activity 222 Rn, concentration of U nat , volume 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Po. From values of determined volume activities of radionuclides we calculated total effective dose from reception mineral waters. By calculation of effective dose we supposed consumption of mineral water 150 dm 3 .year -1 (0.4 dm 3 .day -1 ) for adults (according to UNSCEAR). Conversion factors are initiated in the regulation of Ministry of Health of Slovak Republic (MZ SR No.12/2001). (authors)

  3. Lung Cancer in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chundi; Fan Jixiong; Wang Liuhu; Huang Yiehan; Nie Guanghua

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyese the clinical data of 39 uranium miners with lung cancer and of 20 patients with lung cancer who have not been exposed to uranium as control. The age of uranium miners with lung cancer was 36∼61 with an average of 48.8, nine years earlier than that of the control group (57.3). In the uranium miner patients the right lung was more susceptible to cancer than the left, the ratio being 2.5:1. However, in the control group the right lung had an equal incidence of cancer as the left lung. The relative frequency of small cell anaplastic carcinoma in uranium miner was higher than that in the control group. In the miner patients the mean occupation history was 11.1 ± 5.2 years; the exposure dose to radon and its daughters in 50% patients was 0.504J(120 WLM). The etiologic factor of lung cancer in uranium miners is strongly attributed, in addition to smoking, to the exposure to radon and its daughters in uranium mines

  4. A scheme for the complete elemental characterisation of brannerite mineral using ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premadas, A.; Bose, Roopa

    2013-01-01

    Brannerite occurs along with other refractory minerals in pegmatite veins. Literature survey indicates lack of systematic and detailed chemical analysis procedure for brannerites. This paper report suitable sample decomposition procedures, yielding stable sample solution, suitable for the ICP-AES determination of major, minor and certain trace elements normally associated with brannerite mineral. Three different simple decomposition procedures such as (i) acid digestion (ii) fusion with lithium metaborate (iii) fusion with mixture of tetra sodium pyrophosphate and monosodium dihydrogen phosphate are used to obtain the sample solution for elemental analysis. In presence of higher concentrations of uranium and titanium, the major elements in brannerite mineral, a detailed study of the influence of uranium and titanium on ICP-AES determination of other elements, three commonly used emission lines of each element was carried out. The REEs, Y, Sc and Th have been determined after the removal of major matrix elements using oxalate precipitation. The accuracy of the proposed procedures is established by analyzing synthetic brannerite samples prepared by mixing high purity oxides or chlorides in a proportion similar to natural brannerite samples. The results indicate the method is accurate. The reproducibility studies carried out on one sample shows the % RSD varied from 2 to 5%. (author)

  5. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Arnold O.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  6. Preparation of an Evaluated HACCP- Plan in Order to Implementation in Iranian Mineral Water Factories for Avoiding the Common Food Safety Hazards in Such Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kiyani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: consumption of mineral waters in the world has increased in recent years, and also concerns of consumers about its contamination are growing. Thereby, implementation of such a protective system as HACCP can prevent contamination of waters by different agents. This research aimed to develop an HACCP-Plan standard for mineral waters manufacturing factories in Iran. Methods: In current study, like production lines, polyethylene terephthalate (PET containers packaging, warehouses and laboratories sections of factories were observed from view of production and quality control. To monitor, control and restrict the hazards, seven principles of HACCP were considered. In continue applicable solutions were presented inclusive and practically for all factories. Required information were verified and presented through investigation of national and international standards. Results: The results shown that lack of sanitizing mineral water supplies and factories environment, incomplete water treatment, non-standard production of PET bottles, improper storage of raw materials and final product, and lack of inspection of equipment led to the increasing health hazards of the product and endanger the consumers health. Conclusion: In order to produce safe mineral water, it is necessary to sanitize the water supplies and factory environment. In addition, the process of water treatment and the production of PET bottles must be according to national and international standards. As the implementation of the HACCP system in various mineral water producing factories is not same, application of developed system in this research will be effective to standardize the implementation of this system in plants.

  7. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This volume of the Australian Mineral Industry Annual Review records development and performance of the Australian mineral industry during the calendar year 1984. It reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration, and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. Part 1. 'general review' after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy, prices, exploration expenditure, investment, income tax, royalties, structural data, wages and salaries, industrial disputes, and government assistance, legislation, and controls. Part 2. 'commodity review' covers individual mineral commodity groups, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3, 'mining census', tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 tabulates quantity and value data on mineral output provided by state departments of mines and their equivalents. Listed in appendices are: principal mineral producers; ore buyers and mineral dealers; government mining services; analytical laboratories; state mines departments and equivalents; industry, professional and development organisations and associations, etc; summary of mineral royalties payable in the states and territories; and summary of income tax provisions and federal government levies.

  8. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... canned salmon and sardines with bones leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli calcium-fortified foods — from orange ...

  9. Reaction mechanisms for enhancing carbon dioxide mineral sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Karalee Ann

    corrosion led to nickel precipitation in the carbonate particles and the lack of an amorphous silica reaction layer on the olivine. It was concluded that nickel ions destabilized the silica passivation layer and led to faster growth of carbonate precipitates. Overall, nickel ions increased the reaction rate of mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  10. Ultra-structural defects cause low bone matrix stiffness despite high mineralization in osteogenesis imperfecta mice.