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Sample records for mineral plays important

  1. Water mineralization and its importance for health

    OpenAIRE

    N. Babio; C. Ferreira-Pêgo; F. Maraver Eyzaguirre; I. Vitoria Miñana; J. Salas-Salvadó

    2016-01-01

    Water mineralization and its importance for health La mineralización del agua y su importancia para la salud. Water is essential for life, participating in the metabolism of all the living organisms. In recent years, the consumption of tap water has decreased and the consumption of bottled water has increased worldwide. The mineral quality and composition of natural mineral water is known and constantly over the year, and their potential effects on health must be determined. Only magnes...

  2. Importance of weak minerals on earthquake mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneki, S.; Hirono, T.

    2017-12-01

    The role of weak minerals such as smectite and talc on earthquake mechanics is one of the important issues, and has been debated for recent several decades. Traditionally weak minerals in fault have been reported to weaken fault strength causing from its low frictional resistance. Furthermore, velocity-strengthening behavior of such weak mineral (talc) is considered to responsible for fault creep (aseismic slip) in the San Andreas fault. In contrast, recent studies reported that large amount of weak smectite in the Japan Trench could facilitate gigantic seismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. To investigate the role of weak minerals on rupture propagation process and magnitude of slip, we focus on the frictional properties of carbonaceous materials (CMs), which is the representative weak materials widely distributed in and around the convergent boundaries. Field observation and geochemical analyses revealed that graphitized CMs-layer is distributed along the slip surface of a fossil plate-subduction fault. Laboratory friction experiments demonstrated that pure quartz, bulk mixtures with bituminous coal (1 wt.%), and quartz with layered coal samples exhibited almost similar frictional properties (initial, yield, and dynamic friction). However, mixtures of quartz (99 wt.%) and layered graphite (1 wt.%) showed significantly lower initial and yield friction coefficient (0.31 and 0.50, respectively). Furthermore, the stress ratio S, defined as (yield stress-initial stress)/(initial stress-dynamic stress), increased in layered graphite samples (1.97) compared to quartz samples (0.14). Similar trend was observed in smectite-rich fault gouge. By referring the reported results of dynamic rupture propagation simulation using S ratio of 1.4 (typical value for the Japan Trench) and 2.0 (this study), we confirmed that higher S ratio results in smaller slip distance by approximately 20 %. On the basis of these results, we could conclude that weak minerals have lower

  3. Multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana, Inderpreet Singh; Kaur, Satvinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The desirable physical and physiochemical properties of clay minerals have led them to play a substantial role in pharmaceutical formulations. Clay minerals like kaolin, smectite and palygorskite-sepiolite are among the world's most valuable industrial minerals and of considerable importance. The elemental features of clay minerals which caused them to be used in pharmaceutical formulations are high specific area, sorption capacity, favorable rheological properties, chemical inertness, swelli...

  4. Importance of interlayer H bonding structure to the stability of layered minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Michele; Soltis, Jennifer A.; Wittman, Rick S.; Smith, Frances N.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Zhang, Xin; Ilton, Eugene S.; Buck, Edgar C.

    2017-10-16

    The exact atomic structures of layered minerals have been difficult to characterize because the layers often possess out-of-plane hydrogen atoms that cannot be detected by many analytical techniques. However, the ordering of these bonds are thought to play a fundamental role in the structural stability and solubility of layered minerals. We report a new strategy of using the intense radiation field of a focused electron beam to probe the effect of differences in hydrogen bonding networks on mineral solubility while simultaneously imaging the dissolution behavior in real time via liquid cell electron microscopy. We show the loss in hydrogens from interlayers of boehmite (γ-AlOOH) resulted in 2D nanosheets exfoliating from the bulk that subsequently and rapidly dissolved. However gibbsite (γ-Al(OH)3), with its higher concentration of OH terminating groups, was more accommodating to the deprotonation and stable under the beam.

  5. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF PLAY DURING HOSPITALIZATION OF CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourikos, Konstantinos; Tzeha, Laila; Pantelidou, Parthenopi; Tsaloglidou, Areti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Play constitutes an essential parameter of the normal psychosomatic development of children, as well as their statutory right. It is also an important means of communication in childhood. Objective: To review, detect and highlight all data cited regarding the role of play during the hospitalization of children. Methodology: Literature review was achieved by searching the databases Scopus, PubMed, Cinhal in English, using the following key words: therapeutic play, play therapy, hospitalized child, therapist. Results: During hospitalization, play either in the form of therapeutic play, or as in the form of play therapy, is proven to be of high therapeutic value for ill children, thus contributing to both their physical and emotional well-being and to their recovery. It helps to investigate issues related to the child’s experiences in the hospital and reduce the intensity of negative feelings accompanying a child’s admission to hospital and hospitalization. Play is widely used in pre-operative preparation and invasive procedures, while its use among children hospitalized for cancer is beneficial. Conclusion: The use of play in hospital may become a tool in the hands of healthcare professionals, in order to provide substantial assistance to hospitalized children, as long as they have appropriate training, patience, and will to apply it during hospitalization. PMID:26889107

  7. Mineralogy and heavy metal content of secondary mineral salts: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary minerals associated with acid mine drainage play an important role in metal cycling and may pose a geochemical hazard. The occurrence of secondary minerals indicates prevailing and past geochemical conditions. Detecting and characterising secondary minerals is necessary to the planning of remediation ...

  8. Association between duration of playing video games and bone mineral density in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haiyu; Xu, Shaonan; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Jiayin; Chen, Jinping; Huang, Yazeng; Ru, Bin; Jin, Yongming; Zhang, Qi; Ying, Qifeng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between duration of playing video games and bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese adolescents. Three hundred eighty-four Chinese adolescents aged 14-18 yr (148 males and 236 females) were analyzed. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures. Total body and regional BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Duration of playing video games, defined as hours per day, was measured by a self-report questionnaire. We examined the association between duration of playing video games and BMD using multiple linear regression analysis. After adjustment for age, sex, pubertal stage, parental education, body mass index, adolescents with longer video game duration were more likely to have lower legs, trunk, pelvic, spine, and total BMD (p video game was negatively associated with BMD in Chinese adolescents. These findings provide support for reducing duration of playing video games as a possible means to increase BMD in adolescents. Future research is needed to elucidate the underlined mechanisms linking playing video games and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Zirconium - an imported mineral commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Canada except fused alumina-zirconia and certain magnesium-zirconium alloys and zirconium-bearing steels. Most of the 3 000-4 000 tonnes of the various forms of zircon believed to be consumed in Canada each year is for foundry applications. Other minerals, notably chromite, olivine and silica sand are also used for these purposes and, if necessary, could be substituted for zircon. Zirconium's key role in Canada is in CANDU nuclear power reactors, where zirconium alloys are essential in the cladding for fuel bundles and in capital equipment such as pressure tubes, calandria tubes and reactivity control mechanisms. If zirconium alloys were to become unavailable, the Canadian nuclear power industry would collapse. As a contingency measure, Ontario Hydro maintains at least nine months' stocks of nuclear fuel bundles. Canada's vulnerability to short-term disruptions to supplies of nuclear fuel is diminished further by the availability of more expensive electricity from non-nuclear sources and, given time, from mothballed thermal plants. Zirconium minerals are present in many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Australia is Canada's principal source of zircon imports; South Africa is its sole source of baddeleyite. At this time, there are no shortages of either material. Canada has untapped zirconium resources in the Athabasca Oil Sands (zircon) and at Strange Lake along the ill-defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland (gittinsite). Adequate metal and alloy production facilities exist in France, Japan and the United States. No action by the federal government in regard to zirconium supplies is called for at this time

  10. The Importance of play During Childhood: The Lesson for care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of knowledge on the importance of play for children has ledparents, care givers and pre-school teachers deny children their rights to play,instead they have placed more emphasis on reading and arithmetic. This paper isbased on literature review, and presents the developmental stages of childhood anddiscusses the ...

  11. The importance of mineral in animal foodstuff and its status in ruminants breeding in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zahari Mohamed

    1985-01-01

    A major constraint to maximizing productivity in ruminants in most developing countries are mineral imbalances; specifically deficiencies and toxicities. This paper attempts to present a comprehensive account of their occurences and the severity of mineral deficiencies in grazing ruminants in Malaysia, based on studies under extensive management and improved feeding systems. The importance of minerals in the nutrition of these animals will be highlighted. Data of mineral levels in the blood and tissues of indigenous swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), Kedah-Kelantan cattle, sheep and goats will be presented. This paper will also review the mineral levels in animal tissues, plants and soil and usage of these data for predicting the mineral status of ruminants as well as the methods of mineral supplementation for deficient animals (author)

  12. Clay minerals in sandstone uranium deposits: radwaste applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Clay minerals play an important role in the genesis of uranium deposits in sandstones. They incorporate the rate earths (REE), U, Sb, Th, Cs, Rb, Sr, Y, Ba, and even small amounts of chalcophiles. These minerals possess analog elements for many of the radwaste fission products as well as actinides and some actinide daughters. In sandstone uranium deposits, clay minerals are also associated with sulfide minerals, usually pyrite, and organic carbonaceous matter. The primary clay minerals are usually smectites, illites, chlorites and mixed layer varieties. The integrity of these clay minerals is demonstrated by their retention of formational-mineralization ages determined by Rb-Sr geochronologic investigation of the Grants Mineral Belt of the United States. The importance of the clay minerals as analog for parts of the multi-barrier concept in radwaste disposal is their ability to impede water penetration into - and movement of key elements out of uranium rich zones. The clay minerals further sorb and in other ways incorporate into their structures many fission products and actinide analogs from man-made nuclear wastes. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. The Miners' Radio Stations in Bolivia: A Culture of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Examines local community radio stations in rural regions of Bolivia. Finds that active miners' radio has flourished as an entertainment and political medium and that, through their radio stations, miners' organizations have played an important role in shaping the political position of the Bolivian union movement. (KEH)

  14. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  15. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  16. Uraniferous minerals - uraninite and derived or related uraniferous minerals; Mineraux uraniferes - uraninite et mineraux uraniferes derives ou associes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, P.; Cesbron, F.; Le Cleac' h, J.M.; Lebocey, J.

    2009-07-01

    This special issue of 'Mineraux et Fossiles' journal (no.28) proposes a real trip in the uranium world with the exception of the industrial and military applications. The book comprises 6 chapters fully illustrated with figures and photos of minerals dealing with: 1 - a brief history of uranium (including radioactivity); 2 - crystallo-chemistry of some uranium minerals; 3 - uranium minerals with a presentation of the most important species ('remarkable' species); 4 - classification of uranium deposits; 5 - most famous uranium deposits which played an important role in the development of nuclear industry (Jachymov deposit in Czech Republic, Shinkolobwe in Katanga, Oklo in Gabon etc); 6 - uranium usages, in particular in glass and ceramics coloring and in geochronology. (J.S.)

  17. Carbon mineralization and pyrite oxidation in groundwater: Importance for silicate weathering in boreal forest soils and stream base-flow chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaminder, J.; Grip, H.; Moerth, C.-M.; Laudon, H.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Organic compounds is mineralized during later transport in deep groundwater aquifers. → Carbonic acid generated by this process stimulates dissolution of silicate minerals. → Protons derived from pyrite oxidation also affects weathering in deep groundwater. → The identified weathering mechanisms affect base-flow chemistry in boreal streams. - Abstract: What role does mineralized organic C and sulfide oxidation play in weathering of silicate minerals in deep groundwater aquifers? In this study, how H 2 CO 3 , produced as a result of mineralization of organic matter during groundwater transport, affects silicate weathering in the saturated zone of the mineral soil along a 70 m-long boreal hillslope is demonstrated. Stream water measurements of base cations and δ 18 O are included to determine the importance of the deep groundwater system for downstream surface water. The results suggest that H 2 CO 3 generated from organic compounds being mineralized during the lateral transport stimulates weathering at depths between 0.5 and 3 m in the soil. This finding is indicated by progressively increasing concentrations of base cations-, silica- and inorganic C (IC) in the groundwater along the hillslope that co-occur with decreasing organic C (OC) concentrations. Protons derived from sulfide oxidation appear to be an additional driver of the weathering process as indicated by a build-up of SO 4 2- in the groundwater during lateral transport and a δ 34 S per mille value of +0.26-3.76 per mille in the deep groundwater indicating S inputs from pyrite. The two identified active acids in the deep groundwater are likely to control the base-flow chemistry of streams draining larger catchments (>1 km 2 ) as evident by δ 18 O signatures and base cation concentrations that overlap with that of the groundwater.

  18. Carbon mineralization and pyrite oxidation in groundwater: Importance for silicate weathering in boreal forest soils and stream base-flow chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaminder, J., E-mail: jonatan.klaminder@emg.umu.se [Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden)] [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, SE-901 87 (Sweden); Grip, H. [Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden); Moerth, C.-M. [Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Laudon, H. [Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Organic compounds is mineralized during later transport in deep groundwater aquifers. {yields} Carbonic acid generated by this process stimulates dissolution of silicate minerals. {yields} Protons derived from pyrite oxidation also affects weathering in deep groundwater. {yields} The identified weathering mechanisms affect base-flow chemistry in boreal streams. - Abstract: What role does mineralized organic C and sulfide oxidation play in weathering of silicate minerals in deep groundwater aquifers? In this study, how H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, produced as a result of mineralization of organic matter during groundwater transport, affects silicate weathering in the saturated zone of the mineral soil along a 70 m-long boreal hillslope is demonstrated. Stream water measurements of base cations and {delta}{sup 18}O are included to determine the importance of the deep groundwater system for downstream surface water. The results suggest that H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} generated from organic compounds being mineralized during the lateral transport stimulates weathering at depths between 0.5 and 3 m in the soil. This finding is indicated by progressively increasing concentrations of base cations-, silica- and inorganic C (IC) in the groundwater along the hillslope that co-occur with decreasing organic C (OC) concentrations. Protons derived from sulfide oxidation appear to be an additional driver of the weathering process as indicated by a build-up of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in the groundwater during lateral transport and a {delta}{sup 34}S per mille value of +0.26-3.76 per mille in the deep groundwater indicating S inputs from pyrite. The two identified active acids in the deep groundwater are likely to control the base-flow chemistry of streams draining larger catchments (>1 km{sup 2}) as evident by {delta}{sup 18}O signatures and base cation concentrations that overlap with that of the groundwater.

  19. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  20. Play's Importance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  1. Nanotoxicity of dolomite mineral of commercial importance in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Govil; Khan, Mohd Imran; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Ashquin, Mohd; Sultana, Sarwat; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2011-02-01

    The risk of occupational exposure to dolomite, an important mineral exists both in organized as well as unorganized sectors. Toxicological profiles of bulk dolomite are meagerly known in general and its nanotoxicity in particular. Effects of micro- and nano particles on cell viability, LDH leakage and markers of oxidative stress were observed. The study indicated that cytotoxicity of dolomite nanoparticles is significantly higher than the microparticles. The study thus suggests for the prescription of exposure limit for nanodolomite in the best interest of health of workers at risk of exposure under mining, milling and industrial environment.

  2. Het belang van mineraalsuppletie voor gebit en kaak [The importance of mineral supplementation for dentition and jaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theuns, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this article the importance of mineral suppletion for teeth and jawbone is explained in a step-wise manner. The steps discussed are the pre-eruptive phase of teeth and the growth, adult and ageing phase of the skeleton. Mineral suppletion should be seen as a measure to prevent dental caries

  3. Short-Range-Order Mineral Physical Protection On Black Carbon Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, B.; Weng, Y. T.; Wang, C. C.; Song, Y. F.; Lehmann, J.; Wang, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter is one of the largest reservoirs in global carbon cycle, and black carbon (BC) represents a chemical resistant component. Black C plays an important role in global climate change. Generally considered recalcitrant due to high aromaticity, the reactive surface and functional groups of BC are crucial for carbon sequestration in soils. Mineral sorption and physical protection is an important mechanism for BC long term stabilization and sequestration in environments. Previous studies on mineral protection of BC were limited to analysis techniques in two-dimensions, for example, by SEM, TEM, and NanoSIMS. Little is known about the scope of organo-mineral association, the in-situ distribution and forms of minerals, and the ultimate interplay of BC and minerals. The aim of this study is to investigate the three-dimensional interaction of organic C and minerals in submicron scale using synchrotron-based Transmission X-ray Microcopy (TXM) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Abundant poorly-crystallined nano-minerals particles were observed. These short-range-order (SRO) minerals also aggregate into clusters and sheets, and form envelops-like structures on the surface of BC. On top of large surface contact area, the intimate interplay between BC and minerals reinforces the stability of both organic C and minerals, resulting from chemical bonding through cation bridging and ligand exchange. The mineral protection enhances BC stabilization and sequestration and lowers its bioavailability in environment. The results suggest that mineral physical protection for BC sequestration may be more important than previous understanding.

  4. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Define rules for the exporter and importer of minerals or ores containing nuclear elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The present resolution establishes regulations for the exporter of minerals or ores containing associated nuclear elements, and for the importer of chemical compounds of technical purity grade, containing a quantity of fissile of fertile materials equal to the existent in the exported material

  6. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  7. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH 3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH 2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  8. An Na+/H+ antiporter gene from wheat plays an important role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    might play an important role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance in plant cells. [Yu J N, Huang J, ..... of TaNHX2 might be related to salt tolerance in wheat. TaNHX2 might also ... This work was supported by National Basic Research Project.

  9. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  10. Effect of water content nitrogen gross mineralization and immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla C, Ximena; Parada, Ana Maria; Nario M, Adriana; Pino N, Ines; Hood, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the accompanying mineralization and immobilization of inorganic N, are key processes in the soil plant cycle. It is hypothesized that moisture regime may also play an important role on these processes. Two laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on gross mineralization and immobilization of N, in and Ultisol soil, which was incubated at 25 o C, under two moisture regimes, field capacity (CC) (40% w/w) and 85% of field capacity (34% w/w): Using mirror image 15 N isotope dilution techniques, it was possible to determine gross nitrification and mineralization rates. The rates of gross mineralization and nitrification rate in this soil was extremely rapid and efficient, specially with 85% CC. The N transformations varied with moisture regime (author)

  11. MOTHER-CHILD AND FATHER-CHILD PLAY INTERACTION: THE IMPORTANCE OF PARENTAL PLAYFULNESS AS A MODERATOR OF THE LINKS BETWEEN PARENTAL BEHAVIOR AND CHILD NEGATIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe-Grinberg, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2017-11-01

    Based on the premise that father-child play is an important context for children's development and that fathers "specialize" in play, similarities and differences in the role of playfulness in the father-child and mother-child relationship were examined. Participants in this study included 111 families (children's age: 1-3 years). Father-child and mother-child play interactions were videotaped and coded for parental playfulness, sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness as well as child negativity. Results indicated that mothers and fathers did not differ in playfulness and that mothers and fathers who were higher in playfulness had children with lower levels of negativity. However, playfulness differently moderated the links between parents' and children's behaviors for mothers and fathers. A double-risk pattern was found for mothers, such that the links between child negativity and maternal sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness were significant only for the subgroup of mothers with low levels of playfulness. When mothers had high levels of playfulness, these effects were negligible. For fathers, a double-buffer pattern was revealed, indicating that the links between child negativity and paternal sensitivity and structuring were significant only for fathers with high levels of playfulness. When fathers had low levels of playfulness, these effects were negligible. These findings demonstrate the important role that parental playfulness has on parent-child interaction as well as the need to examine moderation patterns separately for fathers and mothers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. Mineral distributions at the developing tendon enthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrea G; Pasteris, Jill D; Genin, Guy M; Daulton, Tyrone L; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, "the enthesis". A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A zone (∼20 µm) exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked to endochondral

  13. DREAM plays an important role in platelet activation and thrombogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungho; Tseng, Alan; Barazia, Andrew; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, is known to modulate pain responses. However, it is unknown whether DREAM is expressed in anucleate platelets and plays a role in thrombogenesis. By using intravital microscopy with DREAM-null mice and their bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell DREAMs are required for platelet thrombus formation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. In a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) control and nonhematopoietic DREAM knockout (KO) mice, DREAM KO control and hematopoietic DREAM KO mice showed a significant delay in time to occlusion. Tail bleeding time was prolonged in DREAM KO control mice, but not in WT or DREAM bone marrow chimeric mice. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments further indicated the importance of platelet DREAM in thrombogenesis. We found that DREAM deletion does not alter the ultrastructural features of platelets but significantly impairs platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by numerous agonists (collagen-related peptide, adenosine 5′-diphosphate, A23187, thrombin, or U46619). Biochemical studies revealed that platelet DREAM positively regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity during platelet activation. Using DREAM-null platelets and PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors, we observed that platelet DREAM is important for α-granule secretion, Ca2+ mobilization, and aggregation through PI3K class Iβ (PI3K-Iβ). Genetic and pharmacological studies in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells showed that DREAM is important for A23187-induced Ca2+ mobilization and its regulatory function requires Ca2+ binding and PI3K-Iβ activation. These results suggest that platelet DREAM regulates PI3K-Iβ activity and plays an important role during thrombus formation. PMID:27903531

  14. Decreased bone tissue mineralization can partly explain subchondral sclerosis observed in osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, L.G.E.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Rietbergen, van B.; Emans, P.J.; Ito, K.

    2012-01-01

    For many years, pharmaceutical therapies for osteoarthritis (OA) were focused on cartilage. However, it has been theorized that bone changes such as increased bone volume fraction and decreased bone matrix mineralization may play an important role in the initiation and pathogenesis of OA as well.

  15. NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Jing; Chen, Huacong; Wang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is an apically expressed membrane protein in the intestinal epithelial cells. It plays important roles in sodium absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine. Although NHE8 mRNA has been detected in the stomach, the precise location and physiological role of NHE8 in the gastric glands remain unclear. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the glandular region of the stomach by Western blotting and located NHE8 protein at the apical membrane in the surface mucous cells by a confocal microscopic method. We also identified the expression of downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) in the surface mucous cells in the stomach. Using NHE8−/− mice, we found that NHE8 plays little or no role in basal gastric acid production, yet NHE8−/− mice have reduced gastric mucosal surface pH and higher incidence of developing gastric ulcer. DRA expression was reduced significantly in the stomach in NHE8−/− mice. The propensity for gastric ulcer, reduced mucosal surface pH, and low DRA expression suggest that NHE8 is indirectly involved in gastric bicarbonate secretion and gastric mucosal protection. PMID:23220221

  16. International mineral economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)

  17. 76 FR 34656 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Geological and Geophysical Exploration of Mineral and Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Geological and Geophysical Exploration of Mineral and Energy Resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... revised application from the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), Bureau of Ocean Energy Management...

  18. Globally sourced mineral commodities used in U.S. Navy SEAL gear—An illustration of U.S. net import reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Jamie; Nassar, Nedal T.; Gambogi, Joseph; Baker, Michael S.; Jarvis, Michael T.

    2018-01-25

    A U.S. Navy SEAL (an acronym for sea, air, land) carries gear containing at least 23 nonfuel mineral commodities for which the United States is greater than 50 percent net import reliant. The graphics display the leading world producers of selected nonfuel mineral commodities used to manufacture U.S. Navy SEAL gear. SEALs are members of the U.S. Navy's special operations forces.

  19. Importance of vitamin and mineral supplementation in HIV/AIDS patients to improve their nutritional and immunological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguntibeju, O.O.; Schalkwyk, F.V; Heever, WMJ. V.den.; Veldman, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrition intervention aimed at preventing or reversing weight loss and wasting in HIV infection may help to improve quality of life and prolong survival. Micronutrient supplementation may help to strengthen the immune system and reduce the severity and impact of opportunistic infections in people living with HIV / AIDS. HIV contributes to malnutrition for physiological reasons related to the infection itself. HIV /AIDS, being a disease of the immune system, new strategies, including specific dietary nutrients (nutrient supplementation) to improve immune functions, quality of life and prolong survival in infected individuals, could provide additional/alternative approaches for therapeutic treatment in HIV infected subjects. Several vitamins and minerals are important in fighting HIV infection and its resultant effects, hence nutritional supplementation has been advocated. This review focuses on the importance of vitamin/mineral supplementation in HIV / AIDS subjects. (author)

  20. Impact of mining on the female community: a perspective of female miners in the Indian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrinal K. Ghose [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Centre of Mining Environment

    2004-12-01

    India ranks among the top ten mineral producing nations in the world. This paper investigates mineral production and focuses on the total value of minerals produced in the country. However, mining is seen as one of the most 'masculine' of industries and it is believed that women play an insignificant role in it. The paper examines the employment and social perspectives of women in the mineral industry and overviews the Indian Mines Act for providing employment to female miners. It also investigates the employment of women in coal, lignite and metalliferous mines and discusses the impact of mining in the female community. The study reveals that women take part in mining in non-traditional activities and there is a tendency to conceal the fact that women comprise an important part of the work force. The paper highlights the socioeconomic characteristics of women as miners and on the productive roles they play in mining. It also reviews the prospect of female miners with more involvement in the industry and concludes that women's work in mines needs to be valued and enhanced. The paper suggests certain ways that this can be achieved, such as providing training, leading to ability-building, skill enhancement and improved safety in mines.

  1. Interactions Between Snow-Adapted Organisms, Minerals and Snow in a Mars-Analog Environment, and Implications for the Possible Formation of Mineral Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausrath, E.; Bartlett, C. L.; Garcia, A. H.; Tschauner, O. D.; Murray, A. E.; Raymond, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that icy environments on bodies such as Mars, Europa, and Enceladus may be important potential habitats in our solar system. Life in icy environments faces many challenges, including water limitation, temperature extremes, and nutrient limitation. Understanding how life has adapted to withstand these challenges on Earth may help understand potential life on other icy worlds, and understanding the interactions of such life with minerals may help shed light on the detection of possible mineral biosignatures. Snow environments, being particularly nutrient limited, may require specific adaptations by the microbiota living there. Previous observations have suggested that associated minerals and microorganisms play an important role in snow algae micronutrient acquisition. Here, in order to interpret micronutrient uptake by snow algae, and potential formation of mineral biosignatures, we present observations of interactions between snow algae and associated microorganisms and minerals in both natural, Mars-analog environments, and laboratory experiments. Samples of snow, dust, snow algae, and microorganisms were collected from Mount Anderson Ridge, CA. Some samples were DAPI-stained and analyzed by epifluorescent microscopy, and others were freeze-dried and examined by scanning electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Xenic cultures of the snow alga Chloromonas brevispina were also grown under Fe-limiting conditions with and without the Fe-containing mineral nontronite to determine impacts of the mineral on algal growth. Observations from epifluorescent microscopy show bacteria closely associated with the snow algae, consistent with a potential role in micronutrient acquisition. Particles are also present on the algal cell walls, and synchrotron-XRD and XRF observations indicate that they are Fe-rich, and may therefore be a micronutrient source. Laboratory experiments indicated

  2. Anisotropic surface chemistry properties and adsorption behavior of silicate mineral crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Longhua; Tian, Jia; Wu, Houqin; Fang, Shuai; Lu, Zhongyuan; Ma, Caifeng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua

    2018-03-07

    Anisotropic surface properties of minerals play an important role in a variety of fields. With a focus on the two most intensively investigated silicate minerals (i.e., phyllosilicate minerals and pegmatite aluminosilicate minerals), this review highlights the research on their anisotropic surface properties based on their crystal structures. Four surface features comprise the anisotropic surface chemistry of minerals: broken bonds, energy, wettability, and charge. Analysis of surface broken bond and energy anisotropy helps to explain the cleavage and growth properties of mineral crystals, and understanding surface wettability and charge anisotropy is critical to the analysis of minerals' solution behavior, such as their flotation performance and rheological properties. In a specific reaction, the anisotropic surface properties of minerals are reflected in the adsorption strengths of reagents on different mineral surfaces. Combined with the knowledge of mineral crushing and grinding, a thorough understanding of the anisotropic surface chemistry properties and the anisotropic adsorption behavior of minerals will lead to the development of effective relational models comprising their crystal structure, surface chemistry properties, and targeted reagent adsorption. Overall, such a comprehensive approach is expected to firmly establish the connection between selective cleavage of mineral crystals for desired surfaces and designing novel reagents selectively adsorbed on the mineral surfaces. As tools to characterize the anisotropic surface chemistry properties of minerals, DLVO theory, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are also reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The geology of uranium mineralization at Mika, N.E. Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funtua, I.I.; Okujeni, C.P.; Elegba, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium mineralization at Mike is located near Zing in Taraba State, N.E., Nigeria. The host rock consist of a sheared Pan-African medium-grained granite which is in places intruded by rhyolite and siliceous veins. Numerous joints, faults and fractures criss-cut the area. Some of the fractures are filled with secondary quartz. The ore occurs in two parallel N-S trending shear Zones with the western limb hosting a rhyolite body. Drill section reveals a subsurface extension of the mineralization. In the upper limb, mineralization consisting of metal autunite and coffinite occurs associated with the rhyolite body. In lower ore limb meta-autunite, coffinite and pitchblende occur along a set of two parallel shear surface. The pitchblende occurs massive and as vein lets in association with sulphides. The ore body is marked by distinct hydrothermal alteration zones which feature sericitization, silicification, hematization and kaolination. Reactivated regional structures of NE-SW and the N140oE and N170E played an important role in the formation of Mika mineralization. These acted as channel and as mechanical barrier for the mineralization fluid. The bimodal magmatism of the Burashika group is postulated to be related to the process of mineralization in view of the ubiquitous rhyolite in the mineralized bodies

  4. Maghemite Formation via Organics and the Prospect for Maghemite as a Biomarker Mineral on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice; Mancinelli, R. L.; Madsen, M. B.; Zent, A. P.

    2000-01-01

    One of the major questions on Mars is the origin of the magnetic component in the surface material. Our work on maghemite formation suggests that alteration of femhydrite in the presence of organics would provide a plausible formation scenario for this magnetic soil component and further suggests that maghemite might be an important biomarker mineral on Mars. Identification of biomarker minerals is an important aspect of Astrobiology . The iron oxide mineral maghemite is thought to be one of the magnetic components in the Martian surface material; however, it is a rare mineral on the Earth and requires a reducing agent for synthesis. Organic material serves as a reductant in maghemite formation during forest fires on Earth and may play an important role in maghemite formation on Mars through low-temperature heating (e.g., volcanism, impacts). This study involves analysis of magnetite, maghemite and hematite formation under Martian environmental conditions from femhydrite in the presence and absence of organics. A dehydrated version of the mineral femhydrite is thought to be present in Martian soil/dust grains and could have formed at an earlier time on Mars when water was present. Our work indicates that low-temperature alteration of femhydrite in the presence of organic material could be an important mechanism on Mars.

  5. Information Extraction and Interpretation Analysis of Mineral Potential Targets Based on ETM+ Data and GIS technology: A Case Study of Copper and Gold Mineralization in Burma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenhui, Du; Yongqing, Chen; Nana, Guo; Yinglong, Hao; Pengfei, Zhao; Gongwen, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Mineralization-alteration and structure information extraction plays important roles in mineral resource prospecting and assessment using remote sensing data and the Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. Choosing copper and gold mines in Burma as example, the authors adopt band ratio, threshold segmentation and principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the hydroxyl alteration information using ETM+ remote sensing images. Digital elevation model (DEM) (30m spatial resolution) and ETM+ data was used to extract linear and circular faults that are associated with copper and gold mineralization. Combining geological data and the above information, the weights of evidence method and the C-A fractal model was used to integrate and identify the ore-forming favourable zones in this area. Research results show that the high grade potential targets are located with the known copper and gold deposits, and the integrated information can be used to the next exploration for the mineral resource decision-making

  6. Biological role in the transformation of platinum-group mineral grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Frank; Zammit, Carla M.; Shar, Sahar S.; Etschmann, Barbara; Bottrill, Ralph; Southam, Gordon; Ta, Christine; Kilburn, Matthew; Oberthür, Thomas; Ball, Andrew S.; Brugger, Joël

    2016-04-01

    Platinum-group elements are strategically important metals. Finding new deposits is becoming increasingly difficult owing to our limited understanding of the processes that affect their mobility in surface environments. Microorganisms have been shown to promote the mobility of metals around ore deposits. Here we show that microorganisms influence the mobility of platinum-group elements in mineral grains collected from Brazil, Australia and Colombia. Scanning electron microscopy showed biofilms covering the platinum-group mineral grains. The biofilms contained abundant platinum-group element nanoparticles and microcrystalline aggregates, and were dominated by Proteobacteria, many of which were closely related to known metal-resistant species. Some platinum-group mineral grains contained carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, selenium and iodine, suggesting the grains may be biogenic in origin. Molecular analyses show that Brazilian platinum-palladium grains hosted specific bacterial communities, which were different in composition from communities associated with gold grains, or communities in surrounding soils and sediments. Nano-phase metallic platinum accumulated when a metallophillic bacterium was incubated with a percolating platinum-containing medium, suggesting that biofilms can cause the precipitation of mobile platinum complexes. We conclude that biofilms are capable of forming or transforming platinum-group mineral grains, and may play an important role for platinum-group element dispersion and re-concentration in surface environments.

  7. Regulation of Soluble Phosphate on the Ability of Phytate Mineralization and β-Propeller Phytase Gene Expression of Pseudomonas fluorescens JZ-DZ1, a Phytate-Mineralizing Rhizobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lan; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Zeng, Qing-Wei; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2016-12-01

    Phytate-mineralizing rhizobacteria (PMR) play an important role in providing phosphorus for the sustainable plant growth. It is important to investigate the ability of PMR to produce phytase under different phosphate levels for its application. The effects of different concentrations of soluble phosphate on the ability of phytate mineralization of Pseudomonas fluorescens JZ-DZ1, a phytate-mineralizing rhizobacterium, were investigated in both solid and liquid media. The results on solid media showed that halo zone width gradually reduced with concentrations of soluble phosphate increasing from 0.05 to 20 mM, indicating the reduction of the ability of phytate mineralization. The results were consistent with the quantitative detection of phytase activity from the overall trend. An 1866-bp β-propeller phytase (BPP) gene (phyPf) was cloned from the strain, and the deduced amino acid sequence of phyPf shared 98 % of identity with a known BPP from Pseudomonas sp. BS10-3 (AJF36073.1). The results of relative real-time quantitative PCR assay showed that the expression of phyPf was induced by a low concentration (0.1 mM) of soluble phosphate, suggesting that BPP secretion was regulated by gene phyPf. The BPP-harboring bacterium P. fluorescens JZ-DZ1 with low phosphate-inducible ability of phytate mineralization could be potentially applied to promote phosphorus uptake for plants in the future.

  8. Natural nanoparticles in soils and their role in organic-mineral interactions and cooloid-facilitated transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, I.C.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral nanoparticles are naturally present in the soil and play an important role in several soil processes. This thesis uses a combination of novel analytical techniques, among which Field-Flow-Fractionation, to study nanoparticles in soil and water samples. The results show that nanoparticles

  9. Spectroscopic Evidence of the Improvement of Reactive Iron Mineral Content in Red Soil by Long-Term Application of Swine Manure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichao Huang

    Full Text Available Mineral elements in soil solutions are thought to be the precursor of the formation of reactive minerals, which play an important role in global carbon (C cycling. However, information regarding the regulation of mineral elements release in soil is scarce. Here, we examined the long-term (i.e., 23 yrs effects of fertilisation practices on Fe minerals in a red soil in Southern China. The results from chemical analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that long-term swine manure (M treatment released greater amounts of minerals into soil solutions than chemical fertilisers (NPK treatment, and Fe played a dominant role in the preservation of dissolved organic C. Furthermore, Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure spectroscopy demonstrated that reactive Fe minerals were mainly composed of less crystalline ferrihydrite in the M-treated soil and more crystalline goethite in the NPK-treated soil. In conclusion, this study reported spectroscopic evidence of the improvement of reactive Femineral content in the M-treated soil colloids when compared to NPK-treated soil colloids.

  10. Creation of the Project of a Logistic System for Transportation of Minerals - Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marasova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the possibilities how to maintain the competitiveness of mining and processing undertakings on the minerals market is to increase the efficiency of the minerals recovery and processing process with the focus on the operating costs reduction. Intra-plant transportation plays an important role in this process. Optimization of minerals transportation and implementation of the logistic approach can result in significant saving of operating costs pertaining to the recovered number of valuable mineral. The article presents a logistic approach to the belt conveyor system designing, proposes possible modifications of selected parameters of belt conveyors in a particular processing plant, and monitors their impact on the improvement of operating, but mainly economic parameters of transportation of clay and limestone, while maintaining the required transportation capacity.

  11. On play and playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Dusko

    2013-12-01

    The paper offers a review of the development of the concept of play and playing. The true beginnings of the development of the theories of play are set as late as in the 19th century. It is difficult to define play as such; it may much more easily be defined through its antipode--work. In the beginning, play used to be connected with education; it was not before Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget's developmental psychology that the importance of play in a child's development began to be explained in more detail. The paper further tackles the role of play in the adult age. Detailed attention is paid to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic authors, in particular D. W. Winnicott and his understanding of playing in the intermediary (transitional) empirical or experiential space. In other words, playing occupies a space and time of its own. The neuroscientific concept of playing is also tackled, in the connection with development as well.

  12. Increasing strategic role for SA's minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The strategic importance of South Africa's vast mineral resources has been strongly underlined by the Minister of Defence, Mr P.W. Botha. It was pointed out that South Africa ranked among the world's five biggest suppliers of nonfuel minerals and that she has demonstrated her potential as the West's most important source of minerals and strategic raw materials. South Africa therefore exercise a very important stabilising influence on the supply and prices of critical, strategic minerals and raw materials, regarded as of the greatest importance to the Western economy

  13. The mineralization and mechanism of the endogenetic mineral deposit in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    In the process of mineralization, due to the difference in rank, scale and order of structures orebody, mine colomn or rich ore bag are often produced in the specific structural parts. Obviously, it is controlled by favourite structure. The important and direct control of the structure to metal endogenetic mineralization evolution are representative on the affect of pulse action of structure to the multi-stage of mineralization evolution. According to the formation environment of the mineralization, it can be classified as collision orogeny mineralization, release(extension)mineralization, slide draw-division basin mineralization and shear zone extension mineralization. Throng the discuss of endogenetic deposit in the geological evolution, structure and formation machenism, the metallogenic model was preliminary established,and the criteria for delineating favourable metallogenic area was identified. (authors)

  14. Sintering mantle mineral aggregates with submicron grains: examples of olivine and clinopyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, Y.; Ishikawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Physical property of the major mantle minerals play an important role in the dynamic behavior of the Earth's mantle. Recently, it has been found that nano- to sub-micron scale frictional processes might control faulting processes and earthquake instability, and ultrafine-grained mineral aggregates thus have attracted the growing interest. Here we investigated a method for preparing polycrystalline clinoyproxene and polycrystalline olivine with grain size of sub-micron scale from natural crystals, two main constituents of the upper mantle. Nano-sized powders of both minerals are sintered under argon flow at temperatures ranging from 1130-1350 °C for 0.5-20 h. After sintering at 1180 °C and 1300 °C, we successfully fabricated polycrystalline clinopyroxene and polycrystalline olivine with grain size of physical properties of Earth's mantle.

  15. 78 FR 77771 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Love and Play: A Pair of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8571] Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Love and Play: A Pair of Paintings by Fragonard-- Toledo Museum of Art and Thyssen-Bornemisza... the exhibition ``Love and Play: A Pair of Paintings by Fragonard--Toledo Museum of Art and Thyssen...

  16. Mineral absorption in relation to nutritional ecology of reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Staaland

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the way which absorption of minerals relate to nutritional ecology and mineral conservation processes. A latin square designed experiment was used to assess the effects of diet on mineral (Ca, Mg, K, Na absorption processes in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.. Three male calves were fed 3 different diets: concentrate with 25% grass meal (RF-71, lichens, and a mixed diet of lichens and RF-71. Two other male calves were fed the lichen or mixed diet, supplemented with 4 g Ca/day. Ca supplementation significantly increased fecal Ca excretion, reduced the excretion of K and Mg, but had no significant effect on Na excretion. Rates of intake and fecal exretion of Ca, Mg and K were highly correlated (P<0.001, while no correlations were found for Na. Negative digestibilities of Ca, Mg and K, and a positive Na digestibility were noted for the lichen diet. For the other diets, all minerals were in positive digestibility, and Ca supplements increased the digestibility of all minerals. Digesta from different sections of the alimentary tract were collected after termination of the experiment. Alimentary pools of Ca and K were equal for animals fed lichen or RF-71, whereas the Na pool was largest on the lichen diet and the Mg pool largest on the RF-71 diet. Rumen turnover time (rumen mineral pool size/daily mineral intake was consistently less than 3 days for Ca and Mg, but was 22 and 82 days for Na on the RF-71 and lichen diets respectively. Estimates of mineral exchange in various parts of the tract showed that the intestines play and important role in scavanging endogenously secreted minerals. Results are discussed with respect to mineral binding by lichens and the possible role of natural mineral supplements in the nutritional ecology of reindeer.

  17. Behaviour of the Egyptian beach economic minerals during their electrical separation in relation to their electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazback, A.E.; Soliman, F.A.S.

    1988-01-01

    The most important and strategic minerals in the Egyptian beach sands are monazite, zircon, rutile and ilmenite. Due to their importance, several flowsheets were designed for their separation economically. Electrostatic separation plays an important role in most of these flowsheets depending on the main differences between them concerning their electrical conductivity. This paper describes the design of a cell for the measurement of the electrical conductivities of these minerals. It also establishes a quantitative relationship between the electrical conductivity and the behaviour of these minerals during their electrical separation. A computer program was written to facilitate the calculation of the slope of the discharge curve from which the electrical conductivity or the reciprocal resistivity. Relaxation time and the data correlation coefficient for the tested minerals are obtained. For all the tests performed, the correlation coefficient value was found to be better than 99%. In general the electrical conductivity was shown to be a function of both temperature and grain size. It was found also that the presence of iron staining on the surface of monazite grains and inclusions in the zircon grains alters noticeably the bulk conductivity of the tested minerals

  18. Designing Out the Play: Accessibility and Playfulness in Inclusive Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Raymond; Beckett, Angharad

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important part of child development, yet disabled children are often excluded from the opportunity to play, either due to lack of accessible toys and games, or social pressures. This paper presents a case study reflecting on the development of Button Bash: a switch accessible game intended to encourage inclusive play between disabled and non-disabled children. In particular, the paper focuses on how changes intended to make the game more accessible tended to make it less playful, and reflects on the relationship between playfulness and accessibility.

  19. Setting a good example: Regenerative energies play an important role in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rave, K.

    1995-01-01

    In Schleswig-Holstein the use of regenerative energies is supported more than in any other Land of Germany. Due to the fact that large regions of the Land are situated in strong breeze zones, wind power plays the most important role. Almost 50% of the overall German wind current is gained in Schleswig-Holstein. Furthermore solar energy and water power are also used directly. (orig.) [de

  20. Continuous miner and friction bolts play key roles in Highland's move underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.J.; Jackson, D.

    1977-01-01

    Exxon has added underground mining operations to the open pits at its Highland uranium mine and mill complex 60 mi northeast of Casper in the Powder River Basin and has, in the process, adopted some innovative mining techniques. A continuous shield miner is being used in conjunction with continuous ground support--thought to be the first truly successful combination of these techniques in a US uranium mine. Highland miners are also making extensive use of ''Split Sets,'' a patented friction rock bolt system invented in 1973, which has proven to be a successful cost-saving substitute for timber supports in Highland's soft, water-saturated, extremely unstable sediments. Initial mine production at Highland began in July 1972, and the mill started up the following October. Design capacity at startup was 2,000 tpd, a figure that has since been expanded to 3,000 tpd through mill modifications but without a major construction program. Current production is about 2 million lb per year of U 3 O 8

  1. Progress in the study of multivitamins and minerals nutritional supplements for troops stationed in high altitude regions

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-qiang ZHONG; Ying LU

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are products intended to supplement and improve the diet, and they contain one or more dietary ingredients (including vitamins, minerals herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, protein and other substances) or their constituents. Supplement of vitamins and trace elements play an important role in the nutritional supplements. Supplements play a direct role in health by filling the nutritional gap and preventing diseases caused by nutritional deficiencies, especially for...

  2. The Economic Importance of Mineral Production in Iran, Pakistan and Turkey in View of Co-operation in Mineral Exports and Interregional Trade*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Doğan

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of co-operation are discussed regarding exports of mineral commodities, namely, chromite and marble which are produced by the three regional countries.  In order to improve the opportunities for the regional trade among Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, the following minerals can offer potentialities: coking coal, sulphur, barite, bentonite, magnesite, lead and zinc ores and boron minerals, which are in short supply in one country and abundant in another.

  3. Synchrotron X-ray Investigations of Mineral-Microbe-Metal Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemner, Kenneth M.; O'Loughlin, Edward J.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between microbes and minerals can play an important role in metal transformations (i.e. changes to an element's valence state, coordination chemistry, or both), which can ultimately affect that element's mobility. Mineralogy affects microbial metabolism and ecology in a system; microbes, in turn, can affect the system's mineralogy. Increasingly, synchrotron-based X-ray experiments are in routine use for determining an element's valence state and coordination chemistry, as well as for examining the role of microbes in metal transformations.

  4. Radioactive mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1948-01-01

    This publication was designed as a guide for uranium and thorium prospectors in Australia. Physical properties, such as color, streak, luster, hardness, fracture, and specific gravity of the uranium and thorium-bearing minerals are summarized and the various methods suitable for detecting radioactivity in minerals are described. Two colored plates show samples of pitchblende (uraninite), autunite, carnotite, monazite, and others of the most important minerals sources of uranium and thorium.

  5. Using ASD data to identify the altered minerals for exploring of gold deposit in the Beishan area, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, G. L.; Yi, H.; Yang, M.; Liang, N.; Li, J. Q.; Yang, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    Hyperspectral information of altered minerals plays an important role in the identifications of mineralized zones. In this study, the altered minerals of two gold deposits from Fangshankou-Laojinchang regions of Beishan metallogenic belt were measured by ASD field Spectrometer. Many gold deposits would have a close relationship with Variscan magma intrusion, which have been found in study region. The alteration minerals have been divided six types by the spectral results, i.e. sericite, limonite, dolomite, chlorite, epidote and calcite. The distribution characteristics and formations of altered minerals were discussed here. By the ASD, the spectral curve of different geological units in the Jintanzi and Fangshankou gold deposits were analysed and summarized. The results show that the sericite and limonite are mainly related with the gold mineralization and widely occurred in the gold deposits. Therefore, we proposed that the sericite and limonite are the iconic alteration mineral assemblages for gold mineralization and the models of altered minerals for gold deposits could be established in this region.

  6. Importance of Night Dreams in Ibsen's Plays A Psychoanalytic study of The Vikings of Helgeland and Little Eyolf

    OpenAIRE

    Bardzimashvili, Nino

    2014-01-01

    The topic for my thesis is the importance of night dreams in Henrik Ibsen's plays. My study of the subject is based on two plays, The Vikings of Helgeland and Little Eyolf. The first one is a historical play written in 1857 and is usually discussed in relationship with nationalism and the political events in 19th century Norway. The second one is known as a "family romance" and was written in 1894. These two plays represent different periods of Henrik Ibsen's writing and hence it is...

  7. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  8. Role of Mineral Deposits in Global Geochemical Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Wilkinson, B.

    2009-12-01

    Mineral deposits represent the most extreme degree of natural concentration for most elements and their formation and destruction are important parts of global geochemical cycles. Quantitative estimates of the role that mineral deposits play in these geochemical cycles has been limited, however, by the lack of information on actual amounts of elements that are concentrated in these deposits, and their rates of formation and destruction at geologic time scales. Recent use of a “tectonic diffusion” model for porphyry copper deposits, the most important source of world copper, in conjunction with estimates of their copper content (Kesler and Wilkinson, 2008), allows an assessment of the role of copper deposits in Earth’s global copper cycles. These results indicate that ~4.5*10^8 Gg of Cu have been concentrated in porphyry copper deposits through Phanerozoic time, that deposits containing ~2.8*10^8 Gg of Cu have been removed by uplift and erosion over the same time period, and that deposits containing ~1.7*10^8 Gg remain in Earth’s crust. If styles of formation and destruction of other copper-bearing mineral deposits are similar, then all crustal deposits contain ~3*10^8 Gg of copper. This constitutes about 0.03% of the copper that resides in crustal rocks and provides a first-ever estimate of the rate at which natural geochemical cycles produce the extreme concentrations that constitute mineral deposits. Another ~8*10^8 Gg of copper have been destroyed during the uplift and erosion of mineral deposits over Phanerozoic time, a flux amounting to an annual contribution of about 1.5 Gg of copper to the near-surface environment. This amount is similar in magnitude to copper released by volcanic outgassing, but only ~2.5% of the 56 Gg of copper estimated to be released annually by weathering of average crustal rocks (Rauch and Graedel, 2007). The amount of copper removed from mineral deposits by mining, 1.1*10^4 Gg/year, is much larger than any natural

  9. Study on the behavior of naturally occurring radioactivity originated from heavy minerals in weathering process of granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, M.; Nakashima, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Mass fraction of biotite and of heavy minerals originally in granite rocks at Naegi granite area are 3% and 1 x 10 -4 %, respectively. Though their values are very small, specific activities of 238 U is 1.3 Bq/g and 80 Bq/g, respectively. Their values are much higher than that of gross granite (0.1 Bq/g). Therefore, they play important roles in the weathering process. Authors separated biotite and heavy minerals from less-weathered and weathered (outcrop, plastic materials) granite samples by using heavy liquid, and determined each specific activities and activity ratios. Furthermore, the surface of heavy minerals were washed in 6 N HCl for 20 minutes. And lost fraction of activity in the heavy minerals was determined. The result suggested that activity around heavy mineral's surface was removed into surroundings or external environment through weathering process. (5 figs.)

  10. The Importance of Free Play in the Early Childhood Classroom: Perspectives from a Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Teaching is hard. It's the most rewarding, fulfilling job in the world, but it's also frustrating, infuriating, and really, really hard. In this article, the author reflects on the importance of free play in early childhood classrooms. If teachers want to create happy children who love learning, forcing them to sit at desks or tables through early…

  11. The seabed - an important mineral resource of Slovakia in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blišťan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1987, Slovakia bought part of the ocean bottom with the occurrence of mineral resources future - polymetallic nodules. The polymetallic nodule is a geological term for naming natural features consisting of more than 40 metals and other chemical elements. These special services originated in the ocean for two to three million years and nowadays, they are of main interest for countries whose mineral wealth is little or no available. Nodules contain about 30 % manganese, 1.2 % copper, 1.2 % nickel, 0.2 % cobalt, rare earth elements, etc. The existence of submarine nodules was found by the British ship HMS "Challenger" by oceanographic research in 1872 - 1876. Research and the subsequent mining of nodules were particularly points of interest for Western countries as well as the USSR. Rules for the use of mineral resources of the seabed beyond the limits of national jurisdiction were codified in the Convention on the Law of 1982, which came into force on 16.11.1994, and in the Slovakia on 21.7.1996. The seabed is one of the international space next to the high seas, Antarctica, outer space and celestial bodies, which are not subject to the sovereignty of any state authority.

  12. Importance and possibilities of secondary cycles (recycling), substitution and innovation in mineral raw and primary material supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Part 1-4 of the series ''The basis of raw materials supply'' is intended to bring about a better understanding of the ''Concept for the supply of Austria with mineral raw- and primary materials''. Part 3 deals with recovery of raw material from old- and waste material as an important contribution to an extension of the supply's basis and to an improvement of raw material utilization.

  13. The effect of water content on gross mineralization and immobilization of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla C, Ximena; Parada C, Ana Maria; Nario M, Adriana; Pino N, Ines; Hood, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the accompanying mineralization and immobilization of inorganic N, are key processes in the soil-plant N cycle. It is hypothesised that moisture regime may also play an important role on this processes of soils. Two laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on gross mineralization, nitrification and immobilization, in a Ultisol soil, was incubated at 25 a C, under two moisture regime, field capacity (40%w/w) and 85% of field capacity (34%w/w). Using mirror image 15N isotope dilution techniques it was possible to determine that both gross nitrification and mineralization rates were greater with 85%FC, the direct nitrification rates in this soil was extremely rapid and efficient, specially with 85%FC. The immobilization and the amount of the microbial biomass N in the soil was greater with FC. The N transformations varied with moisture regime (author)

  14. Chemical changes of minerals trapped in the lichen Trapelia involuta. Implication for lichen effect on mobility of uranium and toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasama, Takeshi; Murakami, Takashi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    2002-01-01

    To elucidate development of minerals trapped in a lichen, we examined the lichen Trapelia involuta growing directly on secondary uranyl minerals and U-enriched Fe oxide and hydroxide minerals. Sericite and other minerals in the underlying rock are trapped in the lichen T. involuta during its biological growth and chemically changed by lichen activities. The presence of chemically changed sericite accompanied by an Fe-bearing mineral in the lichen suggests that dissolution of sericite is promoted mainly by polysaccharides excreted by the lichen. Oxalic acid or lichen acids absent in the medulla may not play an important role in the dissolution. Our results suggest that lichens on metal-rich surface affect the mobility of uranium and other toxic metals through dissolution followed by trap of minerals from the underlying rock. (author)

  15. New Insights into the Role of Pb-BHA Complexes in the Flotation of Tungsten Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tong; Han, Haisheng; Hu, Yuehua; Sun, Wei; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Runqing; Gao, Zhiyong; Wang, Li; Chen, Pan; Zhang, Chenyang; Tian, Mengjie

    2017-11-01

    Lead ions (lead nitrate) were introduced to modify the surface properties of tungsten minerals, effectively improving the floatability, with benzohydroxamic acid (BHA) serving as the collector. Flotation tests indicated that Pb-BHA complexes were the active species responsible for flotation of the tungsten minerals. The developed Pb-BHA complexes and the novel flotation process effectively increased the recovery of scheelite and wolframite, simplified the technological process, and led to reduced costs. Fourier transform infrared spectra data showed the presence of adsorbed Pb-BHA complexes on the surface of the minerals. The characteristic peaks of BHA shifted by a considerable extent, indicating that chemical adsorption plays an important role in the flotation process. Zeta potential results confirmed physical adsorption of the positively charged Pb-BHA complexes on the mineral surfaces. The synergistic effect between chemical and physical adsorption facilitated the maximum flotation recovery of scheelite and wolframite.

  16. Oxalate secretion by ectomycorrhizal Paxillus involutus is mineral-specific and controls calcium weathering from minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalenberger, A.; Duran, A. L.; Bray, A. W.; Bridge, J.; Bonneville, S.; Benning, L. G.; Romero-Gonzalez, M. E.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Trees and their associated rhizosphere organisms play a major role in mineral weathering driving calcium fluxes from the continents to the oceans that ultimately control long-term atmospheric CO2 and climate through the geochemical carbon cycle. Photosynthate allocation to tree roots and their mycorrhizal fungi is hypothesized to fuel the active secretion of protons and organic chelators that enhance calcium dissolution at fungal-mineral interfaces. This was tested using 14CO2 supplied to shoots of Pinus sylvestris ectomycorrhizal with the widespread fungus Paxillus involutus in monoxenic microcosms, revealing preferential allocation by the fungus of plant photoassimilate to weather grains of limestone and silicates each with a combined calcium and magnesium content of over 10 wt.%. Hyphae had acidic surfaces and linear accumulation of weathered calcium with secreted oxalate, increasing significantly in sequence: quartz, granite mineral-specific oxalate exudation in ectomycorrhizal weathering to dissolve calcium bearing minerals, thus contributing to the geochemical carbon cycle. PMID:26197714

  17. Distribution of Clay Minerals in Light Coal Fractions and the Thermal Reaction Products of These Clay Minerals during Combustion in a Drop Tube Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sida Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the contribution of clay minerals in light coal fractions to ash deposition in furnaces, we investigated their distribution and thermal reaction products. The light fractions of two Chinese coals were prepared using a 1.5 g·cm−3 ZnCl2 solution as a density separation medium and were burned in a drop-tube furnace (DTF. The mineral matter in each of the light coal fractions was compared to that of the relevant raw coal. The DTF ash from light coal fractions was analysed using hydrochloric acid separation. The acid-soluble aluminium fractions of DTF ash samples were used to determine changes in the amorphous aluminosilicate products with increasing combustion temperature. The results show that the clay mineral contents in the mineral matter of both light coal fractions were higher than those in the respective raw coals. For the coal with a high ash melting point, clay minerals in the light coal fraction thermally transformed more dehydroxylation products compared with those in the raw coal, possibly contributing to solid-state reactions of ash particles. For the coal with a low ash melting point, clay minerals in the light coal fraction produced more easily-slagging material compared with those in the raw coal, playing an important role in the occurrence of slagging. Additionally, ferrous oxide often produces low-melting substances in coal ash. Due to the similarities of zinc oxide and ferrous oxide in silicate reactions, we also investigated the interactions of clay minerals in light coal fractions with zinc oxide introduced by a zinc chloride solution. The extraneous zinc oxide could react, to a small extent, with clay minerals in the coal during DTF combustion.

  18. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  19. Fungal biomineralization of montmorillonite and goethite to short-range-ordered minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Hu, Shuijin; Polizzotto, Matthew L.; Chang, Xiaoli; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; Yu, Guanghui

    2016-10-01

    Highly reactive nano-scale minerals, e.g., short-range-ordered minerals (SROs) and other nanoparticles, play an important role in soil carbon (C) retention. Yet, the mechanisms that govern biomineralization from bulk minerals to highly reactive nano-scale minerals remain largely unexplored, which critically hinders our efforts toward managing nano-scale minerals for soil C retention. Here we report the results from a study that explores structural changes during Aspergillus fumigatus Z5 transformation of montmorillonite and goethite to SROs. We examined the morphology and structure of nano-scale minerals, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, time-resolved solid-state 27Al and 29Si NMR, and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy combined with two dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D COS) analysis. Our results showed that after a 48-h cultivation of montmorillonite and goethite with Z5, new biogenic intracellular and extracellular reactive nano-scale minerals with a size of 3-5 nm became abundant. Analysis of 2D COS further suggested that montmorillonite and goethite were the precursors of the dominant biogenic nano-scale minerals. Carbon 1s near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra and their deconvolution results demonstrated that during fungus Z5 growth, carboxylic C (288.4-289.1 eV) was the dominant organic group, accounting for approximately 34% and 59% in the medium and aggregates, respectively. This result suggested that high percentage of the production of organic acids during the growth of Z5 was the driving factor for structural changes during biomineralization. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the structural characterization of nano-scale minerals by 2D COS, highlighting its potential to elucidate biomineralization pathways and thus identify the precursors of nano-scale minerals.

  20. Video retrieval by still-image analysis with ImageMiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyss, Jutta; Roeper, M.; Alshuth, Peter; Hermes, Thorsten; Herzog, Otthein

    1997-01-01

    The large amount of available multimedia information (e.g. videos, audio, images) requires efficient and effective annotation and retrieval methods. As videos start playing a more important role in the frame of multimedia, we want to make these available for content-based retrieval. The ImageMiner-System, which was developed at the University of Bremen in the AI group, is designed for content-based retrieval of single images by a new combination of techniques and methods from computer vision and artificial intelligence. In our approach to make videos available for retrieval in a large database of videos and images there are two necessary steps: First, the detection and extraction of shots from a video, which is done by a histogram based method and second, the construction of the separate frames in a shot to one still single images. This is performed by a mosaicing-technique. The resulting mosaiced image gives a one image visualization of the shot and can be analyzed by the ImageMiner-System. ImageMiner has been tested on several domains, (e.g. landscape images, technical drawings), which cover a wide range of applications.

  1. Multi-scale interactions of geological processes during mineralization: cascade dynamics model and multifractal simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Relations between mineralization and certain geological processes are established mostly by geologist's knowledge of field observations. However, these relations are descriptive and a quantitative model of how certain geological processes strengthen or hinder mineralization is not clear, that is to say, the mechanism of the interactions between mineralization and the geological framework has not been thoroughly studied. The dynamics behind these interactions are key in the understanding of fractal or multifractal formations caused by mineralization, among which singularities arise due to anomalous concentration of metals in narrow space. From a statistical point of view, we think that cascade dynamics play an important role in mineralization and studying them can reveal the nature of the various interactions throughout the process. We have constructed a multiplicative cascade model to simulate these dynamics. The probabilities of mineral deposit occurrences are used to represent direct results of mineralization. Multifractal simulation of probabilities of mineral potential based on our model is exemplified by a case study dealing with hydrothermal gold deposits in southern Nova Scotia, Canada. The extent of the impacts of certain geological processes on gold mineralization is related to the scale of the cascade process, especially to the maximum cascade division number nmax. Our research helps to understand how the singularity occurs during mineralization, which remains unanswered up to now, and the simulation may provide a more accurate distribution of mineral deposit occurrences that can be used to improve the results of the weights of evidence model in mapping mineral potential.

  2. Word Play: Scaffolding Language Development through Child-Directed Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important activity in young children's lives. It is how children explore their world and build knowledge. Although free play, which is play that is totally child directed, contributes to children's learning, self-regulation and motivation, adults' participation in children's play is critical in their development, especially their…

  3. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2 activity regulates osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in the SAOS-2 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Yin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tissue transglutaminase (type II, TG2 has long been postulated to directly promote skeletal matrix calcification and play an important role in ossification. However, limited information is available on the expression, function and modulating mechanism of TG2 during osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. To address these issues, we cultured the well-established human osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 with osteo-inductive conditioned medium and set up three time points (culture days 4, 7, and 14 to represent different stages of SAOS-2 differentiation. Osteoblast markers, mineralization, as well as TG2 expression and activity, were then assayed in each stage. Furthermore, we inhibited TG activity with cystamine and then checked SAOS-2 differentiation and mineralization in each stage. The results showed that during the progression of osteoblast differentiation SAOS-2 cells presented significantly high levels of osteocalcin (OC mRNA, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and collagen I, significantly high alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and the increased formation of calcified matrix. With the same tendency, TG2 expression and activity were up-regulated. Furthermore, inhibition of TG activity resulted in a significant decrease of OC, collagen I, and BMP-2 mRNA and of ALP activity and mineralization. This study demonstrated that TG2 is involved in osteoblast differentiation and may play a role in the initiation and regulation of the mineralization processes. Moreover, the modulating effects of TG2 on osteoblasts may be related to BMP-2.

  4. Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Popescu, Ion V.; Busuioc, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

  5. Playing in childhood: importance and singularities for children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mara Zancanaro Pieczkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated what kind of playing and how visually impaired children play in the family and educational contexts, aiming at understanding playing and the role of toys in these children‟s development. The study was based on the historical-cultural perspective, mainly considering Vygotsky‟s studies. Empirical material was collected from five families with blind or short-sighted children and from the specialized institution these children attend. We adopted semi-structured interviews with parents and educators and observation of the relevant contexts. The data collected was categorized and theorized through content analysis. We concluded that the mediation of another person during playing enables the visually impaired child to develop confidence to explore the physical space, objects and to elaborate concepts.

  6. Biomineralization associated with microbial reduction of Fe3+ and oxidation of Fe2+ in solid minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Kukkadapu, R.K.; Kim, J.; Eberl, D.; Xu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Iron-reducing and oxidizing microorganisms gain energy through reduction or oxidation of iron, and by doing so play an important role in the geochemical cycling of iron. This study was undertaken to investigate mineral transformations associated with microbial reduction of Fe3+ and oxidation of Fe2+ in solid minerals. A fluid sample from the 2450 m depth of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project was collected, and Fe3+-reducing and Fe2+-oxidizing microorganisms were enriched. The enrichment cultures displayed reduction of Fe3+ in nontronite and ferric citrate, and oxidation of Fe2+ in vivianite, siderite, and monosulfide (FeS). Additional experiments verified that the iron reduction and oxidation was biological. Oxidation of FeS resulted in the formation of goethite, lepidocrocite, and ferrihydrite as products. Although our molecular microbiological analyses detected Thermoan-aerobacter ethanolicus as a predominant organism in the enrichment culture, Fe3+ reduction and Fe2+ oxidation may be accomplished by a consortia of organisms. Our results have important environmental and ecological implications for iron redox cycling in solid minerals in natural environments, where iron mineral transformations may be related to the mobility and solubility of inorganic and organic contaminants.

  7. Surface hydrophilicity of PLGA fibers governs in vitro mineralization and osteogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Minnah; Arora, Aditya; Katti, Dhirendra S., E-mail: dsk@iitk.ac.in

    2014-12-01

    Interfacial properties of biomaterials play an important role in governing their interaction with biological microenvironments. This work investigates the role of surface hydrophilicity of electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibers in determining their biological response. For this, PLGA is blended with varying amounts of Pluronic®F-108 and electrospun to fabricate microfibers with varying surface hydrophilicity. The results of mineralization study in simulated body fluid (SBF) demonstrate a significant enhancement in mineralization with an increase in surface hydrophilicity. While presence of serum proteins in SBF reduces absolute mineral content, mineralization continues to be higher on samples with higher surface hydrophilicity. The results from in vitro cell culture studies demonstrate a marked improvement in mesenchymal stem cell —adhesion, elongation, proliferation, infiltration, osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization on hydrophilized fibers. Therefore, hydrophilized PLGA fibers are advantageous both in terms of mineralization and elicitation of favorable cell response. Since most of the polymeric materials being used in orthopedics are hydrophobic in nature, the results from this study have strong implications in the future design of interfaces of such hydrophobic materials. In addition, the work proposes a facile method for the modification of electrospun fibers of hydrophobic polymers by blending with a poloxamer for improved bone tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • Surface hydrophilicity of PLGA modulated by blending with Pluronic F-108. • Hydrophilized fibers support better in vitro mineralization. • Mineralization trends retained in the presence of adsorbed serum proteins. • Hydrophilized fibers promote better cell adhesion and proliferation. • Hydrophilized fibers also enable better osteogenic differentiation.

  8. The role of play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Play is seen as an activity that is fun, voluntary, offers escape, and is fundamentally exciting. Play is however, more than that; it is a working model of flexibility! There is a vital link between play, psychological development and learning. Moreover, the importance of play has gained importance

  9. Minerals in thalassaemia major patients: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Zeynep; Genc, Gizem Esra; Gumuslu, Saadet

    2017-05-01

    Thalassaemia major (TM) is a hereditary blood disease characterised by reduced or absent production of beta globin chains. Erythrocyte transfusions are given to raise the haemoglobin level in patients with thalassaemia major. However, transfusions have been related to increased risk of iron overload and tissue damage related to excess iron. Both elevated oxidative stress due to iron overload and increased hemolysis lead to over utilisation of minerals required for antioxidant enzymes activities. Iron chelators have been used to prevent iron overload in thalassaemia major patients, but these chelators have the possibility of removing minerals from the body. Thalassaemia patients are more at risk for mineral deficiency because of increased oxidative stress and iron chelation therapies. Growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis are the complications of thalassaemia. Minerals may play a particular role to prevent these complications. In the current review, we provide an overview of minerals including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in thalassaemia major patients. We, also, underline that some complications of thalassaemia can be caused by an increased need for minerals or lack of the minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel mineral flotation process using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, T; Ohmura, N; Saiki, H

    1999-08-01

    Oxidative leaching of metals by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans has proven useful in mineral processing. Here, we report on a new use for T. ferrooxidans, in which bacterial adhesion is used to remove pyrite from mixtures of sulfide minerals during flotation. Under control conditions, the floatabilities of five sulfide minerals tested (pyrite, chalcocite, molybdenite, millerite, and galena) ranged from 90 to 99%. Upon addition of T. ferrooxidans, the floatability of pyrite was significantly suppressed to less than 20%. In contrast, addition of the bacterium had little effect on the floatabilities of the other minerals, even when they were present in relatively large quantities: their floatabilities remained in the range of 81 to 98%. T. ferrooxidans thus appears to selectively suppress pyrite floatability. As a consequence, 77 to 95% of pyrite was removed from mineral mixtures while 72 to 100% of nonpyrite sulfide minerals was recovered. The suppression of pyrite floatability was caused by bacterial adhesion to pyrite surfaces. When normalized to the mineral surface area, the number of cells adhering to pyrite was significantly larger than the number adhering to other minerals. These results suggest that flotation with T. ferrooxidans may provide a novel approach to mineral processing in which the biological functions involved in cell adhesion play a key role in the separation of minerals.

  11. Evaluation of Different Mineral Filler Aggregates for Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Marta; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Ignatiuk, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    Mineral filler aggregates play an important role in asphalt mixtures because they fill voids in paving mix and improve the cohesion of asphalt binder. Limestone powder containing over 90% of CaCO3 is the most frequently used type of filler. Waste material from the production of coarse aggregate can be successfully used as a mineral filler aggregate for hot asphalt concrete mixtures as the limestone powder replacement. This paper presents the experimental results of selected properties of filler aggregates which were obtained from rocks with different mineral composition and origin. Five types of rocks were used as a source of the mineral filler aggregate: granite, gabbro, trachybasalt, quartz sandstone and rocks from postglacial deposits. Limestone filler was used in this study as the reference material. The following tests were performed: grading (air jet sieving), quality of fines according to methylene blue test, water content by drying in a ventilated oven, particle density using pyknometer method, Delta ring and ball test, Bitumen Number, fineness determined as Blaine specific surface area. Mineral filler aggregates showed significant differences when they were mixed with bitumen and stiffening effect in Delta ring and ball test was evaluated. The highest values were achieved when gabbro and granite fillers were used. Additionally, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of grain shape and size was carried out. Significant differences in grain size and shape were observed. The highest non-homogeneity in size was determined for quartz sandstone, gabbro and granite filler. Their Blaine specific surface area was lower than 2800 cm2/g, while for limestone and postglacial fillers with regular and round grains it exceeded 3000 cm2/g. All examined mineral filler aggregates met requirements of Polish National Specification WT-1: 2014 and could be used in asphalt mixtures.

  12. Relations between red beds times and uranic mineralization at the area of north-west China, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qiaosheng; Quan Zhigao

    1989-04-01

    Rad beds played an important role in the uranic mineralization. After analyzing the geological evolution in North-West China, Saanxi and Inner Mongolia the red beds is divided into six periods. The evolution rules at each period are studied. The authors found that the time of uranic mineralication and formation of red beds (basin) is simultaneously, the uranic deposits and red beds are accompanying minerals in all places existing deposits. Uranic mineralization is bound up with the continental red beds which was formed under dry and hot climate, but has no relations with the marine red beds. The place where the deposits exist, the red beds must exist, conversely it is not true. In the section, a big uranic deposit is generated only under or above the red beds. The relations between red beds and rich deposit are also explored. The mineralization theory and the model of uranic mineralization in red beds times are presented

  13. Minerals Yearbook, volume II, Area Reports—Domestic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  14. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  15. Acidic Microenvironments in Waste Rock Characterized by Neutral Drainage: Bacteria–Mineral Interactions at Sulfide Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Dockrey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial populations and microbe-mineral interactions were examined in waste rock characterized by neutral rock drainage (NRD. Samples of three primary sulfide-bearing waste rock types (i.e., marble-hornfels, intrusive, exoskarn were collected from field-scale experiments at the Antamina Cu–Zn–Mo mine, Peru. Microbial communities within all samples were dominated by neutrophilic thiosulfate oxidizing bacteria. However, acidophilic iron and sulfur oxidizers were present within intrusive waste rock characterized by bulk circumneutral pH drainage. The extensive development of microbially colonized porous Fe(III (oxyhydroxide and Fe(III (oxyhydroxysulfate precipitates was observed at sulfide-mineral surfaces during examination by field emission-scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS. Linear combination fitting of bulk extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS spectra for these precipitates indicated they were composed of schwertmannite [Fe8O8(OH6–4.5(SO41–1.75], lepidocrocite [γ-FeO(OH] and K-jarosite [KFe3(OH6(SO42]. The presence of schwertmannite and K-jarosite is indicative of the development of localized acidic microenvironments at sulfide-mineral surfaces. Extensive bacterial colonization of this porous layer and pitting of underlying sulfide-mineral surfaces suggests that acidic microenvironments can play an important role in sulfide-mineral oxidation under bulk circumneutral pH conditions. These findings have important implications for water quality management in NRD settings.

  16. Clay minerals: Properties and applications to dermocosmetic products and perspectives of natural raw materials for therapeutic purposes-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Jemima Daniela Dias; Bertolino, Silvana Raquel Alina; Cuffini, Silvia Lucia; Ducart, Diego Fernando; Bretzke, Pedro Eriberto; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci

    2017-12-20

    Clay minerals are layered materials with a number of peculiar properties, which find many relevant applications in various industries. Since they are easily found everywhere, they are particularly attractive due to their economic viability. In the cosmetic industry, clay minerals are often used as excipients to stabilize emulsions or suspensions and to modify the rheological behavior of these systems. They also play an important role as adsorbents or absorbents, not only in cosmetics but also in other industries, such as pharmaceuticals. This reviewer believes that since this manuscript is presented as covering topical applications that include pharmaceuticals, some types of clay minerals should be considered as a potential material to be used as drug delivery systems. We review several applications of clay minerals to dermocosmetic products, relating them to the underlying properties of these materials and exemplifying with a number of clay minerals available in the market. We also discuss the use of clay minerals in topically-applied products for therapeutic purposes, specially for skin treatment and protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Structured Parent-Child Observations Predict Development of Conduct Problems: the Importance of Parental Negative Attention in Child-Directed Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; King, Kevin M

    2017-04-01

    Structured observations of parent-child interactions are commonly used in research and clinical settings, but require additional empirical support. The current study examined the capacity of child-directed play, parent-directed play, and parent-directed chore interaction analogs to uniquely predict the development of conduct problems across a 6-year follow-up period. Parent-child observations were collected from 338 families from high-risk neighborhoods during the summer following the child's first-grade year. Participating children were 49.2 % female, 54.4 % white, and 45.6 % black, and had an average age of 7.52 years at the first assessment. Conduct problems were assessed via parent report and teacher report at five assessment points between first grade and seventh grade. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze predictors of conduct problem trajectory across this 6-year follow-up period. When race, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal depressive symptoms were controlled, parental negative attention during child-directed play predicted higher levels of parent-reported conduct problems concurrently and after a 6-year follow-up period. Parental negative attention during child-directed play also predicted higher teacher-reported conduct problems 6 years later. Findings support the use of child-directed play and parent-directed chore analogs in predicting longitudinal development of conduct problems. The presence of parental negative attention during child-directed play appears to be an especially important predictor of greater conduct problems over time and across multiple domains. Additionally, the potential importance of task-incongruent behavior is proposed for further study.

  18. A Systematic Review on the Implication of Minerals in the Onset, Severity and Treatment of Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease with high prevalence in adults that leads to destruction of the teeth-supporting tissues. Periodontal therapy has been traditionally directed at reduction of the bacterial load to a level that encourages health-promoting bacteria and maintenance of oral-hygiene. The role of nutrition in different chronic inflammatory diseases has been the subject of an increasing body of research in the last decades. In this sense, there has been an important increase in the volume of research on role of nutrition in periodontitis since the diet has known effects on the immune system and inflammatory cascades. Minerals play a key role in all these processes due to the multiple pathways where they participate. To clarify the role of the different minerals in the establishment, progression and/or treatment of this pathology, a systemically review of published literature cited in PubMed until May 2016 was conducted, which included research on the relationship of these elements with the onset and progression of periodontal disease. Among all the minerals, calcium dietary intake seems important to maintain alveolar bone. Likewise, dietary proportions of minerals that may influence its metabolism also can be relevant. Lastly, some observations suggest that all those minerals with roles in immune and/or antioxidant systems should be considered in future research.

  19. Applied mineral exploration with special reference to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.V.; Childers, M.O.

    1977-01-01

    An explanation of the fundamentals of organizing, operating, and concluding an exploration program, particularly uranium exploration, is presented. Discussion of many exploration practices currently being used in the industry and a review of some new developments or research projects which are being studied or which show promise are included. The material is presented in 13 chapters entitled: the Mineral Explorationist and the Role He Plays; Types of Uranium Deposits; Development of Idea and Preliminary Investigation: Uranium; a Review of Mining Law as it Pertains to Mineral Exploration and Development in the United States; Land Ownership and Leasing; Continuing Detailed Geologic Work; the Decision to Make a Play; Selling a Deal; Legal and Accounting Aspects; the Drilling Program; Using Geology in Planning and Executing Drilling; Transition from Exploration to Development; and a Forward Look

  20. The European Commission: nuclear power has an important role to play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The European Commission (E.C.) thinks that nuclear power has an important role to play: first to reduce CO 2 emissions and secondly to reinforce energy self-reliance of the member states. The decision to introduce nuclear power in their energy mix belongs to every state but the E.C. has also highlighted that if adequate investment are quickly made 2 thirds of the electricity produced in the European Union in 2010 could by from low-carbon-emitting sources. Today with 148 reactors operating in 15 member countries nuclear power contributes to 1 third of the electricity produced. Another issue that is looming is the security of electricity supplying. A study has shown that the security level is worsening (particularly in winter) because of the greater part of wind energy in the energy mix as wind energy is not necessarily available when energy demand is peaking. The E.C. has proposed a new directive drawing a common standard frame for nuclear safety requirements concerning design, site selection, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each member state will have the choice to implement stiffer regulations. The European Union must reduce its dependency on Russian gas by increasing its storing capacities, by easing gas exchanges between member states and by importing more liquefied natural gas. European member states will have to invert 1000*10 9 euros in gas and electrical power infrastructures in the next 25 years. (A.C.)

  1. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi'An; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China.

  2. Hyperspectral analysis of clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki Rama Suresh, G.; Sreenivas, K.; Sivasamy, R.

    2014-11-01

    A study was carried out by collecting soil samples from parts of Gwalior and Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh in order to assess the dominant clay mineral of these soils using hyperspectral data, as 0.4 to 2.5 μm spectral range provides abundant and unique information about many important earth-surface minerals. Understanding the spectral response along with the soil chemical properties can provide important clues for retrieval of mineralogical soil properties. The soil samples were collected based on stratified random sampling approach and dominant clay minerals were identified through XRD analysis. The absorption feature parameters like depth, width, area and asymmetry of the absorption peaks were derived from spectral profile of soil samples through DISPEC tool. The derived absorption feature parameters were used as inputs for modelling the dominant soil clay mineral present in the unknown samples using Random forest approach which resulted in kappa accuracy of 0.795. Besides, an attempt was made to classify the Hyperion data using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm with an overall accuracy of 68.43 %. Results showed that kaolinite was the dominant mineral present in the soils followed by montmorillonite in the study area.

  3. The Significance of Microbe-Mineral-Biomarker Interactions in the Detection of Life on Mars and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röling, Wilfred F M; Aerts, Joost W; Patty, C H Lucas; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Direito, Susana O L

    2015-06-01

    The detection of biomarkers plays a central role in our effort to establish whether there is, or was, life beyond Earth. In this review, we address the importance of considering mineralogy in relation to the selection of locations and biomarker detection methodologies with characteristics most promising for exploration. We review relevant mineral-biomarker and mineral-microbe interactions. The local mineralogy on a particular planet reflects its past and current environmental conditions and allows a habitability assessment by comparison with life under extreme conditions on Earth. The type of mineral significantly influences the potential abundances and types of biomarkers and microorganisms containing these biomarkers. The strong adsorptive power of some minerals aids in the preservation of biomarkers and may have been important in the origin of life. On the other hand, this strong adsorption as well as oxidizing properties of minerals can interfere with efficient extraction and detection of biomarkers. Differences in mechanisms of adsorption and in properties of minerals and biomarkers suggest that it will be difficult to design a single extraction procedure for a wide range of biomarkers. While on Mars samples can be used for direct detection of biomarkers such as nucleic acids, amino acids, and lipids, on other planetary bodies remote spectrometric detection of biosignatures has to be relied upon. The interpretation of spectral signatures of photosynthesis can also be affected by local mineralogy. We identify current gaps in our knowledge and indicate how they may be filled to improve the chances of detecting biomarkers on Mars and beyond.

  4. Characterization of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz N, C.; Olguin, M.T.; Solache R, M.; Alarcon H, T.; Aguilar E, A.

    2002-01-01

    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  5. Sustainable development and the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.

    2000-01-01

    There is a perception in some quarters that the continued development of the coal and minerals industries is incompatible with sustainability. Yet a future without mining is clearly a very long way off. This article outlines some of the initiatives being taken by the coal industry to overcome the adverse perceptions and demonstrate that coal has an important future to play. Industries in the future will be assessed not only on their economic performance, as in the past, but also on their environmental and social performance - that is, their contribution to sustainable development. In this context, sustainable development is now part of mainstream business thinking in many major corporations. Apart from identifying improvement opportunities, the process should also result in a better understanding of mining industry role by non-mining stake holders. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Energy Technology and Exploration and Mining

  6. LKR/SDH plays important roles throughout the tick life cycle including a long starvation period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzragch Battur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH is a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the first two steps of lysine catabolism in plants and mammals. However, to date, the properties of the lysine degradation pathway and biological functions of LKR/SDH have been very little described in arthropods such as ticks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated and characterized the gene encoding lysine-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR, EC 1.5.1.8 and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH, EC 1.5.1.9 from a tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, cDNA library that encodes a bifunctional polypeptide bearing domains similar to the plant and mammalian LKR/SDH enzymes. Expression of LKR/SDH was detected in all developmental stages, indicating an important role throughout the tick life cycle, including a long period of starvation after detachment from the host. The LKR/SDH mRNA transcripts were more abundant in unfed and starved ticks than in fed and engorged ticks, suggesting that tick LKR/SDH are important for the starved tick. Gene silencing of LKR/SDH by RNAi indicated that the tick LKR/SDH plays an integral role in the osmotic regulation of water balance and development of eggs in ovary of engorged females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transcription analysis and gene silencing of LKR/SDH indicated that tick LKR/SDH enzyme plays not only important roles in egg production, reproduction and development of the tick, but also in carbon, nitrogen and water balance, crucial physiological processes for the survival of ticks. This is the first report on the role of LKR/SDH in osmotic regulation in animals including vertebrate and arthropods.

  7. The VLab repository of thermodynamics and thermoelastic properties of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silveira, P. R.; Sarkar, K.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Shukla, G.; Lindemann, W.; Wu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Thermodynamics and thermoelastic properties of minerals at planetary interior conditions are essential as input for geodynamics simulations and for interpretation of seismic tomography models. Precise experimental determination of these properties at such extreme conditions is very challenging. Therefore, ab initio calculations play an essential role in this context, but at the cost of great computational effort and memory use. Setting up a widely accessible and versatile mineral physics database can relax unnecessary repetition of such computationally intensive calculations. Access to such data facilitates transactional interaction across fields and can advance more quickly insights about deep Earth processes. Hosted by the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute, the Virtual Laboratory for Earth and Planetary Materials (VLab) was designed to develop and promote the theory of planetary materials using distributed, high-throughput quantum calculations. VLab hosts an interactive database of thermodynamics and thermoelastic properties or minerals computed by ab initio. Such properties can be obtained according to user's preference. The database is accompanied by interactive visualization tools, allowing users to repeat and build upon previously published results. Using VLab2015, we have evaluated thermoelastic properties, such as elastic coefficients (Cij), Voigt, Reuss, and Voigt-Reuss-Hill aggregate averages for bulk (K) and shear modulus (G), shear wave velocity (VS), longitudinal wave velocity (Vp), and bulk sound velocity (V0) for several important minerals. Developed web services are general and can be used for crystals of any symmetry. Results can be tabulated, plotted, or downloaded from the VLab website according to user's preference.

  8. Adsorption of Dissolved Gases (CH4, CO2, H2, Noble Gases) by Water-Saturated Smectite Clay Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, I. C.; Gadikota, G.; Dazas, B.

    2016-12-01

    Adsorption of dissolved gases by water-saturated clay minerals plays important roles in a range of fields. For example, gas adsorption in on clay minerals may significantly impact the formation of CH4 hydrates in fine-grained sediments, the behavior of CH4 in shale, CO2 leakage across caprocks of geologic CO2 sequestration sites, H2 leakage across engineered clay barriers of high-level radioactive waste repositories, and noble gas geochemistry reconstructions of hydrocarbon migration in the subsurface. Despite its importance, the adsorption of gases on clay minerals remains poorly understood. For example, some studies have suggested that clay surfaces promote the formation of CH4 hydrates, whereas others indicate that clay surfaces inhibit the formation of CH4 hydrates. Here, we present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the adsorption of a range of gases (CH4, CO2, H2, noble gases) on clay mineral surfaces. Our results indicate that the affinity of dissolved gases for clay mineral surfaces has a non-monotone dependence on the hydrated radius of the gas molecules. This non-monotone dependence arises from a combination of two effects: the polar nature of certain gas molecules (in particular, CO2) and the templating of interfacial water structure by the clay basal surface, which results in the presence of interfacial water "cages" of optimal size for intermediate-size gas molecules (such as Ne or Ar).

  9. Medicinal significance of vegetables cultivated over minerals supplemented soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, J.A.; Arif, M.; Khan, F.; Khan, F.; Khan, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Three winter season vegetables Fenugreek/Methi (Trigonella-foenum-graceum), Sarson (Brassica-campestris-var-sarson) and Garlic (Allium-sativum) were included in the present study to determine some of their mineral components and see if some of their mineral (Cr, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg and Fe) content could be increased by supplementation through their roots. Thus calculated amount of Cr, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg and Fe salts (as fertilizer) were applied in solution form to the roots of vegetables in different concentration as individual or in combinations. These vegetables were grown from seeds in the soil plot. After harvesting vegetables were dried, acid digested and analyzed for Cr, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mg on Hitachi Zeeman Japan Z-8000, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Thus in Fenugreek/Methi (Trigonella-foenum-graceum) total increase of Cr, Zn, Mn, Mg and Fe recorded was (10, 94, 10, 256 and 520) mg/Kg dry weight basis; in Sarson (Brassica-campestris-var-sarson) total increase of Cr, Zn, Mn and Mg recorded was (12, 30, 22 and 424) mg/Kg dry weight basis and ( Garlic) (Allium-sativum) total increase of Cr, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg and Fe recorded was (14, 28, 4, 4, 116 and 10) mg/Kg dry weight basis. From the present study it can be concluded that by changing the soil minerals environment the uptake of required mineral content of vegetables, perhaps could be enhanced. This could play important role in management of diabetes control and also in the elimination of other deficiency diseases like anemia. (author)

  10. Radioisotopes in plant mineral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-01-01

    Extensive investigations on mineral composition of different plant species growing on various soils, helped in realizing that neither the presence nor the concentration of a mineral element in a plant can be regarded as a criterion for essentially. Plants have a limited capability for selective uptake of those mineral elements which are essential for their growth. They also take up mineral element which are not necessary for growth and may even be toxic. The mineral composition of plants growing in soils cannot, therefore, be used to establish essentially of a mineral element. Once this fact was appreciated, both water and sand culture experiments were carried out in which particular mineral elements were omitted. Von Sach and Knop are credited with reintroduction of the solution culture method using which they demonstrated the absolute requirement of ten macronutrients. As evident, these techniques made possible a more precise characterization of essentially of mineral elements and led to a better understanding of their role in plant metabolism. By the beginning of 20"t"h century importance of micronutrients like B, Mn, Cu, Mo and CI was also established

  11. Surface characteristics of kaolinite and other selected 2-layer silicate minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.D.; Nalaskowski, J.; Abdul, B.; Du, H. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    2007-10-15

    The wetting of mineral phases by bitumens plays an important role in efficient bitumen recovery. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the electrokinetic behaviour and interfacial water features of 2-layer silicate minerals. The study compared the planar structures of antigorite and kaolinite with equivalent tubular structures of halloysite and chrysolite. Equivalency of pH dependency of zeta potential was determined using electrophoretic mobility measurements. The atomic mismatch between tetrahydral and octahydral sheets in a bilayer was examined in order to determine electrokinetic behaviour. Results of the study indicated that the silica tetrahydral surface was not wetted by water, but by structural imperfections. Polarity reversal within a tetrahedral octahedral layer and an out-of-order layer within the stack were then considered to explain both the wetting characteristics and electrokinetic behaviour. It was concluded that further research is needed to explain why the hexagonal rings structure for the silica tetrahydral face of kaolinite is wetted by water. 55 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  12. Chirality plays important roles in radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yumei

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic concept of chirality, target specific selectivity and their relationship in radiopharmaceuticals. If the ligands labeled by radionuclides have chiral center, the enantiomers must be separated, or the target specific selectivity will not be good. Chirality is one of the most important factors which must be considered in the study of the structure-activity relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  13. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Mineral Element Contents in Whole Grain Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Chengxiao; Min, Jie; Chen, Yaling; Tong, Chuan; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-12-23

    Mineral elements in brown rice grain play an important role in human health. In this study, variations in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in 378 accessions of brown rice were investigated, and association mapping was used to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the variation. Among seven subpopulations, the mean values of Zn and Cd in the japonica group were significantly higher than in the indica groups. The population structure accounted for from 5.7% (Se) to 22.1% (Pb) of the total variation. Correlation analyses showed that Pb was positively correlated with the other minerals (P rice grain by marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  14. Autophagy plays an important role in protecting Pacific oysters from OsHV-1 and Vibrio aestuarianus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Pierrick; Moreau, Kevin; Segarra, Amélie; Tourbiez, Delphine; Travers, Marie-Agnès; Rubinsztein, David C; Renault, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Recent mass mortality outbreaks around the world in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, have seriously affected the aquaculture economy. Although the causes for these mortality outbreaks appear complex, infectious agents are involved. Two pathogens are associated with mass mortality outbreaks, the virus ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) and the bacterium Vibrio aestuarianus. Here we describe the interactions between these 2 pathogens and autophagy, a conserved intracellular pathway playing a key role in innate immunity. We show for the first time that autophagy pathway is present and functional in Pacific oysters and plays an important role to protect animals from infections. This study contributes to better understand the innate immune system of Pacific oysters.

  15. Uranium miner lung cancer. A study about two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madelrieux, J.-M.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of lung cancer in uranium miners is analyzed on the basis of the two cases observed. Epidemiological studies establish conclusively the existence of increased hazards in the case of early working conditions, which gave rise to large accumulated doses of irradiation. Unfortunately these studies have their limits, the most important being inadequacy of sampling, and doubts remain about the low exposure levels prevailing nowadays and which concerns the cases investigated. The absence of certainty over long-term effects of low exposure levels is leading to the development of research to establish the exact nature of the dose-effect relationship and the possible existence of a radiotoxicity threshold on the basis of which the protective measures from the CMA angle could be revised. Biological research has proved the responsibility of α radiation from active radon deposits as a source of lung cancer in uranium miners, but other contributing factors must not be neglected: tobacco for instance, which plays an important part, but also the presence of engine exhaust gases and non-specific lung aggressions connected with dampness and ventilation. The occupational risk examined concerns only 600 miners now working at the bottom of uranium mines in France, and since extraction began a dozen cancers have been detected including 10 in heavy smokers. 2 cases correspond to exposures of 300 WLM, 3 to values between 150 and 100WLM and the rest to very slight exposures, 10 to 50 WLM. Although these figures are not conclusive the fact that exposure in French mines averages 0.3 WL means that the results of the French epidemiological study can be awaited with some optimism [fr

  16. Effects of hydrocarbon generation on fluid flow in the Ordos basin and relationship with uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Wei; Xue Chunji; Chi Guoxiang

    2012-01-01

    The Ordos Basin is not only an important uranium mineralization province but also a major producer of oil. gas and coal in China. The genetic relationship between uranium mineralization and hydrocarbons has been recognized by a number of previous studies, but it has not been well understood in terms of hydrodynamics of basin fluid flow. In a previous study we have demonstrated that the preferential localization of uranium mineralization in the upper part of the Jurassic strata may have been related to the interface of an upward flowing, reducing fluid and a downward flowing, oxidizing fluid, and that this interface may have been controlled by the interplay between fluid overpressure, which was related to disequilibrium sediment compaction and drove the upward flow, and topographic relief which drove the down- ward flow. In the present study, we carried out numerical modeling for the contribution of oil and gas generation to the development of fluid overpressure, in addition to sediment compaction and heating. Our results indicate that when hydrocarbon generation was taken into account, fluid overpressure during the Cretaceous was more than doubled in comparison with the simulation when hydrocarbon generation was not considered. Furthermore, fluid overpressure dissipation after ceasing of sedimentation slowed down relative to the no-hydrocarbon generation case. These results suggest that hydrocarbon generation may have played an important role in uranium mineralization, not only in providing reducing agents required for the mineralization, but also in contributing to the driving force to maintain the upward flow against the pushing of topography driven. downward flow, thus helping stabilize the interface between the two fluid system and localization of uranium mineralization. (authors)

  17. An overview of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Chi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow is an integral part of hydrothermal mineralization, and its analysis and characterization constitute an important part of a mineralization model. The hydrodynamic study of mineralization deals with analyzing the driving forces, fluid pressure regimes, fluid flow rate and direction, and their relationships with localization of mineralization. This paper reviews the principles and methods of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization, and discusses their significance and limitations for ore deposit studies and mineral exploration. The driving forces of fluid flow may be related to fluid overpressure, topographic relief, tectonic deformation, and fluid density change due to heating or salinity variation, depending on specific geologic environments and mineralization processes. The study methods may be classified into three types, megascopic (field observations, microscopic analyses, and numerical modeling. Megascopic features indicative of significantly overpressured (especially lithostatic or supralithostatic fluid systems include horizontal veins, sand injection dikes, and hydraulic breccias. Microscopic studies, especially microthermometry of fluid inclusions and combined stress analysis and microthermometry of fluid inclusion planes (FIPs can provide important information about fluid temperature, pressure, and fluid-structural relationships, thus constraining fluid flow models. Numerical modeling can be carried out to solve partial differential equations governing fluid flow, heat transfer, rock deformation and chemical reactions, in order to simulate the distribution of fluid pressure, temperature, fluid flow rate and direction, and mineral precipitation or dissolution in 2D or 3D space and through time. The results of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization can enhance our understanding of the formation processes of hydrothermal deposits, and can be used directly or indirectly in mineral exploration.

  18. Characterization of Heat-treated Clay Minerals in the Context of Nuclear Waste Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo, E. N.; Wang, Y.; Kruichak, J. N.; Mills, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Clay minerals are likely candidates to aid in nuclear waste isolation due to their low permeability, favorable swelling properties, and high cation sorption capacities. Establishing the thermal limit for clay minerals in a nuclear waste repository is a potentially important component of repository design, as flexibility of the heat load within the repository can have a major impact on the selection of repository design. For example, the thermal limit plays a critical role in the time that waste packages would need to cool before being transferred to the repository. Understanding the chemical and physical changes, if any, that occur in clay minerals at various temperatures above the current thermal limit (of 100 °C) can enable decision-makers with information critical to evaluating the potential trade-offs of increasing the thermal limit within the repository. Most critical is gaining understanding of how varying thermal conditions in the repository will impact radionuclide sorption and transport in clay materials either as engineered barriers or as disposal media. A variety of repository-relevant clay minerals (illite, mixed layer illite/smectite, and montmorillonite), were heated for a range of temperatures between 100-1000 °C. These samples were characterized to determine surface area, mineralogical alteration, and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Our results show that for conditions up to 500 °C, no significant change occurs, so long as the clay mineral remains mineralogically intact. At temperatures above 500 °C, transformation of the layered silicates into silica phases leads to alteration that impacts important clay characteristics. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's Nation Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND Number: SAND2015-6524 A

  19. Study on tertiary in-situ leachable uranium mineralization conditions in South Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenqiang; Li Guokuan; Zhao Zonghua; Zhang Jingxun

    2001-01-01

    Tertiary in-situ leachable mineralization in Songliao Basin was analyzed in theory in the past. Since 1998, regional investigation at 1:200000 scale has been done with about 120 holes drilled. Based on drill holes recording, section compiling and sample analysis, the authors investigate into the Tertiary in-situ leachable conditions including rock character, sedimentary facies, rock chemistry, organic substances, uranium content, sandstone porosity, sandstone bodies, interlayer oxidation, and hydro-dynamic value. The study would play important role in prospecting for in-situ leachable uranium in South Songliao basin

  20. Molecular dynamics of interfacial water and cations associated with clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cygan, Randall T.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie L.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Daemen, Luke L.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Clay mineral interfaces, including interlayer and external surfaces, play an essential role in many geochemical processes. Adsorption, dissolution, precipitation, nucleation, and growth mechanisms, in particular, are controlled by the interplay of structure, thermodynamics, kinetics, and transport at clay mineral-water interfaces. Molecular details of these geochemical processes are especially important in evaluating the fate of radionuclide waste in the environment. Such details are typically beyond the sensitivity of experimental and analytical methods and therefore require accurate models and simulations. Also, the basal surfaces and interlayers of clay minerals offer structurally constrained interfacial environments to better evaluate the local molecular chemistry. We have developed and used classical and quantum methods to examine the complex behavior of clay mineral-water interfaces and dynamics of interlayer species. Bulk structures, swelling behavior, diffusion, and adsorption processes are evaluated and compared to experimental and spectroscopic findings. In particular, inelastic neutron scattering methods provide a successful probe of vibrational behavior of interlayer species to help guide the simulations. Librations involving rock, wag, and twist motions of water molecules are particularly sensitive to the interlayer environment of smectite minerals such as montmorillonite and beidellite. Trends in librational modes for interlayer water as a function of clay structure and cation hydration energy are readily explained using structural and vibrational analysis derived from molecular simulation. Molecular dynamics simulations of virtual phases, including hydrated pyrophyllite, help to explain the behavior of interlayer water that is not associated with cation species. Additionally, we use large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of other layered minerals, such as muscovite, to evaluate adsorption

  1. The mineral phase evolution behaviour in the production of glass-ceramics from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jingde; Chai, Meiyun; Li, Rundong; Yao, Pengfei; Khan, Agha Saood

    2016-01-01

    High energy consumption was the major obstacle to the widespread application of melting technology in the treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Aiming to lower the ash-melting temperature (AMT) for energy-saving, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the relations between AMT and the mineral evolution. The results indicated that the change of AMT was determined by the types and the contents of mineral crystals. The transition from refractory minerals to fluxing minerals was the key. The transition of the main crystalline phase from pseudowollastonite (Ca3(Si3O9)) to wollastonite (CaSiO3) played a significant role in AMT reduction. A quantum chemistry calculation was carried out to investigate the effect of crystal reaction activity on AMT. In the chemical reaction, the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital played a more important role than any other orbits. Cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+)) were apt to enter into the crystal lattice of wollastonite and gehlenite mainly through Si (3), O (1), Si (6), O (10) and Al (2), O (10), and broke the covalent bonds of Si (3)-O (7), Al (1)-O (9) and Al (1)-O (15), respectively. This deconstruction behaviour provided convenient conditions for restructuring and promoted the formation of fluxing minerals. In melts, the excess SiO2 monomers which existed in the form of cristobalite and quartz caused AMT increase.

  2. Evaluation of atmospheric corrections on hyperspectral data with special reference to mineral mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Rani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral images have wide applications in the fields of geology, mineral exploration, agriculture, forestry and environmental studies etc. due to their narrow band width with numerous channels. However, these images commonly suffer from atmospheric effects, thereby limiting their use. In such a situation, atmospheric correction becomes a necessary pre-requisite for any further processing and accurate interpretation of spectra of different surface materials/objects. In the present study, two very advance atmospheric approaches i.e. QUAC and FLAASH have been applied on the hyperspectral remote sensing imagery. The spectra of vegetation, man-made structure and different minerals from the Gadag area of Karnataka, were extracted from the raw image and also from the QUAC and FLAASH corrected images. These spectra were compared among themselves and also with the existing USGS and JHU spectral library. FLAASH is rigorous atmospheric algorithm and requires various parameters to perform but it has capability to compensate the effects of atmospheric absorption. These absorption curves in any spectra play an important role in identification of the compositions. Therefore, the presence of unwanted absorption features can lead to wrong interpretation and identification of mineral composition. FLAASH also has an advantage of spectral polishing which provides smooth spectral curves which helps in accurate identification of composition of minerals. Therefore, this study recommends that FLAASH is better than QUAC for atmospheric correction and correct interpretation and identification of composition of any object or minerals.

  3. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  4. Interplay between black carbon and minerals contributes to long term carbon stabilization and mineral transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, B.; Weng, Y. T.; Wang, C. C.; Chiang, C. C.; Liu, C. C.; Lehmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon receives increasing global wide research attention due to its role in carbon sequestration, soil fertility enhancement and remediation application. Generally considered chemically stable in bulk, the reactive surface of BC can interplays with minerals and form strong chemical bondage, which renders physical protection of BC and contributes to its long term stabilization. Using historical BC-rich Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), we probe the in-situ organo-mineral association and transformation of BC and minerals over a millennium scale using various synchrotron-based spectroscopic (XANES, FTIR) and microscopic (TXM) methods. Higher content of SRO minerals was found in BC-rich ADE compare to adjacent tropical soils. The iron signature found in BC-rich ADE was mainly ferrihydrite/lepidocrocite, a more reactive form of Fe compared to goethite, which was dominant in adjacent soil. Abundant nano minerals particles were observed in-situ associated with BC surface, in clusters and layers. The organo-mineral interaction lowers BC bioavailability and enhances its long-term stabilization in environment, while at the same time, transforms associated minerals into more reactive forms under rapid redox/weathering environment. The results suggest that mineral physical protection for BC sequestration may be more important than previous understanding. The scale up application of BC/biochar into agricultural systems and natural environments have long lasting impact on the in-situ transformation of associated minerals.

  5. Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:20948934

  6. Pretend Play and Creative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Sandra W.; Wallace, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that many cognitive abilities and affective processes important in creativity also occur in pretend play and that pretend play in childhood affects the development of creativity in adulthood. They discuss a variety of theories and observations that attempt to explain the importance of pretend play to creativity. They argue that…

  7. The impact of atmospheric mineral aerosol deposition on the albedo of snow & sea ice: are snow and sea ice optical properties more important than mineral aerosol optical properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Lamare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the albedo of polar regions is crucial for understanding a range of climatic processes that have an impact on a global scale. Light-absorbing impurities in atmospheric aerosols deposited on snow and sea ice by aeolian transport absorb solar radiation, reducing albedo. Here, the effects of five mineral aerosol deposits reducing the albedo of polar snow and sea ice are considered. Calculations employing a coupled atmospheric and snow/sea ice radiative-transfer model (TUV-snow show that the effects of mineral aerosol deposits are strongly dependent on the snow or sea ice type rather than the differences between the aerosol optical characteristics. The change in albedo between five different mineral aerosol deposits with refractive indices varying by a factor of 2 reaches a maximum of 0.0788, whereas the difference between cold polar snow and melting sea ice is 0.8893 for the same mineral loading. Surprisingly, the thickness of a surface layer of snow or sea ice loaded with the same mass ratio of mineral dust has little effect on albedo. On the contrary, the surface albedo of two snowpacks of equal depth, containing the same mineral aerosol mass ratio, is similar, whether the loading is uniformly distributed or concentrated in multiple layers, regardless of their position or spacing. The impact of mineral aerosol deposits is much larger on melting sea ice than on other types of snow and sea ice. Therefore, the higher input of shortwave radiation during the summer melt cycle associated with melting sea ice accelerates the melt process.

  8. The role of play themes in non-directive play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Virginia; Edge, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    Describing the processes underlying play therapy is important for evidence based practice in child therapy. Employing play themes to describe children's play session contents is in widespread use by practitioners, but an adequate classification of these themes for non-directive play therapy practice has not yet been established. This article sets out to fill this gap by first describing how themes can be distinguished and distilled from the contents of play therapy contents. Second, a classification of main themes and sub-themes with exemplars to illustrate these concepts which is compatible with non-directive play therapy practice is set out. Finally a pilot project with experienced play therapists to test this classification in practice is suggested, along with the research questions that will need to be investigated in the shorter and longer terms.

  9. Characterization of juvenile play in rats: importance of sex of self and sex of partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Kathryn J; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile social play is observed in many mammalian species, and its disruption in several neuropsychiatric disorders has greatly increased interest in understanding the origins and sources of variability in this behavior. We quantified social play behavior in juvenile rats and investigated the impact of sex and familiarity of the play partner. Sex differences in play behavior were investigated by comparing males and females from either same- or mixed-sex pairs with data pooled over 12 days of analysis. Whether play was altered based on the sex of the play partner was assessed using a paired analysis to compare play with a same- or opposite-sex play partner for both males and females. Additionally, a repeated measures design was utilized to determine whether play changed with increasing age. On postnatal day 33, a novel play partner was introduced. We used a repeated measures analysis to compare postnatal day 33 with the previous day. These approaches were used to assess the effects of age, sex, sex of partner, and familiarity of partner on total social play behavior as well as how play was broken down into components, such as pouncing, pinning, chasing, and boxing. There were sex differences in total frequency of play, and specific parameters of play behavior, such as chasing, pouncing, pinning, and boxing. Additionally, males significantly altered their play behavior in response to the sex of their play partner, whereas females were more sensitive to the familiarity of the play partner. This study provides critical groundwork for uncovering factors that regulate social play behavior and can be used to guide future mechanistic based work.

  10. The Power of Outdoor Play and Play in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.; Oh, JiHyun; Kenney, Elizabeth; Smith-Bonahue, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Young children's outdoor play serves important and diverse purposes, including physical exercise and opportunities for growth in all developmental areas. Unfortunately, the amount of time that children spend engaged in unstructured, child-directed outdoor play has diminished significantly in the past generation. In this article, the authors…

  11. Adsorption of Nucleic Acid Bases, Ribose, and Phosphate by Some Clay Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Hashizume

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Besides having a large capacity for taking up organic molecules, clay minerals can catalyze a variety of organic reactions. Derived from rock weathering, clay minerals would have been abundant in the early Earth. As such, they might be expected to play a role in chemical evolution. The interactions of clay minerals with biopolymers, including RNA, have been the subject of many investigations. The behavior of RNA components at clay mineral surfaces needs to be assessed if we are to appreciate how clays might catalyze the formation of nucleosides, nucleotides and polynucleotides in the “RNA world”. The adsorption of purines, pyrimidines and nucleosides from aqueous solution to clay minerals is affected by suspension pH. With montmorillonite, adsorption is also influenced by the nature of the exchangeable cations. Here, we review the interactions of some clay minerals with RNA components.

  12. Cancer of lung in miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Volckova, A.; Zimacek, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the period of 1983-1994 was registered at Clinic of occupational diseases 87 cases of professional cancer of lung. Mostly /85/ of cases was related to miners, by whom act as risk factor alpha ionisation from radon. Average age group was 60.2 y, average time of exposition was 21.6 y. Epidermoid carcinoma was the most frequent type of tumor /46.5 %/ of cases/. Smoking plays a supportive role. (authors)

  13. A Look into Miners' Health in Prevailing Ambience of Underground Coal Mine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, N. C.; Pal, S.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors such as noise, vibration, illumination, humidity, temperature and air velocity, etc. do play a major role on the health, comfort and efficient performance of underground coal miners at work. Ergonomics can help to promote health, efficiency and well being of miners and to make best use of their capabilities within the ambit of underground coal mine environment. Adequate work stretch and work-rest scheduling have to be determined for every category of miners from work physiology point of view so as to keep better health of the miners in general and to have their maximum efficiency at work in particular.

  14. Zeta potentials in the flotation of oxide and silicate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerstenau, D W; Pradip

    2005-06-30

    Adsorption of collectors and modifying reagents in the flotation of oxide and silicate minerals is controlled by the electrical double layer at the mineral-water interface. In systems where the collector is physically adsorbed, flotation with anionic or cationic collectors depends on the mineral surface being charged oppositely. Adjusting the pH of the system can enhance or prevent the flotation of a mineral. Thus, the point of zero charge (PZC) of the mineral is the most important property of a mineral in such systems. The length of the hydrocarbon chain of the collector is important because of chain-chain association enhances the adsorption once the surfactant ions aggregate to form hemimicelles at the surface. Strongly chemisorbing collectors are able to induce flotation even when collector and the mineral surface are charged similarly, but raising the pH sufficiently above the PZC can repel chemisorbing collectors from the mineral surface. Zeta potentials can be used to delineate interfacial phenomena in these various systems.

  15. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  16. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The Australian mineral industry annual review records the activities and development of the Australian mineral industry and reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. The present volume reviews activities and developments in 1982. Part 1 (General Review) - after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy; important recent developments; production; overseas trade; prices; exploration expenditure; investment; income tax; royalties; structural data; wages and salaries; industrial disputes; and government assistance, legislation and controls. Part 2 (Commodity Review) - covers industrial mineral commodities, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3 (Mining Census) - tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 (Miscellaneous) - tabulates quantum and value data on mineral output provided by State departments of mines and their equivalents.

  17. Heterogeneity of uranium host rocks in Zhiluo formation in Dongsheng area and its relation to uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Chao; Zheng Yunlong; Wang Mingtai

    2013-01-01

    Numbers of uranium deposits have be found in Dongsheng area. The major ore-bearing layer is the sub member of the lower member of the Zhiluo Formation, the heterogeneity of host rocks plays an important role during the process of uranium mineralization. This paper sorted and counted up the data of sand body and the impermeable bed in Dongsheng area to study the heterogeneity characteristic of host rock and its relationship to uranium mineralization in horizontal and vertical directions. The thickness of sand body in Dongsheng area decreases gradually from northwest to southeast. The uranium mineralization is mainly distributed in the place where the thickness of sand body changed from the thick to the thin. Statistics shows that the best uranium mineralization occurred in sand body thickness between 20 m to 40 m and the sand rate over 60% in the eastern part of Dongsheng area. And the best uranium mineralization in the western part occurred in area of sand body thickness between 60 m to 70 m and the sand rate over 70%. In vertical direction, the numbers and the thickness of the impermeable beds have negative relation to sand rate. Moreover, uranium deposits generally exist in the area of less number impermeable bed and small thickness. The uranium mineralization grade decreased with the increase of number and thickness of the impermeable beds. (authors)

  18. Adsorption of dextrin on hydrophobic minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Beattie, David A

    2009-09-01

    The adsorption of dextrin on talc, molybdenite, and graphite (three naturally hydrophobic minerals) has been compared. Adsorption isotherms and in situ tapping mode atomic force microscope (TMAFM) imaging have enabled polymer adsorbed amount and morphology of the adsorbed layer (area coverage and polymer domain size) to be determined and also the amount of hydration water in the structure of the adsorbed layer. The effect of the polymer on the mineral contact angles, measured by the captive bubble method on cleaved mineral surfaces, indicates clear correlations between the hydrophobicity reduction of the minerals, the adsorbed amount, and the surface coverage of the adsorbed polymer. Predictions of the flotation recovery of the treated mineral phases have been confirmed by performing batch flotation experiments. The influence of the polymer surface coverage on flotation recovery has highlighted the importance of this key parameter in the predictions of depressant efficiency. The roles of the initial hydrophobicity and the surface structure of the mineral basal plane in determining adsorption parameters and flotation response of the polymer-treated minerals are also discussed.

  19. Effects of hydrocarbon generation on fluid flow in the Ordos Basin and its relationship to uranium mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunji Xue

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ordos Basin of North China is not only an important uranium mineralization province, but also a major producer of oil, gas and coal in China. The genetic relationship between uranium mineralization and hydrocarbons has been recognized by a number of previous studies, but it has not been well understood in terms of the hydrodynamics of basin fluid flow. We have demonstrated in a previous study that the preferential localization of Cretaceous uranium mineralization in the upper part of the Ordos Jurassic section may have been related to the interface between an upward flowing, reducing fluid and a downward flowing, oxidizing fluid. This interface may have been controlled by the interplay between fluid overpressure related to disequilibrium sediment compaction and which drove the upward flow, and topographic relief, which drove the downward flow. In this study, we carried out numerical modeling for the contribution of oil and gas generation to the development of fluid overpressure, in addition to sediment compaction and heating. Our results indicate that when hydrocarbon generation is taken into account, fluid overpressure during the Cretaceous was more than doubled in comparison with the simulation when hydrocarbon generation was not considered. Furthermore, fluid overpressure dissipation at the end of sedimentation slowed down relative to the no-hydrocarbon generation case. These results suggest that hydrocarbon generation may have played an important role in uranium mineralization, not only in providing reducing agents required for the mineralization, but also in contributing to the driving force to maintain the upward flow.

  20. Sulfobetaine as a zwitterionic mediator for 3D hydroxyapatite mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingsheng; Song, Jie

    2013-03-01

    Both positively and negatively charged residues play pivotal roles in recruiting precursor ions or ion clusters, and lowering interfacial energy in natural biomineralization process. Synergistic utilization of opposite charges, however, has rarely been implemented in the design of cytocompatible synthetic scaffolds promoting hydroxyapatite (HA)-mineralization and osteointegration. We report the use of cytocompatible zwitterionic sulfobetaine ligands to enable 3-dimensional in vitro mineralization of HA across covalently crosslinked hydrogels. The overall charge-neutral zwitterionic hydrogel effectively recruited oppositely charged precursor ions while overcame excessive swelling exhibited by anionic and cationic hydrogels under physiological conditions, resulting in denser and structurally well-integrated mineralized composites. Further controls over the size, content, and spatial distribution of the mineral domains within the zwitterionic hydrogel are accomplished by facile adjustments of hydrogel crosslinking densities and the supersaturation rate governing heterogeneous mineral nucleation and growth. These findings should inspire many creative uses of zwitterionic polymers and polymer coatings for skeletal tissue repair and regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adsorption of Trametes versicolor laccase to soil iron and aluminum minerals: enzyme activity, kinetics and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Jiang, Ying; Jiao, Jiaguo; Liu, Manqiang; Hu, Feng; Griffiths, Bryan S; Li, Huixin

    2014-02-01

    Laccases play an important role in the degradation of soil phenol or phenol-like substance and can be potentially used in soil remediation through immobilization. Iron and aluminum minerals can adsorb extracellular enzymes in soil environment. In the present study, we investigated the adsorptive interaction of laccase, from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, with soil iron and aluminum minerals and characterized the properties of the enzyme after adsorption to minerals. Results showed that both soil iron and aluminum minerals adsorbed great amount of laccase, independent of the mineral specific surface areas. Adsorbed laccases retained 26-64% of the activity of the free enzyme. Compared to the free laccase, all adsorbed laccases showed higher Km values and lower Vmax values, indicating a reduced enzyme-substrate affinity and a lower rate of substrate conversion in reactions catalyzed by the adsorbed laccase. Adsorbed laccases exhibited increased catalytic activities compared to the free laccase at low pH, implying the suitable application of iron and aluminum mineral-adsorbed T. versicolor laccase in soil bioremediation, especially in acid soils. In terms of the thermal profiles, adsorbed laccases showed decreased thermal stability and higher temperature sensitivity relative to the free laccase. Moreover, adsorption improved the resistance of laccase to proteolysis and extended the lifespan of laccase. Our results implied that adsorbed T. versicolor laccase on soil iron and aluminum minerals had promising potential in soil remediation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Probing the rhizosphere to define mineral organic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M. S.; Dohnalkova, A.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation and stabilization over time is an important process as soils are a large carbon reservoir in which feedbacks under changing climates are unclear. The association of SOM with poorly crystalline or short-range-ordered secondary minerals has been shown to be important for carbon stabilization. Commonly used soil extraction techniques display correlations of SOM with secondary phases but do not show causation. The fate of root exudates in soils and processes controlling exudate associations with mineral phases are as yet structurally undefined. Sub-micron exploration of in-situ relations provides valuable information on SOM-mineral interactions. Soils of the Santa Cruz (California) marine terrace chronosequence are used to illustrate changes in deep (> 1 m) rhizosphere through time. Cracks and soil ped faces are sites of high root density and organic matter (biofilm or mucilage) deposition. We employ a variety of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques for high resolution imaging and elemental analyses of deep rhizosphere and associated carbon mineral interactions. In these coastal prairie soils microscopy reveals secondary clay minerals associated with and possibly forming from organic-rich mucilage that occurs along the aforementioned rooting networks on fracture surfaces. We hypothesize that the production of secondary clays in the rhizosphere is an important mode of C incorporation into secondary minerals.

  3. Minerals in soil select distinct bacterial communities in their microhabitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jennifer K; Campbell, Louise; Rooney, Deirdre; Clipson, Nicholas; Gleeson, Deirdre B

    2009-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that different minerals in soil select distinct bacterial communities in their microhabitats. Mica (M), basalt (B) and rock phosphate (RP) were incubated separately in soil planted with Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium rigidum or left unplanted. After 70 days, the mineral and soil fractions were separated by sieving. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis was used to determine whether the bacterial community structure was affected by the mineral, fraction and plant treatments. Principal coordinate plots showed clustering of bacterial communities from different fraction and mineral treatments, but not from different plant treatments. Permutational multivariate anova (permanova) showed that the microhabitats of M, B and RP selected bacterial communities different from each other in unplanted and L. rigidum, and in T. subterraneum, bacterial communities from M and B differed (Ppermanova also showed that each mineral fraction selected bacterial communities different from the surrounding soil fraction (P<0.05). This study shows that the structure of bacterial communities in soil is influenced by the mineral substrates in their microhabitat and that minerals in soil play a greater role in bacterial ecology than simply providing an inert matrix for bacterial growth. This study suggests that mineral heterogeneity in soil contributes to the spatial variation in bacterial communities.

  4. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  5. Platinum-group element mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewaldt, G.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the geological processes responsible for the abnormal enrichment of the platinum-group elements (PGE) in the mineralized layers of the Bushveld Complex. Questions asked are: what processes caused enrichment of the Bushveld magma in the PGE ; by what processes were these PGE concentrated in the mineralized layers ; was contamination of the Bushveld magma from external sources important in the formation of the PGE enriched layers ; what are the effects of fractional crystallization on the PGE ratios

  6. The global stoichiometry of litter nitrogen mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano Manzoni; Robert B. Jackson; John A. Trofymow; Amilcare Porporato

    2008-01-01

    Plant residue decomposition and the nutrient release to the soil play a major role in global carbon and nutrient cycling. Although decomposition rates vary strongly with climate, nitrogen immobilization into litter and its release in mineral forms are mainly controlled by the initial chemical composition of the residues. We used a data set of ~2800 observations to show...

  7. To Play or Not to Play: Diverse Motives for Latino and Euro-American Parent-Child Play in a Children's Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBianca Fasoli, Allison

    2014-01-01

    A popular social discourse in the United States is that play is important for children's learning and that parental involvement maximizes play's learning potential. Past research has concluded that parents who hold this view of play are more likely to play with their children than those who do not. This study investigated the prevalence…

  8. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral potential represents the likelihood (probability) that an economic mineral deposit could have formed in an area. Mineral potential assessment and prospectivity analysis use a probabilistic concepts to mineral deposits, where the probability of an event (formation of a mineral deposit) is conditional on two factors : i) geological processes occurring in the area, and ii) the presence of geological features indicative of those process. For instance, one of the geological processes critical for the formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in an area is transport of uranium in groundwaters. Geological features indicative of this process in an area comprise, i) presence of leachable source rocks of uranium; ii) presence of highly permeable sandstone; and iii) suitable hydrogeological gradient driving flow groundwaters. Mineral deposits can also be conceptualised as mineral systems with more emphasis on mineralising processes. This concept has some clear parallels with the petroleum systems approach which has proven to be a useful in oil and gas exploration. Mineral systems are defined as ‘all geological factors that control the generation and preservation of mineral deposits’. Seven important geological factors are outlined to define the characteristics of a hydrothermal mineral system. These factors include: i) source of the mineralising fluids and transporting legends; ii) source of metals and other ore components; iii) migration pathways which may include inflow as well as outflow zones; iv) thermal gradients; v) source of energy to mobilised fluids; vi) mechanical and structural focusing mechanism at the trap site; and vii) chemical and/or physical cause for precipitation of ore minerals at the trap site. This approach, commonly known as the ‘source’, ‘transport’ and ‘trap’ paradigm has been redefined to introduce five questions as a basis to understand spatial and temporal evolution of a mineral system at all scales (regional to

  9. Indústria mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran F. Machado

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A INDÚSTRIA mineral brasileira é analisada, de modo sucinto, face aos desafios impostos pela globalização contemporânea. As mudanças profundas ocorridas no contexto internacional na última década, abrangendo as esferas política, econômica, social e institucional, exigem uma reflexão aprofundada sobre o papel a ser desempenhado pelo Brasil no comércio internacional de bens minerais. De um lado, as oportunidades de aproveitamento de jazidas de classe internacional, principalmente na Amazônia, são bastante promissoras. Por outro, não se deve ignorar que: a explotação dessas reservas terá de obedecer a critérios de sustentabilidade, seguindo paradigmas já adotados em países desenvolvidos; o Brasil terá de garantir a sua competitividade diante dos seus principais concorrentes (Austrália, CEI, China e Índia. A questão dos minerais estratégicos é também abordada, com ênfase nas preocupações demonstradas pelo Departamento de Estado dos EUA. Finalmente, são alinhados três cenários possíveis para o desempenho futuro da mineração brasileira, instando-se o governo a dedicar maior atenção ao destino do nosso subsolo.THE MINERAL industry of Brazil is briefly analysed vis-à-vis the challenges imposed by the cruenta globalization process. The profound changes that occurred in the international framework during the last decade, encompassing the political, economic, social, and institutional structures, demand a thorough appraisal about the role to be played by Brazil in the international market of mineral commodities. On one hand, the opportunities open for world class deposits, mainly in the Amazon, are very promising. On the other hand, it is mandatory to take into account that: the exploitation of these reserves shall comply with sound sustainability criteria, following guidelines already adopted by some developed countries; Brazil will have to demonstrate its competitiveness among the major competitors (Australia

  10. Computational and Spectroscopic Investigations of the Molecular Scale Structure and Dynamics of Geologically Important Fluids and Mineral-Fluid Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R. James; Kalinichev, Andrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Research supported by this grant focuses on molecular scale understanding of central issues related to the structure and dynamics of geochemically important fluids, fluid-mineral interfaces, and confined fluids using computational modeling and experimental methods. Molecular scale knowledge about fluid structure and dynamics, how these are affected by mineral surfaces and molecular-scale (nano-) confinement, and how water molecules and dissolved species interact with surfaces is essential to understanding the fundamental chemistry of a wide range of low-temperature geochemical processes, including sorption and geochemical transport. Our principal efforts are devoted to continued development of relevant computational approaches, application of these approaches to important geochemical questions, relevant NMR and other experimental studies, and application of computational modeling methods to understanding the experimental results. The combination of computational modeling and experimental approaches is proving highly effective in addressing otherwise intractable problems. In 2006-2007 we have significantly advanced in new, highly promising research directions along with completion of on-going projects and final publication of work completed in previous years. New computational directions are focusing on modeling proton exchange reactions in aqueous solutions using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), metadynamics (MTD), and empirical valence bond (EVB) approaches. Proton exchange is critical to understanding the structure, dynamics, and reactivity at mineral-water interfaces and for oxy-ions in solution, but has traditionally been difficult to model with molecular dynamics (MD). Our ultimate objective is to develop this capability, because MD is much less computationally demanding than quantum-chemical approaches. We have also extended our previous MD simulations of metal binding to natural organic matter (NOM) to a much longer time scale (up to 10 ns) for

  11. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bond: focus on children in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milteer, Regina M; Ginsburg, Kenneth R

    2012-01-01

    Play is essential to the social, emotional, cognitive, and physical well-being of children beginning in early childhood. It is a natural tool for children to develop resiliency as they learn to cooperate, overcome challenges, and negotiate with others. Play also allows children to be creative. It provides time for parents to be fully engaged with their children, to bond with their children, and to see the world from the perspective of their child. However, children who live in poverty often face socioeconomic obstacles that impede their rights to have playtime, thus affecting their healthy social-emotional development. For children who are underresourced to reach their highest potential, it is essential that parents, educators, and pediatricians recognize the importance of lifelong benefits that children gain from play.

  12. [Micronutrients and diabetes, the case of minerals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Silvestre, María de Los Ángeles; Ortiz-López, María Guadalupe; Montúfar-Robles, Isela; Menjívar-Iraheta, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are essential nutrients for the body, are of inorganic nature which gives them the characteristic of being resistant to heat, are involved in a lot of chemical reactions in metabolism, regulating electrolyte balance, in maintaining bone, in the process of blood clotting and the transmission of nerve impulses, particularly its role as enzyme cofactors confers a key role in various physiological processes. Glucose homeostasis involves a fine coordination of events where hormonal control by insulin plays a key role. However, the role of minerals like magnesium, zinc, chromium, iron and selenium in the diabetes is less obvious and in some cases may be controversial. This review shows the knowledge of these five elements and their correlation with diabetes.

  13. The Pedagogy of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Play is important. Environmental educators Sobel and Louv write about the relationship between children and outside play and suggest that early transcendental experiences within nature allow children to develop empathetic orientations towards the natural world. Children who play out-of-doors develop an appreciation for the environment and…

  14. Economic importance of the small miner and small mining businesses in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, C.C.; Whitney, J.W.; Wobber, F.J.

    1977-11-01

    This study documents the economic characteristics of the small mining industry in Alaska, including both mine production and mineral deposit discovery. Economic effects on business activities in Alaska are considered. The study is largely qualitative in nature. It is based on state economic statistics, data obtained from state and federal government agencies, interviews, and indirect evaluation. Direct and indirect effects on employment, purchase and maintenance of heavy equipment, fuels, other consumables, and transportation are identified.

  15. Business as usual? Results of Global Continuous Miner and Bolter Miner Census 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Arne K. [RWTH Aachen (DE). Excavation and Mining Equipment Group (BGMR); E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Nienhaus, Karl; Dangela, Manuel [RWTH Aachen (DE). Excavation and Mining Equipment Group (BGMR)

    2009-08-27

    The Global Continuous Miner and Bolter Miner Census 2008 conducted by the Excavation and Mining Equipment Group (BGMR), RWTH Aachen, identified globally the 1,400 CM production units and about 200 Bolter Miners are mainly employed in coal mining operations. The study identified a number of relevant trends of interest to both mining companies as well as original equipment manufacturers (OEM). E.g. new markets like China, India or Russia are not developing as quickly as expected, the large CM and BM nations like US, South Africa and Australia will remain saturated and the annual replacement rate of new machines will stabilize at some 160 units. Other key findings highlight the growing importance of after sales services and a stronger focus on automation, as well as, aspects of Health, Safety and Environment (HSE). (orig.)

  16. International availability of energy minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, N A

    1978-09-01

    Whereas the ultimate world supply of energy minerals--defined as fossil fuels and fissile materials--is controlled by geological factors, the actual supply at any particular time is controlled by economic feasibility, technological innovations and/or political decisions. This paper identifies and discusses the principal uncertainties surrounding the international availability of energy minerals from now until the end of the century. Genuine shortages of energy minerals are now of a very long-term nature, whereas artificial ones may occur at any time and have a serious effect on the world economy due to the dependence of most OECD countries on imports of energy minerals. This paper argues that events over the last decade will progressively lead to a major, long-lasting transformation of the energy scene worldwide. This transformation will encompass demand, in terms of conservation and efficiency, the supply mix of the various energy minerals, the supply system and the structure of the different energy industries. It is already affecting the role of governments and reaching into the question of national sovereignty, thereby making energy minerals a key area of international relations. In all these respects, this paper concludes that we have entered an era that is quite different from those we have experienced in the past. As well as requiring many new technological innovations, more importantly, attention must be focused on the development of new approaches to meeting the energy industries' capital requirements in the decades ahead--first, because of the changing character of the energy industries and the magnitude of their financial requirements; secondly, because of the nature of the uncertainties with which they are faced; and thirdly, because of the constantly shifting and increasingly complex world capital market conditions.

  17. Copy number variation plays an important role in clinical epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Heather; Shen, Yiping; Avallone, Jennifer; Sheidley, Beth R.; Pinsky, Rebecca; Bergin, Ann M.; Berry, Gerard T.; Duffy, Frank H.; Eksioglu, Yaman; Harris, David J.; Hisama, Fuki M.; Ho, Eugenia; Irons, Mira; Jacobsen, Christina M.; James, Philip; Kothare, Sanjeev; Khwaja, Omar; Lipton, Jonathan; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Markowitz, Jennifer; Maski, Kiran; Megerian, J. Thomas; Neilan, Edward; Raffalli, Peter C.; Robbins, Michael; Roberts, Amy; Roe, Eugene; Rollins, Caitlin; Sahin, Mustafa; Sarco, Dean; Schonwald, Alison; Smith, Sharon E.; Soul, Janet; Stoler, Joan M.; Takeoka, Masanori; Tan, Wen-Han; Torres, Alcy R.; Tsai, Peter; Urion, David K.; Weissman, Laura; Wolff, Robert; Wu, Bai-Lin; Miller, David T.; Poduri, Annapurna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of copy number abnormalities detectable by chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing in patients with epilepsy at a tertiary care center. Methods We identified patients with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures and clinical CMA testing performed between October 2006 and February 2011 at Boston Children’s Hospital. We reviewed medical records and included patients meeting criteria for epilepsy. We phenotypically characterized patients with epilepsy-associated abnormalities on CMA. Results Of 973 patients who had CMA and ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures, 805 patients satisfied criteria for epilepsy. We observed 437 copy number variants (CNVs) in 323 patients (1–4 per patient), including 185 (42%) deletions and 252 (58%) duplications. Forty (9%) were confirmed de novo, 186 (43%) were inherited, and parental data were unavailable for 211 (48%). Excluding full chromosome trisomies, CNV size ranged from 18 kb to 142 Mb, and 34% were over 500 kb. In at least 40 cases (5%), the epilepsy phenotype was explained by a CNV, including 29 patients with epilepsy-associated syndromes and 11 with likely disease-associated CNVs involving epilepsy genes or “hotspots.” We observed numerous recurrent CNVs including 10 involving loss or gain of Xp22.31, a region described in patients with and without epilepsy. Interpretation Copy number abnormalities play an important role in patients with epilepsy. Given that the diagnostic yield of CMA for epilepsy patients is similar to the yield in autism spectrum disorders and in prenatal diagnosis, for which published guidelines recommend testing with CMA, we recommend the implementation of CMA in the evaluation of unexplained epilepsy. PMID:24811917

  18. Cell-wall polysaccharides play an important role in decay resistance of Sphagnum and actively depressed decomposition in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hajek, T.; Ballance, S.; Limpens, J.; Verhoeven, J.T.A.; Zijlstra, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sphagnum-dominated peatlands head the list of ecosystems with the largest known reservoirs of organic carbon (C). The bulk of this C is stored in decomposition-resistant litter of one bryophyte genus: Sphagnum. Understanding how Sphagnum litter chemistry controls C mineralization is essential for understanding potential interactions between environmental changes and C mineralization in peatlands. We aimed to separate the effects of phenolics from structural polysaccharides on decay of Sphagnu...

  19. Interaction of oil and mineral fines on shorelines: review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, Edward H.; Lee, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of fine mineral particles with stranded oil in an aqueous medium reduces the adhesion of the oil to solid surfaces, such as sediments or bedrock. The net result is the formation of stable, micron-sized, oil droplets that disperse into the water column. In turn, the increase in surface area makes the oil more available for biodegradation. This interaction, referred to as oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation, can explain how oiled shorelines are cleaned naturally in the absence of wave action in very sheltered coastal environments. OMA formation also plays an important role in the efficacy of shoreline treatment techniques, such as physical mixing and sediment relocation that move oiled sediments into the zone of wave action to promote the interaction between oil and mineral fines. Successful application of these shoreline treatment options has been demonstrated at two spill events (the Tampa Bay response in Florida and the Sea Empress operation in Wales) and at a controlled oil spill experiment in the field (the 1997 Svalbard ITOSS program). Sediment relocation harnesses the hydraulic action of waves so that the processes of fine-particle interaction and physical abrasion usually occur in tandem on open coasts. There has been no evidence of significant detrimental side-effects of residual oil in pelagic or benthic environments associated with the use of these treatment options to enhance rates of dispersion and oil biodegradation

  20. Interaction of oil and mineral fines on shorelines: review and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Edward H.; Lee, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    The interaction of fine mineral particles with stranded oil in an aqueous medium reduces the adhesion of the oil to solid surfaces, such as sediments or bedrock. The net result is the formation of stable, micron-sized, oil droplets that disperse into the water column. In turn, the increase in surface area makes the oil more available for biodegradation. This interaction, referred to as oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation, can explain how oiled shorelines are cleaned naturally in the absence of wave action in very sheltered coastal environments. OMA formation also plays an important role in the efficacy of shoreline treatment techniques, such as physical mixing and sediment relocation that move oiled sediments into the zone of wave action to promote the interaction between oil and mineral fines. Successful application of these shoreline treatment options has been demonstrated at two spill events (the Tampa Bay response in Florida and the Sea Empress operation in Wales) and at a controlled oil spill experiment in the field (the 1997 Svalbard ITOSS program). Sediment relocation harnesses the hydraulic action of waves so that the processes of fine-particle interaction and physical abrasion usually occur in tandem on open coasts. There has been no evidence of significant detrimental side-effects of residual oil in pelagic or benthic environments associated with the use of these treatment options to enhance rates of dispersion and oil biodegradation.

  1. Computational and Experimental Investigations of the Molecular Scale Structure and Dynamics of Gologically Important Fluids and Mineral-Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, Geoffrey [Alfred Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-04-05

    United States Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-10ER16128, “Computational and Spectroscopic Investigations of the Molecular Scale Structure and Dynamics of Geologically Important Fluids and Mineral-Fluid Interfaces” (Geoffrey M. Bowers, P.I.) focused on developing a molecular-scale understanding of processes that occur in fluids and at solid-fluid interfaces using the combination of spectroscopic, microscopic, and diffraction studies with molecular dynamics computer modeling. The work is intimately tied to the twin proposal at Michigan State University (DOE DE-FG02-08ER15929; same title: R. James Kirkpatrick, P.I. and A. Ozgur Yazaydin, co-P.I.).

  2. Minerals from Macedonia: XV. Sivec mineral assemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Jovanovski, Gligor; Makreski, Petre; Bermanec, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents investigations carried out on the collected minerals from the Sivec deposit. It is situated in the vicinity of the town of Prilep, representing a rare occurrence of sugary white dolomite marbles. The application of suitable methods of exploitation of decorative-dimension stones makes possible to obtain large amounts of commercial blocks well known in the world. Despite the existence of dolomite marbles, a series of exotic minerals are typical in Sivec mineralization. Among them, the most significant are: calcite, fluorite, rutile, phlogopite, corundum, diaspore, almandine, kosmatite (clintonite or margarite), clinochlore, muscovite, quartz, pyrite, tourmaline and zoisite. An attempt to identify ten collected minerals using the FT IR spectroscopy is performed. The identification of the minerals was based on the comparison of the infrared spectra of our specimens with the corresponding literature data for the mineral species originating all over the world. The coloured pictures of all studied silicate minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  3. Immobilization of actinides in stable mineral type and ceramic materials (high temperature synthesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, O.; Konovalov, E.

    1996-05-01

    Alternative vitrification technologies are being developed in the world for the immobilization of high radioactive waste in materials with improved thermodynamic stability, as well as improved chemical and thermal stability and stability to radiation. Oxides, synthesized in the form of analogs to rock-forming minerals and ceramics, are among those materials that have highly stable properties and are compatible with the environment. In choosing the appropriate material, we need to be guided by its geometric stability, the minimal number of cations in the structure of the material and the presence of structural elements in the mineral that are isomorphs of uranium and thorium, actinoids found in nature. Rare earth elements, yttrium, zirconium and calcium are therefore suitable. The minerals listed in the table (with the exception of the zircon) are pegatites by origin, i.e. they are formed towards the end of the magma crystallization of silicates form the residual melt, enriched with Ta, Nb, Ti, Zr, Ce, Y, U and Th. Uranium and thorium in the form of isomorphic admixtures form part of the lattice of the mineral. These minerals, which are rather simple in composition and structure and are formed under high temperatures, may be viewed as natural physio-chemical systems that are stable and long-lived in natural environments. The similarity of the properties of actinoids and lanthanoids plays an important role in the geochemistry of uranium and thorium; however, uranium (IV) is closer to the {open_quotes}heavy{close_quotes} group of lanthanoids (the yttrium group) while thorium (IV) is closer to the {open_quotes}light{close_quotes} group (the cerium group). That is why rare earth minerals contain uranium and thorium in the form of isomorphic admixtures.

  4. Taking Play Seriously: Children and Play in Early Childhood Education--An Exciting Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillemyr, Ole Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    In the book the author presents from different perspectives what is understood by the phenomenon of children's play, why it is important, and how children's play challenge and stimulate the educator or caregiver in regard of educational values and practice, with the conclusion: play has to be taken seriously. A selection of theories is introduced…

  5. A Cohort Study on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer among miners have shown that occupational exposure also played an important role. The aim of this study is to investigate radon, cigarette use and other risk factors of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational lung cancer. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among Yunnan tin miners, the associations between potential risk factors for lung cancer were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Effects of age at first radon exposure and radon exposure rate on lung cancer risk were analyzed. The relationship between cumulative working level month and lung cancer was analyzed according to smoking status. The joint effect of tobacco use and cumulative radon exposure was analyzed based on additive and multiplicative models. Results Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with age at enrollment, tobacco use, prior bronchitis, and cumulative arsenic and radon exposure, while higher education level was associated with decreased lung cancer risk. An inverse effect of radon exposure rate was observed. There was no significant association between lung cancer risk and first radon exposure age. There was a significant additive interaction between tobacco use and radon exposure on lung cancer risk. Conclusion Several risk factors may contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners. Further studies are warranted to evaluate joint effect of different risk factors.

  6. Advances in microbial leaching processes for nickel extraction from lateritic minerals - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behra, Sunil Kumar; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine Floribert

    2015-01-01

    Lateritic nickel minerals constitute about 80% of nickel reserves in the world, but their contribution for nickel production is about 40%. The obstacles in extraction of nickel from lateritic minerals are attributed to their very complex mineralogy and low nickel content. Hence, the existing metallurgical techniques are not techno-economically feasible and environmentally sustainable for processing of such complex deposits. At this juncture, microbial mineral processing could be a benevolent approach for processing of lateritic minerals in favor of nickel extraction. The microbial mineral processing route offers many advantages over conventional metallurgical methods as the process is operated under ambient conditions and requires low energy input; thus these processes are relatively simple and environment friendly. Microbial processing of the lateritic deposits still needs improvement to make it industrially viable. Microorganisms play the pivotal role in mineral bio-processing as they catalyze the extraction of metals from minerals. So it is inevitable to explore the physiological and bio-molecular mechanisms involved in this microbe-mineral interaction. The present article offers comprehensive information about the advances in microbial processes for extraction of nickel from laterites.

  7. Advances in microbial leaching processes for nickel extraction from lateritic minerals - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behra, Sunil Kumar; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine Floribert [Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, (South Africa)

    2015-08-15

    Lateritic nickel minerals constitute about 80% of nickel reserves in the world, but their contribution for nickel production is about 40%. The obstacles in extraction of nickel from lateritic minerals are attributed to their very complex mineralogy and low nickel content. Hence, the existing metallurgical techniques are not techno-economically feasible and environmentally sustainable for processing of such complex deposits. At this juncture, microbial mineral processing could be a benevolent approach for processing of lateritic minerals in favor of nickel extraction. The microbial mineral processing route offers many advantages over conventional metallurgical methods as the process is operated under ambient conditions and requires low energy input; thus these processes are relatively simple and environment friendly. Microbial processing of the lateritic deposits still needs improvement to make it industrially viable. Microorganisms play the pivotal role in mineral bio-processing as they catalyze the extraction of metals from minerals. So it is inevitable to explore the physiological and bio-molecular mechanisms involved in this microbe-mineral interaction. The present article offers comprehensive information about the advances in microbial processes for extraction of nickel from laterites.

  8. Microcalorimetric and potentiometric titration studies on the adsorption of copper by P. putida and B. thuringiensis and their composites with minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Linchuan; Cai Peng; Li Pengxiang; Wu Huayong; Liang Wei; Rong Xingmin; Chen Wenli; Huang Qiaoyun

    2010-01-01

    In order to have a better understanding of the interactions of heavy metals with bacteria and minerals in soil and associated environments, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), potentiometric titration and equilibrium sorption experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption behavior of Cu(II) by Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas putida and their composites with minerals. The interaction of montmorillonite with bacteria increased the reactive sites and resulted in greater adsorption for Cu(II) on their composites, while decreased adsorption sites and capacities for Cu(II) were observed on goethite-bacteria composites. A gram-positive bacterium B. thuringiensis played a more important role than a gram-negative bacterium P. putida in determining the properties of the bacteria-minerals interfaces. The enthalpy changes (ΔH ads ) from endothermic (6.14 kJ mol -1 ) to slightly exothermic (-0.78 kJ mol -1 ) suggested that Cu(II) is complexed with the anionic oxygen ligands on the surface of bacteria-mineral composites. Large entropies (32.96-58.89 J mol -1 K -1 ) of Cu(II) adsorption onto bacteria-mineral composites demonstrated the formation of inner-sphere complexes in the presence of bacteria. The thermodynamic data implied that Cu(II) mainly bound to the carboxyl and phosphoryl groups as inner-sphere complexes on bacteria and mineral-bacteria composites.

  9. Mineral Licks Attract Neotropical Seed-Dispersing Bats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, Ch.C.; Dechmann, D.K.N.; Dechmann, D.K.N.; Kunz, Th.H.; Bender, J.; Rinehart, B.J.; Michener, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Unlike most terrestrial mammals, female bats must supply their offspring with all required nutrients until pups achieve virtually adult size, at which time they are able to fly and become independent. Access to nutrients may be especially challenging for reproductively active females in mineral-poor landscapes such as tropical rain forests. We hypothesized that pregnant and lactating females from tropical landscapes acquire essential nutrients from locally-available mineral licks. We captured ten times as many bats at mineral licks than at control sites in a lowland rain forest in eastern Ecuador. Among bats captured at mineral licks, the sex ratio was heavily biased toward females, and a significantly higher portion of females captured at these sites, compared to control sites, were reproductively active (pregnant and lactating). Enrichment of N 15 in relation to N 14 in wing tissue indicated that bats captured at mineral licks were mostly fruit-eating species. Given the high visitation rates of reproductive active females at mineral licks, it is likely that mineral licks are important for fruit-eating female bats as a mineral source during late pregnancy and lactation. By sustaining high population densities of fruit-eating bats that disperse seeds, mineral licks may have an indirect influence on local plant species richness.

  10. Increasing labor productivity - an important target for miners. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The development of coal mining in the USSR from 1980 to 1983 is discussed. Factors which influence labor productivity increase are analyzed: use of equipment with increased productivity and reliability (e.g. the KM-103 and KD-80 face systems for thin coal seams, the ANShch integrated face systems for steep coal mines, the KMT and 2UKP systems for mining seams with roofs difficult to break down, the 4PP-2 and 4PP-2Shch heading machines), use of equipment replacing manual operations during underground mining, increasing role of surface coal mining which is characterized by labor productivity higher than in underground mining, use of more reliable mining systems in surface mining less influenced by low temperatures in winter (in Siberia), use of mining schemes optimized by means of computerized simulation and mathematical models both in underground and surface coal mining, reducing idletime of mining equipment, social and economic policy aimed at labor productivity increase and reducing absenteeism, improved training and refreshment courses for miners, use of automatic control systems in coal preparation plants, use of more productive equipment for coal preparation.

  11. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andr?s; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tom?s

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of c...

  12. Conditions and potential evaluation of the uranium mineralization in volcanic basins at the west section of the Yanliao mineral belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengbang; Zhao Shiqin; Luo Yi; Zhou Dean; Xiao Xiangping

    1993-03-01

    The West section of the Yanliao Mineral Belt is an important prospective uranium mineralization area in volcanic basins at North China. It has undergone three evolutionary periods and developed into six large volcanic collapse faulted basins with tri-layer structure. This leads to three times of pre-enrichment and multiple mineralization of uranium. Finally, the accumulation of uranium and superimposed reworked actions of uranium mineralization resulted in the formation of uranium deposits. After analyzing conditions of uranium mineralization, a model for uranium mineralization of mixed hydrothermal solution of multiple sources in penetrating volcanic collapse faulted basins and seven exploring criteria are suggested. On this basis the evaluation of prospect in this area is positive, and the main exploring strategy has been decided. Furthermore, five prospective areas of mineralization and three most favorable mineralization zones are selected. For exploring large size or super-large size uranium deposits in the area, the key is to strengthen the study and boring of deep layers. Thus, the mineralization in the deep layers or basement may be found. The prediction of deep blind deposits in known ore districts has been proved effectively

  13. Accessory mineral records of tectonic environments? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, C.; Marschall, H. R.; Enea, F.; Taylor, J.; Jennings, E. S.

    2010-12-01

    Accessory mineral research continues to gather momentum as we seek to unleash their full potential. It is now widely recognised that robust accessory minerals, such as zircon, rutile, titanite, allanite and monazite, are archives of important trace elements that can help deduce metamorphic reaction history in metapelites, metabasites and other rock types. Moreover, they are important carriers of certain trace elements and govern or influence the products of partial melting and of fluid-rock interaction (e.g. magmas and mineralisation) in settings like subduction zones and hydrothermal systems. Perhaps most importantly, they can often be dated using the U-Th-Pb system. More recently, radiogenic (Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) and stable (O) isotope systems have been applied and have further pushed the utility of accessory mineral research. In this talk I will discuss some of these advances towards one particular aim: the use of detrital accessory minerals for fingerprinting tectonic environments. This is a particularly laudable aim in Precambrian rocks, for which the preservation potential of orogenic belts and fossil subduction zones and their diagnostic metamorphic rocks is low. The implication is that our understanding of plate tectonics, particularly in the Archaean, is biased by the preserved in-tact rock record. An analogy is that Jack Hills zircons record evidence of Earth’s crust some 400 Ma before the preserved rock record begins. I will focus on some recent advances and new data from rutile and also the mineral inclusion record within zircon, which shows great promise for petrologic interpretation.

  14. Educational tools in the Museum of Rocks and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Barreto, S.; Ribeiro Sales, E.; de Lima Correia, A. Maria; Lima, M. Abreu e.; Bretas Bittar, S. Maria

    2012-04-01

    Rio do Peixe Basin in the state of Paraíba, Brazil, the most important record of dinosaur prints in Brazil. The games are part of a playful activity used at the end of the visit called "NiFe", in reference to the Earth's core. The idea is for this to be a moment of concentration and an opportunity to share the museum experience, an activity which is coordinated by the interns of the museum. The "NiFe" is an educational activity for children, which aims to transform the visual and sensory experience into a complete experience, something that changes us through our experience. The objective is to make the visit a dynamic and educative experience in contrast to the inanimate characteristic of the kingdom of minerals and rocks. The intention is that these games will be adopted by the education secretaries of state and municipal governments in order to contribute to the teaching of geoscience mainly at primary and secondary of education and undergraduate level.

  15. Life-Cycle environmental impact assessment of mineral industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisan Farjana, Shahjadi; Huda, Nazmul; Parvez Mahmud, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Mining is the extraction and processing of valuable ferro and non-ferro metals and minerals to be further used in manufacturing industries. Valuable metals and minerals are extracted from the geological deposits and ores deep in the surface through complex manufacturing technologies. The extraction and processing of mining industries involve particle emission to air or water, toxicity to the environment, contamination of water resources, ozone layer depletion and most importantly decay of human health. Despite all these negative impacts towards sustainability, mining industries are working throughout the world to facilitate the employment sector, economy and technological growth. The five most important miners in the world are South Africa, Russia, Australia, Ukraine, Guinea. The mining industries contributes to their GDP significantly. However, the most important issue is making the mining world sustainable thus reducing the emissions. To address the environmental impacts caused by the mining sectors, this paper is going to analyse the environmental impacts caused by the 5 major minerals extraction processes, which are bauxite, ilmenite, iron ore, rutile and uranium by using the life-cycle impact assessment technologies. The analysis is done here using SimaPro software version 8.4 using ReCipe, CML and Australian indicator method.

  16. Mineral formation and organo-mineral controls on the bioavailability of carbon at the terrestrial-aquatic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, K. A.; Smith, A. P.; Renslow, R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence highlights the importance of organo-mineral interactions in regulating the source or sink capacity of soil. High surface area soils, such as allophane-rich or clay-rich soils, retain organic matter (OM) via sorption to mineral surfaces which can also contribute physical isolation in interlayer spaces. Despite the direct correlation between mineral surfaces and OM accumulation, the pedogenic processes controlling the abundance of reactive surface areas and their distribution in the mineral matrix remains unclear. As global soil temperatures rise, the dissolution of primary minerals and formation of new secondary minerals may be thermodynamically favored as part of soil weathering process. Newly formed minerals can supply surfaces for organo-metallic bonding and may, therefore, stabilize OM by surface bonding and physical exclusion. This is especially relevant in environments that intersect terrestrial and aquatic systems, such as the capillary fringe zone in riparian ecosystems. To test the mechanisms of mineral surface area protection of OM, we facilitated secondary precipitation of alumino-silicates in the presence of OM held at two different temperatures in natural Nisqually River sediments (Mt Rainier, WA). This was a three month reaction intended to simulate early pedogenesis. To tease out the influence of mineral surface area increase during pedogenesis, we incubated the sediments at two different soil moisture contents to induce biodegradation. We measured OM desorption, biodegradation, and the molecular composition of mineral-associated OM both prior to and following the temperature manipulation. To simulate the saturation of capillary fringe sediment and associated transport and reaction of OM, column experiments were conducted using the reacted sediments. More co-precipitation was observed in the 20°C solution compared to the 4°C reacted solution suggesting that warming trends alter mineral development and may remove more OM from solution

  17. On Mineral Retrosynthesis of a Complex Biogenic Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashit Rao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic relations between organic molecules and mineral precursors regulate biogenic mineralization. Given the remarkable material properties of the egg shell as a biogenic ceramic, it serves as an important model to elucidate biomineral growth. With established roles of complex anionic biopolymers and a heterogeneous organic scaffold in egg shell mineralization, the present study explores the regulation over mineralization attained by applying synthetic polymeric counterparts (polyethylene glycol, poly(acrylic acid, poly(aspartic acid and poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid as additives during remineralization of decalcified eggshell membranes. By applying Mg2+ ions as a co-additive species, mineral retrosynthesis is achieved in a manner that modulates the polymorph and structure of mineral products. Notable features of the mineralization process include distinct local wettability of the biogenic organic scaffold by mineral precursors and mineralization-induced membrane actuation. Overall, the form, structure and polymorph of the mineralization products are synergistically affected by the additive and the content of Mg2+ ions. We also revisit the physicochemical nature of the biomineral scaffold and demonstrate the distinct spatial distribution of anionic biomolecules associated with the scaffold-mineral interface, as well as highlight the hydrogel-like properties of mammillae-associated macromolecules.

  18. In Defense of Play: Beginning the Dialog about the Power of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myck-Wayne, Janice

    2010-01-01

    This article provides early childhood practitioners a way to develop a common understanding of the importance of play in the early learning experience of young children. Meaningful discussion among teachers, parents, administrators, and teacher candidates regarding play in early childhood education programs is critical to ensure the growth and…

  19. Why do Dolphins Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.

  20. IRBIT plays an important role in NHE3-mediated pHi regulation in HSG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tien Manh; Park, Moon-Yong; Lee, Jiyeon; Bae, Jun-Seok; Hwang, Sung-Min; Choi, Se-Young; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Park, Kyungpyo

    2013-07-19

    Expression of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-binding protein (IRBIT) has been reported in epithelial cells. However, its role in pHi regulation is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the role of IRBIT in pHi regulation, mediated by Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs), in salivary glands. We measured pHi recovery from cell acidification in BCECF-loaded salivary HSG cells. Western blot and co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) assays were also performed, showing that NHE1, 2 and 3 are expressed, and IRBIT binds to NHE3. HOE642, a specific NHE1 blocker, inhibited pHi recovery, but 40% pH(i) recovery was still observed even at the highest concentration of HOE642. Furthermore, pretreatment of the cells with siIRBIT significantly inhibited pHi recovery, indicating that NHE3 potentially plays a role in pHi recovery as well. The amount of membrane-localized NHE3 and its interaction with IRBIT are also significantly increased by cell acidification. In addition, we found that Ste20p-related proline alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) reverses the effect of IRBIT on membrane NHE3 translocation. Taken together, we conclude that IRBIT plays an important role in pHi regulation, mediated by NHE3, and further regulated by SPAK. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Europe and Central Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  2. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  3. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  4. Dating oxalate minerals in rock surface deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watchman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxalate minerals are found associated with rocks, mineral coatings, micro-organisms, plants and animals. They are important in archaeology because they have been found intimately associated with organic binders in prehistoric paints. Oxalate minerals also accumulate in the coatings on rock shelter walls and fallen ceiling slabs where they form the natural backing supports for painting and opaque laminates covering engravings. Though the relationship between anthropogenic activity in a rock shelter and oxalate formation is often uncertain, the radiocarbon age of the oxalate may provide the only means for determining the antiquity of a rock painting or engraving. This paper examines the history of dating oxalate minerals at archaeological sites and provides insights into achieving reliable age estimates. (author). 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Modeling CO2-Water-Mineral Wettability and Mineralization for Carbon Geosequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yunfeng; Tsuji, Shinya; Jia, Jihui; Tsuji, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2017-07-18

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) is an important climate change mitigation option along with improved energy efficiency, renewable energy, and nuclear energy. CO 2 geosequestration, that is, to store CO 2 under the subsurface of Earth, is feasible because the world's sedimentary basins have high capacity and are often located in the same region of the world as emission sources. How CO 2 interacts with the connate water and minerals is the focus of this Account. There are four trapping mechanisms that keep CO 2 in the pores of subsurface rocks: (1) structural trapping, (2) residual trapping, (3) dissolution trapping, and (4) mineral trapping. The first two are dominated by capillary action, where wettability controls CO 2 and water two-phase flow in porous media. We review state-of-the-art studies on CO 2 /water/mineral wettability, which was found to depend on pressure and temperature conditions, salt concentration in aqueous solutions, mineral surface chemistry, and geometry. We then review some recent advances in mineral trapping. First, we show that it is possible to reproduce the CO 2 /water/mineral wettability at a wide range of pressures using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. As the pressure increases, CO 2 gas transforms into a supercritical fluid or liquid at ∼7.4 MPa depending on the environmental temperature. This transition leads to a substantial decrease of the interfacial tension between CO 2 and reservoir brine (or pure water). However, the wettability of CO 2 /water/rock systems depends on the type of rock surface. Recently, we investigated the contact angle of CO 2 /water/silica systems with two different silica surfaces using MD simulations. We found that contact angle increased with pressure for the hydrophobic (siloxane) surface while it was almost constant for the hydrophilic (silanol) surface, in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Furthermore, we found that the CO 2 thin films at the CO 2 -hydrophilic

  6. Heterogeneous Reactions between Toluene and NO2 on Mineral Particles under Simulated Atmospheric Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hejingying; Li, Kezhi; Chu, Biwu; Su, Wenkang; Li, Junhua

    2017-09-05

    Heterogeneous reactions between organic and inorganic gases with aerosols are important for the study of smog occurrence and development. In this study, heterogeneous reactions between toluene and NO 2 with three atmospheric mineral particles in the presence or absence of UV light were investigated. The three mineral particles were SiO 2 , α-Fe 2 O 3 , and BS (butlerite and szmolnokite). In a dark environment, benzaldehyde was produced on α-Fe 2 O 3 . For BS, nitrotoluene and benzaldehyde were obtained. No aromatic products were produced in the absence of NO 2 in the system. In the presence of UV irradiation, benzaldehyde was detected on the SiO 2 surface. Identical products were produced in the presence and absence of UV light over α-Fe 2 O 3 and BS. UV light promoted nitrite to nitrate on mineral particles surface. On the basisi of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results, a portion of BS was reduced from Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ with the adsorption of toluene or the reaction with toluene and NO 2 . Sulfate may play a key role in the generation of nitrotoluene on BS particles. From this research, the heterogeneous reactions between organic and inorganic gases with aerosols that occur during smog events will be better understood.

  7. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    flux. Circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust and upper mantle gives rise to a complex series of physical and chemical reactions that lead to the 1) formation of seafloor mineral deposits; 2) alteration of oceanic crust; 3) control... temperature in the high-temperature reaction zone near the heat source. Important parameters in determining the high- temperature fluid composition are • pressure, • temperature, • water/rock ratio, • rock composition, • recharge fluid...

  8. GIS-based rare events logistic regression for mineral prospectivity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yihui; Zuo, Renguang

    2018-02-01

    Mineralization is a special type of singularity event, and can be considered as a rare event, because within a specific study area the number of prospective locations (1s) are considerably fewer than the number of non-prospective locations (0s). In this study, GIS-based rare events logistic regression (RELR) was used to map the mineral prospectivity in the southwestern Fujian Province, China. An odds ratio was used to measure the relative importance of the evidence variables with respect to mineralization. The results suggest that formations, granites, and skarn alterations, followed by faults and aeromagnetic anomaly are the most important indicators for the formation of Fe-related mineralization in the study area. The prediction rate and the area under the curve (AUC) values show that areas with higher probability have a strong spatial relationship with the known mineral deposits. Comparing the results with original logistic regression (OLR) demonstrates that the GIS-based RELR performs better than OLR. The prospectivity map obtained in this study benefits the search for skarn Fe-related mineralization in the study area.

  9. The Ebola virus disease outbreak and the mineral sectors of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra; Menzie, William D.

    2015-01-01

    The mineral sector plays a key role in the economies of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The onset of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in early 2014, together with changes in mineral market conditions, raised questions regarding the status of mining operations and of mineral development and exploration projects in all three countries. Mineral projects were the underpinnings of World Bank short-term forecasts of increases in gross domestic product (GDP) for all three countries and were expected to be the basis of future economic growth. The significant delay or cancellation of these projects could result in a major economic setback for all three countries.

  10. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair

  11. Microbial functional diversity plays an important role in the degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Samrat; Tribedi, Prosun

    2018-03-01

    Towards bioremediation of recalcitrant materials like synthetic polymer, soil has been recognized as a traditional site for disposal and subsequent degradation as some microorganisms in soil can degrade the polymer in a non-toxic, cost-effective, and environment friendly way. Microbial functional diversity is a constituent of biodiversity that includes wide range of metabolic activities that can influence numerous aspects of ecosystem functioning like ecosystem stability, nutrient availability, ecosystem dynamics, etc. Thus, in the current study, we assumed that microbial functional diversity could play an important role in polymer degradation in soil. To verify this hypothesis, we isolated soil from five different sites of landfill and examined several microbiological parameters wherein we observed a significant variation in heterotrophic microbial count as well as microbial activities among the soil microcosms tested. Multivariate analysis (principle component analysis) based on the carbon sources utilization pattern revealed that soil microcosms showed different metabolic patterns suggesting the variable distribution of microorganisms among the soil microcosms tested. Since microbial functional diversity depends on both microbial richness and evenness, Shannon diversity index was determined to measure microbial richness and Gini coefficient was determined to measure microbial evenness. The tested soil microcosms exhibited variation in both microbial richness and evenness suggesting the considerable difference in microbial functional diversity among the tested microcosms. We then measured polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) degradation in soil microcosms after desired period of incubation of PHB in soil wherein we found that soil microcosms having higher functional diversity showed enhanced PHB degradation and soil microcosms having lower functional diversity showed reduced PHB degradation. We also noticed that all the tested soil microcosms showed similar pattern in both

  12. The effects of boron supplementation of layer diets varying in calcium and phosphorus concentrations on performance, egg quality, bone strength and mineral constituents of serum, bone and faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükyilmaz, K; Erkek, R; Bozkurt, M

    2014-01-01

    1. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of dietary calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and supplemental boron (B) (0, 75, and 150 mg/kg) on the performance, egg quality, bone strength, and mineral constituents in bone, serum and faeces. 2. A reduction by 18% in the dietary Ca-P concentration from the recommended levels for the hen strain reduced (P properties did not corroborate the hypothesis that B is a trace element playing an important role in mineral metabolism and bone strength through an interaction with Ca, P and Mg.

  13. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  14. Thyroid disorders and bone mineral metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases have widespread systemic manifestations including their effect on bone metabolism. On one hand, the effects of thyrotoxicosis including subclinical disease have received wide attention from researchers over the last century as it an important cause of secondary osteoporosis. On the other hand, hypothyroidism has received lesser attention as its effect on bone mineral metabolism is minimal. Therefore, this review will primarily focus on thyrotoxicosis and its impact on bone mineral metabolism.

  15. Pretreatment process for mineral analysis in FFH using INAA-method and evaluation of mineral intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ok Hee; Youn, Kyung Jin; Lee, Ji Bum; Kim, Mi Jin

    2010-05-01

    This study were aimed to set up the pre-treatment process for FFH and analyse Pretreatment processes for the analysis of food mineral contents by INAA were established according to FFH state using freeze-drying and homogenization. The Se contents showed higher precision with INAA-method than ICP-method. The content of Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co in FFH measured using INAA-method showed that the mineral contents in the amount of recommended intakes by manufacturer were not significantly different according to FFH type. The average Ca contents was the highest in Yousanguns > nutritional supplement> glucosamines. The average K content of FFH with one serving size were the highest in glucosamines>aloes> nutritional supplements. I content among FFH was the highest in nutritional supplements. The average Mg contents were highest in Chlorella-Spirurina and Aloes. The average Cu content of FFH was the highest in Yeasts. The contents of Fe, Zn and Se were the highest in nutritional supplements. The mineral contents in recommended intake amounts by manufacturer were over the maximum contents regulated by Korean FDA in some imported FFH products. their mineral contents of FFH using NAA-method and to assess the mineral intakes by FFH

  16. Pretreatment process for mineral analysis in FFH using INAA-method and evaluation of mineral intakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ok Hee; Youn, Kyung Jin; Lee, Ji Bum; Kim, Mi Jin [Yongin University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    This study were aimed to set up the pre-treatment process for FFH and analyse Pretreatment processes for the analysis of food mineral contents by INAA were established according to FFH state using freeze-drying and homogenization. The Se contents showed higher precision with INAA-method than ICP-method. The content of Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co in FFH measured using INAA-method showed that the mineral contents in the amount of recommended intakes by manufacturer were not significantly different according to FFH type. The average Ca contents was the highest in Yousanguns > nutritional supplement> glucosamines. The average K content of FFH with one serving size were the highest in glucosamines>aloes> nutritional supplements. I content among FFH was the highest in nutritional supplements. The average Mg contents were highest in Chlorella-Spirurina and Aloes. The average Cu content of FFH was the highest in Yeasts. The contents of Fe, Zn and Se were the highest in nutritional supplements. The mineral contents in recommended intake amounts by manufacturer were over the maximum contents regulated by Korean FDA in some imported FFH products. their mineral contents of FFH using NAA-method and to assess the mineral intakes by FFH

  17. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  18. Micronutrient mineral and folate content of Australian and imported dried fruit products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Louise E; Singh, Davinder P; Clingeleffer, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    A selection of Australian and imported fresh and dried fruit products, including sultanas, Sunmuscats, Carina currants, Zante currants, apricots, and prunes, were analyzed for selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Na, S, B, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Se), folate and vitamin C, and the capacity of dried fruits for dietary provision of these micronutrients evaluated. Micro-nutrients were concentrated by a factor of 3-5 in dried fruits compared with their fresh fruit counterparts and were consequently present in nutritionally significant levels, in contrast to fresh fruit. Australian dried sultanas, Carina currant, Zante currant, apricots, and prunes contained Cu, Fe, K, and Mn at levels of >20% of daily Required Dietary Intake (RDI, taken as the average for adult men and women as nominated by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council) and Sunmuscats contained Cu, Fe, and K at >20% of RDI. All dried fruits studied contained boron in the range of 1.5 to 5.4 mg per 100 g; however, the RDI for boron has not been defined by the NHMRC at the present time. All sultanas and currants studied contained folate at levels of 10-20% of RDI per 100 g. Experimental drying methods significantly affected folate levels with higher folate content in non-ground versus ground-based drying methods. Of the micro-nutrients supplying >20% of RDI, folate represents a particular nutrient for which the mean daily intake of adult Australians is typically inadequate. This study shows that dried fruit consumption, in contrast with fresh fruit, can provide significant proportions of daily requirements of several micronutrients, particularly folate.

  19. Microcalorimetric and potentiometric titration studies on the adsorption of copper by P. putida and B. thuringiensis and their composites with minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Linchuan [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agriculture and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Cai Peng; Li Pengxiang; Wu Huayong; Liang Wei; Rong Xingmin [Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agriculture and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen Wenli [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang Qiaoyun, E-mail: qyhuang@mail.hzau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agriculture and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2010-09-15

    In order to have a better understanding of the interactions of heavy metals with bacteria and minerals in soil and associated environments, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), potentiometric titration and equilibrium sorption experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption behavior of Cu(II) by Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas putida and their composites with minerals. The interaction of montmorillonite with bacteria increased the reactive sites and resulted in greater adsorption for Cu(II) on their composites, while decreased adsorption sites and capacities for Cu(II) were observed on goethite-bacteria composites. A gram-positive bacterium B. thuringiensis played a more important role than a gram-negative bacterium P. putida in determining the properties of the bacteria-minerals interfaces. The enthalpy changes ({Delta}H{sub ads}) from endothermic (6.14 kJ mol{sup -1}) to slightly exothermic (-0.78 kJ mol{sup -1}) suggested that Cu(II) is complexed with the anionic oxygen ligands on the surface of bacteria-mineral composites. Large entropies (32.96-58.89 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}) of Cu(II) adsorption onto bacteria-mineral composites demonstrated the formation of inner-sphere complexes in the presence of bacteria. The thermodynamic data implied that Cu(II) mainly bound to the carboxyl and phosphoryl groups as inner-sphere complexes on bacteria and mineral-bacteria composites.

  20. Microcalorimetric and potentiometric titration studies on the adsorption of copper by P. putida and B. thuringiensis and their composites with minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Linchuan; Cai, Peng; Li, Pengxiang; Wu, Huayong; Liang, Wei; Rong, Xingmin; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2010-09-15

    In order to have a better understanding of the interactions of heavy metals with bacteria and minerals in soil and associated environments, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), potentiometric titration and equilibrium sorption experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption behavior of Cu(II) by Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas putida and their composites with minerals. The interaction of montmorillonite with bacteria increased the reactive sites and resulted in greater adsorption for Cu(II) on their composites, while decreased adsorption sites and capacities for Cu(II) were observed on goethite-bacteria composites. A gram-positive bacterium B. thuringiensis played a more important role than a gram-negative bacterium P. putida in determining the properties of the bacteria-minerals interfaces. The enthalpy changes (DeltaH(ads)) from endothermic (6.14 kJ mol(-1)) to slightly exothermic (-0.78 kJ mol(-1)) suggested that Cu(II) is complexed with the anionic oxygen ligands on the surface of bacteria-mineral composites. Large entropies (32.96-58.89 J mol(-1) K(-1)) of Cu(II) adsorption onto bacteria-mineral composites demonstrated the formation of inner-sphere complexes in the presence of bacteria. The thermodynamic data implied that Cu(II) mainly bound to the carboxyl and phosphoryl groups as inner-sphere complexes on bacteria and mineral-bacteria composites. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Cancelliere

    Full Text Available Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  2. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelliere, Emma C; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  3. Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the development of coronary heart disease dependent on important environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C; Chang, Z; Magnusson, P K E; Ingelsson, E; Pedersen, N L

    2014-01-01

    Astract Song C, Chang Z, Magnusson PKE, Ingelsson E, Pedersen NL (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Uppsala University, Uppsala; Sweden). Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the developmentofcoronary heart diseasedependenton important environmental factors. J InternMed2014; 275: 631–639. Objective The aim of the study was to examine whether various lifestyle factors modify genetic influences on coronary heart disease (CHD). Design The effect of lifestyle factors [including smoking, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol intake and body mass index (BMI)] on risk of CHD was evaluated via Cox regression models in a twin study of gene–environment interaction. Using structure equation modelling, we estimated genetic variance of CHD dependent on lifestyle factors. Subjects In total, 51 065 same-sex twins from 25 715 twin pairs born before 1958 and registered in the Swedish Twin Registry were eligible for this study. During the 40-year follow-up, 7264 incident CHD events were recorded. Results Smoking, sedentary lifestyle and above average BMI were significantly associated with increased CHD incidence. The heritability of CHD decreased with increasing age, as well as with increasing levels of BMI, in both men and women. Conclusions The difference in the genetic component of CHD as a function of BMI suggests that genetic factors may play a more prominent role for disease development in the absence of important environmental factors. Increased knowledge of gene–environment interactions will be important for a full understanding of the aetiology of CHD. PMID:24330166

  4. Teachers and Parents Play to Learn: Play-Based Instruction in Computer Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Play is so important that it is declared as one of the human rights by the United Nations. Although it is focused on children, play does "not" stop there. In the 1990s the author designed and facilitated a blended curriculum for a Head Start Program. The instructional goal was to introduce and get the children to effectively and…

  5. Topographic and Hydrographic GIS Datasets for the Afghanistan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2014 Mineral Areas of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jessica D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2015-11-18

    Mineral extraction and associated industries play an important role in the Afghan economy, particularly in the “transitional era” of declining foreign aid and withdrawal of foreign troops post 2014. In addition to providing a substantial source of government revenue, other potential benefits of natural resource development include boosted exports, employment opportunities, and strengthened industrialization (Joya, 2012). Continued exploration and investment in these industries has resulted in large economic improvements since 2007, when this series of studies was initiated. At that time, the “Preliminary Non-Fuel Mineral Resource Assessment of Afghanistan” was completed by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Geological Survey (Peters and others, 2007). The assessment published a series of country-wide datasets, including a digital elevation model (DEM), elevation contours, hydrography, transportation routes, geophysics, and cultural datasets (Peters and others, 2007). It also delineated 20 mineralized areas for further study using a geologic-based methodology. A second data product, “Summaries of Important Areas for Mineral Investment and Production Opportunities of Nonfuel Minerals in Afghanistan,” was released by Peters and others in 2011. This work highlighted geologic, geohydrologic, and hyperspectral studies that were carried out in specific Areas of Interest (AOIs) to assess the location and characteristics of mineral resources. Also included in the 2011 publication is a collection of appendixes and inventories of Geographic Information System (GIS) datasets for each of the 24 identified AOIs. A third data product was released in 2013 (Casey and Chirico, 2013), publishing datasets for five different AOIs, two subareas, and one AOI extension. Each dataset contains vector shapefiles of the AOI boundary, streams, roads, and contours at 25-, 50-, and 100-meter (m) intervals, as well as raster files of the AOI’s DEM and hillshade.

  6. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  7. Late Modern Play Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    and the Danish University of Education (among others) have been working with different kind of products, all referred to as PlAYWARE. Playware combines modern technology and knowledge about play culture in order to produce playful experiences for its players. This paper will exemplify how the concept of play can...... from one generation to the next. Because older children are no longer present as younger children grow up, the traditional "cultural leaders" are gone. They have taken with them much of the inspiration for play as well as important knowledge about how to organise a game. In that sense we can say...

  8. Biologically enhanced mineral weathering: what does it look like, can we model it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M. S.; Lawrence, C. R.; Harden, J. W.; White, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    The interaction between plants and minerals in soils is hugely important and poorly understood as it relates to the fate of soil carbon. Plant roots, fungi and bacteria inhabit the mineral soil and work symbiotically to extract nutrients, generally through low molecular weight exudates (organic acids, extracelluar polysachrides (EPS), siderophores, etc.). Up to 60% of photosynthetic carbon is allocated below ground as roots and exudates, both being important carbon sources in soils. Some exudates accelerate mineral weathering. To test whether plant exudates are incorporated into poorly crystalline secondary mineral phases during precipitation, we are investigating the biologic-mineral interface. We sampled 5 marine terraces along a soil chronosequence (60 to 225 ka), near Santa Cruz, CA. The effects of the biologic interactions with mineral surfaces were characterized through the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Morphologically, mycorrhizal fungi were observed fully surrounding minerals, fungal hyphae were shown to tunnel into primary silicate minerals and we have observed direct hyphal attachment to mineral surfaces. Fungal tunneling was seen in all 5 soils by SEM. Additionally, specific surface area (using a nitrogen BET method) of primary minerals was measured to determine if the effects of mineral tunneling are quantifiable in older soils. Results suggest that fungal tunneling is more extensive in the primary minerals of older soils. We have also examined the influence of organic acids on primary mineral weathering during soil development using a geochemical reactive transport model (CrunchFlow). Addition of organic acids in our models of soil development at Santa Cruz result in decreased activity of Fe and Al in soil pore water, which subsequently alters the spatial extent of primary mineral weathering and kaolinite precipitation. Overall, our preliminary modeling results suggest biological processes may be an important but underrepresented aspect of

  9. Barite: a case study of import reliance on an essential material for oil and gas exploration and development drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Miller, M. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Global dependence on a limited number of countries for specific mineral commodities could lead to sudden supply disruptions for the United States, and barite is one such commodity. Analyses of barite supply amounts and sources for the United States are demonstrative of mineral commodities on which the country is import reliant. Mineral commodity trade flows can be analyzed more easily than import reliances for commodities in which U.S. domestic demand is primarily met by materials contained within manufactured products, as with the rare-earth elements in cellular phones and computers. Barite plays an essential role as a weighting material in drilling muds used in oil and gas drilling, primarily to prevent the explosive release of gas and oil during drilling. The Nation’s efforts to become more energy independent are based largely on the domestic oil and gas industry’s ability to explore and develop onshore and offshore fuel deposits. These activities include increased efforts by the United States to locate and recover oil and gas within unconventional deposits, such as those in the Bakken, Eagle Ford, and Marcellus Formations, using advanced drilling technologies.

  10. Placer mineral resources of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil Kumar, V.

    2016-01-01

    Tamil Nadu, the southernmost state with second longest coast line in India has many placer heavy mineral deposits. These deposits contain economically important light heavy minerals like ilmenite, rutile, leucoxene, monazite, zircon, garnet, sillimanite, kyanite and non-economic minerals like pyroxenes, amphiboles and magnetite along with associated accessory minerals like staurolite, epidote, spinel, biotite and tourmaline. Geologically, granulitic rocks, principally Khondalites (garnet-sillimanite-graphite gneisses), charnockites and granitic gneisses bordered by sedimentary rocks are exposed along the eastern coastal plains of the Tamil Nadu. The principal highland areas, as for example, Shavaroys, Nilgiris, Palni-Kodaikanal Hills and Cardomom hills consists primarily of Charnockites. The margins of highland show a gradation into less metamorphosed rocks generally of amphibolite facies. The khondalites are found south of Kodaikanal massif. Anorthosites and layered mafic complexes occur at Sittampundi, Kadavur areas. Alkaline rocks and carbonatites are prominent at Simalpatti, Sevattur and Sivamalai. Coastal sedimentaries include, Gondwanas, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary rocks along with lateritic soils and beach sands

  11. Granite-related hypothermal uranium mineralization in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Wu, J.; Pan, J.; Zhu, M.

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important geological types, granite-related uranium deposits account for about 29% of the total discovered natural uranium resources in China. Most of the granite-related uranium deposits located in Taoshan - Zhuguang uranium metallogenic belt, South China. In addition to the typical pitchblende vein-type uranium mineralization of epithermal metallogenic system, a new type of granite-related uranium mineralization with characteristics of hypothermal matallogenic system was discovered in South China by current studies. However, hypothermal is contact thermal to epithermal mineralization, and not the conventional intrusive high temperature mineralization. Hypothermal uranium mineralization is presented by disseminated uraninite or pitchblende stockwork in fissures in granites normally with extensive alkaline alteration. The high temperature mineral assemblage of uraninite associate with scheelite and tourmaline was identified in hypothermal uranium mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies on this type mineralization indicated the middle to high temperature (>250℃) mineralization with the mixing evidence of ore forming solution derived from deep level, and the boiling and mixing of ore forming solution are regarded as the dominant mineralization mechanism for the precipitating of uranium. In contrast to the mineralization ages of 67 Ma to 87 Ma for typical pitchblende vein mineralization of epithermal metallogenic system, the mineralization age is older than 100 Ma for hypothermal uranium mineralization in granite. In the Shituling deposit, Xiazhuang uranium ore field, uraninite and pitchblende micro veins with extensive potassic alteration, chloritization and sericitization are hosted in fissures of Indo-Chinese epoch granites with the uranium mineralization age of 130 Ma to 138 Ma with a mineralization temperature of 290℃ to 330℃ indicated. Other examples sharing the similar characters of hypothermal uranium mineralization have been recognized in

  12. Experimental and simulation studies on mineral trapping of CO2 with brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soong, Y.; Goodman, A.L.; McCarthy-Jones, J.R.; Baltrus, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with brine samples collected from the Oriskany Formation in Indiana County, PA, was investigated in an autoclave reactor under various conditions. A geochemical code, PHREEQC, was used as to simulate the reaction in the autoclave reactor. The combined experimental and modeling data suggests that pH (pH > 9) plays a key role in the formation of carbonate minerals. The effects of temperature and CO 2 pressure have a lesser impact on the formation of carbonate minerals

  13. THE MAGIC OF PLAY: LOW-INCOME MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PLAYFULNESS AND CHILDREN'S EMOTION REGULATION AND VOCABULARY SKILLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Natasha J; Karberg, Elizabeth; Malin, Jenessa L; Aldoney, Daniela

    2017-11-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of low-income families who participated in the Early Head Start Research Evaluation Project (n = 73), we explored the association between mothers' and fathers' playfulness with toddlers, toddler's affect during play, and children's language and emotion regulation at prekindergarten. There were two main findings. First, fathers' playfulness in toddlerhood was associated with children's vocabulary skills in prekindergarten whereas mothers' playfulness was related to children's emotion regulation. Cross-parental effects were found only for mothers. The association between mothers' playfulness and children's vocabulary and emotion regulation was strengthened when fathers engaged in more pretend play and when children were affectively positive during the play. These findings show that playfulness is an important source of variation in the vocabulary and emotion regulation of children growing up in low-income families. They also point to domain-specific ways that mothers and fathers promote children's regulatory and vocabulary skills, and highlight the importance of children's positive engagement in play. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  14. Case Study 1: Playful Team Reflection Using LEGO® Serious Play®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Teamwork and cooperation are important 21st century skills and therefore important parts of the higher education curriculum. Following Kolb's "experiential learning cycle" model a combination of project work and moderated reflection can help students to acquire these skills. This article elaborates how LEGO® Serious Play® (LSP) can be…

  15. Longwave indirect effect of mineral dusts on ice clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Min

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In addition to microphysical changes in clouds, changes in nucleation processes of ice cloud due to aerosols would result in substantial changes in cloud top temperature as mildly supercooled clouds are glaciated through heterogenous nucleation processes. Measurements from multiple sensors on multiple observing platforms over the Atlantic Ocean show that the cloud effective temperature increases with mineral dust loading with a slope of +3.06 °C per unit aerosol optical depth. The macrophysical changes in ice cloud top distributions as a consequence of mineral dust-cloud interaction exert a strong cooling effect (up to 16 Wm−2 of thermal infrared radiation on cloud systems. Induced changes of ice particle size by mineral dusts influence cloud emissivity and play a minor role in modulating the outgoing longwave radiation for optically thin ice clouds. Such a strong cooling forcing of thermal infrared radiation would have significant impacts on cloud systems and subsequently on climate.

  16. Musculoskeletal disorders, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingming; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun; Sun, Linyan

    2017-01-01

    Human factors comprise one of the important reasons leading to the casualty accidents in coal mines. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners. There were 1500 Chinese coal miners surveyed in this study. Among these miners, 992 valid samples were obtained. The study surveyed the MSDs, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners with MSDs Likert scale, Eysenck personality questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) scale, and accident proneness questionnaire, respectively. The highest MSDs level was found in the waist. The increasing working age of the miners was connected with increased MSDs and psychological distress. Significant differences in MSDs and psychological distress of miners from different types of work were observed. Coal miners with higher MSDs had higher accident proneness. Coal miners with higher neuroticism dimension of Eysenck personality and more serious psychological distress had higher accident proneness. Phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism dimension of psychological distress were the three most important indicators that had significant positive relationships with accident proneness. The MSDs, neuroticism dimension, and psychological distress of the coal mine workers are important to work safety and require serious attention. Some implications concerning coal mine safety management in China were provided.

  17. Brazil's mineral development: potential and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, B; Wheeler, E

    1977-03-01

    Brazil's vast mineral wealth still lies in the ground largely unexploited. Lack of adequate communications and the past political instability of the country has greatly hampered mineral exploration, and risk capital for major schemes has only recently been forthcoming. In 1975, Brazil's oil imports alone cost US $3073 million, creating an unhealthy balance of payments deficit and causing the external national debt to reach US $22 billion by the end of that year--an increase of a further 25% in this debt took place during 1976. Substantial price rises in imported machinery followed that of oil, while the prices of Brazil's main exports, coffee, sugar and soya, have continued to fluctuate widely. As a result of the oil price rise Brazil has moved from a traditional trade balance to substantial deficit, although this has fallen from its 1974 peak of 4.6 billion, largely as a result of government policies. Brazil has untapped deposits of bauxite, tin, zinc, iron ore, nickel, as well as oil, and is firmly set on the path that will make her one of the world's major sources of raw materials by the year 2000. The government has made the exploitation of natural resources, particularly the previously neglected oil and gas sectors, one of the cornerstones of its economic strategy. Yet in 1975 the mineral sector produced less than 2% of Brazil's GNP, although it did contribute 11% of exports. Apart from iron oreand manganese, mineral production is small and the country is still a net importer of copper, zinc, nickel, tin, and lead. Without a substantial increase in exports the government's whole economic/social and political strategy will be at risk.

  18. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  19. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  20. Deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon plays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.H.; Cooke, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The geologic setting in the deep-water (depths greater than 1,500 feet) Gulf of Mexico is very favorable for the existence of large, commercial hydrocarbon accumulations. These areas have active salt tectonics that create abundant traps, underlying mature Mesozoic source rocks that can be observed expelling oil and gas to the ocean surface, and good quality reservoirs provided by turbidite sand deposits. Despite the limited amount of drilling in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico, 11 deep-water accumulations have been discovered which, when developed, will rank in the top 100 largest fields in the Gulf of Mexico. Proved field discoveries (those with announced development plans) have added over 1 billion barrels of oil equivalent to Gulf of Mexico reserves, and unproved field discoveries may add to additional billion barrels of oil equivalent. The Minerals Management Service, United States Department of the Interior, has completed a gulf-wide review of over 1,086 oil and gas fields and placed every pay sand in each field into a hydrocarbon play (plays are defined by chronostratigraphy, lithostratigraph, structure, and production). Seven productive hydrocarbon plays were identified in the deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico. Regional maps illustrate the productive limits of each play. In addition, field data, dry holes, and wells with sub-economic pay were added to define the facies and structural limits for each play. Areas for exploration potential are identified for each hydrocarbon play. A type field for each play is chosen to demonstrate the play's characteristics

  1. The European Commission: nuclear power has an important role to play; Commission Europeenne: le nucleaire a un role important a jouer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-11-15

    The European Commission (E.C.) thinks that nuclear power has an important role to play: first to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and secondly to reinforce energy self-reliance of the member states. The decision to introduce nuclear power in their energy mix belongs to every state but the E.C. has also highlighted that if adequate investment are quickly made 2 thirds of the electricity produced in the European Union in 2010 could by from low-carbon-emitting sources. Today with 148 reactors operating in 15 member countries nuclear power contributes to 1 third of the electricity produced. Another issue that is looming is the security of electricity supplying. A study has shown that the security level is worsening (particularly in winter) because of the greater part of wind energy in the energy mix as wind energy is not necessarily available when energy demand is peaking. The E.C. has proposed a new directive drawing a common standard frame for nuclear safety requirements concerning design, site selection, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each member state will have the choice to implement stiffer regulations. The European Union must reduce its dependency on Russian gas by increasing its storing capacities, by easing gas exchanges between member states and by importing more liquefied natural gas. European member states will have to invert 1000*10{sup 9} euros in gas and electrical power infrastructures in the next 25 years. (A.C.)

  2. Interaction, at Ambient Temperature and 80 °C, between Minerals and Artificial Seawaters Resembling the Present Ocean Composition and that of 4.0 Billion Years Ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Cristine E A; Stabile, Antonio C; Gomes, Frederico P; da Costa, Antonio C S; Zaia, Cássia T B V; Zaia, Dimas A M

    2017-09-01

    Probably one of the most important roles played by minerals in the origin of life on Earth was to pre-concentrate biomolecules from the prebiotic seas. There are other ways to pre concentrate biomolecules such as wetting/drying cycles and freezing/sublimation. However, adsorption is most important. If the pre-concentration did not occur-because of degradation of the minerals-other roles played by them such as protection against degradation, formation of polymers, or even as primitive cell walls would be seriously compromised. We studied the interaction of two artificial seawaters with kaolinite, bentonite, montmorillonite, goethite, ferrihydrite and quartz. One seawater has a major cation and anion composition similar to that of the oceans of the Earth 4.0 billion years ago (ASW 4.0 Ga). In the other, the major cations and anions are an average of the compositions of the seawaters of today (ASWT). When ASWT, which is rich in Na + and Cl - , interacted with bentonite and montmorrilonite structural collapse occurred on the 001 plane. However, ASW 4.0 Ga, which is rich in Mg 2+ and SO 4 2- , did not induce this behavior. When ASW 4.0 Ga was reacted with the minerals for 24 h at room temperature and 80 °C, the release of Si and Al to the fluid was below 1 % of the amount in the minerals-meaning that dissolution of the minerals did not occur. In general, minerals adsorbed Mg 2+ and K + from the ASW 4.0 Ga and these cations could be used for the formation of polymers. Also, when the minerals were mixed with ASW 4.0 Ga at 80 °C and ASWT at room temperature or 80 °C it caused the precipitation of CaSO 4 ∙2H 2 O and halite, respectively. Finally, further experiments (adsorption, formation of polymers, protection of molecules against degradation, primitive cell wall formation) performed under the conditions described in this paper will probably be more representative of what happened on the prebiotic Earth.

  3. Play Therapy: Practice, Issues, and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, Linda E.; Morrison, Mary O.

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is an effective means of responding to the mental health needs of young children and is widely accepted as a valuable and developmentally appropriate intervention. The authors discuss the importance of play in development, the therapeutic benefits of play, the rich history of play therapy, and recent research and current issues and…

  4. The Role of Soil Microorganisms in Plant Mineral Nutrition—Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Richard; Peukert, Manuela; Succurro, Antonella; Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    In their natural environment, plants are part of a rich ecosystem including numerous and diverse microorganisms in the soil. It has been long recognized that some of these microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi or nitrogen fixing symbiotic bacteria, play important roles in plant performance by improving mineral nutrition. However, the full range of microbes associated with plants and their potential to replace synthetic agricultural inputs has only recently started to be uncovered. In the last few years, a great progress has been made in the knowledge on composition of rhizospheric microbiomes and their dynamics. There is clear evidence that plants shape microbiome structures, most probably by root exudates, and also that bacteria have developed various adaptations to thrive in the rhizospheric niche. The mechanisms of these interactions and the processes driving the alterations in microbiomes are, however, largely unknown. In this review, we focus on the interaction of plants and root associated bacteria enhancing plant mineral nutrition, summarizing the current knowledge in several research fields that can converge to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. PMID:28974956

  5. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  6. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrina Azlan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  7. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  8. Bone Mineral Density of Adolescent Female Tennis Players and Nontennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Ermin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD among adolescent female tennis players (TPs and nontennis players (NTPs and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (=0.37 and 0.12, resp.. TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (=0.02. This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.

  9. Guidelines for social support to child play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitranić Nevena N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Play is a precious aspect of living and irreplaceable importance for not only child well-being and development but for adults and communities, too. Complex current living conditions often minimize the importance of child play and it becomes even more necessary that educational policies support it. The subject of the research is based on the role child play has in educational policy and the aim is formulation of measures and actions which can support child play in educational policy. We examined measures and actions of official educational policies and non government organizations of the United Kingdom of England and Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Republic of Serbia. The results show that the problem is deeper than current nonexistence of systemic support to play in Serbia and open the question on which paradigm official educational policy in Serbia approaches to education, and the question of how to bring to awareness the importance of play in order to support it. Relaying on the frameworks of play support policy in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland we suggest some guidelines for social support of child play which might prove sensible and feasible in Serbia.

  10. Effects of iron-containing minerals on hydrothermal reactions of ketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ziming; Gould, Ian R.; Williams, Lynda B.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.; Shock, Everett L.

    2018-02-01

    Hydrothermal organic transformations occurring in geochemical processes are influenced by the surrounding environments including rocks and minerals. This work is focused on the effects of five common minerals on reactions of a model ketone substrate, dibenzylketone (DBK), in an experimental hydrothermal system. Ketones play a central role in many hydrothermal organic functional group transformations, such as those converting hydrocarbons to oxygenated compounds; however, how these minerals control the hydrothermal chemistry of ketones is poorly understood. Under the hydrothermal conditions of 300 °C and 70 MPa for up to 168 h, we observed that, while quartz (SiO2) and corundum (Al2O3) had no detectable effect on the hydrothermal reactions of DBK, iron-containing minerals, such as hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), and troilite (synthetic FeS), accelerated the reaction of DBK by up to an order of magnitude. We observed that fragmentation products, such as toluene and bibenzyl, dominated in the presence of hematite or magnetite, while use of troilite gave primarily the reduction products, e.g., 1, 3-diphenyl-propane and 1, 3-diphenyl-2-propanol. The roles of the three iron minerals in these transformations were further explored by (1) control experiments with various mineral surface areas, (2) measuring H2 in hydrothermal solutions, and (3) determining hydrogen balance among the organic products. These results suggest the reactions catalyzed by iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) are promoted mainly by the mineral surfaces, whereas the sulfide mineral (troilite) facilitated the reduction of ketone in the reaction solution. Therefore, this work not only provides a useful chemical approach to study and uncover complicated hydrothermal organic-mineral interactions, but also fosters a mechanistic understanding of ketone reactions in the deep carbon cycle.

  11. Effect of pH change on the primary uran-mica mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmariovich, E M; Zhil' tsova, I G; Pakul' nis, G V; Shugina, G A [Ministerstvo Geologii SSR, Moscow

    1982-01-01

    Conditions of the formation of ore bodies of hexavalent uranium minerals represented by uranyl vanadates and phosphates which are primary and sedimented from low temperature solutions (carnotite deposits in calcretes and carnotite - autunite deposits in black shale formations) are considered. Thermodynamic curves of the solubility dependence of various uranyl minerals on pH medium in the absence of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ions and for sulphate-carbonate solutions have been calculated using dissociation constants of corresponding acids and ..delta..G/sup 0/f(298.15) values. It has been ascertained that uranyl mineral compounds according to the dependence of their solubility on ph medium form a distinct series from molybdates through arsenates, phosphates, vanadates and silicates to minerals of uranophane and kasolite group. It is shown that during the formation of infiltration deposits with uranyl mineralization a decisive role is played by the contrast change of pH value of medium caused by the presence of acid geochemical barrier (uranyl molybdates, arsenates, phosphates and vanadates are precipitating) or neutralizing alkaline barriers (uran-mica and uranyl silicates are precipitating) on the path of movement of oxygen metal-bearing solutions.

  12. Potential Role of Dentin Sialoprotein by Inducing Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Mineralization for Dental Tissue Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Guo-Hua; Yang, Guo-Bin; Wu, Li-An; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Dentin sialoprotein (DSP) is a dentin extracellular matrix protein, a unique marker of dentinogenesis and plays a vital role in odontoblast differentiation and dentin mineralization. Recently, studies have shown that DSP induces differentiation and mineralization of periodontal ligament stem cells and dental papilla mesenchymal cells in vitro and rescues dentin deficiency and increases enamel mineralization in animal models.The hypothesis: DSP as a nature therapeutic agent stimu...

  13. Marine minerals: The Indian perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Nath, B.N.; Banerjee, R.

    the Konkan Coast, Maharashtra. The future demand for economic minerals and metals for the year 2000 vis-a-vis the production of material in the last twelve years has been calculated, and in light of the above, the importance and chances of offshore...

  14. Perencanaan Strategik SBU Mineral PT Sucofindo (Persero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprapto Suprapto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning requires an organization in the face of today's business competition and a more complex future. Likewise, Mineral Gas Station also requires this strategic planning as a newly formed business unit of 2015. Therefore, the company analyzed its internal and external factors as well as a future review of the mineral service industry to stay afloat, grow and develop. The objectives of this study were to identify the internal performance and core competencies of Mineral Gas Station, to identify the external macro environment condition and external micro intensity of mineral service industry competition, to map the current position of the company, to recommend appropriate business strategy in facing competition pressure, and to develop the objectives and program of the company. This research used descriptive and quantitative analysis methods with a purposive sampling technique. The results show that the position of Mineral Gas Station on the intensity of mineral service competition is 'moderate' and is in quadrant of 'grow and build'. Therefore, the appropriate strategy is intensive strategy (market penetration, market development and product development. Mineral Gas Station require to conduct customer satisfaction surveys related to customer perspectives which becomes the most important strategic factor with a focus on customer complaint factor. Further research is needed by involving all external parties so that the results will be more independent.Keywords: mineral services, strategic planning, competition, mineral gas station, SucofindoABSTRAKPerencanaan strategik dibutuhkan organisasi dalam menghadapi persaingan bisnis saat ini dan masa depan yang semakin komplek. Demikian juga yang dibutuhkan SBU Mineral sebagai unit bisnis yang baru terbentuk 2015, dengan menganalisis faktor internal dan ekternal perusahaan serta tinjauan masa depan industri jasa mineral untuk tetap bertahan, tumbuh dan berkembang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah

  15. Quantitative assessment of alkali-reactive aggregate mineral content through XRD using polished sections as a supplementary tool to RILEM AAR-1 (petrographic method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Nélia; Sorensen, Bjørn E.; Broekmans, Maarten A.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The mineral content of 5 aggregate samples from 4 different countries, including reactive and non-reactive aggregate types, was assessed quantitatively by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using polished sections. Additionally, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) were used to characterize the opal-CT identified in one of the aggregate samples. Critical review of results from polished sections against traditionally powdered specimen has demonstrated that for fine-grained rocks without preferred orientation the assessment of mineral content by XRD using polished sections may represent an advantage over traditional powder specimens. Comparison of data on mineral content and silica speciation with expansion data from PARTNER project confirmed that the presence of opal-CT plays an important role in the reactivity of one of the studied aggregates. Used as a complementary tool to RILEM AAR-1, the methodology suggested in this paper has the potential to improve the strength of the petrographic method.

  16. Hydrogeochemical tracing of mineral water in Jingyu County, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili

    2016-02-01

    The east Jilin Province in China, Jingyu County has been explored as a potential for enriching mineral water. In order to assess the water quality and quantity, it is of crucial importance to investigate the origin of the mineral water and its flow paths. In this study, eighteen mineral springs were sampled in May and September of 2012, May and September of 2013, and May 2014 and the environment, evolvement, and reaction mechanism of mineral water formation were analysed by hydrochemical data analysis, geochemical modelling and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the investigated mineral water was rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, nitrate, total iron, silicate, and strontium, and mineral water ages ranged from 11.0 to more than 61.0 years. The U-shape contours of the mineral ages indicate a local and discrete recharge. The mineral compositions of the rocks were olivine, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, albite, and anorthite and were under-saturated in the mineral water. The origin of mineral water was from the hydrolysis of basalt minerals under a neutral to slightly alkaline and CO2-rich environment.

  17. Modelling the mechanics of partially mineralized collagen fibrils, fibres and tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxin; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Chen, Changqing; Birman, Victor; Buehler, Markus J.; Genin, Guy M.

    2014-01-01

    Progressive stiffening of collagen tissue by bioapatite mineral is important physiologically, but the details of this stiffening are uncertain. Unresolved questions about the details of the accommodation of bioapatite within and upon collagen's hierarchical structure have posed a central hurdle, but recent microscopy data resolve several major questions. These data suggest how collagen accommodates bioapatite at the lowest relevant hierarchical level (collagen fibrils), and suggest several possibilities for the progressive accommodation of bioapatite at higher hierarchical length scales (fibres and tissue). We developed approximations for the stiffening of collagen across spatial hierarchies based upon these data, and connected models across hierarchies levels to estimate mineralization-dependent tissue-level mechanics. In the five possible sequences of mineralization studied, percolation of the bioapatite phase proved to be an important determinant of the degree of stiffening by bioapatite. The models were applied to study one important instance of partially mineralized tissue, which occurs at the attachment of tendon to bone. All sequences of mineralization considered reproduced experimental observations of a region of tissue between tendon and bone that is more compliant than either tendon or bone, but the size and nature of this region depended strongly upon the sequence of mineralization. These models and observations have implications for engineered tissue scaffolds at the attachment of tendon to bone, bone development and graded biomimetic attachment of dissimilar hierarchical materials in general. PMID:24352669

  18. Taxation and our future mineral resources. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R D

    1976-05-01

    Canada's known reserves of minerals are estimated in general to be adequate to meet domestic requirements and current export demands until the mid-1980's. Beyond that time, an increasing proportion of reserves needed to maintain, let alone increase, present mineral production must come from mineral deposits not yet discovered, delineated or developed. The major question for Canada is whether present tax and regulatory programs will provide sufficient incentives for the industry to spend the large amounts required--perhaps $1.2 billion annually--in the exploration and development of mineral resources. Without such a major capital commitment to the development of new mineral resources, Canada will not be able to maintain the relative importance of its mining sector, or the contribution that the sector has made to our balance of payments, employment, and the opening of new frontiers. However, present levels of exploration and development expenditures are likely to be totally inadequate in maintaining, let alone increasing present production. The article refers to two major new reports that provide new information on Canada's resource industries and their future.

  19. Level playing field with political tact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onderstal, S.; Appelman, M.

    2004-01-01

    Businesses, interest groups and policy administrators plead for a level playing field. However, those administrators interpret the level playing field notion in different ways and thus create confusion. In this article the level playing field is explained and a framework discussed by means of which the government can study policy problems in which the level playing field is of importance [nl

  20. Uptake of more important mineral components by common field weeds on loess soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Malicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in winter wheat, spring barley, sugar beets and winter rape, as well as in the most common weed species infesting these crops. It was established that the percentage of mineral components in the dry matter of the majority of weeds is higher than in that of the cultivated plants. The most dangerous weed species competing with plants for the investigated nutrients were: Chenopodium album, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Polygonum convolvulus, Sonchus arvensis and Stellaria media.

  1. Radioactive minerals - Multimedias strategies for their divulgation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Aldano, Ana; Fonseca, Pedro; Cabral, Tiago; Nobre, José

    2014-05-01

    The region corresponding to Sortelha-Penalobo - Bendada, located deep in the transition zone between the Hesperian massif and the Cova da Beira in the central part of Portugal, more specifically in the Mountainous region of the province of Beira Alta, county Sabugal. This region is characterized by great mineral wealth combined with geomorphology of recognized landscape value. Under the scientific point of view, this region is the origin of the mineral sabugalite (HAl(UO2)4(PO4)4.16H2O) that was described by the famous American mineralogist Clifford Frondel (1907-2002) in the fifties of the 20th century. Uranium minerals of Sabugal region were also associated with the radioactivity studies made by the well-known French physicist Marie Curie (1867-1934). In 2007, U. Kolitsch et al described the Bendadaite (Fe (AsO4) 2 (OH) 2 • 4H2O), which corresponds to a new mineral from the group arthurite. The mineral wealth of this region is responsible for a rich history of mining and to highlight the importance until the 1990s the extraction of uranium minerals. The main uranium minerals extracted were the tobernite (Cu (UO2) 2 (PO4) 2 • 12 H2O), the metatobernite (Cu (UO2) 2 (PO4) 2 • 8 H 2 O), the autonite (Ca (UO2) 2 (PO4 ) 2 • 12H2O-10) and sabugalite (HAL (UO2) 4 (PO4) 4 16H2O). Due to the high radioactivity of these minerals, their handling becomes infeasible for disclosure purposes. An integrated and multidisciplinary museological strategy aims to access 3D images by QR codes, using multitouch as the primary means of interaction with the user, and can handle even the virtual samples, access various magnifications and enjoy explanations supplied by a mascot, in a fun way. All this framework and geological environment becomes an asset for the scientific, educational and economic development of the region. On the other hand, it has a vital importance in the context of a strategy of forming a geological park, in the point of view of tourism, research and

  2. The importance and possibilities of role playing on children surgery classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goremykin I.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the first experience in the implementation into the pedagogical process of one of the methods of active training — role playing. The need for intensification of medical education process is linked primarily to the rapid increase in the volume required to provide students with information and the lack of training time. The analysis showed that the game significantly increases the level of students' knowledge, but require substantial modernization of the educational process.

  3. Playful Collaboration (Or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how playing games can be used to teach intangible social interaction across boundaries, in particular within open collaborative innovation. We present an exploratory case study of how students learned from playing a board game in a graduate course of the international...... and interdisciplinary Innovation and Business master's program in Denmark. We identify several important themes related to the process of learning through playing and the social dynamics of open collaborative innovation, while we also highlight possible caveats of “playing” and practicing open innovation. Our findings...

  4. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  5. Characterization of clay minerals; Caracterizacion de minerales arcillosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz N, C.; Olguin, M.T.; Solache R, M.; Alarcon H, T.; Aguilar E, A. [Gerencia de Ciencias Basicas, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  6. MiR-378 Plays an Important Role in the Differentiation of Bovine Preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Lian-Jiang; Chen, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Qian; Chai, Meng-Long; Li, Qing-Ying; Jiang, Hao; Yuan, Bao; Dai, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Jia-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR- 378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1) was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2) and Ras-related nuclear (RAN)-binding protein 10 (RANBP10) were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes overexpressing miR-378. However, the

  7. MiR-378 Plays an Important Role in the Differentiation of Bovine Preadipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. Methods: In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. Results: MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR-378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP, were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1 was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2 and Ras-related nuclear (RAN-binding protein 10 (RANBP10 were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes

  8. Fe-Impregnated Mineral Colloids for Peroxide Activation: Effects of Mineral Substrate and Fe Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Machala, Libor; Yan, Weile

    2016-02-02

    Heterogeneous iron species at the mineral/water interface are important catalysts for the generation of reactive oxygen species at circumneutral pH. One significant pathway leading to the formation of such species arises from deposition of dissolved iron onto mineral colloids due to changes in redox conditions. This study investigates the catalytic properties of Fe impregnated on silica, alumina, and titania nanoparticles (as prototypical mineral colloids). Fe impregnation was carried out by immersing the mineral nanoparticles in dilute Fe(II) or Fe(III) solutions at pH 6 and 3, respectively, in an aerobic environment. The uptake of iron per unit surface area follows the order of nTiO2 > nAl2O3 > nSiO2 for both types of Fe precursors. Impregnation of mineral particles in Fe(II) solutions results in predominantly Fe(III) species due to efficient surface-mediated oxidation. The catalytic activity of the impregnated solids to produce hydroxyl radical (·OH) from H2O2 decomposition was evaluated using benzoic acid as a probe compound under dark conditions. Invariably, the rates of benzoic acid oxidation with different Fe-laden particles increase with the surface density of Fe until a critical density above which the catalytic activity approaches a plateau, suggesting active Fe species are formed predominantly at low surface loadings. The critical surface density of Fe varies with the mineral substrate as well as the aqueous Fe precursor. Fe impregnated on TiO2 exhibits markedly higher activity than its Al2O3 and SiO2 counterparts. The speciation of interfacial Fe is analyzed with diffuse reflectance UV-vis analysis and interpretation of the data in the context of benzoic oxidation rates suggests that the surface activity of the solids for ·OH generation correlates strongly with the isolated (i.e., mononuclear) Fe species. Therefore, iron dispersed on mineral colloids is a significant form of reactive iron surfaces in the aquatic environment.

  9. Play and optimal welfare: Does play indicate the presence of positive affective states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahloy-Dallaire, Jamie; Espinosa, Julia; Mason, Georgia

    2017-11-16

    Play is commonly used to assess affective states in both humans and non-human animals. Play appears to be most common when animals are well-fed and not under any direct threats to fitness. Could play and playfulness therefore indicate pre-existing positive emotions, and thence optimal animal welfare? We examine this question by surveying the internal and external conditions that promote or suppress play in a variety of species, starting with humans. We find that negative affective states and poor welfare usually do suppress play (although there are notable exceptions where the opposite occurs). Furthermore, research in children suggests that beyond the frequency or total duration of play, poor welfare may additionally be reflected in qualitative aspects of this heterogeneous behaviour (e.g. display of solitary over social play; and the 'fragmentation' of play bouts) that are often overlooked in animals. There are surprisingly few studies of play in subjects with pre-existing optimal welfare or in unambiguously highly positive affective states, making it currently impossible to determine whether play can distinguish optimal or good welfare from merely neutral welfare. This therefore represents an important and exciting area for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Critical mineral resources of the United States—An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Many changes have taken place in the mineral resource sector since the publication by the U.S. Geological Survey of Professional Paper 820, “United States Mineral Resources,” which is a review of the long-term United States resource position for 65 mineral commodities or commodity groups. For example, since 1973, the United States has continued to become increasingly dependent on imports to meet its demands for an increasing number of mineral commodities. The global demand for mineral commodities is at an alltime high and is expected to continue to increase, and the development of new technologies and products has led to the use of a greater number of mineral commodities in increasing quantities to the point that, today, essentially all naturally occurring elements have several significant industrial uses. Although most mineral commodities are present in sufficient amounts in the earth to provide adequate supplies for many years to come, their availability can be affected by such factors as social constraints, politics, laws, environmental regulations, land-use restrictions, economics, and infrastructure.This volume presents updated reviews of 23 mineral commodities and commodity groups viewed as critical to a broad range of existing and emerging technologies, renewable energy, and national security. The commodities or commodity groups included are antimony, barite, beryllium, cobalt, fluorine, gallium, germanium, graphite, hafnium, indium, lithium, manganese, niobium, platinum-group elements, rare-earth elements, rhenium, selenium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium. All these commodities have been listed as critical and (or) strategic in one or more of the recent studies based on assessed likelihood of supply interruption and the possible cost of such a disruption to the assessor. For some of the minerals, current production is limited to only one or a few countries. For many, the United States currently has no mine production or any

  11. Microbial Mineral Colonization Across a Subsurface Redox Transition Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon eConverse

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study employed 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing to examine the hypothesis that chemolithotrophic Fe(II-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB would preferentially colonize the Fe(II-bearing mineral biotite compared to quartz sand when the minerals were incubated in situ within a subsurface redox transition zone (RTZ at the Hanford 300 Area site in Richland, WA, USA. The work was motivated by the recently documented presence of neutral-pH chemolithotrophic FeOB capable of oxidizing structural Fe(II in primary silicate and secondary phyllosilicate minerals in 300 Area sediments and groundwater (Benzine et al., 2013. Sterilized portions of sand+biotite or sand alone were incubated in situ for five months within a multilevel sampling (MLS apparatus that spanned a ca. 2-m interval across the RTZ in two separate groundwater wells. Parallel MLS measurements of aqueous geochemical species were performed prior to deployment of the minerals. Contrary to expectations, the 16S rRNA gene libraries showed no significant difference in microbial communities that colonized the sand+biotite versus sand-only deployments. Both mineral-associated and groundwater communities were dominated by heterotrophic taxa, with organisms from the Pseudomonaceae accounting for up to 70% of all reads from the colonized minerals. These results are consistent with previous results indicating the capacity for heterotrophic metabolism (including anaerobic metabolism below the RTZ as well as the predominance of heterotrophic taxa within 300 Area sediments and groundwater. Although heterotrophic organisms clearly dominated the colonized minerals, several putative lithotrophic (NH4+, H2, Fe(II, and HS- oxidizing taxa were detected in significant abundance above and within the RTZ. Such organisms may play a role in the coupling of anaerobic microbial metabolism to oxidative pathways with attendant impacts on elemental cycling and redox-sensitive contaminant behavior in the vicinity of the

  12. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongyan Bu

    Full Text Available Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR/cotton-rapeseed (CR rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile, intermediate (25th and 75th percentiles, and high (90th percentile levels of soil PMN were selected to further study the effects of POM on soil N mineralization by quantifying the net N mineralization in original soils and soils from which POM was removed. Both soil POM carbon (POM-C and N (POM-N contents were 45.8% and 55.8% higher under the RR rotation compared to the CR rotation, respectively. The PMN contents were highly correlated with the POM contents. The PMN and microbial biomass N (MBN contents concurrently and significantly decreased when POM was removed. The reduction rate of PMN was positively correlated with changes in MBN after the removal of POM. The reduction rates of PMN and MBN after POM removal are lower under RR rotations (38.0% and 16.3%, respectively than CR rotations (45.6% and 19.5%, respectively. Furthermore, infrared spectroscopy indicated that compounds with low-bioavailability accumulated (e.g., aromatic recalcitrant materials in the soil POM fraction under the RR rotation but not under the CR rotation. The results of the present study demonstrated that POM plays a vital role in soil N mineralization under different rotation systems. The discrepancy between POM content and composition resulting from different crop rotation systems caused differences in N mineralization in soils.

  13. The role of organo-mineral interactions on the capacity of soils to store carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, K.; Abramoff, R. Z.; Riley, W. J.; Torn, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Observed patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) content across geochemical regimes are signatures of process and provide opportunities to understand the underlying decomposition and stabilization mechanisms that can guide their representation in models. The type of sorption equation used in soil decomposition models has large implications for both SOC stock and its temperature sensitivity. Here we compared different model formulations of SOC sorption to mineral surfaces, motivated by the myriad of chemical associations between organic and mineral surfaces, and used laboratory and field incubations to inform model parameters. We explored linear, Langmuir, and Freundlich adsorption models, where the latter emerges from heterogeneous compositions of substrate and surface components. We show the effect of model representations on predicted trends of SOC as a function of mineralogy and discuss the role of soil C saturation on emergent patterns. Specifically, our results highlight that the response of mineral-associated (`protected') SOC to changes in plant C inputs depends greatly on the C saturation deficit of the soil and thus, the representation of organo-mineral interactions in models can lead to nonlinear steady-state responses in protected SOC. We also find that, consistent with field experiments, the trend in protected SOC and mineral C saturation capacity is linear, but, interestingly, the slope depends on the degree of C saturation. We contend that this latter finding is an important consideration for field studies that did not find a universal slope and interpreted this as an inability of mineralogy to explain observed patterns. Our results also suggest that warming affects this slope, with higher temperatures causing a decrease in the amount of protected C for a given saturation capacity and C input rate. This means that more C inputs will be needed to keep the same amount of protected C at higher temperatures. Organo-mineral interactions play a key role in

  14. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  15. In-situ nanoscale imaging of clay minerals with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosbach, D.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Clay minerals play a key role in many concepts for high-level nuclear waste repository systems in deep geological formations. Various aspects related to the long-term safety of nuclear disposal are linked to their fundamental physical-chemical properties, in particular with respect to their reactivity in aqueous environments. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allows high resolution imaging of clay minerals in-situ while they are exposed to an aqueous solution. The presentation is intended to provide an overview of examples of AFM studies on clay minerals: 1. AFM is an ideal tool to visualize the shape of individual clay particles down to molecular scales including a quantitative description of for example their aspect ratio. Furthermore, the particle size can be easily extracted from AFM data for individual particles as well as particle size distribution. 2. Surface area of clay minerals is a key issue when discussing heterogeneous reactions such as dissolution, adsorption or (surface) precipitation - total surface area, BET surface area, reactive surface area need to be distinguished. In particular reactive surface area is linked to specific reactive surface sites. AFM is of course able to identify such sites and consequently AFM data allow to characterize and to quantify reactive surface area. 3. The reactivity of clay mineral surfaces in aqueous environments controls the behaviour of clay minerals under repository conditions and also affects the migration/retention of radionuclides. It could be shown that the dissolution of smectite particles under acidic conditions at room temperature primarily occurs at (hk0) particle edges, whereas the reactivity of the (001) basal surfaces is very limited. The heterogeneous (surface) precipitation of secondary iron (hydr)oxides phase could be unraveled by AFM observations. Surface precipitation occurs preferentially at (hk0) edges surfaces. Ignoring the surface site specific

  16. Adequate nutrition status important for bone mineral density improvement in a patient with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Y

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Yukio Nakamura,1,2 Mikio Kamimura,3 Hidefumi Koiwai,4 Hiroyuki Kato1 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Showa-Inan General Hospital, Komagane, Japan; 3Center of Osteoporosis and Spinal Disorders, Kamimura Orthopedic Clinic, Matsumoto, Japan; 4Koiwai Orthopedic Clinic, Komoro, Japan Abstract: Low bone mineral density (BMD is one of the most frequent complications of anorexia nervosa (AN. We report the clinical outcomes of a female patient with severe AN, whose chest had become deformed due to thoracic fracture. Lumbar BMD was 0.358 g/cm2 (T-score = −6.3, and total hip BMD was 0.411 g/cm2 (T-score = −4.4. Active vitamin D increased these parameters by 81.0% and 57.4%, respectively, but a drop in her nutrition status afterward resulted in a sharp decrease in BMD values. These findings suggest that adequate nutrient intake is essential for effective osteoporosis treatment in patients with AN. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, bone mineral density, daily teriparatide, osteoporosis

  17. Foliage litter quality and annual net N mineralization: comparison across North American forest sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Neal A; Binkley, Dan

    1997-07-01

    The feedback between plant litterfall and nutrient cycling processes plays a major role in the regulation of nutrient availability and net primary production in terrestrial ecosystems. While several studies have examined site-specific feedbacks between litter chemistry and nitrogen (N) availability, little is known about the interaction between climate, litter chemistry, and N availability across different ecosystems. We assembled data from several studies spanning a wide range of vegetation, soils, and climatic regimes to examine the relationship between aboveground litter chemistry and annual net N mineralization. Net N mineralization declined strongly and non-linearly as the litter lignin:N ratio increased in forest ecosystems (r 2  = 0.74, P mineralization decreased linearly as litter lignin concentration increased, but the relationship was significant (r 2  = 0.63, P mineralization across this range of sites (r 2  litter lignin:N ratio and net N mineralization from forest floor and mineral soil was similar. The litter lignin:N ratio explained more of the variation in net N mineralization than climatic factors over a wide range of forest age classes, suggesting that litter quality (lignin:N ratio) may exert more than a proximal control over net N mineralization by influencing soil organic matter quality throughout the soil profile independent of climate.

  18. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress.

  19. First European Workshop on 'Remote sensing in mineral exploration'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wambeke, L.; Sanderson, D.J.; Dolan, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The First European Workshop on 'Remote sensing in mineral exploration' organized by the Commission of the European Communities in February 1985 took stock of the results obtained within the European Community on the application of remote sensing techniques in exploration. The papers presented in this publication are essentially based on data obtained with the first generation of satellites and some airborne experiments. Important progress in data processing and interpretation has been made in the EEC since 1979 and is continuing to be made. The main aim is to provide the EC mining industry with a new tool for exploration. Significant results have already been obtained with the EEC playing an important role in the promotion of this relatively new technique. The main R and D trend is towards an integration of multidata sets (remote sensing, geochemical, geophysical and other data) to improve the methodology for delineating new targets in exploration. Another general trend is the participation of mining companies in remote sensing experiments. Further improvement for exploration is expected in the near future with the thematic mapper and the spot imageries as well as new airborne sensors

  20. Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play, as defined by biologists and psychologists, is probably heterogeneous. On the other hand, playfulness may be a unitary motivational state. Playful play as opposed to activities that merge into aggression is characterized by positive mood, intrinsic motivation, occurring in a protected context and easily disrupted by stress. Playful play is a good measure of positive welfare. It can occupy a substantial part of the waking-life of a young mammal or bird. Numerous functions for play have been proposed and they are by no means mutually exclusive, but some evidence indicates that those individual animals that play most are most likely to survive and reproduce. The link of playful play to creativity and hence to innovation in humans is strong. Considerable evidence suggests that coming up with new ideas requires a different mindset from usefully implementing a new idea.

  1. To play is necessary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Vargas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to contemplate on playing, leaving of the observations on the children's games accomplished during the apprenticeship and the articulation of those with some theoretical ones that have been dedicating if to the study of the game, of the childhood and of the Infantile Education. It was possible, through the apprenticeship registrations and of the observations to live many moments in that the two groups, 3A and 3B, they played incorporating objects and creating characters in your games. He/she gave way, we sought focar the game of the do-of-bill, contemplating on your importance for the children in the first childhood, and that possibilities she brings us in the amplification of the infantile experiences. Another important aspect in this article is to contemplate on the teacher's practice in the Infantile Education, and, through our observations on playing of the children noticed the teachers' involvement in the children's games.

  2. Clay mineral type effect on bacterial enteropathogen survival in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Fiona P; Moynihan, Emma; Griffiths, Bryan S; Hillier, Stephen; Owen, Jason; Pendlowski, Helen; Avery, Lisa M

    2014-01-15

    Enteropathogens released into the environment can represent a serious risk to public health. Soil clay content has long been known to have an important effect on enteropathogen survival in soil, generally enhancing survival. However, clay mineral composition in soils varies, and different clay minerals have specific physiochemical properties that would be expected to impact differentially on survival. This work investigated the effect of clay materials, with a predominance of a particular mineral type (montmorillonite, kaolinite, or illite), on the survival in soil microcosms over 96 days of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Dublin, and Escherichia coli O157. Clay mineral addition was found to alter a number of physicochemical parameters in soil, including cation exchange capacity and surface area, and this was specific to the mineral type. Clay mineral addition enhanced enteropathogen survival in soil. The type of clay mineral was found to differentially affect enteropathogen survival and the effect was enteropathogen-specific. © 2013.

  3. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  4. Methodological Study on Dose Reconstruction for Uranium Miners in China (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, J.; Ma, J.; Zhou, J.; Li, X.; Yang, M.; Wang, W.

    1998-01-01

    Occupational exposure of uranium miners is very important in the nuclear industry. The individual dose to the miners in the earlier times in China suffers from a lack of information. To reconstruct the individual doses of uranium miners, a retrospective method was developed, the integration of annual effective working time and annual average alpha potential energy in working areas is used to calculate the individual dose to the miner by this method. In order to verify the validation of the method, some experiments were carried out in a uranium mine. Both internal and external individual doses received by the selected miners were monitored with individual dosemeters, area monitoring was also conducted: meanwhile, the working time and working places of the selected miners were recorded clearly. The result shows that the retrospective method can be used to estimate the collective dose and the dose level of miners with an unfixed working area in the mine, but there is a large difference between the results of the retrospective method and the monitoring result when the method is used to estimate the individual dose of miners with a relatively fixed working area. On the other hand, the collective dose and individual dose estimated according to the clearly recorded working history of the miners and alpha potential energy closely agree with the individual monitoring result. Based on the result, the importance of clearly recording the working history of the miners and area monitoring has been indicated when the individual monitoring of miners is inadequate. A simplified method with acceptable uncertainty has also been suggested to estimate the individual dose of uranium miners. (author)

  5. Vitamins and minerals in the traditional Greenland diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. M.

    The relative importance of traditional Greenlandic food items has diminished during the last decades. Today these account for 25% of the Greenland diet with a dominance of fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. This report synthesises the available information on concentrations of vitamins and miner......The relative importance of traditional Greenlandic food items has diminished during the last decades. Today these account for 25% of the Greenland diet with a dominance of fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. This report synthesises the available information on concentrations of vitamins...... and minerals in the various food items that form the traditional Greenlandic diet. However, through this diet people in Greenland are also exposed to a high intake of heavy metals and organochlorines, due to a contamination of many of these food items. In combination with information on the concentration...... of contaminants, the information about vitamins and minerals will potentially make it possible to adjust the diet in Greenland, taking both nutrients and contaminants into account...

  6. Physical heterogeneity control on effective mineral dissolution rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heewon; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis

    2018-04-01

    Hydrologic heterogeneity may be an important factor contributing to the discrepancy in laboratory and field measured dissolution rates, but the governing factors influencing mineral dissolution rates among various representations of physical heterogeneity remain poorly understood. Here, we present multiple reactive transport simulations of anorthite dissolution in 2D latticed random permeability fields and link the information from local grid scale (1 cm or 4 m) dissolution rates to domain-scale (1m or 400 m) effective dissolution rates measured by the flux-weighted average of an ensemble of flow paths. We compare results of homogeneous models to heterogeneous models with different structure and layered permeability distributions within the model domain. Chemistry is simplified to a single dissolving primary mineral (anorthite) distributed homogeneously throughout the domain and a single secondary mineral (kaolinite) that is allowed to dissolve or precipitate. Results show that increasing size in correlation structure (i.e. long integral scales) and high variance in permeability distribution are two important factors inducing a reduction in effective mineral dissolution rates compared to homogeneous permeability domains. Larger correlation structures produce larger zones of low permeability where diffusion is an important transport mechanism. Due to the increased residence time under slow diffusive transport, the saturation state of a solute with respect to a reacting mineral approaches equilibrium and reduces the reaction rate. High variance in permeability distribution favorably develops large low permeability zones that intensifies the reduction in mixing and effective dissolution rate. However, the degree of reduction in effective dissolution rate observed in 1 m × 1 m domains is too small (equilibrium conditions reduce the effective dissolution rate by increasing the saturation state. However, in large domains where less- or non-reactive zones develop, higher

  7. Sustainability in the Minerals Industry: Seeking a Consensus on Its Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Segura-Salazar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability science has received progressively greater attention worldwide, given the growing environmental concerns and socioeconomic inequity, both largely resulting from a prevailing global economic model that has prioritized profits. It is now widely recognized that mankind needs to adopt measures to change the currently unsustainable production and consumption patterns. The minerals industry plays a fundamental role in this context, having received attention through various initiatives over the last decades. Several of these have been, however, questioned in practice. Indeed, a consensus on the implications of sustainability in the minerals industry has not yet been reached. The present work aims to deepen the discussion on how the mineral sector can improve its sustainability. An exhaustive literature review of peer-reviewed academic articles published on the topic in English over the last 25 years, as well as complementary references, has been carried out. From this, it became clear that there is a need to build a better definition of sustainability for the mineral sector, which has been proposed here from a more holistic viewpoint. Finally, and in light of this new perspective, several of the trade-offs and synergies related to sustainability of the minerals industry are discussed in a cross-sectional manner.

  8. Carbonate mineral solubility at low temperatures in the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-SO 4-OH-HCO 3-CO 3-CO 2-H 2O system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Giles M.

    2001-06-01

    Carbonate minerals have played an important role in the geochemical evolution of Earth, and may have also played an important role in the geochemical evolution of Mars and Europa. Several models have been published in recent years that describe chloride and sulfate mineral solubilities in concentrated brines using the Pitzer equations. Few of these models are parameterized for subzero temperatures, and those that are do not include carbonate chemistry. The objectives of this work are to estimate Pitzer-equation bicarbonate-carbonate parameters and carbonate mineral solubility products and to incorporate them into the FREZCHEM model to predict carbonate mineral solubilities in the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-SO 4-OH-HCO 3-CO 3-CO 2-H 2O system at low temperatures (≤25°C) with a special focus on subzero temperatures. Most of the Pitzer-equation parameters and equilibrium constants are taken from the literature and extrapolated into the subzero temperature range. Solubility products for 14 sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium bicarbonate and carbonate minerals are included in the model. Most of the experimental data are at temperatures ≥ -8°C; only for the NaHCO 3-NaCl-H 2O and Na 2CO 3-NaCl-H 2O systems are there bicarbonate and carbonate data to temperatures as low as -21.6°C. In general, the fit of the model to the experimental data is good. For example, calculated eutectic temperatures and compositions for NaHCO 3, Na 2CO 3, and their mixtures with NaCl and Na 2SO 4 salts are in good agreement with experimental data to temperatures as low as -21.6°C. Application of the model to eight saline, alkaline carbonate waters give predicted pHs ranging from 9.2 to 10.2, in comparison with measured pHs that range from 8.7 to 10.2. The model suggests that the CaCO 3 mineral that precipitates during seawater freezing is probably calcite and not ikaite. The model demonstrates that a proposed salt assemblage for the icy surface of Europa consisting of highly hydrated MgSO 4

  9. Pretend Play in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…

  10. Formation and Reactivity of Biogenic Iron Minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, F. Grant

    2002-01-01

    Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) play an important role in regulating the aqueous geochemistry of iron and other metals in anaerobic, non-sulfidogenic groundwater environments; however, little work has directly assessed the cell surface electrochemistry of DIRB, or the nature of the interfacial environment around individual cells. The electrochemical properties of particulate solids are often inferred from titrations in which net surface charge is determined, assuming electroneutrality, as the difference between known added amounts of acid and base and measured proton concentration. The resultant titration curve can then be fit to a speciation model for the system to determine pKa values and site densities of reactive surface sites. Moreover, with the development of non-contact electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), it is now possible to directly inspect and quantify charge development on surfaces. A combination of acid-base titrations and EFM are being used to assess the electrochemical surface properties of the groundwater DIRB, Shewanella putrefaciens. The pKa spectra and EFM data show together that a high degree of electrochemical heterogeneity exists within the cell wall and at the cell surface of S. putrefaciens. Recognition of variations in the nature and spatial distribution of reactive sites that contribute to charge development on these bacteria implies further that the cell surface of these Fe(III)-reducing bacteria functions as a highly differentiated interfacial system capable of supporting multiple intermolecular interactions with both solutes and solids. These include surface complexation reactions involving dissolved metals, as well as adherence to mineral substrates such as hydrous ferric oxide through longer-range electrostatic interactions, and surface precipitation of secondary reduced-iron minerals

  11. Production of mineral ash-wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micevic, Z.; Djekic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The project entitled 'Production of Mineral Ash-Wool' presents a new technology of possible use of the fly ash, generated as a waste product from the fossil fueled power plants, as a basic raw material for manufacturing of different products from a new mineral ash-wool. The wide area of mineral ash-wool application (civil engineering, industry, power generation, etc.) and the advantages of this new technology (important raw material obtained free of charge, substitution of expensive silicate stone, use of electric energy for melting instead for coke, vicinity of factory location close to the fossil fueled power plant, lower product price, reduction of environmental pollution, etc.) have resulted in the performance of the bench scale tests. Positive results have been obtained, as a good initial base for the realization of this project. The named study as an detailed analysis has been carried out for the assessment of: supply and sales market, analysis of possible and selection of an optimal location of the factory in the frame of fossil fueled power plant 'Kosovo', selection of the production capacity and alternative preliminary technical designs of the factory for the mineral ash-wool production. For the studied alternatives, specifications and capital investments evaluations for equipment and works (mechanical, civil engineering and electromechanical part) have been made as well as assessments of production costs. Based on the performed economical and financial analyses, as well as the sensitivity analyses one could be concluded that the investments in the factory for the mineral ash-wool production is highly economically acceptable. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs

  12. The role of amino acids in hydroxyapatite mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Polar and charged amino acids (AAs) are heavily expressed in non-collagenous proteins (NCPs), and are involved in hydroxyapatite (HA) mineralization in bone. Here, we review what is known on the effect of single AAs on HA precipitation. Negatively charged AAs, such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid (Glu) and phosphoserine are largely expressed in NCPs and play a critical role in controlling HA nucleation and growth. Positively charged ones such as arginine (Arg) or lysine (Lys) are heavily involved in HA nucleation within extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen. Glu, Arg and Lys intake can also increase bone mineral density by stimulating growth hormone production. In vitro studies suggest that the role of AAs in controlling HA precipitation is affected by their mobility. While dissolved AAs are able to inhibit HA precipitation and growth by chelating Ca2+ and PO43− ions or binding to nuclei of calcium phosphate and preventing their further growth, AAs bound to surfaces can promote HA precipitation by attracting Ca2+ and PO43− ions and increasing the local supersaturation. Overall, the effect of AAs on HA precipitation is worth being investigated more, especially under conditions closer to the physiological ones, where the presence of other factors such as collagen, mineralization inhibitors, and cells heavily influences HA precipitation. A deeper understanding of the role of AAs in HA mineralization will increase our fundamental knowledge related to bone formation, and could lead to new therapies to improve bone regeneration in damaged tissues or cure pathological diseases caused by excessive mineralization in tissues such as cartilage, blood vessels and cardiac valves. PMID:27707904

  13. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. 59 Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO 4 or CaCO 3 ) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO 3 , CaHPO 4 , hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation

  14. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  15. Control of clay minerals effect in flotation. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Hasan Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased exposure to low grade ores highlights the importance of understanding phyllosilicate gangue mineralogy which consists of common gangue minerals. To improve the flotation performance and ore quality the negative effect of the clay minerals on flotation should be identified. The presence of clay minerals leads to problems, such as changing the froth stability, which are related to swelling behaviour, increase in pulp viscosity, overconsumption of reagents, slime coating and mechanical entrainment. The clay content in the ore is changing from time to time and it is necessary to provide quick solutions to the issues caused by the new ore composition. The objective of this paper is to give an overview how to control the colloidal properties of clay minerals on flotation.

  16. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  17. Physical activity and bone: The importance of the various mechanical stimuli for bone mineral density. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Morseth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported benefits of regular physical activity on bone mineral density (BMD. The effects of physical activity on BMD are primarily linked to the mechanisms of mechanical loading, but the understanding of the precise mechanism behind the association is incomplete. The aim of this paper was to review the main findings concerning sources and types of mechanical stimuli in relation to BMD. Mechanical forces that act on bone are generated from impact with the ground (ground-reaction forces and from skeletal muscle contractions (muscle forces or muscle-joint forces, but the relative importance of these two sources has not been elucidated. Both muscle-joint forces and gravitational forces seem to be able to induce bone adaptation independently, and there may be differences in the importance of loading sources at different skeletal sites. The nature of the stimuli is affected by the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of the activity. The activity should be dynamic, not static, and the magnitude and rate of the stimuli should be high. In accordance with this, cross-sectional studies report highest BMD in athletes of high-impact activities such as dancing, soccer, volleyball, basketball, squash, speed skating, gymnastics, hockey, and step-aerobics. Endurance activities such as orienteering, skiing, and triathlon seem to be beneficial to a lesser degree, whereas low-impact activities such as swimming and cycling are associated with lower BMD than controls. Both the intensity and frequency of the activity should be varied and increased beyond the habitual level. Duration of the activity seems to be less important, and a few loading cycles seem to be sufficient.

  18. Bone mineralization in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, L K

    1993-08-01

    Prevention of osteoporosis depends on establishing adequate peak bone mass in the first two decades of life. Achievement of this goal requires an understanding of factors that promote skeletal health. Genetic factors are important determinants of adult bone mass, but nonheritable variables, including body mass, calcium nutriture, sex steroids, and activity can strongly influence whether maximal bone mineral is achieved. Acquisition of bone mineral continues throughout childhood and adolescence, reaching a lifetime maximum in early adulthood. Adolescence is a particularly critical time for bone mineral accretion as more than half of the bone calcium is normally laid down during the teen years. Chronic illness, malnutrition, or endocrine deficiencies at this age may result in profound deficits in bone mass, which may not be fully reversible. These risk factors contribute to the osteopenia associated with anorexia nervosa, exercise-induced amenorrhea, delayed puberty, Turner's syndrome, and growth hormone deficiency.

  19. Mineral uptake by taro (colocasla esculenta) in swamp agroecosystem following gramoxone paraquat herbicide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Mazleha Maskin; Abdul Khalik Wood

    2006-01-01

    Mineral elemental uptake by Colocasia esculenta growing in swamp agroecosystem was studied following 14, 18 or 28 months of field spraying (MAT, months after treatment) with herbicide Gramoxone paraquat. In overall, Al (68226.67 ± 24066.56 μ/g dw) was the major element in riverine alluvial swamp soil, followed by micronutrient Fe (22280.00 ± 6328.87 μ/g dw). Concentration of macronutrient K (20733.33 ± 7371.82, μ/g dw) was the highest in swamp taro leaf followed by macronutrient Ca (7050.00 ± 3767.26 μ/g dw). In overall, the order of importance of the average mineral concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Na > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. However at 14 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Al > Na > Mn > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. At 18 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Fe > Na > Zn > Br > Co. At 28 AMT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Fe > Al > Zn > Na > Br > Co. In overall, the average order of importance of mineral elemental uptake or the soil plant transfer coefficient was Mn > K > Na > Zn > Co > Fe > Al; similar with the order at 28 MAT However, at 14 MAT the order of importance of the soil plant transfer coefficient was different at Mn > K > Na > Co > Zn > Al > Fe. (Author)

  20. Using MicroFTIR to Map Mineral Distributions in Serpentinizing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.; Kubo, M. D.; Cardace, D.

    2016-12-01

    Serpentinization, the water-rock reaction forming serpentine mineral assemblages from ultramafic precursors, can co-occur with the production of hydrogen, methane, and diverse organic compounds (McCollom and Seewald, 2013), evolving water appropriate for carbonate precipitation, including in ophiolite groundwater flow systems and travertine-producing seeps/springs. Serpentinization is regarded as a geologic process important to the sustainability of the deep biosphere (Schrenk et al., 2013) and the origin of life (Schulte et al., 2006). In this study, we manually polished wafers of ultramafic rocks/associated minerals (serpentinite, peridotite, pyroxenite, dunite; olivine, diopside, serpentine, magnetite), and travertine/constituent minerals (carbonate crusts; calcite, dolomite), and observed mineral boundaries and interfaces using µFTIR analysis in reflection mode. We used a Thermo Nicolet iS50 FTIR spectrometer coupled with a Continuum IR microscope to map minerals/boundaries. We identify, confirm, and document FTIR wavenumber regions linked to serpentinite- and travertine-associated minerals by referencing IR spectra (RRUFF) and aligning with x-ray diffraction. The ultramafic and carbonate samples are from the following field localities: McLaughlin Natural Reserve - a UC research reserve, Lower Lake, CA; Zambales, PH; Ontario, CA; Yellow Dog, MI; Taskesti, TK; Twin Sisters Range, WA; Sharon, MA; Klamath Mountains, CA; Dun Mountain, NZ; and Sussex County, NJ. Our goals are to provide comprehensive µFTIR characterization of mineral profiles important in serpentinites and related rocks, and evaluate the resolving power of µFTIR for the detection of mineral-encapsulated, residual organic compounds from biological activity. We report on µFTIR data for naturally occurring ultramafics and travertines and also estimate the limit of detection for cell membrane components in mineral matrices, impregnating increasing mass proportions of xanthan gum in a peridotite sand

  1. Study on mineral processing technology for abrasive minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Woong; Yang, Jung Il; Hwang, Seon Kook; Choi, Yeon Ho; Cho, Ken Joon; Shin, Hee Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Buyeo Materials in Buyeogun, Choongnam province is a company producing feldspar concentrate, but does not yet utilize the garnet as abrasive material and other useful heavy minerals wasted out from the process of feldspar ore. The purpose of this study is to develop technology and process for the recovery of garnet concentrate. As results, the garnet is defined as ferro manganese garnet. The optimum process for recovery of garnet concentrate is to primarily concentrate heavy minerals from tailings of feldspar processing. And secondly the heavy minerals concentrated is dried and separated garnet concentrate from other heavy minerals. At this time, the garnet concentrate is yield by 0.176%wt from 0.31%wt of heavy minerals in head ore. The garnet concentrate contains 33.35% SiO{sub 2}, 12.20% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 28.47% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.96% MnO. As for utilization of abrasive materials, a fundamental data was established on technology of grinding and classification. (author). 13 refs., 47 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Deciphering Mineral Homeostasis in Barley Seed Transfer Cells at Transcriptional Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Darbani

    Full Text Available In addition to the micronutrient inadequacy of staple crops for optimal human nutrition, a global downtrend in crop-quality has emerged from intensive breeding for yield. This trend will be aggravated by elevated levels of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Therefore, crop biofortification is inevitable to ensure a sustainable supply of minerals to the large part of human population who is dietary dependent on staple crops. This requires a thorough understanding of plant-mineral interactions due to the complexity of mineral homeostasis. Employing RNA sequencing, we here communicate transfer cell specific effects of excess iron and zinc during grain filling in our model crop plant barley. Responding to alterations in mineral contents, we found a long range of different genes and transcripts. Among them, it is worth to highlight the auxin and ethylene signaling factors Arfs, Abcbs, Cand1, Hps4, Hac1, Ecr1, and Ctr1, diurnal fluctuation components Sdg2, Imb1, Lip1, and PhyC, retroelements, sulfur homeostasis components Amp1, Hmt3, Eil3, and Vip1, mineral trafficking components Med16, Cnnm4, Aha2, Clpc1, and Pcbps, and vacuole organization factors Ymr155W, RabG3F, Vps4, and Cbl3. Our analysis introduces new interactors and signifies a broad spectrum of regulatory levels from chromatin remodeling to intracellular protein sorting mechanisms active in the plant mineral homeostasis. The results highlight the importance of storage proteins in metal ion toxicity-resistance and chelation. Interestingly, the protein sorting and recycling factors Exoc7, Cdc1, Sec23A, and Rab11A contributed to the response as well as the polar distributors of metal-transporters ensuring the directional flow of minerals. Alternative isoform switching was found important for plant adaptation and occurred among transcripts coding for identical proteins as well as transcripts coding for protein isoforms. We also identified differences in the alternative-isoform preference between

  3. Deciphering Mineral Homeostasis in Barley Seed Transfer Cells at Transcriptional Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbani, Behrooz; Noeparvar, Shahin; Borg, Søren

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the micronutrient inadequacy of staple crops for optimal human nutrition, a global downtrend in crop-quality has emerged from intensive breeding for yield. This trend will be aggravated by elevated levels of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Therefore, crop biofortification is inevitable to ensure a sustainable supply of minerals to the large part of human population who is dietary dependent on staple crops. This requires a thorough understanding of plant-mineral interactions due to the complexity of mineral homeostasis. Employing RNA sequencing, we here communicate transfer cell specific effects of excess iron and zinc during grain filling in our model crop plant barley. Responding to alterations in mineral contents, we found a long range of different genes and transcripts. Among them, it is worth to highlight the auxin and ethylene signaling factors Arfs, Abcbs, Cand1, Hps4, Hac1, Ecr1, and Ctr1, diurnal fluctuation components Sdg2, Imb1, Lip1, and PhyC, retroelements, sulfur homeostasis components Amp1, Hmt3, Eil3, and Vip1, mineral trafficking components Med16, Cnnm4, Aha2, Clpc1, and Pcbps, and vacuole organization factors Ymr155W, RabG3F, Vps4, and Cbl3. Our analysis introduces new interactors and signifies a broad spectrum of regulatory levels from chromatin remodeling to intracellular protein sorting mechanisms active in the plant mineral homeostasis. The results highlight the importance of storage proteins in metal ion toxicity-resistance and chelation. Interestingly, the protein sorting and recycling factors Exoc7, Cdc1, Sec23A, and Rab11A contributed to the response as well as the polar distributors of metal-transporters ensuring the directional flow of minerals. Alternative isoform switching was found important for plant adaptation and occurred among transcripts coding for identical proteins as well as transcripts coding for protein isoforms. We also identified differences in the alternative-isoform preference between the treatments

  4. Characterization lithium mineralized pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.F.S.; Luz Ferreira, O. da; Cancado, R.Z.L.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana de Minerios e Metais Ltda', which purpose is to give subsidies for implementation of pegmatite unit, in order to make better use of them. (F.E.) [pt

  5. Mineral paragenesis on Mars: The roles of reactive surface area and diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairén, Alberto G; Gil-Lozano, Carolina; Uceda, Esther R; Losa-Adams, Elisabeth; Davila, Alfonso F; Gago-Duport, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Geochemical models of secondary mineral precipitation on Mars generally assume semiopen systems (open to the atmosphere but closed at the water-sediment interface) and equilibrium conditions. However, in natural multicomponent systems, the reactive surface area of primary minerals controls the dissolution rate and affects the precipitation sequences of secondary phases, and simultaneously, the transport of dissolved species may occur through the atmosphere-water and water-sediment interfaces. Here we present a suite of geochemical models designed to analyze the formation of secondary minerals in basaltic sediments on Mars, evaluating the role of (i) reactive surface areas and (ii) the transport of ions through a basalt sediment column. We consider fully open conditions, both to the atmosphere and to the sediment, and a kinetic approach for mineral dissolution and precipitation. Our models consider a geochemical scenario constituted by a basin (i.e., a shallow lake) where supersaturation is generated by evaporation/cooling and the starting point is a solution in equilibrium with basaltic sediments. Our results show that cation removal by diffusion, along with the input of atmospheric volatiles and the influence of the reactive surface area of primary minerals, plays a central role in the evolution of the secondary mineral sequences formed. We conclude that precipitation of evaporites finds more restrictions in basaltic sediments of small grain size than in basaltic sediments of greater grain size.

  6. Expression and Dynamics of Podoplanin in Cultured Osteoblasts with Mechanostress and Mineralization Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenawa, Tomohiro; Kanai, Takenori; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Sawa, Yoshihiko; Iida, Junichiro

    2018-02-27

    This study investigates the significance of the expression and dynamics of podoplanin in mechanostress and mineralization in cultured murine osteoblasts. Podoplanin increased in osteoblasts subjected to straining in non-mineralization medium, suggesting that the mechanostress alone is a podoplanin induction factor. In osteoblasts subjected to vertical elongation straining in the mineralization medium, the mRNA amounts of podoplanin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin were significantly larger than those in cells not subjected to straining, suggesting that mechanostress is the cause of a synergistic effect in the expression of these proteins. In osteoblasts in the mineralization medium, significant increases in osteocalcin mRNA occurred earlier in cells subjected to straining than in the cells not subjected to straining, suggesting that the mechanostress is a critical factor to enhance the expression of osteocalcin. Western blot and ELISA analysis showed increased podoplanin production in osteoblasts with longer durations of straining. There was significantly less mineralization product in osteoblasts with antibodies for podoplanin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin. There was also less osteopontin and osteocalcin produced in osteoblasts with anti-podoplanin. These findings suggest that mechanostress induces the production of podoplanin in osteoblasts and that podoplanin may play a role in mineralization in cooperation with bone-associated proteins.

  7. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  8. Minerals Industry' 97. Survey report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this annual survey is to provide timely and accurate financial data such as production, price movements, profitability, distribution of assets by activity, employment and labour cost and taxation on the Australian minerals industry. It aims to facilitate more informed debate on the industry's role and importance in the economy. The report also includes information on the safety and health performance and overseas exploration expenditure of the minerals industry. This twenty-first survey relates to the year ended 30 June 1997. The proportion of activity covered in this year's survey is comparable with the 1996 survey. The mineral industry is defined as including exploration for, extraction and primary processing of minerals in Australia. The oil, gas, iron and steel industries are excluded. As for the uranium industry, increased mine capacity over the medium term saw a switch away from spot market purchases to long term contracts for uranium in 1996. This, coupled with announced releases from the US stockpile, saw downward pressure on spot market prices for uranium during 1996/97. The average spot market price for U 3 O 8 fell by an average of 6 percent during 1996/97 and was approximately 16 percent lower than three years ago. General uncertainty over the future profitability of coal industry is compounded by the likely softness of future coal prices

  9. Remote sensing application research of mineralization prospect of uranium-polymetal deposits in west side of Daxinganling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Fusheng; Cui Zhenkui; Fang Maolong; Wang Guojuan; Yao Hua

    1998-12-01

    The key of mineral exploration by remote sensing method is the extraction and identification of mineralization-related geologic information from remote sensing data under the guidance of mineralization theory. Remote sensing research of deposits is combined with the analysis of regional geology setting, so as to give full play to the advantage of remote sensing technology. According to the geologic features of the covered area, different kinds of satellite data are, at first, selected and processed with different methods and therefore mineralization-related geologic information is effectively extracted. Then regional geologic setting is discussed and main mineralization-controlled factors, such as uranium-occurred volcanic basins, mineralization-controlled faults and granite bodies, Mesozoic volcanic rock series, volcanic framework, are identified. On the basis of the former study, the remote sensing image models of different kinds of deposits have been established. Finally, multi-source information integration technique has been applied to the assessment of favorable mineralization areas. This research shows that it is feasible to extract and identify mineralization-related information from remote sensing images in complicated and covered areas, and that the study area is favorable for uranium and polymetal deposit explorations because of its favorable geologic setting and mineralization conditions

  10. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  11. Preferential Treatment: Interaction Between Amino Acids and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Hazen, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are important for some models of the origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids from dilute solution is unlikely without a scaffold or catalyst. The surfaces of early Earth minerals are the most likely candidates for this role. The surface adsorption behavior of 12 amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, L-proline, L- phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, d-amino valeric acid, glycine, L-lysine, L-isoleucine, and B-alanine) on 21 minerals (quartz, calcite, enstatite, illite, olivine, pyrrhotite, pyrite, alkali basalt, albite, analcime, chlorite, barite, hydroxyl apatite, hematite, magnetite, aluminum hydroxide, kaolin, silica gel, corundum, rutile, and montmorillonite) was determined via batch adsorption experiments. Absorption was determined for concentrations between 10-4M and 10-6M in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, and between pH values of 3 and 9 at 25 degrees C. The equilibrated solutions were centrifuged, filtered, derivatized using a fluorescent amino group tag (dansyl-chloride) and analyzed by HPLC. Adsorption was standardized using BET surface area measurements for each mineral to give the number of mols of each amino acid adsorbed per square meter for each mineral. The results indicate an enormous difference in the adsorption of amino acids between minerals, along with major differences in the adsorption of individual amino acids on the same mineral surface. There is also a change in the absorbance of amino acids as the pH changes. Many previous studies of amino acid concentration and catalysis by minerals have used clay minerals because of their high surface areas, however, this data suggests that the surfaces of minerals such as calcite, quartz and pyrite have even higher affinities for amino acids. The results suggest mineral surfaces that could be optimal locations for the polymerization of molecules linked to the origin of life.

  12. Facilitating play through communication: significance of teeth exposure in the gorilla play face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Bridget M; Cherry, Lyndsay

    2012-02-01

    Primate facial expressions (FEs) likely play an important role in primate society: through facial signals, individuals can potentially send and receive information and may benefit from coordinating their behavior accordingly. Many primates use a relaxed open mouth (ROM) facial display or “play face” (PF) during play behavior, where the mouth is open but teeth are covered. In addition to this conventional PF, however, Western Lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) also use a full PF where the upper teeth are exposed. As the teeth are similarly exposed in the bared-teeth expression (which is a signal of appeasement, submission and/or affiliation), the full PF may be a blend of the PF and bared-teeth face, and have a different signal function to the PF alone. Focal animal sampling of captive Western Lowland gorillas (N=10) showed that the full PF was more often observed in intense rather than gentle play, and intense play bouts that featured the full PF were longer than those that featured only the PF. Both expressions were associated with an increase in affinitive behavior between sender and receiver postplay, but only the full PF was associated with an increase higher than that of play alone. Overall, the findings suggest that the full PF has an additional role in coordinating and maintaining play, possibly though reducing uncertainty in the receiver and confirming that play is only play.

  13. Uranium in minerals of gold-bearing formations of the North-Eastern part of the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagruzina, I.A.; Pinsky, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium concentration in 2190 mineral grains from 23 gold-bearing veins of different age deposits in the North-Eastern part of the USSR have been determined using f-radiography. The deposits studied are referred to two formation types: gold-silver epithermal and gold-quartz mesothermal. Differences in physico-chemical conditions of deposite formation of the above formation types are emphasized by the differences in uranium concentration in the vein minerals: 1.0-1.4 g/tU in the first type and 0.4 g/tU in the second one. Uranium content in minerals of gold-bearing veins as compared to minerals of other deposits is characterized by the lowest concentrations. In all gold-bearing veins hydrooxides of iron and hydromica are the main concentrators of uranium. Hypergene stage plays dominating role in uranium accumulation

  14. Understanding the role of clay minerals in the chromium(VI) bioremoval by Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCTCC AB93066 under growth condition: microscopic, spectroscopic and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chunxi; Wu, Pingxiao; Li, Yuewu; Ruan, Bo; Li, Liping; Tran, Lytuong; Zhu, Nengwu; Dang, Zhi

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory batch experiments were conducted to investigate the role of clay minerals, e.g., kaolinite and vermiculite, in microbial Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa under growth condition in glucose-amended mediums as a method for treating Cr(VI)-contaminated subsurface environment such as soil. Our results indicated that glucose could acted as an essential electron donor, and clay minerals significantly enhanced microbial Cr(VI) reduction rates by improving the consumption rate of glucose and stimulating the growth and propagation of P. aeruginosa. Cr(VI) bioreduction by both free cells and clay minerals-amended cells followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model, with the latter one fitting better. The mass balance analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis found that Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) and the adsorption of total chromium on clay minerals-bacteria complex was small, implying that Cr(VI) bioremoval was not mainly due to the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto cells or clay minerals or clay minerals-cells complex but mainly due to the Cr(VI) reduction capacity of P. aeruginosa under the experimental conditions studied (e.g., pH 7). Atomic force microscopy revealed that the addition of clay minerals (e.g. vermiculite) decreased the surface roughness of Cr(VI)-laden cells and changed the cell morphology and dimension. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that organic matters such as aliphatic species and/or proteins played an important role in the combination of cells and clay minerals. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the attachment of cells on the surface of clay minerals, indicating that clay minerals could provide a microenvironment to protect cells from Cr(VI) toxicity and serve as growth-supporting materials. These findings manifested the underlying influence of clay minerals on microbial reduction of Cr(VI) and gave an understanding of the interaction between pollutants, the environment and the biota.

  15. Mineral imbalances in farm animals and their study and diagnosis with isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-two mineral elements are known to be essential for animal life. These are calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, iron, iodine, copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, tin, vanadium, fluorine, silicon, nickel and arsenic. Naturally occurring and man-made dietary imbalances of many of these elements and their interactions with other minerals are described and their functions and requirements by farm animals are outlined. The nature and importance of metabolic interactions among the mineral elements are discussed and the important concept stressed that there is no single minimum requirement or safe tolerance of a particular mineral, but a series of such minimum requirements and safe tolerances depending on the extent to which other minerals with which it interacts is present or absent from the diet. Radioactive tracer elements are shown to be of great value in the determination of mineral nutrient availability to the animal and for following mineral metabolic movements in the body. They are also shown to have considerable potential for the diagnosis of mineral imbalances. Various in vivo and in vitro techniques involving both radioactive and stable tracers developed for the early diagnosis of mineral deficiencies are described and the strengths and weaknesses of such techniques, in comparison with standard biochemical tests, are discussed. The need for further critical studies with isotopic tracers in the detection and diagnosis of mineral imbalances is emphasized. The main types of biochemical criteria used in the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies and excesses are given, with appropriate examples of their use. (author)

  16. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  17. Availability of mineral resources for society; Disponibilidad y retos actuales de los recursos minerales para la sociedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J. G.; Espi, J. A.

    2014-06-01

    Trends in global mineral production and expanding uses of mineral resources foretell a bright future, although with significant challenges, for exploration and development. Demand for mineral resources is likely to remain high and grow to meet increases in world population and standards of living. Significant challenges include meeting future demand with new discoveries and developing the resources in environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable ways. A historical perspective from the last 50 years on finding new mineral districts, discovering new types of ore deposits, and using new technologies in exploration suggests that the world will not run out of mineral resources. It is likely that substitution and recycling will play increasingly major roles in meeting global mineral demand. New technologies for ocean mining will help add to the resource base. Historical perspectives also suggest that mining scams will continue, and environmental, health, and safety concerns will be major factors in deciding where future mines will be located and how they will be operated. (Author)

  18. Review of selected global mineral industries in 2011 and an outlook to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzie, W. David; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra; Mobbs, Philip M.; Perez, Alberto Alexander; Taib, Mowafa; Wacaster, Susan; ,

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews the world production of selected mineral commodities in 2011 and includes output projections (based on planned capacity expansions) through 2017. It also includes brief discussions of several issues that are of importance to the mineral sector, including the world economy, the availability of strategic minerals, significant company mergers and acquisitions in 2011, exploration investment made during the year, and the moves towards resource nationalization and expropriation of mineral assets by national Governments.

  19. Significance, mechanisms and environmental implications of microbial bio-mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzerara, K.; Miot, J.; Morin, G.; Ona-Nguema, G.; Skouri-Panet, F.; Ferard, C.

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms can mediate the formation of minerals by a process called bio-mineralization. This process offers an efficient way to sequester inorganic pollutants within relatively stable solid phases. Here we review some of the main mechanisms involved in the mediation of mineral precipitation by microorganisms. This includes supersaturation caused by metabolic activity, the triggering of nucleation by production of more or less specific organic molecules, and the impact of mineral growth. While these processes have been widely studied in the laboratory, assessment of their importance in the environment is more difficult. We illustrate this difficulty using a case study on an As-contaminated acid mine drainage located in the South of France (Carnoules, Gard). In particular, we explore the potential relationships that might exist between microbial diversity and mineral precipitation. The present review, far from being exhaustive, highlights some recent advances in the field of bio-mineralogy and provides non-specialists an introduction to some of the main approaches and some questions that remain unanswered. (authors)

  20. Natural mineral bottled waters available on the Polish market as a source of minerals for the consumers. Part 1. Calcium and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gątarska, Anna; Tońska, Elżbieta; Ciborska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Natural mineral waters may be an essential source of calcium, magnesium and other minerals. In bottled waters, minerals occur in an ionized form which is very well digestible. However, the concentration of minerals in underground waters (which constitute the material for the production of bottled waters) varies. In view of the above, the type of water consumed is essential. The aim of the study was to estimate the calcium and magnesium contents in products available on the market and to evaluate calcium and magnesium consumption with natural mineral water by different consumer groups with an assumed volume of the consumed product. These represented forty different brands of natural mineral available waters on Polish market. These waters were produced in Poland or other European countries. Among the studied products, about 30% of the waters were imported from Lithuania, Latvia, Czech Republic, France, Italy and Germany. The content of calcium and magnesium in mineral waters was determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in an acetylene-air flame. Further determinations were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer--ICE 3000 SERIES-THERMO-England, equipped with a GLITE data station, background correction (a deuterium lamp) as well as other cathode lamps. Over half of the analysed natural mineral waters were medium-mineralized. The natural mineral waters available on the market can be characterized by a varied content of calcium and magnesium and a high degree of product mineralization does not guarantee significant amounts of these components. Among the natural mineral waters available on the market, only a few feature the optimum calcium-magnesium proportion (2:1). Considering the mineralization degree of the studied products, it can be stated that the largest percentage of products with significant calcium and magnesium contents can be found in the high-mineralized water group. For some natural mineral waters, the consumption of 1 litre daily may

  1. Exclusion, exemption and clearance in the mining and minerals industry: Practical application to South African operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    Although South Africa has no primary uranium mines, a major portion of its very large mining industry involves minerals with moderately elevated levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides, typical of elevated levels found in similar mineral deposits worldwide. Evidence both locally and internationally suggests that, where radioactive elements are not concentrated or extracted, such operations cannot normally give rise to undue radiological risks. The concept of exclusion should therefore play the major role in establishing which minerals-related operations should be subject to regulatory control, but exclusion criteria, which tend to be numerical rather than descriptive, vary widely between countries - in South Africa, very little is excluded and opportunities for granting exemptions are limited. The need for exemptions and clearance would be reduced if more extensive use of the exclusion concept were made, but it is nevertheless important to have better guidance on determining appropriate numerical exemption and clearance criteria - again, there are currently wide variations between countries, one example being the surface activity clearance levels for the reuse or recycling of uranium-contaminated items. Two examples, relating to gold mining tailings disposal and recycling of contaminated scrap steel respectively, are used to illustrate the difficulties that have arisen in South Africa on the clearance of low activity materials from the mining and minerals industry. Radon is identified as requiring separate consideration, and is the one area where more specific international guidance, based on action levels for intervention, is available. The action level for workplaces recommended by the IAEA would appear to represent a common basis for exclusion and exemption with respect to radon exposures from mining and minerals operations. For public exposures, the corresponding action level for homes, although not specifically intended for dealing with radon from nearby

  2. A Petunia Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Protein, PhHD-Zip, Plays an Important Role in Flower Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence. PMID:24551088

  3. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  4. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Chang

    Full Text Available Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO, and ABA (NCED biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29 was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold. Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  5. Radiocarbon application in dating 'complex' hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral water systems: A review of case studies ascribed to the northern Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreira, Paula M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Quimica, Estrada Nacional No 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: carreira@itn.pt; Marques, Jose M.; Graca, Rui C.; Aires-Barros, Luis [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Laboratorio de Mineralogia e Petrologia, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-10-15

    The use of radioactive isotopes plays a very important role in dating groundwater, providing an apparent age of the systems in the framework of the aquifers conceptual modelling making available important features about the water fluxes, such as recharge, horizontal flow rates and discharge. In this paper, special emphasis has been put on isotopic constraints in the use of {delta}{sup 13}C and {sup 14}C content as a dating tool in some hot (76 deg. C) and cold (17 deg. C) CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters discharging in the Vilarelho da Raia-Pedras Salgadas region (N-Portugal). The radiocarbon content determined in these CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters ({sup 14}C activity from 4.3 up to 9.9 pmc) is incompatible with the systematic presence of {sup 3}H (from 1.7 to 7.9 TU). The {delta}{sup 13}C values of the studied CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters indicate that the total C in the recharge waters is being masked by larger quantities of CO{sub 2} ({sup 14}C-free) introduced from deep-seated (upper mantle) sources. This paper demonstrates that a good knowledge of mineral water systems is essential to allow hydrologists to make sound conclusions on the use of C isotopic data in each particular situation.

  6. Minerals with metal-organic framework structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskić, Igor; Pekov, Igor V; Krivovichev, Sergey V; Friščić, Tomislav

    2016-08-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an increasingly important family of advanced materials based on open, nanometer-scale metal-organic architectures, whose design and synthesis are based on the directed assembly of carefully designed subunits. We now demonstrate an unexpected link between mineralogy and MOF chemistry by discovering that the rare organic minerals stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite exhibit structures found in well-established magnetic and proton-conducting metal oxalate MOFs. Structures of stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite, exhibiting almost nanometer-wide and guest-filled apertures and channels, respectively, change the perspective of MOFs as exclusively artificial materials and represent, so far, unique examples of open framework architectures in organic minerals.

  7. Influence of oil and mineral characteristics on oil-mineral interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.A.; Lunel, T.; Daniel, F.; Swannell, R.; Lee, K.; Stoffyn-Egli, P.

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to simulate the process of oil-mineral interaction in seawater. Thirteen different crudes, emulsions and oil products were used in the study. The objective was to improve the fundamental understanding of the characteristics of oils and minerals that influence the process. The findings of an initial phase of studies based on the swirling flask and marine simulation procedures were also described. Oil content associated with flocs to oil and mineral characteristics were discussed. Emulsions were prepared at 10 degrees C by vigorously mixing the oil with excess artificial seawater in a Kilner jar using a high shear homogenizer. Topped oils were prepared by distillation to 250 degrees C. The biodegraded oil was prepared from the topped crude oil. Biodegradation was achieved over a 28 day period using natural seawater and naturally occurring hydrocarbon degraders. The relationships between oil concentration, oil density and mineral exchange capacity were determined. The study showed that greater oil concentrations in the water column could be expected with (1) the presence of mineral fines, (2) minerals with greater cation exchange rates, (3) minerals with finer sizes, and (4) oils of lower viscosity and density. It was determined that in coastal waters the viscosity of the oil/emulsion will likely be the main factor affecting oil-mineral interactions. The viscosity limit for allowing oil fines interaction is likely to be dependent on the energy in the coastal zone affected by the oil pollution. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs

  8. Escapist Motives for Playing On-Line Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    2012-01-01

    Social games have become popular along with the tremendous growth of social networking sites, esp. Facebook. There is a gap in literature on what motivates people to play Facebook games. This paper studies social games usage behavior of students. We focus on escapist reasons, based on Warmelink...... of escapist motives for playing Facebook and other on-line games, we investigate how they are linked to demographic data such as: age, gender, place of origin, along with other social interactions patterns and social network usage behavior, current gaming status and an estimate of gaming time. According...... to our study, only 10% of respondents, who have started to play Facebook games, continued to play them. The most important motives for playing games is mundane breaking, the second reason is pleasure seeking, the third is stress relieving, and the least important is imagination conjuring....

  9. Trends in the forecast of the world prices for selected metals and their influence on the exploitation of the Slovak raw mineral base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovský Jozef

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is given a basic information about the situation in the ore raw material base of the Slovak republic, after its transition to the market economy in the years 1990 – 1994. By dumping the ore mining, a decrease in the ore production, especially their sortiment, also started. Therefore only two ore mines – Nižná Slaná (Fe ores and Banská Hodruša (Au ores are in operation in Slovakia at present time. The rest of Slovak ores are economically not viable after present criteria. Besides the evaluation of balanced and unbalanced ore deposits, and the deposit´s parameters, the knowledge about trends of world ores and metal prices are very important. From this point of view, ores and metals which have a great importance (Fe, Al, Cu, Sb, Ag, Au for Slovakia are discussed. The obtained results have a prognostic character and they should be considered at the utilisation of own mineral base, as well as when buying mineral raw materials from abroad. In both cases the information about trends of world prices of raw materials play an important role.

  10. Play and play occupation: a survey of paediatric occupational therapy practice in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Moore

    2017-04-01

    particular play-centred practice in the paediatric context. Originality/value - Play has been described as an important occupation in childhood, and consequently, it features in paediatric occupational therapy. However, little is known about the current place of play in occupational therapy practice. This study addresses this gap by considering the current place of play in occupational therapy practice in Ireland.

  11. Mineral mapping in the western Kunlun Mountains using Tiangong-1 hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, W.; Cheng, Q.; Jing, L.; Chen, Y.; Guo, X.; Ding, H.; Liu, Q.

    2016-04-01

    The unmanned Chinese space module Tiangong-1 was launched in September 2011 with a hyperspectral sensor on board. The sensor combines high spatial and spectral resolution suitable for mineral mapping. In this study, Tiangong-1 hyperspectral data were employed for mineral mapping in the western Kunlun Mountains, an important metallogenic belt in China. A Spectral Hourglass Wizard method was applied to detect common minerals from the Tiangong- 1 shortwave infrared data with reference to a set of spectral libraries. Spectral information on minerals, such as zoisite, mica, quartz, sodalite, dolomite, and actinolite, was extracted from the data. The resulting mineral interpretation maps were highly correlated with the reference geological maps and information from ASTER satellite imagery, suggesting that the hyperspectral data are suitable for mineral mapping.

  12. Degradation of potassium rock by earthworms and responses of bacterial communities in its gut and surrounding substrates after being fed with mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianfeng; Lian, Bin; Wang, Bin; Jiang, Guofang

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms are an ecosystem's engineers, contributing to a wide range of nutrient cycling and geochemical processes in the ecosystem. Their activities can increase rates of silicate mineral weathering. Their intestinal microbes usually are thought to be one of the key drivers of mineral degradation mediated by earthworms,but the diversities of the intestinal microorganisms which were relevant with mineral weathering are unclear. In this report, we show earthworms' effect on silicate mineral weathering and the responses of bacterial communities in their gut and surrounding substrates after being fed with potassium-bearing rock powder (PBRP). Determination of water-soluble and HNO(3)-extractable elements indicated some elements such as Al, Fe and Ca were significantly released from mineral upon the digestion of earthworms. The microbial communities in earthworms' gut and the surrounding substrates were investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and the results showed a higher bacterial diversity in the guts of the earthworms fed with PBRP and the PBRP after being fed to earthworms. UPGMA dendrogram with unweighted UniFrac analysis, considering only taxa that are present, revealed that earthworms' gut and their surrounding substrate shared similar microbiota. UPGMA dendrogram with weighted UniFrac, considering the relative abundance of microbial lineages, showed the two samples from surrounding substrate and the two samples from earthworms' gut had similarity in microbial community, respectively. Our results indicated earthworms can accelerate degradation of silicate mineral. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystem processe since they not only have some positive effects on soil structure, but also promote nutrient cycling of ecosystem by enhancing the weathering of minerals.

  13. Degradation of potassium rock by earthworms and responses of bacterial communities in its gut and surrounding substrates after being fed with mineral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianfeng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earthworms are an ecosystem's engineers, contributing to a wide range of nutrient cycling and geochemical processes in the ecosystem. Their activities can increase rates of silicate mineral weathering. Their intestinal microbes usually are thought to be one of the key drivers of mineral degradation mediated by earthworms,but the diversities of the intestinal microorganisms which were relevant with mineral weathering are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show earthworms' effect on silicate mineral weathering and the responses of bacterial communities in their gut and surrounding substrates after being fed with potassium-bearing rock powder (PBRP. Determination of water-soluble and HNO(3-extractable elements indicated some elements such as Al, Fe and Ca were significantly released from mineral upon the digestion of earthworms. The microbial communities in earthworms' gut and the surrounding substrates were investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA and the results showed a higher bacterial diversity in the guts of the earthworms fed with PBRP and the PBRP after being fed to earthworms. UPGMA dendrogram with unweighted UniFrac analysis, considering only taxa that are present, revealed that earthworms' gut and their surrounding substrate shared similar microbiota. UPGMA dendrogram with weighted UniFrac, considering the relative abundance of microbial lineages, showed the two samples from surrounding substrate and the two samples from earthworms' gut had similarity in microbial community, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicated earthworms can accelerate degradation of silicate mineral. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystem processe since they not only have some positive effects on soil structure, but also promote nutrient cycling of ecosystem by enhancing the weathering of minerals.

  14. Cell-wall polysaccharides play an important role in decay resistance of Sphagnum and actively depressed decomposition in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajek, T.; Ballance, S.; Limpens, J.; Verhoeven, J.T.A.; Zijlstra, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sphagnum-dominated peatlands head the list of ecosystems with the largest known reservoirs of organic carbon (C). The bulk of this C is stored in decomposition-resistant litter of one bryophyte genus: Sphagnum. Understanding how Sphagnum litter chemistry controls C mineralization is essential for

  15. Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, C. Doc; Hinman, Nancy W.; Scott, Jill R.

    2013-10-01

    Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

  16. Investigating Microbe-Mineral Interactions: Recent Advances in X-Ray and Electron Microscopy and Redox-Sensitive Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miot, Jennyfer; Benzerara, Karim; Kappler, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Microbe-mineral interactions occur in diverse modern environments, from the deep sea and subsurface rocks to soils and surface aquatic environments. They may have played a central role in the geochemical cycling of major (e.g., C, Fe, Ca, Mn, S, P) and trace (e.g., Ni, Mo, As, Cr) elements over Earth's history. Such interactions include electron transfer at the microbe-mineral interface that left traces in the rock record. Geomicrobiology consists in studying interactions at these organic-mineral interfaces in modern samples and looking for traces of past microbe-mineral interactions recorded in ancient rocks. Specific tools are required to probe these interfaces and to understand the mechanisms of interaction between microbes and minerals from the scale of the biofilm to the nanometer scale. In this review, we focus on recent advances in electron microscopy, in particular in cryoelectron microscopy, and on a panel of electrochemical and synchrotron-based methods that have recently provided new understanding and imaging of the microbe-mineral interface, ultimately opening new fields to be explored.

  17. Pyrite formation and mineral transformation pathways upon sulfidation of ferric hydroxides depend on mineral type and sulfide concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peiffer, Stefan; Behrends, Thilo; Hellige, Katrin; Larese-Casanova, Philip; Wan, Moli; Pollok, Kilian

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of ferric (hydr)oxides with dissolved sulfide does not lead to the instantaneous production of thermodynamically stable products but can induce a variety of mineral transformations including the formation of metastable intermediates. The importance of the various transformation pathways

  18. Critical Minerals and Energy–Impacts and Limitations of Moving to Unconventional Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. McLellan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nexus of minerals and energy becomes ever more important as the economic growth and development of countries in the global South accelerates and the needs of new energy technologies expand, while at the same time various important minerals are declining in grade and available reserves from conventional mining. Unconventional resources in the form of deep ocean deposits and urban ores are being widely examined, although exploitation is still limited. This paper examines some of the implications of the transition towards cleaner energy futures in parallel with the shifts through conventional ore decline and the uptake of unconventional mineral resources. Three energy scenarios, each with three levels of uptake of renewable energy, are assessed for the potential of critical minerals to restrict growth under 12 alternative mineral supply patterns. Under steady material intensities per unit of capacity, the study indicates that selenium, indium and tellurium could be barriers in the expansion of thin-film photovoltaics, while neodymium and dysprosium may delay the propagation of wind power. For fuel cells, no restrictions are observed.

  19. Phosphorylation of CaMKII in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Su-Ying; Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Huang, Yuan-Li; Cao, Qing; Xu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Ge; Yang, Guang; Song, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Hui; Wang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-He

    2016-02-01

    The Ca(2+) modulation in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is an important signal-transducing molecule that is activated by Ca(2+) . This study investigated the effects of intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the DRN on sleep-wake states in rats. Maximum and minimum CaMKII phosphorylation was detected at Zeitgeber time 21 (ZT 21; wakefulness state) and ZT 3 (sleep state), respectively, across the light-dark rhythm in the DRN in rats. Six-hour sleep deprivation significantly reduced CaMKII phosphorylation in the DRN. Microinjection of the CAMKII activation inhibitor KN-93 (5 or 10 nmol) into the DRN suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS). Application of a high dose of KN-93 (10 nmol) increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) time, SWS bouts, the mean duration of SWS, the percentage of SWS relative to total sleep, and delta power density during NREMS. Microinjection of CaCl2 (50 nmol) in the DRN increased CaMKII phosphorylation and decreased NREMS, SWS, and REMS. KN-93 abolished the inhibitory effects of CaCl2 on NREMS, SWS, and REMS. These data indicate a novel wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role for the Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling pathway in DRN neurons. We propose that the intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role in rats. Intra-DRN application of KN-93 (CaMKII activation inhibitor) suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS). Intra-DRN application of CaCl2 attenuated REMS and NREMS. We think these findings should provide a novel cellular and molecular mechanism of sleep-wake regulation. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. What Play Means to Us: Exploring Children's Perspectives on Play in an English Year 1 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities for play and self-initiated activity, considered to be an important part of children's learning in early childhood settings, diminish as children progress into school. Previous studies suggest that losing time for play/self-initiated activity can impact negatively on children's attitudes to school learning. This article discusses the…

  1. Minerals sustainability, emerging economies, the developing world and the ‘truth’ behind the rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petterson, Michael G.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the principles and applications of sustainable development as applied to minerals (sustainable minerals. The key pillars of sustainable minerals are well known and include economic, community, environmental, and political considerations. The ideal solution is one that finds a balance between community benefit, economic development, profit, and minimal negative environmental and political impacts. This is, of course, fine in theory but in the ‘real world’ difficult to achieve. From a geoscience perspective this paper argues that non-private sector geoscientists have a crucial role to play in developing the sustainable minerals paradigm to an intellectually mature and usable form. The geoscience approach includes re-interpreting the rich legacy of geoscience data and acquisition of new data (geological mapping, 3 and 4D modelling, geophysical and geo­chemical information and contextualizing this information with socio-economic and environmental data (e.g. ethnicity, social mix, wealth indicators, environmental sensitivity indicators to assist with strategic and localized decision-making, maximizing benefits, and minimizing adverse impacts. This approach also involves modelling the full lifecycle of minerals, mines, mineral commodities, and mineral-bearing land in an attempt to quantify benefits and disbenefits of mineral extraction. One crucial key element of a sustainable minerals approach is a mix between ‘hard’ science and social science and genuine inclusion and consultation with stakeholders, especially impacted communities. As geoscientists we are in a position to explain clearly the benefits of mineral development to society and the disbenefits of ‘nimbyism’ (e.g. exporting problems to countries less able to manage mineral extraction and promote a ‘custodianship’ ethos of mineral development that is the only way to realizing the key principle of sustainability, i.e. leaving the planet in a state that our

  2. Remote Sensing, Geology and Geochemistry on the GVIII Uranium Mineralization, Gabal Gattar, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkholy, D.M.; Elhusseiny, M.O.; Saleh, W.H.; Elzalaky, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    GVIII- uranium occurrence of Gabal Gattar is located at the intersection of Lat. 27° 05' 56 a nd Long. 33° 16' 33 t o the south of GH-uranium occurrence. This occurrence is hosted in the alkali feldspar granite of Gabal Gattar. It is dissected by NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW and NW-SE faults and fractures. The granite is strongly altered in the zones of these faults and fractures. This granite is composed of K-feldspars, quartz, plagioclase and biotite as essential minerals and zircon, apatite, fluorite as accessories. The secondary minerals are chlorite, sericite, muscovite and iron oxides. The main alterations along the fault and fracture zones are hematitization, silicification, kaolintiization, chloritization and fluoritization that increase at the zones of intersection.The Advanced Spacebome Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) discriminated and mapped the hematitized zones in the studied granitic rocks predicting iron oxides as pathfinder minerals that be helpful in localizing high uranium concentration. The compilated and integrated data as alteration zones, geological and structural features using Geographic Information System (GIS) played an important role in correlating, manipulating, visualizing and extracting the information getting a better result for interpretation and evaluation of this occurrence. The study granite is geochemically, alkali- feldspar granite to syenogranite originated from weakly peraluminous magma of alkaline affinity and of within plate tectonic setting due to crustal relaxation. This granite shows many geochemical characterestics similar to the A-type granite, high contents of SiO 2 , (Na 2 O + K 2 O), Rb, Nb, Y, low contents of MgO, CaO and Sr and apparently F-rich granite.Radiometric measurements of GVIII U-occurrence show that the study granite records uranium values between 15 and 28 ppm, while the anomalies record uranium values range from 400 to more than 30000 ppm. Surfacial yellow secondary uranium

  3. Play Practices and Play Moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  4. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Impact of mineral and vitamin status on beef cattle immune function and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegley, E B; Ball, J J; Beck, P A

    2016-12-01

    The importance of optimal mineral and vitamin nutrition on improving immune function and health has been recognized in the preceding decades. In the southeast, beef cattle are raised predominantly on forages that may be limiting in nutrients for optimal health, especially trace minerals such as Cu, Zn, and Se. Clinical deficiencies of these nutrients produce classic symptoms that are common to several nutrient deficiencies (e.g., slow growth and unthrifty appearance); however, subclinical deficiencies are more widespread and more difficult to detect, yet may result in broader economic losses. Dietary mineral concentrations often considered adequate for maximum growth, reproductive performance, or optimal immune function have been found to be insufficient at times of physiological stress (weaning, transport, comingling, etc.), when feed intake is reduced. The impacts of these deficiencies on beef cattle health are not apparent until calves have been subjected to these stressors. Health problems that are exacerbated by mineral or vitamin deficiencies include bovine respiratory disease, footrot, retained placenta, metritis, and mastitis. Many micronutrients have antioxidant properties through being components of enzymes and proteins that benefit animal health. In dairy cattle, high levels of supplemental Zn are generally associated with reduced somatic cell counts and improved foot health, possibly reflecting the importance of Zn in maintaining effective epithelial barriers. Neutrophils isolated from ruminants deficient in Cu or Se have reduced ability to kill ingested bacteria in vitro. Supplemental vitamin E, in its role as an intracellular antioxidant has been shown to decrease morbidity in stressed calves. There is more understanding of the important biological role that these nutrients play in the functioning of the complex and multifaceted immune system. However, there is still much to be learned about determining the micronutrient status of herds (and hence

  5. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  6. Health effects of mineral dusts, Volume 28: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mossman, B.T. [ed.] [Vermont Univ., Burlington, VT (United States). Dept. of Pathology

    1993-12-31

    The processes that lead to the development of disease (or pathogenesis) by minerals very likely occur at or near the mineral-fluid interface. Thus the field of ``mineral-induced pathogenesis`` is a prime candidate for interdisciplinary research, involving mineral scientists, health scientists, petrologists, pathologists, geochemists, biochemists, and surface scientists, to name a few. This review volume and the short course upon which it was based are intended to provide some of the necessary tools for the researcher interested in this area of interdisciplinary research. The chapters present several of the important problems, concepts, and approaches from both the geological and biological ends of the spectrum. These two extremes are partially integrated throughout the book by cross-referencing between chapters. Chapter 1 also presents a general introduction into the ways in which these two areas overlap. The final chapter of this book discusses some of the regulatory aspects of minerals. A glossary is included at the end of this book, because the complexity of scientific terms in the two fields can thwart even the most enthusiastic of individuals. Individual reports have been processed separately for the database.

  7. KANDUNGAN BAHAN ORGANIK DAN AKUMULASI MINERAL TANAH PADA BANGUNAN SARANG RAYAP TANAH Macrotermes gilvus Hagen (BLATTODEA: TERMITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Subekti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rayap Macrotermes gilvus Hagen mempunyai peranan ekologis rayap tanah M. gilvus sebagai degradator primer di dalam hutan, eksplorasi perananannya sebagai agen biologis dalam perbaikan vegetasi dan perbaikan kualitas tanah. Rayap dapat memodifikasi sifat fisik dan kimia tanah. Penelitian tentang kandungan bahan organik telah dilakukan dengan analisis proksimat (metode Weende, sementara akumulasi mineral tanah menggunakan metode X-Ray berdasarkan Analysis Program Cristallynity. Rayap M. gilvus Hagen merupakan komponen penting dalam memodifikasi beragam mineral dari tanah disekitarnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan nyata antara komposisi mineral tanah dalam sarang rayap M. gilvus Hagen dengan mineral tanah disekitar sarang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kandungan bahan organik dalam bangunan sarang menghasilkan sebesar 98.33% dan padatannya 1.67%. Padatan ini terdiri dari karbohidrat sebesar 3.16%, abu 4.19%, lemak 23.95%, protein sebesar 39.52%, dan sisanya 29.18% berupa mineral-mineral. Bangunan sarang rayap yaitu SiO2 dan Despujolsite yang dibawa dari lingkungan sekitar kedalan bangunan sarang. Unsur-unsur yang lain diperoleh dari sebagian material yang berasal dari saliva, humus dan tanah sekitar sarang. The termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen plays an ecological role. Subterranean termites M. gilvus is considered as the primary degradator in the forest, and therefore the exploration of its role as the biological agent to recover the vegetation and soil quality might be useful. Termites could modify the physical and chemical nature of soil. M. gilvus Hagen was an important component in modifying various minerals of the surrounding soil.  Research on the content of the organic materials had been proximat analysis (Weende methode, and the accumulation of soil mineral structure in the mound with X-Ray Methode (Analysis Program Cristallynity 2006. The result of the research indicated that there was significant difference

  8. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  9. Influence of liberation of sulphide minerals on flotation of sedimentary copper ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakalarz Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ore liberation is one of the most important parameter in mineral processing, especially in flotation. To separate the valuable components from gangue minerals, it is necessary to liberate one from others. It is achieve primarily through crushing and grinding. These stages are one of the most expensive of mineral production. It is important to determine the adequate mineral liberation which would result in huge savings in the overall cost of flotation plant. The aim of the paper was the analysis of the influence of milling time on the laboratory flotation of the copper ore from stratiform Polish deposit. Three different milling time of copper ore in laboratory ball mill was applied. The flotation results were presented as the recovery-recovery and grade-recovery upgrading curves. The liberation of sulphides and the particle size of sulphides in flotation product were analysed and compared.

  10. Mineral Requirements in Children with Chronic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaeian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Decreased oral intake or impaired function / structure in the gut, such as hypertension port associated with atrophic changes in the protein nutrition - calories can lead to micronutrient deficiencies.This paper examines the status of micronutrients in chronic liver disease in children.   Materials and Methods: In this review study databases including proquest, pubmedcentral, scincedirect, ovid, medlineplus were been searched with keyword words such as” chronic liver disease"” minerals””children” between 1999 to 2014. Finally, 3 related articles have been found.   Results: In chronic liver disease changes in micronutrient metabolism lead to changes in the daily requirements, such that in certain circumstances intake increasing or decreasing  is needed. Low serum calcium and phosphate concentrations are often the reflection of malabsorption-induced bone disease that is unresponsive to vitamin D store normalization. Iron is usually deficient in children with CLD and supplementation frequently needed. The origin of iron deficiency is multifactorial and includes ongoing losses, inadequate intakes, serial blood draws and malabsorption secondary to hypertensive enteropathy. Zinc plays an important role in cognitive function, appetite and taste, immune function, wound healing, and protein metabolism. Low plasma zinc levels are frequent in children with chronic cholestasis, but unfortunately plasma concentrations are not reflective of total body zinc status. Copper and manganese, unlike other minerals, are increased in CLD, because they are normally excreted through bile. Parenteral nutrition in cholestatic patients can induce manganese intoxication and accumulation in basal ganglia.   Conclusion:  In fants with CLD are prone to multiple nutritional deficiencies. Mineral state should be evaluated, treated and reevaluated, until sufficient daily requirement achieved. Poster  Presentation, N 33  

  11. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  12. Near-infrared laboratory spectroscopy of mineral chemistry: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, Freek van der

    2018-03-01

    Spectroscopy is the science concerned with the investigation and measurement of spectra produced when materials interacts with or emits electromagnetic radiation. Commercial infrared spectrometer were designed from the 1950's onward and found their way into the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In the 1970's and 1980's also natural sciences notably mineralogy and vegetation science started systematically to measure optical properties of leaves and minerals/rocks with spectrometers. In the last decade spectroscopy has made the step from qualitative observations of mineral classes, soil type and vegetation biomass to quantitative estimates of mineral, soil and vegetation chemistry. This resulted in geothermometers used to characterize metamorphic and hydrothermal systems and to the advent of foliar biochemistry. More research is still needed to bridge the gap between laboratory spectroscopy and field spectroscopy. Empirical studies of minerals either as soil or rock constituents (and vegetation parameters) derived from regression analysis of spectra against chemistry is important in understanding the physics of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation and matter which in turn is important in the design of future satellite missions. Physics based models and retrievals are needed to operationalize these relationships and implement them in future earth observation missions as these are more robust and easy to transfer to other areas and data sets.

  13. Quick Decline Disease Disturbs the Levels of Important Phytochemicals and Minerals in the Stem Bark of Mango (Mangifera indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick decline is one of the deadly diseases of mango (Mangifera indica which causes a serious damage to the tree and its production. In the current study, we examined the levels of important phytochemicals and minerals in the stem bark of healthy and infected mango tree. Infected stem bark showed 12.5% lower levels of total sugars and 51.1% higher levels of proteins as compared to healthy parts, whereas no variation was observed in reducing sugar, free amino acid, and ascorbic acid. Among micronutrients, the levels of Zn, Na, Cr, and Cl were lowered by 25%, 54.3%, 25%, and 75.4%, respectively, whereas the level of Ni was 62.5% higher in the infected stem bark when compared with the healthy stem bark. However, other micronutrients did not show significant differences between healthy and infected parts. Among macronutrients, the quantity of N, P, and Mg showed an increase of 51.2%, 34.7%, and 27.6%, respectively, whereas the quantity of Ca and K was decreased by 25.2% and 7.66% in the infected stem barks as compared to healthy ones. The results of this study provide some basic but important information that may ultimately be helpful in managing the quick decline disease in the mango trees.

  14. "Everything's Upside Down. We'll Call It Upside Down Valley!": Siblings' Creative Play Themes, Object Use, and Language during Pretend Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Abuhatoum, Shireen; Chang-Kredl, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an important context that supports young children's developing social-cognitive and creative abilities. The play behaviors of 70 sibling dyads in early and middle childhood were examined for the following indices of creativity in play: (a) play themes (set-up/organization, expected, creative), (b) object use…

  15. Provisional 2008 assessment of solid mineral fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    This article first comments data on solid mineral fuel consumption in France in 2008, i.e., the overall consumption, and the consumption by different sectors (energy production in coal plants, iron and steel industry, other industries, housing and office buildings). Then, it comments solid mineral fuel imports and their origins. It comments and explains the price evolution since 1999 (notably on the Antwerp-Rotterdam-Amsterdam market) in relationship with maritime transport price, availabilities and problems, and with the evolution of coal demand (notably in China) and oil prices. Finally, it briefly comments the French residual production and stocks

  16. Children's Gendered Drawings of Play Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akseer, Tabasum; Lao, Mary Grace; Bosacki, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    According to child psychologists, vital links exist between children's drawings and their emotional, social, and cognitive development. Previous research has explored the important relations between drawings and play in educational settings. Given the vast research that explores the ambiguous topic of children's play, according to Richer (1990),…

  17. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  18. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  19. Uranium mineralization environment and prospecting potential of Dawan ore field in Nanling metallogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shanghai

    2011-01-01

    Located in the middle part of Jiuyishan complex pluton, Nanling metallogenic belt, Dawan uranium ore field in Hunan Province is an important uranium-producing and rare metal, nonferrous metal cluster area due to the favourable mineralization environment. The Cambrian is the main uranium source bed and their contact zone to the pluton is the favorable part for mineralization. The uranium deposits which have been explored are all located in the exocontact zone of Jinjiling pluton in the middle part of Jiuyishan complex pluton which is composed of the independent eastern and western magma evolution centers. In the west center, Jinjiling pluton is closely related to uranium mineralization where the trinity geologic setting was formed with magma evolution, hydrothermal fluid action and mineralization. The deep slitted and large faults provide the pathway and thermodynamic source for circulating migration of mineralizing fluid. The uranium mineralization mainly occurred in crustal stress conversion period of Late Cretaceous and related to the tensive NW extending fault and deep originated fluid. The gravity, aero magnetic, airborne gamma-ray spectrometry anomalies and radioactivity hydrochemical anomaly are important criteria for uranium prospecting. Based on the analysis of regional uranium mineralization environment, the prospecting potential is forecasted. (authors)

  20. Study of environmental radioactivity in three important Italian rivers using sediment mineral organic detritus indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, C.; Aebischer, M.L.; Musumeci, R.G.; Sogni, R.; Borio, R.; Bucci, S.; Giannardi, C.; Magnoni, M.; Margini, G.

    1997-01-01

    When studying radionuclides introduced into the environment because of accidental spillage of radioactive substances from the atmosphere into running water and rivers, as in the accident at Chernobyl, a series of measurements and a knowledge of appropriate indicators are needed in order to best use the information. Radionuclides enter the water in the following way: they fall directly onto the surface of the water and then spread and sink, forming sediment on the river bed. S.M.O.D., sediments mineral organic detritus, is an important matrix for research on contaminants present in running water.This has been demonstrated in Italy where repeated research was done in various portions of the Po River. The studies have shown that S.M.O.D. is a good indicator for many radionuclides, both of fission as in Cs-137, Cs-134, Sb-125, Ru-106, and activation as in Mn-54 and Co-60. S.M.O.D. reveals the spatial radio contamination both of a diffuse source present in the river as in the case of fall-out from the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl or of a specific source as in spillage from a nuclear power plant or from hospital or industrial waste.It has been shown that S.M.O.D. is also an efficient indicator for other kinds of containments like heavy metals and pesticides. The work carried out on three major rivers: the Po, the Arno and the Tiber. (authors)

  1. Effects of clay minerals, hydroxides, and timing of dissolved organic matter addition on the competitive sorption of copper, nickel, and zinc : a column experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Refaey, Y.; Jansen, B.; Parsons, J.R.; de Voogt, P.; Bagnis, S.; Markus, A.; El-Shater, A.-H.; El-Haddad, A.-A.; Kalbitz, K.

    2017-01-01

    Infiltration of heavy metal (HM) polluted wastewater can seriously compromise soil and groundwater quality. Interactions between mineral soil components (e.g. clay minerals) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) play a crucial role in determining HM mobility in soils. In this study, the influence of

  2. Children Learning to Use Technologies through Play: A Digital Play Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jo; Edwards, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies are increasingly acknowledged as an important aspect of early childhood education. A significant problem for early childhood education has been how to understand the pedagogical use of technologies in a sector that values play-based learning. This paper presents a new framework to understand how children learn to use…

  3. Formation of secondary minerals in a lysimeter approach - A mineral-microbe interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffner, F.; Merten, D.; De Giudici, G.; Beyer, A.; Akob, D. M.; Ricci, P. C.; Küsel, K.; Büchel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of large areas due to uranium mining operations poses a serious long-term environmental problem. In the Ronneburg district (eastern Thuringia, Germany), leaching of low grade uranium bearing ores (uranium content metals, especially Cd, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn due to a residual contamination even after remediation efforts. To reveal the processes of secondary mineral precipitation in the field a laboratory lysimeter approach was set up under in situ-like conditions. Homogenized soil from the field site and pure quartz sand were used as substrates. In general, in situ measurements of redox potentials in the substrates showed highly oxidizing conditions (200-750 mV). Water was supplied to the lysimeter from below via a mariottés bottle containing contaminated groundwater from the field. Evaporation processes were allowed, providing a continuous flow of water. This led to precipitation of epsomite and probably aplowite on the top layer of substrate, similar to what is observed in field investigations. After 4 weeks, the first iron and manganese bearing secondary minerals became visible. Soil water samples were used to monitor the behaviour of metals within the lysimeter. Saturation indices (SI) for different secondary minerals were calculated with PHREEQC. The SI of goethite showed oversaturation with respect to the soil solution. SEM-EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of goethite. Geochemical data revealed that goethite formation was mainly dominated by Eh/pH processes and that heavy metals, e.g. Zn and U, could be enriched in this phase. Although Eh/pH data does not support formation of manganese minerals, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could be isolated from field soil samples, supporting the fact that microorganisms may influence this natural attenuation process. Laser ablation ICP-MS data reveal accumulation of manganese in MOB biomass on Mn(II)-containing agar plates. Furthermore, it was possible to show the importance

  4. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  5. Bone mineral content measurement by bone mineral analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Itsuo; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Fukunaga, Masao; Torizuka, Kanji; Kosaka, Tadako.

    1976-01-01

    With a bone mineral analyzer (Studsvik Bone Scanner 7102), bone mineral content (BMC) was validated using various concentrations of standard CaCO 3 . Seventy-five normal subjects, nineteen patients with rheumathoid arthritis (RA) and twenty-two patients with abnormal thyroid function were investigated by this method. Some inherent problems concerning the present measurements were also discussed. Reproducibility of BMC in sixteen normal subjects during a four months interval was +-4% on the mid-shaft of the radius and +-5% on the distal head of the radius, respectively. Although correlation of the single energy method and the dual energy method with the bone scanner was high (r=0.970), the single energy method was probably underestimated due to the fat layer. BMC in normal subjects was highest in 30th and 40th decades for both males and females, and gradually decreased with aging. Males had higher BMC and BMC/bone width than did females. All of the stage 1 group of RA patients, according to roentgenographic staging, revealed normal BMC, but most of stage 2 and 3 groups had abnormally low BMC, suggesting that progression of the disease may be an important factor in BMC values. The BMC of hyperthyroid patients was low, whereas that of euthyroid patients was normal. Serial measurements of BMC in a hyperparathyroid patient and a hyperthyroid patient revealed distinct recurrence of BMC after treatment. (Evans, J.)

  6. Playing at School: An Inquiry Approach to Using an Experiential Play Lab in an Early Childhood Teacher Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.; Oh, Ji Hyun; Porter, Daniella

    2015-01-01

    Play is considered an important activity of the early childhood years. Research supports the contribution of play to children's development, learning, and well-being. In spite of this, time for play is being pushed out in many early childhood programs by greater time allotted to formal instruction in narrow academic skills to be tested eventually…

  7. Climatic control on clay mineral formation: Evidence from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are the most important factors that determine kinetics of chemical weathering. Mineral alteration ... perature, pressure and microbial activity. Among various factors ... physical factor) and rainfall (a chemical factor). (Velde 1992, p. 118).

  8. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. derived minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Graf, Kristin H; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2013-12-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5, 12, and 18 months. At each time point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5 months). Cortical bone increased through month 5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5-10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals, but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis-prevention strategy.

  9. Surface materials map of Afghanistan: iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Dudek, Kathleen B.; Livo, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of HyMap imaging spectrometer data of Afghanistan. Using a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) WB-57 aircraft flown at an altitude of ~15,240 meters or ~50,000 feet, 218 flight lines of data were collected over Afghanistan between August 22 and October 2, 2007. The HyMap data were converted to apparent surface reflectance, then further empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap data was compared to the spectral features of reference entries in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, ice, and snow. This map shows the spatial distribution of iron-bearing minerals and other materials having diagnostic absorptions at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. These absorptions result from electronic processes in the minerals. Several criteria, including (1) the reliability of detection and discrimination of minerals using the HyMap spectrometer data, (2) the relative abundance of minerals, and (3) the importance of particular minerals to studies of Afghanistan's natural resources, guided the selection of entries in the reference spectral library and, therefore, guided the selection of mineral classes shown on this map. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated. Minerals having similar spectral features were less easily discriminated, especially where the minerals were not particularly abundant and (or) where vegetation cover reduced the absorption strength of mineral features. Complications in reflectance calibration also affected the detection and identification of minerals.

  10. Optimization of Mineral Separator for Recovery of Total Heavy Minerals of Bay of Bengal using Central Composite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Sunita; Swain, Ranjita; Rao, Raghupatruni Bhima

    2017-04-01

    The present study is aimed at investigating the optimization of a mineral separator for processing of beach sand minerals of Bay of Bengal along Ganjam-Rushikulya coast. The central composite design matrix and response surface methodology were applied in designing the experiments to evaluate the interactive effects of the three most important operating variables, such as feed quantity, wash water rate and Shake amplitude of the deck. The predicted values were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.97 for grade and 0.98 for recovery). To understand the impact of each variable, three dimensional (3D) plots were also developed for the estimated responses.

  11. Grouping Minerals by Their Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget

    2018-01-01

    Minerals are commonly taught in ways that emphasize mineral identification for its own sake or maybe to help identify rocks. But how do minerals fit in with other science content taught? The author uses mineral formulas to help Earth science students wonder about the connection between elements, compounds, mixtures, minerals, and mineral formulas.…

  12. Magnetic Separation for the Direct Observation of Mineral-Associated Microbial Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, B. K.; Orphan, V.

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that microorganisms may selectively colonize mineral surfaces in diverse environments. Mineral substrates may serve as an important source of limiting nutrients or provide electron acceptors and donors for dissimilatory reactions. This work presents a new method for characterizing the microbial diversity associated with specific components in environmental samples. Minerals are concentrated from the bulk sample according to magnetic susceptibility, resulting in compositionally distinct partitions. The microbial communities associated with these partitions are subsequently characterized using molecular techniques. Initial testing of samples from active and dormant hydrothermal chimney structures from the Lau and Fiji Basins show that mineral components may be concentrated from bulk samples without concealing pre-existing patterns of selective colonization. 16S gene surveys from environmental clone libraries reveal distinct colonization patterns for thermophilic archaea and bacteria between sulfide mineral partitions. This method offers a unique tool discerning the role of mineral composition in surface-associated diversity.

  13. Biotransformation effect of Bombyx Mori L. may play an important role in treating diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Li, Yin; Guo, Xin-Feng; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Compared with herbal drugs, medicine processed from animals (animal medicine) was thought to have more bioactive substances and higher activities. Biotransformation effect often plays an important role in their effect. However, researches about effect of animal medicine on diabetic nephropathy and applying animal medicine as natural bio-transformer were seldom reported. The purpose of this paper was to reveal the use of Bombyx Mori L. on diabetic nephropathy from ancient to modern times. The classical literature indicated that Saosi Decoction (), which contains Bombyx Mori L. or silkworm cocoon, was applied to treat disorders congruent with modern disease diabetic nephropathy from the Ming to Qing Dynasty in ancient China. Modern studies showed that Bombyx Mori L. contains four main active constituents. Among these, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) and quercetin showed promising potential to be new agents in diabetic nephropathy treatment. The concentrations of 1-DNJ and the activities of quercetin in Bombyx Mori L. are higher than in mulberry leaves, because of the biotransformation in the Bombyx Mori L. body. However, these specifific components need further human and mechanistic studies to determine their therapeutic potential for this challenging condition.

  14. The popularity of toys and play of pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Kump, Janja

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents popularity of play and toys in pre-school period, influence of important factors on a play and selection of toys and differences in duration of the play, depending on children's age and gender. In the theoretical part we defined children's play and its importance, also we detaily described development of children's play and presented the meaning of toys. We classified toys according to the basic function and according to adequacy of toys for certain age group. We focu...

  15. Role-playing for more realistic technical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Zeuch, A; Dieckmann, P; Roth, C; Schäfer, S; Völkl, M; Schellberg, D; Herzog, W; Jünger, J

    2005-03-01

    Clinical skills are an important and necessary part of clinical competence. Simulation plays an important role in many fields of medical education. Although role-playing is common in communication training, there are no reports about the use of student role-plays in the training of technical clinical skills. This article describes an educational intervention with analysis of pre- and post-intervention self-selected student survey evaluations. After one term of skills training, a thorough evaluation showed that the skills-lab training did not seem very realistic nor was it very demanding for trainees. To create a more realistic training situation and to enhance students' involvement, case studies and role-plays with defined roles for students (i.e. intern, senior consultant) were introduced into half of the sessions. Results of the evaluation in the second term showed that sessions with role-playing were rated significantly higher than sessions without role-playing.

  16. Views of coal miners in South Africa on sanctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhe, H.; Schoeppner, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey conducted during 1987, of the attitudes of a sample of black, male coal miners working in 6 export-orientated mines in Transvaal and 3 in Natal. Both mines and miners were selected at random and nearly 1,000 interviews were conducted. The most significant findings are as follows: South African coal miners are largely satisfied with their conditions of work, above all with social benefits, safety standards and the relations amongst the workers themselves. Regarding improvements in their working conditions miners attach by far the greatest importance to the question of wages. Next on the list are improvements in accomodation and the abolition of apartheid. The issue of 'sanctions' is not debated very widely. More than two-thirds of polled miners had not heard of sanctions previously. Nevertheless, after an explanation of what the term means, a large majority of South African coal miners (70%) rejects sanctions. Only one-fifth (21%) is for sanctions. Three-quarters of miners polled believe that sanctions would hit them hard. Above all they mentioned the risk of losing their jobs (79%), life at home (75%) and a decline in wages (74%). 34% of coal miners would support sanctions if they were ultimately to lead to the fall of the South African Government. 26% if sanctions were to lead to the fall of the South African Government, but also to a loss of their own jobs. Most of the miners polled felt that the trade unions were representing them well. However, South African coal miners are insufficiently informed on supposed positions adopted by the trade unions on separate issues and this applies to trade union policy on sanctions as well. 72% of miners polled seek a government that shares power equally between black and white. Moderate means are proposed to attain such a government. Only a minority, the hard core comprising about 25% of the South African miners, seeks violent confrontation.

  17. Nanoscale Phase Stability Reversal During the Nucleation and Growth of Titanium Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummmer, D. R.; Heaney, P. J.; Kubicki, J. D.; Kent, P. R.; Post, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Fine-grained titanium oxide minerals are important in soils, where they affect a variety of geochemical processes. They are also industrially important as catalysts, pigments, food additives, and dielectrics. Recent research has indicated an apparent reversal of thermodynamic stability between TiO2 phases at the nanoscale thought to be caused by an increased contribution of surface energy to the total free energy. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments in which titanium oxides crystallize from aqueous TiCl4 solutions confirm that anatase, a metastable phase, is always the first phase to nucleate under our range of initial conditions. Rutile peaks are observed only minutes after the first appearance of anatase, after which anatase abundance slowly decreases while rutile continues to form. Whole pattern refinement of diffraction data reveals that lattice constants of both phases increase throughout the crystallization process. In addition, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and kinetic modeling indicate that anatase does not undergo a solid-state transformation to the rutile structure as once thought. Instead, anatase appears to re-dissolve and then feed the growth of already nucleated rutile nanocrystals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to model 1, 2, and 3 nm particles of both mineral phases. The total surface energies calculated from these models did yield lower values for anatase than for rutile by 8-13 kJ/mol depending on particle size, indicating that surface free energy is sufficient to account for stability reversal. However, these whole-particle surface energies were much higher than the sum of energies of each particle's constituent crystallographic surfaces. We attribute the excess energy to defects associated with the edges and corners of nanoparticles, which are not present on a 2-D periodic surface. This previously unreported edge and corner energy may play a dominant role in the stability reversal

  18. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.Aa.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  19. Electrospinning of calcium phosphate-poly(D,L-lactic acid nanofibers for sustained release of water-soluble drug and fast mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu QW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Qi-Wei Fu,1,* Yun-Peng Zi,1,* Wei Xu,1 Rong Zhou,1 Zhu-Yun Cai,1 Wei-Jie Zheng,1 Feng Chen,2 Qi-Rong Qian1 1Department of Orthopedics, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Calcium phosphate-based biomaterials have been well studied in biomedical fields due to their outstanding chemical and biological properties which are similar to the inorganic constituents in bone tissue. In this study, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation method, and used for preparation of ACP-poly(D,L-lactic acid (ACP-PLA nanofibers and water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers by electrospinning. Promoting the encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble drugs in electrospun hydrophobic polymer nanofibers is a common problem due to the incompatibility between the water-soluble drug molecules and hydrophobic polymers solution. Herein, we used a native biomolecule of lecithin as a biocompatible surfactant to overcome this problem, and successfully prepared water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers. The lecithin and ACP nanoparticles played important roles in stabilizing water-soluble drug in the electrospinning composite solution. The electrospun drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited fast mineralization in simulated body fluid. The ACP nanoparticles played the key role of seeds in the process of mineralization. Furthermore, the drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited sustained drug release which simultaneously occurred with the in situ mineralization in simulated body fluid. The osteoblast-like (MG63 cells with spreading filopodia were well observed on the as-prepared nanofibrous mats after culturing for 24 hours, indicating a high cytocompatibility. Due

  20. Evaluation of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH in pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetics and cosmetic raw materials using 1H NMR spectroscopy [version 2; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk W. Lachenmeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mineral hydrocarbons consist of two fractions, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH. MOAH is a potential public health hazard because it may include carcinogenic polycyclic compounds. In the present study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was introduced, in the context of official controls, to measure MOSH and MOAH in raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon final products (cosmetics and medicinal products. Quantitative determination (qNMR has been established using the ERETIC methodology (electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations based on the PULCON principle (pulse length based concentration determination. Various mineral hydrocarbons (e.g., white oils, paraffins or petroleum jelly were dissolved in deuterated chloroform. The ERETIC factor was established using a quantification reference sample containing ethylbenzene and tetrachloronitrobenzene. The following spectral regions were integrated: MOSH δ 3.0 – 0.2 ppm and MOAH δ 9.2 - 6.5, excluding solvent signals. Validation showed a sufficient precision of the method with a coefficient of variation <6% and a limit of detection <0.1 g/100 g. The applicability of the method was proven by analysing 27 authentic samples with MOSH and MOAH contents in the range of 90-109 g/100 g and 0.02-1.10 g/100 g, respectively. It is important to distinguish this new NMR-approach from the hyphenated liquid chromatography-gas chromatography methodology previously used to characterize MOSH/MOAH amounts in cosmetic products. For mineral hydrocarbon raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetic products, NMR delivers higher specificity without any sample preparation besides dilution. Our sample survey shows that previous methods may have overestimated the MOAH amount in mineral oil products and opens new paths to characterize this fraction. Therefore, the developed method can be applied for routine monitoring of consumer

  1. Young Children's Development of Scientific Knowledge Through the Combination of Teacher-Guided Play and Child-Guided Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliogeris, Marija; Almeida, Sylvia Christine

    2017-09-01

    Play-based approaches to science learning allow children to meaningfully draw on their everyday experiences and activities as they explore science concepts in context. Acknowledging the crucial role of the teacher in facilitating science learning through play, the purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how teacher-guided play, in conjunction with child-guided play, supports children's development of science concepts. While previous research on play-based science learning has mainly focused on preschool settings, this study explores the possibilities of play-based approaches to science in primary school contexts. Using a qualitative methodology grounded in the cultural-historical theoretical perspective, children's learning was examined during a science learning sequence that combined teacher-guided and child-guided play. This study revealed that the teacher-guided play explicitly introduced science concepts which children then used and explored in subsequent child-guided play. However, intentional teaching during the child-guided play continued to be important. Play-based approaches to science allowed children to make sense of the science concepts using familiar, everyday knowledge and activities. It became evident that the expectations and values communicated through classroom practices influenced children's learning through play.

  2. Reactive oxygen species formed in aqueous mixtures of secondary organic aerosols and mineral dust influencing cloud chemistry and public health in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Haijie; Lakey, Pascale S J; Arangio, Andrea M; Socorro, Joanna; Kampf, Christopher J; Berkemeier, Thomas; Brune, William H; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2017-08-24

    Mineral dust and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) account for a major fraction of atmospheric particulate matter, affecting climate, air quality and public health. How mineral dust interacts with SOA to influence cloud chemistry and public health, however, is not well understood. Here, we investigated the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are key species of atmospheric and physiological chemistry, in aqueous mixtures of SOA and mineral dust by applying electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry in combination with a spin-trapping technique, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and a kinetic model. We found that substantial amounts of ROS including OH, superoxide as well as carbon- and oxygen-centred organic radicals can be formed in aqueous mixtures of isoprene, α-pinene, naphthalene SOA and various kinds of mineral dust (ripidolite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, and Saharan dust). The molar yields of total radicals were ∼0.02-0.5% at 295 K, which showed higher values at 310 K, upon 254 nm UV exposure, and under low pH (formation can be explained by the decomposition of organic hydroperoxides, which are a prominent fraction of SOA, through interactions with water and Fenton-like reactions with dissolved transition metal ions. Our findings imply that the chemical reactivity and aging of SOA particles can be enhanced upon interaction with mineral dust in deliquesced particles or cloud/fog droplets. SOA decomposition could be comparably important to the classical Fenton reaction of H 2 O 2 with Fe 2+ and that SOA can be the main source of OH radicals in aqueous droplets at low concentrations of H 2 O 2 and Fe 2+ . In the human respiratory tract, the inhalation and deposition of SOA and mineral dust can also lead to the release of ROS, which may contribute to oxidative stress and play an important role in the adverse health effects of atmospheric aerosols in the Anthropocene.

  3. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  4. Soil Organic Matter Stabilization via Mineral Interactions in Forest Soils with Varying Saturation Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possinger, A. R.; Inagaki, T.; Bailey, S. W.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) interaction with minerals and metals through surface adsorption and co-precipitation processes is important for soil organic C (SOC) stabilization. Co-precipitation (i.e., the incorporation of C as an "impurity" in metal precipitates as they form) may increase the potential quantity of mineral-associated C per unit mineral surface compared to surface adsorption: a potentially important and as yet unaccounted for mechanism of C stabilization in soil. However, chemical, physical, and biological characterization of co-precipitated SOM as such in natural soils is limited, and the relative persistence of co-precipitated C is unknown, particularly under dynamic environmental conditions. To better understand the relationships between SOM stabilization via organometallic co-precipitation and environmental variables, this study compares mineral-SOM characteristics across a forest soil (Spodosol) hydrological gradient with expected differences in co-precipitation of SOM with iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) due to variable saturation frequency. Soils were collected from a steep, well-drained forest soil transect with low, medium, and high frequency of water table intrusion into surface soils (Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Woodstock, NH). Lower saturation frequency soils generally had higher C content, C/Fe, C/Al, and other indicators of co-precipitation interactions resulting from SOM complexation, transport, and precipitation, an important process of Spodosol formation. Preliminary Fe X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic (XAS) characterization of SOM and metal chemistry in low frequency profiles suggest co-precipitation of SOM in the fine fraction (soils showed greater SOC mineralization per unit soil C for low saturation frequency (i.e., higher co-precipitation) soils; however, increased mineralization may be attributed to non-mineral associated fractions of SOM. Further work to identify the component of SOM contributing to rapid mineralization using 13C

  5. Cats and Portals: Video Games, Learning, and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2008-01-01

    The author builds on arguments he has made elsewhere that good commercial video games foster deep learning and problem solving and that such games in fact promote mastery as a form of play. Here he maintains that some good video games engage players with an important type of play, namely of play as discovery, of play as surmising new possibilities…

  6. Laboratory studies of immersion and deposition mode ice nucleation of ozone aged mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Kanji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ice nucleation in the atmosphere is central to the understanding the microphysical properties of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds. Ambient conditions such as temperature (T and relative humidity (RH, as well as aerosol properties such as chemical composition and mixing state play an important role in predicting ice formation in the troposphere. Previous field studies have reported the absence of sulfate and organic compounds on mineral dust ice crystal residuals sampled at mountain top stations or aircraft based measurements despite the long-range transport mineral dust is subjected to. We present laboratory studies of ice nucleation for immersion and deposition mode on ozone aged mineral dust particles for 233 T ns are reported and observed to increase as a function of decreasing temperature. We present first results that demonstrate enhancement of the ice nucleation ability of aged mineral dust particles in both the deposition and immersion mode due to ageing. We also present the first results to show a suppression of heterogeneous ice nucleation activity without the condensation of a coating of (inorganic material. In immersion mode, low ozone exposed Ka particles showed enhanced ice activity requiring a median freezing temperature of 1.5 K warmer than that of untreated Ka, whereas high ozone exposed ATD particles showed suppressed ice nucleation requiring a median freezing temperature of 3 K colder than that of untreated ATD. In deposition mode, low exposure Ka had ice active fractions of an order of magnitude higher than untreated Ka, whereas high ozone exposed ATD had ice active fractions up to a factor of 4 lower than untreated ATD. From our results, we derive and present parameterizations in terms of ns(T that can be used in models to predict ice nuclei concentrations based on available aerosol surface area.

  7. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...

  8. Minor sources of miner exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, J.C.; Green, N.; Brown, K.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The sources of radiation exposure to miners in non-coal mines in addition to radon daughters are thoron daughters in mine air, long-lived radionuclides in mine dust and gamma radiation from the local rocks. A crude estimate of the total annual effective dose equivalent from these minor sources is 2 - 5 mSv which is of secondary importance compared to the dose from radon daughters. (UK)

  9. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Lino; da Silva, Gláucia Faria; Setúbal, Sandra Mutarelli

    2015-01-29

    The role of play in Brazilian children's hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children's Hospital ("Hospital Infantil Sabará") in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children's care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture.

  10. The Effect of Locomotion on the Mobilization of Minerals from the Maternal Skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Wendy R.; Hobensack, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue from which minerals are deposited or withdrawn according to the body's demand. During late pregnancy and lactation, female mammals mobilize mineral from bone to support the ossification of offspring skeleton(s). Conversely, in response to mechanical loading, minerals are deposited in bone enabling it to develop a stronger architecture. Despite their central importance to reproductive performance and skeletal integrity, the interactions between these potentially opposi...

  11. A review of zinc oxide mineral beneficiation using flotation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejtemaei, Majid; Gharabaghi, Mahdi; Irannajad, Mehdi

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, extraction of zinc from low-grade mining tailings of oxidized zinc has been a matter of discussion. This is a material which can be processed by flotation and acid-leaching methods. Owing to the similarities in the physicochemical and surface chemistry of the constituent minerals, separation of zinc oxide minerals from their gangues by flotation is an extremely complex process. It appears that selective leaching is a promising method for the beneficiation of this type of ore. However, with the high consumption of leaching acid, the treatment of low-grade oxidized zinc ores by hydrometallurgical methods is expensive and complex. Hence, it is best to pre-concentrate low-grade oxidized zinc by flotation and then to employ hydrometallurgical methods. This paper presents a critical review on the zinc oxide mineral flotation technique. In this paper, the various flotation methods of zinc oxide minerals which have been proposed in the literature have been detailed with the aim of identifying the important factors involved in the flotation process. The various aspects of recovery of zinc from these minerals are also dealt with here. The literature indicates that the collector type, sulfidizing agent, pH regulator, depressants and dispersants types, temperature, solid pulp concentration, and desliming are important parameters in the process. The range and optimum values of these parameters, as also the adsorption mechanism, together with the resultant flotation of the zinc oxide minerals reported in the literature are summarized and highlighted in the paper. This review presents a comprehensive scientific guide to the effectiveness of flotation strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Some aspects of miners' exposure to radon in Poland in view of international organizations recommendations and European Union directives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chruscielewski, W.; Liniecki, J.; Jankowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure of miners to natural radiation in which radon-222 plays the major role has been studied in Poland since the end of the nineteen sixties. The work environment measurements and personal monitoring methods have been developed for monitoring the exposure. A quite wide range of doses resulting from big differences in radon concentrations in mines is characteristic of miners' exposure. It was estimated that about 16% of miners received doses above 5 mSv per year. This group of miners should be provided with individual dosimetry. In this paper methodological and legal aspects of the situation in mines are analyzed. A large number of Polish recommendations and legal regulations must be changed in order to harmonize them with the directives of the European Union. (author)

  13. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  14. Reagan issues mineral policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  15. Practical applications of trace minerals for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, T R; Yasui, T

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace

  16. High-throughput deep sequencing reveals that microRNAs play important roles in salt tolerance of euhalophyte Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Wang, Jinhui; Fan, Pengxiang; Jia, Weitao; Nie, Lingling; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Xianyang; Lv, Sulian; Wan, Lichuan; Chang, Sandra; Li, Shizhong; Li, Yinxin

    2015-02-26

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in plant development processes and play pivotal roles in plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Salicornia europaea, a salt mash euhalophyte, is a suitable model plant to study salt adaptation mechanisms. S. europaea is also a vegetable, forage, and oilseed that can be used for saline land reclamation and biofuel precursor production on marginal lands. Despite its importance, no miRNA has been identified from S. europaea thus far. Deep sequencing was performed to investigate small RNA transcriptome of S. europaea. Two hundred and ten conserved miRNAs comprising 51 families and 31 novel miRNAs (including seven miRNA star sequences) belonging to 30 families were identified. About half (13 out of 31) of the novel miRNAs were only detected in salt-treated samples. The expression of 43 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs significantly changed in response to salinity. In addition, 53 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between the shoots and roots. Furthermore, 306 and 195 S. europaea unigenes were predicted to be targets of 41 conserved and 29 novel miRNA families, respectively. These targets encoded a wide range of proteins, and genes involved in transcription regulation constituted the largest category. Four of these genes encoding laccase, F-box family protein, SAC3/GANP family protein, and NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase were validated using 5'-RACE. Our results indicate that specific miRNAs are tightly regulated by salinity in the shoots and/or roots of S. europaea, which may play important roles in salt tolerance of this euhalophyte. The S. europaea salt-responsive miRNAs and miRNAs that target transcription factors, nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat proteins and enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis as well as carbon and nitrogen metabolism may be applied in genetic engineering of crops with high stress tolerance, and genetic modification of biofuel crops with high biomass and regulatable

  17. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Play therapy--psychotherapy with play as the medium: I. General introduction, psychoanalytic and client-centered approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gontard, Alexander; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2003-01-01

    Play therapies are psychotherapies with the medium of play primarily for children under 12 years of age, which can be differentiated according to their theoretical constructs and actual practice. Play therapies have gained importance and relevance in the 1990's, reflected in a wide range of publications. Following trends can be discerned: narrow concepts defined by individual schools of psychotherapy have been left. Different forms of play therapy, as well as behavioural and family therapy have been integrated. Focussed short-term and therapies for specific disorders have been developed. The aim of the first part of this paper is to present an overview of traditional forms of playtherapy, with a focus on the Individual Therapy of A. Adler, the Analytic Psychotherapy of C. G. Jung, Sandplay Therapy of D. Kalff and child-centered (non-directive) play therapy.

  19. Of minerals and men. [Discovery of new mineral species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, S.W. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))

    1983-01-01

    The rate of discovery of new mineral species appears to be on the increase in Southern Africa and classification and nomenclature, once haphazard, are now subject to international scientific screening and rules. Earlier names entrenched in the literature provide a fascinating background to the minerals scene.

  20. Environmental impact of atomic minerals exploration and exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial radiation in the earth's environment is existing since its formation and is shared by all types of rocks, minerals, gases, and water, and to some extent aided by the interstellar radiation. Environmental radiation is ubiquitous and the man and other living beings have been living in such environment for thousands of years. Today they are much concerned about health and environmental risks so that a balance must be achieved between the activities that promote economic growth and the preservation of the natural environment. Atomic minerals are one of the main sources of natural environmental radiation and they are being explored by Atomic Minerals Division (AMD). Mining and milling activities sometimes may cause some radiological impacts but proper monitoring and remedial measures keep them under check. Some of the important aspects related to environmental impacts of uranium exploration and exploitation are presented

  1. Mineral transformations during the dissolution of uranium ore minerals by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, S.; Weidler, P.; Fakra, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D.

    2011-12-01

    Carnotite minerals [X2(UO2)2(VO4)2]; X = K, Ca, Ba, Mn, Na, Cu or Pb] form the major ore of uranium in the Colorado Plateau. These deposits are highly oxidized and contain U(VI) and V(IV). The biotransformation of U(VI) bound in carnotite by bacteria during dissimilatory metal reduction presents a complex puzzle in mineral chemistry. Both U(VI) and V(V) can be respired by metal reducing bacteria, and the mineral structure can change depending on the associated counterion. We incubated anaerobic cultures of S. putrefaciens CN32 with natural carnotite minerals from southeastern Utah in a nutrient-limited defined medium. Strain CN32 is a gram negative bacterium and a terrestrial isolate from New Mexico. The mineral and metal transformations were compared to a system that contained similar concentrations of soluble U(VI) and V(V). Electron (SEM, TEM) microscopies and x-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) were used in conjunction with XRD to track mineral changes, and bacterial survival was monitored throughout the incubations. Slow rates of metal reduction over 10 months for the treatment with carnotite minerals revealed distinct biotic and abiotic processes, providing insight on mineral transformation and bacteria-metal interactions. The bacteria existed as small flocs or individual cells attached to the mineral phase, but did not adsorb soluble U or V, and accumulated very little of the biominerals. Reduction of mineral V(V) necessarily led to a dismantling of the carnotite structure. Bioreduction of V(V) by CN32 contributed small but profound changes to the mineral system, resulting in new minerals. Abiotic cation exchange within the carnotite group minerals induced the rearrangement of the mineral structures, leading to further mineral transformation. In contrast, bacteria survival was poor for treatments with soluble U(VI) and V(V), although both metals were reduced completely and formed solid UO2 and VO2; we also detected V(III). For these treatments, the bacteria

  2. Recovering byproduct heavy minerals from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.M.; Martinez, G.M.; Wong, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, as part of an effort to maximize minerals and metals recovery from domestic resources, has investigated the feasibility of recovering heavy minerals as byproducts from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations in northern California. Sand samples from about 50 locations were treated by gravity separation to yield heavy-mineral cocentrates (black sands). Mineral compositions of the concentrates were determined by chemical analysis and mineralogical examination. Individual zircon, ilmenite, magnetite, platinum-group metals, thoria, and silica products were prepared from heavy-mineral concentrates by selective separation using low- and high-intensity magnetic, high-tension, and flotation equipment.

  3. Clays as mineral dust aerosol: An integrated approach to studying climate, atmospheric chemistry, and biogeochemical effects of atmospheric clay minerals in an undergraduate research laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, C. D.; Crane, C. C.; Harris, K. J.; Thompson, C. E.; Miles, M. K.; Weingold, R. M.; Bucuti, T.

    2011-12-01

    Entrained mineral dust aerosol accounts for 45% of the global annual atmospheric aerosol load and can have a significant influence on important environmental issues, including climate, atmospheric chemistry, cloud formation, biogeochemical processes, visibility, and human health. 70% of all mineral aerosol mass originating from Africa consists of layered aluminosilicates, including illite, kaolinite, and montmorillonite clays. Clay minerals are a largely neglected component of mineral aerosol, yet they have unique physiochemical properties, including a high reactive surface area, large cation exchange capacities, small particle sizes, and a relatively large capacity to take up adsorbed water, resulting in expansion of clay layers (and a larger reactive surface area for heterogeneous interactions) in some cases. An integrated laboratory research approach has been implemented at Hendrix College, a Primarily Undergraduate Institution, in which undergraduate students are involved in independent and interdisciplinary research projects that relate the chemical aging processes (heterogeneous chemistry) of clay minerals as a major component of mineral aerosol to their effects on climate (water adsorption), atmospheric chemistry (trace gas uptake), and biogeochemistry (iron dissolution and phytoplankton biomarker studies). Preliminary results and future directions will be reported.

  4. Skill-Based and Planned Active Play Versus Free-Play Effects on Fundamental Movement Skills in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Lindsay; Keats, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    Fundamental movement skill interventions are important for promoting physical activity, but the optimal intervention model for preschool children remains unclear. We compared two 8-week interventions, a structured skill-station and a planned active play approach, to a free-play control condition on pre- and postintervention fundamental movement skills. We also collected data regarding program attendance and perceived enjoyment. We found a significant interaction effect between intervention type and time. A Tukey honest significant difference analysis supported a positive intervention effect showing a significant difference between both interventions and the free-play control condition. There was a significant between-group difference in group attendance such that mean attendance was higher for both the free-play and planned active play groups relative to the structured skill-based approach. There were no differences in attendance between free-play and planned active play groups, and there were no differences in enjoyment ratings between the two intervention groups. In sum, while both interventions led to improved fundamental movement skills, the active play approach offered several logistical advantages. Although these findings should be replicated, they can guide feasible and sustainable fundamental movement skill programs within day care settings.

  5. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  6. Interactions of trace elements with fracture filling minerals from the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landstroem, O.; Tullborg, E.L.

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on the distribution of stable elements and natural radionuclides (e.g. REEs, Th, Ra, Sr and Cs) in natural fracture systems. They have been redistributed by natural processes in the past; mobilization, transport and deposition of which the latter is manifested as 'enrichments' of the elements in fracture fillings. Fillings dominated by Fe-oxyhydroxide, calcite and clay minerals show the highest concentrations. Precipitates from different fractures show large variations in concentration levels of trace elements, REE patterns, and activity and activity ratios of natural radionuclides, reflecting variations in physical, chemical and hydrological properties of the fractures. The incorporation of REEs, Sr, Th and U in calcite is significant. The precipitation rate influences the amount of Sr incorporated and probably other elements as well. Clay minerals have high sorption capacity and are important in the retention of Cs and Sr as well as of REEs, Th, U and Ra. The importance of clay minerals in radionuclide retention is emphasized by the results from this study, even small amounts of clay minerals in fractures and fracture zones can significantly influence the radionuclide migration. Accurate determination of quantities and types of clay minerals is therefore very important for radionuclide migration modelling. 58 refs, 14 figs, 12 tabs

  7. Interactions of trace elements with fracture filling minerals from the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landstroem, O [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Tullborg, E L [Terralogica AB (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on the distribution of stable elements and natural radionuclides (e.g. REEs, Th, Ra, Sr and Cs) in natural fracture systems. They have been redistributed by natural processes in the past; mobilization, transport and deposition of which the latter is manifested as `enrichments` of the elements in fracture fillings. Fillings dominated by Fe-oxyhydroxide, calcite and clay minerals show the highest concentrations. Precipitates from different fractures show large variations in concentration levels of trace elements, REE patterns, and activity and activity ratios of natural radionuclides, reflecting variations in physical, chemical and hydrological properties of the fractures. The incorporation of REEs, Sr, Th and U in calcite is significant. The precipitation rate influences the amount of Sr incorporated and probably other elements as well. Clay minerals have high sorption capacity and are important in the retention of Cs and Sr as well as of REEs, Th, U and Ra. The importance of clay minerals in radionuclide retention is emphasized by the results from this study, even small amounts of clay minerals in fractures and fracture zones can significantly influence the radionuclide migration. Accurate determination of quantities and types of clay minerals is therefore very important for radionuclide migration modelling. 58 refs, 14 figs, 12 tabs.

  8. The Australian mineral resources industry in 2006 - ongoing business and new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschhorn, F.

    2006-08-15

    Australia has the potential to remain as a stable long-term supplier of important minerals for the entire world (Table 1). The national income of Australia is direct related to the exports of minerals and it is no wonder that the annual poker-style price negotiations for iron ore and coking coal have become the most important events on the Australian economic calendar. The 2005 price increases for the two biggest export commodities, iron ore and coal, alone have contributed to a 2% rise of the national income. The total value of exported minerals will be 91.8 bn AS in 2006/2007. This boom was mainly driven by the surge of demand from China. In addition to iron ore and coal there are also gold, copper, nickel, bauxite, and many more metals which are creating headlines. Diamond and recently uranium mining have become hot topics. Besides the big players there are hundreds of small exploration and mining companies especially in the gold and base metal sector. Australia's rich resources, social stability and economic strengths have shaped a unique investment environment which continues to attract investors from around the world. The following will give you an overview on Australia's supply potential for the most important minerals. (orig.)

  9. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Lindqvist

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although physical activity (PA is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.

  10. Bioleaching of serpentine group mineral by fungus Talaromyces flavus: application for mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Lianwen, L.; Zhao, L.; Teng, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many studies of serpentine group mineral dissolution for mineral carbonation have been published in recent years. However, most of them focus mainly on either physical and chemical processes or on bacterial function, rather than fungal involvement in the bioleaching of serpentine group mineral. Due to the excessive costs of the magnesium dissolution process, finding a lower energy consumption method will be meaningful. A fungal strain Talaromyces flavus was isolated from serpentinic rock of Donghai (China). No study of its bioleaching ability is currently available. It is thus of great significance to explore the impact of T. flavus on the dissolution of serpentine group mineral. Serpentine rock-inhabiting fungi belonging to Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Clavicipitaceae, Cosmospora, Fusarium, Monascus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Trichoderma were isolated. These strains were chosen on the basis of resistance to magnesium and nickel characterized in terms of minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC). Specifically, the strain Talaromyces flavus has a high tolerance to both magnesium (1 mol/L) and nickel (10 mM/L), and we examine its bioleaching ability on serpentine group mineral. Contact and separation experiments (cut-off 8 000-14 000 Da), as well as three control experiments, were set up for 30 days. At least three repeated tests were performed for each individual experiment. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the bioleaching ability of T. flavus towards serpentine group mineral is evident. 39.39 wt% of magnesium was extracted from lizardite during the bioleaching period in the contact experiment, which showed a dissolution rate at about a constant 0.126 mM/d before reaching equilibrium in 13 days. The amount of solubilized Mg from chrysotile and antigorite were respectively 37.79 wt% and 29.78 wt% in the contact experiment. These results make clear the influence of mineral structure on mineral bioleaching

  11. Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…

  12. Reconstruction of a digital core containing clay minerals based on a clustering algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanlong; Pu, Chunsheng; Jing, Cheng; Gu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Qingdong; Liu, Hongzhi; Khan, Nasir; Dong, Qiaoling

    2017-10-01

    It is difficult to obtain a core sample and information for digital core reconstruction of mature sandstone reservoirs around the world, especially for an unconsolidated sandstone reservoir. Meanwhile, reconstruction and division of clay minerals play a vital role in the reconstruction of the digital cores, although the two-dimensional data-based reconstruction methods are specifically applicable as the microstructure reservoir simulation methods for the sandstone reservoir. However, reconstruction of clay minerals is still challenging from a research viewpoint for the better reconstruction of various clay minerals in the digital cores. In the present work, the content of clay minerals was considered on the basis of two-dimensional information about the reservoir. After application of the hybrid method, and compared with the model reconstructed by the process-based method, the digital core containing clay clusters without the labels of the clusters' number, size, and texture were the output. The statistics and geometry of the reconstruction model were similar to the reference model. In addition, the Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm was used to label various connected unclassified clay clusters in the initial model and then the number and size of clay clusters were recorded. At the same time, the K-means clustering algorithm was applied to divide the labeled, large connecting clusters into smaller clusters on the basis of difference in the clusters' characteristics. According to the clay minerals' characteristics, such as types, textures, and distributions, the digital core containing clay minerals was reconstructed by means of the clustering algorithm and the clay clusters' structure judgment. The distributions and textures of the clay minerals of the digital core were reasonable. The clustering algorithm improved the digital core reconstruction and provided an alternative method for the simulation of different clay minerals in the digital cores.

  13. Reconstruction of a digital core containing clay minerals based on a clustering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanlong; Pu, Chunsheng; Jing, Cheng; Gu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Qingdong; Liu, Hongzhi; Khan, Nasir; Dong, Qiaoling

    2017-10-01

    It is difficult to obtain a core sample and information for digital core reconstruction of mature sandstone reservoirs around the world, especially for an unconsolidated sandstone reservoir. Meanwhile, reconstruction and division of clay minerals play a vital role in the reconstruction of the digital cores, although the two-dimensional data-based reconstruction methods are specifically applicable as the microstructure reservoir simulation methods for the sandstone reservoir. However, reconstruction of clay minerals is still challenging from a research viewpoint for the better reconstruction of various clay minerals in the digital cores. In the present work, the content of clay minerals was considered on the basis of two-dimensional information about the reservoir. After application of the hybrid method, and compared with the model reconstructed by the process-based method, the digital core containing clay clusters without the labels of the clusters' number, size, and texture were the output. The statistics and geometry of the reconstruction model were similar to the reference model. In addition, the Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm was used to label various connected unclassified clay clusters in the initial model and then the number and size of clay clusters were recorded. At the same time, the K -means clustering algorithm was applied to divide the labeled, large connecting clusters into smaller clusters on the basis of difference in the clusters' characteristics. According to the clay minerals' characteristics, such as types, textures, and distributions, the digital core containing clay minerals was reconstructed by means of the clustering algorithm and the clay clusters' structure judgment. The distributions and textures of the clay minerals of the digital core were reasonable. The clustering algorithm improved the digital core reconstruction and provided an alternative method for the simulation of different clay minerals in the digital cores.

  14. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino de Macedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of play in Brazilian children’s hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children’s Hospital (“Hospital Infantil Sabará” in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children’s care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture.

  15. Effect of soil metal contamination on glyphosate mineralization: role of zinc in the mineralization rates of two copper-spiked mineral soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bojeong; Kim, Young Sik; Kim, Bo Min; Hay, Anthony G; McBride, Murray B

    2011-03-01

    A systematic investigation into lowered degradation rates of glyphosate in metal-contaminated soils was performed by measuring mineralization of [(14)C]glyphosate to (14)CO(2) in two mineral soils that had been spiked with Cu and/or Zn at various loadings. Cumulative (14)CO(2) release was estimated to be approximately 6% or less of the amount of [(14)C]glyphosate originally added in both soils over an 80-d incubation. For all but the highest Cu treatments (400 mg kg(-1)) in the coarse-textured Arkport soil, mineralization began without a lag phase and declined over time. No inhibition of mineralization was observed for Zn up to 400 mg kg(-1) in either soil, suggesting differential sensitivity of glyphosate mineralization to the types of metal and soil. Interestingly, Zn appeared to alleviate high-Cu inhibition of mineralization in the Arkport soil. The protective role of Zn against Cu toxicity was also observed in the pure culture study with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggesting that increased mineralization rates in high Cu soil with Zn additions might have been due to alleviation of cellular toxicity by Zn rather than a mineralization specific mechanism. Extensive use of glyphosate combined with its reduced degradation in Cu-contaminated, coarse-textured soils may increase glyphosate persistence in soil and consequently facilitate Cu and glyphosate mobilization in the soil environment. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  16. Nuclear minerals in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, M.

    2005-01-01

    Strategic importance of Nuclear Minerals was recognized during early formative years of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and prospecting for uranium was started in Dera Ghazi Khan in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) as early as 1961. Later, the responsibility for countrywide surveys and exploration was fully entrusted with PAEC and in this respect a Directorate of Nuclear Minerals(DNM) was established in 1966 at Lahore. Later, DNM was shifted to the Atomic Energy Centre (AEC), Lahore building and renamed as Atomic Energy Minerals Centre. It has state-of-the-art Chemistry, Mineralogy, Remote Sensing and Electronics Laboratories and an Ore Processing Pilot Plant. The Centre has Prospecting, Exploration, Geophysics, Geochemistry, Geo-tectonics, Mining and Drilling Sections. Regional Offices have been established to facilitate work at Karachi, Quetta and Peshawar. Siwaliks were recognized as a favorable geological formation of prime importance. Sandstone-shale sequence of Siwaliks Formation is exposed in all provinces of Pakistan and in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), broadly categorized into Rajanpur-Dera Ghazi Khan, Bannu Basin-Kohat Plateau and Potwar-AJK zones. Baghalchur, Nangar Nai and Taunsa uranium deposits have been discovered in the Rajanpur- D.G. Khan Zone. Qabul Khel and Shanawah Uranium deposits have been discovered in the Shanawah-Kohat Plateau Zone. Prospection and exploration is in progress. The first uranium mine was opened at Baghalchur, and uranium mill was established at D.G Khan in 1977-78 all by indigenous effort. The uranium mine was the most advanced and mechanized mine of that time in the country. Later, a second uranium mine was opened at Qabul Khel in 1992, which was based on a new and advanced in situ leach technology, developed to suit local geological and ore zone parameters. Mining of Nanganai and Taunsa Deposits was started respectively in 1996 and 2002, and is also based on in situ leach technology which is

  17. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  18. Anxiety and perceived psychological stress play an important role in the immune response after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason P; Walsh, Neil P; Diment, Philip C; Roberts, Ross

    2018-01-01

    There are common pathways by which psychological stress and exercise stress alter immunity. However, it remains unknown whether psychological stress plays a role in the in vivo immune response to exercise. We examined the relationship between anxiety and perceived psychological stress reported before exercise and in vivo immunity after exercise using skin sensitisation with Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). In a randomised design, sixty four, thoroughly familiarised, males completed widely used psychological instruments to assess state-anxiety and perceived psychological stress before exercise, and ran either 30 minutes at 60% (30MI) or 80% (30HI) V . O2peak, 120 minutes at 60% (120MI) V . O2peak or rested (CON) before DPCP sensitisation. Cutaneous recall to DPCP was measured as the dermal thickening response to a low-dose series DPCP challenge 4-weeks after sensitisation. After accounting for exercise (R2 = 0.20; P stress (ΔR2 = 0.13; P stress on in vivo immunity after exercise. Moreover, correlations were of comparable strength for the relationship between physiological stress (heart rate training impulse) and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = -0.37; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.62; P = 0.01), and state-anxiety and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.63; P stress levels before exercise play animportant role in determining the strength of the in vivo immune response after exercise. These findings indicate a similar strength relationship for the level of state-anxiety prior to exercise and the level of physiological stress during exercise with the in vivo immune response after exercise. Future research is required to investigate exercise-immune responses in athletes, military personnel and others in physically demanding occupations experiencing higher levels of psychological stress than those reported in this study e.g. related to important competition, military operations and major life events. Nevertheless, the present findings support the

  19. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  20. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  1. Mechanical Properties of Man-Made Mineral glass fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Majbritt Deichgræber; Yue, Yuanzheng

    of man made mineral wool fibres, and an improvement of the mechanical performances of man made mineral wool fibres are an evitable task for us. To do so, it is important to look into the fracture behaviour and its connection to the mechanical strength. In order to improve the understanding...... of the information gained from the mechanical tests, fracture characteristics of individual glass fibres are imaged by scanning electron microscopy. The fracture surfaces showed to fall in three groups; 1) surfaces including fracture mirror, mist and hackle, 2) bend fracture surfaces and 3) surfaces including pores...

  2. Arsenic mobilization and attenuation by mineral-water interactions: implications for managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Chelsea W; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Jun, Young-Shin

    2012-07-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has potential for addressing deficits in water supplies worldwide. It is also widely used for preventing saltwater intrusion, maintaining the groundwater table, and augmenting ecological stream flows, among many other beneficial environmental applications. However, field MAR sites have experienced arsenic mobilization from aquifer formation minerals due to induced changes in groundwater chemistry. To address this environmental concern, it is crucial to understand the potential sources and sinks impacting arsenic mobilization. This paper outlines important mineral-water interactions that can occur at MAR sites. Detailed information on minerals of concern, physiochemical processes for arsenic mobilization or attenuation, and the potential impact of microbial activity and hydrology on these processes is provided. Based on these mineral-water interactions, guidelines for predicting arsenic mobility are presented, and recommendations are made concerning MAR site monitoring. The review emphasizes important aspects in correlating interfacial reactions to reactive transport modeling and elucidating future challenges, a first step toward developing safer and more sustainable MAR operations.

  3. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  4. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  5. Relation between uranium mineralization and structural features, Gebel Gattar, north eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.B.; Shalaby, M.H.; Abuzaid, M.M.; Ragab, A.

    1998-01-01

    Gebel Gattar area is situated in the northern Eastern Desert of Egypt, SW Hurghada city and is considered as an area of high potentialities for uranium deposits. The area is covered by Hammamat sediments and Gattarian granites. The Hammamat sediments are dissected by different types of dykes, while Gebel Gattar granites are cut only by basic dykes. These granites are mentioned as the younger pink granites, perthitic leucogranites, calc-alkaline and within plate granites. The structural deformations of the study area are represented by primary structures and secondary ones. The most prevailing structures are folding, faulting and jointing. The faults, especially those trending in the NNE-SSW and N-S directions played as pass ways to the ascending uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions carrying uranium mineralizations. Most of them are located within a large pull apart basin. It is found from the relation between structures and uranium mineralization within the highly pro missing shear zones that uranium mineralizations are located within a large pull-apart basin, having about 2 km length and 0.5 km width. This idea is based up on the distribution of uranium mineralized lenses as shown in a block diagram. This conclusion is based on the structural framework of the area, the shape of mineralization and its distribution and their mutual relationships of Gl, Gll and GVl shear zones

  6. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  7. Isotope analysis of closely adjacent minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method of determining an indicator of at least one of hydrocarbon formation, migration, and accumulation during mineral development. It comprises: searching for a class of minerals in a mineral specimen comprising more than one class of minerals; identifying in the mineral specimen a target sample of the thus searched for class; directing thermally pyrolyzing laser beam radiation onto surface mineral substance of the target sample in the mineral specimen releasing surface mineral substance pyrolysate gases therefrom; and determining isotope composition essentially of the surface mineral substance from analyzing the pyrolysate gases released from the thus pyrolyzed target sample, the isotope composition including isotope(s) selected from the group consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen isotopes; determining an indicator of at least one of hydrocarbon formation, migration, and accumulation during mineral development of the target mineral from thus determined isotope composition of surface mineral substance pyrolysate

  8. Organic horizon and mineral soil mercury along three clear-cut forest chronosequences across the northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Justin B; Petrenko, Chelsea L; Friedland, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally distributed pollutant trace metal that has been increasing in terrestrial environments due to rising anthropogenic emissions. Vegetation plays an important role in Hg sequestration in forested environments, but increasing tree removal for biofuels and wood products may affect this process. The long-term effect of clear-cutting on forest soil Hg remains uncertain, since most studies are limited to measuring changes for event. The chronosequence approach, which substitutes space for time using forest stands of different ages since clear-cutting, allows for investigation of processes occurring over decades to centuries. Here, we utilized three clear-cut forest soil chronosequences across the northeastern USA to understand Hg accumulation and retention over several decades. Total Hg concentrations and pools were quantified for five soil depth increments along three chronosequences. Our results showed Hg concentrations and pools decreased in the initial 20 years following clear-cutting. Mineral soil Hg pools decreased 21-53% (7-14 mg m -2 ) between 1-5-year-old stands and 15-25-year-old stands but mineral soil Hg pools recovered in 55-140-year-old stands to similar values as measured in 1-5-year-old stands. Our study is one of the first to demonstrate a decrease and recovery in Hg pool size. These changes in Hg did not correspond with changes in bulk density, soil C, or pH. We utilized a simple two-box model to determine how different Hg fluxes affected organic and mineral soil horizon Hg pools. Our simple model suggests that changes in litterfall and volatilization rates could have caused the observed changes in organic horizon Hg pools. However, only increases in leaching could reproduce observed decreases to mineral soil Hg pools. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism of Hg loss from forest soils following clear-cutting.

  9. Non-Digital Game Playing by Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, W Ben; Sixsmith, Andrew; Kaufman, David

    2017-09-01

    Research on video games' effect on cognition and behaviour has been extensive, yet little research has explored non-digital forms of game playing, especially among older adults. As part of a larger survey on game playing, 886 respondents (≥ age 55) filled out questionnaires about non-digital game play. The study aims were to determine perceived benefits of non-digital game play and to determine socio-demographic factors that might predict perceived benefits. Survey results indicate that non-digital game playing is social in nature and common (73% of respondents) among older adults. Older adults play for fun, but also to help maintain their cognition. Regression analyses indicated various socio-demographic factors - age, education, gender, and race - were independently associated with perceived benefits from game playing. The results thus emphasize the importance of non-digital game playing in this population and suggest that efforts to facilitate game playing may improve social interactions and quality of life.

  10. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  11. Effect of environment on protein, mineral and fat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    BACKGROUND: Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important high land pulse crops of ... on the protein, mineral and fat contents of advanced lines of faba bean genotypes grown .... proved essential in human nutrition (5). Faba bean ...

  12. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  13. Redistribution of mineral elements in wheat grain when applying the complex enzyme preparations based on phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic minerals play an important role in the whole human nutrition, but they are included in the grain of the phytates that reduces their bioavailability. Whole wheat bread is generally considered a healthy food, but the presence of mineral elements in it is insignificant, because of weak phytate degradation. From all sources of exogenous phytase the most productive are microscopic fungi. To accelerate the process of transition hard mineral elements are mobilized to implement integrated cellulolytic enzyme preparation based on the actions of phytase (producer is Penicillium canescens. Phytase activity was assessed indirectly by the rate of release of phosphate from the substrate. It has been established that the release rate of the phosphoric acid substrate is dependent on the composition of the drug and the enzyme complex is determined by the presence of xylanase. The presented experimental data shows that a cellulase treatment of the grain in conjunction with the β-glucanase or xylanase leading to an increase in phytase activity could be 1.4 - 2.3 times as compared with the individual enzymes. As a result of concerted action of enzymes complex preparation varies topography grain, increase the pore sizes in seed and fruit shells that facilitate the penetration of the enzyme phytase in the aleurone layer to the site of phytin hydrolysis and leads to an increase in phytase activity. In terms of rational parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis, the distribution of mineral elements in the anatomical parts of the grain after processing complex enzyme preparation with the help of X-ray detector EMF miniCup system in a scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM 6390 were investigated. When processing enzyme preparation wheat trend in the distribution of mineral elements, characteristic of grain - the proportion of these elements in the aleurone layer decreases, and in the endosperm increases. Because dietary fiber and phytate found together in the

  14. Spatial variation in microbial processes controlling carbon mineralization within soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendorf, Scott [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kleber, Markus [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Nico, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Soils have a defining role in global carbon cycling, having one of the largest dynamic stocks of C on earth—3300 Pg of C are stored in soils, which is three-times the amount stored in the atmosphere and more than the terrestrial land plants. An important control on soil organic matter (SOM) quantities is the mineralization rate. It is well recognized that the rate and extent of SOM mineralization is affected by climatic factors and mineral-organic matter associations. What remained elusive is to what extent constraints on microbial metabolism induced by the respiratory pathway, and specifically the electron acceptor in respiration, control overall rates of carbon mineralization in soils. Therefore, physical factors limiting oxygen diffusion such as soil texture and aggregate size (soil structure) may therefore be central controls on C mineralization rates. The goal of our research was therefore to determine if variations in microbial metabolic rates induced by anaerobic microsites in soils are a major control on SOM mineralization rates and thus storage. We performed a combination of laboratory experiments and field investigations will be performed to fulfill our research objectives. We used laboratory studies to examine fundamental factors of respiratory constraints (i.e., electron acceptor) on organic matter mineralization rates. We ground our laboratory studies with both manipulation of field samples and in-field measurements. Selection of the field sites is guided by variation in soil texture and structure while having (other environmental/soil factors constant. Our laboratory studies defined redox gradients and variations in microbial metabolism operating at the aggregate-scale (cm-scale) within soils using a novel constructed diffusion reactor. We further examined micro-scale variation in terminal electron accepting processes and resulting C mineralization rates within re-packed soils. A major outcome of our research is the ability to quantitatively place

  15. Importância dos minerais na alimentação do pré-termo extremo Minerals in the nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide E. P. Trindade

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão crítica da literatura sobre os minerais cálcio, fósforo e microelementos na nutrição do pré-termo extremo, considerando a importância no crescimento, mineralização óssea e como componente de dietas. FONTES DOS DADOS: Utilizamos o banco de dados MEDLINE e o Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, de 1994 a 2004. Selecionamos artigos com enfoques originais, artigos de revisão e livros específicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: As dificuldades na nutrição de prematuros extremos aumentam a freqüência de prematuros com restrição de crescimento, cujas conseqüências futuras estão para serem determinadas. Todavia, há pouca literatura sobre minerais, especialmente sobre micronutrientes na nutrição do pré-termo extremo, considerando-se o deficiente armazenamento e a importância destes em nutrição. O principal enfoque desta revisão foi sobre o cálcio e o fósforo na mineralização óssea e na suplementação em nutrição parenteral e enteral, bem como a avaliação crítica da nutrição pós-alta sobre a mineralização óssea. São abordadas as necessidades de micronutrientes, principalmente selênio e zinco, e a função antioxidante do selênio na provável prevenção de doenças do prematuro com atuação de radicais livres. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando os baixos estoques de minerais em prematuros extremos, há necessidade de mais pesquisas sobre minerais na nutrição destes prematuros para definir suas reais necessidades, os aspectos metabólicos, bem como aplicar os conhecimentos na formulação de dietas que permitam prevenir quadros de deficiência e conseqüências a longo prazo. Ainda há controvérsias sobre a influência de fórmulas pós-alta sobre a evolução da doença óssea da prematuridade.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the role of calcium, phosphorus and trace elements in the nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants, considering their importance for metabolism, bone mineralization

  16. Multimodal Play and Adolescents: Notes on Noticing Laughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Lalitha

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore laughter as a form of multimodal play in which adolescents' engage across contexts and in various configurations. With a few recent exceptions, a focus on unscripted play is largely missing from ongoing research and discussion about the education of adolescents. Whereas the space to play has been vitally important to the…

  17. Protozoan predation in soil slurries compromises determination of contaminant mineralization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R.; Brandt, Kristian K.; Sørensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Soil suspensions (slurries) are commonly used to estimate the potential of soil microbial communities to mineralize organic contaminants. The preparation of soil slurries disrupts soil structure, however, potentially affecting both the bacterial populations and their protozoan predators. We studied the importance of this “slurry effect” on mineralization of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, 14 C-labelled), focussing on the effects of protozoan predation. Mineralization of MCPA was studied in “intact” soil and soil slurries differing in soil:water ratio, both in the presence and absence of the protozoan activity inhibitor cycloheximide. Protozoan predation inhibited mineralization in dense slurry of subsoil (soil:water ratio 1:3), but only in the most dilute slurry of topsoil (soil:water ratio 1:100). Our results demonstrate that protozoan predation in soil slurries may compromise quantification of contaminant mineralization potential, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low and their growth is controlled by predation during the incubation period. - Highlights: ► We studied the protozoan impact on MCPA mineralization in soil slurries. ► Cycloheximide was used as protozoan inhibitor. ► Protozoa inhibited MCPA mineralization in dilute topsoil slurry and subsoil slurry. ► Mineralization potentials may be underestimated when using soil slurries. - Protozoan predation may strongly bias the quantification of mineralization potential when performed in soil slurries, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low such as in subsoil or very dilute topsoil slurries.

  18. Natural mineral bottled waters available on the Polish market as a source of minerals for the consumers. Part 2: The intake of sodium and potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gątarska, Anna; Ciborska, Joanna; Tońska, Elżbieta

    Natural mineral waters are purchased and consumed according to consumer preferences and possible recommendations. The choice of appropriate water should take into account not only the general level of mineralization but also the content of individual components, including electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Sodium is necessary to ensure the proper physiological functions of the body. It is defined as a health risk factor only when its excessive intake occurs. Potassium acts antagonistically towards sodium and calcium ions, contributes to a reduction of the volume of extracellular fluids and at the same time reduces muscle tension and permeability of cell membranes. The demand for sodium and potassium is of particular importance in people expending significant physical effort, where an increased electrolyte supply is recommended. The aim of the study was to estimate the content of sodium and potassium in natural mineral waters available in the Polish market and to evaluate the intake of those components with the commercially available mineral waters by different groups of consumers at the assumed volume of their consumption. The research material consisted of natural mineral waters of forty various brands available on the Polish market. The examined products were either produced in Poland or originated in other European countries. Among the products under examination, about 30% of the waters were imported from Lithuania, Latvia, the Czech Republic, France, Italy and Germany. A sample for analyses consisted of two package units of the examined water from different production lots. Samples for research were collected at random. The study was conducted with the same samples in in which calcium and magnesium content was determined, which was the subject of the first part of the study. The content of sodium and potassium was determined using the emission technique (acetylene-air flame), with the use of atomic absorption spectrometer – ICE 3000 SERIES – THERMO

  19. Some implications of changing patterns of mineral consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzie, W. David; DeYoung,, John H.; Steblez, Walter G.

    2003-01-01

    DeYoung and Menzie (1999) examined the relations among population, Gross Domestic Product, and mineral consumption (aluminum, cement, copper, and salt) for Japan, Korea, and the United States between 1965 and 1995. They noted the extremely rapid growth of consumption in Korea between 1975 and 1995. Concomitantly, Korea's population growth rate declined. This paper extends that earlier work by examining patterns of consumption of these same commodities in the twenty most populous countries for the period 1970 through 1995. Developed countries, such as France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, show patterns of consumption that are stable (cement, copper, and salt) or grow slowly (aluminum). Some developing countries, including China, Thailand, and Turkey, show more rapid growth of consumption, especially of cement, copper, and aluminum. These changing patterns of mineral consumption in developing countries have important implications -- if they continue, there could be major increases in world mineral consumption and major increases in environmental residuals from mineral production and use. If China reaches the level of consumption of copper of developed countries, world consumption could reach levels more than twice that of 1995 (10.5 million tons).

  20. Preschoolers' Free Play--Connections with Emotional and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Guida; Neto, Carlos; Rieffe, Carolien

    2016-01-01

    Play has an important role in various aspects of children's development. However, time for free play has declined substantially over the last decades. To date, few studies have focused on the relationship between opportunities for free play and children's social functioning. The aims of this study are to examine whether children´s free play is…

  1. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols - Part 1: Representing key processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.

    2015-02-01

    Soil dust aerosols created by wind erosion are typically assigned globally uniform physical and chemical properties within Earth system models, despite known regional variations in the mineral content of the parent soil. Mineral composition of the aerosol particles is important to their interaction with climate, including shortwave absorption and radiative forcing, nucleation of cloud droplets and ice crystals, coating by heterogeneous uptake of sulfates and nitrates, and atmospheric processing of iron into bioavailable forms that increase the productivity of marine phytoplankton. Here, aerosol mineral composition is derived by extending a method that provides the composition of a wet-sieved soil. The extension accounts for measurements showing significant differences between the mineral fractions of the wet-sieved soil and the resulting aerosol concentration. For example, some phyllosilicate aerosols are more prevalent at silt sizes, even though they are nearly absent in a soil whose aggregates are dispersed by wet sieving during analysis. We reconstruct the undispersed size distribution of the original soil that is subject to wind erosion. An empirical constraint upon the relative emission of clay and silt is applied that further differentiates the soil and aerosol mineral composition. In addition, a method is proposed for mixing minerals with small impurities composed of iron oxides. These mixtures are important for transporting iron far from the dust source, because pure iron oxides are more dense and vulnerable to gravitational removal than most minerals comprising dust aerosols. A limited comparison to measurements from North Africa shows that the extension brings the model into better agreement, consistent with a more extensive comparison to global observations as well as measurements of elemental composition downwind of the Sahara, as described in companion articles.

  2. Two types of mineral-related matrix vesicles in the bone mineralization of zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L; Zhang, Y; Cui, F Z

    2007-01-01

    Two types of mineral-related matrix vesicle, multivesicular body (MVB) and monovesicle, were detected in the skeletal bone of zebrafish. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of the vesicular inclusions reveal that both types of vesicles contain calcium and phosphorus, suggesting that these vesicles may be involved in mineral ion delivery for the bone mineralization of zebrafish. However, their size and substructure are quite different. Monovesicles, whose diameter ranges from 100 nm to 550 nm, are similar to the previously reported normal matrix vesicles, while MVBs have a larger size of 700-1000 nm in nominal diameter and possess a substructure that is composed of smaller vesicles with their average size around 100 nm. The presence of mineral-related MVBs, which is first identified in zebrafish bone, indicates that the mineralization-associated transportation process of mineral ions is more complicated than is ordinarily imagined

  3. The effects of gender, motor skills and play area on the free play activities of 8-11 year old school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harten, Nathan; Olds, Tim; Dollman, Jim

    2008-09-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the interactions between gender, play area, motor skills and free play activity in 8-11 year old school children. In both studies, boys were more active than girls. In boys, but not in girls, energy expenditure was greater for high-skill than for low-skill children (p = 0.0002), and increased as play area increased (p = 0.01). These results suggest that motor skills and play space are important variables in determining the free play activity of boys, but not of girls. This may be related to widely different play styles among boys and girls.

  4. Geology of the Vienna Mineralized Area, Blaine and Camas Counties, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, J. Brian; Horn, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    The Vienna mineralized area of south-central Idaho was an important silver-lead-producing district in the late 1800s and has intermittently produced lead, silver, zinc, copper, and gold since that time. The district is underlain by biotite granodiorite of the Cretaceous Idaho batholith, and all mineral deposits are hosted by the biotite granodiorite. The granodiorite intrudes Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the Sun Valley Group, is overlain by rocks of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group, and is cut by numerous northeast-trending Eocene faults and dikes. Two mineralogically and texturally distinct vein types are present in a northwest- and east-trending conjugate shear-zone system. The shear zones postdate granodiorite emplacement and joint formation, but predate Eocene fault and dike formation. Ribbon veins consist of alternating bands of massive vein quartz and silver-sulfide (proustite and pyrargyrite) mineral stringers. The ribbon veins were sheared and brecciated during multiple phases of injection of mineralizing fluids. A quartz-sericite-pyrite-galena vein system was subsequently emplaced in the brecciated shear zones. Both vein systems are believed to be the product of mesothermal, multiphase mineralization. K-Ar dating of shear-zone sericite indicates that sericitization occurred at 80.7?2.8 Ma; thus mineralization in the Vienna mineralized area probably is Late Cretaceous in age.

  5. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  6. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. – derived minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Graf, Kristin H.; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5-, 12- and 18-months. At each time-point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5-months). Cortical bone increased through month-5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density (BMD) was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5–10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis - prevention strategy. PMID:24096551

  7. Mode of distribution of uranium mineralization and sequence of the formation of minerals in albitites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechishnikov, N.P.; Kramar, O.A.; Rapovich, F.I.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of analysis and generalization of factural material data on the distribution nature of accessory uranium mineralization in albitites permitting to judge of the role and textural-structural peculiarities of enclosing rocks in mineralization localization are given. It is shown that the uranium mineral formation is closely related with the albitite formation and proceeded during two stages. A main mass of primary uranium minerals (brannerites and uraninites) in the form of impregnated mineralization was formed during the first uraninite-brannerite-albitite stage. Uranium oxides, silicates and titanates in the shape of veines formed. During the second coffinite-pitchblende-chloritic stage the formation of uranium oxides, silicates and titanates occured. Uranium mineralization in albitites developes in zones of cataclasm, small jointing, mylonitization localizing in fine-grained aggregates. A main mass of primary uranium minerals in albitites (brannerite, uraninite relates to neogenic during metasomatosis dark-coloured minerals (riebenite, aegirine, chlorite)

  8. Mineral statistics yearbook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of mineral production in Saskatchewan was compiled and presented as a reference manual. Statistical information on fuel minerals such as crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and coal, and of industrial and metallic minerals, such as potash, sodium sulphate, salt and uranium, was provided in all conceivable variety of tables. Production statistics, disposition and value of sales of industrial and metallic minerals were also made available. Statistical data on drilling of oil and gas reservoirs and crown land disposition were also included. figs., tabs

  9. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremberg, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  10. Minerals ontology: application in the environmental field to silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan Saulnier, A.; Garcia Gimenez, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the application of an ontology, or up-to-date computerized tool, developed in the field of artificial intelligence and in particular of knowledge engineering, to inert elements, in this case the silicate class, which are minerals of scientific, technical and economic interest. The importance of applying ontology to minerals lies in the fact that these substances are capable of causing negative environmental impacts upon other variables in the natural environment, such as the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and possible subsequent effects on human health. (Author) 37 refs.

  11. From online to offline game/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thea Juhl Roloff

    2015-01-01

    and teachers face. It can be a challenge for the digital immigrants to see the meanings of digital games, and why children (digital natives) should be introduced to digital games in such a young age. However, it is a fact that digital games are a part of children's everyday lives. If Digital Immigrants must......Children love to play digital games. But how should we relate to children's use of digital games. When children play they use signs from online games into offline games. There will in the paper be pointed out, media pedagogy weaknesses and strengths. And the media didactic challenges that pedagogs...... be able to motivate digital natives for play and learning, it is important to know the rules of the game/play...

  12. Gross Nitrogen Mineralization in Surface Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Zheng, Yanling; Deng, Fengyu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization is a key biogeochemical process transforming organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen in estuarine and coastal sediments. Although sedimentary nitrogen mineralization is an important internal driver for aquatic eutrophication, few studies have investigated sedimentary nitrogen mineralization in these environments. Sediment-slurry incubation experiments combined with 15N isotope dilution technique were conducted to quantify the potential rates of nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The gross nitrogen mineralization (GNM) rates ranged from 0.02 to 5.13 mg N kg-1 d-1 in surface sediments of the study area. The GNM rates were generally higher in summer than in winter, and the relative high rates were detected mainly at sites near the north branch and frontal edge of this estuary. The spatial and temporal distributions of GNM rates were observed to depend largely on temperature, salinity, sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen contents, and extracellular enzyme (urease and L-glutaminase) activities. The total mineralized nitrogen in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary was estimated to be about 6.17 × 105 t N yr-1, and approximately 37% of it was retained in the estuary. Assuming the retained mineralized nitrogen is totally released from the sediments into the water column, which contributed 12–15% of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) sources in this study area. This result indicated that the mineralization process is a significant internal nitrogen source for the overlying water of the Yangtze Estuary, and thus may contribute to the estuarine and coastal eutrophication. PMID:26991904

  13. Influence of authoritarian leadership style on safety behavior of miners:effect of identification of miners to managers and regulatory focus fit%管理者的威权领导风格对矿工安全行为的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 宫晶晶

    2017-01-01

    The safety behavior of miners is the basis of work safety in coal mine, and the leadership style of managers has important influence on the safety behavior of miners.A theoretical model on the influence relationship of authoritarian leadership style on safety behavior was established by introducing into the regulatory focus theory and the identification theory, and the data of 544 questionnaires was applied to verify the model.The results showed that the authoritarian leadership style is an important situational factor influencing the safety behavior of miners.The authoritarian leadership style has positive influence to safety behavior through the identification of miners to managers, which plays a mediate effect between them.The regulatory focus fit between managers and miners has regulatory effect between the identification of miners to managers and the safety behavior, and the high fit degree of regulatory focus will enhance the mediate effect of identification of miners to managers.The research enriches the action mechanism and the boundary conditions of leadership style and safety behavior of miners, and it has certain significance to coal mine safety management practices.%矿工安全行为是煤矿安全生产的基础保障,而管理者的领导风格对矿工安全行为有重要影响.引入调节焦点理论和认同理论,构建威权领导风格对安全行为影响关系的理论模型.以544份调查问卷的数据对理论模型进行检验,结果发现:威权领导风格是影响矿工安全行为的重要情境因素;威权领导风格会通过矿工对管理者认同而正向影响安全行为,矿工对管理者认同在二者间具有中介作用;管理者-矿工间的调节焦点适配在矿工对管理者认同和安全行为之间有调节效应,而且调节焦点的高适配度会强化矿工对管理者认同的中介效果.研究丰富了领导风格与矿工安全行为的作用机制和边界条件,对煤矿安全管理实践有一定的启示意义.

  14. Overview of the Practical and Theoretical Approaches to the Estimation of Mineral Resources. A Financial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Pavaloaia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineral resources represent an important natural resource whose exploitation, unless it is rational, can lead to their exhaustion and the collapse of sustainable development. Given the importance of mineral resources and the uncertainty concerning the estimation of extant reserves, they have been analyzed by several national and international institutions. In this article we shall present a few aspects concerning the ways to approach the reserves of mineral resources at national and international level, by considering both economic aspects and those aspects concerned with the definition, classification and aggregation of the reserves of mineral resources by various specialized institutions. At present there are attempts to homogenize practices concerning these aspects for the purpose of presenting correct and comparable information.

  15. Mineral Licks as Diversity Hotspots in Lowland Forest of Eastern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Romo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral licks are sites where a diverse array of mammals and birds consume soil (geophagy or drink water, likely for mineral supplementation. The diversity of species that visit such sites makes them important for conservation, particularly given that hunters often target animals at licks. Use of mineral licks varies among species, with frugivores among the most common visitors but there is considerable temporal and spatial variation in lick use both within and among species. Camera traps triggered by heat and motion were used to document use of mineral licks by birds and non-volant mammals over a four-year period at a lowland forest site in eastern Ecuador. We obtained 7,889 photographs representing 23 mammal species and 888 photographs representing 15 bird species. Activity (photographs/100 trap-days at the four licks varied from 89 to 292 for mammals and from six to 43 for birds. Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris, peccaries (Pecari tajacu, Tayassu pecari, deer (Mazama americana, and pacas (Cuniculus paca were the most frequent mammal visitors; guans (Pipile pipile and pigeons (Columba plumbea were the most common birds. Use of licks varied diurnally and seasonally but patterns of use varied among species and sites. Mineral licks provide an important resource for many species but further studies are needed to determine the precise benefit(s obtained and how benefits may vary with diet and other factors, such as rainfall.

  16. Bisphophonates in CKD Patients with Low Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chih Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD have a high risk of bone fracture because of low bone mineral density and poor bone quality. Osteoporosis also features low bone mass, disarranged microarchitecture, and skeletal fragility, and differentiating between osteoporosis and CKD-MBD in low bone mineral density is a challenge and usually achieved by bone biopsy. Bisphosphonates can be safe and beneficial for patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 30 mL/min or higher, but prescribing bisphosphonates in advanced CKD requires caution because of the increased possibility of low bone turnover disorders such as osteomalacia, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, and adynamic bone, even aggravating hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, bone biopsy in advanced CKD is an important consideration before prescribing bisphosphonates. Treatment also may induce hypocalcemia in CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, but vitamin D supplementation may ameliorate this effect. Bisphosphonate treatment can improve both bone mineral density and vascular calcification, but the latter becomes more unlikely in patients with stage 3-4 CKD with vascular calcification but no decreased bone mineral density. Using bisphosphonates requires considerable caution in advanced CKD, and the lack of adequate clinical investigation necessitates more studies regarding its effects on these patients.

  17. Comparison of instruments for dual-energy X-ray bone mineral densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainio, P.; Koski, E.; Ahonen, E.; Leinonen, K.; Sievaenen, H.

    1992-01-01

    While bone mineral densitometry has become a common laboratory test, it is important to pay attention to the compatability of the results from different instruments. In this study results from three commercially available bone densitometers are compared using both patient and phantom studies. Overall correlation between instruments was good but there were systematic discrepancies in the results. The three instruments provided bone mineral density (BMD) values that differed by as much as 13.5% due to differences as large as 6% in bone mineral content and as large as 7% in bone area. Thus, the BMD values obtained from different manufacturers' instruments are not directly comparable. (author)

  18. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  19. EZH2 Impairs Human Dental Pulp Cell Mineralization via the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Yu, F; Wu, F; Hui, T; A, P; Liao, X; Yin, B; Wang, C; Ye, L

    2018-05-01

    The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a catalytic subunit of PRC2 (polycomb repressor complex 2). It mediates gene silencing via methyltransferase activity and is involved in the determination of cell lineage. However, the function of EZH2 and the underlying mechanisms by which it affects the differentiation of human dental pulp cell (hDPC) have remained underexplored. In this research, we found that EZH2 expression decreased during the mineralization of hDPCs, with attenuated H3K27me3 (trimethylation on lysine 27 in histone H3). Overexpression of EZH2 impaired the odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs, while EZH2 without methyltransferase activity mutation (mutation of suppressed variegation of 3 to 9, enhancer of zeste and trithorax domain, EZH2ΔSET) did not display this phenotype. In addition, siRNA knockdown studies showed that EZH2 negatively modulated hDPC differentiation in vitro and inhibited mineralized nodule formation in transplanted β-tricalcium phosphate / hDPC composites. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, we explored the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in view of the fact that previous research had documented the essential role that it plays during hDPC mineralization, as well as its links to EZH2 in other cells. We demonstrated for the first time that EZH2 depletion activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and enhanced the accumulation of β-catenin in hDPCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis suggested that these effects are attributable to the level of the EZH2-regulated H3K27me3 on the β-catenin promoter. We conclude that EZH2 plays a negative role during the odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. Suppression of EZH2 could promote hDPC mineralization by epigenetically regulating the expression of β-catenin and activating the Wnt canonical signaling pathway.

  20. Exergoecology Assessment of Mineral Exports from Latin America: Beyond a Tonnage Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Luis Palacios

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Latin America has traditionally been a raw material supplier since colonial times. In this paper, we analyze mineral exports from an exergoecology perspective from twenty countries in Latin American (LA-20. We apply material flow analysis (MFA principles along with the concept of the exergy replacement cost (ERC, which considers both quantity and thermodynamic quality of minerals, reflecting their scarcity in the crust. ERC determines the energy that would be required to recover minerals to their original conditions in the mines once they have been totally dispersed into the Earth’s crust, with prevailing technology. Using ERC has helped us identify the importance of certain traded minerals that could be overlooked in a traditional MFA based on a mass basis only. Our method has enabled us to determine mineral balance, both in mass (tonnes and in ERC terms (Mtoe. Using indicators, both in mass and ERC, we have assessed the self-sufficiency and dependency of the region. We have also analyzed the mineral exports flows from Latin America for 2013. Results show that half of the mineral production from LA-20 was mainly exported. High-quality minerals, such as, gold, silver, and aluminum were largely exported to China and the United States. Extraction of high-quality minerals also implies higher losses of natural stock and environmental overburdens in the region.

  1. Petrography, mineralization and mineral explorations in the Zendan salt dome (Hara, Bandar Lengeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Biabangard

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Zendan salt dome is located at 80 Km north of Bandar-Lengeh and 110 Km west of Bandar-Khamir cities in the Hormozgan province. Based on the structural geology of Iran, the Zendan salt dome is placed in the southeastern part of the Zagros zone (Stocklin, 1968. Important units in this area are Hormuz, Mishan, Aghajari and Bakhtiari formations with the Precambrian age (Alian and Bazamad, 2014. The Hormuz formation with the four members of H1, H2, H3, and H4 is the oldest formation (Ahmadzadeh Heravi et al., 1991. Basalt and diabase rocks are mostly rocks that are exposed in the Zendan salt dome. Magnetite and hematite iron mineralization happened in all the building rocks of salt dome, and is not a uniform mineralization. Iron mineralization contains hematite, spicularite, magnetite, goethite, and iron hydroxides. Magnetite-hematite-oligist layers (red soil are the most iron mineralization in the Zendan salt dome, which are usually broken and scattered with gypsum layers (mostly anhydrite, respectively. Another form of iron mineralization is a mixture of hematite and magnetite (about 10 to 15% in diabase rocks. Copper mineralization consists of pyrite and chalcopyrite minerals that are mostly in tuff and shale units. The presence of low immobile trace elements in the Zendan salt dome and type of alteration shows that maybe the origin of this iron is deposited from brine fluid. Therefore, this deposit can be classified into VMS deposits. Materials and methods We have taken 60 samples rocks from the Zendan salt dome, and then prepared 20 thin and polished sections. Petrographic studies were done and 9 samples were selected for analysis. These samples were sent to the Zarzma laboratory and the amount of FeO was determined by the wet chemical method and other amounts of oxides were determined by XRF. Six samples were analyzed for determining the major elements with the XRF method in the Binalood laboratory. Nine samples from vines

  2. Problems of mineral tax computation in the oil and gas sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Г. Привалов

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the role of mineral tax in the overall sum of tax revenues in the budget. Problems of tax computation and payment have been reviewed; taxpayers and taxation basis of the amount of extracted minerals have been clearly defined. Issues of rental content of natural resource taxes are reviewed, as well as problems of right definition of the rental component in the process of mineral tax calculation for liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons.One of important problems in mineral tax calculation is a conflict between two laws – the Subsoil Law and the Tax Code of Russian Federation (26th chapter. There is an ambiguity in the mechanism of calculating amounts of extracted mineral resources – from the positions of the Tax Code and the Subsoil Law. The second problem is in the necessity to amend the mineral tax for oil extraction the same way as it has been done for gas extraction, when characteristics of each field are taken into account.This will provide a basis for correct computation of the natural resource rent for liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The paper offers recommendations for Russian authorities on this issue.

  3. Physicochemical characterization of mineral (iron/zinc) bound caseinate and their mineral uptake in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpashree, B G; Arora, Sumit; Kapila, Suman; Sharma, Vivek

    2018-08-15

    Milk proteins (especially caseins) are widely accepted as good vehicle for the delivery of various bioactive compounds including minerals. Succinylation is one of the most acceptable chemical modification techniques to enhance the mineral binding ability of caseins. Addition of minerals to succinylated proteins may alter their physicochemical and biochemical properties. Physicochemical characteristics of succinylated sodium caseinate (S.NaCN)-mineral (iron/zinc) complexes were elucidated. Chromatographic behaviour and fluorescence intensity confirmed the structural modification of S.NaCN upon binding with minerals. The bound mineral from protein complexes showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) in vitro bioavailability (mineral uptake) than mineral salts in Caco-2 cells. Also, iron bound S.NaCN showed higher cellular ferritin formation than iron in its free form. These mineral bound protein complexes with improved bioavailability could safely replace inorganic fortificants in various functional food formulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A thioredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxin Q from Corynebacterium glutamicum plays an important role in defense against oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Su

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxin Q (PrxQ that belonged to the cysteine-based peroxidases has long been identified in numerous bacteria, but the information on the physiological and biochemical functions of PrxQ remain largely lacking in Corynebacterium glutamicum. To better systematically understand PrxQ, we reported that PrxQ from model and important industrial organism C. glutamicum, encoded by the gene ncgl2403 annotated as a putative PrxQ, played important roles in adverse stress resistance. The lack of C. glutamicum prxQ gene resulted in enhanced cell sensitivity, increased ROS accumulation, and elevated protein carbonylation levels under adverse stress conditions. Accordingly, PrxQ-mediated resistance to adverse stresses mainly relied on the degradation of ROS. The physiological roles of PrxQ in resistance to adverse stresses were corroborated by its induced expression under adverse stresses, regulated directly by the stress-responsive ECF-sigma factor SigH. Through catalytical kinetic activity, heterodimer formation, and bacterial two-hybrid analysis, we proved that C. glutamicum PrxQ catalytically eliminated peroxides by exclusively receiving electrons from thioredoxin (Trx/thioredoxin reductase (TrxR system and had a broad range of oxidizing substrates, but a better efficiency for peroxynitrite and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the conserved Cys49 and Cys54 are the peroxide oxidation site and the resolving Cys residue, respectively. It was also discovered that C. glutamicum PrxQ mainly existed in monomer whether under its native state or functional state. Based on these results, a catalytic model of PrxQ is being proposed. Moreover, our result that C. glutamicum PrxQ can prevent the damaging effects of adverse stresses by acting as thioredoxin-dependent monomeric peroxidase could be further applied to improve the survival ability and robustness of the important bacterium during fermentation process.

  5. Radioactive mineral samples from the northwest of Chihuahua City, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes C, M.; Montero C, M.E.; Renteria V, M.; Fuentes M, L.; Fuentes C, L.; Herrera P, E.F.; Esparza P, H.; Rodriguez P, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Chihuahua-Sacramento valley is an area of 6 km wide by about 32 km in length, it is located from north to south. In the area, at least two zones exist that may have rocks with radioactive minerals: The Pastorias zone at the SW and the Majalca-San Marcos zone to the NW. The latter, was the object of the present investigation. By studying the geologic conditions and the processes of alteration in the San Marcos deposits, its hydrothermal origin and the different (at least two) alteration stages that has transformed the alkaline rhyolitic rock into per-alkaline were determined, to do more favorable the conditions for the hexavalent uranium minerals deposits. In the mineralogical characterization the following radioactive species were identified: uranofane, meta tyuyamunite and uraninite. These minerals were found also with secondary quartz-feldspar mineralization, with abundant hematization and an advanced process of argillization. The XRD, SEM and optical microscopy analyses of samples were very important for the accomplishment of the present investigation. (Author)

  6. Radioactive mineral samples from the northwest of Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes C, M.; Montero C, M.E.; Renteria V, M.; Fuentes M, L.; Fuentes C, L.; Herrera P, E.F.; Esparza P, H. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Nuevo Campus Universitario s/n, Chihuahua, Mexico y Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Rodriguez P, A. [World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Chihuahuan Desert Program, Coronado 1005, 31000 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx

    2007-07-01

    The Chihuahua-Sacramento valley is an area of 6 km wide by about 32 km in length, it is located from north to south. In the area, at least two zones exist that may have rocks with radioactive minerals: The Pastorias zone at the SW and the Majalca-San Marcos zone to the NW. The latter, was the object of the present investigation. By studying the geologic conditions and the processes of alteration in the San Marcos deposits, its hydrothermal origin and the different (at least two) alteration stages that has transformed the alkaline rhyolitic rock into per-alkaline were determined, to do more favorable the conditions for the hexavalent uranium minerals deposits. In the mineralogical characterization the following radioactive species were identified: uranofane, meta tyuyamunite and uraninite. These minerals were found also with secondary quartz-feldspar mineralization, with abundant hematization and an advanced process of argillization. The XRD, SEM and optical microscopy analyses of samples were very important for the accomplishment of the present investigation. (Author)

  7. Mineral composition of non-conventional leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barminas, J T; Charles, M; Emmanuel, D

    1998-01-01

    Six non-conventional leafy vegetables consumed largely by the rural populace of Nigeria were analyzed for mineral composition. Mineral contents appeared to be dependent on the type of vegetables. Amaranthus spinosus and Adansonia digitata leaves contained the highest level of iron (38.4 mg/100 g and 30.6 mg/100 g dw, respectively). These values are low compared to those for common Nigerian vegetables but higher than those for other food sources. All the vegetables contained high levels of calcium compared to common vegetables, thus they could be a rich source of this mineral. Microelement content of the leaves varied appreciably. Zinc content was highest in Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata and Cassia tora leaves (25.5 mg/100 g, 22.4 mg/100 g and 20.9 mg/100 g dw, respectively) while the manganese content was comparatively higher in Colocasia esculenta. The concentrations of the mineral elements in the vegetables per serving portion are presented and these values indicate that the local vegetables could be valuable and important contributors in the diets of the rural and urban people of Nigeria. The mean daily intake of P, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn were lower than their recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). However, the manganese daily intake was found not to differ significantly (p = 0.05) from the RDA value.

  8. Minerals Policy Statement 2: controlling and mitigating the environmental effects of minerals extraction in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    Minerals Policy Statement 2 (MPS2) sets out the policies and considerations that the UK Government expects Mineral Planning Authorities to follow when preparing development plans and in considering application for minerals development. This supercedes Minerals Policy Guidance 11 (MPG 11). Annex 1: Dust to MPS2 sets out the policy considerations in relation to dust from mineral workings and associated operations, and how they should be dealt with in local development plans and in considering individual applications. Annex 2: Noise to MPS2 addresses policy in relation to noise from mineral workings. These have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database. 58 refs., 2 apps.

  9. Analysis of exports of the brazilian mineral sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Geovani Schwingel Franck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to analyze the pattern of specialization of exports of brazilian mineral sector, identifying the most dynamic productive sectors in the period between 1999 and 2015. For this purpose, the Import Coverage Ratio was calculated, as well as the Intra-industry Trade rate (IIT, and the Sector Concentration of Exports. Data were collected from the Foreign Trade Information Analysis System (Alice Web. The results indicated that Brazil has a few competitive mineral groups in its export basket, and that it is concentrated in a few sectors. It was found that the most competitive sectors were Niobium ore, iron, manganese, gold, aluminum, other semimanufaturado and copper.

  10. Effect of mineral constituents in the bioleaching of uranium from uraniferous sedimentary rock samples, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Maisa M.; Elaassy, Ibrahim E.; El-Feky, Mohamed G.; Sallam, Abdel Sattar M.; Talaat, Mona S.; Kawady, Nilly A.

    2014-01-01

    Bioleaching, like Biotechnology uses microorganisms to extract metals from their ore materials, whereas microbial activity has an appreciable effect on the dissolution of toxic metals and radionuclides. Bioleaching of uranium was carried out with isolated fungi from uraniferous sedimentary rocks from Southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Eight fungal species were isolated from different grades of uraniferous samples. The bio-dissolution experiments showed that Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus exhibited the highest leaching efficiencies of uranium from the studied samples. Through monitoring the bio-dissolution process, the uranium grade and mineralogic constituents of the ore material proved to play an important role in the bioleaching process. The tested samples asserted that the optimum conditions of uranium leaching are: 7 days incubation time, 3% pulp density, 30 °C incubation temperature and pH 3. Both fungi produced the organic acids, namely; oxalic, acetic, citric, formic, malonic, galic and ascorbic in the culture filtrate, indicating an important role in the bioleaching processes. - Highlights: • Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus are the only isolates achieved highest leaching efficiency of uranium from the studied samples. • Bioleaching process directly related to variations in mineral constituents and uranium grades. • The optimum conditions of uranium bioleaching from its ores, were found to be 7 days, 3% pulp density, pH 3 and 30 °C. • A. niger and A. terreus organic acids play an important and effective role for uranium leaching process

  11. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Turktas

    Full Text Available The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  12. Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

  13. Quantitative analysis of minerals by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietroluongo, L.R.V.; Veiga, M.M. da

    1982-01-01

    Considerations about the X-ray diffraction technique for quantitative analyses are made; some experiments carried out at CETEM - Centro de Tecnologia Mineral (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) with synthetic samples and real samples of diatomites (from northeastern region of Brazil) are described. Quartz quantification has been a problem for analytical chemists and is of great importance to the industries which use this raw material. Comments are made about the main factors influencing the intensity of diffracted X-rays, such as: the crystallinity of the mineral phase; the granulometry, the preferential orientation; sample preparation and pressing, the chemical composition of standards and experimental analytical conditions. Several analytical methods used are described: direct measurement of the height or area of a peak resulting from a particular reflection and comparison with a pre-calibrated curve; method of sequential addition of the mineral of interest in the sample and extrapolation of results for ZERO addition; methods of external and internal standards. (C.L.B.) [pt

  14. The key numbers of the mineral raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.

    1996-01-01

    Mineral raw materials come from fossil reserves or ores resulting from the geologic and climatic history of the Earth. The access to economic development for 80% of the worldwide population and the high rate of demographic growth (probably 8 billions of inhabitants in 2025) are important factors that can greatly multiply the worldwide consumption of ores. In parallel, environmental concerns and the increasing need for a better equilibrium between wildlife preservation and the supply of economic needs, lead to a more reasonable and mastered use of natural resources. The aim of this book is to shade light and give global elements of thoughts on mineral resources, and for the main of those (about 30 metals and mineral substances), to review the most useful data and references about their production and consumption. For each question, chapters are devoted to the situation of France in its worldwide context. One chapter concerns the uranium ores (reserves, production, prices evolution, consumption, economic flux and companies involved). (J.S.)

  15. Problematic Game Play: The Diagnostic Value of Playing Motives, Passion, and Playing Time in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kneer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM—not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1 analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2 testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81 that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing.

  16. Problematic game play: the diagnostic value of playing motives, passion, and playing time in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, Julia; Rieger, Diana

    2015-04-30

    Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM-not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1) analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2) testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81) that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing.

  17. Paracrystalline Disorder from Phosphate Ion Orientation and Substitution in Synthetic Bone Mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa, Mary E; Zhou, Shiliang; Melot, Brent C; Peaslee, Graham F; Neilson, James R

    2016-12-05

    Hydroxyapatite is an inorganic mineral closely resembling the mineral phase in bone. However, as a biological mineral, it is highly disordered, and its composition and atomistic structure remain poorly understood. Here, synchrotron X-ray total scattering and pair distribution function analysis methods provide insight into the nature of atomistic disorder in a synthetic bone mineral analogue, chemically substituted hydroxyapatite. By varying the effective hydrolysis rate and/or carbonate concentration during growth of the mineral, compounds with varied degrees of paracrystallinity are prepared. From advanced simulations constrained by the experimental pair distribution function and density functional theory, the paracrystalline disorder prevalent in these materials appears to result from accommodation of carbonate in the lattice through random displacement of the phosphate groups. Though many substitution modalities are likely to occur in concert, the most predominant substitution places carbonate into the mirror plane of an ideal phosphate site. Understanding the mineralogical imperfections of a biologically analogous hydroxyapatite is important not only to potential bone grafting applications but also to biological mineralization processes themselves.

  18. Mineral potential modelling of gold and silver mineralization in the Nevada Great Basin - a GIS-based analysis using weights of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of 2,690 gold-silver-bearing occurrences in the Nevada Great Basin was examined in terms of spatial association with various geological phenomena. Analysis of these relationships, using GIS and weights of evidence modelling techniques, has predicted areas of high mineral potential where little or no mining activity exists. Mineral potential maps for sedimentary (?disseminated?) and volcanic (?epithermal?) rock-hosted gold-silver mineralization revealed two distinct patterns that highlight two sets of crustal-scale geologic features that likely control the regional distribution of these deposit types. The weights of evidence method is a probability-based technique for mapping mineral potential using the spatial distribution of known mineral occurrences. Mineral potential maps predicting the distribution of gold-silver-bearing occurrences were generated from structural, geochemical, geomagnetic, gravimetric, lithologic, and lithotectonic-related deposit-indicator factors. The maps successfully predicted nearly 70% of the total number of known occurrences, including ~83% of sedimentary and ~60% of volcanic rock-hosted types. Sedimentary and volcanic rockhosted mineral potential maps showed high spatial correlation (an area cross-tabulation agreement of 85% and 73%, respectively) with expert-delineated mineral permissive tracts. In blind tests, the sedimentary and volcanic rock-hosted mineral potential maps predicted 10 out of 12 and 5 out of 5 occurrences, respectively. The key mineral predictor factors, in order of importance, were determined to be: geology (including lithology, structure, and lithotectonic terrane), geochemistry (indication of alteration), and geophysics. Areas of elevated sedimentary rock-hosted mineral potential are generally confined to central, north-central, and north-eastern Nevada. These areas form a conspicuous ?V?-shape pattern that is coincident with the Battle Mountain-Eureka (Cortez) and Carlin mineral trends and a

  19. Contribution of nitrogen derived from mineral supplementation for soybean seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Massuquini Conceição

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seeds can absorb N from mineral supplementation, thus stimulating seedling development in soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merrill. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution to soybean seedlings of N derived from mineral supplementation in seeds with different nutritional contents. Seeds of the cultivar BMX Potência RR received mineral supplementation enriched with 2.5% excess 15N. The treatments were performed in seeds in two lots, one with high and one with low nutritional content. At 2, 6 and 10 days after sowing on paper towels, the seedlings were collected and separated into cotyledons, roots and shoots. Dry matter production, root length and root volume were assessed. Total N and 15N values were analyzed in the seedling organ tissues. The seeds from the lot with lower nutritional content absorbed more N from the mineral supplement, which was accumulated in the cotyledons and redistributed to the root systems and cotyledons. At 10 days after sowing, most of the N in the organs of soybean seedlings was derived from the seed reserves, regardless of nutritional content. Thus, application of N through mineral supplementation is of low importance for the development and nutrition of seedlings.

  20. Gross alpha and beta activities in Tunisian mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrouni Benbelgacem, Samar

    2011-01-01

    The quality of natural mineral water is a universal health problem seeing its vital importance. This problem is related to the presence of the radionuclides since this water is coming from underground, during their circulation it dissolves and conveys the radionuclides which are present in the earth's crust. This problem which leads to the contamination of the mineral water urged the World Health Organization to set standards and to recommend the respect of the median values of the activities alpha and beta within the framework of the man protection against this internal exhibition. Concerning the radiological quality of Tunisian mineral water studied in this project, we showed, by using the gross alpha and beta activities counting, that this water is specific to human consumption since their gross alpha and beta activities do not forward any risk on health.

  1. CD44 is involved in mineralization of dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Liang; Huang, Yu-Yuan; Lung, Jrhau; Yeh, Ying-Yi; Yuan, Kuo

    2013-03-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with various biological functions. Histologic studies have shown that CD44 is strongly expressed in odontoblasts at the appositional stage of tooth development. We investigated whether CD44 is involved in the mineralization of dental pulp cells. Ten human third molars with incomplete root formation were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry of CD44. Dental pulp cells isolated from another 5 human third molars were assayed for their viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and alizarin red staining in vitro after silencing stably their expression of CD44 by using the short hairpin RNA technique. The CD44 knockdown cells were cultured on a collagen sponge and transplanted subcutaneously into the dorsal surfaces of immunocompromised mice. After 6 weeks, the subcutaneous tissues were processed for alizarin red staining and immunohistochemistry of human specific antigen. The dental pulp cells transduced with control short hairpin RNA were used as the control in all assays. CD44 is expressed in odontogenic cells with active mineral deposition during tooth development. Odontoblasts in the root ends of immature teeth express a stronger CD44 signal compared with those in the crown portion. When CD44 expression was stably suppressed in dental pulp cells, their mineralization activities were substantially decreased in both in vitro and in vivo assays. CD44 may play a crucial role in the initial mineralization of tooth-associated structures. However, further studies are required to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Opportunities and Challenges of the State-owned Exploration Companies Confronting the Prosperous Mineral Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bangfei; Xie, Hui

    The stated-owned exploration companies (SOEC), of state-owned enterprises background, go for profits as well as national and social responsibility. The SOEC play significant roles in commercial mineral exploration by taking advantage of their brands, strong financial backing and operation capability to integrate the capital and technology. Since the disadvantage of backwardness, the SOEC have to deal with multiple problems, such as high costs of mineral rights acquisition, multi-cooperation project management, and the criterions for traditional techniques can not adapt the rapid commercial mineral exploration and evaluation. Under the new situation, the SOEC should be careful to make investment decisions, strengthen project management, introduce venture capital funds, and cooperate with the government and the state-owned exploration institution (SOEI). It's suggested to carry out small-scale assembled explorations to reduce the exploration risks and costs, and to increase the exploration success rate.

  3. A Multi-Scale Study on the Role of Trace Metals on Physiological and Pathological Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammelkamp, Derek

    The work in this thesis provides mulit-scale contributions towards understanding the effects of trace metals on the pathological mineralization process relating to both the development of healthy bone tissue, the diseased state of osteoporosis, and microcalcifications which develop in breast cancers. A protein level study was performed on ECM protein fibronectin, which plays a role in cell adhesion. The protein studies showed zinc interactions with fibronectin and its fragment, anastellin, to influence protein structure. Zinc is also shown to decrease cell migration in vitro, which may be influenced by changes in fibronectin ECM structure. The effects of osteoporosis on micronutrient composition in vivo were examined using the technique of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) in an ovariectomized rat model. Compared to healthy bone, subtle difference are observed in zinc and iron in osteoporotic rat bones, showing micronutrients may play an important role in healthy bone regulation. Effects of micronutrient zinc was used to inhibit microcalcification formation in breast cancers. Microcalcifications have been linked malignancy of breast cancers, but the process of microcalcification formation has yet to be well understood. In this work, exogenous zinc is used to inhibit microcalcification formation, and metastatic potential in both a 2D and 3D spheroid environment. A novel in vitro self-assembled three dimensional multi-cellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) model for the study of breast cancer microcalcifications was developed for this experiment. A MCTS model for studying breast cancer microcalcifications has potential to be used in drug discovery, or for basic research applications studying mechanisms of microcalcification formation, which are still not fully understood. Taken together this study uses a multi-scale approach to gain a better understanding of micronutrients involved in pathological mineralization.

  4. Minerals industry survey, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of the statistical survey commissioned by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents the most comprehensive review of the financial position of the Australian minerals industry and provides timely financial data on the minerals industry. The tables of this survey have been prepared for AMIC by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies. For the purpose of the survey, the minerals industry has been defined as including exploration for, and extraction and primary processing of, minerals in Australia. The oil and gas industry is not included.

  5. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  6. Mineral Grains, Dimples, and Hot Volcanic Organic Streams: Dynamic Geological Backstage of Macromolecular Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoblikow, Nikolai E; Zimin, Andrei A

    2018-04-01

    The hypothesis of hot volcanic organic stream as the most probable and geologically plausible environment for abiogenic polycondensation is proposed. The primary synthesis of organic compounds is considered as result of an explosive volcanic (perhaps, meteorite-induced) eruption. The eruption was accompanied by a shock wave propagating in the primeval atmosphere and resulting in the formation of hot cloud of simple organic compounds-aldehydes, alcohols, amines, amino alcohols, nitriles, and amino acids-products, which are usually obtained under the artificial conditions in the spark-discharge experiments. The subsequent cooling of the organic cloud resulted in a gradual condensation and a serial precipitation of organic compounds (in order of decreasing boiling point values) into the liquid phase forming a hot, viscous and muddy organic stream (named "lithorheos"). That stream-even if the time of its existence was short-is considered here as a geologically plausible environment for abiogenic polycondensation. The substances successively prevailing in such a stream were cyanamide, acetamide, formamide, glycolonitrile, acetonitrile. An important role was played by mineral (especially, phosphate-containing) grains (named "lithosomes"), whose surface was modified with heterocyclic nitrogen compounds synthesized in the course of eruption. When such grains got into hot organic streams, their surface catalytic centers (named "lithozymes") played a decisive role in the emergence, facilitation and maintenance of prebiotic reactions and key processes characteristic of living systems. Owing to its cascade structure, the stream was a factor underlying the formation of mineral-polymeric aggregates (named "lithocytes") in the small natural streambed cavities (dimples)-as well as a factor of their further spread within larger geological locations which played a role of chemo-ecological niches. All three main stages of prebiotic evolution (primary organic synthesis

  7. Sea urchin tooth mineralization: Calcite present early in the aboral plumula

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, Stuart R.; Veis, Arthur; Xiao, Xianghui; Almer, Jonathan D.; Dorvee, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    In both vertebrate bone, containing carbonated hydroxyapatite as the mineral phase, and in invertebrate hard tissue comprised of calcium carbonate, a popular view is that the mineral phase develops from a long-lived amorphous precursor which later transforms into crystal form. Important questions linked to this popular view are: When and where is the crystallized material formed, and is amorphous solid added subsequently to the crystalline substrate? Sea urchin teeth, in which the earliest mi...

  8. [Play therapy in social work with children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvarionas, Dziugas

    2002-01-01

    This article introduces the results of scientific research performed in 1995-1997 in Kaunas primary school with 1st and 2nd grade children exhibiting behavioral disorders. Play therapy, a quite novel method in the country, seeks better improvement and an achievement of a better relationship for disadvantaged children in educational process. Play group counseling, or play media counseling, is shown as an important method in working with early primary grade children, especially those who present behavioral problems in the classroom. Another important aspect of group play therapy is the concentrated relationship with the counselor. Primary school children, especially those who are disadvantaged respond more to warmth than to praise for being right and doing well. Data analysis allow us to assume that behavioral difficulties of primary school children are connected with a low rate of self-esteem and dissatisfaction with their vital activities. Main conclusions to correspond with hypothesis held for the research are: a) children exhibiting behavioral problems are less active in educational process; b) by means of systematic use of play group counseling method in school, problematic children are able to solve their difficulties and to optimize their academic improvement; c) there is a complementary relationship between child's self-esteem and his/her satisfaction with his/her vital activity.

  9. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  10. Spatial mapping of mineralization with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnick, I.E.; Centeno, J.A.; Todorov, T.I.; Koenig, A.E.; Potter, K.

    2011-01-01

    Paramagnetic manganese can be employed as a calcium surrogate to sensitize the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to the processing of calcium during the bone formation process. At low doses, after just 48h of exposure, osteoblasts take up sufficient quantities of manganese to cause marked reductions in the water proton T1 values compared with untreated cells. After just 24h of exposure, 25??M MnCl2 had no significant effect on cell viability. However, for mineralization studies 100??M MnCl2 was used to avoid issues of manganese depletion in calvarial organ cultures and a post-treatment delay of 48h was implemented to ensure that manganese ions taken up by osteoblasts is deposited as mineral. All specimens were identified by their days in vitro (DIV). Using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), we confirmed that Mn-treated calvariae continued to deposit mineral in culture and that the mineral composition was similar to that of age-matched controls. Notably there was a significant decrease in the manganese content of DIV18 compared with DIV11 specimens, possibly relating to less manganese sequestration as a result of mineral maturation. More importantly, quantitative T1 maps of Mn-treated calvariae showed localized reductions in T1 values over the calvarial surface, indicative of local variations in the surface manganese content. This result was verified with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). We also found that ??R1 values, calculated by subtracting the relaxation rate of Mn-treated specimens from the relaxation rate of age-matched controls, were proportional to the surface manganese content and thus mineralizing activity. From this analysis, we established that mineralization of DIV4 and DIV11 specimens occurred in all tissue zones, but was reduced for DIV18 specimens because of mineral maturation with less manganese sequestration. In DIV25 specimens, active mineralization was observed for

  11. Concussions and Risk Within Cultural Contexts of Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Colón, Gabriel Alejandro; Smith, Sharia; Fucillo, Jenny

    2017-06-01

    Concussions are a type of traumatic injury caused by a jolting of the brain that disrupts normal brain function, and multiple concussions can lead to serious long-term health consequences. In this article, we examine the relationship between college students' understanding of concussions and their willingness to continue playing despite the possibility of sustaining multiple head injuries. We use a mixed-methods approach that includes participant observation, cultural domain analysis, and structured interviews. Our research finds that students hold a robust cognitive understanding of concussion yet discursively frame concussions as skeletomuscular injuries. More importantly, students affirm the importance of playing sports for themselves and others, so their decisions to risk multiple concussions must be understood within cultural and biocultural contexts of meaningful social play. We suggest that peoples' decision to risk multiple head injuries should be understood as a desire for meaningful social play rather than an uninformed health risk.

  12. Predicting the Mineral Composition of Dust Aerosols. Part 1; Representing Key Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Garcia-Pando, C. Perez; Miller, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    Soil dust aerosols created by wind erosion are typically assigned globally uniform physical and chemical properties within Earth system models, despite known regional variations in the mineral content of the parent soil. Mineral composition of the aerosol particles is important to their interaction with climate, including shortwave absorption and radiative forcing, nucleation of cloud droplets and ice crystals, heterogeneous formation of sulfates and nitrates, and atmospheric processing of iron into bioavailable forms that increase the productivity of marine phytoplankton. Here, aerosol mineral composition is derived by extending a method that provides the composition of a wet-sieved soil. The extension accounts for measurements showing significant differences between the mineral fractions of the wetsieved soil and the emitted aerosol concentration. For example, some phyllosilicate aerosols are more prevalent at silt sizes, even though they are nearly absent at these diameters in a soil whose aggregates are dispersed by wet sieving. We calculate the emitted mass of each mineral with respect to size by accounting for the disintegration of soil aggregates during wet sieving. These aggregates are emitted during mobilization and fragmentation of the original undispersed soil that is subject to wind erosion. The emitted aggregates are carried far downwind from their parent soil. The soil mineral fractions used to calculate the aggregates also include larger particles that are suspended only in the vicinity of the source. We calculate the emitted size distribution of these particles using a normalized distribution derived from aerosol measurements. In addition, a method is proposed for mixing minerals with small impurities composed of iron oxides. These mixtures are important for transporting iron far from the dust source, because pure iron oxides are more dense and vulnerable to gravitational removal than most minerals comprising dust aerosols. A limited comparison to

  13. Study of Adsorption of Phenanthrene on Different Types of Clay Minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, M. L.; Escolano, O.; Rodriguez, V.; Diaz, F. J.; Perez, R.; Garcia, S.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2003-01-01

    The fate and behaviour of non-ionic hydrophobic organic compounds in deep soil is mainly controlled by the mineral fraction present in the soil due to the very low organic carbon content of the deep soil. The mineral fraction that may greatly influence the fate and transport of these compounds due to its presence and properties are the clay minerals. Clay minerals also become increasingly important in low organic matter content soils. There tree, studies of non-ionic hydrophobic organic compounds adsorption on clay minerals without organic matter are necessary lo better understand the fate and transport of these compounds. In this work we used phenanthrene as model compound of non-ionic hydrophobic organic compound and four pure clay minerals: kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and vermiculite including muscovite mica. These clays minerals are selected due to its abundance in represents ve Spanish soils and different properties as its structural layers and expanding capacity. Batch experiments were performed using phenanthrene aqueous solutions and the clays selected. Phenanthrene sorption isotherms for all clays, except muscovite mica, were best described by the Freundlich model. Physical sorption on the external surfaces is the most probable adsorption mechanisms. In this sense, the presence of non-polar nano-sites on clay surfaces could determine the adsorption of phenanthrene by hydrophobic interaction on these sites. (Author) 22 refs

  14. Centimetre-scale vertical variability of phenoxy acid herbicide mineralization potential in aquifer sediment relates to the abundance of tfdA genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazarbasi, Meric Batioglu; Bælum, Jacob; Johnsen, Anders R.

    2012-01-01

    sampled just below the groundwater table. Mineralization of 2,4-D and MCPA was fastest in sediment samples taken close to the groundwater table, whereas only minor mineralization of MCPP was seen. Considerable variability was exhibited at increasing aquifer depth, more so with 2,4-D than with MCPA...... are known to be involved in the metabolism of phenoxy acid herbicides. tfdA class III gene copy number was approximately 100-fold greater in samples able to mineralize MCPA than in samples able to mineralize 2,4-D, suggesting that tfdA class III gene plays a greater role in the metabolism of MCPA than of 2......Centimetre-scale vertical distribution of mineralization potential was determined for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP) by 96-well microplate radiorespirometric analysis in aquifer sediment...

  15. Studies in Finishing Effects of Clay Mineral in Polymers and Synthetic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Uddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of clay mineral in modifying the properties of polymeric material is improved in application. The current interest in modifying the polymeric materials, particularly polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and nylon using clay mineral for improved flame retardancy, thermal stability, peak heat release rate, fracture, and strength properties generated significant research literature. This paper aims to review some of the important recent modification achieved in the performance of polymeric materials using organoclay mineral. Degradation of clay mineral-polymer (nm composite is discussed with appropriate known examples. Clay mineral (nm loading of 5 wt.% to 7 wt.% that was significantly smaller than the percent loading of conventional fillers in polymeric materials introduced significant improvement in terms of thermal and physical stability. An attempt is made to emphasize flammability and thermal stability and to indicate the areas that are relatively little explored in modification of fiber-forming polymers to enhance further research interest.

  16. Linking Global Patterns of Nitrogen Resorption with Nitrogen Mineralization During Litter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M.; Liu, L.; Jiang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycle in terrestrial ecosystems is strongly influenced by resorption prior to litter fall and by mineralization after litter fall. Although both resorption and mineralization make N available to plants and are influenced by climate, their linkage in a changing environment remains largely unknown. Here, we show that, at the global scale, increasing N resorption efficiency has a negative effect on the N mineralization rate. With increasing temperature and precipitation, the increasing rate of the N cycle is closely related to the shift from the more conservative resorption pathway to an acquiring mineralization pathway. Furthermore, systems with faster N-cycle rates support plants with higher foliar N:P ratios and microbes with lower fungi:bacteria ratios. We highlight the importance of considering the geographic pattern and the dynamic interaction between N resorption and N mineralization, which should be incorporated into earth-system models to improve the simulation of nutrient constraints on ecosystem productivity.

  17. Playful Postmodernism: Building with Diversity in the Postmodern Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Nancy; Barron, Mary; Holliman, Diane Carol; Karliner, Shelley; Walker, Uta M.

    2009-01-01

    The critical examination of language and the deconstruction of truth claims play an important role in how we build with diversity in our classrooms. We, as social work educators involved with playful postmodernism, recognize the significance of improvisation and playfulness in engaging the question: how is this examination and deconstruction done?…

  18. Outlook 96: Minerals and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Papers discussing the future of Australia's minerals and energy are presented under the following headings: Australia in the global minerals and energy markets; minerals exploration; steelmaking raw materials; aluminium and alumina; gold; nickel; base metals; titanium minerals; energy for a sustainable future; electricity; electricity in Asia; crude oil; coal trade; natural gas in Australia and uranium. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs., figs., refs

  19. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  20. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  1. Surface materials map of Afghanistan: carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Dudek, Kathleen B.; Livo, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of HyMap imaging spectrometer data of Afghanistan. Using a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) WB-57 aircraft flown at an altitude of ~15,240 meters or ~50,000 feet, 218 flight lines of data were collected over Afghanistan between August 22 and October 2, 2007. The HyMap data were converted to apparent surface reflectance, then further empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap data was compared to the spectral features of reference entries in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, ice, and snow. This map shows the spatial distribution of minerals that have diagnostic absorption features in the shortwave infrared wavelengths. These absorption features result primarily from characteristic chemical bonds and mineralogical vibrations. Several criteria, including (1) the reliability of detection and discrimination of minerals using the HyMap spectrometer data, (2) the relative abundance of minerals, and (3) the importance of particular minerals to studies of Afghanistan's natural resources, guided the selection of entries in the reference spectral library and, therefore, guided the selection of mineral classes shown on this map. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated. Minerals having similar spectral features were less easily discriminated, especially where the minerals were not particularly abundant and (or) where vegetation cover reduced the absorption strength of mineral features. Complications in reflectance calibration also affected the detection and identification of minerals.

  2. Cancrinite-group minerals behavior at non-ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Paolo; Gatta, G. Diego; Kahlenberg, Volker; Merlini, Marco; Alvaro, Matteo; Cámara, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Cancrinite-group minerals occur in the late stages of alkaline (SiO2)-undersaturated magmatism and in related effusive or contact rocks. So far only few studies have been devoted to the description of the thermo-elastic behavior, phase-stability and P /T -structure evolution (at the atomic scale) of this mineral group. Cancrinite-group minerals have an open-framework structure characterized by the [CAN]-topology. The [CAN]-framework shows large 12-ring channels, parallel to the c crystallographic axis, bound by columns of cages, the so-called can units. While very limited chemical variation is observed in the framework composition (the composition is almost always [Si6Al6O24]) a remarkable chemical variability is reported for the extraframework components in the cancrinite-group minerals. Two subgroups can be identified according to the extraframework content of the can units: the cancrinite- and the davyne-subgroups, showing Na-H2O and Ca-Cl chains, respectively. The channels are stuffed by cations, anions and molecules. We aimed to model the thermo-elastic behavior and the mechanisms of the (P ,T)-induced structure evolution of cancrinite-group minerals, with special interest on the role played by the extraframework population. The study was restricted to the following (CO3)-rich and (SO4)-rich end-members: cancrinite sensu stricto {[(Na,Ca)6(CO3)1.2-1.7][Na2(H2O)2][Al6Si6O24]}, vishnevite {[(Na,Ca,K)6(SO4)][Na2(H2O)2][Al6Si6O24]}, balliranoite {[(Na,Ca)6(CO3)1.2-1.7][Ca2Cl2][Al6Si6O24]} and davyne {[(Na,Ca,K)6((SO4),Cl)][Ca2Cl2][Al6Si6O24]}. Their high-P and low-T (T single-crystal X-ray diffraction, using diamond-anvil cells and (N2)-cryosystems, respectively. The high-T behavior of cancrinite has also been studied by means of in-situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction with a resistive heater. Cancrinite minerals share a similar volume compressibility and thermal expansivity at ambient conditions (cancrinite has KV 0 = 45(2) GPa and αV,293K = 4.88(8)·10-5 K-1

  3. The right thalamus may play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhu Fan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies have shown that the mammalian thalamus is a key structure for anesthesia-induced unconsciousness and anesthesia-awakening regulation. However, both the dynamic characteristics and probable lateralization of thalamic functioning during anesthesia-awakening regulation are not fully understood, and little is known of the evolutionary basis of the role of the thalamus in anesthesia-awakening regulation. Methods An amphibian species, the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis was used in the present study. The frogs were immersed in triciane methanesulfonate (MS-222 for general anesthesia. Electroencephalogram (EEG signals were recorded continuously from both sides of the telencephalon, diencephalon (thalamus and mesencephalon during the pre-anesthesia stage, administration stage, recovery stage and post-anesthesia stage. EEG data was analyzed including calculation of approximate entropy (ApEn and permutation entropy (PE. Results Both ApEn and PE values differed significantly between anesthesia stages, with the highest values occurring during the awakening period and the lowest values during the anesthesia period. There was a significant correlation between the stage durations and ApEn or PE values during anesthesia-awakening cycle primarily for the right diencephalon (right thalamus. ApEn and PE values for females were significantly higher than those for males. Discussion ApEn and PE measurements are suitable for estimating depth of anesthesia and complexity of amphibian brain activity. The right thalamus appears physiologically positioned to play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs indicating an early evolutionary origin of the role of the thalamus in arousal and consciousness in land vertebrates. Sex differences exist in the neural regulation of general anesthesia in frogs.

  4. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Minerals Minerals are those elements on the earth and ...

  5. Minerals yearbook: The mineral industry of Brazil. 1988 international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Brazil's gross domestic product (GDP) grew only slightly in 1988 to $277 billion at current prices. The growth rate was the smallest registered since 1983, when the rate was minus 2.8%. The economy's performance was strongly influenced by a 2% to 3% decrease in industrial production and civil construction. The mineral industry, however, countered the downward trend in the industrial sector and grew a modest 1.4%. Topics discussed in the report include the following: Government policies and programs; Production; Trade; Commodity review--Metals (Aluminum, Aluminia, and Bauxite, Columbium, Copper, Gold, Iron and Steel, Manganese, Tin, Titanium); Industrial Minerals (Gem stones, Phosphate rock, Quartz); Mineral fuels (Coal, Natural gas, Petroleum, Nuclear power); Nonmineral energy sources (Alcohol, Hydroelectric)

  6. Apatite mineralization in elasmobranch skeletons via a polyphosphate intermediate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, Sidney; Lacroix