WorldWideScience

Sample records for mineral element deficiencies

  1. Alterations in early cytokine-mediated immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum infection in Tanzanian children with mineral element deficiencies: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeurink Prescilla V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficiencies in vitamins and mineral elements are important causes of morbidity in developing countries, possibly because they lead to defective immune responses to infection. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of mineral element deficiencies on early innate cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 304 Tanzanian children aged 6-72 months were stimulated with P. falciparum-parasitized erythrocytes obtained from in vitro cultures. Results The results showed a significant increase by 74% in geometric mean of TNF production in malaria-infected individuals with zinc deficiency (11% to 240%; 95% CI. Iron deficiency anaemia was associated with increased TNF production in infected individuals and overall with increased IL-10 production, while magnesium deficiency induced increased production of IL-10 by 46% (13% to 144% in uninfected donors. All donors showed a response towards IL-1β production, drawing special attention for its possible protective role in early innate immune responses to malaria. Conclusions In view of these results, the findings show plasticity in cytokine profiles of mononuclear cells reacting to malaria infection under conditions of different micronutrient deficiencies. These findings lay the foundations for future inclusion of a combination of precisely selected set of micronutrients rather than single nutrients as part of malaria vaccine intervention programmes in endemic countries.

  2. Prediction of the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements in foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, M.G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Minerals and trace elements play essential roles in numerous biochemical and physiological processes in animals and man. A deficiency, an overdose or imbalances between minerals or trace elements will exert a negative effect on health. Generally, it is not the ingested dose of minerals and trace ele

  3. Functional changes appropriate for determining mineral element requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaski, H C; Penland, J G

    1996-09-01

    One factor limiting efforts to determine human requirements for dietary intakes of mineral elements has been the unavailability of acceptable standards for evaluating the effects of marginal and mild deficiencies. Traditional approaches, such as growth, longevity, chemical balance and measurement of concentrations of minerals in plasma or serum and cellular components of the blood, have not been sensitive indicators of mineral nutriture. One alternative that has been shown to be responsive to graded dietary mineral intake is the evaluation of functional responses to specific challenges or stressors. Aberrant responses, either exaggerated or attenuated, to controlled stressors have been observed in a variety of physiological, psychological and immunological parameters when mineral intakes have been suboptimal by conventional standards, compared with adequate responses. In comparison to static biochemical approaches for assessment of mineral nutritional status, functional tests may be sensitive and responsive to alterations in mineral intake in adult humans. Dynamic functional measures complement static biochemical measures and reflect the net effect of deficiencies on integrated biological systems. The application of some of these types of dynamic evaluations of function may be a useful and productive approach for proposing mineral element intakes to optimize human health and biological function and performance.

  4. Mineral elements in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral elements occur in milk and dairy products as inorganic ions and salts, as well as part of organic molecules, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The chemical form of mineral elements is important because it determines their absorption in the intestine and their biological utilization. The mineral composition of milk is not constant because it depends on lactation phase, nutritional status of the animal, and environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this research is to point out the research results of chemical form, content and nutritional importance of individual mineral elements that are present in various milks and dairy products.

  5. Prediction of the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements in foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolters, M.G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Minerals and trace elements play essential roles in numerous biochemical and physiological processes in animals and man. A deficiency, an overdose or imbalances between minerals or trace elements will exert a negative effect on health. Generally, it is not the ingested dose of minerals and trace elements that is important to maintain balance, but rather the amount that is bioavailable (available for biological and biochemical processes in the organism). Several food components are able to for...

  6. mineral elements content of some coarse grains used as staple food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... Keywords: Mineral Elements, Coarse Grains, Staple Food, Kano, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ... maize, sorghum, wheat, cowpea and rice are the most popular agricultural ... of the body by the time the baby walks. Deficiencies.

  7. Minerals and trace elements in the soil-plant-animal continuum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minerals and trace elements in the soil-plant-animal continuum in Ethiopia: a review. ... The prevention and control of micronutrient deficiency disorders require a ... tailored solutions in areas such as nutrition education, improved methods of ...

  8. Mineral replacement reactions and element mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnis, Christine V.; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; King, Helen E.; Hövelmann, Jörn; Renard, François

    2016-04-01

    When a mineral is out of equilibrium with an aqueous fluid, reactions will take place in an attempt to reach a new equilibrium. Commonly in the Earth dissolution at a mineral-fluid interface initiates a coupled reaction involving dissolution and precipitation (Ruiz-Agudo et al., 2014). This is a ubiquitous reaction during such processes as metamorphism, metasomatism and weathering. When rock-forming minerals such as feldspars, olivine, pyroxenes are in contact with aqueous fluids (typically NaCl-rich) resultant new phases are formed and elements present in the parent mineral are released to the fluid and therefore mobilized for transport elsewhere. This has been shown in a number of systems such as the albitisation of feldspars (Hövelmann et al., 2010) when a Ca-bearing plagioclase is replaced by albite (NaAlSi3O8). However during this reaction not only is Ca released to the fluid but most other minor elements, such as Mg, Pb, rare earth elements amongst others, are almost totally mobilized and removed in solution. This interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation reaction has many implications for the redistributon of elements in the crust of the Earth. It is also of note that albitisation occurs often in areas of high mineralization, such as in the Curnamona Province in S. Australia (Au-Cu and Ag-Pb-Zn deposits) and the Bamble District of S. Norway. Secondly atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image these reactions at a nanoscale, especially at the calcite-fluid interface, such as the formation of apatite from phosphate-bearing solutions, and the sequestration of toxic elements, eg., Se and As. References Ruiz-Agudo E., Putnis C.V., Putnis A. (2014) Coupled dissolution and precipitation at mineral-fluid interfaces. Chemical Geology, 383, 132-146. Putnis C.V. and Ruiz-Agudo E. (2013) The mineral-water interface: where minerals react with the environment. Elements, 9, 177-182. Hövelmann J., Putnis A., Geisler T., Schmidt B.C., Golla-Schindler U. (2009

  9. Rare earth elements and strategic mineral policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooroshy, J.; Korteweg, R.; Ridder, M. de

    2010-01-01

    Newspapers report almost daily on international tensions around ‘strategic’ or ‘critical’ minerals such as rare earth elements. The temporary freeze of rare earth exports from China to Japan in late 2010 in retaliation of the capture of a Chinese captain is but one example of the strategic use of no

  10. Alterations of mineral elements in osteoblast during differentiation under hypo, moderate and high static magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Ding, Chong; Shang, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Static magnetic fields (SMFs) can enhance the ability of bone formation by osteoblast and is a potential physical therapy to bone disorders and the maintenance of bone health. But, the mechanism is not clear yet. Certain mineral elements including macro and trace elements are essential for normal bone metabolism. Deficiency of these elements can cause severe bone disorders including osteoporosis. However, there are few reports regarding the role of mineral elements in the regulation of bone formation under SMFs. In this study, hypomagnetic field (HyMF) of 500 nT, moderate SMF (MMF) of 0.2 T, and high SMF (HiMF) of 16 T were used to investigate the effects of SMFs on mineral element (calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc) alteration of MC3T3-E1 cells during osteoblast mineralization. The results showed that osteoblasts in differentiation accumulated more mineral elements than non-differentiated cell cultures. Furthermore, HyMF reduced osteoblast differentiation but did not affect mineral elements levels compared with control of geomagnetic field. MMF decreased osteoblast differentiation with elevated iron content. HiMF enhanced osteoblast differentiation and increased all the mineral contents except copper. It is suggested that the altered potential of osteoblast differentiation under SMFs may partially due to the involvement of different mineral elements.

  11. Rare earth elements in Hamersley BIF minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    Minerals from the Hamersley banded iron formation, Western Australia, were analyzed for Y and rare earth elements (YREEs) by laser ablation ICP-MS to investigate diagenetic pathways, from precursor phases to BIF minerals. One group of apatites carries the seawater REE signature, giving evidence that P and REEs, thoroughly scavenged from the water column by Si-ferrihydrite particles, were released upon microbial Fe3+ reductive dissolution of Si-ferrihydrite in pore-water and finally sequestered mainly in authigenic apatite. The absence of fractionation between apatite and seawater suggests that REE were first incorporated into an amorphous calcium phosphate as fully hydrated cations, i.e. as outer-sphere complexes. The iron oxides and carbonates carry only a small fraction of the whole-rock REE budget. Their REE patterns are distinctly enriched in Yb and show some M-type tetrad effect consistent with experimental Kd(REE) between solid and saline solution with low carbonate ion concentrations. It is deduced that hematite formed at an incipient stage of Fe2+-catalyzed dissolution of Si-ferrihydrite, via a dissolution-reprecipitation pathway. The REE pattern of greenalite, found as sub-micron particles in quartz in a chert-siderite sample, is consistent with its authigenic origin by precipitation in pore-water after dissolution of a small amount of Si-ferrihydrite. Magnetite carries very low YREEs (ppb-level), has an homogeneous pattern distinctly enriched in the mid-REEs compared to hematite, and includes a late population depleted in light-REEs, Ba and As. Magnetite forming aggregates and massive laminae is tentatively interpreted as reflecting some fluid-aided hematite-magnetite re-equilibration or transformation at low-grade metamorphic temperatures.

  12. Bone mineral density in estrogen-deficient young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popat, Vaishali B; Calis, Karim A; Vanderhoof, Vien H; Cizza, Giovanni; Reynolds, James C; Sebring, Nancy; Troendle, James F; Nelson, Lawrence M

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis primarily affects postmenopausal women. However, young women with estrogen deficiency also are at increased risk for low bone density. The aim of the study was to assess bone density and associated risk factors for reduced bone density in young, estrogen-deficient women using primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as the disease model. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary care research center. We studied women with POI (n = 442), concurrent controls (n = 70), and matched controls from NHANES III (n = 353). We measured bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Patients on average had 2-3% lower BMD at L1-L4, femoral neck, and total hip (P estrogen deficiency (P = 0.018), low (estrogen replacement nonadherence (P = 0.002), low calcium intake (P = 0.005), and lack of exercise (P = 0.005). As compared to Caucasians, African-American and Asian women with POI were 3.18 and 4.34 times more likely, respectively, to have Z-scores below -2 (P = estrogen deficiency are more likely to have BMD below the expected range for age. This racial disparity appears to be related to a combined effect of several modifiable risk factors. Delay in diagnosis of POI also contributes to reduced bone density by delaying proper therapy.

  13. Mineral deficiency predisposes occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sheetal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood serum concentrations of macro and micro minerals and development of retention of placenta (ROP in crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at Instructional Livestock Farm, Bihar Veterinary College and local Khatals in and around Patna. A total of 20 crossbred cattle (n=10 with normal expulsion of the placenta as control and n=10 with ROP were selected in the present study. Blood samples were collected from these animals and serum was separated and stored in the deep freezer at −20°C till further analysis. The estimation of serum macro-minerals (Ca, P, Ca/P ratio was done by Span diagnostic Kits (Surat, India and trace minerals or micro-minerals (Zn, Cu, and Fe were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer AAS 220. Mean values were compared between both the groups at 0 h (at parturition and 12 h after parturition. Results: The mean values of serum calcium and zinc were found significantly lower in cattle having ROP than control at both 0 h and 12 h after parturition. The mean values of serum Ca and P ratio obtained at 0 hour were significantly lower in ROP groups as compared to control groups and non-significant at 12 h. The mean values of serum inorganic phosphorus, copper and iron was found non-significantly lower in ROP cases as compared to control. Conclusions: Macro and micro mineral deficiency such as calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood serum may be predisposing factor for the occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred cattle.

  14. The influence of high dietary protein, energy and mineral intake on deficient young camel (Camelus dromedarius)--II. Changes in mineral status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, B; Saint-Martin, G; Cherrier, R; Ruffa, A

    1992-06-01

    1. Mangrove Avicennia marina is poor in some trace elements such as copper, zinc and manganese. In a trial we used 32 young camels divided into four groups. 2. Groups 1 and 3 were supplemented with copper and zinc in drinking water after 1 month of mangrove feeding. 3. Groups 2 and 3 received concentrate rich in protein and energy. The supplementation was stopped after 2 months. 4. All the camels were deficient in trace elements at the beginning of mineral supplementation. 5. The plasma concentration of copper increased significantly up to normal levels (less than 70 micrograms/100 ml) in energy protein supplemented groups, but the quantity supplied (100 mg of copper sulphate/day) was not sufficient to maintain this level after the end of supplementation. 6. The original zinc deficiency was too severe to observe a significant effect of the mineral supplementation. 7. Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus levels were improved during the supplementation period in protein-energy supplemented groups. 8. A high interaction between mineral absorption and quality of the diet was observed. A well-balanced diet seems essential to avoid deficient mineral status.

  15. Genetic analysis of the effect of zinc deficiency on Arabidopsis growth and mineral concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghandilyan, A.; Kutman, U.B.; Kutman, B.Y.; Cakmak, I.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc deficiency is a common micronutrient deficiency in plants growing in many different regions of the world and is associated with disturbances in uptake and accumulation of mineral nutrients. Despite many published data on physiological factors affecting ion accumulation in Zn deficient plan

  16. 缺Fe/Zn及盐胁迫下苋菜对Cd及矿质元素的吸收与IRT1表达的关系%Cadmium and mineral element accumulation and IRT1 gene expression of Amaranth hybidus L. under iron/zinc deficiencies or salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丹萍; 李取生; 王立立; 徐智敏; 郭世鸿; 胡妮; 陈惠君

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has showed that iron- regulated transporter 1(IRT1)gene plays an important role in the accumulation and transfer of metals in plants. Here a low Cd-accumulating cultivar Baigenjianye(B)and a high Cd-accumulating cultivar Huahong(H)were used to investigate the characteristics of mineral element and Cd accumulation by and IRT1 expression level in roots of Amaranth hybidus L. under iron(Fe)or zinc(Zn)deficiencies or salt stress. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the expression level of IRT1. Biomass of two cultivars obviously decreased in the treatments, with the greatest reduction observed in Fe deficiency. The accumulation of Cd and mineral elements significantly(P<0.05)increased under Fe and Zn deficiency treatments. However, salt stress showed a significant(P<0.05)in-hibiting effect on Cd accumulation but a significant (P<0.05)promotion on the accumulation of mineral elements. The concentrations of Cd, Fe, Zn and Mg, and the expression of gene IRT1 in root protoplasts were obviously higher in high Cd- accumulating cultivar Huahong(H) than those in low Cd-accumulating cultivar Baigenjianye(B). Furthermore, elevated expression levels of IRT1 promoted the concentrations of Cd, Fe, Zn and Mg in stems and leaves. Therefore, while Cd concentration in crops is concerned, the content of minerals in the soil should be paid attention to at the same time.%选用Cd低累积品种白梗尖叶苋菜(B)和高累积品种花红苋菜(H)2个苋菜品种,采用水培法分别研究了在缺Fe、缺Zn和盐胁迫3种处理条件下2个苋菜品种对矿质元素以及Cd的累积特征,并通过测定2个品种不同处理根部IRT1(铁离子转运蛋白)的表达量,建立了缺Fe/Zn及盐胁迫下苋菜对Cd及矿质元素的吸收与IRT1表达的关系。结果表明,3个处理组中2个苋菜品种生物量均显著低于对照组,缺Fe以及缺Zn处理显著促进了2个苋菜品种对Cd以及矿质元素的累积,而盐胁迫显

  17. Compounded PHOSPHO1/ALPL deficiencies reduce dentin mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, M D; Yadav, M C; Foster, B L; Somerman, M J; Farquharson, C; Millán, J L

    2013-08-01

    Phosphatases are involved in bone and tooth mineralization, but their mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, ALPL) regulates inhibitory extracellular pyrophosphate through its pyrophosphatase activity to control mineral propagation in the matrix; mice without TNAP lack acellular cementum, and have mineralization defects in dentin, enamel, and bone. PHOSPHO1 is a phosphatase found within membrane-bounded matrix vesicles in mineralized tissues, and double ablation of Alpl and Phospho1 in mice leads to a complete absence of skeletal mineralization. Here, we describe mineralization abnormalities in the teeth of Phospho1(-/-) mice, and in compound knockout mice lacking Phospho1 and one allele of Alpl (Phospho1(-/-);Alpl(+/-) ). In wild-type mice, PHOSPHO1 and TNAP co-localized to odontoblasts at early stages of dentinogenesis, coincident with the early mineralization of mantle dentin. In Phospho1 knockout mice, radiography, micro-computed tomography, histology, and transmission electron microscopy all demonstrated mineralization abnormalities of incisor dentin, with the most remarkable findings being reduced overall mineralization coincident with decreased matrix vesicle mineralization in the Phospho1(-/-) mice, and the almost complete absence of matrix vesicles in the Phospho1(-/-);Alpl(+/-) mice, whose incisors showed a further reduction in mineralization. Results from this study support prominent non-redundant roles for both PHOSPHO1 and TNAP in dentin mineralization.

  18. Mineral element levels in wild edible mushrooms from Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Honggao; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Shi, Yundong; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2012-06-01

    Ten species of wild edible mushrooms (Boletus griseus, Boletus speciosus, Lactarius hygrophoroides, Leucopaxillus giganteus, Macrocybe gigantea, Melanoleuca arcuata, Morchella deliciosa, Mycena haematopus, Pulveroboletus ravenelii, and Tricholoma matsutake) collected from Yunnan province of China, were analyzed for ten mineral elements (calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, and zinc) contents using ICP-AES. The minimum and maximum element contents of mushrooms were determined as milligrams per kilograms dry weight for Ca (38-470), Cr (0.45-6.3), Co (0.29-2.3), Cu (13-58), Fe (22-510), Mg (84-550), Mn (1.4-70), K (1,300-4,600), Na (190-670), and Zn (16-160). The mushrooms species with the highest levels of mineral elements were B. griseus for K and Na, P. ravenelii for Cu, M. deliciosa for Mn, L. giganteus for Cr and Fe, M. gigantea for Ca, Mg and Zn, T. matsutake for Co. These results demonstrate that the mineral element contents in mushrooms are considerably species dependent and affected by environmental factors.

  19. Analysis of some elements in primary enamel during postnatal mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Nina; Klinberg, Gunilla; Nietzsche, Sandor; Robertson, Agneta; Odelius, Hans; Norén, Jörgen G

    2009-01-01

    The primary teeth start to mineralize in utero and continue development and maturation during the first year of life.The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of some elements, C, F, Na, Mg, Cl, K and Sr, by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in human primary incisors at different stages of mineralization.The teeth derived from an autopsy material from children who had died in sudden infant death.The buccal enamel of specimens from the ages 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 19 months, respectively, was analyzed. It was evident that posteruptive effects play an important role in composition of the outermost parts of the enamel. Before the tooth erupts, the concentrations of the elements vary with the maturation grade of the mineralization in the enamel. Sodium was the element with the highest concentration of the measured elements and chlorine was the element of lowest concentration.The 19 month old specimen, considered as the only mature and erupted tooth, showed to differ from the other specimens.The concentration of fluorine, in the 19 month old specimen's outermost surface, is readily seen higher compared with the other specimens at this depth zone. In the 19 month old specimen the concentration of carbon is lower. Potassium, sodium and chlorine have higher concentrations, in general, in the 19 month old specimen compared with the immature specimens. The thickness of the enamel during mineralization was calculated from data from SIMS.The thickness of the buccal enamel of primary incisors seemed to be fully developed between 3-4 months after birth, reaching a thickness of 350-400 microm.

  20. Geochemical study of trace elements in micrograin minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shinozuka, Yoshitsugu; Imai, Shiho; Baba, Naoho; Machii, Tami; Shimada, Mitsuo; Hasebe, Kiyoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Abstract of five papers are contained in this paper. 1. Neutron activation analysis of iridium in Japan P/T boundary layer sample. Iridium of Permian/Triassic (P/T) boundary layer samples in Japan are determined. A collision of materials outside of the earth was not proved. 2. Adsorbability of rare earth elements by biogenic phosphate salt particles. Phosphate minerals are very strong adsorbent of rare earth elements, so that they can use as the removal materials of them in radioactive waste. 3. Analysis of undecomposed minerals and irresoluble compounds in acid decomposed residue. In order to investigate the past global changes, a micro wave heat method was studied and good results were obtained. 4. Determination of iridium in tsunami deposits in Cuba. Very small amount of iridium was discovered in the samples. 5. Activation analysis of iridium in the sample of 300 m core of Baikal lake. (Plan). (S.Y.)

  1. Mineral essential elements for nutrition in different chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquanta, Luciano; Di Cesare, Cinzia; Manoni, Remo; Piano, Angela; Roberti, Piero; Salvatori, Giancarlo

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the essential mineral nutritional elements in cocoa beans, in chocolates at different cocoa percentage (60,70,80 and 90%) and in milk chocolate are evaluated. Dark chocolates are confirmed as an excellent source of magnesium (252.2 mg/100 g) and iron (10.9 mg/100 g): in chocolate containing 90% cocoa, their content corresponds to, respectively, 67.0% and 80.3 of Nutrient Reference Values (NRV) in the European Union. The chocolate containing 90% cocoa is also a good source of zinc (3.5 mg/100 g), which is important for the immune system, and selenium (0.1 mg/100 g). Three main components suitable to explain the mineral concentrations are analyzed by factor analysis. The component 1 can be interpreted as the contribution from the cocoa beans, owing to the mineral characteristics of the soil in which they have grown; the component 2 is mainly due to the manipulation and transformation of the cocoa in chocolate, while the component 3 represents the milk powder.

  2. Elemental composition of extant microbialites: mineral and microbial carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino-Castillo, P. M.; Falcón, L. I.; Holman, H. Y. N.; Merino-Ibarra, M.; García-Guzmán, M.; López-Gómez, L. M. D. R.; Martínez, J.; Alcantara-Hernandez, R. J.; Beltran, Y.; Centeno, C.; Cerqueda-Garcia, D.; Pi-Puig, T.; Castillo, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    Microbialites are the modern analogues of ancient microbial consortia. Their existence extends from the Archaean (~3500 mya) until present and their lithified structure evidences the capacity of microbial communities to mediate mineral precipitation. Living microbialites are a useful study model to test the mechanisms involved in carbonates and other minerals precipitation. Here, we studied the chemical composition, the biomass and the microbial structure of extant microbialites. All of these were found in Mexico, in water systems of different and characteristic ionic firms. An elemental analysis (C:N) of microbial biomass was performed and total P was determined. To explore the chemical composition of microbialites as a whole, X-ray diffraction analyses were performed over dry microbialites. While overall inorganic carbon content (carbonates) represented >70% of the living layer, a protocol of inorganic carbon elimination was performed for each sample resulting in organic matter contents between 8 and 16% among microbialites. Stoichiometric ratios of C:N:P in microbialite biomass were different among samples, and the possibility of P limitation was suggested mainly for karstic microbialites, N limitation was suggested for all samples and, more intensively, for soda system microbialites. A differential capacity for biomass allocation among microbialites was observed. Microbialites showed, along the biogeographic gradient, a diverse arrangement of microbial assemblages within the mineral matrix. While environmental factors such as pH and nitrate concentration were the factors that defined the general structure and diversity of these assemblages, we intend to test if the abundance of major ions and trace metals are also defining microbialite characteristics (such as microbial structure and biomass). This work contributes to define a baseline of the chemical nature of extant microbial consortia actively participating in mineral precipitation processes.

  3. [Efficiency of using vitamin-mineral complexes in the prevention of iron-deficiency states in athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, I P

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of 49 athletes aged 18 to 22 years established that 2-week intake of vitamin-mineral complexes (VMC) caused a significant increase in the concentrations of iron, copper, and magnesium in plasma and blood corpuscles and a rise in the content of hemoglobin, red blood cells, and body vitamin C provision, and exercise performance during the positive balance of the above trace elements (TE), which is indicative of their deficiency in the body in summer. Supplementation of TE to diets showed that increasing the dose of minerals as components of VMC substantially reduced the percentage assimilation of iron, copper, and magnesium as constituents of preparations and increased fecal and urinary ME excretion.

  4. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad A. van Bodegraven

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Malabsorption, weight loss and vitamin/mineral-deficiencies characterize classical celiac disease (CD. This study aimed to assess the nutritional and vitamin/mineral status of current “early diagnosed” untreated adult CD-patients in the Netherlands. Newly diagnosed adult CD-patients were included (n = 80, 42.8 ± 15.1 years and a comparable sample of 24 healthy Dutch subjects was added to compare vitamin concentrations. Nutritional status and serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin A, B6, B12, and (25-hydroxy D, zinc, haemoglobin (Hb and ferritin were determined (before prescribing gluten free diet. Almost all CD-patients (87% had at least one value below the lower limit of reference. Specifically, for vitamin A, 7.5% of patients showed deficient levels, for vitamin B6 14.5%, folic acid 20%, and vitamin B12 19%. Likewise, zinc deficiency was observed in 67% of the CD-patients, 46% had decreased iron storage, and 32% had anaemia. Overall, 17% were malnourished (>10% undesired weight loss, 22% of the women were underweight (Body Mass Index (BMI 25. Vitamin deficiencies were barely seen in healthy controls, with the exception of vitamin B12. Vitamin/mineral deficiencies were counter-intuitively not associated with a (higher grade of histological intestinal damage or (impaired nutritional status. In conclusion, vitamin/mineral deficiencies are still common in newly “early diagnosed” CD-patients, even though the prevalence of obesity at initial diagnosis is rising. Extensive nutritional assessments seem warranted to guide nutritional advices and follow-up in CD treatment.

  5. Micro—PIXE analysis of trace element composition and their distribution in minerals of mantle peridotite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友红; 张旗; 等

    1996-01-01

    The proton microprobe and the quantitative micro-PIXE analysis technique are used to determine trace element composition and distribution in minerals of mantle peridotite,therefore,additional useful information is provided on the study of upper mantle mineral phase transformation.An example reported here is the study on the geochemical behavior of trace elements in minerals of Suoluoshu mantle peridotite from Shandong province,which was in the process of mineral phase transformation from spinel to garnet.The study shows that trace element composition and distribution display obvious change in minerals while the mineral phase is transformed from spinel to garnet.Most of the trace elements analyzed reside in clinopyroxene and spinel.However,garnet is nearly poor in all of these elements.This phenomenon is associated with the infiltration of soultion and the existence of micropgrained inclusions in minerals in the process of mantle metasomatism.

  6. Chondrule trace element geochemistry at the mineral scale

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    We report trace element analyses from mineral phases in chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites (Vigarano, Renazzo and Acfer 187), carried out by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results are similar in all three meteorites. Mesostasis has Rare Earth Element (REE) concentrations of 10-20 x CI. Low-Ca pyroxene has light REE (LREE) concentrations near 0.1 x CI and heavy REE (HREE) near 1 x CI respectively. Olivine has HREE concentrations at 0.1-1 x CI and LREE around 10-2 x CI. The coarsest olivine crystals tend to have the most fractionated REE patterns, indicative of equilibrium partitioning. Low-Ca pyroxene in the most pyroxene-rich chondrules tends to have the lowest REE concentrations. Type I chondrules seem to have undergone a significant degree of batch crystallization (as opposed to fractional crystallization), which requires cooling rates slower than 1-100 K/h. This would fill the gap between igneous CAIs and type II chondrules. The anticorrelation between REE abundances and ...

  7. Finite Element Simulation of the Mechanical Properties of Mineralized Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang

    Mineralized biomaterials are natural composite materials with both biomineral and biopolymer phases. They have attracted intense attention in the past decades, due to their outstanding mechanical properties and great potential as future materials. Such exceptional properties are believed to be attributed to their complex structures. Therefore, two different mineralized biomaterials (bone and sea urchin spine) were studied mainly by the finite element method and their structure-mechanical properties relationships were investigated. The research on bone was performed with a bottom-up approach. We focused on the nanoscale level structure-properties relationship first: the models of mineralized collagen fibril, consisting of hydroxyapatite platelets aligned within a collagen matrix, were created and the importance of the parameters defining its structure and constituent properties was evaluated. With the elastic model well established, the long-term mechanical behavior at nanoscale level was studied. The viscoelastic properties of undamaged collagen phase were deduced from low-irradiation-dosage creep measurements, then different damage scenarios were evaluated to explain the evolution of phase strains with larger irradiation dosage. The higher level structure-properties relationship of bone was simulated by two different approaches: 1) Assuming the macroscopic composite strain was comparable to nanoscale fibrillar strain, then based on nanoscale model, the macroscopic distributions of nanoscale phase strains were investigated; 2) Considering the structural complexity of bone at several length scales, the effective properties from lower scales were applied as the input properties at higher scales, and the elastic properties at each level were investigated. The computational results were validated by experimental data obtained by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and show the mechanical properties of bone are greatly influenced by its structure. The research on sea urchin

  8. Platinum-group elements in southern Africa: mineral inventory and an assessment of undiscovered mineral resources: Chapter Q in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Causey, J. Douglas; Parks, Heather L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The platinum-group elements, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium, possess unique physical and chemical characteristics that make them indispensable to modern technology and industry. However, mineral deposits that are the main sources of these elements occur only in three countries in the world, raising concerns about potential disruption in mineral supply. Using information in the public domain, mineral resource and reserve information has been compiled for mafic and ultramafic rocks in South Africa and Zimbabwe that host most of the world’s platinum-group element resources.

  9. Mineral chemistry of Rare Earth Element (REE) mineralization, Browns Ranges, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nigel J.; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; O'Rielly, Daniel; Wilson, Robin; Das, Kevin; Wade, Benjamin

    2013-07-01

    ‘Green energy futures’ are driving unprecedented demand for Rare Earth Elements (REE), underpinning significant exploration activity worldwide. Understanding how economic REE concentrations form is critical for development of exploration models. REE mineralisation in the Browns Ranges, Gordon Downs Region, Western Australia, comprises xenotime-dominant mineralisation hosted within Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary units (Browns Range Metamorphics). Mineralogical, petrographic and mineral-chemical investigation, including trace element analysis by Laser-Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy, gives insights into the mineralogical distribution and partitioning of REE, and also provides evidence for the genetic evolution of the Browns Range REE mineralisation via a succession of hydrothermal processes. Two main REE-bearing minerals are identified: xenotime [(Y,REE)PO4], which is HREE selective; and subordinate florencite [(REEAl3(PO4)2(OH)6] which is LREE selective. Two morphological generations of xenotime are recognised; compositions are however consistent. Xenotime contains Dy (up to 6.5 wt.%), Er (up to 4.35 wt.%), Gd (up to 7.56 wt.%), Yb (up to 4.65 wt.%) and Y (up to 43.3 wt.%). Laser Ablation ICP-MS element mapping revealed a subtle compositional zoning in some xenotime grains. LREE appear concentrated in the grain cores or closest to the initial point of growth whereas HREE, particularly Tm, Yb and Lu, are highest at the outer margins of the grains. The HREE enrichment at the outer margins is mimicked by As, Sc, V, Sr, U, Th and radiogenic Pb. Florencite is commonly zoned and contains Ce (up to 11.54 wt.%), Nd (up to 10.05 wt.%) and La (up to 5.40 wt.%) and is also notably enriched in Sr (up to 11.63 wt.%) and Ca. Zircon (which is not a significant contributor of REEs overall due to its low abundance in the rocks) is also enriched in REE (up to 13 wt.% ΣREE) and is the principal host of Sc (up to 0.8 wt.%). Early, coarse

  10. Three Packets of Minerals of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Labushev, Mikhail M.

    2013-01-01

    The concepts of alpha- and beta-packets of the periodic table of chemical elements and chemical compounds are defined. The first of the 47 minerals alpha-packets is composed. In it all minerals are arranged in increasing Iav index of proportionality of atomic weights of composing chemical elements, the same way as chemical elements are located in increasing atomic weights in the Periodic table. The packet includes 93 known minerals and two compounds - N2O5 and CO2 - being actually minerals. B...

  11. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  12. Mutation increasing β-carotene concentrations does not adversely affect concentrations of essential mineral elements in pepper fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jacqueline A.; Penchev, Emil A.; Nielen, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are prevalent in human populations throughout the world. Vitamin A deficiency affects hundreds of millions of pre-school age children in low income countries. Fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can be a major dietary source of precursors to Vitamin A biosynthesis, such as β-carotene. Recently, pepper breeding programs have introduced the orange-fruited (of) trait of the mutant variety Oranzheva kapiya, which is associated with high fruit β-carotene concentrations, to the mutant variety Albena. In this manuscript, concentrations of β-carotene and mineral elements (magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, zinc, calcium, manganese, iron and copper) were compared in fruit from P31, a red-fruited genotype derived from the variety Albena, and M38, a genotype developed by transferring the orange-fruited mutation (of) into Albena. It was observed that fruit from M38 plants had greater β-carotene concentration at both commercial and botanical maturity (4.9 and 52.7 mg / kg fresh weight, respectively) than fruit from P31 plants (2.3 and 30.1 mg / kg fresh weight, respectively). The mutation producing high β-carotene concentrations in pepper fruits had no detrimental effect on the concentrations of mineral elements required for human nutrition. PMID:28207797

  13. Rice fortification: an emerging opportunity to contribute to the elimination of vitamin and mineral deficiency worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Hall, Jessica; Bagriansky, Jack; Sugimoto, Jonathan; Gundry, Daniel; Matthias, Dipika; Prigge, Shane; Hindle, Peter; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Maberly, Glen

    2012-12-01

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are ranked among the top causes of poor health and disability in the world. These deficiencies damage developing brains, impair learning ability, increase susceptibility to infections, and reduce the work productivity of nations. Food fortification is a sustainable, cost-effective approach to reducing vitamin and mineral deficiency. As the staple food for an estimated 3 billion people, rice has the potential to fill an obvious gap in current fortification programs. In recent years, new technologies have produced fortified rice kernels that are efficacious in reducing vitamin and mineral deficiency. There are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice that comes from large mills supplying centralized markets and national welfare programs in major rice-growing countries. The rice export markets, which handle 30 million MT of rice annually, also present a key fortification opportunity. The cost of fortifying rice is only 1.5% to 3% of the current retail price of rice. Countries that mandate rice fortification have the strongest evidence for achieving wide coverage and impact. The Rice Fortification Resource Group (RiFoRG), a global network of public and private partners that offers technical and advocacy support for rice fortification, has a vision of promoting rice fortification worldwide. It has a targeted approach, engaging multisector partners in key countries where the opportunities are greatest and there is receptivity to early adoption of large-scale rice fortification. The challenges are real, the imperative to address them is powerful, and the opportunities to deliver the promise of rice fortification are clear.

  14. Three Packets of Minerals of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Labushev, Mikhail M

    2013-01-01

    The concepts of alpha- and beta-packets of the periodic table of chemical elements and chemical compounds are defined. The first of the 47 minerals alpha-packets is composed. In it all minerals are arranged in increasing Iav index of proportionality of atomic weights of composing chemical elements, the same way as chemical elements are located in increasing atomic weights in the Periodic table. The packet includes 93 known minerals and two compounds - N2O5 and CO2 - being actually minerals. Beta-packet of oxides and hydroxides minerals includes 88 known minerals and five chemical compounds - N2O5, CO2, CO, SO3 and SO2. Two minerals of the packet have not been determined yet. Besides, beta-packet of minerals with sulfur, selenium or arsenic is composed, with one mineral not defined yet. The results of the calculations can be used for further development of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds and their properties investigation.

  15. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  16. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  17. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  18. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  19. A decrease in phytic acid content substantially affects the distribution of mineral elements within rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Iwai, Toru; Matsubara, Chie; Usui, Yuto; Okamura, Masaki; Yatou, Osamu; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Naohiro; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-09-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP6) is the storage compound of phosphorus and many mineral elements in seeds. To determine the role of InsP6 in the accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in seeds, we performed fine mappings of mineral elements through synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence analysis using developing seeds from two independent low phytic acid (lpa) mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The reduced InsP6 in lpa seeds did not affect the translocation of mineral elements from vegetative organs into seeds, because the total amounts of phosphorus and the other mineral elements in lpa seeds were identical to those in the wild type (WT). However, the reduced InsP6 caused large changes in mineral localization within lpa seeds. Phosphorus and potassium in the aleurone layer of lpa greatly decreased and diffused into the endosperm. Zinc and copper, which were broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm in the WT, were localized in the narrower space around the aleurone layer in lpa mutants. We also confirmed that similar distribution changes occurred in transgenic rice with the lpa phenotype. Using these results, we discussed the role of InsP6 in the dynamic accumulation and distribution patterns of mineral elements during seed development.

  20. Relationship between Major Mineral Nutrient Elements Contents and Flower Colors of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhong Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is a famous ornamental plant with bright flowers and lush leaves. The flower petal can be used as a fragrant food additive. Understanding the mineral nutrient contents in P. lactiflora is necessary for guiding its cultivation practices as well as its use as a food additive. In this study, we investigated the mineral contents including Calcium (Ca, Potassium (K, Magnesium (Mg, Copper (Cu, iron (Fe and Zinc (Zn in petals and leaves of 20 selected herbaceous peony cultivars in four groups according to their flower colors and the relationship between major mineral nutrient elements contents and flower colors was assessed. In petals, the contents of minerals were in this order K>Ca>Mg>Fe>Zn>Cu; while in leaves were: Ca>K>Mg>Fe>Zn>Cu. Major element contents in petals and leaves among 4 cultivar groups were different at statistically significant levels. Petals in red or purple have higher amount of most major minerals than those in white or pink colors. The wide range of mineral element contents among cultivars is attributed to genotypic variations. The correlations of major mineral elements in the petals and leaves of herbaceous peony cultivars indicate that mineral ions compete for the same absorption sites. The results provided some scientific support for petal nutrition of herbaceous peony and selecting herbaceous peony flowers with dark colors for edible is feasible.

  1. Minerals and trace elements in domesticated Namibian Ganoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maxwell

    Edible and medicinal mushrooms are regarded as the ideal health foods. ... to their high content of essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals and low lipid ... followed by calcium with 23 g/100 g, carbohydrate with 23 g/100 g, protein with 18.2 ... functions of the body. ... bone formation, and regulation of water and salt balance.

  2. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were undertaken to identify studies in humans of the association between growth hormone treatment and bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Random effects model was used for this meta-analysis. Results. A total of 20 studies (including one outlier study with 936 subjects were included in our research. We detected significant overall association of growth hormone treatment with increased bone mineral density of spine, femoral neck, and total body, but some results of subgroup analyses were not consistent with the overall analyses. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggested that growth hormone replacement therapy could have beneficial influence on bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults, but, in some subject populations, the influence was not evident.

  3. A primary phosphorus-deficient skeletal phenotype in juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: the uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, P E; Owen, M A G; Fontanillas, R; Soenens, M; McGurk, C; Obach, A

    2016-02-01

    To understand the effect of low dietary phosphorus (P) intake on the vertebral column of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, a primary P deficiency was induced in post-smolts. The dietary P provision was reduced by 50% for a period of 10 weeks under controlled conditions. The animal's skeleton was subsequently analysed by radiology, histological examination, histochemical detection of minerals in bones and scales and chemical mineral analysis. This is the first account of how a primary P deficiency affects the skeleton in S. salar at the cellular and at the micro-anatomical level. Animals that received the P-deficient diet displayed known signs of P deficiency including reduced growth and soft, pliable opercula. Bone and scale mineral content decreased by c. 50%. On radiographs, vertebral bodies appear small, undersized and with enlarged intervertebral spaces. Contrary to the X-ray-based diagnosis, the histological examination revealed that vertebral bodies had a regular size and regular internal bone structures; intervertebral spaces were not enlarged. Bone matrix formation was continuous and uninterrupted, albeit without traces of mineralization. Likewise, scale growth continues with regular annuli formation, but new scale matrix remains without minerals. The 10 week long experiment generated a homogeneous osteomalacia of vertebral bodies without apparent induction of skeletal malformations. The experiment shows that bone formation and bone mineralization are, to a large degree, independent processes in the fish examined. Therefore, a deficit in mineralization must not be the only cause of the alterations of the vertebral bone structure observed in farmed S. salar. It is discussed how the observed uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization helps to better diagnose, understand and prevent P deficiency-related malformations in farmed S. salar.

  4. Physical activity and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The estrogen defi ciency after menopause leads to accelerated loss of bone mass. The aim of this study was to examine influence of physical activity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: This prospective study included 100 postmenopausal women, ages between 50 and 65, living in Sarajevo area without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history. The women in the examination group had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. To assess level of physical activity an International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form was used.Results: In the examination group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen deficit, level of physical activity was low in 52.00% female, and in 48.00% women level of physical activity was moderate. In the control group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen defi cit in 10.00% female level of physical activity was low, and in 90.00% female level of physical activity was moderate. The difference in levels of physical activity between the two groups was statistically significant, X2 test = 20.6, p <0.005.Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that moderate physical activity has positive impact on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen defi ciency in menstrual history and has the potential to reduce rapid bone loss after menopause.

  5. A FRACTIONATION STUDY OF MINERAL ELEMENTS IN RAW AND COOKED LEAF VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANE MIE KAWASHIMA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Five samplings of leaf vegetables widely consumed in Southern Brazil (lettuce, rucola, watercress, kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage were taken during the period of a year in food markets of the city of Campinas, Brazil. A selective extraction of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc was conducted on the raw vegetables and four of the vegetables (kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage were also cooked briefly under dry heat for three minutes and submitted to the selective extraction. The extraction separated the minerals into fractions containing mineral elements bound to soluble complexes, bound to ligands solubilized by mild acidic oxidizing conditions, and bound to insoluble ligands under mild acidic oxidizing conditions. The minerals concentrations in each fraction were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The amount of K, Na, Ca, and Mg extractable at pH 7.0 (soluble fraction from raw vegetables varied between 22 to 75 % of the total content of the mineral present. The soluble fractions of minor elements such as Mn, Zn, and Fe varied from 0 to 100% in the raw vegetables. The brief cooking used besides causing negligible losses of the minerals also increased the solubility of the minerals by 44% to 200%. KEYWORDS: Leaf vegetables; soluble mineral elements in vegetables.

  6. Leaf mineral nutrient remobilization during leaf senescence and modulation by nutrient deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eMaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants have to cope with fluctuating mineral resource availability. However strategies such as stimulation of root growth, increased transporter activities, and nutrient storage and remobilization have been mostly studied for only a few macronutrients. Leaves of cultivated crops (Zea mays, Brassica napus, Pisum sativum, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare and tree species (Quercus robur, Populus nigra, Alnus glutinosa grown under field conditions were harvested regularly during their life span and analysed to evaluate the net mobilization of 13 nutrients during leaf senescence. While N was remobilized in all plant species with different efficiencies ranging from 40% (maize to 90% (wheat, other macronutrients (K-P-S-Mg were mobilized in most species. Ca and Mn, usually considered as having low phloem mobility were remobilized from leaves in wheat and barley. Leaf content of Cu-Mo-Ni-B-Fe-Zn decreased in some species, as a result of remobilization. Overall, wheat, barley and oak appeared to be the most efficient at remobilization while poplar and maize were the least efficient. Further experiments were performed with rapeseed plants subjected to individual nutrient deficiencies. Compared to field conditions, remobilization from leaves was similar (N-S-Cu or increased by nutrient deficiency (K-P-Mg while nutrient deficiency had no effect on Mo-Zn-B-Ca-Mn, which seemed to be non-mobile during leaf senescence under field conditions. However, Ca and Mn were largely mobilized from roots (-97 and -86% of their initial root contents, respectively to shoots. Differences in remobilization between species and between nutrients are then discussed in relation to a range of putative mechanisms.

  7. Regulation of cell wall remodeling in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) callus under individual mineral stress deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, João C; Goulao, Luis F; Amâncio, Sara

    2016-01-15

    Cell wall (CW) is a dynamic structure that determines the plant form, growth and response to environmental conditions. Vitis vinifera callus grown under nitrogen (-N), phosphorous (-P) and sulfur (-S) deficiency were used as a model system to address the influence of mineral stress in CW remodeling. Callus cells morphology was altered, mostly under -N, resulting in changes in cell length and width compared with the control. CW composition ascertained with specific staining and immuno-detection showed a decrease in cellulose and altered pattern of pectin methylesterification. Under mineral stress genes expression from candidate families disclosed mainly a downregulation of a glycosyl hydrolase family 9C (GH9C), xyloglucan transglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) with predicted hydrolytic activity and pectin methylesterases (PMEs). Conversely, upregulation of PMEs inhibitors (PMEIs) was observed. While methylesterification patterns can be associated to PME/PMEI gene expression, the lower cellulose content cannot be attributed to altered cellulose synthase (CesA) gene expression suggesting the involvement of other gene families. Salt extracts from -N and -P callus tissues increased plastic deformation in cucumber hypocotyls while no effect was observed with -S extracts. The lower endo-acting glycosyl hydrolase activity of -N callus extracts pinpoints a more expressive impact of -N on CW-remodeling.

  8. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  9. Finite element 3D modeling of mechanical behavior of mineralized collagen microfibrils

    CERN Document Server

    Barkaoui, Abdelwahed

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a 3D finite elements model to study the nanomechanical behaviour of mineralized collagen microfibrils, which consists of three phases, (i) collagen phase formed by five tropocollagen (TC) molecules linked together with cross links, (ii) a mineral phase (Hydroxyapatite) and (iii) impure mineral phase, and to investigate the important role of individual properties of every constituent. The mechanical and the geometrical properties (TC molecule diameter) of both tropocollagen and mineral were taken into consideration as well as cross-links, which was represented by spring elements with adjusted properties based on experimental data. In the present paper an equivalent homogenised model was developed to assess the whole microfibril mechanical properties (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio) under varying mechanical properties of each phase. In this study both equivalent Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio which were expressed as functions of Young's modulus of each phase were obt...

  10. Evaluation of mineral elements and ascorbic acid contents in fruits of some wild plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eromosele, I C; Eromosele, C O; Kuzhkuzha, D M

    1991-04-01

    The fruits of some wild plants were examined for their contents of mineral elements and ascorbic acid. High levels of ascorbic acid were found in fruits of Sclerocarya birrea (403.3 mg/100 g) and Adansonia digitata (337 mg/100 g). In nine of the fruits examined, the mineral contents (Ca, P) were comparable with average values found in common fruits. The iron contents were however 2-5 times higher than the values for common fruits.

  11. Effect of HIP/ribosomal protein L29 deficiency on mineral properties of murine bones and teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloofman, Laura G; Verdelis, Kostas; Spevak, Lyudmila; Zayzafoon, Majd; Yamauchi, Mistuo; Opdenaker, Lynn M; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Boskey, Adele L; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B

    2010-07-01

    Mice lacking HIP/RPL29, a component of the ribosomal machinery, display increased bone fragility. To understand the effect of sub-efficient protein synthetic rates on mineralized tissue quality, we performed dynamic and static histomorphometry and examined the mineral properties of both bones and teeth in HIP/RPL29 knock-out mice using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). While loss of HIP/RPL29 consistently reduced total bone size, decreased mineral apposition rates were not significant, indicating that short stature is not primarily due to impaired osteoblast function. Interestingly, our microspectroscopic studies showed that a significant decrease in collagen crosslinking during maturation of HIP/RPL29-null bone precedes an overall enhancement in the relative extent of mineralization of both trabecular and cortical adult bones. This report provides strong genetic evidence that ribosomal insufficiency induces subtle organic matrix deficiencies which elevates calcification. Consistent with the HIP/RPL29-null bone phenotype, HIP/RPL29-deficient teeth also showed reduced geometric properties accompanied with relative increased mineral densities of both dentin and enamel. Increased mineralization associated with enhanced tissue fragility related to imperfection in organic phase microstructure evokes defects seen in matrix protein-related bone and tooth diseases. Thus, HIP/RPL29 mice constitute a new genetic model for studying the contribution of global protein synthesis in the establishment of organic and inorganic phases in mineral tissues.

  12. [Content of mineral elements of Gastrodia elata by principal components analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-ling; Zhao, Zhi; Liu, Hong-chang; Luo, Chun-li; Huang, Ming-jin; Luo, Fu-lai; Wang, Hua-lei

    2015-03-01

    To study the content of mineral elements and the principal components in Gastrodia elata. Mineral elements were determined by ICP and the data was analyzed by SPSS. K element has the highest content-and the average content was 15.31 g x kg(-1). The average content of N element was 8.99 g x kg(-1), followed by K element. The coefficient of variation of K and N was small, but the Mn was the biggest with 51.39%. The highly significant positive correlation was found among N, P and K . Three principal components were selected by principal components analysis to evaluate the quality of G. elata. P, B, N, K, Cu, Mn, Fe and Mg were the characteristic elements of G. elata. The content of K and N elements was higher and relatively stable. The variation of Mn content was biggest. The quality of G. elata in Guizhou and Yunnan was better from the perspective of mineral elements.

  13. Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); M.A. Engels (Melanie); G.J.M. Boerma (Geert); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAdults with childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced bone mass, increased fat mass, and disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition, and lipid metabolism in

  14. Vitamin D, Essential Minerals, and Toxic Elements: Exploring Interactions between Nutrients and Toxicants in Clinical Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K; Genuis, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    In clinical medicine, increasing attention is being directed towards the important areas of nutritional biochemistry and toxicant bioaccumulation as they relate to human health and chronic disease. Optimal nutritional status, including healthy levels of vitamin D and essential minerals, is requisite for proper physiological function; conversely, accrual of toxic elements has the potential to impair normal physiology. It is evident that vitamin D intake can facilitate the absorption and assimilation of essential inorganic elements (such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and selenium) but also the uptake of toxic elements (such as lead, arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, and strontium). Furthermore, sufficiency of essential minerals appears to resist the uptake of toxic metals. This paper explores the literature to determine a suitable clinical approach with regard to vitamin D and essential mineral intake to achieve optimal biological function and to avoid harm in order to prevent and overcome illness. It appears preferable to secure essential mineral status in conjunction with adequate vitamin D, as intake of vitamin D in the absence of mineral sufficiency may result in facilitation of toxic element absorption with potential adverse clinical outcomes.

  15. Interactions of trace elements with fracture filling minerals from the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landstroem, O. [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB (Sweden)

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on the distribution of stable elements and natural radionuclides (e.g. REEs, Th, Ra, Sr and Cs) in natural fracture systems. They have been redistributed by natural processes in the past; mobilization, transport and deposition of which the latter is manifested as `enrichments` of the elements in fracture fillings. Fillings dominated by Fe-oxyhydroxide, calcite and clay minerals show the highest concentrations. Precipitates from different fractures show large variations in concentration levels of trace elements, REE patterns, and activity and activity ratios of natural radionuclides, reflecting variations in physical, chemical and hydrological properties of the fractures. The incorporation of REEs, Sr, Th and U in calcite is significant. The precipitation rate influences the amount of Sr incorporated and probably other elements as well. Clay minerals have high sorption capacity and are important in the retention of Cs and Sr as well as of REEs, Th, U and Ra. The importance of clay minerals in radionuclide retention is emphasized by the results from this study, even small amounts of clay minerals in fractures and fracture zones can significantly influence the radionuclide migration. Accurate determination of quantities and types of clay minerals is therefore very important for radionuclide migration modelling. 58 refs, 14 figs, 12 tabs.

  16. The effects of maternal iron deficiency on infant fibroblast growth factor-23 and mineral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, V S; Prentice, A; Darboe, M K; Prentice, A M; Moore, S E

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a phosphate(Phos)-regulating hormone, is abnormally elevated in hypophosphataemic syndromes and an elevated FGF23 is a predictor of mortality in kidney disease. Recent findings suggest iron deficiency as a potential mediator of FGF23 expression and murine studies have shown in utero effects of maternal iron deficiency on offspring FGF23 and phosphate metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the impact of maternal iron status on infant FGF23 and mineral metabolites over the first 2years of life. Infants born to mothers with normal (NIn=25,) and low (LIn=25) iron status during pregnancy, from a mother-infant trial (ISRCTN49285450) in rural Gambia, West Africa, had blood and plasma samples analysed at 12, 24, 52, 78 and 104weeks (wk) of age. Circulating intact-FGF23 (I-FGF23), Phos, total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and haemoglobin (Hb) decreased and estimated glomerular filtration rate increased over time [all P≤0.0001)]. C-terminal-FGF23 (C-FGF23) and TALP were significantly higher in LI compared with NI, from 52wk for C-FGF23 [Beta coefficient (SE) 18.1 (0.04) %, P=0.04] and from 24wk for TALP [44.7 (29.6) U/L, P=0.04]. Infant Hb was the strongest negative predictor of C-FGF23 concentration [-21% (4%) RU/mL, P≤0.0001], Phos was the strongest positive predictor of I-FGF23 [32.0(3.9) pg/mL, P≤0.0001] and I-FGF23 did not predict C-FGF23 over time [-0.5% (0.5%), P=0.3]. In conclusion, this study suggests that poor maternal iron status is associated with a higher infant C-FGF23 and TALP but similar I-FGF23 concentrations in infants and young children. These findings further highlight the likely public health importance of preventing iron deficiency during pregnancy. Whether or not children who are born to iron deficient mothers have persistently high concentrations of these metabolites and are more likely to be at risk of impaired bone development and pre-disposed to rickets requires further research.

  17. Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition – Zinc Deficiency and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Pluhator

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Available evidence suggests that trace elements, such as zinc, once thought to have no nutritional relevance, are possibly deficient in large sections of the human population. Conditioned deficiencies have been reported to result from malabsorption syndromes, acrodermatitis enteropathica, alcoholism, gastrointestinal disease, thermal injury, chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, and in total parenteral nutrition therapy. Awareness that patients with these problems are at risk has led health professionals to focus increasingly on the importance of zinc therapy in the prevention and treatment of deficiency. More recently zinc toxicity and its role in human nutrition and well-being have come under investigation. Reports have focused on the role of zinc toxicity in causes of copper deficiency, changes in the immune system and alterations in blood lipids. As the numerous challenges presented by the study of zinc in human nutrition are met, more appropriate recommendations for dietary and therapeutic zinc intake are being made.

  18. Elements of Eoarchean life trapped in mineral inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenkam, T.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; MacKenzie, D. M. A.; Rosing, M. T.

    2017-08-01

    Metasedimentary rocks from Isua, West Greenland (over 3,700 million years old) contain 13C-depleted carbonaceous compounds, with isotopic ratios that are compatible with a biogenic origin. Metamorphic garnet crystals in these rocks contain trails of carbonaceous inclusions that are contiguous with carbon-rich sedimentary beds in the host rock, where carbon is fully graphitized. Previous studies have not been able to document other elements of life (mainly hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus) structurally bound to this carbonaceous material. Here we study carbonaceous inclusions armoured within garnet porphyroblasts, by in situ infrared absorption on approximately 10-21 m3 domains within these inclusions. We show that the absorption spectra are consistent with carbon bonded to nitrogen and oxygen, and probably also to phosphate. The levels of C-H or O-H bonds were found to be low. These results are consistent with biogenic organic material isolated for billions of years and thermally matured at temperatures of around 500 °C. They therefore provide spatial characterization for potentially the oldest biogenic carbon relics in Earth’s geological record. The preservation of Eoarchean organic residues within sedimentary material corroborates earlier claims for the biogenic origins of carbon in Isua metasediments.

  19. The role of lysosomes in the selective concentration of mineral elements. A microanalytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J P

    1996-05-01

    The role of the lysosome during the intracellular concentration of diverse mineral elements has been evidenced by the electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). This highly sensitive technique allows an in situ chemical analysis of any chemical element with an atomic number greater than 11, present in ultra-thin tissue sections. Therefore, it has been demonstrated by using this EPMA that 21 out of the 92 elements of the periodic table, once injected in a soluble form, were selectively concentrated within lysosomes of several types of mammalian cells. Amongst these 21 elements, 15 are concentrated and precipitated in an insoluble from in association with phosphorus whereas the other 6 are precipitated in association with sulphur. Amongst the 15 elements which precipitate with phosphorus in lysosomes, there are: 3 group IIIB elements of the periodic system, (aluminium, gallium and indium); the rare-earth elements (cerium, gadolinium, lanthanum, thulium and samarium); 2 group IVA elements (hafnium and zirconium), two actinides (uranium and thorium) and elements such as chromium and niobium. The 6 elements which precipitate with sulphur comprise the 3 group VIII elements of the classification (nickel, palladium, platinum) and the 3 group IB elements (copper, silver and gold). The mechanisms responsible for this selective concentration involve enzymatic processes and predominantly acid phosphatases for elements precipitating as phosphates and arylsulfatases for elements precipitating with sulphur.

  20. Dietary boron modified the effects of magnesium and molybdenum on mineral metabolism in the cholecalciferol-deficient chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C D

    1989-11-01

    The metabolic effects of dietary boron, magnesium, and molybdenum on mineral metabolism in the cholecalciferol-deficient chick, with emphasis on growth cartilage histology, were studied. One-day-old cockerel chicks were assigned to groups in a fully-crossed, three factor, 2 x 2 x 2 design. The basal diet was based on ground corn, high-protein casein, and corn oil and contained 125 IU cholecalciferol (inadequate), 0.465 mg B, 2.500 mg Mg, and 0.420 mg Mo/kg. The treatments were the supplementation of the basal diet with B at O or 3; Mg at 300 (inadequate) or 500 (adequate); and Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg. At d 25, B depressed mortality, alleviated the cholecalciferol-deficiency induced distortion of the marrow sprouts (MS) of the proximal tibial epiphysial plate, and elevated the numbers of osteoclasts within the MS. Adequate Mg exacerbated the cholecalciferol-deficiency induced bone lesions. Mo widened the MS markedly. In Mg-deficient chicks, B elevated plasma Ca and Mg concentrations and growth, but inhibited initiation of cartilage calcification; B had the opposite effect in Mg-adequate chicks. An interaction among B, Mg, and Mo affected plasma uric acid and glucose concentrations. B may function to modify mineral metabolism in cholecalciferol deficiency, suppressing bone anabolism in concurrent Mg deficiency and bone catabolism in concurrent Mg adequacy.

  1. Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity. In this study, emission inventories for 8 elements, which are primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si were determined based on a global mineral dataset and a soils dataset. Datasets of elemental fractions were used to drive the desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions was evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Ca / Al ratio, which typically ranged from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soil sources, were consistent with observations, suggesting this ratio to be a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different that estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observational elemental aerosol concentration data from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions ranged from 0.7 to 1.6 except for 3.4 and 3.5 for Mg and Mn, respectivly. Using the soil data base improved the correspondence of the spatial hetereogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe compared to observations. Total and soluble dust associated element fluxes into different ocean basins and ice sheets regions have been estimated, based on the model results. Annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using mineral dataset were 0.28 Tg, 16.89 Gg, 1.32 Tg, 22.84 Gg, 0.068 Tg, and 0.15 Tg to global oceans and ice sheets.

  2. Trace elements in rock phosphates and P containing mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers sold in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, Sylvia, E-mail: sylvia.kratz@jki.bund.de; Schick, Judith; Schnug, Ewald

    2016-01-15

    68 rock phosphates and 162 P containing (organo-)mineral fertilizers sold in Germany were evaluated with regard to trace element contents. While Al, As, B, Be, Cd, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, U, and Zn were higher in sedimentary than in igneous rock phosphates, the opposite was true for Co, Cu, Sn, Mn, Ti, Fe, and Sr. Comparing element concentrations to the currently valid legal limit values defined by the German Fertilizer Ordinance, it was found that some PK and many straight P fertilizers (superphosphate, triple superphosphate, partly acidulated rock phosphates) exceeded the limit of 50 mg Cd/kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Mean values for As, Ni, Pb, and Tl remained below legal limits in almost all cases. While no legal limit has been defined for U in Germany yet, the limit of 50 mg U/kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5} for P containing fertilizers proposed by the German Commission for the Protection of Soils was clearly exceeded by mean values for all fertilizer types analyzed. A large share of the samples evaluated in this work contained essential trace elements at high concentrations, with many of them not being declared as such. Furthermore, trace elements supplied with these fertilizers at a fertilization rate leveling P uptake would exceed trace element uptake by crops. This may become most relevant for B and Fe, since many crops are sensitive to an oversupply of B, and Fe loads exceeding plant uptake may immobilize P supplies for the crops by forming Fe phosphate salts. The sample set included two products made from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ash. The products displayed very high concentrations of Fe and Mn and exceeded the legal limit for Ni, emphasizing the necessity to continue research on heavy metal removal from recycled raw materials and the development of environmentally friendly and agriculturally efficient fertilizer products. - Highlights: • Mineral fertilizers (MF) sold in Germany often exceed legal limits for Cd • MF sold in Germany contain high

  3. Concentrations of selected trace elements in mineral and spring bottled waters on the Serbian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, M; Popović, I; Pocajt, V; Antanasijević, D; Perić-Grujić, A

    2011-01-01

    Eight selected trace elements, which are generally included in regulations, were analyzed in 23 types of bottled waters. Ten mineral and seven spring bottled waters were from the Serbian market and six mineral bottled waters were obtained in different EU countries. For the purpose of comparison, selected tap waters were also analyzed. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and antimony). Results were compared with the Serbian regulations for bottled water, EU regulations and guideline values set by the World Health Organization for drinking water. With few exceptions, the trace element levels of most bottled waters were below the guideline values. However, a higher content of antimony was observed in waters from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers, indicating a potential leaching of this element from the plastic packaging.

  4. Variation in the mineral element concentration of Moringa oleifera Lam. and M. stenopetala (Bak. f.) Cuf.: Role in human nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumssa, Diriba B; Joy, Edward JM; Young, Scott D; Odee, David W; Ander, E Louise

    2017-01-01

    Background Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) (family Moringaceae; order Brassicales) are multipurpose tree/shrub species. They thrive under marginal environmental conditions and produce nutritious edible parts. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of different parts of MO and MS growing in their natural environments and their potential role in alleviating human mineral micronutrient deficiencies (MND) in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Edible parts of MO (n = 146) and MS (n = 50), co-occurring cereals/vegetables and soils (n = 95) underneath their canopy were sampled from localities in southern Ethiopia and Kenya. The concentrations of seven mineral elements, namely, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iodine (I), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in edible parts and soils were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results In Ethiopian crops, MS leaves contained the highest median concentrations of all elements except Cu and Zn, which were greater in Enset (a.k.a., false banana). In Kenya, Mo flowers and MS leaves had the highest median Se concentration of 1.56 mg kg-1 and 3.96 mg kg-1, respectively. The median concentration of Se in MS leaves was 7-fold, 10-fold, 23-fold, 117-fold and 147-fold more than that in brassica leaves, amaranth leaves, baobab fruits, sorghum grain and maize grain, respectively. The median Se concentration was 78-fold and 98-fold greater in MO seeds than in sorghum and maize grain, respectively. There was a strong relationship between soil total Se and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)-extractable Se, and Se concentration in the leaves of MO and MS. Conclusion This study confirms previous studies that Moringa is a good source of several of the measured mineral nutrients, and it includes the first wide assessment of Se and I concentrations in edible parts of MO and MS grown in various localities. Increasing the consumption of MO and MS, especially the leaves as a

  5. Variation in the mineral element concentration of Moringa oleifera Lam. and M. stenopetala (Bak. f.) Cuf.: Role in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumssa, Diriba B; Joy, Edward Jm; Young, Scott D; Odee, David W; Ander, E Louise; Broadley, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) (family Moringaceae; order Brassicales) are multipurpose tree/shrub species. They thrive under marginal environmental conditions and produce nutritious edible parts. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of different parts of MO and MS growing in their natural environments and their potential role in alleviating human mineral micronutrient deficiencies (MND) in sub-Saharan Africa. Edible parts of MO (n = 146) and MS (n = 50), co-occurring cereals/vegetables and soils (n = 95) underneath their canopy were sampled from localities in southern Ethiopia and Kenya. The concentrations of seven mineral elements, namely, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iodine (I), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in edible parts and soils were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In Ethiopian crops, MS leaves contained the highest median concentrations of all elements except Cu and Zn, which were greater in Enset (a.k.a., false banana). In Kenya, Mo flowers and MS leaves had the highest median Se concentration of 1.56 mg kg-1 and 3.96 mg kg-1, respectively. The median concentration of Se in MS leaves was 7-fold, 10-fold, 23-fold, 117-fold and 147-fold more than that in brassica leaves, amaranth leaves, baobab fruits, sorghum grain and maize grain, respectively. The median Se concentration was 78-fold and 98-fold greater in MO seeds than in sorghum and maize grain, respectively. There was a strong relationship between soil total Se and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)-extractable Se, and Se concentration in the leaves of MO and MS. This study confirms previous studies that Moringa is a good source of several of the measured mineral nutrients, and it includes the first wide assessment of Se and I concentrations in edible parts of MO and MS grown in various localities. Increasing the consumption of MO and MS, especially the leaves as a fresh vegetable or in powdered form

  6. Impact of congenital calcitonin deficiency due to dysgenetic hypothyroidism on bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daripa M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of chronic calcitonin deficiency on bone mass development. The results of 11 patients with thyroid dysgenesis (TD were compared to those of 17 normal individuals (C and of 9 patients with other forms of hypothyroidism (OH: 4 with hypothyroidism due to inborn errors of thyroid hormone synthesis and 5 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The subjects received an intravenous calcium stimulus and blood was collected for the determination of ionized calcium (Ca2+, calcitonin, and intact parathyroid hormone. Bone mineral density (BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. After calcium administration the levels of Ca2+ in the two groups of hypothyroidism were significantly higher than in the normal control group (10 min after starting calcium infusion: C = 1.29 ± 0.08 vs TD = 1.34 ± 0.03 vs OH = 1.34 ± 0.02 mmol/l; P < 0.05, and only the TD group showed no calcitonin response (5 min after starting calcium infusion: C = 27.9 ± 5.8 vs TD = 6.6 ± 0.3 vs OH = 43.0 ± 13.4 ng/l. BMD values did not differ significantly between groups (L2-L4: C = 1.116 ± 0.02 vs TD = 1.109 ± 0.03 vs OH = 1.050 ± 0.04 g/cm². These results indicate that early deficiency of calcitonin secretion has no detrimental effect on bone mass development. Furthermore, the increased calcitonin secretion observed in patients with inborn errors of thyroid hormone biosynthesis does not confer any advantage in terms of BMD.

  7. Timing of growth hormone treatment affects trabecular bone microarchitecture and mineralization in growth hormone deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erika; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Morck, Douglas W; Boyd, Steven K

    2010-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is essential in the development of bone mass, and a growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in childhood is frequently treated with daily injections of GH. It is not clear what effect GHD and its treatment has on bone. It was hypothesized that GHD would result in impaired microarchitecture, and an early onset of treatment would result in a better recovery than late onset. Growth hormone deficient homozygous (lit/lit) mice of both sexes were divided into two treatment groups receiving daily injections of GH, starting at an early (21 days of age) or a late time point (35 days of age, corresponding to the end of puberty). A group of heterozygous mice with normal levels of growth hormone served as controls. In vivo micro-computed tomography scans of the fourth lumbar vertebra were obtained at five time points between 21 and 60 days of age, and trabecular morphology and volumetric BMD were analyzed to determine the effects of GH on bone microarchitecture. Early GH treatment led to significant improvements in bone volume ratio (p=0.006), tissue mineral density (p=0.005), and structure model index (p=0.004) by the study endpoint (day 60), with no detected change in trabecular thickness. Trabecular number increased and trabecular separation decreased in GHD mice regardless of treatment compared to heterozygous mice. This suggests fundamental differences in the structure of trabecular bone in GHD and GH treated mice, reflected by an increased number of thinner trabeculae in these mice compared to heterozygous controls. There were no significant differences between the late treatment group and GHD mice except for connectivity density. Taken together, these results indicate that bone responds to GH treatment initiated before puberty but not to treatment commencing post-puberty, and that GH treatment does not rescue the structure of trabecular bone to that of heterozygous controls. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mineral elements of subtropical tree seedlings in response to elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Huang

    Full Text Available Mineral elements in plants have been strongly affected by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations and nitrogen (N deposition due to human activities. However, such understanding is largely limited to N and phosphorus in grassland. Using open-top chambers, we examined the concentrations of potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, aluminum (Al, copper (Cu and manganese (Mn in the leaves and roots of the seedlings of five subtropical tree species in response to elevated CO2 (ca. 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1 and N addition (100 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 from 2005 to 2009. These mineral elements in the roots responded more strongly to elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the leaves. Elevated CO2 did not consistently decrease the concentrations of plant mineral elements, with increases in K, Al, Cu and Mn in some tree species. N addition decreased K and had no influence on Cu in the five tree species. Given the shifts in plant mineral elements, Schima superba and Castanopsis hystrix were less responsive to elevated CO2 and N addition alone, respectively. Our results indicate that plant stoichiometry would be altered by increasing CO2 and N deposition, and K would likely become a limiting nutrient under increasing N deposition in subtropics.

  9. Zinc Deficiency With Dermatitis in a Parenteral Nutrition-Dependent Patient Due to National Shortage of Trace Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Vivek R; Arnell, Tracey D; Seres, David S

    2016-05-01

    The shortages of intravenous drugs remains critical, with sterile injectables accounting for 80% of the approximately 300 shortages. The impact is being felt in patients dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN), and severe deficiencies are becoming more commonplace. We report here a man who developed severe zinc deficiency, manifesting as a painful desquamative rash, due to an inability to obtain multi-trace element additives for his PN.

  10. Quantitative elemental analysis of an industrial mineral talc, using accelerator-based analytical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy) and Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)]. E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Ige, A.O. [Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Mazzoli, C. [Dipartimento di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Universita di Padova, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ajayi, E.O.B. [Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); De Poli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy)

    2005-10-15

    Accelerator-based technique of PIXE was employed for the determination of the elemental concentration of an industrial mineral, talc. Talc is a very versatile mineral in industries with several applications. Due to this, there is a need to know its constituents to ensure that the workers are not exposed to health risks. Besides, microscopic tests on some talc samples in Nigeria confirm that they fall within the BP British Pharmacopoeia standard for tablet formation. However, for these samples to become a local source of raw material for pharmaceutical grade talc, the precise elemental compositions should be established which is the focus of this work. Proton beam produced by the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy was used for the PIXE measurements. The results which show the concentration of different elements in the talc samples, their health implications and metabolic roles are presented and discussed.

  11. Gene expression analysis of metallothionein and mineral elements uptake in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kısa, Dursun; Öztürk, Lokman; Tekin, Şaban

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals such as Cd are considered to be the most important pollutants in soil contamination. Cd is a non-essential element adversely affecting plant growth and development, and it has caused some physiological and molecular changes. Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, and metal binding proteins. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the MT gene expression levels and minerals uptake in the tissues of Solanum lycopersicum exposed to Cd. The transcriptional expression of the MT genes was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The MT genes were regulated by the Cd and the mineral elements uptake changed tissue type and applied doses. The MT1 and MT2 transcript levels increased in the roots, the leaves and the fruits of the tomato. The MT3 and MT4 transcript pattern changed according to the tissue types. The Cd treatment on the growth medium increased the Mg, Ca, and Fe content in both the leaves and fruits of the tomato. However, the Cd affected the mineral levels in the roots depending on the mineral types and doses. Also, the Cd content increased in the roots, the leaves, and the fruits of the tomato, respectively. The results presented in this study show that Cd has synergistic and/or antagonistic effects on minerals depending on the tissue types. These results indicate that the MT1 and MT2 expression pattern increased together with the Mg, Ca, and Fe content in both the leaves and the fruits of the tomato.

  12. Element-tracing of mineral matters in Dendrobium officinale using ICP-MS and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nannan; Han, Shen; Yang, Chunning; Qu, Jixu; Sun, Zhirong; Liu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    Rare studies have been performed to trace the mineral elements in Dendrobium officinale. In this study, we aim to trace the mineral elements in D. officinale collected from ten geographical locations in China. ICP-MS system was used for simultaneous determination of mineral elements. Principal component analysis was performed using the obtained data in the quantification of mineral contents. Cluster analysis was performed using the Ward's method. Several of essential microelments were detected in D. officinale, including ferrum (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V). Among these elements, three elements (i.e. Fe, Mn and Zn) were highly and simultaneously detected in the D. officinale collected from the ten locations. The level of Ni was positively associated with that of Zn (r = 0.986, P < 0.01). The level of titanium (Ti) was positively associated with that of V (r = 0.669, P < 0.05), and negatively associated with Cr (r = -0.710, P < 0.05). In addition, the level of Mn was positively associated with that of barium (r = 0.749, P < 0.05). Further, the level of Fe was positively associated with that of Ni (r = 0.664, P < 0.05), Zn (r = 0.742, P < 0.05), and rare earth elements (r = 0.847, P < 0.01), respectively. Three eigenvalues explained about 86.60 % of the total variance, which contributed significantly to the explanation of cumulative variance. Cluster analysis indicated the cultivars were categorized into 3 clusters. Ni, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ti and rare earth elements were designated as the characteristic elements. Cultivars collected from Yulin, Menghai, and Shaoguan ranked the top 3 in the comprehensive scores, indicating the content of the mineral elements was comparatively higher in these locations.

  13. Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  14. Mineral elements and essential oil contents of Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nikbin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit. is one of the species of genus Scutellaria, within the family of the Lamiaceae, that is used for immune system stimulation and antibacterial effects in traditional medicine in Iran. The aims of this study were to analyze essential oils and mineral element contents of leaves of  S. luteo-caerulea in flowering stage of development. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of S. luteo-caerulea and were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Moreover, microwave digestion with atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used for the mineral elements assay. Results: Ninety-seven constituents were detected. Between them, the major components were trans-caryophyllene (25.4%, D-germacrene (7.9%, and linalool (7.4%. Determination of mineral elements showed that the highest minerals were Ca2+ (65.14±1.95 µg/ml and K+ (64.67±3.10 µg/ml. Conclusion: Presence of different essential oils and rich sources of Ca2+ and K+ candidate this plant as an auxiliary medication in different diseases, but more complementary researches are needed about its potency and side effects.

  15. Elemental distributions in surficial sediments and potential offshore mineral resources from the western continental margin of India. Part 2. Potential offshore mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; Rao, Ch.M.; PrakashBabu, C.; Murty, P.S.N.

    patterns of ten selected elements is surficial sediments. Part 2 projects the potential offshore mineral resources. Target areas for future exploration and indicated and exploration strategies are recommended. Appendix 1 is a compilation of the bibliography...

  16. Examination of Sarikaya(Yozgat-Turkey) iron mineralization with rare earth element(REE) method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nursel; OKSUZ; Sukru; KOC

    2010-01-01

    Iron mineralizations in the study area are found in amphibolites in the localities of Buyukoren,Uzunkuyu-Atkayasi,and Karabacak and they display a predominantly banded texture.Their paragenesis is dominated by magnetite and hematite.In this study,iron mineralizations in Sarikaya were examined in terms of rare earth element(REE) contents and attempts were made to determine some physicochemical conditions that had an impact upon their formation.For this purpose,42 ore samples and 17 enriched magnetite samples...

  17. Identification of Regulatory Mutations in SERPINC1 Affecting Vitamin D Response Elements Associated with Antithrombin Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toderici, Mara; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Padilla, José; Miñano, Antonia; Antón, Ana Isabel; Iniesta, Juan Antonio; Herranz, María Teresa; Fernández, Nuria; Vicente, Vicente; Corral, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Antithrombin is a crucial anticoagulant serpin whose even moderate deficiency significantly increases the risk of thrombosis. Most cases with antithrombin deficiency carried genetic defects affecting exons or flanking regions of SERPINC1.We aimed to identify regulatory mutations inSERPINC1 through sequencing the promoter, intron 1 and 2 of this gene in 23 patients with antithrombin deficiency but without known genetic defects. Three cases with moderate antithrombin deficiency (63–78%) carried potential regulatory mutations. One located 200 bp before the initiation ATG and two in intron 1. These mutations disrupted two out of five potential vitamin D receptor elements (VDRE) identified in SERPINC1 with different software. One genetic defect, c.42-1060_-1057dupTTGA, was a new low prevalent polymorphism (MAF: 0.01) with functional consequences on plasma antithrombin levels. The relevance of the vitamin D pathway on the regulation of SERPINC1 was confirmed in a cell model. Incubation of HepG2 with paricalcitol, a vitamin D analog, increased dose-dependently the levels of SERPINC1transcripts and antithrombin released to the conditioned medium. This study shows further evidence of the transcriptional regulation of SERPINC1 by vitamin D and first describes the functional and pathological relevance of mutations affecting VDRE of this gene. Our study opens new perspectives in the search of new genetic defects involved in antithrombin deficiency and the risk of thrombosis as well as in the design of new antithrombotic treatments. PMID:27003919

  18. Trace elements in rock phosphates and P containing mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers sold in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Sylvia; Schick, Judith; Schnug, Ewald

    2016-01-15

    68 rock phosphates and 162 P containing (organo-)mineral fertilizers sold in Germany were evaluated with regard to trace element contents. While Al, As, B, Be, Cd, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, U, and Zn were higher in sedimentary than in igneous rock phosphates, the opposite was true for Co, Cu, Sn, Mn, Ti, Fe, and Sr. Comparing element concentrations to the currently valid legal limit values defined by the German Fertilizer Ordinance, it was found that some PK and many straight P fertilizers (superphosphate, triple superphosphate, partly acidulated rock phosphates) exceeded the limit of 50 mg Cd/kg P2O5. Mean values for As, Ni, Pb, and Tl remained below legal limits in almost all cases. While no legal limit has been defined for U in Germany yet, the limit of 50 mg U/kg P2O5 for P containing fertilizers proposed by the German Commission for the Protection of Soils was clearly exceeded by mean values for all fertilizer types analyzed. A large share of the samples evaluated in this work contained essential trace elements at high concentrations, with many of them not being declared as such. Furthermore, trace elements supplied with these fertilizers at a fertilization rate leveling P uptake would exceed trace element uptake by crops. This may become most relevant for B and Fe, since many crops are sensitive to an oversupply of B, and Fe loads exceeding plant uptake may immobilize P supplies for the crops by forming Fe phosphate salts. The sample set included two products made from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ash. The products displayed very high concentrations of Fe and Mn and exceeded the legal limit for Ni, emphasizing the necessity to continue research on heavy metal removal from recycled raw materials and the development of environmentally friendly and agriculturally efficient fertilizer products.

  19. Metal minerals scarcity. A call for managed austerity and the elements of hope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederen, A.M.

    2009-03-15

    If we keep following the ruling paradigm of sustained global economic growth, we will soon run out of cheap and plentiful metal minerals of most types. Their extraction rates will no longer follow demand. The looming metal minerals crisis is being caused primarily by the unfolding energy crisis. Conventional mitigation strategies including recycling and substitution are necessary but insufficient without a different way of managing our world's resources. The stakes are too high to gamble on timely and adequate future technological breakthroughs to solve our problems. The precautionary principle urges us to take immediate action to prevent or at least postpone future shortages. As soon as possible we should impose a co-ordinated policy of managed austerity, not only to address metal minerals shortages but other interrelated resource constraints (energy, water, food) as well. The framework of managed austerity enables a transition towards application (wherever possible) of the 'elements of hope': the most abundant metal (and non-metal) elements. In this way we can save the many critical metal elements for essential applications where complete substitution with the elements of hope is not viable. We call for a transition from growth in tangible possessions and instant, short-lived luxuries towards growth in consciousness, meaning and sense of purpose, connection with nature and reality and good stewardship for the sake of next generations.

  20. Mandatory policy: Most successful way to maximize fortification’s effect on vitamin and mineral deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zimmerman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Damaging effects of vitamin and mineral deficiencies contribute to health and development problems throughout the world. Food fortification has substantially improved nutrition-related health conditions in many countries, but opportunities for fortification are not fully utilized. Where food fortification is considered, leaders have to determine whether fortification should be mandatory or voluntary. Objective: This article explores experiences with mandatory wheat flour fortification as compared to voluntary fortification to offer insight for policies related to any type of food fortification. Mandatory fortification means the country requires the addition of specific nutrients at predetermined levels to specified foods or food products. Voluntary policies allow food manufacturers to enrich their products but do not require them to do so. Results: Mandatory fortification is more likely than voluntary fortification to reach a high proportion of the population and hence achieve the desired health impact. Mandatory fortification does not require consumers to change food purchasing preferences, it distributes the health benefits more equitably than voluntary fortification across a population, it establishes safe levels of included nutrients, and it is not subject to the food manufacturers’ marketing investments or discretion. Conclusion: The health benefits of mandatory fortification are most likely to be achieved and sustained if national, multi-sector leaders develop a cooperative approach for appropriate food fortification policies that can be feasibly implemented and effectively monitored. Mandatory fortification, however, requires high-level commitment through the political process. Policy makers must contend with possible criticism that it interferes with personal choices or may cause unintended health problems.

  1. Mineral Element Concentrations in Vegetables Cultivated in Acidic Compared to Alkaline Areas of South Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingegerd Rosborg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study in 1997, on mineral levels in acidic compared to alkaline well waters, and in women’s hair, revealed higher concentrations of a number of mineral elements like Ca, Mo and Se in alkaline waters and hair. Thus, median Ca levels were six times higher in well water and five times higher in hair from the alkaline area compared to the acidic area. This finding raised the probability of similar differences in vegetables from these areas. Thus, in the year 2006, 60 women who had participated in the study in 1997 were asked to cultivate parsley, lettuce, carrot and chive. During the spring of 2006, the women from the water and hair study of 1997, 30 of them from the acidic area and 30 women from the alkaline district cultivated vegetables: carrot (Daucus carota L, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, chive (Allium schoenoprasum and lettuce (Eruca sativa. The vegetables were harvested, and rinsed in tap water from the kitchens of the participating women in August. The concentrations of about 35 elements and ions were determined by ICP OES and ICP-MS predominantly. In addition, soil samples from the different cultivators were also analyzed for a number of elements. Lettuce and parsley showed the highest concentrations of mineral elements per gram dry weight. Only Mo concentrations were significantly higher in all the different vegetables from the alkaline district compared to vegetables from the acidic areas. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ba, Br, Mn, Rb and Zn were higher in all the different vegetables from the acidic area. In the soil, only pH and exchangeable Ca from the alkaline area were higher than from the acidic area, while exchangeable Fe, Mn and Na concentrations were higher in soils from the acidic area. Soil elements like Al, Fe, Li, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti, V, Zn and Zr were found in higher concentrations in lettuce and parsley, which were attributed to soil particles being splashed on the plants by the rain and absorbed by the leaves

  2. Biodiversity of mineral nutrient and trace element accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baxter

    Full Text Available In order to grow on soils that vary widely in chemical composition, plants have evolved mechanisms for regulating the elemental composition of their tissues to balance the mineral nutrient and trace element bioavailability in the soil with the requirements of the plant for growth and development. The biodiversity that exists within a species can be utilized to investigate how regulatory mechanisms of individual elements interact and to identify genes important for these processes. We analyzed the elemental composition (ionome of a set of 96 wild accessions of the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana grown in hydroponic culture and soil using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The concentrations of 17-19 elements were analyzed in roots and leaves from plants grown hydroponically, and leaves and seeds from plants grown in artificial soil. Significant genetic effects were detected for almost every element analyzed. We observed very few correlations between the elemental composition of the leaves and either the roots or seeds. There were many pairs of elements that were significantly correlated with each other within a tissue, but almost none of these pairs were consistently correlated across tissues and growth conditions, a phenomenon observed in several previous studies. These results suggest that the ionome of a plant tissue is variable, yet tightly controlled by genes and gene × environment interactions. The dataset provides a valuable resource for mapping studies to identify genes regulating elemental accumulation. All of the ionomic data is available at www.ionomicshub.org.

  3. Cement dust pollution induces toxicity or deficiency of some essential elements in wild plants growing around a cement factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Salih; Atici, Ökkes; Gülen, Yasir

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cement dust pollution on contents of some significant essential elements (P, S, K, Ca, Fe and Cl) in wild plants (Medigago varia, Anchusa leptophylla, Euphorbia orientalis, Lactuca serriola, Artemisia spicigera, Crambe orientalis, Convolvulus sepium and Senecio vernalis) using wavelength-dispersive spectrometer X-ray fluorescence technique. Plant samples were collected from different locations around a cement factory which is located at Askale about 50 km from Erzurum (Turkey). The element contents in the plant specimens that existed in both 0-100 m (dense dusted) and 2000 m (undusted) areas were compared. P, S, K and Cl contents were found to be high in the plants growing in areas 0-100 m from the cement factory, compared to same plants at 2000 m far from the factory. However, Ca and Fe contents were determined to be low in plants growing in 0-100 m area from the factory. Results of the study can contribute to understand how mineral deficiency and toxicity lead to detrimental effects on plant growth and development in the fields contaminated by cement dust.

  4. Redistribution of mineral elements in wheat grain when applying the complex enzyme preparations based on phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic minerals play an important role in the whole human nutrition, but they are included in the grain of the phytates that reduces their bioavailability. Whole wheat bread is generally considered a healthy food, but the presence of mineral elements in it is insignificant, because of weak phytate degradation. From all sources of exogenous phytase the most productive are microscopic fungi. To accelerate the process of transition hard mineral elements are mobilized to implement integrated cellulolytic enzyme preparation based on the actions of phytase (producer is Penicillium canescens. Phytase activity was assessed indirectly by the rate of release of phosphate from the substrate. It has been established that the release rate of the phosphoric acid substrate is dependent on the composition of the drug and the enzyme complex is determined by the presence of xylanase. The presented experimental data shows that a cellulase treatment of the grain in conjunction with the β-glucanase or xylanase leading to an increase in phytase activity could be 1.4 - 2.3 times as compared with the individual enzymes. As a result of concerted action of enzymes complex preparation varies topography grain, increase the pore sizes in seed and fruit shells that facilitate the penetration of the enzyme phytase in the aleurone layer to the site of phytin hydrolysis and leads to an increase in phytase activity. In terms of rational parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis, the distribution of mineral elements in the anatomical parts of the grain after processing complex enzyme preparation with the help of X-ray detector EMF miniCup system in a scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM 6390 were investigated. When processing enzyme preparation wheat trend in the distribution of mineral elements, characteristic of grain - the proportion of these elements in the aleurone layer decreases, and in the endosperm increases. Because dietary fiber and phytate found together in the

  5. [Analysis of the mineral elements of Lactuca sativa under the condition of different spectral components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Li; Guo, Wen-Zhong; Xue, Xu-Zhang; Wang, Li-Chun; Li, Liang; Chen, Fei

    2013-08-01

    Mineral elements absorption and content of Lactuca sativa under different spectral component conditions were studied by ICP-AES technology. The results showed that: (1) For Lactuca sativa, the average proportion for Ca : Mg : K : Na : P was 5.5 : 2.5 : 2.3 : 1.5 : 1.0, the average proportion for Fe : Mn : Zn : Cu : B was 25.9 : 5.9 : 2.8 : 1.1 : 1.0; (2) The absorptions for K, P, Ca, Mg and B are the largest under the LED treatment R/B = 1 : 2.75, red light from fluorescent lamps and LED can both promote the absorptions of Fe and Cu; (3)The LED treatments exhibiting relatively higher content of mineral elements are R/B = 1 : 2.75 and R/W = 1 : 1 while higher dry matter accumulations are R/B = 1 : 2.75 and B/W = 1 : 1.

  6. Rationally designed mineralization for selective recovery of the rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Takaaki; Matsugami, Akimasa; Nonaka, Takamasa; Takagi, Hideki; Hayashi, Fumiaki; Tani, Takao; Ishida, Nobuhiro

    2017-05-01

    The increasing demand for rare earth (RE) elements in advanced materials for permanent magnets, rechargeable batteries, catalysts and lamp phosphors necessitates environmentally friendly approaches for their recovery and separation. Here, we propose a mineralization concept for direct extraction of RE ions with Lamp (lanthanide ion mineralization peptide). In aqueous solution containing various metal ions, Lamp promotes the generation of RE hydroxide species with which it binds to form hydrophobic complexes that accumulate spontaneously as insoluble precipitates, even under physiological conditions (pH ~6.0). This concept for stabilization of an insoluble lanthanide hydroxide complex with an artificial peptide also works in combination with stable scaffolds like synthetic macromolecules and proteins. Our strategy opens the possibility for selective separation of target metal elements from seawater and industrial wastewater under mild conditions without additional energy input.

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND MINERAL ELEMENTS COMPOSITION OF CORDYCEPS SINENSIS AND ITS BASED PRODUCT (ESULIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Atiqah Ab Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening of phytochemical and mineral elements composition of Cordyceps sinensis and its based product, Esulin were carried out in order to provide a basis for further research on the therapeutic value of these herbs. The results of both aqueous extracts positively showed the presence of several bioactive compounds like alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. However, terpenoids only present in the aqueous extract of Esulin. In addition, the levels of copper, zinc, cadmium, ferum, lead and nickel of both extracts were below the maximum permissible level suggested by World Health Organization (1989 & Malaysian Food Law (1985. The presence of phytochemical components and mineral elements in the aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis and Esulin might contribute to their therapeutic applications in medicinal practices.

  8. Tree-mycorrhiza symbiosis accelerate mineral weathering: Evidences from nanometer-scale elemental fluxes at the hypha-mineral interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Steeve; Morgan, Daniel J.; Schmalenberger, Achim; Bray, Andrew; Brown, Andrew; Banwart, Steven A.; Benning, Liane G.

    2011-11-01

    In soils, mycorrhiza (microscopic fungal hypha) living in symbiosis with plant roots are the biological interface by which plants obtain, from rocks and organic matter, the nutrients necessary for their growth and maintenance. Despite their central role in soils, the mechanism and kinetics of mineral alteration by mycorrhiza are poorly constrained quantitatively. Here, we report in situ quantification of weathering rates from a mineral substrate, (0 0 1) basal plane of biotite, by a surface-bound hypha of Paxillus involutus, grown in association with the root system of a Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris. Four thin-sections were extracted by focused ion beam (FIB) milling along a single hypha grown over the biotite surface. Depth-profile of Si, O, K, Mg, Fe and Al concentrations were performed at the hypha-biotite interface by scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDX). Large removals of K (50-65%), Mg (55-75%), Fe (80-85%) and Al (75-85%) were observed in the topmost 40 nm of biotite underneath the hypha while Si and O are preserved throughout the depth-profile. A quantitative model of alteration at the hypha-scale was developed based on solid-state diffusion fluxes of elements into the hypha and the break-down/mineralogical re-arrangement of biotite. A strong acidification was also observed with hypha bound to the biotite surface reaching pH mycorrhiza accelerate the biotite alteration kinetics between pH 3.5 and 5.8 to ˜0.04 μmol biotite m -2 h -1. Our current work reaffirms that fungal mineral alteration is a process that combines our previously documented bio-mechanical forcing with the μm-scale acidification mediated by surface-bound hypha and a subsequent chemical element removal due to the fungal action. As such, our study presents a first kinetic framework for mycorrhizal alteration at the hypha-scale under close-to-natural experimental conditions.

  9. The effect of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation on element levels in the bone tissue of ovariectomized rats: histopathologic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Sunar, Fusun; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Acar, Musa; Toy, Hatice

    2014-05-01

    Study aimed to determine the effects of zinc supplementation/deficiency on the histological structure and elements levels in bone tissue in ovariectomized rats. The study included 40 Sprague-Dawley type adult female rats, divided as follows: Control, ovariectomized, ovariectomized + zinc supplemented, ovariectomized + zinc deficient groups. At the end of the study bone tissues (femur) were collected to determine the levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron, aluminium, chrome, lithium, lead, nickel, and manganese. The bone tissue was examined for histopathology. Ovariectomy leaded to significant decrease in magnesium. Zinc supplementation to ovariectomized rats restored the reduced calcium, phosphorus, zinc. However, zinc deficiency in ovariectomized rats further reduced calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and manganese levels. Zinc deficiency in ovariectomized significantly increased Al, Cr, Li, Pb, and Ni levels. Tissue integrity was impaired due to ovariectomy and zinc deficiency. Ovariectomy and zinc deficiency leads significant decreases elements of the bone.

  10. Analysis on Mineral Element Contents in Associated with Varietal Type in Core Collection of Yunnan Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENGYa-wen; LIUJia-fu; WANGLu-xiang; SHENShi-quan; LIZi-chao; WANGXiangkun; WENGuo-song; YANGZhong-yi

    2004-01-01

    Eight-element contents of 653 unpolished rice samples harvested from Xingping experiment farm, Yunnan Province under thc same ecological conditions were analyzed by ICP-AES method. The mineral elements content were closely related to low diversity, high-yielding, and multi-resistance breeding; The K, Mg, Ca and Mn content in high-yielding and resistant varieties were high, and other nutrients such as P, Fe, Zn and Cu were low, which was connected with the heredity and physiological mechanism of mineral nutrients. There is zonal distribution of mineral elements content from Yunnan rice, especially for P, Fe, Zn and Cu co-related with the diversity center, paddy versus upland, glutinous and non-glutinous, glumc-hair versus nuda, rice color, rice flavor, soft rice versus non-soft rice, but it did not find any association with indica-japonica types. The results supported the ecological variety group view of 5-grade taxonomic system "species-subspecies-ccological groups-ecological variety groups - varietal types" .

  11. Silicon supplementation improves the bone mineral density of calcium-deficient ovariectomized rats by reducing bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Chung, Yoon-Sok

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silicon (Si) supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism parameters relative to calcium (Ca) intake levels in ovariectomized rats. A total of 72 female Wistar rats (6 weeks) were ovariectomized (OVX) and divided into six groups, and Si (500 mg of Si per kilogram of feed) was or was not administered with diets containing various levels of Ca (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.5%) for 10 weeks. The groups were as follows: (1) Ca-deficient group (0.1% Ca), (2) Ca-deficient with Si supplementation group, (3) adequate Ca group (0.5% Ca), (4) adequate Ca with Si supplementation group, (5) high Ca group (1.5% Ca), and (6) high Ca with Si supplementation group. Si supplementation significantly increased the BMD of the femur and tibia in Ca-deficient OVX rats, while no change was observed with Si supplementation in the BMD of the spine, femur, and tibia in the adequate and high Ca groups. Serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels were not affected by Si supplementation or Ca intake levels. C-telopeptide type I collagen levels were significantly decreased as a result of Si supplementation in Ca-deficient OVX rats. In summary, Si supplementation produced positive effects on bone mineral density in Ca-deficient OVX rats by reducing bone resorption. Therefore, Si supplementation may also prove to be helpful in preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women whose calcium intake is insufficient.

  12. The attenuation of chemical elements in acidic leachates from coal mineral wastes by soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangen, Lawrence E.; Jones, Marianne M.

    1984-09-01

    The chemical attenuation of acidity and selected elements (aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluorine, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc) in acidic leachates from coal mineral wastes by four natural subsurface soils has been investigated using laboratory column methods Leachate solutions were allowed to percolate through the soils under simulated natural flow conditions, and the elemental concentrations in the influents and effluents were measured periodically Elemental retentions were substantial for all species except managanese, which was eluted in excess from all soils except the most calcareous Two processes appeared to operate in decreasing influent concentrations: (1) precipitation of solid phases caused by increased pH of the leachate as it percolated through the soil, and (2) adsorption of elements onto exchange and sorption sites naturally present in the soil and on iron and aluminum oxide precipitates formed in situ from leachate components because of the increased pH The soil property most important in retention was its alkalinity Thus, carbonaceous soils provide the best control material for acidic leachates from coal mineral wastes. Results show that natural soils can substantially reduce pollutant fluxes to the environment from acidic coal waste dumps and should be considered when selecting waste disposal sites

  13. High relative air humidity influences mineral accumulation and growth in iron deficient soybean plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roriz, M.; Carvalho, S.M.P.; Wilton Vasconcelos, M.

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis (IDC) in soybean results in severe yield losses. Cultivar selection is the most commonly used strategy to avoid IDC but there is a clear interaction between genotype and the environment; therefore, the search for quick and reliable tools to control this nutrient defici

  14. Maize local landraces as sources for improved mineral elements availability from grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate thirteen maize local landraces from Maize Research Institute (MRIZP Gene Bank drought tolerant mini-core collection in respect to Fe, Mn and Zn content in grain. In addition, phytate (Phy and β-carotene contents were determined. According to the results obtained, the highest Fe content was found in grain of LL3, whereas LL1and LL13 were the genotypes with the highest Mn, i.e. Zn content, respectively. However, due to the lowest level of Pphy, along with relatively higher level of Fe, Mn and Zn contents in grain, LL2 could be considered as valuable source in further breeding programs for improved mineral nutrient contents, particularly for Fe. Possible availability of investigated mineral elements was determined according to molar ratio between phytate as inhibiting factor and β-carotene as promoting factor for their absorption. Accordingly, genotype LL2, being with the lowest Pphy content, and genotype LL3, being with the highest β-carotene content (25.63 μg g-1 and the lowest phytate/β-carotene ratio, could be considered as potential sources of favorable genes for further breeding programs for improved nutritional quality, such as enhanced availability of investigated mineral elements.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect glucosinolate and mineral element composition in leaves of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Marco; Franken, Philipp; Mewis, Inga; Baldermann, Susanne; Wurst, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Moringa is a mycorrhizal crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics and appreciated for its nutritive and health-promoting value. As well as improving plant mineral nutrition, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect plant synthesis of compounds bioactive against chronic diseases in humans. Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae were used in a full factorial experiment to investigate the impact of AMF on the accumulation of glucosinolates, flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and mineral elements in moringa leaves. Levels of glucosinolates were enhanced, flavonoids and phenolic acids were not affected, levels of carotenoids (including provitamin A) were species-specifically reduced, and mineral elements were affected differently, with only Cu and Zn being increased by the AMF. This study presents novel results on AMF effects on glucosinolates in leaves and supports conclusions that the impacts of these fungi on microelement concentrations in edible plants are species dependent. The nonspecific positive effects on glucosinolates and the species-specific negative effects on carotenoids encourage research on other AMF species to achieve general benefits on bioactive compounds in moringa.

  16. New neutron-deficient isotopes of barium and rare-earth elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, D D; Karnaukhov, V A; Petrov, L A; Plochocki, A; Subbotin, V G; Voboril, J

    1976-01-01

    The authors present an investigation of the short-lived neutron- deficient isotopes of barium and rare-earth elements. By using the BEMS-2 isotope separator on a heavy ion beam, 19 new isotopes were produced with mass numbers ranging from 117 to 138. Five of these (/sup 117/Ba, /sup 129,131/Nd and /sup 133,135/Sm) turned out to be delayed proton emitters. The beta -decay probabilities for the new isotopes have been analyzed in terms of the beta -strength function. An analysis of the proton spectrum shape has been performed using the statistical model for delayed proton emission.

  17. Female athletes: a population at risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies affecting health and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lee, Jane J

    2014-10-01

    Adequate vitamin and mineral status is essential for optimal human health and performance. Female athletes could be at risk for vitamin and mineral insufficiency due to inadequate dietary intake, menstruation, and inflammatory responses to heavy physical activity. Recent studies have documented poor iron status and associated declines in both cognitive and physical performance in female athletes. Similarly, insufficient vitamin D and calcium status have been observed in female athletes, and may be associated with injuries, such as stress fracture, which may limit a female athlete's ability to participate in regular physical activity. This review will focus on recent studies detailing the prevalence of poor vitamin and mineral status in female athletes, using iron, vitamin D, and calcium as examples. Factors affecting the dietary requirement for these vitamins and minerals during physical training will be reviewed. Lastly, countermeasures for the prevention of inadequate vitamin and mineral status will be described.

  18. Do consumption of Kargi Tulum cheese meet daily requirements for minerals and trace elements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Sevgi Kirdar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mineral and trace elements of Kargı Tulum cheese are investigated during the ripening period of 90 days. Calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc and iron quantities were determined by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The effect of maturation time on the sodium, phosphor and potassium content of cheese samples has been found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. Magnesium and calcium levels during ripening period showed significant statistical difference (p<0.01. Copper values of cheese samples demonstrated an increase throughout 90-day maturation time. The effect of maturation time on manganese and zinc value has been found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. According to obtained data, by consuming 100 g Kargı Tulum cheese in daily period, an adult can provide a remarkable portion of his/her minerals needs.

  19. The influence of deficiencies of essential trace elements and vitamins on the course of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśko-Czopnik, Dorota; Paradowski, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    In patients with Crohn's Disease (CD), malnutrition is frequently observed and is an important complication, frequently associated with nutritional deficiencies, especially vitamins (both water- and fat-soluble) and essential trace elements. It is often a result of the disease activity, poor oral intake and/or restrictive diets. Nutrition plays an important role in disease management and helps to maintain remission in CD patients. Deficiencies occur in patients with active Crohn's disease, and also in those in remission. Specific supplementation of vitamins and micro- and macronutrients might be helpful or even necessary in this group of patients. This review outlines the most frequent nutritional deficiencies and their complications in relation to the Crohn's Disease Activity Index, and provides an overview of therapeutic perspectives for CD patients in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Biological therapy, which is being used with increasing frequency, seems not only to mitigate the inflammatory process in the gastrointestinal tract, but also has significant impact on the nutritional status of patients with Crohn's disease.

  20. Varying Response of the Concentration and Yield of Soybean Seed Mineral Elements, Carbohydrates, Organic Acids, Amino Acids, Protein, and Oil to Phosphorus Starvation and CO2 Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shardendu K; Barnaby, Jinyoung Y; Reddy, Vangimalla R; Sicher, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (e.g., mg g(-1) seed) and total yield (e.g., g plant(-1)) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at either sufficient (0.50 mM P, control) or deficient (0.10 and 0.01 mM, P-stress) levels of P under aCO2 and eCO2 (400 and 800 μmol mol(-1), respectively). Both the concentration and yield of 36 out of 38 seed components responded to P treatment and on average 25 and 11 components increased and decreased, respectively, in response to P starvation. Concentrations of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, sugar alcohols), organic acids (e.g., succinate, glycerate) and amino acids increased while oil, and several minerals declined under P deficiency. However, the yield of the majority of seed components declined except several amino acids (e.g., phenylalanine, serine) under P deficiency. The concentration-based relationship between seed protein and oil was negative (r(2) = 0.96), whereas yield-based relationship was positive (r(2) = 0.99) across treatments. The CO2 treatment also altered the concentration of 28 out of 38 seed components, of which 23 showed decreasing (e.g., sucrose, glucose, citrate, aconitate, several minerals, and amino acids) while C, iron, Mn, glycerate, and oil showed increasing trends at eCO2. Despite a decreased concentration, yields of the majority of seed components were increased in response to eCO2, which was attributable to the increased seed production especially near sufficient P nutrition. The P × CO2 interactions for the concentration of amino acids and the yield of several components were due to the lack of their response to eCO2 under control or the severe P starvation, respectively. Thus, P deficiency primarily reduced the concentration of oil and mineral elements but enhanced a majority of other components. However, seed

  1. Varying Response of the Concentration and Yield of Soybean Seed Mineral Elements, Carbohydrates, Organic Acids, Amino Acids, Protein, and Oil to Phosphorus Starvation and CO2 Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shardendu K.; Barnaby, Jinyoung Y.; Reddy, Vangimalla R.; Sicher, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (e.g., mg g-1 seed) and total yield (e.g., g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at either sufficient (0.50 mM P, control) or deficient (0.10 and 0.01 mM, P-stress) levels of P under aCO2 and eCO2 (400 and 800 μmol mol-1, respectively). Both the concentration and yield of 36 out of 38 seed components responded to P treatment and on average 25 and 11 components increased and decreased, respectively, in response to P starvation. Concentrations of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, sugar alcohols), organic acids (e.g., succinate, glycerate) and amino acids increased while oil, and several minerals declined under P deficiency. However, the yield of the majority of seed components declined except several amino acids (e.g., phenylalanine, serine) under P deficiency. The concentration-based relationship between seed protein and oil was negative (r2 = 0.96), whereas yield-based relationship was positive (r2 = 0.99) across treatments. The CO2 treatment also altered the concentration of 28 out of 38 seed components, of which 23 showed decreasing (e.g., sucrose, glucose, citrate, aconitate, several minerals, and amino acids) while C, iron, Mn, glycerate, and oil showed increasing trends at eCO2. Despite a decreased concentration, yields of the majority of seed components were increased in response to eCO2, which was attributable to the increased seed production especially near sufficient P nutrition. The P × CO2 interactions for the concentration of amino acids and the yield of several components were due to the lack of their response to eCO2 under control or the severe P starvation, respectively. Thus, P deficiency primarily reduced the concentration of oil and mineral elements but enhanced a majority of other components. However, seed components yield

  2. Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, P; Könkö, K; Eurola, M; Pihlava, J M; Astola, J; Vahteristo, L; Hietaniemi, V; Kumpulainen, J; Valtonen, M; Piironen, V

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Se), vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(12), C, D, folates, and niacin), and certain phenolic compounds (flavonoids, lignans, and phenolic acids) in the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus/white, Agaricus bisporus/brown, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus. Selenium, toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb), and other mineral elements were analyzed by ETAAS, ICP-MS, and ICP methods, respectively; vitamins were detected by microbiological methods (folates, niacin, and vitamin B(12)) or HPLC methods (other vitamins), and phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC (flavonoids) or GC--MS methods (lignans and phenolic acids). Cultivated mushrooms were found to be good sources of vitamin B(2), niacin, and folates, with contents varying in the ranges 1.8--5.1, 31--65, and 0.30--0.64 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), respectively. Compared with vegetables, mushrooms proved to be a good source of many mineral elements, e.g., the contents of K, P, Zn, and Cu varied in the ranges 26.7--47.3 g/kg, 8.7--13.9 g/kg, 47--92 mg/kg, and 5.2--35 mg/kg dw, respectively. A. bisporus/brown contained large amounts of Se (3.2 mg/kg dw) and the levels of Cd were quite high in L. edodes (1.2 mg/kg dw). No flavonoids or lignans were found in the mushrooms analyzed. In addition, the phenolic acid contents were very low.

  3. Organic matter mineralization and trace element post-depositional redistribution in Western Siberia thermokarst lake sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Audry

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the very first results on high-resolution sampling of sediments and their porewaters from three thermokarst (thaw lakes representing different stages of ecosystem development located within the Nadym-Pur interfluve of the Western Siberia plain. Up to present time, the lake sediments of this and other permafrost-affected regions remain unexplored regarding their biogeochemical behavior. The aim of this study was to (i document the early diagenesic processes in order to assess their impact on the organic carbon stored in the underlying permafrost, and (ii characterize the post-depositional redistribution of trace elements and their impact on the water column. The estimated organic carbon (OC stock in thermokarst lake sediments of 14 ± 2 kg m−2 is low compared to that reported for peat soils from the same region and denotes intense organic matter (OM mineralization. Mineralization of OM in the thermokarst lake sediments proceeds under anoxic conditions in all the three lakes. In the course of the lake development, a shift in mineralization pathways was evidenced from nitrate and sulfate to Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides as the main terminal electron acceptors in the early diagenetic reactions. This shift was promoted by the diagenetic consumption of nitrate and sulfate and their gradual depletion in the water column due to progressively decreasing frozen peat lixiviation occurring at the lake's borders. Trace elements were mobilized from host phases (OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides and partly sequestered in the sediment in the form of authigenic Fe-sulfides. Arsenic and Sb cycling was also closely linked to that of OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides. Shallow diagenetic enrichment of particulate Sb was observed in the less mature stages. As a result of authigenic sulfide precipitation, the sediments of the early stage of ecosystem development were a sink for water column Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Sb. In contrast, at all stages of

  4. Organic matter mineralization and trace element post-depositional redistribution in Western Siberia thermokarst lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audry, S.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Shirokova, L. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Dupré, B.

    2011-11-01

    This study reports the very first results on high-resolution sampling of sediments and their porewaters from three thermokarst (thaw) lakes representing different stages of ecosystem development located within the Nadym-Pur interfluve of the Western Siberia plain. Up to present time, the lake sediments of this and other permafrost-affected regions remain unexplored regarding their biogeochemical behavior. The aim of this study was to (i) document the early diagenesic processes in order to assess their impact on the organic carbon stored in the underlying permafrost, and (ii) characterize the post-depositional redistribution of trace elements and their impact on the water column. The estimated organic carbon (OC) stock in thermokarst lake sediments of 14 ± 2 kg m-2 is low compared to that reported for peat soils from the same region and denotes intense organic matter (OM) mineralization. Mineralization of OM in the thermokarst lake sediments proceeds under anoxic conditions in all the three lakes. In the course of the lake development, a shift in mineralization pathways from nitrate and sulfate to Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides as the main terminal electron acceptors in the early diagenetic reactions was suggested. This shift was likely promoted by the diagenetic consumption of nitrate and sulfate and their gradual depletion in the water column due to progressively decreasing frozen peat lixiviation occurring at the lake's borders. Trace elements were mobilized from host phases (OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides) and partly sequestered in the sediment in the form of authigenic Fe-sulfides. Arsenic and Sb cycling was also closely linked to that of OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides. Shallow diagenetic enrichment of particulate Sb was observed in the less mature stages. As a result of authigenic sulfide precipitation, the sediments of the early stage of ecosystem development were a sink for water column Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Sb. In contrast, at all stages of ecosystem development

  5. Screening of Mineral Elements in Cistus ladanifer and Cistus libanotis Essential Oils and their Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Zidane H.; Aouniti F.; Tahani A.; Fauconnier M.L.; Elbachiri A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of mineral compounds in Cistus ladanifer and Cistus libanotis growing in Eastern Morocco from two different regions Jerada (arid climate) and Tafoughalt (humid climate). A total of fifteen elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Zn, Al, Ca, Fe, K and Mg) has been measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Their concentrations have been found to vary in leaves and their essential oils. From the results of the study,...

  6. Organic matter mineralization and trace element post-depositional redistribution in Western Siberia thermokarst lake sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Audry

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the very first results on high-resolution sampling of sediments and their porewaters from three thermokarst (thaw lakes representing different stages of ecosystem development located within the Nadym-Pur interfluve of the Western Siberia plain. Up to present time, the lake sediments of this and other permafrost-affected regions remain unexplored regarding their biogeochemical behavior. The aim of this study was to (i document the early diagenesic processes in order to assess their impact on the organic carbon stored in the underlying permafrost, and (ii characterize the post-depositional redistribution of trace elements and their impact on the water column. The estimated organic carbon (OC stock in thermokarst lake sediments of 14 ± 2 kg m−2 is low compared to that reported for peat soils from the same region and denotes intense organic matter (OM mineralization. Mineralization of OM in the thermokarst lake sediments proceeds under anoxic conditions in all the three lakes. In the course of the lake development, a shift in mineralization pathways from nitrate and sulfate to Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides as the main terminal electron acceptors in the early diagenetic reactions was suggested. This shift was likely promoted by the diagenetic consumption of nitrate and sulfate and their gradual depletion in the water column due to progressively decreasing frozen peat lixiviation occurring at the lake's borders. Trace elements were mobilized from host phases (OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides and partly sequestered in the sediment in the form of authigenic Fe-sulfides. Arsenic and Sb cycling was also closely linked to that of OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides. Shallow diagenetic enrichment of particulate Sb was observed in the less mature stages. As a result of authigenic sulfide precipitation, the sediments of the early stage of ecosystem development were a sink for water column Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Sb. In contrast, at all

  7. Elements redistribution between organic and mineral parts of microbial mats: SR-XRF research (Baikal Rift Zone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazareva, E.V. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS, pr. Ac. Koptug, 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)], E-mail: lazareva@uiggm.nsc.ru; Bryanskaya, A.V. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zhmodik, S.M.; Kolmogorov, Y.P. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS, pr. Ac. Koptug, 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pestunova, O.P. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Barkhutova, D.D. [Institute of General and Experimental Biology SB RAS, Ulan-Ude (Russian Federation); Zolotarev, K.V.; Shaporenko, A.D. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-11

    In article minerals formation and elements accumulation in microbial mats of some hot springs of the Barguzin basin (Baikal Rift Zone) is discussed. The content of a wide spectrum of elements in microbial mats is studied by means of the method SR-XRF. Regularity of elements accumulation by community depending on geochemical features of hot spring's waters are discussed. These elements are distributed in different ways between organic and mineral substance of the microbial mats. The distribution of K, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe is regular, Ca, Rb, Sr are almost totally related with the mats mineral part, while Ga, Ge and Br are accumulated in mats organic substance. Germanium element is concentrated in considerable amounts in the cyanobacterial communities, that develop in sulphideless springs with a higher radon concentration.

  8. [Effects of LED spectrum combinations on the absorption of mineral elements of hydroponic lettuce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Li; Guo, Wen-Zhong; Xue, Xu-Zhang; Mmanake Beauty, Morewane

    2014-05-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was hydroponically cultured in a completely enclosed plant factory, in which spectrum proportion-adjustable LED panels were used as sole light source for plant growth. Absorption and content of eleven mineral elements such as K, P, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B and Mo in Lactuca sativa under different spectral component conditions were studied by ICP -AES technology. The results showed that: (1) Single or combined spectrums corresponding to the absorbing peaks of chlorophyll a and b (450, 660 nm) could enhance the absorbing ability of roots especially for mineral elements Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Mo, the single red spectrum had the most significant promoting effect under which contents of those four elements were respectively 7. 8, 4. 2, 4. 0 and 3. 7 times more than that under FL; (2) Absorption of K and B was the highest under FL which was 10. 309 mg g-1 and 32. 6 microg g-1 while the values decreased significantly under single or combined spectrum of red and blue; (3) Plants grown under single blue spectrum had the lowest absorption of Ca and Mg which respectively decreased by 35% and 33% than FL; (4) Lettuce grown under the spectrum combination of 30% blue and 70% red had the highest accumulations of biomass while those grown under 20% blue and 80% red had the highest accumulations of the following seven elements Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. The results provided theoretical basis for adjusting nutrient solution formula and selecting light spectrum of hydroponic lettuce.

  9. Adsorption ability of rare earth elements on clay minerals and its practical performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖燕飞; 龙志奇; 黄莉; 冯宗玉; 王良士

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of rare earth elements on clay minerals would have great influence on the mineralization process and the leaching process of the ion-adsorption type rare earths ore. In this work, the adsorption thermodynamics of REEs on kaolin were investigated thoroughly and systematically. The experimental results showed that the adsorption characteristics of La, Nd, Y on kaolin did fit well with the Langmuir isotherm model and their saturated adsorption capacities were 1.731, 1.587 and 0.971 mg/g, re-spectively. The free energy change (ΔG) values were –16.91 kJ/mol (La), –16.05 kJ/mol (Nd) and –15.58 kJ/mol (Y), respectively. The negative values ofΔG demonstrated that the adsorption of rare earth on kaolin was a spontaneously physisorption process. The deposit characteristic of the volcanic ion-adsorption type rare earths ore and the behavior of the rare earth in the column leaching process were also developed here. With the increase of the ore body depth, the distribution of the LREEs decreased and the HREEs increased. And the slight differences in the adsorption ability of REEs on clay minerals led to the fractionation effect in the column leaching process. These developed more evidences and better understanding of metallogenic regularity, and provided a theoretical ba-sis and scientific approach to separation of the HREEs and LREEs in the leaching process.

  10. Diallel analysis for mineral element absorption in tropical adapted soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehar, C R

    1995-04-01

    The Brazilian tropical adapted soybeans contains, in addition to superior morphological characters, genetic factors for tolerance to cultivation in acidic, mineral-stressed soils. However, the selection process for these hindrances has been empirical, and information on the genetics of mineral element uptake by the plant is necessary. The objective of this investigation was to identify the mode of inheritance for the absorption of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminium, manganese, zinc and copper in a 9 × 9 diallel cross. General combining ability (GCA) was higher than specific combining ability (SCA), with the exception of copper, manganese and zinc, indicating predominantly additive effects. The ratios of GCA/SCA varied between 3.4 (calcium) and 8.5 (magnesium). The regression of covariance (Wr) on variance (Vr) showed that the additive-dominance model explained the genetic differences in this germ plasm. However, the detection of overdominance could be related to possible heterozygosity in the parental varieties for mineral absorption. Broad-sense heritability values were higher than narrow sense heritability values for aluminium, iron, potassium, calcium and magnesium, being in the range of 67.9-86.9% and 42.0-56.6%, respectively. This is an indication that soybeans can be further improved to efficient utilisation of nutrients and to tolerate toxic factors in the soil.

  11. Freshwater mineral nitrogen and essential elements in autotrophs in James Ross Island, West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coufalík Pavel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lakes and watercourses are habitats for various communities of cyanobacteria and algae, which are among the few primary producers in Antarctica. The amount of nutrients in the mineral-poor Antarctic environment is a limiting factor for the growth of freshwater autotrophs in most cases. In this study, the main aim was to assess the availability of mineral nitrogen for microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats in James Ross Island. The nitrate and ammonium ions in water environment were determined as well as the contents of major elements (C, N, P, S, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn in cyanobacterial mats. The molar ratios of C:N, C:P and N:P in mats were in focus. The growth of freshwater autotrophs seems not to be limited by the level of nitrogen, according to the content of available mineral nitrogen in water and the biogeochemical stoichiometry of C:N:P. The source of nutrients in the Ulu Peninsula is not obvious. The nitrogen fixation could enhance the nitrogen content in mats, which was observed in some samples containing the Nostoc sp.

  12. Increased osteopontin contributes to inhibition of bone mineralization in FGF23-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Xuefeng; Sato, Tadatoshi; Densmore, Michael; Schüler, Christiane; Erben, Reinhold G; McKee, Marc D; Lanske, Beate

    2014-03-01

    Excessive FGF23 has been identified as a pivotal phosphaturic factor leading to renal phosphate-wasting and the subsequent development of rickets and osteomalacia. In contrast, loss of FGF23 in mice (Fgf23(-/-) ) leads to high serum phosphate, calcium, and 1,25-vitamin D levels, resulting in early lethality attributable to severe ectopic soft-tissue calcifications and organ failure. Paradoxically, Fgf23(-/-) mice exhibit a severe defect in skeletal mineralization despite high levels of systemic mineral ions and abundant ectopic mineralization, an abnormality that remains largely unexplained. Through use of in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and immunogold labeling coupled with electron microscopy of bone samples, we discovered that expression and accumulation of osteopontin (Opn/OPN) was markedly increased in Fgf23(-/-) mice. These results were confirmed by qPCR analyses of Fgf23(-/-) bones and ELISA measurements of serum OPN. To investigate whether elevated OPN levels were contributing to the bone mineralization defect in Fgf23(-/-) mice, we generated Fgf23(-/-) /Opn(-/-) double-knockout mice (DKO). Biochemical analyses showed that the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia observed in Fgf23(-/-) mice remained unchanged in DKO mice; however, micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses showed a significant improvement in total mineralized bone volume. The severe osteoidosis was markedly reduced and a normal mineral apposition rate was present in DKO mice, indicating that increased OPN levels in Fgf23(-/-) mice are at least in part responsible for the osteomalacia. Moreover, the increased OPN levels were significantly decreased upon lowering serum phosphate by feeding a low-phosphate diet or after deletion of NaPi2a, indicating that phosphate levels contribute in part to the high OPN levels in Fgf23(-/-) mice. In summary, our results suggest that increased OPN is an important pathogenic factor mediating the mineralization defect and the

  13. Isotopic and impurity element probes of mesoscale chemical dynamics at mineral fluid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaolo, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Mesoscale interactions control important Earth processes including the growth of minerals from aqueous solutions and silicate liquids, the diffusion of ions in solids and silicate liquids, and the solid-state deformation and recrystallization that constitutes metamorphism. Most of these processes are typically understood from the classical side in terms of macroscopic physical and thermodynamic properties and classical kinetics, and from the molecular side in terms of single molecule or nearest-neighbor interactions. However, in many cases the controlling processes occur at intermediate scales of both length and time, and involve complex interactions among multiple chemical species. A major limitation has been in characterizing and modeling the dynamic processes that lead to the macroscopic properties and behavior. Advanced microscopy techniques allow phase changes, for example, to be monitored at high resolution, and this capability continues to improve. However, other important information about the phase changes, such as the molecular exchange fluxes between phases and the detailed mechanisms of reaction, are not revealed by microscopy. High-resolution isotopic characterization now allows the molecular exchange fluxes to be quantified, and models suggest that the incorporation of impurity elements is directly tied to these fluxes. One of the main advances is that precise isotopic measurements have recently been extended to include major stoichiometric cations such as Ca, Mg, Fe, and K, as well as key impurity elements such as U, Cd, Mo, and Sr. Isotopic analysis at the nano- to microscale would further clarify the detailed dynamics of mineral chemistry controls but are not yet possible except in a few instances. Impurity element concentrations are more easily measured at these small scales, and they are a key bridge between isotopic measurements and microscopy.Other limitations to advancing our knowledge of the chemical and isotopic effects associated with

  14. [Determination of mineral elements in Bupleurum based on ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xu-sheng; Dong, Xue-hui; Guo, Yu-hai

    2012-02-01

    ICP-AES technique was used to determine the mineral elements in Bupleurum at different habitat. The results show that: (1) In Bupleurum, the content and accumulation of K was the highest among 5 macroelements, the content and accumulation of Fe was the highest among 5 microelements. (2) In Bupleurum, the content of Ca, Mg, P, Na and Cu was high in habitat of Beijing, the content can respectively reach to 6.40, 3.84, 3.45, 4.97 mg x g(-1), and 25.20 microg x g(-1); while the content of K, Ca, Mg, P, Zn, Mn and Cu was low in habitat of Wanrong,and the content was only 12.43, 4.57, 1.92, 1.79 mg x g(-1) and 50.04, 32.21, 15.43 microg x g respectively. (3) In Bupleurum, the content of P : K, Zn : Fe, Cu and Mn was significantly different at different habitat, while Mg and Ca showed little difference. In Bupleurum, the content, accumulation and proportion of mineral elements were difference at different habitat.

  15. Edible Flowers—A New Promising Source of Mineral Elements in Human Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindriska Vabkova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, people are demanding more attractive and tasty food. Both the quality of foodstuffs and aesthetic aspects contribute to the appearance of consumed meals. The attraction and appeal of individual dishes could be enhanced by edible flowers. New information concerning the composition and nutritional value of edible flowers is also important and represents a sufficient reason for their consumption. The aim of this study is to contribute to the popularization of some selected edible flowers of ornamental plants involving altogether 12 species. The flowers were used to determine their antioxidant capacity, which fluctuated between 4.21 and 6.96 g of ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE/kg of fresh mass (FM. Correlation coefficients between antioxidant capacity and the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were r2 = 0.9705 and r2 = 0.7861, respectively. Moreover, the results were supplemented with new data about the mineral composition of edible flowers (mostly, not found in the available literature. The highest levels of mineral elements were observed in the flowers of species Chrysanthemum, Dianthus or Viola. The most abundant element was potassium, the content of which ranged from 1,842.61 to 3,964.84 mg/kg of FM.

  16. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, M. Inmaculada; Escuredo, Olga; Revilla, Isabel; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M.; Coello, M. Carmen; Palacios Riocerezo, Carlos; Wells Moncada, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region) and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions). The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53), calcium (0.83, 94), iron (0.69, 134) potassium (0.95, 117), magnesium (0.70, 99), phosphorus (0.94, 24) zinc (0.87, 10) chromium (0.48, 0.6) nickel (0.52, 0.7) copper (0.64, 0.9) and lead (0.70, 2) in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption. PMID:26540058

  17. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inmaculada González-Martín

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions. The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53, calcium (0.83, 94, iron (0.69, 134 potassium (0.95, 117, magnesium (0.70, 99, phosphorus (0.94, 24 zinc (0.87, 10 chromium (0.48, 0.6 nickel (0.52, 0.7 copper (0.64, 0.9 and lead (0.70, 2 in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption.

  18. Mineral deficiency and the use of the FETAX bioassay to study environmental teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Eric A E

    2002-01-01

    The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay: Xenopus (FETAX) bioassay has been employed extensively to screen compounds for teratogenic activity. Recent laboratory studies have indicated that low potassium concentrations retard Xenopus laevis development. The effects of varying concentrations of minerals on Xenopus laevis embryo length and development were examined to determine the utility of the FETAX bioassay in the study of environmental teratogens. Water samples collected from 18 wetlands in Minnesota and North Dakota correlated with low mineral levels, causing delayed embryonic development in the FETAX bioassay. When the concentration of sodium or potassium was teratogenic activity after 96 h of incubation. Furthermore, the length of the embryos-an indication of development-paralleled changes in mineral composition. Comparisons between different wetlands based on changes in one specific mineral were not possible due to a synergism between various minerals. If the concentration of sodium and/or potassium was or =2 ppm, extension of the FETAX bioassay to 120 h allowed organogenesis to proceed through stage 46, as required for scoring in accordance with ASTM guidelines for the FETAX bioassay. In those cases in which the concentration of sodium and/or potassium were teratogenic activity. Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Geomorphic controls on mineral weathering, elemental transport, and production of mineral surface area in a schist bedrock weathering profile, Piedmont Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenell, B.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mahoney, J. B.; Lepak, L.

    2013-12-01

    We assess a deep chemical weathering profile in the context of geomorphic evolution in the Laurels Schist, a late proterozoic greenschist formation in the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory located in the Piedmont region in southeastern Pennsylvania. Two 21-meter deep rotosonic drill cores were sampled at the ridge top and footslope positions in a first-order, forested watershed. The top meter was sampled at high-resolution in a soil pit adjacent to each drill core and along a hillslope transect to assess geomorphic controls on the weathering profile. Weathering processes in soil and saprolite were examined by observing changes in mineralogy, including the emergence of secondary phyllosilicate and oxide minerals; measuring specific surface area of bulk soil and saprolite; and by quantifying elemental mass changes of major and minor rock-forming elements. Mineral profiles were assessed using clay and bulk XRD, and reveal that kaolinite, a common secondary phyllosilicate, is present above 1.5 meters in the weathering profile. Specific surface area (SSA) values decrease with increasing depth to a critical depth around 2 meters, where the values of untreated (carbon-loaded) and muffled (carbon removed by heating) mineral grains converge to baseline SSA values below 10 m2g-1, indicating that carbon is sorbed with mineral surface area in the upper 2 meters. Immobile element concentrations decrease with increasing depth up to 3 meters, indicating that the preferential removal of mobile elements extends beyond the depth of C-mineral adsorption. Variability of immobile elements in the deep weathering profile reveal variations that could be the result of weathering in fractures but are more likely inherited by the rock composition and particle size of pre-metamorphosed parent rock.

  20. Composition of mineralizing incisor enamel in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Lyaruu, D.M.; Guo, J.; Bijvelds, M.J.C.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Zandieh-Doulabi, B.; Medina, J.F.; Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.; DenBesten, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of crystals in the enamel space releases protons that need to be buffered to sustain mineral accretion. We hypothesized that apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in maturation ameloblasts transduces chloride into forming enamel as a critical step to secrete bic

  1. Bones and Crohn's: Estradiol deficiency in men with Crohn's disease is not associated with reduced bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boehm BO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis are frequent in Crohn's disease (CD, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Deficiency of sex steroids, especially estradiol (E2, is an established risk factor in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Aim To assess if hormonal deficiencies in male CD patients are frequent we investigated both, sex steroids, bone density and bone metabolism markers. Methods 111 male CD patients underwent osteodensitometry (DXA of the spine (L1–L4. Disease related data were recorded. Disease activity was estimated using Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI. Testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estradiol (E2, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, Osteocalcin and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptids (ICTP were measured in 111 patients and 99 age-matched controls. Results Patients had lower T, E2 and SHBG serum levels (p 10 g had lower BMD. 32 (28.8% patients showed osteoporosis, 55 (49.5% osteopenia and 24 (21.6% had normal BMD. Patients with normal or decreased BMD showed no significant difference in their hormonal status. No correlation between markers of bone turnover and sex steroids could be found. ICTP was increased in CD patients (p Conclusion We found an altered hormonal status – i.e. E2 and, to a lesser extent T deficiency – in male CD patients but failed to show an association to bone density or markers of bone turnover. The role of E2 in the negative skeletal balance in males with CD, analogous to E2 deficiency in postmenopausal females, deserves further attention.

  2. Mineral Elements in Different Varieties of Camellia sinensis%不同品种茶树矿质元素含量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春华; 王云

    2009-01-01

    To understand the mineral elements in different varieties of tea (Camellia sinensis), 17 mineral elements in eight tea varieties including Yunnan Dayezhong, No.43 Longjing and No.6 Zaobaijian, were measured. The results showed that nine elements, such as P, K, Ba, Mn, Cu, were significantly different among varieties, others did not. Black tea varieties usually contain high contents of Cu and K. As a conclusion, mineral elements should be extensively considered in breeding tea varieties.

  3. [Determination of nine mineral elements in hulless barley by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and flame atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Zhang, Huai-Gang

    2010-04-01

    The contents of nine mineral elements, including sulphur, zinc, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, copper and manganese in five hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.) lines were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and flames atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). For the determination of sulphur, the samples were dissolved by magnesia and anhydrous sodium carbonate at 250 degrees C for 0. 5 h and at 550 degrees C for 3 h in the muffle furnace, and then a certain amount of barium chloride was put into the sample solution for colorimetry of the UV-Vs spectrophotometer. For the determination of other eight mineral elements, all of the samples were dissolved by a kind of incinerating method: first, the sample was put into the muffle furnace at 250 degrees C for 0. 5 h and at 550 degrees C for 2.5 h, then two droplets of 50%HNO3 were distributed into each sample, and the last step was putting the sample into the muffle furnace at 550 degrees C for 0.5 h. And then all of the ash was dissolved by 50%HNO3 to 50 milliliter and determined by flames atomic absorption spectrometry. The precision, accuracy, repeatability and stability of the method were discussed too. The results showed that the relative standard deviations (RSD) were between 1.2% and 3.7%; The average recoveries were 97.44%-101.52% and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of sample determination were 1.3%-3.8%. The repeatability experiment showed that the relative standard deviations (RSD) were 2.6%-6.1%. And the content of each mineral element was the same after 24 hours; All these showed that the method has a good precision, accuracy, repeatability and stability. In all the hulless barley samples, the average contents were in the order of K > S > Mg > Ca > Fe > Na > Zn > Mn > Cu, and the contents of zinc, iron and manganese closely related to people's health were relatively higher than other crops. The data of the experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence

  4. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements in the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements of the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora were investigated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and β-carotene methods. The assays based on the DPPH (EC50 = 3.18 g sample/g DPPH, ABTS•+ (1017 μmol Trolox/g sample, FRAP (1676 µM Fe2SO4/g sample and β-carotene/linoleic acid (70% of oxidation inhibition methods indicated a high antioxidant capacity of the fruit peel extract of the plant. The Folin-Denis method was more efficient in determining the total phenolic compound contents in the different solvents than the Folin-Ciocalteu one. Extractions made with 4:1 methanol-water, 4:1 ethanol-water, 3:2 ethanol-water and 3:2 acetone-water solutions using the Folin-Denis method exhibited high contents of phenolic compounds (18.95, 14.06, 12.93 and 11.99 mg GAE/g, respectively. Potassium was the major element found in the fruit peel, followed by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron, in that order. As a result, the fruit peel of M. cauliflora can be considered as an important source of natural antioxidants and essential elements of easy access for the population and for application in the food industry.

  5. Official Methods for the Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Milk Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitevin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The minerals and trace elements that account for about 4% of total human body mass serve as materials and regulators in numerous biological activities in body structure building. Infant formula and milk products are important sources of endogenic and added minerals and trace elements and hence, must comply with regulatory as well as nutritional and safety requirements. In addition, reliable analytical data are necessary to support product content and innovation, health claims, or declaration and specific safety issues. Adequate analytical platforms and methods must be implemented to demonstrate both the compliance and safety assessment of all declared and regulated minerals and trace elements, especially trace-element contaminant surveillance. The first part of this paper presents general information on the mineral composition of infant formula and milk products and their regulatory status. In the second part, a survey describes the main techniques and related current official methods determining minerals and trace elements in infant formula and milk products applied for by various international organizations (AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the European Committe for Standardization). The third part summarizes method officialization activities by Stakeholder Panels on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals and Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods. The final part covers a general discussion focusing on analytical gaps and future trends in inorganic analysis that have been applied for in infant formula and milk-based products.

  6. Nutrient and toxic element soil concentrations during repeated mineral and compost fertilization treatments in a Mediterranean agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Saviello, Giovanni; Alfani, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Agricultural soils of semi-arid Mediterranean areas are often subjected to depletion of their chemical, physical, and biological properties. In this context, organic fertilization, in addition to providing nutrients for a longer time in respect to mineral fertilization, improves many other characteristics related to soil fertility. Moreover, the combined use of organic and mineral fertilizers may promote a more sustainable crop production. However, a concern on the long-term use of organic fertilizers arises in relation to the possible accumulation of toxic elements in soil and their transfer to human beings. For this reason, a long-term study on nutrient and toxic element total concentrations and availabilities during fertilization treatments was carried out. In particular, mineral NPK fertilized soils, soils amended with biowaste compost, soils amended with biowaste compost plus mineral nitrogen, and unfertilized soils were analyzed for 11 chemical elements. The results highlighted that temporal variations in total and bioavailable concentrations of both nutrients and toxic elements, occurring also in unfertilized soils, are wider than those related to fertilization treatments. Anyway, soil amendments with biowaste compost, alone or in combination with mineral fertilizers, reduce Cu bioavailability but improve K, Fe, Mn, and Zn availabilities, excluding at the same time a long-term accumulation in soil. Total and bioavailable toxic element concentrations (apart from available Cd) do not vary in relation to fertilization treatments.

  7. Man-made mineral fibre boards in buildings--health risks caused by quality deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriene, B; Sobottka, A; Willer, H; Weidhase, J

    1996-11-01

    The Institute of Hygiene was requested to determine causes and scope of health complaints made by the employees of Haldensleben district administration after sound absorbing mineral fibre boards had been installed as suspended ceilings. The boards were coated with a lean water-carried paint; however, the edges, which were partially frayed, were not coated. The air inside the rooms was measured on all four storeys of the building, followed by scanning electron microscopy in compliance with VDI Code 3492. In addition, measurements showed fibres with diameters of > 3 microns which are not subject to the regulations for carcinogenic substances, but, in contrast to the thinner fibres, they may cause irritations of skin and mucosa. The employees were questioned about their health problems. At the beginning of 1994, a total of 79 of the 133 employees complained about itching, reddening and burning of their eyes as well as irritations of the upper respiratory tract. More than 50% had consulted a doctor. Late in 1994, another questionnaire survey was completed. The fibre content of the office air was determined to vary from 1000 to 3500 fibres/m3 and, in addition, 100-200 fibres with diameters of > 3 microns. Our investigations showed that there is an interrelationship between the degree of dust accumulation in the offices and health complaints. Independently of the current discussion of the cancer causing potential of thin man-made mineral fibres, the very long and thick mineral fibres (> 3 microns in diameter) are of topical importance to health.

  8. Comparative assessment of mineral elements and heavy metals accumulation in vegetable species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metal (cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium and mineral element (potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium levels in edible parts of tomato, potato, spinach, beetroot, parsley, parsnip, carrot, cauliflower, pepper and broccoli were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Six samples for each species originating from different localities were collected from green markets. The heavy metal concentrations ranged from calcium > phosphorus > magnesium. The highest mean levels of the heavy metals, as well as of potassium, calcium and magnesium, were found in spinach. A large number of samples containing high levels of toxic heavy metals, especially of cadmium and lead, impose the necessity for strict regulative guidelines concerning individual vegetable crops production, harvest, handling and storing, in order to diminish possibility of contamination.

  9. Geochemical Characteristics of Rare Earth Elements of Guidong Granitic Complex and Relationship with Uranium Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhanshi; Hua Renmin; Liu Xiaodong; Deng Ping; Wu Lieqin

    2007-01-01

    Guidong granitic complex is constituted by Luxi intrusion, Xiazhuang intrusion, Maofeng intrusion, Sundong intrusion, Aizi intrusion and Siqian intrusion, which emplaced in Indosinian and early Yanshanian Periods. These intrusions varied from each other not only in major element content, aluminium saturation index, but also in values of ΣREE, δEu, and LREE/HREE, (La/Yb)N, (La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N. The Maofeng intrusion, which has the closest relationship with uranium mineralization, belongs to strong peraluminous granites. Having undergone much intense fluid-rock interaction, it is characterized by typical M-type tetrad effects and lowest values of ΣREE, δEu, LREE/HREE, (La/Yb)N, (La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios than other studied intrusions.

  10. Biliary excretion of essential trace elements in rats under oxidative stress caused by selenium deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Kosuke; Tsukada, Masamichi [Meiji University, School of Agriculture, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Sakuma, Yasunobu; Sasaki, Junya; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Honda, Chikako; Endo, Kazutoyo [Showa Pharmaceutical University, Department of Physical Chemistry, Machida, Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro; Anzai, Kazunori [National Institute of Radiological Science, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Enomoto, Shuichi [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Radioisotope Technology Division, Cyclotron Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Okayama University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Okayama (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The excretion of essential trace elements, namely, Se, Sr, As, Mn, Co, V, Fe, and Zn into the bile of Se-deficient (SeD) Wistar male rats was studied using the multitracer (MT) technique, and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Normal and Se-control (SeC) rat groups were used as reference groups to compare the effects of Se levels on the behaviors of the essential trace elements. The excretion (% dose) of Se, Sr, As, Mn, Co, and V increased with Se levels in the liver. The biliary excretion of Mn and As dramatically enhanced for SeC rats compared with SeD rats, while that of V accelerated a little for SeC rats. The radioactivity levels of {sup 59}Fe and {sup 65}Zn in the MT tracer solution were insufficient to measure their excretion into bile. The role of glutathione and bilirubin for biliary excretion of the metals was discussed in relation to Se levels in rat liver. (orig.)

  11. Assessment of the geoavailability of trace elements from minerals in mine wastes: analytical techniques and assessment of selected copper minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Rhonda; Hageman, Phillip L.; Benzel, William M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Adams, David T.; Morman, Suzette; Choate, LaDonna M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, four randomly selected copper-bearing minerals were examined—azurite, malachite, bornite, and chalcopyrite. The objectives were to examine and enumerate the crystalline and chemical properties of each of the minerals, to determine which, if any, of the Cu-bearing minerals might adversely affect systems biota, and to provide a multi-procedure reference. Laboratory work included use of computational software for quantifying crystalline and amorphous material and optical and electron imaging instruments to model and project crystalline structures. Chemical weathering, human fluid, and enzyme simulation studies were also conducted. The analyses were conducted systematically: X-ray diffraction and microanalytical studies followed by a series of chemical, bio-leaching, and toxicity experiments.

  12. Element exchange between minerals at hydrothermal conditions: A case study with spinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, L.; Muller, T.; Dohmen, R.

    2013-12-01

    It is generally believed that the presence of a fluid phase enhances the reactivity of minerals and promotes exchange reactions between minerals that are physically separated from each other. Two end-member mechanisms can be considered for the bulk equilibration of the mineral with the fluid: volume diffusion and dissolution-precipitation. A key parameter, which may control the overall kinetic behavior, is the solubility of the relevant elements within the fluid (e.g., [1]). We investigated the reaction mechanism of a model system to identify the role of the various parameters, in particular those controlling the solubility. Two polished spinel crystals (hercynite with xFe=0.6 and synthetic Mg-spinel) react in the presence of H2O at 750 °C and 0.2 GPa in a welded-shut Au-capsule for 1-24 hrs. The crystals are physically separated by a tube of noble metal dividing the capsule into two connected chambers. The surface of the reacted crystals is analyzed using optical methods and SEM and the near surface chemistry is studied via RBS. From the latter we are able to extract Fe-concentration depth profiles. First results show an increasing surface concentration of Fe in Mg-spinel with time. The depth profiles for experiments up to 8 hours reveal a decrease of Fe-concentration within the first 100 nm from the surface towards the center of the Mg-spinel. The Fe depth profiles can be simulated with a simplified diffusion model, assuming a fixed surface concentration and their shapes indicate that the inter-diffusion coefficient in spinel is concentration dependent. Our derived Fe-Mg diffusion coefficient [D(Fe-Mg) ≈ 1x10-19 m2/s for pure MgAl2O4) and its compositional dependence is consistent with an independent experimental study using thin film diffusion couples that were annealed at dry conditions at 1 atm [2]. The observed kinetic behavior of the experimental system was simulated using the model of [1]. The model geometry is identical to the present experimental setup

  13. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus with supplemental calcium on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in calcium-deficient ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Se-Chan; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that Astragalus membranaceus, an Asian traditional herb, has an estrogenic effect in vitro. To examine the possible role of A. membranaceus extract with supplemental calcium (Ca) on bone status in calcium-deficient (LCa) ovariectomized (OVX) rats, a total of 48 female rats were divided into six groups: (1) normal control, (2) sham operation with LCa (sham-LCa), (3) OVX with LCa (OVX-LCa), (4) A. membranaceus supplementation with OVX-LCa (OVX-MLCa), (5) Ca supplementation with OVX (OVX-Ca), and (6) A. membranaceus and Ca supplementation with OVX (OVX-MCa). A. membranaceus ethanol extract (500 mg/kg BW) and/or Ca (800 mg/kg BW) were administered orally for 8 weeks along with a Ca-deficient diet. Results revealed that Ca supplementation with or without A. membranaceus extract significantly improved bone mineral density, biomechanical strength, and ash weight of the femur and tibia in OVX rats. High Ca with A. membranaceus combination supplementation significantly increased the ash weight of the femur and tibia and decreased urinary Ca excretion compared with supplementation of Ca alone. Uterine weight was not changed by A. membranaceus administration in OVX rats. These results suggest that A. membranaceus extract combined with supplemental Ca may be more protective against the Ca loss of bone than A. membranaceus or supplementation of Ca alone in calcium-insufficient postmenopausal women.

  14. A transposable element insertion in APOB causes cholesterol deficiency in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzi, F; Besuchet-Schmutz, N; Fragnière, M; Hofstetter, S; Jagannathan, V; Mock, T; Raemy, A; Studer, E; Mehinagic, K; Regenscheit, N; Meylan, M; Schmitz-Hsu, F; Drögemüller, C

    2016-04-01

    Cholesterol deficiency, a new autosomal recessive inherited genetic defect in Holstein cattle, has been recently reported to have an influence on the rearing success of calves. The affected animals show unresponsive diarrhea accompanied by hypocholesterolemia and usually die within the first weeks or months of life. Here, we show that whole genome sequencing combined with the knowledge about the pedigree and inbreeding status of a livestock population facilitates the identification of the causative mutation. We resequenced the entire genomes of an affected calf and a healthy partially inbred male carrying one copy of the critical 2.24-Mb chromosome 11 segment in its ancestral state and one copy of the same segment with the cholesterol deficiency mutation. We detected a single structural variant, homozygous in the affected case and heterozygous in the non-affected carrier male. The genetic makeup of this key animal provides extremely strong support for the causality of this mutation. The mutation represents a 1.3kb insertion of a transposable LTR element (ERV2-1) in the coding sequence of the APOB gene, which leads to truncated transcripts and aberrant splicing. This finding was further supported by RNA sequencing of the liver transcriptome of an affected calf. The encoded apolipoprotein B is an essential apolipoprotein on chylomicrons and low-density lipoproteins, and therefore, the mutation represents a loss of function mutation similar to autosomal recessive inherited familial hypobetalipoproteinemia-1 (FHBL1) in humans. Our findings provide a direct gene test to improve selection against this deleterious mutation in Holstein cattle.

  15. [Application of ICP-MS to detection of mineral elements and heavy metals in Cassava's byproducts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hai-Teng; Zhang, Chun-Jiang; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Lüi, Fei-Jie; Tai, Jian-Xiang; Li, Kai-Mian

    2009-07-01

    Cassava is a main cultivated tropical crop in China, its rich starch roots are often used to produce fuel ethanol in recent years, so it's a kind of hot biomass energy crops. But cassava's byproducts such as leaves, stems and peels are regarded as waste, and are not fully utilized. Cassava's byproducts contain many nutrients, and can be used to process high value food products. The contents of mineral elements and heavy metals in cassava's byproducts were studied by ICP-MS. The results showed that cassava's byproducts contained many elements necessary to human health, the sequence of macroelements was K>Ca>P> Mg>S>Mn>Zn>Na>Fe>B>Cu, particularly, the contents of Fe, Mn, Zn and B ranged from 10 to 800 microg x g(-1) (DW), while the contents of microelements including Mo, Co, Se and Ge ranged from 0.01 to 0.2 microg x g(-1) (DW), which are important to human health. Besides macroelements and microelements, the contents of heavy metals (As, Cr, Pb and Hg) were also important to identify the quality of farm products, and the results showed that cassava's byproducts contained little heavy metals except Pb (2.19 microg x g(-1) (DW) in stalk peels). All the data showed that cassava's byproducts accorded with the national hygiene standards.

  16. Alterations of Bio-elements, Oxidative, and Inflammatory Status in the Zinc Deficiency Model in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doboszewska, Urszula; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Noworyta-Sokołowska, Karolina; Misztak, Paulina; Gołębiowska, Joanna; Młyniec, Katarzyna; Ostachowicz, Beata; Krośniak, Mirosław; Wojtanowska-Krośniak, Agnieszka; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Lankosz, Marek; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Nowak, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study showed that dietary zinc restriction induces depression-like behavior with concomitant up-regulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Because metal ions, oxidative stress, and inflammation are involved in depression/NMDAR function, in the present study, bio-elements (zinc, copper, iron, magnesium, and calcium), oxidative (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; protein carbonyl content), and inflammatory (IL-1α, IL-1β) factors were measured in serum, hippocampus (Hp), and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to a zinc-adequate (ZnA) (50 mg Zn/kg) or a zinc-deficient (ZnD) (3 mg Zn/kg) diet for 4 or 6 weeks. Both periods of dietary zinc restriction reduced serum zinc and increased serum iron levels. At 4 weeks, lowered zinc level in the PFC and Hp as well as lowered iron level in the PFC of the ZnD rats was observed. At 6 weeks, however, iron level was increased in the PFC of these rats. Although at 6 weeks zinc level in the PFC did not differ between the ZnA and ZnD rats, extracellular zinc concentration after 100 mM KCl stimulation was reduced in the PFC of the ZnD rats and was accompanied by increased extracellular iron and glutamate levels (as measured by the in vivo microdialysis). The examined oxidative and inflammatory parameters were generally enhanced in the tissue of the ZnD animals. The obtained data suggest dynamic redistribution of bio-elements and enhancement of oxidative/inflammatory parameters after dietary zinc restriction, which may have a link with depression-like behavior/NMDAR function/neurodegeneration.

  17. Assessment of the exposure to elements from silver jewelry by hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Michalak, Izabela; Zielińska, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present article was to assess the effect of wearing silver jewelry on mineral composition of human scalp hair. To investigate the possible effect of gender, a group of females and males was distinguished. Subjects, who declared in the questionnaire wearing silver jewelry, constituted 55% of the whole population. It was found that individuals wearing jewelry had increased levels of Ag (~3 times), Ba (30%), Ca (33%), La (40%), Li (25%), and Zn (27%) in hair and lowered level of: Al (34%), K (79%), and Na (32.5%) in comparison with the group that did not wear jewelry. Those differences were statistically significant. Lower levels of K and Na in hair of subjects wearing jewelry was probably related with an antagonism between Ag-K and Ag-Na found in the present work. Analyzing the effect of two grouping variables-gender and wearing silver jewelry-on hair composition, it was observed that statistically significant differences were determined for the following elements: As, Ba, Ca, and Se. Female hair contained two times more Ca, four times Ba, 36% less As, and five times less Se. It was found that 34% of the population wearing silver jewelry had higher Ag content in hair than the upper value of the reference range (0.567 mg/kg) determined for subjects who did not wear jewelry. Ag and other metals (especially Cu and Zn) from jewelry could be absorbed through the skin and therefore hair mineral analysis is useful in the assessment of this exposure. The study was carried out on Poles, among which silver jewelry is particularly popular. The population can be thus considered as exposed.

  18. X-ray Microprobe Investigations of Elemental Distributions and Concentrations at Mineral-Microbe Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemner, K. M.; Kelly, S. D.; O'Loughlin, E. J.; Lai, B.; Maser, J.; Cai, Z.; Londer, Y.; Schiffer, M.; Nealson, K.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding the fate of heavy-metal contaminants in the environment is of fundamental importance in the development and evaluation of effective remediation and sequestration strategies. Bacteria and the extracellular material associated with them are thought to play a key role in determining a contaminant's speciation and thus its mobility in the environment. Additionally, the metabolism and surface properties of bacteria can be quite different depending upon whether the bacteria exhibit a planktonic (free-floating) or biofilm (surface adhered) habit. The microenvironment at and adjacent to actively metabolizing cells also can be significantly different from the bulk environment. Thus, to understand the microscopic physical, geological, chemical, and biological interfaces that determine a contaminant's macroscopic fate, the spatial distribution and chemical speciation of contaminants and elements that are key to biological processes must be characterized at micron and submicron lengthscales for bacteria in both planktonic and adhered states. Hard x-ray microimaging is a powerful technique for the element-specific investigation of complex environmental samples at the needed micron and submicron resolution. An important advantage of these techniques results from the large penetration depth of hard x-rays in water. This advantage minimizes the requirements for sample preparation and allows the detailed study of hydrated samples. The objectives of the studies to be presented are (1) to determine the spatial distribution, concentration, and chemical speciation of metals at, in, and near bacteria and bacteria-geosurface interfaces, (2) to use this information to identify the metabolic processes occurring within the microbes, and (3) to identify the interactions occurring near these interfaces among the metals, mineral surfaces, and bacteria under a variety of conditions. We have used x-ray fluorescence microscopy to investigate the spatial distribution of 3d elements

  19. Trace element geochemistry of zircons from mineralizing and non-mineralizing igneous rocks related to gold ores at Yanacocha, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleszar, A. M.; Dilles, J. H.; Kent, A. J.; Wooden, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Zircons record important details about the evolution of magmatic systems, are relatively insensitive to alteration, and have been used to investigate the geochemistry, temperature, and oxidation state of volcanic and plutonic system. We examine zircons that span 6-7 m.y. of calc-alkaline volcanic activity in the Yanacocha district of northern Peru, where dacitic intrusions are associated with high-sulfidation gold deposits. The 14.5-8.4 Ma Yanacocha Volcanics include cogenetic lavas and pyroclastic rocks and are underlain by the andesites and dacites of the Calipuy Group, the oldest Cenozoic rocks in the region. We present data for magmatic zircons from the Cerro Fraile dacitic pyroclastics (15.5-15.1 Ma) of the Calipuy Group, and multiple eruptive units within the younger Yanacocha Volcanics: the Atazaico Andesite (14.5-13.3 Ma), the Quilish Dacite (~14-12 Ma), the Azufre Andesite (12.1-11.6 Ma), the San Jose Ignimbrite (11.5-11.2 Ma), and the Coriwachay Dacite (11.1-8.4 Ma). Epithermal high sulfidation (alunite-bearing) gold deposits are associated with the dacite intrusions of the Coriwachay and Quilish Dacites. Zircons from the non-mineralizing rocks typically have lower Hf concentrations and record Ti-in-zircon temperatures that are ~100°C hotter than zircons from the mineralizing intrusions. Temperatures recorded by zircons from the mineralizing intrusions are remarkably similar to those of the underlying Cerro Fraile dacite pyroclastics, but the zircons discussed here generally record SHRIMP-RG 206Pb/238U ages within error of previously published Ar-Ar eruption ages (eliminating antecrystic or xenocrystic origins). These observations suggest that zircons in the mineralizing intrusions form after greater extents of crystallization (and thus record elevated Hf concentrations and lower temperatures) than do zircons in the non-mineralized deposits. Unlike zircons from mineralized units associated with the porphyry Cu(Mo) deposits in Yerington, Nevada, which

  20. Intracellular vesicles as reproduction elements in cell wall-deficient L-form bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Briers

    Full Text Available Cell wall-deficient bacteria, or L-forms, represent an extreme example of bacterial plasticity. Stable L-forms can multiply and propagate indefinitely in the absence of a cell wall. Data presented here are consistent with the model that intracellular vesicles in Listeria monocytogenes L-form cells represent the actual viable reproductive elements. First, small intracellular vesicles are formed along the mother cell cytoplasmic membrane, originating from local phospholipid accumulation. During growth, daughter vesicles incorporate a small volume of the cellular cytoplasm, and accumulate within volume-expanding mother cells. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy demonstrated the presence of nucleic acids and proteins in all intracellular vesicles, but only a fraction of which reveals metabolic activity. Following collapse of the mother cell and release of the daughter vesicles, they can establish their own membrane potential required for respiratory and metabolic processes. Premature depolarization of the surrounding membrane promotes activation of daughter cell metabolism prior to release. Based on genome resequencing of L-forms and comparison to the parental strain, we found no evidence for predisposing mutations that might be required for L-form transition. Further investigations revealed that propagation by intracellular budding not only occurs in Listeria species, but also in L-form cells generated from different Enterococcus species. From a more general viewpoint, this type of multiplication mechanism seems reminiscent of the physicochemical self-reproducing properties of abiotic lipid vesicles used to study the primordial reproduction pathways of putative prokaryotic precursor cells.

  1. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S;

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults have a markedly decreased bone mineral content compared to healthy adults. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of GH treatment on bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Therefore, we evaluated...... the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4...

  2. [Rapid determination of major and trace elements in the salt lake clay minerals by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Huan; Meng, Qing-Fen; Dong, Ya-Ping; Chen, Mei-Da; Li, Wu

    2010-03-01

    A rapid multi-element analysis method for clay mineral samples was described. This method utilized a polarized wave-length dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer--Axios PW4400, which had a maximum tube power of 4 000 watts. The method was developed for the determination of As, Mn, Co, Cu, Cr, Dy, Ga, Mo, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ni, ,Cs, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Y, Zn, Zr, MgO, K2O, Na2O, CaO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, SiO2 and so on. Thirty elements in clay mineral species were measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with pressed powder pellets. Spectral interferences, in particular the indirect interferences of each element, were studied. A method to distinguish the interference between each other periodic elements in element periodic table was put forward. The measuring conditions and existence were mainly investigated, and the selected background position as well as corrected spectral overlap for the trace elements were also discussed. It was found that the indirect spectral overlap line was the same important as direct spectral overlap line. Due to inducing the effect of indirect spectral overlap, some elements jlike Bi, Sn, W which do not need analysis were also added to the elements channel. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was in the range of 0.01% to 5.45% except three elements Mo, Cs and Ta. The detection limits, precisions and accuracies for most elements using this method can meet the requirements of sample analysis in clay mineral species.

  3. Minor-element and Sr-isotope geochemistry of tertiary stocks, Colorado mineral belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, E.C.; Hedge, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Rocks of the northeast portion of the Colorado mineral belt form two petrographically, chemically and geographically distinct rock suites: (1) a silica oversaturated granodiorite suite; and (2) a silica saturated, high alkali monzonite suite. Rocks of the granodiorite suite generally have Sr contents less than 1000 ppm, subparallel REE patterns and initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios greater than 0.707. Rocks of the monzonite suite are restricted to the northeast part of the mineral belt, where few rocks of the granodiorite suite occur, and generally have Sr contents greater than 1000 ppm, highly variable REE patterns and 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios less than 0.706. Despite forming simple, smooth trends on major element variation diagrams, trace element data for rocks of the granodiorite suite indicate that they were not derived from a single magma. These rocks were derived from magmas having similar REE patterns, but variable Rb and Sr contents, and Rb/Sr ratios. The preferred explanation for these rocks is that they were derived by partial melting of a mixed source, which yielded pyroxene granulite or pyroxenite residues. The monzonite suite is chemically and petrographically more complex than the granodiorite suite. It is subdivided here into alkalic and mafic monzonites, and quartz syenites, based on the textural relations of their ferromagnesian phases and quartz. The geochemistry of these three rock types require derivation from separate and chemically distinct magma types. The preferred explanation for the alkalic monzonites is derivation from a heterogeneous mafic source, leaving a residue dominated by garnet and clinopyroxene. Early crystallization of sphene from these magmas was responsible for the severe depletion of the REE observed in the residual magmas. The lower Sr content and higher Rb/Sr ratios of the mafic monzonites requires a plagioclase-bearing source. The Sr-isotope systematics of the majority of these rocks are interpreted to be largely primary, and not

  4. Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets--iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium and iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    The diets of over two-thirds of the world's population lack one or more essential mineral elements. This can be remedied through dietary diversification, mineral supplementation, food fortification, or increasing the concentrations and/or bioavailability of mineral elements in produce (biofortification). This article reviews aspects of soil science, plant physiology and genetics underpinning crop biofortification strategies, as well as agronomic and genetic approaches currently taken to biofortify food crops with the mineral elements most commonly lacking in human diets: iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I) and selenium (Se). Two complementary approaches have been successfully adopted to increase the concentrations of bioavailable mineral elements in food crops. First, agronomic approaches optimizing the application of mineral fertilizers and/or improving the solubilization and mobilization of mineral elements in the soil have been implemented. Secondly, crops have been developed with: increased abilities to acquire mineral elements and accumulate them in edible tissues; increased concentrations of 'promoter' substances, such as ascorbate, beta-carotene and cysteine-rich polypeptides which stimulate the absorption of essential mineral elements by the gut; and reduced concentrations of 'antinutrients', such as oxalate, polyphenolics or phytate, which interfere with their absorption. These approaches are addressing mineral malnutrition in humans globally.

  5. Quantification of minerals and trace elements in raw caprine milk using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahavir; Yadav, Poonam; Garg, V K; Sharma, Anshu; Singh, Balvinder; Sharma, Himanshu

    2015-08-01

    This study reports minerals and trace elements quantification in raw caprine milk of Beetal breed, reared in Northern India and their feed, fodder & water using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry. The mineral and trace elements' concentration in the milk was in the order: K > Ca > Na > Fe > Zn > Cu. The results showed that minerals concentration in caprine milk was lesser than reference values. But trace elements concentration (Fe and Zn) was higher than reference values. Multivariate statistical techniques, viz., Pearsons' correlation, Cluster analysis (CA) and Principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to analyze the interdependences within studied variables in caprine milk. Significantly positive correlations were observed between Fe - Zn, Zn - K, Ca - Na and Ca - pH. The results of correlation matrix were further supported by Cluster analysis and Principal component analysis as primary cluster pairs were found for Ca - pH, Ca - Na and Fe - Zn in the raw milk. No correlation was found between mineral & trace elements content of the milk and feed.

  6. The role of mineral elements and other chemical compounds used in balneology: data from double-blind randomized clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morer, Carla; Roques, Christian-François; Françon, Alain; Forestier, Romain; Maraver, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to conduct a systematic literature review on balneotherapy about the specific therapeutic role of mineral elements and other chemical compounds of mineral waters and derivate peloids/muds and to discuss the study methods used to evaluate it (in musculoskeletal conditions). We searched Medline by PubMed using the following key words: "spa therapy" "balneotherapy" "mud" "peloid" "mud pack Therapy" in combination with "randomized controlled trial" "double blind trial." We also reviewed the reference list of articles retrieved by the Medline search. We selected the double-blind randomized clinical trials that assessed the effects of mineral water or mud treatments compared to tap water, attenuated peloid/mud therapy or similar treatments without the specific minerals or chemical compounds of the treatment group ("non-mineral"). We evaluated the internal validity and the quality of the statistical analysis of these trials. The final selection comprised 27 double-blind randomized clinical trials, 20 related to rheumatology. A total of 1118 patients with rheumatological and other musculoskeletal diseases were evaluated in these studies: 552 of knee osteoarthritis, 47 of hand osteoarthritis, 147 chronic low back pain, 308 of reumathoid arthritis, and 64 of osteoporosis; 293 of these participants were assigned to the experimental groups of knee osteoarthritis, 24 in hand osteoarthritis, 82 of low back pain, 152 with reumathoid arthritis, and 32 with osteoporosis. They were treated with mineral water baths and/or mud/peloid (with or without other forms of treatment, like physical therapy, exercise…). The rest were allocated to the control groups; they received mainly tap water and/or "non-mineral" mud/peloid treatments. Mineral water or mud treatments had better and longer improvements in pain, function, quality of life, clinical parameters, and others in some rheumatologic diseases (knee and hand osteoarthritis, chronic low back pain

  7. The role of mineral elements and other chemical compounds used in balneology: data from double-blind randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morer, Carla; Roques, Christian-François; Françon, Alain; Forestier, Romain; Maraver, Francisco

    2017-08-28

    The aims of this study were to conduct a systematic literature review on balneotherapy about the specific therapeutic role of mineral elements and other chemical compounds of mineral waters and derivate peloids/muds and to discuss the study methods used to evaluate it (in musculoskeletal conditions). We searched Medline by PubMed using the following key words: "spa therapy" "balneotherapy" "mud" "peloid" "mud pack Therapy" in combination with "randomized controlled trial" "double blind trial." We also reviewed the reference list of articles retrieved by the Medline search. We selected the double-blind randomized clinical trials that assessed the effects of mineral water or mud treatments compared to tap water, attenuated peloid/mud therapy or similar treatments without the specific minerals or chemical compounds of the treatment group ("non-mineral"). We evaluated the internal validity and the quality of the statistical analysis of these trials. The final selection comprised 27 double-blind randomized clinical trials, 20 related to rheumatology. A total of 1118 patients with rheumatological and other musculoskeletal diseases were evaluated in these studies: 552 of knee osteoarthritis, 47 of hand osteoarthritis, 147 chronic low back pain, 308 of reumathoid arthritis, and 64 of osteoporosis; 293 of these participants were assigned to the experimental groups of knee osteoarthritis, 24 in hand osteoarthritis, 82 of low back pain, 152 with reumathoid arthritis, and 32 with osteoporosis. They were treated with mineral water baths and/or mud/peloid (with or without other forms of treatment, like physical therapy, exercise…). The rest were allocated to the control groups; they received mainly tap water and/or "non-mineral" mud/peloid treatments. Mineral water or mud treatments had better and longer improvements in pain, function, quality of life, clinical parameters, and others in some rheumatologic diseases (knee and hand osteoarthritis, chronic low back pain

  8. Element and mineral characterization of dust emission from the saline land at Songnen Plain, Northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bing; KITAGAWA Hiroyuki; HU Ke; JIE Dongmei; YANG Junpeng; LI Jingmin

    2009-01-01

    Recent observations of Asian dust storms show an eastern expansion of the source area to degraded lands, where dust emissions have been little studied. The dust concentrations over the saline land of the western Songnen Plain (SSL), Northeastern China, are circumstantially higher than those from the northwestern Chinese deserts. These concentrations are sensitive to the surface soil conditions and wind velocity on the ground. The dust samples collected during dust storm events on the SSL contain abundant Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Fe and Ti, as well as toxic elements such as Cu, V, Zn and Ba. Individual particle analysis reveals that fine saline particles (<10 μm in diameter) on the saline land, consisting largely of carbonate, halite and sulfate together with lithogenic minerals such as SiO2 and aluminosilicate, are eventually uplifted during the interval from spring to autumn. The predominantly fine saline particles uplifted from the SSL are likely transported eastward by the winter monsoon circulation and westerlies. Recent degradation of saline lands in Northeastern China would not only increase the frequency of dust storm events in the downwind area, but also might change the chemical composition of the Asian dust emissions.

  9. Resolving the Distribution of Energy Critical Elements in Ore Systems through in situ Chemical mapping of Mineral Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenaghan, Sean H.

    2017-04-01

    The mineral sphalerite is found in a wide-range of ore forming conditions including sedimentary and volcanogenic massive sulphides, as well as epigenetic mineralization associated with intrusive settings such as porphyries, skarns and epithermal veins. Sphalerite is a known host for In, Sn, Ge, Te, and Ga; these represent valuable commodities increasing the value of Zn production worldwide. These elements along with their deleterious counterparts Se, Hg, Tl, and Cd can reveal much about the genesis and evolution of a mineralizing system. From the standpoint of understanding the genesis of various ore systems, mineral chemistry, in particular the accommodation of trace elements in the sphalerite structure, is an ideal proxy for comparing both inter- and intra-deposit variations in hydrothermal geochemistry as well as enabling broad comparisons across a wide spectrum of mineral deposit types. The mineral chemistry of sphalerite will often differ between deposits of an ore district and can even exhibit considerable variability across individual mineral grains in response to evolving hydrothermal fluids and distinct fluid sources. Recent improvements in the field of in situ microanalysis have coupled advances in ICP-MS technology with newer classes of UV Excimer lasers and sample cells with smaller active volumes. This has effectively decreased the amount of ablated material required for analysis, allowing for more discrete analyses and permitting micro-chemical mapping at much smaller scales (ICP-MS analyses of sphalerite from epigenetic veins of the Leinster Batholith in Ireland have revealed anomalous values of ECE's, specifically In, Ga, and Ge; element maps (raster analysis) display a strong zonation of ECE's, which correspond to oscillatory growth and sectoral zoning within grains. The zonation of trace elements across several generations of sphalerite indicates highly variable sphalerite chemistry in response to evolving hydrothermal conditions. It is important

  10. A method for the assessment of the mineral/organic matter association of trace elements in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkin, B.P.; Somerfield, C,; Laban, K.L. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Department of Mineral Resources Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Describes a method for the sequential dissolution of coal samples enabling the location and mineral association of the trace elements to be determined. The technique is based on the sequential attack of a coal sample by acids using a sealed microwave digestion system. An advantage of the trace element technique is that the forms of sulphur in the coal can be determined simultaneously with the trace elements with sulphate sulphur, pyritic sulphur and organic sulphur being extracted in the three fractions. Selective dissolution was verified by X-ray diffraction, following low temperature ashing, and the petrographic analysis of the residues. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment – severity equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatment......, and treatment time), and to assess whether it is possible to model mineral levels in the pretreated fiber fraction. Results: Principal component analysis of the wheat straw biomass constituents, including mineral elements, showed that the recovered levels of wheat straw constituents after different hydrothermal...... fiber fractions. A new expanded pretreatment-severity equation is proposed to model and predict mineral composition in pretreated wheat straw biomass...

  12. Is removal of copper by electrolysis from copper minerals an appropriate method for determination of trace elements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taseska, M.; Jaćimović, R.; Stibilj, V.; Stafilov, T.; Makreski, P.; Jovanovski, G.

    2010-10-01

    The trace elements content in the copper mineral chalcanthite (CuSO 4·5H 2O) was determined using k0-INAA before and after quantitative removal of copper. To avoid the interference of the matrix element, a method for electrolytic separation of copper was used. The distribution of 47 elements (with intermediate/medium and long-lived radionuclides) present in the studied mineral was investigated. The main advantage of the proposed method is the possibility to determine the content of several elements (Al, Dy, K, Mg, Mn, Pt, Re and V) via their short-lived nuclides after the electrolysis of Cu as a result of the elimination of interferences from the matrix element. In addition, the limit of detection for some elements (Ga, K and W) is lower in the electrolyzed solution compared to their corresponding values determined by k0-INAA. However, the results showed that electrolysis was not an appropriate method for determination of some trace elements (As, Na, Sb, Pt and Zn) at low concentration level due to contamination from the Pt-electrode or inadequate purification of the glassware used, adsorption/desorption on glassware (e.g. Na, Sb, Se), or losses during evaporation of the solution (heated to about 80 °C) to ˜2 mL (e.g. Se).

  13. Assessment of the geoavailability of trace elements from selected zinc minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Hageman, Phillip L.; Benzel, William M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Morman, Suzette; Choate, LaDonna M.; Lowers, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This assessment focused on five zinc-bearing minerals. The minerals were subjected to a number of analyses including quantitative X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, leaching tests, and bioaccessibility and toxicity studies. Like a previous comprehensive assessment of five copper-bearing minerals, the purpose of this assessment was to obtain structural and chemical information and to characterize the reactivity of each mineral to various simulated environmental and biological conditions. As in the copper minerals study, analyses were conducted consistent with widely accepted methods. Unless otherwise noted, analytical methods used for this study were identical to those described in the investigation of copper-bearing minerals. Two sphalerite specimens were included in the zinc-minerals set. One sphalerite was recovered from a mine in Balmat, New York; the second came from a mine in Creede, Colorado. The location and conditions of origin are significant because, as analyses confirmed, the two sphalerite specimens are quite different. For example, data acquired from a simulated gastric fluid (SGF) study indicate that the hydrothermally formed Creede sphalerite contains orders of magnitude higher arsenic, cadmium, manganese, and lead than the much older metamorphic Balmat sphalerite. The SGF and other experimental results contained in this report suggest that crystallizing conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluidization, or alteration processes significantly affect mineral properties—properties that, in turn, influence reactivity, solubility, and toxicity. The three remaining minerals analyzed for this report—smithsonite, hemimorphite, and hydrozincite—are all secondary minerals or alteration products of zinc-ore deposits. In addition, all share physical characteristics such as tenacity, density, streak, and cleavage. Similarities end there. The chemical composition, unit-cell parameters, acid-neutralizing potential, and other observable and

  14. Variation in seed mineral elements profile and yield in field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lombardo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor is one of the major leguminous crops cultivated in the world and mainly destined for animal feed. Although its seed is generally recognised as a good protein source, little is known about its mineral elements profile, which is an important aspect for a balanced animal diet. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the seed mineral elements composition, along with some key production parameters, in eight field bean genotypes grown in a Mediterranean environment, without intensive management, over two years (2009/10 and 2010/11. Independently of the year, the seed of Chiaro di Torre Lama was the richest in phosphorus (P, magnesium, calcium and iron contents, while that of Sint 6 and Motta Chiaro 69 were the most effective accumulators of potassium and zinc, respectively. While all the genotypes yielded better in the second year (with more rainfall, the seasonal effect on seed mineral elements composition depended on the genotype. Indeed, the P content was 46% lower in Chiaro di Torre Lama, Motta Chiaro 69 and Sint 6 in the second year, while there was only a negligible seasonal effect for Sint 8 with respect to Fe content. Overall, this crop is reasonably productive under a low management regime and its seed can supply significant amounts of certain minerals (particularly P in feed formulations. Both aspects are important in a perspective of optimising field bean production in the Mediterranean area and, hence, improving farmers’ income.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Mineral Elements and Essential Amino Acids Compositions in Juglans sigillata and J. regia Walnuts Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhi ZHAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Walnut high nutritional and economic values. The kernel is usually considered to be a good source of minerals and essential amino acids. In this paper, mineral elements (calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc and essential amino acids (phenylalanine, valine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, and lysine composition's of kernels from 11 kinds of walnuts (Juglans sigillata and 17 kinds of walnuts (Juglans regia originated from China were determined by ICP-MS and HPLC, respectively. The order of nutritive mineral elements depending on their content (mg/100g of samples was Mg> Ca> Zn> Mn> Fe> Cu in J. regia, while the order in J. sigillata was Mg> Ca> Mn> Fe > Zn > Cu. For essential amino acids, the order depending on the content (mg/g of the essential amino acids in J. regia samples was leucine> isoleucine> valine> phenylalanine> lysine> threonine> methionine, while the order in J. sigillata was leucine> isoleucine> lysine> phenylalanine> valine> threonine> methionine. The kernels of walnuts (J. regia and J. regia are good sources of health foods and dietary supplements. ‘Y029’ in Juglans sigillata and ‘XJ004’ in Juglans regia provided the best profiles of mineral elements and essential amino acids in comparison to others.

  16. Elevated serum MDA and depleted non-enzymatic antioxidants, macro-minerals and trace elements are associated with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Manjurul Islam; Hasan, Maimuna; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Sarwar, Md Shahid; Amin, Mohammad Nurul; Uddin, S M Naim; Rahaman, Md Zahedur; Banik, Sujan; Hussain, Md Saddam; Yokota, Kazushige; Hasnat, Abul

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and neurobiological factors are considered to be the major causes of mood and mental disorders. However, over the past few years, increased levels of serum malondialdehyde and altered levels of various non-enzymatic antioxidants and essential minerals involved in abnormal functional activity have been identified as major contributing factors to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of the serum lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidants (vitamin A, E and C), macro-minerals (calcium, potassium and sodium) and trace elements (zinc, iron and selenium) in patients with bipolar disorder and to explore their role in disease progression. This is a prospective case-control study that evaluated 55 patients with bipolar disorder and 55 healthy volunteers matched by age and sex. Serum MDA levels were determined by UV spectrophotometry as a marker of lipid peroxidation. RP-HPLC was employed to investigate the serum vitamin A and E concentrations, whereas UV spectrophotometry was used to quantify levels of vitamin C. Serum macro-minerals and trace elements were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Statistical analysis was performed with independent sample t-tests and Pearson's correlation test. We found significantly higher concentrations of MDA (pantioxidants (vitamin A, E and C) (pantioxidants, macro-minerals and trace elements are strongly associated with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of vitamin D deficiency and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Seung Joo; Koh, Yae Kyu; Heo, Jin Young; Lee, Jinae; Kim, Min Kyoung; Yun, Bo Hyon; Lee, Byung Seok

    2017-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the combined effects of vitamin D and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study consisting of 1,921 Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years without thyroid dysfunction, from the 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified into six groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and daily calcium intake. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at femur and at lumbar spine, and the serum vitamin D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results The BMD divided according to serum 25(OH)D and daily calcium intakes were not statistically different among the groups. However, when both daily calcium intake and serum 25(OH)D were not sufficient, risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis showed significant increase in both femur neck and lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR] 2.242, P=0.006; OR 3.044, P=0.001; respectively). Although daily calcium intake was sufficient, risks of osteopenia and osteoporosis significantly increased in lumbar spine group if serum 25(OH)D is <20 ng/mL (OR 2.993, P=0.006). Conclusion The combined effects of insufficient daily calcium intake and vitamin D deficiency may cause low BMD and increase in prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years. PMID:28217672

  18. Mineral wool insulation board element, useful for roofing material. Pladeformet isolationselement og fremgangsmaade til fremstilling af samme samt isolerende tagbelaegning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredtoft Petersen, S.; Noergaard, L.

    1992-03-16

    An insulation board element of mineral wool having a surface layer containing an oil-repellent (oleophobic) agent. Option is that one side of the element is coated with a fleece of glass fibres. Comprises at least one polymer based on a halogen containing monomer preferably a monomer of a fluoro-substrated hydrocarbon or acrylic acid, and is used in an amount of 1.0-2.5 g of solid matter/m{sup 2}. The insulation board element is especially used for manufacturing an insulated roof covering which comprises the board having a substrate layer attached to the top side by means of a thermo-plastic binder. The amount of molten bituminous binder required is reduced by 40-50% of that required for conventional insulation elements. Adhesion between the roofing felt layer and the insulation element is improved. (AB).

  19. Trace Element Analysis of Minerals in Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ores by Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry: Approaches and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Cook

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS has rapidly established itself as the method of choice for generation of multi-element datasets for specific minerals, with broad applications in Earth science. Variation in absolute concentrations of different trace elements within common, widely distributed phases, such as pyrite, iron-oxides (magnetite and hematite, and key accessory minerals, such as apatite and titanite, can be particularly valuable for understanding processes of ore formation, and when trace element distributions vary systematically within a mineral system, for a vector approach in mineral exploration. LA-ICP-MS trace element data can assist in element deportment and geometallurgical studies, providing proof of which minerals host key elements of economic relevance, or elements that are deleterious to various metallurgical processes. This contribution reviews recent advances in LA-ICP-MS methodology, reference standards, the application of the method to new mineral matrices, outstanding analytical uncertainties that impact on the quality and usefulness of trace element data, and future applications of the technique. We illustrate how data interpretation is highly dependent on an adequate understanding of prevailing mineral textures, geological history, and in some cases, crystal structure.

  20. A chemical-spectrochemical method for the determination of rare earth elements and thorium in cerium minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, H.J.; Murata, K.J.; Carron, M.K.

    1954-01-01

    In a combined chemical-spectrochemical procedure for quantitatively determining rare earth elements in cerium minerals, cerium is determined volumetrically, a total rare earths plus thoria precipitate is separated chemically, the ceria content of the precipitate is raised to 80??0 percent by adding pure ceria, and the resulting mixture is analyzed for lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, gadolinium, yttrium, and thorium spectrochemically by means of the d.c. carbon arc. Spectral lines of singly ionized cerium are used as internal standard lines in the spectrochemical determination which is patterned after Fassel's procedure [1]. Results of testing the method with synthetic mixtures of rare earths and with samples of chemically analyzed cerium minerals show that the coefficient of variation for a quadruplicate determination of any element does not exceed 5??0 (excepting yttrium at concentrations less than 1 percent) and that the method is free of serious systematic error. ?? 1954.

  1. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Falcone-Dias

    Full Text Available Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc. A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  2. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone-Dias, Maria Fernanda; Centrón, Daniela; Pavan, Fernando; Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza, Victor Costa; Farache Filho, Adalberto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were recovered from four of these bottled mineral water brands. Betaproteobacteria was predominant followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Ninety percent of the bacteria isolated demonstrated resistance to seventeen of the nineteen antimicrobials tested. These antimicrobials included eight different classes, including 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected for fifty-nine percent of isolates in three water brands at counts up to 103 CFU/ml. Of major concern, the two bottled mineral water harboring opportunistic pathogens were also source of elements of the resistome that could be directly transferred to humans. All these differences found among brands highlight the need for continuous bacteriological surveillance of bottled mineral water.

  3. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment – severity equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatme...... fiber fractions. A new expanded pretreatment-severity equation is proposed to model and predict mineral composition in pretreated wheat straw biomass...... factors is therefore important in relation to development of new biorefinery processes. The objective of the present study was to examine the levels of mineral elements in pretreated wheat straw in response to systematic variations in the hydrothermal pretreatment parameters (pH, temperature......, and treatment time), and to assess whether it is possible to model mineral levels in the pretreated fiber fraction. Results: Principal component analysis of the wheat straw biomass constituents, including mineral elements, showed that the recovered levels of wheat straw constituents after different hydrothermal...

  4. Nutritional deficiencies after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Bikram S; Finelli, Frederick C; Shope, Timothy R; Koch, Timothy R

    2012-09-01

    Lifestyle intervention programmes often produce insufficient weight loss and poor weight loss maintenance. As a result, an increasing number of patients with obesity and related comorbidities undergo bariatric surgery, which includes approaches such as the adjustable gastric band or the 'divided' Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This Review summarizes the current knowledge on nutrient deficiencies that can develop after bariatric surgery and highlights follow-up and treatment options for bariatric surgery patients who develop a micronutrient deficiency. The major macronutrient deficiency after bariatric surgery is protein malnutrition. Deficiencies in micronutrients, which include trace elements, essential minerals, and water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, are common before bariatric surgery and often persist postoperatively, despite universal recommendations on multivitamin and mineral supplements. Other disorders, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, can promote micronutrient deficiencies, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. Recognition of the clinical presentations of micronutrient deficiencies is important, both to enable early intervention and to minimize long-term adverse effects. A major clinical concern is the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the development of metabolic bone diseases, such as osteoporosis or osteomalacia; metabolic bone diseases may explain the increased risk of hip fracture in patients after RYGB. Further studies are required to determine the optimal levels of nutrient supplementation and whether postoperative laboratory monitoring effectively detects nutrient deficiencies. In the absence of such data, clinicians should inquire about and treat symptoms that suggest nutrient deficiencies.

  5. [Genetic aspects of the relationship between isoquinoline alkaloids and mineral elements in greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzuk, G N; Lovkova, M Ia; Sokolova, S M; Tiutekin, Iu V

    2003-01-01

    Interrelations between the total content of isoquinoline alkaloids, concentrations of quaternary protoberberines and benzophenanthridines, and the amount of K, Cu, Co, Al, Ba, and Zn in aerial parts of individual celandine plants were revealed, within a single cenopopulation, using correlation analysis and regression analysis. Mathematical models describing the regulation of isoquinoline metabolism by some of the mineral elements were obtained in the analytical form. The results suggest that this process is genetically determined.

  6. Opportunistic pathogens and elements of the resistome that are common in bottled mineral water support the need for continuous surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fernanda Falcone-Dias; Daniela Centrón; Fernando Pavan; Adriana Candido da Silva Moura; Felipe Gomes Naveca; Victor Costa de Souza; Adalberto Farache Filho; Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite

    2015-01-01

    Several differences concerning bacterial species, opportunistic pathogens, elements of the resistome as well as variations concerning the CFU/mL counts were identified in some of the five most marketed bottled mineral water from Araraquara city, São Paulo, Brazil. Two out of five brands tested were confirmed as potential source of opportunistic pathogens, including Mycobacterium gordonae, Ralstonia picketti and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). A total of one hundred and six isolates were r...

  7. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral de plantas de camucamuzeiro Effect of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition in camucamuzeiro plants (Myrciaria dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Jesus Matos Viégas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e do micronutriente boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em plantas de camucamuzeiro, conduziu-se experimento em casa de vegetação, mediante a técnica do elemento faltante. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos, sendo completo (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e micronutrientes e omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e B. Os sintomas visuais de deficiências foram, de modo geral, de fácil caracterização para todos os nutrientes. Com exceção do fósforo, as omissões dos demais nutrientes afetaram a produção de matéria seca, quando comparados ao tratamento completo. Com base nos teores em g kg-1, dos macronutrientes, e em mg kg-1, do micronutriente boro nas folhas, infere-se em uma primeira aproximação dos valores adequados (completo, ou seja: 16,9 a 18,2 de N ; 1,2 a 1,9 de P; 5,2 a 6,0 de K; 9,9 a 11,7 de Ca; 1,4 a 3,6 de Mg; 2,4 a 2,8 de S ; 8,4 a 9,5 de B e do deficiente (omissão , 6,5 a 7,9 de N ; =0,9 de P; =1,7 de K ; 5,4 a 6,5 de Ca; =0,7 de Mg; 0,7 a 1,2 de S e 1,1 a 1,9 de BThe effects of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition of plants of "camucamuzeiro" were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, by means of the missing element technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with eight treatments and four repetitions, including complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and micronutrients and individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and B. The visual symptoms of deficiency were easily characterized for all the nutrients. Excepting for P, dry mass was affected by the omission of all the other nutrients, when compared with the complete treatment. Based on the macronutrient (g kg-1 and on the micronutrient boron (mg kg-1 on leaves contents, a first approach of the

  8. Accumulation of biomass and mineral elements with calendar time by corn: application of the expanded growth model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen R Overman

    Full Text Available The expanded growth model is developed to describe accumulation of plant biomass (Mg ha(-1 and mineral elements (kg ha(-1 in with calendar time (wk. Accumulation of plant biomass with calendar time occurs as a result of photosynthesis for green land-based plants. A corresponding accumulation of mineral elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium occurs from the soil through plant roots. In this analysis, the expanded growth model is tested against high quality, published data on corn (Zea mays L. growth. Data from a field study in South Carolina was used to evaluate the application of the model, where the planting time of April 2 in the field study maximized the capture of solar energy for biomass production. The growth model predicts a simple linear relationship between biomass yield and the growth quantifier, which is confirmed with the data. The growth quantifier incorporates the unit processes of distribution of solar energy which drives biomass accumulation by photosynthesis, partitioning of biomass between light-gathering and structural components of the plants, and an aging function. A hyperbolic relationship between plant nutrient uptake and biomass yield is assumed, and is confirmed for the mineral elements nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K. It is concluded that the rate limiting process in the system is biomass accumulation by photosynthesis and that nutrient accumulation occurs in virtual equilibrium with biomass accumulation.

  9. Accumulation of biomass and mineral elements with calendar time by cotton: application of the expanded growth model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen R Overman

    Full Text Available Accumulation of plant biomass (Mg ha(-1 with calendar time (wk occurs as a result of photosynthesis for green land-based plants. A corresponding accumulation of mineral elements (kg ha(-1 such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium occurs from the soil through plant roots. Field data from literature for the warm-season annual cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. are used in this analysis. The expanded growth model is used to describe accumulation of biomass and mineral elements with calendar time. The growth model predicts a simple linear relationship between biomass yield and the growth quantifier, which is confirmed with the data. The growth quantifier incorporates the unit processes of distribution of solar energy which drives biomass accumulation by photosynthesis, partitioning of biomass between light-gathering and structural components of the plants, and an aging function. A hyperbolic relationship between plant nutrient uptake and biomass yield is assumed, and is confirmed for the mineral elements nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. It is concluded that the rate limiting process in the system is biomass accumulation by photosynthesis and that nutrient accumulation occurs in virtual equilibrium with biomass accumulation. The expanded growth model describes field data from California and Alabama rather well. Furthermore, all model parameters were common for the two sites with the exception of the yield factor A which accounts for differences in soil types, environmental conditions, fertilizer levels, and plant population.

  10. Screening of Mineral Elements in Cistus ladanifer and Cistus libanotis Essential Oils and their Leaves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H, Zidane; A, Tahani; M, Fauconnier; A, Elbachiri

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of mineral compounds in Cistus ladanifer and Cistus libanotis growing in Eastern Morocco from two different regions Jerada (arid climate) and Tafoughalt (humid climate...

  11. Deficiencies and toxicities of trace elements and micronutrients in tropical soils: Limitations of knowledge and future research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, B.E. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews present knowledge concerning deficiencies and toxicities of trace elements and micronutrients in tropical soils. The myth that all tropical soils are highly leached and nutrient-poor is challenged. Continuing use of the term laterite by ecologists and geologists is criticized and adoption of plinthite is urged. The trace element content of plinthite and its possible influence on micronutrient availability are described. Micronutrient limitations of tropical agriculture are related to soil type and formation, and the special problem of aluminum toxicity in acid soils is discussed in both agricultural and ecological contexts. Studies of micronutrient cycling in tropical forests or savannas are needed to supplement the emerging picture of the complexities of major element cycles in these ecosystems.

  12. Correlation analysis between bone mineral density and serum element contents of postmenopausal women in Xi'an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shun-Zhi; Yan, Hong; Xu, Peng; Li, Jian-Ping; Zhuang, Gui-Hua; Zhu, Bo-Feng; Lu, She-Min

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the correlation between serum macro-element and trace element contents and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as the occurrence of osteoporosis. After the epidemiological investigation of 290 postmenopausal women from ages 45 to 65 in the Xi'an urban area, their blood was collected and serum concentrations of macro-elements, calcium, phosphonium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, and trace elements, zinc, iron, copper, and selenium were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Their BMD was measured by QDR-2000 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The correlation analysis between BMD and serum element contents was done with the software of SPSS 13.0. The correlation analysis of serum elements of postmenopausal women showed that there was a significant correlation between serum calcium and the other elements, and also a significant correlation between serum phosphonium and the others except serum potassium. The serum potassium content had a significant correlation with serum calcium, sodium and iron, but sodium content showed a significant correlation with the others except iron and selenium. In addition, copper had a significant correlation with the others except potassium and selenium. In correlation analysis between BMD and the elements contents, only did the potassium content show a significant positive correlation with BMD of lumbar vertebra and proximal femora. The comparison results between osteoporosis group, osteopenia group, and healthy group showed that there was no significant difference in the element contents between the groups, but there existed a tendency that potassium content increased with the rise of BMD. There exist significant correlations between the contents of serum elements such as calcium, phosphonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron, copper, and selenium, but no significant differences in these elements contents between the osteoporosis group, osteopenia group, and healthy

  13. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 0 Iodine Daily Serving now recommended in Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements for Pregnant and Lactating Women By ATA | 2015 News Releases , Iodine Deficiency , News Releases , Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy | No Comments Falls Church, February 10, 2015 —The ...

  14. MINERAL ELEMENTS IN WOODS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACK WATTLE AND ITS INFLUENCE IN A BLEACHED KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fredo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Effluents are one of the most important problems in a pulp mill regarding to environmental subjects. With the purpose to reduce them, the mills are closing the internal cycles and reducing the water consumption. The wood, as the most significant source of non-process elements to the system, is responsible for some troubles to the industrial process. With the aim of evaluating their intake and to offer some informations for closing the loop, the contents of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Si were analysed in Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods. Wood samples were prepared by oven burning and acidic digestion methods, following analysis by ICP (inductively coupled plasm. Using also the results from silvicultural evaluation of trees and stands, they were calculated which elements were carried out from the site in larger amounts (K, Ca, Na, Al, Mn and Si and the species which exported largest amount of these elements (Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus. The species with lower growth were Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus dunnii, that leads to a bigger elements input and more potential industrial troubles. It was observed a range of 3.8 (Eucalyptus grandis up to 6 (Eucalyptus dunnii kg of analised mineral elements introduced to the process per ton of umbleached pulp produced. The Acacia mearnsii showed the lower level for Fe, Mn and Ni, being useful for oxygen, ozone and peroxide bleaching. The silicon observed in woods was in low concentration although the high values of this element in industrial liquor cycle. This leads to state that there is some contamination with soil when harvesting and handling the wood. Special care must be taken with both high ash and high mineral elements species, such as Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus.

  15. A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica M. Ngole-Jeme

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having <20% clay content. The soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t. These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils.

  16. Role of Trace Elements In Diabetes And Hypertension | Odusan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of Trace Elements In Diabetes And Hypertension. ... Disease states relate to deficiency or excess of certain trace metals. There is ... When people consume a diet derived from depleted crops, the intake of essential trace minerals ...

  17. Long-term vitamin D deficiency in older adult C57BL/6 mice does not affect bone structure, remodeling and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meijden, K; Buskermolen, J; van Essen, H W; Schuurman, T; Steegenga, W T; Brouwer-Brolsma, E M; Langenbach, G E J; van Ruijven, L J; den Heijer, M; Lips, P; Bravenboer, N

    2016-11-01

    Animal models show that vitamin D deficiency may have severe consequences for skeletal health. However, most studies have been performed in young rodents for a relatively short period, while in older adult rodents the effects of long-term vitamin D deficiency on skeletal health have not been extensively studied. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term vitamin D deficiency on bone structure, remodeling and mineralization in bones from older adult mice. The second aim was to determine the effects of long-term vitamin D deficiency on mRNA levels of genes involved in vitamin D metabolism in bones from older adult mice. Ten months old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing 0.5% calcium, 0.2% phosphate and 0 (n=8) or 1 (n=9) IU vitamin D3/gram for 14 months. At an age of 24 months, mice were sacrificed for histomorphometric and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis of humeri as well as analysis of CYP27B1, CYP24 and VDR mRNA levels in tibiae and kidneys using RT-qPCR. Plasma samples, obtained at 17 and 24 months of age, were used for measurements of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (all samples), phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (terminal samples) concentrations. At the age of 17 and 24 months, mean plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were below the detection limit (vitamin D deficient diets. Plasma phosphate and PTH concentrations did not differ between both groups. Micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis of bone mineral density, structure and remodeling did not reveal differences between control and vitamin D deficient mice. Long-term vitamin D deficiency did also not affect CYP27B1 mRNA levels in tibiae, while CYP24 mRNA levels in tibiae were below the detection threshold in both groups. VDR mRNA levels in tibiae from vitamin D deficient mice were 0.7 fold lower than those in control mice. In conclusion, long-term vitamin D deficiency in older adult C57BL/6 mice, accompanied by normal plasma PTH and phosphate

  18. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment – severity equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatment...... factors is therefore important in relation to development of new biorefinery processes. The objective of the present study was to examine the levels of mineral elements in pretreated wheat straw in response to systematic variations in the hydrothermal pretreatment parameters (pH, temperature......, and treatment time), and to assess whether it is possible to model mineral levels in the pretreated fiber fraction. Results: Principal component analysis of the wheat straw biomass constituents, including mineral elements, showed that the recovered levels of wheat straw constituents after different hydrothermal...

  19. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Mineral Element Contents in Whole Grain Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Chengxiao; Min, Jie; Chen, Yaling; Tong, Chuan; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-12-23

    Mineral elements in brown rice grain play an important role in human health. In this study, variations in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in 378 accessions of brown rice were investigated, and association mapping was used to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the variation. Among seven subpopulations, the mean values of Zn and Cd in the japonica group were significantly higher than in the indica groups. The population structure accounted for from 5.7% (Se) to 22.1% (Pb) of the total variation. Correlation analyses showed that Pb was positively correlated with the other minerals (P rice grain by marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  20. Determination of Mineral, Trace Element, and Pesticide Levels in Honey Samples Originating from Different Regions of Malaysia Compared to Manuka Honey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Rahman, Mohammad Abdur; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

      The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn...

  1. Skarn formation and trace elements in garnet and associated minerals from Zhibula copper deposit, Gangdese Belt, southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Zheng, Youye; Sun, Xiang; Wade, Benjamin P.

    2016-10-01

    Trace element concentrations in garnet and associated minerals from the mid-Miocene Zhibula Cu skarn, Gangdese Belt, Tibet reflect a diversity of local environments, evolving fluid parameters and partitioning with coexisting minerals. Exoskarn occurs as massive but narrow intervals within a Lower Jurassic volcano-sedimentary sequence containing limestone, the main skarn protolith. Endoskarn is present at the contact with mid-Miocene granodiorite dikes. Prograde skarn associations are garnet-dominant but also include diopside-dominant pyroxene in variable amounts. Garnet compositions in exoskarn change from andradite (And)- to grossular (Gr)-dominant from the massive intervals to bands/lenses within marble/tuff, but not in endoskarn. In both cases however, associations at the protolith contact include anorthite and wollastonite, both indicative of skarnoid or distal (relative to fluid source) skarn formation. Exoskarns also contain vesuvianite. Retrograde clinozoisite, actinolite and chlorite replace pre-existing skarn minerals. Garnet displays brecciation and replacement by Al-richer garnet. Depending on partitioning among coexisting minerals, chondrite-normalised REY (REE + Y) fractionation trends for garnet depict endo- to exoskarn diversity, the dominance of And- vs. Gr-rich garnet (in turn related to proximal-to-distal relationship to fluid source), as well as prograde-to-retrograde evolution in the same sample. A strong variation in Eu-anomaly, from positive to negative, in And-dominant garnet can be correlated with variation in salinity of ore-forming fluids, concordant with published fluid inclusion data. Trends depicted by And- and Gr-dominant garnets are consistent with published data from skarns elsewhere, in which the dominant substitution mechanism for REY is YAG-type. Zhibula garnets are enriched in a range of trace elements less commonly reported, including W, Sn, and As, but also Mo (as high as 730 ppm), an element seldom analysed for in silicates

  2. Partitioning of Trace Elements Between Hydrous Minerals and Aqueous Fluids : a Contribution to the Chemical Budget of Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, I.; Koga, K. T.; Reynard, B.; Petitgirard, S.; Chollet, M.; Simionovici, A.

    2006-12-01

    Subduction zones are powerful chemical engines where the downgoing lithosphere reacts with asthenospheric mantle and produces magmas. Understanding this deep recycling system is a scientific challenge requiring multiple approaches. Among those, it appears that we lack basic information on the composition of the fluid that begins the process of material transfer in subduction zones. Indeed, no pristine fluid sample has yet been collected from this particular environment. Albeit challenging, the alternative would be experimental study of fluids under the appropriate conditions. Consequently, we developed an experimental protocol to measure the concentration of aqueous fluids equilibrated with minerals up to pressures (P) of 5 GPa, at least and temperatures (T) of 550 C. This includes syntheses at high-P and -T conditions, and determination of the fluid composition. Syntheses were performed in a large volume belt-type press at the conditions, 2-5 GPa and ca. 550 C. Oxides or minerals were loaded with water in a gold capsule sealed afterwards. Presence of free fluid during experiments could be confirmed by direct observation of fluid release from the sealed capsule upon puncturing. The composition in trace elements of the fluids that were equilibrated at high-P and -T with minerals was reconstructed from that of the precipitates deposited at the surface of minerals after evaporation of the capsule. The precipitates were dissolved and analyzed by a leaching technique detailed in Koga et al. (2005). Two hydrous minerals of prime interest for subductions were sofar investigated: the high-pressure variety of serpentine, antigorite, and talc. The partitioning coefficients of a series of trace-elements will be presented, as well as their evolution as a function of pressure. Consequences for the composition of the fluids released during the dehydration of hydrous metamorphic minerals will be drawn. Those measurements are unlikely to be feasible at pressures in excess of 5 GPa

  3. Simultaneous determination of macronutrients, micronutrients and trace elements in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Souza, Sidnei de [Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental (LQA), Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), 49100-000, São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); Silvério Lopes da Costa, Silvânio [Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental (LQA), Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), 49100-000, São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); Coordenação de Química, Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Campus Arapiraca, 57309-005, Arapiraca, AL (Brazil); Santos, Dayane Melo; Santos Pinto, Jéssica dos; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges [Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental (LQA), Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), 49100-000, São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); and others

    2014-06-01

    An analytical method for simultaneous determination of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, Na and P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Pb and V) in mineral fertilizers was optimized. Two-level full factorial design was applied to evaluate the optimal proportions of reagents used in the sample digestion on hot plate. A Doehlert design for two variables was used to evaluate the operating conditions of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer in order to accomplish the simultaneous determination of the analyte concentrations. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 2.0 mg kg{sup −1} for Mn to 77.3 mg kg{sup −1} for P. The accuracy and precision of the proposed method were evaluated by analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs) of Western phosphate rock (NIST 694), Florida phosphate rock (NIST 120C) and Trace elements in multi-nutrient fertilizer (NIST 695), considered to be adequate for simultaneous determination. Twenty-one samples of mineral fertilizers collected in Sergipe State, Brazil, were analyzed. For all samples, the As, Ca, Cd and Pb concentrations were below the LOQ values of the analytical method. For As, Cd and Pb the obtained LOQ values were below the maximum limit allowed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento — MAPA). The optimized method presented good accuracy and was effectively applied to quantitative simultaneous determination of the analytes in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). - Highlights: • Determination of inorganic constituents in mineral fertilizers was proposed. • Experimental design methodology was used to optimize analytical method. • The sample preparation procedure using diluted reagents (HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was employed. • The analytical method was satisfactorily to the determination of thirteen elements. • The

  4. Biological Cycles of Mineral Elements in a Young Mixed Stand in Abandoned Mining Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Lun Tian; Wen-Hua Xiang; Wen-De Yan; Wen-Xing Kang; Xiang-Wen Deng; Zhu Fan

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation as a sustainable and inexpensive technology based on the removal of pollutants from the environment by plants is becoming an increasingly important objective in plant research. In this study, biological cycles of five nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) and eight heavy metal elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Co) were examined in young paniculed goldraintree (Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm) and common elaeocarpus (Elaeocarpus decipens) mixed stands in an abandoned mining area. We found that after vegetation restoration in abandoned mining areas, the organic matter and concentrations of nutrient elements were significantly increased and the heavy metal elements were significantly decreased, the annual retention, uptake and return were 75.0, 115.4, and 40.3 kg/hm2 for nutrient elements, and 1 878.0,3 231.0 and 1 353.0 g/hm2 for heavy metal elements, respectively, with the utilization coefficient, cycling coefficient and turnover rate of 0.92, 0.35 and 0.32 for nutrient elements, and 1.24, 0.42 and 1.92 for heavy metal elements, respectively.Our results suggested that the vegetation restoration in abandoned mining areas had significant effects in improving environmental conditions, enhancing soil available nutrients, and ensuring human health.

  5. Trace-Element Analyses of Carbonate Minerals in the Gunflint Banded Iron Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Aurora; Papike, James J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the petrography, mineralogy and trace-element abundances of individual carbonate grains in the Early Proterozoic Gunflint BIF (Banded Iron Formation). Trace-element data may be used as environmental recorders of the fluid evolution from which the various carbonate phases precipitated. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Trace-Element Analyses of Carbonate Minerals in the Gunflint Banded Iron Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Aurora; Papike, James J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the petrography, mineralogy and trace-element abundances of individual carbonate grains in the Early Proterozoic Gunflint BIF (Banded Iron Formation). Trace-element data may be used as environmental recorders of the fluid evolution from which the various carbonate phases precipitated. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. The monitoring of mineral elements content in fruit purchased in supermarkets and food markets from Timisoara, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heghedűş-Mîndru Ramona Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating various fruit samples using atomic absorption spectrometry method, the content in mineral elements, macroelements (Na, K, Ca, Mg and microelements (Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Cd , Pb, Zn, Co and Ni. Fruit samples were taken from supermarkets (imported products and agricultural markets (domestic products in the city of Timisoara, Romania. The results obtained by chemical analysis were evaluated statistically based on method of main components analyzed. Major influence in the group had evidence if macroelements potassium and sodium, iron and manganese where microelements. The results were compared with results obtained by other researchers in the world. The results fall within the legal limits set by law.

  8. Evaluation of an intact, an ACL-deficient, and a reconstructed human knee joint finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairis, Achilles; Stefanoudakis, George; Petousis, Markos; Vidakis, Nectarios; Tsainis, Andreas-Marios; Kandyla, Betina

    2016-02-01

    The human knee joint has a three-dimensional geometry with multiple body articulations that produce complex mechanical responses under loads that occur in everyday life and sports activities. Understanding the complex mechanical interactions of these load-bearing structures is of use when the treatment of relevant diseases is evaluated and assisting devices are designed. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee is one of four main ligaments that connects the femur to the tibia and is often torn during sudden twisting motions, resulting in knee instability. The objective of this work is to study the mechanical behavior of the human knee joint and evaluate the differences in its response for three different states, i.e., intact, ACL-deficient, and surgically treated (reconstructed) knee. The finite element models corresponding to these states were developed. For the reconstructed model, a novel repair device was developed and patented by the author in previous work. Static load cases were applied, as have already been presented in a previous work, in order to compare the calculated results produced by the two models the ACL-deficient and the surgically reconstructed knee joint, under the exact same loading conditions. Displacements were calculated in different directions for the load cases studied and were found to be very close to those from previous modeling work and were in good agreement with experimental data presented in literature. The developed finite element model for both the intact and the ACL-deficient human knee joint is a reliable tool to study the kinematics of the human knee, as results of this study show. In addition, the reconstructed human knee joint model had kinematic behavior similar to the intact knee joint, showing that such reconstruction devices can restore human knee stability to an adequate extent.

  9. Impact of Frequency of Multi-Vitamin/Multi-Mineral Supplement Intake on Nutritional Adequacy and Nutrient Deficiencies in U.S. Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Blumberg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although >50% of U.S. adults use dietary supplements, little information is available on the impact of supplement use frequency on nutrient intakes and deficiencies. Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2009 to 2012, assessments were made of intakes from food alone versus food plus multi-vitamin/multi-mineral supplements (MVMS of 17 nutrients with an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR and a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL, and of the status of five nutrients with recognized biomarkers of deficiency. Compared to food alone, MVMS use at any frequency was associated with a lower prevalence of inadequacy (p < 0.01 for 15/17 nutrients examined and an increased prevalence of intakes >UL for 7 nutrients, but the latter was ≤4% for any nutrient. Except for calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D, most frequent MVMS use (≥21 days/30 days virtually eliminated inadequacies of the nutrients examined, and was associated with significantly lower odds ratios of deficiency for the examined nutrient biomarkers except for iron. In conclusion, among U.S. adults, MVMS use is associated with decreased micronutrient inadequacies, intakes slightly exceeding the UL for a few nutrients, and a lower risk of nutrient deficiencies.

  10. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols: Insights from elemental composition measured at the Izaña Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez García-Pando, Carlos; Miller, Ron L.; Perlwitz, Jan P.; Rodríguez, Sergio; Prospero, Joseph M.

    2016-10-01

    Regional variations of dust mineral composition are fundamental to climate impacts but generally neglected in climate models. A challenge for models is that atlases of soil composition are derived from measurements following wet sieving, which destroys the aggregates potentially emitted from the soil. Aggregates are crucial to simulating the observed size distribution of emitted soil particles. We use an extension of brittle fragmentation theory in a global dust model to account for these aggregates. Our method reproduces the size-resolved dust concentration along with the approximately size-invariant fractional abundance of elements like Fe and Al in the decade-long aerosol record from the Izaña Observatory, off the coast of West Africa. By distinguishing between Fe in structural and free forms, we can attribute improved model behavior to aggregation of Fe and Al-rich clay particles. We also demonstrate the importance of size-resolved measurements along with elemental composition analysis to constrain models.

  11. Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency? A systematic literature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, O.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adult patients with GH deficiency (GHD) are characterized by a reduced muscle mass, but also reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), which have been ascribed to GHD per se. The aim of this study was to investigate if changes in BMD/BMC in adult GHD patients could be due...... performed a systematic literature analysis, including 51 clinical trials published between 1996 and 2008, which had studied the development in muscle mass, muscle strength, BMD, and/or BMC in GH-treated adult GHD patients. RESULTS: GH therapy had an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle. The largest increase...

  12. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults have a markedly decreased bone mineral content compared to healthy adults. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of GH treatment on bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Therefore, we evaluated...... the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4...... months in a double-blind, placebo-controlled GH trial, while 13 of the patients then received further GH for an additional 14 months. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased significantly from 100 to 279 micrograms/l and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) from 1930 to 3355 micrograms/l after 4...

  13. Platinum group element mineralization of the Svetly Bor and Veresovy Bor clinopyroxenite-dunite massifs, Middle Urals, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, S. Yu.; Malitch, K. N.; Kozlov, A. V.; Badanina, I. Yu; Antonov, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    The new data for the geology and mineralogy of the platinum group element (PGE) mineralization related to the chromite-platinum ore zones within the dunite of the Svetly Bor and Veresovy Bor massifs in the Middle Urals are discussed. The geological setting of the chromite-platinum ore zones, their platinum content, compositional and morphological features of the platinum group minerals (PGM) are compared to those within the Nizhny Tagil massif, the world standard of the zonal complexes in the Platinum Ural belt. The chromite-platinum orebodies are spatially related to the contacts between differently granular dunites. Majority of PGM are formed by Pt-Fe alloys that are close in terms of stoichiometry to isoferroplatinum (Pt3Fe), and associated with Os-Ir alloys, Ru-Os and Ir-Rh sulfides, and Ir-Rh thiospinels of the cuproiridsite-cuprorhodsite-ferrorhodsite solid solution. The tetraferroplatinum (PtFe)-tulameenite (PtFe0.5Cu0.5) solid solution and Pt-Cu alloys belong to the later PGM assemblage. The established features of the chromite-platinum ore zones testify to the highly probable identification of the PGE mineralization within the dunite of the Svetly Bor and Vesesovy Bor massifs and could be used in prospecting and exploration for platinum.

  14. The properties of the nano-minerals and hazardous elements: Potential environmental impacts of Brazilian coal waste fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civeira, Matheus S; Pinheiro, Rafael N; Gredilla, Ainara; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez Ortiz; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ramos, Claudete G; Taffarel, Silvio R; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-02-15

    Brazilian coal area (South Brazil) impacted the environment by means of a large number of coal waste piles emplaced over the old mine sites and the adjacent areas of the Criciúma, Urussanga, and Siderópolis cities. The area studied here was abandoned and after almost 30 years (smokeless visual) some companies use the actual minerals derived from burning coal cleaning rejects (BCCRs) complied in the mentioned area for industry tiles or refractory bricks. Mineralogical and geochemical similarities between the BCCRs and non-anthropogenic geological environments are outlined here. Although no visible flames were observed, this study revealed that auto-combustion existed in the studied area for many years. The presence of amorphous phases, mullite, hematite and other Fe-minerals formed by high temperature was found. There is also pyrite, Fe-sulphates (eg. jarosite) and unburnt coal present, which are useful for comparison purposes. Bad disposal of coal-dump wastes represents significant environmental concerns due to their potential influence on atmosphere, river sediments, soils and as well as on the surface and groundwater in the surroundings of these areas. The present study using advanced analytical techniques were performed to provide an improved understanding of the complex processes related with sulphide-rich coal waste oxidation, spontaneous combustion and mineral formation. It is reporting huge numbers of rare minerals with alunite, montmorillonite, szomolnokite, halotrichite, coquimbite and copiapite at the BCCRs. The data showed the presence of abundant amorphous Si-Al-Fe-Ti as (oxy-)hydroxides and Fe-hydro/oxides with goethite and hematite with various degrees of crystallinity, containing hazardous elements, such as Cu, Cr, Hf, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Th, U, Zr, and others. By Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the mineralogical composition was related with the range of elemental concentration of each sample. Most of the nano-minerals and ultra-fine particles

  15. Effect of dietary trace mineral supplementation and a multi-element trace mineral injection on shipping response and growth performance of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genther, O N; Hansen, S L

    2014-06-01

    To examine the effect of trace mineral (TM) status and TM injection on growth performance and carcass characteristics in beef cattle, 40 steers were used in a growing and finishing study. Steers were stratified by weight (323 ± 14.8 kg) and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments for an 84-d depletion period: 1) a corn silage-based diet supplemented with Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn to meet or exceed NRC recommendations (CON), or 2) CON diet without supplemental Cu, Mn, Se, or Zn but supplemented with 300 mg Fe and 5 mg Mo/kg diet DM as dietary TM antagonists (DEF) to induce mild deficiencies. To mimic shipping stress, steers were shipped for 20 h on d 88 and were received back on d 89. On d 91 an equal number of steers from both dietary treatments were injected with sterilized saline (SAL) or Multimin 90 (MM; containing 15, 60, 10, and 5 mg/mL of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se, respectively) at a dose of 1 mL/68 kg BW. Steers were fed a common finishing diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu, 20 mg Mn, 0.1 mg Se, and 30 mg Zn/kg diet DM for the 90-d repletion period. Steers were harvested 91 d postinjection and carcass data were collected. During the depletion period, diet did not affect BW, ADG, DMI, or G:F (P > 0.20). During the shipping period (defined as the time between 2-d consecutive weights on d 83 and 84 and d 90 and 91), DEF steers tended to lose more weight per day than CON steers (P = 0.06) and had lesser DMI (P = 0.03), suggesting that response to shipping stress may be modulated by TM status. During the repletion period, ADG of DEF + MM steers was greater (P = 0.03) compared with DEF + SAL and was not different (P = 0.92) among CON + MM and CON + SAL steers. There was no effect of diet or injection on HCW or dressing percentage (P > 0.20). Within the CON group, TM injection decreased yield grade (P = 0.03) but did not affect yield grade of DEF steers (P > 0.20). Steers given TM injection had a larger rib eye area (P = 0.04) regardless of previous diet. Interestingly, both diet and

  16. Posterior Cord Syndrome and Trace Elements Deficiency as an Uncommon Presentation of Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Silva Macedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is one of the most common symptoms in common variable immunodeficiency, but neurologic manifestations are rare. We presented a 50-year-old woman with recurrent diarrhea and severe weight loss that developed a posterior cord syndrome. Endoscopy found a duodenal villous blunting, intraepithelial lymphocytosis, and lack of plasma cells and magnetic resonance imaging of the spine was normal. Laboratory assays confirmed common variable immunodeficiency syndrome and showed low levels of trace elements (copper and zinc. Treatment was initiated with parenteral replacement of trace elements and intravenous human immunoglobulin and the patient improved clinically. In conclusion, physicians must be aware that gastrointestinal and neurologic disorders may be related to each other and remember to request trace elements laboratory assessment.

  17. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Polyphenolic Compounds, Amino Acids and Mineral Elements of Representative Genotypes of Lonicera edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Sochor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactive substances in 19 berry cultivars of edible honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis. A statistical evaluation was used to determine the relationship between the content of selected bioactive substances and individual cultivars. Regarding mineral elements, the content of sodium was measured using potentiometry and spectrophotometry. The content of selected polyphenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity was determined by a HPLC–UV/ED method. The total amount of polyphenols was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined using five methods (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, FR and DMPD that differ in their principles. The content of 13 amino acids was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. The experimental results obtained for the different cultivars were evaluated and compared by statistical and bioinformatic methods. A unique feature of this study lies in the exhaustive analysis of the chosen parameters (amino acids, mineral elements, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity during one growing season.

  18. Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Endophyte Infection on Ecophysiological Parameters and Mineral Element Content of Perennial Ryegrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Zhi Ren; Yu-Bao Gao; Wei Wang; Jin-Long Wang; Nian-Xi Zhao

    2009-01-01

    An expedment was designed to determine the effect of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii on the growth, physiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perennel L.), when growing at two N supply levels. Endophyfe infection had a significant positive effect on both shoot and root growth of ryegrass, but this difference was only significant in the high N supply treatment. At high N supply, endophyte-infected (EI) plants accumulated more soluble sugar in the sheath and the root than endophyte-free (EF) plants. Endophyte infection affected mineral element concentrations In the root more than in the shoot. We found a significant effect of endophyte infection on B, Mn and Mg in the root, but significant effect was only found on B in the shoot. EI plants tended to accumulate less B in the shoot at both N levels, but accumulated more B, Mn and Mg in the root at low N levels. The difference of growth parameters in different periods was significant. The content of soluble sugar and crude protein in the sheath were also dependent on the growth stages of both EI and EF plants.

  19. Influence of nitrogen fertilizer and endophyte infection on ecophysiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, An-Zhi; Gao, Yu-Bao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jin-Long; Zhao, Nian-Xi

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was designed to determine the effect of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii on the growth, physiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perennel L.), when growing at two N supply levels. Endophyte infection had a significant positive effect on both shoot and root growth of ryegrass, but this difference was only significant in the high N supply treatment. At high N supply, endophyte-infected (EI) plants accumulated more soluble sugar in the sheath and the root than endophyte-free (EF) plants. Endophyte infection affected mineral element concentrations in the root more than in the shoot. We found a significant effect of endophyte infection on B, Mn and Mg in the root, but significant effect was only found on B in the shoot. EI plants tended to accumulate less B in the shoot at both N levels, but accumulated more B, Mn and Mg in the root at low N levels. The difference of growth parameters in different periods was significant. The content of soluble sugar and crude protein in the sheath were also dependent on the growth stages of both EI and EF plants.

  20. Simultaneous determination of macronutrients, micronutrients and trace elements in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Souza, Sidnei; da Costa, Silvânio Silvério Lopes; Santos, Dayane Melo; dos Santos Pinto, Jéssica; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    An analytical method for simultaneous determination of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, Na and P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Pb and V) in mineral fertilizers was optimized. Two-level full factorial design was applied to evaluate the optimal proportions of reagents used in the sample digestion on hot plate. A Doehlert design for two variables was used to evaluate the operating conditions of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer in order to accomplish the simultaneous determination of the analyte concentrations. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 2.0 mg kg- 1 for Mn to 77.3 mg kg- 1 for P. The accuracy and precision of the proposed method were evaluated by analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs) of Western phosphate rock (NIST 694), Florida phosphate rock (NIST 120C) and Trace elements in multi-nutrient fertilizer (NIST 695), considered to be adequate for simultaneous determination. Twenty-one samples of mineral fertilizers collected in Sergipe State, Brazil, were analyzed. For all samples, the As, Ca, Cd and Pb concentrations were below the LOQ values of the analytical method. For As, Cd and Pb the obtained LOQ values were below the maximum limit allowed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento - MAPA). The optimized method presented good accuracy and was effectively applied to quantitative simultaneous determination of the analytes in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES).

  1. Critical Zone Weathering and Your Smartphone: Understanding How Mineral Decomposition and Colloid Redistribution Can Generate Rare Earth Element Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, C.; Foley, N.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE's) are crucial in the manufacture of smartphones and many other high tech devices. Increasing global demand and relatively narrow geographic sourcing have promoted interest in understanding REE deposit genesis and distribution. Highly weathered, clay-hosted, ion-exchange type deposits in southern China are the source of much of the world's production of the more valuable heavy REEs. Such deposits form as REE-bearing minerals weather and REEs released to solution in ionic form are retained by negatively charged exchange sites on clay minerals. We are investigating the potential for ion-exchange REE deposits in the Piedmont of the southeastern United States, where slow erosion rates have preserved thick (up to 20 m) regolith, as required for such deposits. The Liberty Hill pluton outcrops as coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite and quartz monzonite over nearly 400 km2 in South Carolina, and has an age of 305 Ma (new SHRIMP ion microprobe zircon age). In weathered profiles over the pluton, ion-exchangeable REE content ranges from 8 to 580 ppm and accounts for 2 to 80% of bulk REE content. Elemental and heavy mineral distributions suggest the wide ranging differences in leachability may be attributable to the amount and distribution of resistant REE-bearing phases (e.g., monazite) relative to more easily weathered phases (e.g., allanite) in the parent granite. The REEs show little mobility within the regolith, indicating the effectiveness of the ion-exchange retention mechanism. In contrast, vertical redistribution of colloidal material shows maximum accumulations at ~1 m depth, as traced by the newly developed dual-phase (colloids vs. solution) mass balance model. The contrast suggests redistributed colloidal material has minimal influence on REE mobilization or retention. Conditions and processes necessary for ion-exchange REE deposit development exist in the Piedmont, but their presence will depend upon favorable parent rock mineralogy.

  2. Determination of thorium and of rare earth elements in cerium earth minerals and ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, M.K.; Skinner, D.L.; Stevens, R.E.

    1955-01-01

    The conventional oxalate method for precipitating thorium and the rare earth elements in acid solution exhibits definite solubilities of these elements. The present work was undertaken to establish conditions overcoming these solubilities and to find optimum conditions for precipitating thorium and the rare earth elements as hydroxides and sebacates. The investigations resulted in a reliable procedure applicable to samples in which the cerium group elements predominate. The oxalate precipitations are made from homogeneous solution at pH 2 by adding a prepared solution of anhydrous oxalic acid in methanol instead of the more expensive crystalline methyl oxalate. Calcium is added as a carrier. Quantitative precipitation of thorium and the rare earth elements is ascertained by further small additions of calcium to the supernatant liquid, until the added calcium precipitates as oxalate within 2 minutes. Calcium is removed by precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and rare earths at room temperature by adding ammonium hydroxide to pH > 10. Thorium is separated as the sebacate at pH 2.5, and the rare earths are precipitated with ammonium sebacate at pH 9. Maximum errors for combined weights of thorium and rare earth oxides on synthetic mixtures are ??0.6 mg. Maximum error for separated thoria is ??0.5 mg.

  3. Green direct determination of mineral elements in artichokes by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Marqués, Alba; Martínez-García, Maria; Garrigues, Salvador; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Near infrared (NIR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy were investigated to predict the concentration of calcium, potassium, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc in artichoke samples. Sixty artichokes were purchased from different Spanish areas (Benicarló, Valencia and Murcia). NIR and XRF spectra, combined with partial least squares (PLS) data treatment, were used to develop chemometric models for the prediction of mineral concentration. To obtain reference data, samples were mineralised and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Coefficients of determination obtained for the regression between predicted values and reference ones for calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, manganese and zinc were 0.61, 0.79, 0.53, 0.77, 0.54 and 0.60 for NIR and 0.96, 0.93, 0.80, 0.79, 0.76 and 0.90 for XRF, respectively. Both assayed methodologies, offer green alternatives to classical mineral analysis, but XRF provided the best results in order to be used as a quantitative screening method.

  4. Trace elements and heavy metals in mineral and bottled drinking waters on the Iranian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Dezfooli-Manesh, Shirin; Shoeibi, Shahram; Ziarati, Parisa; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Iranian waters, sampled from 2010 to 2013, is presented. A total of 128 water samples from 42 different brands of bottled mineral and drinking water were collected and analysed for contamination levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg). Determinations were performed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Pb, Cd and Cu, a hydride vapour generation as well as an Arsenator digital kit (Wagtech WTD, Tyne and Wear, UK) for As and a direct mercury analyser for Hg. Arsenic concentration in six bottled gaseous mineral samples was higher than the related limit. Regardless of these, mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, As and Hg in all types of water samples were 4.50 ± 0.49, 1.08 ± 0.09, 16.11 ± 2.77, 5.80 ± 1.63 and 0.52 ± 0.03 µg L⁻¹, respectively. Values obtained for analysed heavy metals in all samples were permissible according to the limits of national and international standards.

  5. Study of mineral and essential trace elements in milk and dairy products by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and neutron activation analysis; Estudo da composicao mineral e dos elementos-traco essenciais em amostras de leite e produtos lacteos por espectrometria de emissao atomica com plasma induzido e analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia

    2002-07-01

    The importance of food composition related to nutritional and toxicological contents has been emphasized in recent years. Some chemical elements are needed for cell metabolism, while excess or deficiency may be responsible for disorders. Milk is considered the most important food during the first months of life, nutritional needs of children being satisfied by milk and dairy products. These foods provide the main trace elements for the good growth of different tissues as well as the functioning of several enzymatic systems. Important deficiencies in mineral during this period can interfere with children's development. Determination of mineral and trace elements by using spectroscopic techniques generally involves a pretreatment of sample. Sample preparation is the most critical part of the analysis because of the long preparation time and the possibilities for contamination and losses of the analyte associated with this step. Different procedures of sample preparation (dry ashing digestion, wet digestion using an open focused microwave and a hot plate) were evaluated for determining Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in milk and dairy products by the ICP OES technique. In this work the concentrations obtained for the elements determined by the ICP OES technique after using the different treatments of sample were compared to the results obtained by the INAA technique, that does not require dissolution of sample. The partial digestion with diluted hydrochloric acid was found to be suitable for determining Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in milk samples and dairy products. (author)

  6. Difference of Low Temperature and Low Irradiance-Resistance between Figleaf Gourd and Cucumber Seedlings Related to Mineral Elements Uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-Yong; GUO Shang-Jing; LI Xin-Guo; MENG Jing-Jinga; HE Qi-Wei

    2009-01-01

    We have repotted that the roots of fig, leaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, as rootstock) could improve the resistance of cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L.cv. Jinyan 4, as scion) to 6 h stress at low temperature and low irradiance [1]. In this experiment, the relationship between the mineral elements uptake and photosynthetic activity of photosystems in figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings were to be studied during low temperature (8 C) stress under low irradiance (100 μ. mol m-2 s-1 PFD) for 5 days. Compared with control seedlings, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS2 (Fv/Fm) and the oxidizable P700 (P700+) of both figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings decreased, and beth Fv/Fm and P700+ were lower in cucumber leaves than in figleaf gourd seedlings at the end of the stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in beth leaves and roots of figleaf gourd than in leaves and roots of cucumber at both room temperature and low temperature. However, the product rate of O 2 was lower in figleaf gourd leaves than in cucumber leaves. Upon ex-posure to the stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased markedly in leaves and roots of figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings, and it grew faster in cucumber seedlings than that in figleaf gourd seedlings. Under adaptive conditions, some mineral elements (Such as Cu, Zn, Mn and Mg) have different contents in leaves and roots between figleaf gourd seedlings and cucumber seedlings. However, at the end of the stress these elements were accumulated apparently in both leaves and roots of figleaf gourd accompanied by no obvious change in cucumber seedlings.

  7. The Trinity of Life: The Genome, the Proteome, and the Mineral Chemical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. J. P.; J. J. R. Francis da Silva

    2004-01-01

    A brief outline of the known or presumed initial environment and its changes over time is given to observe the connection between the origin and evolution of the metallomes of cells to the environment and its changes. The connection to the environment leads from the abundance and environmental availability of the elements and therefore gives an…

  8. A simplified soil extraction sequence to monitor the main and trace element speciation in soil after compost and mineral fertilizer additions upon the composition of wheat grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Manfred; Erhart, Eva

    2016-04-01

    High quality biological waste treatment aims at producing compost in order to maintain a clean environment and to sustain soil organic carbon levels. Fertilization with compost as a source of organic carbon, nutrients, and accessory elements, as well as fertilization with mineral N- and PK fertilizer have been tested in a field experiment on a calcaric Fluvisol in the Danube wetlands, at 4 levels each. Yields of wheat were recorded, and grains and soils were sampled from each treatment, and analyzed for main and trace element composition. The corresponding soils were characterized by mobile phases, obtained by leaching with 0,16M acetic acid to cover exchangeables plus carbonates, and subsequently by 0,1M oxalate buffer pH 3 to dissolve the pedogenic oxides. Total amounts were obtained from digests with perchloric- nitric-hydrofluoric acid. For quasi-total amounts, aqua regia was replaced by pressure decomposition with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid. The proposed extraction sequence permits to analyze and interpret soil for main elements, trace elements, nutrients and anions simultaneously. Factor analyses of soil extracts obtained from dilute acetic acid revealed Ba-Be-Cd-Cu-Li-S (traces), Ca-Mg-Mn (main carbonates), Al-Fe-B, Y, and P-K (nutrients) as chemically feasible principal components. Subsequent soil extracts from oxalate contained Al-B-Co-K-Na-Pb-Si-V-S (maybe acid silicate weathering), Cr-Li-Ni-Sr-Ti (maybe basic silicate weathering), Be-Cu-Fe-P, Co-Mg-Mn-Zn (Mn-oxides) and Ba-Sc as principal components. Factor analyses of total element data distinguished the principal components Ce-La-Li-Sc-Y-P (rare earths), Al-Ca-Fe-K-Mg-Na-P (main elements), Cd-Co-Cr-Cu-Ni-Zn (trace elements), As-Pb (contaminants), Ba-Mn-Sr, and Ti, which looks chemically feasible also. Factor analyses of those soil fractions which presumably form the main fractions of exchangeables, carbonates, pedogenic oxides and silicates, showed no cross connections, except for P. Oxalate

  9. Influence of ph in the Uptake and Accumulation of Mineral Elements on Vine Leaf (Vitis vinifera L.) from Castilla-La Mancha (SPAIN.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Sandra; Amorós, José Angel; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; García-Navarro, Francisco J.; Higueras, Pablo; Sanchez-Ormeño, Mónica

    2015-04-01

    Each soil-plant system has specific parameters on the uptake of different minerals in the soil, depending on several factors. One of these factors, perhaps the most important, is the pH. 101 Vineyard plots have been selected in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) and have been analysed (pH among other parameters) by the methods described by FAO. Leaf samples have also been taken in each plot. We analysed the content of 25 mineral elements in both soil and leaf through FRX technique. In addition, we calculated the BAC (bioaccumulation coefficient, calculated as the ratio between the concentration of element in the plant and soil) to stablish if the soil pH influences the accumulation of mineral elements for the plant. As a result we have observed a different behavior of groups of elements for acids or alkaline soils. Thus, the alkaline elements (Na, K, Rb) have a higher BAC value in alkaline soils except cesium (Cs) that has a similar value; while the alkaline-earth elements (Ca, Mg, Sr) present lower BAC in alkaline soils except for barium (Ba) that shows similar value in both cases. Rare Earths (Y, La, Ce, Th and Nd) have very similar values in bioaccumulation for acidic and alkaline soils, while metals (Fe, Al, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Rb and Pb) show a higher bioaccumulation in alkaline soils. Instead Mn, Zn and Ga are preferently bioaccumulated in acid soils. The values obtained for the sulfur (S) are superior in acid soils. We conclude that certain mineral elements accumulate in the leaves of vines depending on the soil pH. The pH will influence the ionic form in which the element is present in the soil and plants preferentially uptake mineral elements in certain ionic forms.

  10. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies After Biliopancreatic Diversion and Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch--the Rule Rather than the Exception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, J.; Betzel, B; Aarts, E.O.; Dogan, K.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Janssen, I.M.C.; Berends, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Malabsorptive bariatric procedures, like the biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) and BPD with duodenal switch (BPD/DS), have excellent results in terms of weight loss. However, these malabsorptive techniques are associated with severe malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies. The aim of this

  11. Removal of Gangue Minerals Containing Major Elements from Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl) Lignite Using a Reverse Flotation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Halime Abakay

    2015-12-01

    The removal of gangue minerals containing major elements was investigated using a reverse flotation method. Experiments were conducted on lignite samples, with high-ash and low-sulphur contents taken from a lignite field in Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl), Turkey. Predominant gangue minerals in the samples were found to be quartz, gypsum, feldspar minerals, mica minerals, and clays (smectite group). Preliminary flotation studies showed that gangue materials are more buoyant than the lignite sample. Some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of reverse flotation, such as grinding time, pH, collector type and volume, frother type and volume, and salt, were investigated. Quartz was found to cause a major problem in terms of reverse flotation. Flotation measurements showed that anionic collectors in an acidic medium result in the following element reduction order: sulphur trioxide > ferric oxide > magnesium oxide > calcium oxide > silicon dioxide > aluminium oxide.

  12. Evaluation of the use of human hair for biomonitoring the deficiency of essential and exposure to toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Jairo L.; Batista, Bruno L.; Nunes, Juliana A.; Passos, Carlos J.S. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)], E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br

    2008-11-01

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements and assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements is of great importance for human health. Thus, the appropriate selection and measurement of biomarkers of internal dose is of critical importance. Due to their many advantages, hair samples have been widely used to assess human exposure to different contaminants. However, the validity of this biomarker in evaluating the level of trace elements in the human body is debatable. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between levels of trace elements in hair and whole blood or plasma in a Brazilian population. Hair, blood and plasma were collected from 280 adult volunteers for metal determination. An ICP-MS was used for sample analysis. Manganese, copper, lead and strontium levels in blood varied from 5.1 to 14.7, from 494.8 to 2383.8, from 5.9 to 330.1 and from 11.6 to 87.3 {mu}g/L, respectively. Corresponding levels in hair varied from 0.05 to 6.71, from 0.02 to 37.59, from 0.02 to 30.63 and from 0.9 to 12.6 {mu}g/g. Trace element levels in plasma varied from 0.07 to 8.62, from 118.2 to 1577.7 and from 2.31 to 34.2 {mu}g/L for Mn, Cu and Sr, respectively. There was a weak correlation (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) between lead levels in hair and blood. Moreover, copper and strontium levels in blood correlate with those levels in plasma (r = 0.64 , p < 0.001 for Cu) and (r = 0.22, p < 0.05 for Sr). However, for Cu, Mn and Sr there was no correlation between levels in hair and blood. Our findings suggest that while the idea of measuring trace elements in hair is attractive, hair is not an appropriate biomarker for evaluating Cu, Mn and Sr deficiency or Pb exposure.

  13. Origin of Minerals and Elements in the Late Permian Coal Seams of the Shiping Mine, Sichuan, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangbing Luo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic layers in coal seams in southwestern China coalfields have received much attention given their significance in coal geology studies and their potential economic value. In this study, the mineralogical and geochemical compositions of C19 and C25 coal seams were examined, and the following findings were obtained. (1 Clay minerals in sample C19-r are argillized, and sedimentary layering is not observed. The acicular idiomorphic crystals of apatite and the phenocrysts of Ti-augite coexisting with magnetite in roof sample C19-r are common minerals in basaltic rock. The rare earth elements (REE distribution pattern of C19-r, which is characterized by positive Eu anomalies and M-REE enrichment, is the same as that of high-Ti basalt. The concentrations of Ti, V, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf in C19-r are closer to those of high-Ti basalt. In conclusion, roof sample C19-r consists of tuffaceous clay, probably with a high-Ti mafic magma source. (2 The geochemical characteristics of the C25 coals are same as those reported for coal affected by alkali volcanic ash, enrichment in Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and REE, causing the C25 minable coal seams to have higher potential value. Such a vertical study of coals and host rocks could provide more information for coal-forming depositional environment analysis, for identification of volcanic eruption time and magma intrusion, and for facilitating stratigraphic subdivision and correlation.

  14. Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blood pressure as compared with hypertensive control. The result also indicated significant decreased in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, insulin and increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant activities, and nitric oxide of the supplemented groups relative to the hypertensive control. The average percentage protection against atherogenesis indicated 47.13 ± 9.60% for all the supplemented groups. The mean arterial blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, insulin resistance and malondialdehyde while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total antioxidant activities showed negative correlation. The result therefore indicated strong relationship between oxidative stress and hypertension and underscores the role of antioxidant minerals in reducing oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with hypertension.

  15. A study on the effects of pica and iron-deficiency anemia on oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, A; Dogan, M; Bulan, K; Kaba, S; Demir, N; Öner, A F

    2013-09-01

    Pica is defined as developmentally inappropriate consumption of nonnutritive substances for at least 1 month. There are a few studies on serum trace element levels of patients with pica. The literature contains contracting data on the levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant levels in patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). The effect of pica on oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity has not been investigated yet. The present study evaluated the effects of pica and IDA on oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity as well as on the levels of trace elements including serum zinc and selenium in 47 children with IDA plus pica, 22 children with IDA only and 21 nonanemic children as controls. The results demonstrated significantly lower levels of serum selenium and zinc in pica and IDA groups compared to the control group. Total oxidant levels were highest in the pica group and consistently, the lowest total antioxidant capacity was observed again in the pica group. Comparison of pica and IDA groups yielded significantly lower levels of total antioxidant levels and significantly higher oxidative stress index in the pica group. Consequently, it is thought that the detrimental effects of pica within the organism were mediated by adverse impacts on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress. These effects should be kept in mind while managing patients with pica.

  16. [Characterization of matrix effects in microanalysis of sulfide minerals by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry based on an element pair method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ji-hai; Zhan, Xiu-chun; Hu, Ming-yue; Zhao, Ling-hao; Sun, Dong-yang

    2015-02-01

    Matrix effect between reference materials and samples is one of the major factors affecting the accuracy of analytical results by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). However, there is no method or calculation formula to quantify matrix effect between standards and samples up to date. In this paper, the linear correlation coefficient r of the Ii/I(is-Ci)/Cis graphs of element pairs were used to characterize the matrix effect, which took the ratios of concentrations (ci/ c(is)) and intensities (Ii/Iis) of the analytical element and internal standard element as x-axis and gamma-axis, respectively. Matrix effects of 6 element pairs in 13 glass reference materials, 2 sulfide reference materials and 2 sulfide minerals using Fe as internal standard was studied, with the linear correlation coefficient r of Fe-Cu, Fe-Zn element pairs both less than 0. 999 and trace Fe--Mn, Fe--Co, Fe--Ga, Fe--Pb element pairs all better than 0.999. Matrix effects of 3 major element pairs in 2 sulfide ref- erence materials and 6 sulfide minerals using S as internal standard was also studied, with the linear correlation coefficient r of S--Fe, S--Cu, S--Zn all less than 0.999. The great majority of relative errors of EMPA analytical results for major elements in sulfide minerals were greater than 10%, whether analyzed using Fe as internal standard with glass reference materials as external standard, or S as internal standard with sulfide reference materials MASS-1, IMER-1 as external standard, respectively. But the most analytical results for trace elements calibrated by glass reference materials using Fe as internal standard were well agreed with sulfide standard MASS-1, with the relative errors less than 15%. The results showed that matrix effects existed in glass reference materials, sulfide reference materials and sulfide minerals, and it also proved a certain rationality and practicability for quantification of matrix effect using the linear

  17. Microbial mobilization of rare earth elements (REE from mineral solids—A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Barmettler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the light of an expected supply shortage of rare earth elements (REE measures have to be undertaken for an efficient use in all kinds of technical, medical, and agricultural applications as well as—in particular—in REE recycling from post-use goods and waste materials. Biologically- based methods might offer an alternative and supplement to physico-chemical techniques for REE recovery and recycling. A wide variety of physiologically distinct microbial groups have the potential to be applied for REE bioleaching form solid matrices. This source is largely untapped until today. Depending of the type of organism, the technical process (including a series of influencing factors, the solid to be treated, and the target element, leaching efficiencies of 80 to 90% can be achieved. Bioleaching of REEs can help in reducing the supply risk and market dependency. Additionally, the application of bioleaching techniques for the treatment of solid wastes might contribute to the conversion towards a more sustainable and environmental friendly economy.

  18. Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in Rock and Mineral Samples by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindern, Sven

    2017-02-01

    The group of the rare earth elements (REEs) serves as valuable indicator of numerous geological processes such as magma formation or fluid-rock interaction. The decay systems of the radioactive REE isotopes 138La, 147Sm and 176Lu are used for geochronometric dating of a range of events, starting from first steps of planetary formation to younger steps of geodynamic development. Thus, the abundance of all REEs occurring in a large range of concentrations as well as precise isotope ratios must be analysed in different geomaterials. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ion source and various types of mass spectrometers (MS) represent the basis to fulfil the analytical requirements of geoscientific studies. Today, ICP-quadrupole MS and ICP-sector field MS (SFMS) with a single detector or multiple ion collection (MC-ICP-MS) are standard instruments for REE analyses in the geosciences. Due to the need for in situ analysis, laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS has become an important trace element microprobe technique, which is widely applied for determination of REE concentrations and isotope compositions in geoscientific laboratories. The quality of concentration analysis or isotope ratio determination of REEs by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS is affected by many parameters. Most significant are interferences caused by polyatomic oxide and hydroxide ion species formed in the plasma as well as fractionation effects leading to non-stoichiometric behaviour during element determination or to biased isotope ratio measurements. Laser-induced fractionation and isobaric interferences have to be considered as additional effects for LA-ICP-MS. As analyte elements and matrix are unseparated, mineral standards matching the matrix of samples are a prerequisite for accurate and precise REE concentration and isotope ratio determination. Application of fs lasers instead of the more common ns lasers in LA-ICP-MS systems turns out to be a significant step to reduce laser-induced fractionation and to

  19. Correlation of Plant Morphological and Grain Quality Traits with Mineral Element Contents in Yunnan Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Ya-wen; SHEN Shi-quan; WANG Lu-xiang; LIU Jia-fu; PU Xiao-ying; DU Juan; QIU Min

    2005-01-01

    Correlations between four grain quality, 24 plant morphological traits and eight element contents of 653 accessions fromYunnan rice were analyzed. P, K, Ca and Mg contents of core collection were closely correlated to the most plant morphologicaland grain quality traits, and there were highly significant correlations (P <0.01) among some traits including P content to number ofstems and tillers, K content and amylose content, Ca content and plant height, Mg content and protein content. Mn, Zn, Cu and Fecontents of core collection were closely related to a few traits, such as Fe content and gel consistency (-0.1121 **), Zn content andseed setting rate (-0.1411 **), Cu content and number of grains per panicle (-0.1398**), Mn content and plant height (-0.2492**).

  20. Long-term cycling of mantle Pb: A trace element study of the major mantle mineral phases in abyssal peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, M. E.; Warren, J. M.; Godard, M.; Ildefonse, B.

    2012-12-01

    Peridotites from ultraslow-spreading ridges preserve signatures of the depleted mantle, while also reflecting the fine scale compositional variability present in the mantle. Traditional analyses of these depleted rocks have focused on clinopyroxene, the main trace element host in spinel peridotites. However, key isotopic systems, such as lead and osmium, are hosted in other phases at low but significant concentration levels. The amount of lead contained within mantle mineral phases is of critical importance to understanding the long-term evolution of the Earth, because the radiogenic isotopes of lead are sensitive to past material cycling and melt-rock interaction. Sulfides have long been suggested as the main host for lead (Pb) in the mantle, but recent studies have demonstrated that Pb is not exclusively hosted in this trace phase. Therefore, the Pb contents of the major peridotite mineral phases (olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene) need to be reassessed. Lead concentration data is available for orogenic and xenolith peridotite samples, which are typically more enriched than abyssal peridotites, but these do not provide direct information on the oceanic upper mantle. Direct measurement of Pb in abyssal peridotites has so far been limited because of its extremely low concentration (often plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The LA-ICP-MS technique achieves high spatial resolution combined with detection of low elemental abundances. External precision varied from 6% to 17%, with a precision of 6% for Pb, based on 14 repeat analyses of BIR-1G standard basalt glass. Laser spot size varied from 102-163 microns, which produced a detection limit of 0.42-0.81 ppb for Pb. This study focused on abyssal peridotites from the ultra-slow spreading Gakkel and Southwest Indian Ridges (SWIR), with samples coming from segments with full spreading rates fresh samples from Gakkel. A total of five Gakkel and six SWIR peridotites were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, with a subset of

  1. Atmospheric dry deposition of mineral dust to the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea: rate and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taani, Ahmed A; Rashdan, Maen; Khashashneh, Safaa

    2015-03-15

    Atmospheric dry deposition to the Gulf of Aqaba (GoA) is particularly a significant source of trace elements. Amid desert regions, the Gulf receives high fluxes of mineral dust with an average rate of 34.68 g/m(2)/year measured in 2012. Patterns of dry deposition showed seasonal fluxes with highest rates observed in summer and lowest in winter. The observed variations were attributed to wind direction, timing of deposition and sources of dust. The average dry fluxes of Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were 551, 440, 10.29, 1.42, 0.04, 0.68, 1.42 and 4.02 mg/m(2)/year, respectively. While the dry deposition fluxes were enriched in Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn indicating their dominant anthropogenic sources, they appeared to be less influenced compared to the neighboring Mediterranean area and other industrial countries, but were similar to or slightly higher than those in remote areas. The enrichment values for Fe and Mn were low, consistent with their crustal origin. The fluxes of all elements suggested the impacts of both crustal (due to climate change) and anthropogenic sources became stronger in this region. The Sahara dust was probably a minor contributor to dry deposition in the GoA.

  2. Bacterial capacities to mineralize phytate increase in the rhizosphere of nodulated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under P deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Maougal, R. T.; Brauman, Alain; Plassard, C.; Abadie, J.; Djekoun, A.; Drevon, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Phytate (a form of Inositol phosphate), which is one of the most abundant sources of organic phosphorus (Po) in soils, needs to be mineralized by microbial phosphatases to become available for plants. Phytases are the most active phosphatases for the dephosphorylation of phytate but the ecology of the phytate mineralising bacteria (PMB) remains poorly understood. The aim of this work was to determine if PMB represent an important component of the rhizosphere of legumes and if their density an...

  3. Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    performed a systematic literature analysis, including 51 clinical trials published between 1996 and 2008, which had studied the development in muscle mass, muscle strength, BMD, and/or BMC in GH-treated adult GHD patients. RESULTS: GH therapy had an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle. The largest increase......OBJECTIVE: Adult patients with GH deficiency (GHD) are characterized by a reduced muscle mass, but also reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), which have been ascribed to GHD per se. The aim of this study was to investigate if changes in BMD/BMC in adult GHD patients could be due...... to a muscle modulating effect, and if treatment with GH would primarily increase muscle mass and strength with a secondary increase in BMD/BMC, thus supporting the present physiological concept that mass and strength of bones are mainly determined by dynamic loads from the skeletal muscles. METHOD: We...

  4. [Study of hard mineralized tissues effect of calcium-deficient diets with and without cholecalciferol supplementation on the incisor dentine of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, M; Takada, H; Fuda, H; Watanabe, Y; Ikeda, K; Hasegawa, H

    1989-01-01

    It has been known that both tooth and bone have an apatite structure similar to that of mineral hydroxyapatite. The apatite crystal in living tissues of tooth and bone generally is constructed from submicrocrystals and has many impurities. It seems that chemical and physical aspects of resistance of hard tissues depend on the diet. Consequently, the matrix of organic, free radicals in X-ray irradiated hard tissues were studied by means of electron spin resonance (ESR). The effects of calcium-deficient diets with and without cholecalciferol supplementation on the incisor dentine of rats were examined by the rate of decay of organic, free fadicals in X-ray irradiated incisor dentine of rats. The crystal size of incisor dentine became smaller in case of calcium contained diet.

  5. Performance of phalangeal quantitative ultrasound parameters in the evaluation of reduced bone mineral density assessed by DX in patients with 21 hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ezequiel M; Sewaybricker, Leticia E; Baptista, Fatima; Silva, Analiza M; Carvalho, Wellington R G; Santos, Allan O; de Mello, Maricilda P; Lemos-Marini, Sofia H V; Guerra, Gil

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the performance of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters of proximal phalanges in the evaluation of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21 OHD). Seventy patients with 21 OHD (41 females and 29 males), aged between 6-27 y were assessed. The QUS measurements, amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS), bone transmission time (BTT), and ultrasound bone profile index (UBPI) were obtained using the BMD Sonic device (IGEA, Carpi, Italy) on the last four proximal phalanges in the non-dominant hand. BMD was determined by dual energy X-ray (DXA) across the total body and lumbar spine (LS). Total body and LS BMD were positively correlated to UBPI, BTT and AD-SoS (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.59-0.72, p bone mass in patients with 21 OHD.

  6. Effects of high dietary contents of calcium and phosphorus on mineral metabolism and growth of vitamin D-deficient suckling and weaned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S A; Boass, A; Toverud, S U

    1987-07-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that normalization of the plasma calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations by dietary means in vitamin D-deficient rat pups will prevent rickets. From day 6 of pregnancy rats were given a vitamin D-free diet containing 1.6% Ca and 1.4% P (-D 1.6) which normalized plasma Ca during lactation. Pups weaned from these mothers, and continuing on the -D 1.6 diet until 56 days of age, had a mean plasma Ca value of 8.6 +/- 0.2 mg/dl and were not significantly different from pups fed a vitamin D-replete diet with 0.4% Ca and 0.4% P in the following parameters: body weight (mean +/- SE for -D 1.6 rats: 197 +/- 4 g), percent bone ash (53 +/- 0.5), and tibia epiphyseal cartilage width (385 +/- 26 micron). In contrast, pups consuming the vitamin D-free diet with 0.4% Ca and 0.4% P had plasma Ca of 4.9 +/- 0.2 mg/dl, body weight of 156 +/- 4 g, reduced bone ash (45 +/- 0.5%) and abnormally wide epiphyseal cartilage (727 +/- 113 micron). Thus, elevating the plasma Ca level of vitamin D-deficient rat pups by dietary means can normalize body weight, epiphyseal cartilage width and bone mineral content.

  7. Paragénesis mineral del depósito tipo five element Purísima-Rumicruz, Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El distrito polimetálico Purísima-Rumicruz se encuentra ubicado en el borde occidental de la Puna, a 26 km al SE de la localidad jujeña de Abra Pampa. El conjunto de estructuras presentan mineralizaciones de sulfuros de Cu y Pb y en menor proporción sulfoarseniuros de Ni, Co, y escasa presencia de pechblenda. Las vetas encajan en pelitas oscuras con intercalaciones delgadas de areniscas de la Formación Acoite, afectadas por un moderado a intenso plegamiento. Las estructuras mineralizadas registran textura brechosa con múltiples etapas de brechamiento, observándose abundantes clastos de roca de caja. La alteración hipogénica es escasa a nula, pero son particularmente importantes los procesos de oxidación y enriquecimiento supergénico. Las texturas minerales más comunes dentro del relleno de las brechas corresponden a sobrecrecimientos, mirmequitas, corrosión de cristales y reemplazos por minerales supergénicos. La secuencia paragenética muestra distintas etapas, siendo la primera rica en sulfuros, principalmente de cobre y plomo acompañados por carbonatos y cuarzo, la segunda concentra sulfoarseniuros y escasa pechblenda en ganga de carbonatos, la tercera caracterizada por sulfuros de cobre y hierro en ganga de carbonatos y en un estadio póstumo precipita baritina. La cuarta etapa está representada por un fuerte enriquecimiento secundario representado por covelina y, finalmente, la quinta reúne calcita y minerales de oxidación que forman finas vetillas o rellenan oquedades compuestos por malaquita, azurita y óxidos de hierro. La asociación mineralógica y la secuencia de precipitación mineral que se observa en el distrito estudiado, permite incluirlo dentro de los denominados Five Element Deposits.

  8. Modelling of Thermal Advective Reactive Flow in Hydrothermal Mineral Systems Using an Implicit Time-stepped Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, P. G.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding chemical and thermal processes taking place in hydrothermal mineral deposition systems could well be a key to unlocking new mineral reserves through improved targeting of exploration efforts. To aid in this understanding it is very helpful to be able to model such processes with sufficient fidelity to test process hypotheses. To gain understanding, it is often sufficient to obtain semi-quantitative results that model the broad aspects of the complex set of thermal and chemical effects taking place in hydrothermal systems. For example, it is often sufficient to gain an understanding of where thermal, geometric and chemical factors converge to precipitate gold (say) without being perfectly precise about how much gold is precipitated. The traditional approach is to use incompressible Darcy flow together with the Boussinesq approximation. From the flow field, the heat equation is used to advect-conduct the heat. The flow field is also used to transport solutes by solving an advection-dispersion-diffusion equation. The reactions in the fluid and between fluid and rock act as source terms for these advection-dispersion equations. Many existing modelling systems that are used for simulating such systems use explicit time marching schemes and finite differences. The disadvantage of this approach is the need to work on rectilinear grids and the number of time steps required by the Courant condition in the solute transport step. The second factor can be particularly significant if the chemical system is complex, requiring (at a minimum) an equilibrium calculation at each grid point at each time step. In the approach we describe, we use finite elements rather than finite differences, and the pressure, heat and advection-dispersion equations are solved implicitly. The general idea is to put unconditional numerical stability of the time integration first, and let accuracy assume a secondary role. It is in this sense that the method is semi-quantiative. However

  9. Rare earth element and stable sulphur (δ 34S) isotope study of baryte-copper mineralization in Gulani area, Upper Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nafaty, Jalo Muhammad

    2015-06-01

    The geology of Gulani area comprises of inliers of diorite and granites of the Older Granite suite of the Pan-African (600 ± 150 Ma) age within Cretaceous sediments of the Bima, Yolde and Pindiga Formations and the Tertiary/Quaternary basalts of the Biu Plateau. Epigenetic baryte-copper mineralization occurs as baryte veins within the Bima and Yolde sandstones and fracture-filling malachite in Pan-African granites. Unaltered (distal), hydrothermally altered (proximal) granites and sandstones and vein materials (mineral separates of baryte and chalcopyrite/malachite mineralized rocks) were analysed for rare earth elements (REE) and stable sulphur isotopes. The REE patterns of the unaltered rocks (both granites and sandstones) indicate background values before mineralization, depicted by enriched LREE, depleted HREE and weak negative Eu anomalies typical of Pan-African (calc-alkaline) granites and sandstones derived from them. On the other hand, the hydrothermally altered and mineralized rocks and mineral separates show a distinct baryte and copper mineralization sub-systems characterized by similar high LREE and corresponding low HREE abundances. However, the negative Eu anomalies of the copper sub-system hosted by granites are typical of Pan-African (calc-alkaline) granites. The sandstone host rocks of the baryte sub-system are marked by positive Eu anomalies interpreted as reflecting the injection and subsequent deposition of the baryte-bearing hydrothermal solutions under oxidizing conditions. The baryte mineral separates show δ (34S) isotope range of 12.3-13.1‰ (CDT) indicating sulphur from sedimentary formation sources. This ruled out magmatic source of the sulphur from the nearby Tertiary/Quaternary volcanic rocks of the Biu Plateau as well as ocean water. However, the stable sulphur isotopic determination of the sulphides (chalcopyrite/malachite mineral separates and mineralized rocks) did not yield peaks and therefore no inferences drawn in this regard.

  10. Novel application of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) for the non-destructive micro-elemental analysis of natural mineral pigments on Aboriginal Australian objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel S; Lenehan, Claire E; Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Howard, Daryl L; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David; Walshe, Keryn; Pring, Allan

    2016-06-07

    This manuscript presents the first non-destructive synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence study of natural mineral pigments on Aboriginal Australian objects. Our results demonstrate the advantage of XFM (X-ray fluorescence microscopy) of Aboriginal Australian objects for optimum sensitivity, elemental analysis, micron-resolution mapping of pigment areas and the method also has the advantage of being non-destructive to the cultural heritage objects. Estimates of pigment thickness can be calculated. In addition, based on the elemental maps of the pigments, further conclusions can be drawn on the composition and mixtures and uses of natural mineral pigments and whether the objects were made using traditional or modern methods and materials. This manuscript highlights the results of this first application of XFM to investigate complex mineral pigments used on Aboriginal Australian objects.

  11. 四川名茶矿质元素含量研究%Analysis of Mineral Elements in 13 Famous Tea Varieties in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春华; 王云

    2009-01-01

    This study was to analyze the mineral elements in famous tea varieties in Sichuan Province. Eighteen mineral elements in the samples of 13 famous tea varieties in Sichuan Province were measured via related instruments. The results showed, of all the 18 measured samples, that the contents of K, P, S, Ca and Mg were relatively higher(>1 500 mg/kg) in famous tea varieties in Sichuan Province, while those of Ba, Cr, V, Co and Se were relatively lower(< 10 mg/kg); compared to common green tea, the famous tea varieties in Sichuan Province contained higher contents of K, Zn, P, Na, Ni, Cu, S, Se and Co(0.38%-115.65% higher than that in common green tea), and lower contents of Mg, Mn, Al, Ca, V, Rb, Fe and Cr(7.20%-46.67% lower than that in common green tea); of the 13 tested tea varieties, Hongyanyingchun, Yongchuanxiuya and Qingchengxueya were rich in mineral elements, while Yuchengyunwu and Yuqiancha lacked in mineral elements. The results show that Hongyanyingchun, Yongchuanxiuya and Qingchengxueya are the elites in the famous tea varieties in Sichuan Province.

  12. Varying response of the concentration and content of soybean seed mineral elements, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, protein, and oil to phosphorus starvation and CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (g-1 seed weight) and content (g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at ...

  13. Study on Mineral Elements Content of Macadamia Shell%澳洲坚果种壳矿质元素含量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨为海; 张明楷; 曾辉; 邹明宏; 罗炼芳; 张汉周; 陆超忠

    2011-01-01

    测定了28份澳洲坚果(Macadamia integrifoliaF.Mull)种质种壳中N、K、Ca、Mg、Zn、Cu、Fe、Mn等8种矿质元素含量,并对其进行了主成分分析和聚类分析.结果表明,澳洲坚果种壳矿质元素含量在不同种质之间差异较大,8种矿质元素可划分为4个有明确意义的主成分,28份种质种壳按矿质元素含量可聚类为4大类型.%The contents of 8 mineral elements(N, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) in the macadamia (Macadamia inte-grifolia F. Mull) shells in 28 germplasm resources were analyzed by principal component and cluster analysis. The results showed that the mineral elements content of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia F. Mull) shell had a large variation among all tested germplasm resources, the 8 mineral elements were divided into 4 significant principal components and the shells of 28 germplasm resources were classified as 4 clusters according to the content of mineral elements.

  14. Inorganic elemental compositions of commercial multivitamin/mineral dietary supplements: application of collision/reaction cell inductively coupled-mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave digestion followed by analysis using ICP-MS has been shown to be a simple, fast reliable method for the multi-element determination in multivitamin/mineral dietary supplements (MVM). A study of 35 popular MVM dietary supplements revealed that composition and levels varied among products, a...

  15. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 determines plasma remnant lipoproteins and accelerates atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Saito, Ryo; Sekiya, Motohiro; Igarashi, Masaki; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Miyahara, Shoko; Koyasu, Saori; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Ishii, Kiyoaki; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yahagi, Naoya; Takekoshi, Kazuhiro; Sone, Hirohito; Yatoh, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2011-08-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) is nutritionally regulated and is known to be a key transcription factor regulating lipogenic enzymes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the roles of SREBP-1 in dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Transgenic mice that overexpress SREBP-1c in the liver and SREBP-1-deficient mice were crossed with low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice, and the plasma lipids and atherosclerosis were analyzed. Hepatic SREBP-1c overexpression in LDLR-deficient mice caused postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, increased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, which resulted in accelerated aortic atheroma formation. Conversely, absence of SREBP-1 suppressed Western diet-induced hyperlipidemia in LDLR-deficient mice and ameliorated atherosclerosis. In contrast, bone marrow-specific SREBP-1 deficiency did not alter the development of atherosclerosis. The size of nascent VLDL particles secreted from the liver was increased in SREBP-1c transgenic mice and reduced in SREBP-1-deficient mice, accompanied by upregulation and downregulation of phospholipid transfer protein expression, respectively. Hepatic SREBP-1c determines plasma triglycerides and remnant cholesterol and contributes to atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic states. Hepatic SREBP-1c also regulates the size of nascent VLDL particles.

  16. Groundwater prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits: the merits of mineral-solution equilibria versus single element tracer methods. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanty, R.B.; Langmuir, D.; Chatham, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents the results of further research on the groundwater geochemistry of 96 well waters in two uraniferous aquifers in Texas and Wyoming, and is a continuation of the work presented by Chatham et al. (1981). In this study variations in concentrations of U, As, Mo, Se and V were compared with the saturation state of the groundwater with respect to mineral phases of these elements known or expected to occur in each area. The non-radiogenic trace elements exhibited strong redox dependence consistent with thermodynamic predictions, but their variations did not pinpoint existing uranium ore bodies, because of a shift in groundwater flow patterns since the time of ore emplacement. Saturation levels of trace element minerals such as realgar, native Se, and molybdenite showed broad anomalies around the ore-bearing areas, similar to patterns found for U minerals by Langmuir and Chatham (1980), and Chatham et al. (1981). The radiogenic elements Ra and Rn showed significant anomalies directly within the ore zones. Helium anomalies were displaced in the direction of groundwater flow, but by their magnitude and areal extent provided strong evidence for the existence of nearby uranium accumulations. Uranium isotope ratios showed no systematic variations within the two aquifers studied. Saturation maps for kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite and the zeolites analcime and clinoptilolite provided 1 to 2 km anomalies around the ore at the Texas site. Saturation values for the gangue minerals pyrite and calcite defined the redox interface and often suggested the position of probable uranium mineralization. When properly used, the groundwater geochemical concepts for exploration can accurately pinpoint uranium mineralization at a fraction of the cost of conventional methods that involve test drilling and geophysical and core logging.

  17. Impact of mineral fertility and bedrock erosion on single-mineral detrital studies: insights from trace-element and Nd-isotope systematics of detrital apatite from the Po River catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusa', Marco Giovanni; Wang, Jiangang; Garzanti, Eduardo; Villa, Igor M.; Wittman, Hella

    2017-04-01

    The detrital record provides an archive of mountain erosion that preserves key information for paleotectonic and paleoclimatic reconstructions. Detrital studies are often based on single-mineral analyses (e.g., geo/thermochronologic analyses on apatite and zircon). Their geologic interpretation can be challenging, because the impact of each eroding source on the detrital record is controlled by a range of factors including the rate of erosion and the fertility of chosen minerals in eroded bedrock. Here, we combine (i) a state-of-the art dataset of trace element and Nd isotope fingerprints of detrital apatite, (ii) a comprehensive dataset of apatite-fertility measurements (Malusà et al. 2016), (iii) fission-track data, and (iv) cosmogenic-derived erosion rates from the Po River catchment (Wittmann et al. 2016), to test the impact of mineral fertility and bedrock erosion on the single-mineral detrital signal preserved in the final sediment sink. Our results show that the information provided by accessory minerals, when complemented with accurate mineral fertility measurements, are fully consistent with information provided by the analysis of more abundant framework minerals. We found that trace element and Nd isotope analyses provide a reliable tool to disentangle the complex single-mineral record of orogenic erosion, and demonstrate that such a record is largely determined by high-fertility source rocks exposed within the drainage. Detrital thermochronology studies based on the lag-time approach should thus preferably include independent provenance discriminations and a full mineral fertility characterization of the potential source areas, in order to ensure a correct identification of the sediment sources and of the exogenic and endogenic processes monitored in the stratigraphic archive. Malusà M.G., Resentini A., Garzanti E., 2016. Hydraulic sorting and mineral fertility bias in detrital geochronology. Gondwana Res., 31, 1-19 Wittmann H., Malusà M.G., Resentini

  18. Paragénesis mineral del depósito tipo five element Purísima-Rumicruz, Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El distrito polimetálico Purísima-Rumicruz se encuentra ubicado en el borde occidental de la Puna, a 26 km al SE de la localidad jujeña de Abra Pampa. El conjunto de estructuras presentan mineralizaciones de sulfuros de Cu y Pb y en menor proporción sulfoarseniuros de Ni, Co, y escasa presencia de pechblenda. Las vetas encajan en pelitas oscuras con intercalaciones delgadas de areniscas de la Formación Acoite, afectadas por un moderado a intenso plegamiento. Las estructuras mineralizadas registran textura brechosa con múltiples etapas de brechamiento, observándose abundantes clastos de roca de caja. La alteración hipogénica es escasa a nula, pero son particularmente importantes los procesos de oxidación y enriquecimiento supergénico. Las texturas minerales más comunes dentro del relleno de las brechas corresponden a sobrecrecimientos, mirmequitas, corrosión de cristales y reemplazos por minerales supergénicos. La secuencia paragenética muestra distintas etapas, siendo la primera rica en sulfuros, principalmente de cobre y plomo acompañados por carbonatos y cuarzo, la segunda concentra sulfoarseniuros y escasa pechblenda en ganga de carbonatos, la tercera caracterizada por sulfuros de cobre y hierro en ganga de carbonatos y en un estadio póstumo precipita baritina. La cuarta etapa está representada por un fuerte enriquecimiento secundario representado por covelina y, finalmente, la quinta reúne calcita y minerales de oxidación que forman finas vetillas o rellenan oquedades compuestos por malaquita, azurita y óxidos de hierro. La asociación mineralógica y la secuencia de precipitación mineral que se observa en el distrito estudiado, permite incluirlo dentro de los denominados Five Element Deposits.The Purísima-Rumicruz district is located in the eastern limit of Puna, 25 km northeastern of Abra Pampa town, Jujuy. It consists of polymetalic veins containing sulfides of Cu and Pb with minor Ni, Co, sulfarsenides and scarce

  19. Chemical Composition and Amounts of Mineral Elements in Honeybee-Collected Pollen in Relation to Botanical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha El-Kazafy Abdou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the apiary of the Agricultural and Veterinary Training and Research Station, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. The purpose was to study the relationship between the botanical origin and chemical composition of bee-collected pollen. The amount of mineral elements present in bee-collected pollen was also studied. The composition of pollen loads showed the maximum contents of dry matter, ash, glucose, fructose, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, and manganese (Mn for the date palm; the maximum contents of protein, calcium (Ca, and zinc (Zn for alfalfa; the maximum contents of fiber, and copper (Cu for the sunflower; the maximum contents of the lipids and iron (Fe for summer squash; and the maximum contents of sodium (Na, and potassium (K for rape. Calcium was found to be correlated in a significantly (p<0.01 positive way with K, Na, Mg, P, Mn, and Zn. Copper, though, was correlated in a significantly (p<0.01 negative way with Ca, Mg, P, Mn, and Zn. The high levels of protein, ash, glucose, and fructose, and low lipid content found in bee-pollen from the date palm and from alfalfa, mean that pollen from the date palm and from alfalfa make an excellent food supplement. It was concluded, that the chemical composition of beecollected pollen can be correlated with the plant species from which pollen was collected.

  20. Comparison of Mineral Element Content in a Functional Food Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from Asia and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contents of eight mineral elements in maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from China and Peru were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Cu contents in maca samples from China (2.5–31 mg kg−1 dry weight, dw were higher than the samples from Peru (<2.1 mg kg−1 dw. Na in two samples from China was found to be significantly of high content (2400 and 2600 mg kg−1 dw. The contents (mg kg−1 dw of B, Co, Cr, Li, Ni, and Zn were, respectively, 8.1–21, <0.023, <1.1~3.5, 0.020–0.17, 0.085–4.5, and 10–39 for the samples from China, while being 6.6–12, <0.023, <1.1~2.3, 0.035–0.063, 0.68–1.7, and 27–39 for the samples from Peru.

  1. Simultaneous analysis 26 mineral element contents from highly consumed cultured chicken overexposed to arsenic trioxide by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Sun, Bonan; Li, Siwen; Sun, Xiao; Guo, Ying; Zhao, Hongjing; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Guangshun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the impacts of dietary arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on 26 mineral element contents in the liver and kidney of chicken. A total of 100 male Hy-line cocks were randomly divided into 2 groups (50 chickens in each group), including an arsenic-treated group (basic diet supplemented with As2O3 at 30 mg/kg) and a control group (basal diet). The feeding experiment lasted for 90 days and the experimental animals were given free access to feed and water. We determined 26 mineral elements in the liver and kidney by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that nine element levels (Al, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Ba, and Pb) were significantly decreased (P chickens exposed to As2O3 compared to the control chickens where three element levels (Ni, As, and Hg) increased significantly (P chickens exposed to As2O3 compared to the control chickens where four element levels (Mo, As, Cd, and Hg) increased significantly (P chicken, and the effects vary from organ to organ. The aim of this study is to provide references for further study of heavy metal poisoning by detecting the contents of minerals induced by arsenic in chicken.

  2. Influence of Regional Difference in Bone Mineral Density on Hip Fracture Site in Elderly Females by Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z L; Li, P F; Pang, Z H; Zheng, X H; Huang, F; Xu, H H; Li, Q L

    2015-11-01

    Hip fracture is a kind of osteoporotic fractures in elderly patients. Its important monitoring indicator is to measure bone mineral density (BMD) using DXA. The stress characteristics and material distribution in different parts of the bones can be well simulated by three-dimensional finite element analysis. Our previous studies have demonstrated a linear positive correlation between clinical BMD and the density of three-dimensional finite element model of the femur. However, the correlation between the density variation between intertrochanteric region and collum femoris region of the model and the fracture site has not been studied yet. The present study intends to investigate whether the regional difference in the density of three-dimensional finite element model of the femur can be used to predict hip fracture site in elderly females. The CT data of both hip joints were collected from 16 cases of elderly female patients with hip fractures. Mimics 15.01 software was used to reconstruct the model of proximal femur on the healthy side. Ten kinds of material properties were assigned. In Abaqus 6.12 software, the collum femoris region and intertrochanteric region were, respectively, drawn for calculating the corresponding regional density of the model, followed by prediction of hip fracture site and final comparison with factual fracture site. The intertrochanteric region/collum femoris region density was [(1.20 ± 0.02) × 10(6)] on the fracture site and [(1.22 ± 0.03) × 10(6)] on the non-fracture site, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.03). Among 16 established models of proximal femur on the healthy side, 14 models were consistent with the actual fracture sites, one model was inconsistent, and one model was unpredictable, with the coincidence rate of 87.5 %. The intertrochanteric region or collum femoris region with lower BMD is more prone to hip fracture of the type on the corresponding site.

  3. Effect of calcium, copper, and zinc levels in a rapeseed meal diet on mineral and trace element utilization in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T; Sandström, B

    1992-11-01

    Mineral and trace element interactions were studied in a balance trial with rats. Calcium, copper, and zinc were supplied to a rapeseed meal diet in a factorial design. Animals were fed ad libitum, and absorption, excretion, and retention of the elements were evaluated either as fractions of total intake or in relation to nitrogen retention to account for differences in food intake and lean body mass increment. The intrinsic content of minerals and trace elements was sufficient to support growth at a rate that could be expected from the rapeseed protein quality. However, when calcium was included in the diet, the intrinsic dietary level of zinc appeared to be limiting, despite the fact that the zinc level was twice the recommended level. Additional zinc supply reversed growth impairment. This calcium-zinc interaction is believed to be owing to the formation of phytate complexes. Calcium addition influenced the calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and iron--but not the copper--balances. The addition of calcium reduced the availability of the intrinsic zinc, whereas no effect was seen in the zinc-fortified groups. The availability of intrinsic copper was in a similar way significantly impaired by addition of dietary zinc, whereas copper-supplied groups were unaffected by zinc addition. Intrinsic iron availability was also dependent upon zinc addition, although in a more ambiguous way. Thus, addition of extrinsic minerals to a diet high in phytate can result in significant impairments of growth and mineral utilization.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency and reduced bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis: effect of ambulatory status and functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgocmen, Salih; Bulut, Serpil; Ilhan, Nevin; Gulkesen, Arif; Ardicoglu, Ozge; Ozkan, Yusuf

    2005-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease and a major cause of disability in young adults. The aims of this study were to assess bone mass in patients with MS in comparison to healthy age- and sex-matched controls, and to evaluate factors influencing bone mineral density (BMD), and the relationship of the pain threshold at peripheral and axial sites with BMD in MS. Thirty-one patients with MS and 30 matched healthy controls participated in the study. The Kurtzke expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and the functional independence measure (FIM) were used to scale disability, mobility, and functional status. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels were measured. BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). MS patients had significantly lower BMD at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and femur trochanter compared to the matched controls. BMD of the lumbar spine was nearly 1 SD lower in MS patients compared with the healthy reference population (Z scores). MS patients had significantly lower vitamin D levels (17.3 ng/ml vs 43.1 ng/ml; P sunlight exposure and to increase their mobility. Specific strengthening exercises for hip and back muscles in MS patients would have a substantial impact on bone density, osteoporosis, fracture risk, and mobility.

  5. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  6. Mineral resource assessment of rare-earth elements, thorium, titanium, and uranium in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesure, Frank G.; Curtin, Gary C.; Daniels, David L.; Jackson, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral resources of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina, were assessed between 1984 and 1990 under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The mineral resource assessments were made on the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and the presence of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences from the literature. This report is an assessment of the rare-earth elements (REE), thorium, titanium, and uranium resources in the Greenville quadrangle and is based on heavy mineral concentrates collected in 1951-54 by the USGS (Overstreet and others, 1968; Caldwell and White, 1973; Cuppels and White, 1973); on the results of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sampling program (Ferguson, 1978, 1979); on analyses of stream-sediment and heavy-mineral-concentrate samples (Jackson and Moore, 1992, G.C Cullin, USGS, unpub. data, 1992) on maps showing aerial gamma radiation in the Greenville quadrangle (D.L. Daniels, USGS, unpub. data, 1992); and on the geology as mapped by Nelson and others (1987, 1989).

  7. Anti-osteoporotic effects of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica on bone mineral density and histomorphometry in estrogen-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthon, Sarocha; Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-04-01

    Although it has been clearly shown that Pueraria mirifica and its phytoestrogens can mimic estrogen in preventing bone loss, as osteoporosis is an asymptomatic disease, the therapeutic effects of P. mirifica should be acknowledged. In this study, 6-month-old female rats were ovariectomized, kept for 4 weeks to induce bone loss, divided into five groups, and treated with P. mirifica at doses of 0, 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg BW/day (PM0, PM5, PM25, and PM50 groups, respectively) or 7 mg/kg BW/day of puerarin (PU group) for 12 weeks. Only the trabecular bone mineral densities (BMDs) of tibia metaphysis (at the 12th, 14th, and 16th week) and total and trabecular BMDs of L4 (at the 16th week) of the PM50 group were significantly higher than those of the PM0 group. However, the BMDs of tibia metaphysis and L4 at the 16th week of the study period were kept significantly lower than those of the 0 week, and the BMD was also significantly lower than that of the 4th week for tibia metaphysis. The trabecular bone area (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and osteoblast surface (Ob.S/BS) were significantly higher, and trabecular space (Tb.Sp) was significantly lower in the PM50 group, as compared with those of the PM0 group. This study indicates that P. mirifica could be used as an anti-osteoporotic agent for postmenopausal women. Since P. mirifica could mainly retain bone mass at the levels before bone loss is initiated, the use of other anabolic agents in combination with P. mirifica is recommended for osteoporotic patients.

  8. Proress in research on pharmacogenomics of minerals and trace elements%矿物质的药物基因组学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾媚姿; 张伟

    2014-01-01

    矿物质和微量元素是构成人体组织和维持正常生理功能的多种元素的总称。单核苷酸多态性( SNP)能够影响矿物质和微量元素在体内的代谢、处置和效应,从而引起机体功能的变化。该篇综述将总结关于矿物质和微量元素的药物基因组学研究进展。%Minerals and trace elements are a general name for a variety of elements that constitute human tissues and maintain normal physiological functions. The single-nucleotide polymor-phism ( SNP) can affect the metabolism, disposition and effect of minerals and trace elements, causing changes in body function. In this review, we will summarize pharmacogenomics research based on the current knowledge from minerals and trace ele-ments.

  9. Comparative measurements of mineral elements in milk powders with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, W Q; El Haddad, J; Motto-Ros, V; Gilon-Delepine, N; Stankova, A; Ma, Q L; Bai, X S; Zheng, L J; Zeng, H P; Yu, J

    2011-07-01

    Mineral elements contained in commercially available milk powders, including seven infant formulae and one adult milk, were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The purpose of this work was, through a direct comparison of the analytical results, to provide an assessment of the performance of LIBS, and especially of the procedure of calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS), to deal with organic compounds such as milk powders. In our experiments, the matrix effect was clearly observed affecting the analytical results each time laser ablation was employed for sampling. Such effect was in addition directly observed by determining the physical parameters of the plasmas induced on the different samples. The CF-LIBS procedure was implemented to deduce the concentrations of Mg and K with Ca as the internal reference element. Quantitative analytical results with CF-LIBS were validated with ICP-AES measurements and nominal concentrations specified for commercial milks. The obtained good results with the CF-LIBS procedure demonstrate its capacity to take into account the difference in physical parameters of the plasma in the calculation of the concentrations of mineral elements, which allows a significant reduction of the matrix effect related to laser ablation. We finally discuss the way to optimize the implementation of the CF-LIBS procedure for the analysis of mineral elements in organic materials.

  10. [Analysis of mineral elements of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown on saline land in Hetao Irrigation District by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Jie; Chen, Fu; Wen, Xin-Ya

    2014-01-01

    The absorption and accumulation of ten mineral elements in four kinds of organs (root, steam, leaf and flower disc) in Helianthus annuus L. plants cultured in Hetao Irrigation District under different level of salinity stress were determined by ICP-AES with wet digestion (HNO3 + HClO4). The results showed that: (1) The contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Na were highest in roots, so was K in stems, B and Mg in leaves and P in flower discs, while no significant difference was detected in the content of Cu among these organs; (2) The cumulants of Ca, Mg, P, Cu, B and Zn were highest in flower discs, so were Na, Fe and Mn in roots and K in stems; (3) In sunflower plants, the proportion of mineral element cumulant for K : Ca : Mg : P : Na was 16.71 : 5.23 : 3.86 : 1.23 : 1.00, and for Zn : Fe : B : Mn: Cu was 56.28 : 27.75 : 1.93 : 1.17 : 1.00, respectively; (4) The effect of salinity stress on absorption of mineral elements differed according to the kind of organ and element, root was the most sensitive to soil salt content, followed by stem and leaf, and the effect on flower disc seemed complex.

  11. A Novel Negative Fe-Deficiency-Responsive Element and a TGGCA-Type-Like FeRE Control the Expression of FTR1 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Fei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reported three Fe-deficiency-responsive elements (FEREs, FOX1, ATX1, and FEA1, all of which are positive regulatory elements in response to iron deficiency in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Here we describe FTR1, another iron regulated gene and mutational analysis of its promoter. Our results reveal that the FeREs of FTR1 distinguish itself from other iron response elements by containing both negative and positive regulatory regions. In FTR1, the −291/−236 region from the transcriptional start site is necessary and sufficient for Fe-deficiency-inducible expression. This region contains two positive FeREs with a TGGCA-like core sequence: the FtrFeRE1 (ATGCAGGCT at −287/−279 and the FtrFeRE2 (AAGCGATTGCCAGAGCGC at −253/−236. Furthermore, we identified a novel FERE, FtrFeRE3 (AGTAACTGTTAAGCC localized at −319/−292, which negatively influences the expression of FTR1.

  12. A novel NAC transcription factor, IDEF2, that recognizes the iron deficiency-responsive element 2 regulates the genes involved in iron homeostasis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Yuko; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakanishi Itai, Reiko; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Kakei, Yusuke; Takahashi, Michiko; Toki, Seiichi; Mori, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2008-05-09

    Iron is essential for most living organisms, and thus iron deficiency poses a major abiotic stress in crop production. Plants induce iron utilization systems under conditions of low iron availability, but the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation under iron deficiency remain largely unknown. We identified a novel transcription factor of rice and barley, IDEF2, which specifically binds to the iron deficiency-responsive cis-acting element 2 (IDE2) by yeast one-hybrid screening. IDEF2 belongs to an uncharacterized branch of the NAC transcription factor family and exhibits novel properties of sequence recognition. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and cyclic amplification and selection of targets experiment revealed that IDEF2 predominantly recognized CA(A/C)G(T/C)(T/C/A)(T/C/A) within IDE2 as the core-binding site. IDEF2 transcripts are constitutively present in rice roots and leaves. Repression of the function of IDEF2 by the RNA interference (RNAi) technique and chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T) caused aberrant iron homeostasis in rice. Several genes up-regulated by iron deficiency, including the Fe(II)-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, were less induced by iron deficiency in the RNAi rice of IDEF2, suggesting that IDEF2 is involved in the regulation of these genes. Many genes with repressed expression in IDEF2 RNAi rice possessed the IDEF2-binding core sites in their promoters, and the flanking sequences were also highly homologous to IDE2. IDEF2 bound to OsYSL2 promoter region containing the binding core site, suggesting direct regulation of OsYSL2 expression. These results reveal novel cis-element/trans-factor interactions functionally associated with iron homeostasis.

  13. Quantifying elemental compositions of primary minerals from granitic rocks and saprolite within the Santa Catalina Mountain Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybrand, R. A.; Rasmussen, C.

    2011-12-01

    Granitic terrain comprises a significant area of the earth's land surface (>15%). Quantifying weathering processes involved in the transformation of granitic rock to saprolite and soil is central to understanding landscape evolution in these systems. The quantification of primary mineral composition is important for assessing subsequent mineral transformations and soil production. This study focuses on coupling detailed analysis of primary mineral composition to soil development across an array of field sites sampled from the Santa Catalina Mountain Critical Zone observatory (SCM-CZO) environmental gradient. The gradient spans substantial climate-driven shifts in vegetation, ranging from desert scrub to mixed conifer forests. The parent material is a combination of Precambrian and Tertiary aged granites and quartz diorite. Primary mineral type and composition are known to vary among the various aged granitic materials and this variability is hypothesized to manifest as significant variation in regolith forming processes across the SCM-CZO. To address this variability, the mineral composition and mineral formulae of rock and saprolite samples were determined by electron microprobe chemical analyses. The rocks were pre-dominantly quartz, biotite, muscovite, orthoclase and calcium/sodium-rich plagioclase feldspars. Trace minerals observed in the samples included sphene, rutile, zircon, garnet, ilmenite, and apatite. Mineral formulae from electron microprobe analyses were combined with quantitative x-ray diffraction (QXRD) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) data to quantify both primary and secondary mineralogical components in soil profiles from each of the field sites. Further, electron microprobe analyses of <2mm mixed conifer saprolite revealed weathered plagioclase grains coated with clay-sized particles enriched in silica and aluminum (~25% and 15%, respectively), suggesting kaolin as the secondary phase. The coatings were interspersed within each plagioclase grain, a

  14. X-ray microanalytical studies of mineral elements in the tripartite symbiosis between lima bean, N2-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, Bruna Wurr; Freitas, Douglas Siqueira; Bamberg, Soraya Marx; Carneiro, Marco Aurélio Carbone; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    The symbiosis between legumes, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and N2-fixing bacteria (NFB) provides mutual nutritional gains. However, assessing the nutritional status of the microorganisms is a difficult task. A methodology that could assess this status, in situ, could assist managing these organisms in agriculture. This study used X-ray microanalyses to quantify and locate mineral elements in structures formed in a tripartite symbiosis. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L. Walp) was cultivated in pots under greenhouse conditions, to which we have added AM fungal isolates (Glomus macrocarpum and Acaulospora colombiana) and NFB (Bradyrhizobium japonicum) inocula. Uninoculated control plants were also included. Symbionts were evaluated at the onset of flowering. Quantification of the mineral elements in the symbiotic components was performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to identify structures. EDX analysis detected 13 elements with the most abundant being N, Ca, and Se, occurring in all tissues, Fe in roots, Ni and Al in epidermis and P and Mo in nodules. Elemental quantification in fungal structures was not possible. The distribution of elements was related to their symbiotic function. X-ray microanalysis can be efficiently applied for nutritional diagnosis in tripartite symbiosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical evolution and origin of the Luumäki gem beryl pegmatite: Constraints from mineral trace element chemistry and fractionation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michallik, Radoslaw M.; Wagner, Thomas; Fusswinkel, Tobias; Heinonen, Jussi S.; Heikkilä, Pasi

    2017-03-01

    The 1928 Ma old Luumäki gem beryl pegmatite is hosted by rapakivi granites of the Wiborg batholith in southeast Finland. The moderately evolved niobium-yttrium-fluorine (NYF) pegmatite system belongs to the topaz-beryl type of the rare-element pegmatite class. It has a simple major mineral assemblage of K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + biotite ± fluorite throughout the main pegmatite zones (border, wall, intermediate, and core zone). It consists of at least two chemically related bodies (Luumäki N and Luumäki S), of which only Luumäki N contains gem beryl (heliodor) bearing miarolitic pockets. We characterize the geology, mineral assemblages, and the major and trace element chemistry of K-feldspar, plagioclase, biotite and quartz from the pegmatite. The mineral chemistry data show a progressive enrichment of Rb, Cs and Tl in K-feldspars, and depletion in Sr and Ba. The K-feldspar from the beryl-bearing pockets records the highest enrichment in incompatible elements, distinct from the data trend shown by K-feldspar from the main pegmatite zones. The REE data for plagioclase show a decrease of the positive Eu-anomaly and then a change to negative Eu-anomaly in the more evolved inner zones. This demonstrates an increase of the oxidation state of the pegmatite melt over time, consistent with the abundance of hematite in late-stage mineral assemblages including those of the miarolitic pockets. Fractional crystallization modeling is able to replicate the progressive enrichment of incompatible elements in K-feldspar, and to predict degrees of crystallization, which are in good agreement with volume estimates for the different pegmatite zones. The modeling results demonstrate that formation of the zoned pegmatite up to the quartz core can be well explained by an igneous crystallization process, leading up to considerable enrichment in incompatible elements. The melt reached saturation with an aqueous hydrothermal fluid only after more than 90% of the pegmatite melt

  16. The Nolans Bore rare-earth element-phosphorus-uranium mineral system: geology, origin and post-depositional modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, David L.; Maas, Roland; Cross, Andrew; Hussey, Kelvin J.; Mernagh, Terrence P.; Fraser, Geoff; Champion, David C.

    2016-08-01

    Nolans Bore is a rare-earth element (REE)-U-P fluorapatite vein deposit hosted mostly by the ~1805 Ma Boothby Orthogneiss in the Aileron Province, Northern Territory, Australia. The fluorapatite veins are complex, with two stages: (1) massive to granular fluorapatite with inclusions of REE silicates, phosphates and (fluoro)carbonates, and (2) calcite-allanite with accessory REE-bearing phosphate and (fluoro)carbonate minerals that vein and brecciate the earlier stage. The veins are locally accompanied by narrow skarn-like (garnet-diopside-amphibole) wall rock alteration zones. SHRIMP Th-Pb analyses of allanite yielded an age of 1525 ± 18 Ma, interpreted as the minimum age of mineralisation. The maximum age is provided by a ~1550 Ma SHRIMP U-Pb age for a pegmatite that predates the fluorapatite veins. Other isotopic systems yielded ages from ~1443 to ~345 Ma, implying significant post-depositional isotopic disturbance. Calculation of initial ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr at 1525 Ma and stable isotope data are consistent with an enriched mantle or lower crust source, although post-depositional disturbance is likely. Processes leading to formation of Nolans Bore began with north-dipping subduction along the south margin of the Aileron Province at 1820-1750 Ma, producing a metasomatised, volatile-rich, lithospheric mantle wedge. About 200 million years later, near the end of the Chewings Orogeny, this reservoir and/or the lower crust sourced alkaline low-degree partial melts which passed into the mid- and upper-crust. Fluids derived from these melts, which may have included phosphatic melts, eventually deposited the Nolans Bore fluorapatite veins due to fluid-rock interaction, cooling, depressurisation and/or fluid mixing. Owing to its size and high concentration of Th (2500 ppm), in situ radiogenic heating caused significant recrystallisation and isotopic resetting. The system finally cooled below 300 °C at ~370 Ma, possibly in response to unroofing during the Alice Springs

  17. Effects of mother lode-type gold mineralization on 187Os/188Os and platinum group element concentrations in peridotite: Alleghany District, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.J.; Böhlke, J.K.; McDonough, W.F.; Li, J.

    2007-01-01

    Osmium isotope compositions and concentrations of Re, platinum group elements (PGE), and Au were determined for host peridotites (serpentinites and barzburgites) and hydrothermally altered ultramafic wall rocks associated with Mother Lode-type hydrothermal gold-quartz vein mineralization in the Alleghany district, California. The host peridotites have Os isotope compositions and Re, PGE, and Au abundances typical of the upper mantle at their presumed formation age during the late Proterozoic or early Paleozoic. The hydrothermally altered rocks have highly variable initial Os isotope compositions with ??os, values (% deviation of 187OS/188OS from the chondritic average calculated for the approx. 120 Ma time of mineralization) ranging from -1.4 to -8.3. The lowest Os isotope compositions are consistent with Re depletion of a chondritic source (e.g., the upper mantle) at ca. 1.6 Ga. Most of the altered samples are enriched in Au and have depleted and fractionated abundances of Re and PGE relative to their precursor peridotites. Geoehemical characteristics of the altered samples suggest that Re and some PGE were variably removed from the ultramafic rocks during the mineralization event. In addition to Re, the Pt and Pd abundances of the most intensely altered rocks appear to have been most affected by mineralization. The 187Os-depleted isotopic compositions of some altered rocks are interpreted to be a result of preferential 187Os loss via destruction of Re-rich phases during the event. For these rocks, Os evidently is not a useful tracer of the mineralizing fluids. The results do, however, provide evidence for differential mobility of these elements, and mobility of 187Os relative to the initial bulk Os isotope composition during hydrothermal metasomatic alteration of ultramafic rocks. ?? 2007 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

  18. Geophysical interpretation of U, Th, and rare earth element mineralization of the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granite complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Stoeser, Douglas B.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    A prospectivity map for rare earth element (REE) mineralization at the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granite complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, was calculated from high-resolution airborne gamma-ray data. The map displays areas with similar radioelement concentrations as those over the Dotson REE-vein-dike system, which is characterized by moderately high %K, eU, and eTh (%K, percent potassium; eU, equivalent parts per million uranium; and eTh, equivalent parts per million thorium). Gamma-ray concentrations of rocks that share a similar range as those over the Dotson zone are inferred to locate high concentrations of REE-bearing minerals. An approximately 1300-m-long prospective tract corresponds to shallowly exposed locations of the Dotson zone. Prospective areas of REE mineralization also occur in continuous swaths along the outer edge of the pluton, over known but undeveloped REE occurrences, and within discrete regions in the older Paleozoic country rocks. Detailed mineralogical examinations of samples from the Dotson zone provide a means to understand the possible causes of the airborne Th and U anomalies and their relation to REE minerals. Thorium is sited primarily in thorite. Uranium also occurs in thorite and in a complex suite of ±Ti±Nb±Y oxide minerals, which include fergusonite, polycrase, and aeschynite. These oxides, along with Y-silicates, are the chief heavy REE (HREE)-bearing minerals. Hence, the eU anomalies, in particular, may indicate other occurrences of similar HREE-enrichment. Uranium and Th chemistry along the Dotson zone showed elevated U and total REEs east of the Camp Creek fault, which suggested the potential for increased HREEs based on their association with U-oxide minerals. A uranium prospectivity map, based on signatures present over the Ross-Adams mine area, was characterized by extremely high radioelement values. Known uranium deposits were identified in the U-prospectivity map, but the largest tract occurs

  19. Status of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and effect of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms on bone mineral density in thalassemia patients of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kritanjali; Kumar, Ravindra; Shukla, Anju; Phadke, Shubha R; Agarwal, Sarita

    2012-09-01

    Bone disease comprising of low bone mineral density (BMD), bone pain, and fractures is a characteristic feature of thalassemia. Vitamin D receptors (VDRs - FokI, TaqI, and Bsml) polymorphisms are closely related to low BMD at the lumbar spine and hips which can be used as a useful genetic marker in predicting bone disease in these patients. To find out the status of VDRs gene polymorphisms and its effect on osteoporosis in thalassemia patients of North Indian origin. BMD was measured in 40 beta-thalassemia major patients by dual-energy X-ray densitometry (DXA). Serum vitamin D levels were estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay. VDR gene polymorphisms (FokI, TaqI, and BsmI) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. About 80.6% cases were found to be vitamin D deficient. Z score of BMD of lumbar spine and hips were -2.31 ± 1.18 and -2.09 ± 0.89. Osteoporotic lumbar spine was observed in 42.5% cases of thalassemia. A positive correlation of vitamin D level was found with Z score of BMD of lumbar spine (r = 0.398, P value = 0.027). Polymorphisms of FokI and BsmI were found significantly correlated with BMD of lumbar spine. However, no association of BMD was observed with TaqI polymorphism. The present study showed a high prevalence of low BMD in thalassemia, suggesting that they should be targeted for DXA screening and osteoporosis prevention before permanent end organ bone damage occurs. The VDR genotyping can be used as additional test in individuals who are susceptible to osteoporosis so that early preventive measurements can be taken.

  20. Mineral profile of Spanish commercial baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Marqués, Alba; González-Masó, Anna; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Commercial baby foods are an important part of the daily intake of babies from 6 to 12 months. The mineral profile of commercial baby foods in Spain was determined to establish levels of essential and non-essential elements, and their contribution to adequate intake (AI) and estimated average requirement (EAR). Thirty-five jars of commercial foods containing meat, fish, vegetables and fruit were obtained from the Spanish market and the mineral composition determined for 14 elements. In general, the baby foods analysed were sufficient for an adequate mineral intake, but contributions to AI and EAR for iron, zinc and calcium were very low (5-20%, 10-60% and 10-70%, respectively). This deficiency could be associated with growth problems or diseases in adulthood, and fortification of commercial products is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 火龙果树体主要矿质营养元素的分布特征%Distribution Characteristics of Main Mineral Elements in Pitaya Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓仁菊; 范建新; 金吉芬; 刘涛

    2012-01-01

    Five years old trees of Zihonglong and Jinghonglong Pitaya were uprooted and divided into four parts (roots, branches, flowers and fruits) to analyze the distribution characteristics of mineral elements, so as to provide a reference for scientific fertilization and water and nutrient management of pitaya. The results showed that the contents of mineral elements were obviously different in each part at different growth stage. The K and Mg accumulated at large blossom and fruiting stage. In the end of harvest stage, the content of Fe which may be consumed by or transferred to other parts was only 2. 5% (Zihonglong) and 1. 8% (Jinghonglong) of that before flowers budding. In addition, the differences of mineral contents were significant between basal branches and top branches, but it was not notable between basal branches and middle branches. The changeable law of mineral elements in flowers of Jinghonglong pitaya was similar to that of Zihonglong, but the mineral elements in fruits of each variety had totally different changeable law.%为给火龙果的科学施肥及水肥管理提供依据,采用整株枝解法分析了5年生紫红龙和晶红龙火龙果的根系、枝条、花、果中矿质元素的分布特征.结果表明:不同生长期,树体各部位的矿质元素分布差异明显.在盛花盛果期,根系中的K、Mg元素都在不断积累,到果实采收末期,根系中的大部分Fe元素已被消耗掉或转移到树体其他部位,其含量仅为现蕾前的2.5%(紫红龙)和1.8%(晶红龙).另外,火龙果基部枝条的矿质元素含量与顶部枝条差异较为明显,与中部枝条的矿质元素含量差异较小.2个火龙果品种的花中的矿质元素具有相似的变化规律,而果实中矿质元素的变化规律完全不同.

  2. Rapid and simultaneous determination of essential minerals and trace elements in human milk by improved flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) with microwave digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Ming; Wang, Jue; Zhang, Xue; Gao, Wei-Yin; Huang, Jun-Fu; Fu, Wei-Ling

    2010-09-08

    A method for the simultaneous and economical determination of many trace elements in human milk is developed. Two multi-element hollow cathode lamps (HCLs) were used instead of single-element HCLs to improve the sample throughput of flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The microwave digestion of milk is optimized prior to detection, and the performance characteristics of the improved analysis method are identified. Clinical samples are detected by both FAAS and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for methodology evaluation. Results reveal that the proposed FAAS with multi-element HCLs could determine six essential minerals and trace elements within 15 min. This method provides a linear analytical range of 0.01-10 mg L(-1). For Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn, the limits of determination are 1.5, 3, 1.8, 2.2, 2.1, and 1.3 microg L(-1), respectively. The mean relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and interassays are lower than 7%. Excellent operational characteristics of rapidity, simplicity, and economy make the proposed method a promising one for the quantification of trace elements in human milk in clinics of underdeveloped areas.

  3. Correlation and petrogenesis of silicic pyroclastic rocks in the Northern Pannonian Basin, Eastern-Central Europe: In situ trace element data of glass shards and mineral chemical constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harangi, Szabolcs; Mason, Paul R. D.; Lukács, Réka

    2005-05-01

    The Neogene volcanism of the Carpathian-Pannonian Region, Eastern-Central Europe started with repeated explosive eruption of silicic magmas. Volcanic products consist mostly of non-welded and partially to densely welded ignimbrites, which cover large areas in the Pannonian Basin. Since this volcanism occurred during a long time interval, from 21 Ma to 13.5 Ma ago, these pyroclastic deposits have great stratigraphic importance, as well as providing valuable information about petrogenetic processes during the formation of the back-arc basin area. In this study, we used in situ trace element data of glasses (glass shards, pumice and fiamme glass) determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), combined with microprobe geochemical data of the main mineral phases (plagioclase, biotite), to correlate the scattered outcrops of the ignimbrite units. Based on these data, we distinguished four ignimbrite units in the Bükkalja Volcanic Field, Northern Pannonian Basin. Each of these units is characterized by specific geochemical fingerprints. Thorium, Nb, Y and the rare earth elements are the most effective discriminator elements in glasses. The modal composition of mineral phases (occurrence or lack of certain minerals) and chemistry of plagioclases and biotites are also good correlation tools, especially the Fe, Mg and Ti contents of biotites. We suggest that these correlation criteria, particularly the grain-specific LA-ICP-MS data, could be effectively used also in other ignimbrite fields and in wider tephrochronological studies. The in situ trace element composition of glasses, representing the liquid part of the erupted magma, can be also used to constrain the petrogenesis of the rhyolitic magmas. Trace element ratios such as La/Nb, La/Y and Th/Nb suggest the importance of minor (e.g., hornblende and ilmenite) and accessory (e.g., zircon, allanite) minerals controlling the composition of the erupted melt. Rhyolitic magmas probably

  4. Singular value decomposition approach to the yttrium occurrence in mineral maps of rare earth element ores using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romppanen, Sari; Häkkänen, Heikki; Kaski, Saara

    2017-08-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used in analysis of rare earth element (REE) ores from the geological formation of Norra Kärr Alkaline Complex in southern Sweden. Yttrium has been detected in eudialyte (Na15 Ca6(Fe,Mn)3 Zr3Si(Si25O73)(O,OH,H2O)3 (OH,Cl)2) and catapleiite (Ca/Na2ZrSi3O9·2H2O). Singular value decomposition (SVD) has been employed in classification of the minerals in the rock samples and maps representing the mineralogy in the sampled area have been constructed. Based on the SVD classification the percentage of the yttrium-bearing ore minerals can be calculated even in fine-grained rock samples.

  5. 矿质元素互作及重金属污染的研究进展%Advances in Mineral Element Interactions and Heavy Metal Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈久耿; 晁代印

    2014-01-01

    With the development of industry and agriculture, heavy metal pollution is becoming a more and more serious problem in China. It is essential to study mineral element interactions for uncovering the migration mechanisms of heavy metals in plants and resolving the conlficts between mineral nutrient use efifciency and heavy metal accumulation. This review tries to make a brief summary of recent progresses in studies of interactions of mineral elements and heavy metals and discuss possible ways to resolve the problems of heavy metal pollution and combined heavy metal pollution, with focuses on several mineral nutrients and plant ionomics.%随着工农业的发展,重金属污染问题在我国越来越严重。矿质元素互作的研究是理解重金属植物体内迁移规律,解决矿质营养利用和重金属污染治理的矛盾以及重金属复合污染问题的必然要求。本文从几个与重金属关系密切的矿质元素入手,并结合离子组学的发展,简要介绍了矿质元素与重金属的互作方面的主要进展,并对解决重金属污染和重金属复合污染问题进行了探讨。

  6. Study of mineral content (Nutrients and Trace elements) in vine leaf and 4 weed species included in the vegetal cover in a Spanish vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, José Angel; Bravo, Sandra; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García-Navarro, Francisco; Higueras, Pablo; Campos, Juan Antonio; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The content of some mineral elements (Na, Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Mn, Si, Al, V, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, Ce, La and Nd) has been studied in vine leaf and four weed species (Mendicago lupulina L.; Malva sylvestris L., Hordeum murinum L. and Scandix pecten-veneris L.) included in the natural vegetal cover of a vineyard sited in Ciudad Real province (Central Spain). Samples were taken in May 2015, dried and milled in order to analyze them using the X Ray Fluorescence Technique. The results obtained have been compared with those measured in a vineyard located in a different site and with those suggested by the literature consulted for plants in general all around the world. The results indicate that some differences in mineral content among the weed species can be drafted. Great differences have been found in K, Si, Ca and Zn, although other elements, such as Mg, P, S, Ba and Nd, remained almost constant despite of the species. Moreover, the influence of the type of soil (different site) can give a different composition of the vine leaf in some elements. This last point is especially evident in the case of the Sr (more present in calcareous soils and leaves of plants grown on them, reaching 377 mg kg-1 versus less than 86 mg kg-1 in the non-calcareous studied soil).

  7. Milli-PIXE determination of trace elements in osmium-rich platinum-group minerals from the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, R.K.W. E-mail: rkwm@scientia.up.ac.za; Franklyn, C.B

    1999-09-02

    Osmium-rich platinum-group minerals (PGM), like osmiridium or native osmium, are an integral, though rare, part of the mineralogy of the Witwatersrand paleoplacer. Usually these grains are small, on average <100 {mu}m in size, and the characteristics of their source areas are unknown. In the mineralogical literature on these PGM in the Witwatersrand gold reefs, no information on the trace elements in these minerals is available. The milli-PIXE system at the van de Graaff accelerator at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa was used in a first attempt to determine a range of minor and trace elements, such as Co, Cu, Fe, Rh and Ru, in PGM from the Witwatersrand basin. This attempt is directed towards fingerprinting individual grains and to obtain possible information on the sources for these grains. It also serves as a first step towards a database of trace elements, which could allow a genetical classification of Os-rich PGM of unknown provenance.

  8. Application of paper chromatography to the determination of some elements in minerals and rocks; Application de la chromatographie sur papier a la determination de certains elements dans les mineraux et les roches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrinier, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-11-01

    This publication describes our work in applying paper chromatography to the fields of mineralogy and geology. We have studied the separation and determination of the following elements: Nb, Ta, Ti, Co, Cu, Mn, Sn, Ge, As, Sb, Bi, U, Th, Be, Au, Pb, Zn, V and Mo. The development of separation methods for these various elements has led us to solve many interference problems. These methods make it possible to separate and measure mineral components. They also enable us to search for trace elements in ores, rocks soils and carbonaceous materials. Finally let us point out that this technique may equally be used for analysis in very radioactive environment. (author) [French] Dans cette etude, nous etendons le champ d'application de la chromatographie sur papier aux domaines de la mineralogie et de la geologie. Nous avons etudie la separation et la determination des elements suivants: Nb, Ta, Ti, Co, Cu, Mn, Sn, Ge, As, Sb, Bi, U, Th, Be, Au, Pb, Zn, V et Mo. La mise au point des methodes de separation concernant ces differents elements nous a amenes a resoudre de nombreux problemes d'interference. Ces methodes permettent la separation et le dosage des constituants des mineraux, ainsi que la recherche d'elements en traces dans les minerais, les roches, les sols et les materiaux carbonnes. Signalons pour terminer que cette technique peut egalement trouver son utilisation dans le domaine de l'analyse en milieu tres radio-actif. (auteur)

  9. Three dimensional subsurface elemental identification of minerals using confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L., E-mail: ncordes@lanl.gov [Polymers and Coatings Group, Material Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Seshadri, Srivatsan, E-mail: srivatsan.seshadri@zeiss.com [Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, Inc., Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Havrilla, George J. [Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering, Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Yuan, Xiaoli [Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre, University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, Brisbane, QLD 4068 (Australia); Feser, Michael [Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, Inc., Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Patterson, Brian M. [Polymers and Coatings Group, Material Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current non-destructive elemental characterization methods, such as scanning electron microscopy-based energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (MXRF), are limited to either elemental identification at the surface (SEM–EDS) or suffer from an inability to discriminate between surface or depth information (MXRF). Thus, a non-destructive elemental characterization of individual embedded particles beneath the surface is impossible with either of these techniques. This limitation can be overcome by using laboratory-based 3D confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (confocal MXRF). This technique utilizes focusing optics on the X-ray source and detector which allows for spatial discrimination in all three dimensions. However, the voxel-by-voxel serial acquisition of a 3D elemental scan can be very time-intensive (~ 1 to 4 weeks) if it is necessary to locate individual embedded particles of interest. As an example, if each point takes a 5 s measurement time, a small volume of 50 × 50 × 50 pixels leads to an acquisition time of approximately 174 h, not including sample stage movement time. Initially screening the samples for particles of interest using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) can significantly reduce the time required to spatially locate these particles. Once located, these individual particles can be elementally characterized with confocal MXRF. Herein, we report the elemental identification of high atomic number surface and subsurface particles embedded in a mineralogical matrix by coupling micro-CT and confocal MXRF. Synergistically, these two X-ray based techniques first rapidly locate and then elementally identify individual subsurface particles. - Highlights: • Coupling of confocal X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray computed tomography • Qualitative elemental identification of surface and subsurface mineral particles • Non-destructive particle size measurements • Utilization of

  10. Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond mine, Iron Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, H.E.; Robinson, C.; Alpers, C.N.; McCleskey, R.B.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Peterson, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    Copiapite-group minerals of the general formula AR4 (SO4)6(OH)2??nH2O, where A is predominantly Mg, Fe2+, or 0.67Al3+, R is predominantly Fe3+, and n is typically 20, are among several secondary hydrous Fe sulfates occurring in the inactive mine workings of the massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, CA, a USEPA Superfund site that produces extremely acidic drainage. Samples of copiapite-group minerals, some with coexisting water, were collected from the Richmond mine. Approximately 200 mL of brownish pore water with a pH of -0.9 were extracted through centrifugation from a 10-L sample of moist copiapite-group minerals taken from pyritic muck piles. The pore water is extremely rich in ferric iron (Fe3+=149 g L-1, FeT=162 g L-1 and has a density of 1.52 g mL-1. The composition of the pore water is interpreted in the context of published phase relations in the Fe2O3- SO3-H2O system and previous work on the chemistry of extremely acid mine waters and associated minerals in the Richmond mine. Two distinct members of the copiapite mineral group were identified in the samples with coexisting water: (1) abundant magnesiocopiapite consisting of platy crystals 10 to 50 ??m and (2) minor aluminocopiapite present as smaller platy crystals that form spheroidal aggregates. The average composition (n=5) of the magnesiocopiapite is (Mg0.90Fe0.172+ Zn0.02Cu0.01)???1.10(Fe3.833+Al0.09)???3.92(SO4) 6.00(OH)1.96??20H2O. Bulk compositions determined by digestion and wet-chemical analysis are consistent with the microanalytical results. These results suggest that magnesiocopiapite is the least soluble member of the copiapite group under the prevailing conditions. Micro-PIXE analysis indicates that the copiapite-group minerals in this sample sequester Zn (average 1420 ppm), with lesser amounts of Cu (average 270 ppm) and As (average 64 ppm). ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental mineral/liquid partition coefficients of the rare earth elements /REE/, Sc and Sr for perovskite, spinel and melilite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, H.; Schreiber, H. D.; Morris, R. V.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental determinations of the mineral/liquid partition coefficients of REE (La, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu), Sc and Sr are reported for the minerals perovskite, spinel and melilite in synthetic systems. Perovskite concentrates light REE with respect to the residual liquid but shows no preference for heavy REE. Spinel greatly discriminates against the incorporation of REE, especially light REE, into its crystal structure. The partition of REE into melilite from a silicate liquid is quite dependent upon both the bulk melt and melilite solid-solution (gehlenite and akermanite components) compositions. As such, melilite can be enriched in REE or will reject REE with corresponding strong negative or strong positive Eu anomalies, respectively.

  12. Effects of Adding Super Dose Phytase to the Phosphorus-deficient Diets of Young Pigs on Growth Performance, Bone Quality, Minerals and Amino Acids Digestibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Zeng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of feeding an Escherichia coli (E. coli derived phytase to pigs fed P deficient, corn-soybean meal diets. In Exp. 1, one hundred and twenty crossbred piglets (9.53±0.84 kg were allocated to one of five treatments which consisted of four low P diets (0.61% Ca, 0.46% total P and 0.24% non-phytate P supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 20,000 FTU/kg E. coli phytase as well as a positive control formulated to be adequate in all nutrients (0.77% Ca, 0.62% total P and 0.42% non-phytate P. The treatments were applied to six pens with four pigs per pen for 28 days. In Exp. 2, ten crossbred pigs (19.66±1.16 kg fitted with ileal T-cannula were used in a nutrient balance study. The pigs were assigned to treatments similar to those used in Exp. 1 in a doubly replicated 5×4 incomplete Latin square design (5 diets with 4 periods. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 3-d total collection of feces and urine and then a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. Supplementation with phytase linearly increased (p<0.05 weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, bone breaking strength and fat-free dry and ash bone weight. There were linear increases (p<0.01 in the apparent ileal digestibility (AID of DM, GE, CP, Ca, total P, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 and some AA with increasing dose of E. coli phytase. Pigs fed 20,000 FTU/kg had a greater (p<0.05 AID of IP6 (80% vs 59% or 64%, respectively than pigs fed diets with 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg phytase. There were linear increases (p<0.05 in the total tract digestibility of Ca, total P, Na, K, Mg, and Zn as well as in the retention of Mg and Zn with increased phytase dose. The retention and utilization of Cu, and the total tract digestibility of CP and Cu quadratic increased (p<0.05 with increased phytase dose. In conclusion, supplementation of 500 FTU of phytase/kg and above effectively hydrolyzed phytate in low-P corn-soybean diets for pigs. In

  13. Geochemistry of recent aragonite-rich sediments in Mediterranean karstic marine lakes: Trace elements as pollution and palaeoredox proxies and indicators of authigenic mineral formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondi, Ivan; Mikac, Nevenka; Vdović, Neda; Ivanić, Maja; Furdek, Martina; Škapin, Srečo D

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the geochemical characteristics of recent shallow-water aragonite-rich sediments from the karstic marine lakes located in the pristine environment on the island of Mljet (Adriatic Sea). Different trace elements were used as authigenic mineral formation, palaeoredox and pollution indicators. The distribution and the historical record of trace elements deposition mostly depended on the sedimentological processes associated with the formation of aragonite, early diagenetic processes governed by the prevailing physico-chemical conditions and on the recent anthropogenic activity. This study demonstrated that Sr could be used as a proxy indicating authigenic formation of aragonite in a marine carbonate sedimentological environment. Distribution of the redox sensitive elements Mo, Tl, U and Cd was used to identify changes in redox conditions in the investigated lake system and to determine the geochemical cycle of these elements through environmental changes over the last 100 years. The significant enrichment of these elements and the presence of early formed nanostructured authigenic framboidal pyrite in laminated deeper parts of sediment in Malo Jezero, indicate sporadic events of oxygen-depleted euxinic conditions in the recent past. Concentrations of trace elements were in the range characteristic for non-contaminated marine carbonates. However, the increase in the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Sn, Bi in the upper-most sediment strata of Veliko Jezero indicates a low level of trace element pollution, resulting from anthropogenic inputs over the last 40 years. The presence of butyltin compounds (BuTs) in the surface sediment of Veliko Jezero additionally indicates the anthropogenic influence in the recent past. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [The content of mineral elements in Camellia olei fera ovary at pollination and fertilization stages determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Feng; Yuan, De-Yi; Gao, Chao; Liao, Ting; Chen, Wen-Tao; Han, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Lin

    2014-04-01

    In order to elucidate the nutrition of Camellia olei fera at pollination and fertilization stages, the contents of mineral elements were determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and the change in the contents of mineral elements was studied and analysed under the condition of self- and cross-pollination. The results are showed that nine kinds of mineral elements contents were of "S" or "W" type curve changes at the pollination and fertilization stages of Camellia olei fera. N, K, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mn element content changes showed "S" curve under the self- and out-crossing, the content of N reaching the highest was 3.445 8 mg x g(-1) in self-pollination of 20 d; K content reaching the highest at the cross-pollination 20 d was 6.275 5 mg x g(-1); Zn content in self-pollination of 10 d reaching the highest was 0.070 5 mg x g(-1); Cu content in the cross-pollination of 5 d up to the highest was 0.061 0 mg x g(-1); Ca content in the cross-pollination of 15 d up to the highest was 3.714 5 mg x g(-1); the content of Mn reaching the highest in self-pollination 30 d was 2. 161 5 mg x g(-1). Fe, P, Mg element content changes was of "S" type curve in selfing and was of "W" type curve in outcrossing, Fe content in the self-pollination 10 d up to the highest was 0.453 0 mg x g(-1); P content in self-pollination of 20 d reaching the highest was 6.731 8 mg x g(-1); the content of Mg up to the highest in self-pollination 25 d was 2.724 0 mg x g(-1). The results can be used as a reference for spraying foliar fertilizer, and improving seed setting rate and yield in Camellia olei fera.

  15. Impact of the breeding region and the season on the content of the selected mineral elements in the hair of cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota CYGAN-SZCZEGIELNIAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyze the effect of the season and the breeding region on the content of selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Na and K in the hair of dairy cows. The research material was made up of 114 polish Holstein-Friesians breed cows from three breeding centres in Poland: Kombinat Rolny Sp. z o. o. - Kietrz (the opolskie province, Hodowla Zarodowa Zwierząt Sp. z o.o. - Knyszyn (the podlaskie province and Ośrodek Hodowli Zarodowej Sp. z o.o. - Osięciny (the kujawsko-pomorskie province. The cows were kept in freestanding cowsheds with den boxes. The animal nutrition involved the use of the TMR system, considering the division into nutrition groups. The hair was sampled in summer and in the period of winter and spring from the side of the body, right behind the coastal arch. Determination of Ca, Mg, Na and K was performed by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The study revealed seasonal variations in the content of mineral elements in the hair of dry cows and a region-dependent differentiation. The highest content of the quantity elements in question was found in the hair of the cows from Osięciny. The mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Na and K in the hair of cows from Osięciny was statistically significantly higher than in the hair collected in winter from the animals from Knyszyn and Kietrz. The lowest values of the determined elements were noted in the hair of cows bred in Knyszyn. The investigation of the correlation between the amounts of the elements, based on an analysis of all samples of hair, revealed a positive correlation between Na and K cations, as well as between Mg and Ca cations.

  16. Differences of the essential mineral element levels in the milk of Croatian Coldblood horse and Littoral-Dinaric donkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of essential elements in the milk of Croatian Coldblood mares and Littoral- Dinaric donkey were measured. The mean element contents in horse milk were (mg/kg: Ca 687.1, Mg 72.1, K 637.7, Na 143.5, Cu 0.126, Fe 0.235, Se 0.01, Zn 2.06, Mn<0.01. In donkey milk, the mean element contents were (mg/kg: Ca 815.4, Mg 80.8, K 887.7, Na 217.6, Cu 0.027, Fe 0.196, Zn 2.36, Mn 0.016. In horse milk, moderate correlations were found between the elements: Ca-K, Mg-Se, Mg-K, Mg-Cu, Se-Cu, Se-Fe, Mn-K. Strong correlations were found among elements in donkey milk: Ca-Na, Ca-K, Ca-Cu, K-Na, K-Cu, Cu-Mn. Significant differences between Na, K and Cu concentrations were obtained between the two species. Other elements concentrations were similar in both species.

  17. Diavik Waste Rock Project: Evolution of Mineral Weathering, Element Release, and Acid Generation and Neutralization during a Five-Year Humidity Cell Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff B. Langman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A five-year, humidity-cell experiment was used to study the weathering evolution of a low-sulfide, granitic waste rock at 5 and 22 °C. Only the rock with the highest sulfide content (0.16 wt % released sufficient acid to overcome a limited carbonate acid-neutralization capacity and produce a substantial decline in pH. Leached SO4 and Ca quickly increased then decreased during the first two years of weathering. Sulfide oxidation continued to release acid and SO4 after carbonate depletion, resulting in an increase in acid-soluble elements, including Cu and Zn. With the dissolution of Al-bearing minerals, the pH stabilized above 4, and sulfide oxidation continued to decline until the end of the experiment. The variation in activation energy of sulfide oxidation correlates with changes in sulfide availability, where the lowest activation energies occurred during the largest releases of SO4. A decrease in sulfide availability was attributed to consumption of sulfide and weathered rims on sulfide grains that reduced the oxidation rate. Varying element release rates due to changing carbonate and sulfide availability provide identifiable geochemical conditions that can be viewed as neutralization sequences and may be extrapolated to the field site for examining the evolution of mineral weathering of the waste rock.

  18. [Monitoring of contamination of foodstuffs with elements noxious to human health. Part II. Mineral waters, soft drinks, fruits, nuts, rice, soybeans, fish and seafood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Mania, Monika; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Biernat, Urszula; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2010-01-01

    Results of the 5-years cycle (2004-2008) monitoring investigations on food contamination with elements noxious to human health, involving testing of mineral waters and soft drinks (226 samples), fruits (467 samples), rice (234 samples), soybeans (236 samples), nuts and peanuts (237 samples), fish and seafood (237 samples) are discussed. The parties involved in testing were: laboratories of State Sanitary Inspection and the national reference laboratory of the Department of Food and Consumer Articles Research of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. The reported metals contents did not give rise to health concerns, remaining generally below the levels set forth in food legislation and being comparable with contamination levels reported in other European countries; and for cadmium--often lower. Health hazard assessment was performed taking into account the mean contamination levels obtained and average domestic consumption of these food products groups in Poland. The highest intake expressed as the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was obtained for mercury in fish, which has reached mean 3.2% PTWI. Controlled fish consumption recommendations should be adhered to by prospective mothers, pregnant women, breast-feeding women and young children. Lead and arsenic intake with mineral waters and soft drinks comprises approx. 15% of total intake of these elements with food.

  19. [Mineral elements analysis of Momordica charantiap seeds by ICP-AES and fatty acid profile identification of seed oil by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-ru; Deng, Ze-yuan; Fan, Ya-wei; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhi-han

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, a special kind of Momordica charantia seeds produced in Hai Nan was selected and analyzed. Firstly, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the mineral elements. It was clear that the contents of K, Mg and P are the highest in the seeds; Cr and Zn takes up to 5.65% and 45.45% high, especially, which are rare in plant foods. These minerals, especially Cr and Zn might have a complex effect on those proteins or polysaccharides and form a stronger anticipation of hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and cholesterol. Secondly, seed oil was extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction with a yield ratio of 36.89, and the fatty acids were treated by methylation in alkaline process and purified by thin-layer chromatography, then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) identification. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) take up 36.712, and mainly are stearic acid; monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) is only 3.33% which is dominantly linoleic acid (LA); Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) accounted for 59.96%, and the alpha-eleostearic acid takes up 54.26% as the main fatty acids in all. The plentiful alpha-eleostearic acid leads to strong effects of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, lowering blood fat, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and preventing cardiovascular diseases, and so on. Knowing clearly the mineral elements distribution and identifying the composition of fatty acid, especially the main fatty acids in the oil, are both of great guiding importance to further exploit the clinical and edible value in Momordica charantiap seeds.

  20. Radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration haloes in albite: implications for alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization and element mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, D. C.; Chaudhuri, T.

    2016-12-01

    Uraninite, besides occurring in other modes, occurs as inclusions in albite in feldspathic schist in the Bagjata uranium deposits, Singhbhum shear zone, India. The feldspathic schist, considered the product of Na-metasomatism, witnessed multiple hydrothermal events, the signatures of which are preserved in the alteration halo in albite surrounding uraninite. Here we report radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration halo in albite and its various geological implications. Microscopic observation and SRIM/TRIM simulations reveal that the dimension of the alteration halo is dependent collectively on the zone of maximum cumulative α dose that albite was subjected to and by the extent of dissolution of uraninite during alteration. In well-preserved alteration haloes, from uraninite to the unaltered part of albite, the alteration minerals are systematically distributed in different zones; zone-1: K-feldspar; zone-2: chlorite; zone-3: LREE-phase/pyrite/U-Y-silicate. Based on textures of alteration minerals in the alteration microdomain, we propose a generalized Na+➔K+➔H+ alteration sequence, which is in agreement with the regional-scale alteration pattern. Integrating distribution of ore and alteration minerals in the alteration zone and their geochemistry, we further propose multiple events of U, REE, and sulfide mineralization/mobilization in the Bagjata deposit. The alteration process also involved interaction of the hydrothermal fluid with uraninite inclusions resulting in resorption of uraninite, redistribution of elements, including U and Pb, and resetting of isotopic clock. Thus, our study demonstrates that alteration halo is a miniature scale-model of the regional hydrothermal alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization/mobilization. This study further demonstrates that albite is vulnerable to radiation damage and damage-controlled fluid-assisted alteration, which may redistribute metals, including actinides, from radioactive minerals

  1. Distribution of Some Elements in Biosubstrates of Workers Occupied in the Production of Mineral Nitrogenous Phosphate Fertilizers

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Lyapunov, S M; Okina, O I; Pavlov, S S; Geological Institute RAS, Moscow, Russia

    2005-01-01

    The data on the content of some trace elements typical for the production of nitrogenous phosphate fertilizers (F, Sr, rare-earth elements), as well as heavy and toxic metals in industrial products, occupational air, drinking water and biosubstrates (urine, hair) of the factory workers are presented. The correlations between the content of fluorine in urine and hair of workers and between the content of fluorine, length of service and age, have been shown. The correlation dependence between the content of F in biosubstrates and a number of trace elements typical for the given type of production has been evaluated. The comparison of the morbidity and character of diseases of the factory workers and of the local residents unoccupied in the production has been made.

  2. The distribution of soluble radionuclide-relevant trace elements between salt minerals and saline solutions; Die Verteilung loeslicher Radionuklid-relevanter Spurenelemente zwischen Salzmineralen und salinaren Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Ina

    2015-07-16

    The research platform ENTRIA (Disposal options for radioactive residues Interdisciplinary analyses and development of evaluation principles) includes the sub-project ''Final disposal in deep geological formations without any arrangements for retrieval''. This approach considers rock salt (beside clay and granite) as host rock formation for disposal of heat-producing long-live waste. Most rock salt formations contain Mg-rich brines derived from highly evolved sea water evaporation processes now included in the rock salt mass. If such brines get access to metal-canister corrosion will allow release of soluble nuclides to the brine. In this scenario, it cannot be excluded that contaminated brines leave the deep seated disposal area and move along geological or technical migration pathways towards the rock salt/cap rock contact. The temperature of the brine will drop from near 80 C to 25 or 30 C. The deceasing temperature of the brine causes precipitation of magnesian chloride and sulfate phase in equilibrium with the brine. In order to understand the salt precipitation and the retention mechanism of dissolved trace elements experiments have been set up which allow formation of sylvite, carnallite, kainite, and hydrous Mg-sulphates under controlled conditions. The retention capacity of crystallizing salt minerals based occurring in magnesian brine solutions at decreasing temperature within a salt dome is best measured as the distribution coefficient D. This concept assumes incorporation of trace elements into the lattice of salt minerals. The distribution coefficients of the trace elements, Rb, Cs, Co, Ni, Zn, Li and B between sylvite, carnallite, kainite, and MgSO{sub 4} phases have been determined at experimental temperatures of 25, 35, 55 and 83 C. The results clearly indicate the following range of distribution coefficients (D): Sylvite D > 1 Rb and Br, D < 1 Co, Ni, Zn, Li and B, Carnallite D > 1 Rb and Cs, D < 1 Co, Ni, Zn, Li and B, Kainite D

  3. Mineral elements, lipoxygenase activity, and antioxidant capacity of okara as a byproduct in hydrothermal processing of soy milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Sladjana P; Barac, Miroljub B; Pesic, Mirjana B; Zilic, Sladjana M; Kresovic, Mirjana M; Vucelic-Radovic, Biljana V

    2014-09-10

    Minerals and antioxidative capacity of raw okara that was obtained as a byproduct from six soybean varieties during hydrothermal cooking (HTC) of soy milk were assessed. Lipoxygenase (Lox), an enzyme deteriorating the sensory characteristics of okara, was also investigated. All genotypes had very similar concentrations of Lox (4.32-5.62%). Compared to raw soybeans, the applied HTC significantly reduced Lox content in okara (0.54-0.19%) and lowered its activity to 0.004-0.007 μmol g(-1) min (-1). Correlation between the content of Lox in soybeans and that in okara (r = 0.21;p process than on soybean genotype. Very strong correlation (r = 0.99; p minerals in raw okara were potassium (1.04-1.21 g/100g), phosphorus (0.45-0.50 g/100 g), calcium (0.26-0.39 g/100 g), and iron (5.45-10.95 mg/100 g). A very high antioxidant capacity (19.06-29.36 mmol Trolox kg(-1)) contributes to the nutritional value of raw okara.

  4. Determination of trace element mineral/liquid partition coefficients in melilite and diopside by ion and electron microprobe techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, S. M.; Laughlin, J. R.; Grossman, L.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of ion microprobe (IMP) for quantitative analysis of minor elements (Sr, Y, Zr, La, Sm, and Yb) in the major phases present in natural Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) was investigated by comparing IMP results with those of an electron microprobe (EMP). Results on three trace-element-doped glasses indicated that it is not possible to obtain precise quantitative analysis by using IMP if there are large differences in SiO2 content between the standards used to derive the ion yields and the unknowns.

  5. Rare earth element distribution and mineralization in Sweden: an application of principal component analysis to FOREGS soil geochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghi, Martiya; Morris, George A.; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Laderberger, Anna; Andersson, Madelen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of statistical analyses and spatial interpretations of distributions of rare earth elements (REEs) in Sweden using the Forum of European Geological Surveys (FOREGS) geochemical database of topsoil, subsoil and stream sediment compositions. Raster maps depicting spatial di

  6. Geochemical Characteristics and Significance of Major Elements, Trace Elements and REE in Mineralized Altered Rocks of Large-Scale Tsagaan Suvarga Cu-Mo Porphyry Deposit in Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The alteration types of the large-scale Tsagaan Suvarga Cu-Mo porphyry deposit mostly comprise stockwork silicification, argillization, quartz-sericite alteration, K-silicate alteration, and propylitization.The mineralized and altered zones from hydrothermal metallogenic center to the outside successively are Cu-bearing stockwork silicification zone, Cu-bearing argillized zone, Cu-Mo-bearing quartz-sericite alteration zone, Cu-Mo-bearing K-silicate alteration zone, and propylitization zone.The K-silicate alteration occurred in the early phase, quartz-sericite alteration in the medium phase, and argillization and carbonatization (calcite) in the later phase.Ore-bearing-altered rocks are significantly controlled by the structure and fissure zones of different scales, and NE- and NW-trending fissure zones could probably be the migration pathways of the porphyry hydrothermal system.Results in this study indicated that the less the concentrations of REE, LREE, and HREE and the more the extensive fractionation between LREE and HREE, the closer it is to the center circulatory hydrothermal ore-forming and the more extensive silicification.The exponential relationship between the fractionation of LREE and HREE and the intensity of silicification and K-silicate alteration was found in the Cu-Mo deposit studied.The negative Eu anomaly, normal Eu, positive Eu anomaly and obviously positive Eu anomaly are coincident with the enhancement of Na2O and K2O concentrations gradually, which indicated that Eu anomaly would be significantly controlled by the alkaline metasomatism of the circulatory hydrothermal ore-forming system.Therefore, such characteristics as the positive Eu anomaly, the obvious fractionation between LREE and HREE and their related special alteration lithofacies are suggested to be metallogenic prognostic and exploration indications for Tsagaan Suvarga-style porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in Mongolia and China.

  7. Abundances and distribution of minerals and elements in high-alumina coal fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Zhao, L.; Peng, S.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, D.; Sun, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, is unique because it is highly enriched in alumina (Al2O3>50%). The fly ash mainly consists of amorphous glass and mullite and trace amounts of corundum, quartz, char, calcite, K-feldspar, clay minerals, and Fe-bearing minerals. The mullite content in fly ash is as high as 37.4% because of high boehmite and kaolinite contents in feed coal. Corundum is a characteristic mineral formed during the combustion of boehmite-rich coal.Samples from the economizer were sieved into six size fractions (500 mesh) and separated into magnetic, mullite+corundum+quartz (MCQ) and glass phases for mineralogical and chemical analysis. The corundum content increases but amorphous glass decreases with decreasing particle size. Fractions of small particle sizes are relatively high in mullite, probably because mullite was formed from fine clay mineral particles under high-temperature combustion condition. Similarly, fine corundum crystals formed in the boiler from boehmite in feed coal. The magnetic phase consists of hematite, magnetite, magnesioferrite, and MgFeAlO4 crystals. The MCQ phase is composed of 89% mullite, 6.1% corundum, 4.5% quartz, and 0.5% K-feldspar.Overall, the fly ash from the power plant is significantly enriched in Al2O3 with an average of 51.9%, but poor in SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, P2O5, and As. Arsenic, TiO2, Th, Al2O3, Bi, La, Ga, Ni, and V are high in mullite, and the magnetic matter is enriched in Fe2O3, CaO, MnO, TiO2, Cs, Co, As, Cd, Ba, Ni, Sb, MgO, Zn, and V. The remaining elements are high in the glass fraction. The concentration of K2O, Na2O, P2O5, Nb, Cr, Ta, U, W, Rb, and Ni do not clearly vary with particle size, while SiO2 and Hg decrease and the remaining elements clearly increase with decreasing particle size. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Enzyme leaching of surficial geochemical samples for detecting hydromorphic trace-element anomalies associated with precious-metal mineralized bedrock buried beneath glacial overburden in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert J.; Meier, A.L.; Riddle, G.; ,

    1990-01-01

    One objective of the International Falls and Roseau, Minnesota, CUSMAP projects was to develop a means of conducting regional-scale geochemical surveys in areas where bedrock is buried beneath complex glacially derived overburden. Partial analysis of B-horizon soils offered hope for detecting subtle hydromorphic trace-element dispersion patterns. An enzyme-based partial leach selectively removes metals from oxide coatings on the surfaces of soil materials without attacking their matrix. Most trace-element concentrations in the resulting solutions are in the part-per-trillion to low part-per-billion range, necessitating determinations by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. The resulting data show greater contrasts for many trace elements than with other techniques tested. Spatially, many trace metal anomalies are locally discontinuous, but anomalous trends within larger areas are apparent. In many instances, the source for an anomaly seems to be either basal till or bedrock. Ground water flow is probably the most important mechanism for transporting metals toward the surface, although ionic diffusion, electrochemical gradients, and capillary action may play a role in anomaly dispersal. Sample sites near the Rainy Lake-Seine River fault zone, a regional shear zone, often have anomalous concentrations of a variety of metals, commonly including Zn and/or one or more metals which substitute for Zn in sphalerite (Cd, Ge, Ga, and Sn). Shifts in background concentrations of Bi, Sb, and As show a trend across the area indicating a possible regional zoning of lode-Au mineralization. Soil anomalies of Ag, Co, and Tl parallel basement structures, suggesting areas that may have potential for Cobalt/Thunder Baytype silver viens. An area around Baudette, Minnesota, which is underlain by quartz-chlorite-carbonate-altered shear zones, is anomalous in Ag, As, Bi, Co, Mo, Te, Tl, and W. Anomalies of Ag, As, Bi, Te, and W tend to follow the fault zones, suggesting potential

  9. Validation of predicted patellofemoral mechanics in a finite element model of the healthy and cruciate-deficient knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azhar A; Shalhoub, Sami S; Cyr, Adam J; Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Maletsky, Lorin P; Rullkoetter, Paul J; Shelburne, Kevin B

    2016-01-25

    Healthy patellofemoral (PF) joint mechanics are critical to optimal function of the knee joint. Patellar maltracking may lead to large joint reaction loads and high stresses on the articular cartilage, increasing the risk of cartilage wear and the onset of osteoarthritis. While the mechanical sources of PF joint dysfunction are not well understood, links have been established between PF tracking and abnormal kinematics of the tibiofemoral (TF) joint, specifically following cruciate ligament injury and repair. The objective of this study was to create a validated finite element (FE) representation of the PF joint in order to predict PF kinematics and quadriceps force across healthy and pathological specimens. Measurements from a series of dynamic in-vitro cadaveric experiments were used to develop finite element models of the knee for three specimens. Specimens were loaded under intact, ACL-resected and both ACL and PCL-resected conditions. Finite element models of each specimen were constructed and calibrated to the outputs of the intact knee condition, and subsequently used to predict PF kinematics, contact mechanics, quadriceps force, patellar tendon moment arm and patellar tendon angle of the cruciate resected conditions. Model results for the intact and cruciate resected trials successfully matched experimental kinematics (avg. RMSE 4.0°, 3.1mm) and peak quadriceps forces (avg. difference 5.6%). Cruciate resections demonstrated either increased patellar tendon loads or increased joint reaction forces. The current study advances the standard for evaluation of PF mechanics through direct validation of cruciate-resected conditions including specimen-specific representations of PF anatomy.

  10. Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum essential minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) in rats fed with high-lipid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsel, Feraye Esen; Ateş, Atila; Bilal, Tanay; Altiner, Ayşen

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in rats fed with the normal or the high-lipid and -cholesterol diet. Thirty 1-year-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (pathogen-free), weighing an average of 229 g, were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Diets and tap water were given ad libitum for 75 days. Group 1 (control group) was fed with basal diet (2 % liquid vegetable oil, 0 % cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 % liquid vegetable oil and 5 % hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3 %) in high levels. 4,5 % G. cambogia extract containing 65 % HCA was added to the diet of group 3 as from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum mineral levels were analyzed using standard enzymatic colorimetric methods with a spectrophotometer. All significant differences were pcambogia extract than in the control group on day 45. Serum Mg level was significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group on day 45. Serum Fe levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups on days 45 and 75. Serum Zn level of the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract was significantly higher than in the control group on day 75. Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group, and in group 3 than in group 2 on day 75. In conclusion, a diet containing the high fat amounts may lead to the increase in circular levels of some minerals due to the short-chain fatty acid production lowering the luminal pH which increases mineral solubility, or serving as a fuel for mucosal cells and stimulating cell proliferation in the large intestine. G. cambogia extract may be used in the P and Cu deficiencies due to increases resulting in the present P and Cu amounts in G. cambogia extract, or the use of

  11. Ectomycorrhizal Influence on Particle Size, Surface Structure, Mineral Crystallinity, Functional Groups, and Elemental Composition of Soil Colloids from Different Soil Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the ectomycorrhizae-induced changes in surface structure and composition of soil colloids, the most active portion in soil matrix, although such data may benefit the understanding of mycorrhizal-aided soil improvements. By using ectomycorrhizae (Gomphidius viscidus and soil colloids from dark brown forest soil (a good loam and saline-alkali soil (heavily degraded soil, we tried to approach the changes here. For the good loam either from the surface or deep soils, the fungus treatment induced physical absorption of covering materials on colloid surface with nonsignificant increases in soil particle size (P>0.05. These increased the amount of variable functional groups (O–H stretching and bending, C–H stretching, C=O stretching, etc. by 3–26% and the crystallinity of variable soil minerals (kaolinite, hydromica, and quartz by 40–300%. However, the fungus treatment of saline-alkali soil obviously differed from the dark brown forest soil. There were 12–35% decreases in most functional groups, 15–55% decreases in crystallinity of most soil minerals but general increases in their grain size, and significant increases in soil particle size (P<0.05. These different responses sharply decreased element ratios (C : O, C : N, and C : Si in soil colloids from saline-alkali soil, moving them close to those of the good loam of dark brown forest soil.

  12. Density/area power-law models for separating multi-scale anomalies of ore and toxic elements in stream sediments in Gejiu mineral district, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Cheng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution introduces a fractal filtering technique newly developed on the basis of a spectral energy density vs. area power-law model in the context of multifractal theory. It can be used to map anisotropic singularities of geochemical landscapes created from geochemical concentration values in various surface media such as soils, stream sediments, tills and water. A geochemical landscape can be converted into a Fourier domain in which the spectral energy density is plotted against the area (in wave number units, and the relationship between the spectrum energy density (S and the area (A enclosed by the above-threshold spectrum energy density can be fitted by power-law models. Mixed geochemical landscape patterns can be fitted with different S-A power-law models in the frequency domain. Fractal filters can be defined according to these different S-A models and used to decompose the geochemical patterns into components with different self-similarities. The fractal filtering method was applied to a geochemical dataset from 7,349 stream sediment samples collected from Gejiu mineral district, which is famous for its word-class tin and copper production. Anomalies in three different scales were decomposed from total values of the trace elements As, Sn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. These anomalies generally correspond to various geological features and geological processes such as sedimentary rocks, intrusions, fault intersections and mineralization.

  13. Minerals and trace elements determination in diets by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos minerais e tracos em dietas pela tecnica de ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiras, Maria Izabel O.; Favaro, Debora I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Ribeiro, Marisilda; Cozzolino, Silvia M.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental. Lab. de Minerais

    2002-07-01

    In the present study 12 diets, each one consisting of a pool of seven day diets, composed by four meals: breakfast, lunch, dinner and snack, adequate in energy and macro nutrients according to the RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) recommendations, were elaborated and offered to a group of 12 men (19-42 years). The diets were collected by duplicate portion technique and dried by two different processes: freeze drying and 60 deg C ventilated oven drying. In the total, 24 diets were analyzed. The content of some minerals and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn) were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The validation of methodology was made by analysis of the reference materials Typical Diet (NIST SRM 1548{sup a}), Orchard Leaves (NIST SRM 1541) and Peach Leaves (NIST SRM 1547). The results observed by two different drying processes used were statistically compared by test T of Student. It was possible to conclude that the concentration means can be considered as statistically equal, within a significance level of 0.05. The daily intake values calculated from the concentration results were: 712 ({+-} 59) mg Ca/day; 10.7 ({+-} 0.8) mg Fe/ day; 3387 ({+-} 16) mg K/ day; 275 ({+-} 6) mg Mg/ day; 3.0 ({+-} 0.5) mg Mn/ day; 3656 ({+-} 699) mg Na/ day; 42 ({+-} 6) {mu}g Se/ day e 11.6 ({+-} 2.4) mg Zn/ day. The calculated intake was compared to the new daily recommended values set by RDA (National Research Council-USA) for the range age of individuals studied. It was possible to conclude that the diets were adequate in Fe and Zn and inadequate for the other elements. Concerning the minerals Na and K we verified high daily intake levels and this was already observed in other Brazilian regional diets. (author)

  14. Dephytinisation of soyabean protein isolate with low native phytic acid content has limited impact on mineral and trace element absorption in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Lena; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Kastenmayer, Peter; van Dael, Peter; Barclay, Denis

    2004-02-01

    Infant formulas based on soyabean protein isolate are often used as an alternative to cows'-based formulas. However, the presence of phytic acid in soya formulas has raised concern about the absorption of trace elements and minerals from these products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mineral and trace element absorption from regular and dephytinised soya formula in healthy infants. Soyabean protein isolate with a relatively low native content of phytic acid was used for production of a regular soya formula (300 mg phytic acid/kg liquid formula) and an experimental formula was based on dephytinised soya protein isolate (absorptions were measured by a stable isotope technique based on 72 h faecal excretion of non-absorbed stable isotopes (Zn, Fe, Cu and Ca) and by the chemical balance technique (Mn, Zn, Cu and Ca) in nine infants (69-191 d old). Fe absorption was also measured by erythrocyte incorporation 14 d after intake. The results from the present study demonstrated that Zn absorption, measured by a stable isotope technique, was significantly greater after dephytinisation (mean value 16.7 v. 22.6 %; P=0.03). No other statistically significant differences between the two formulas were observed. The nutritional benefit of dephytinisation was marginal in the present study. Based on these results, the use of soyabean protein isolate with low native content of phytic acid should be promoted for production of soya formulas and adequate addition of ascorbic acid to enhance Fe absorption should be ensured in the products.

  15. Analysis of mineral elements in hair samples for pregnancy-induced hypertension patients%人发中矿质元素与妊高征关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建平; 赵莹; 赵永光; 吴萍

    2008-01-01

    采用等离子体质谱法、等离子体光谱法和原子荧光光谱法测定头发微量元素的含量,对20~25岁妊娠30周的妊娠高血压患者和正常妊娠者头发中微量元素的含量和元素问的相关关系进行分析比较.数据表明:妊娠高血压患者的K和Na元素偏高尤为突出,而se和Mn元素含量低于正常妊娠者;且妊娠高血脏患行Ca-Se、Cu-K之间的相关关系极为密切.为妊娠高血压的预防与治疗提供了科学依据.%In this paper,the contents of mineral element in hair samples for pregnancy-induced hypertension patients with 30 weeks gestation were measured by ICP-MS,ICP-OES and AFS method and controlled by healthy pregnancy persons with different age from 20 to 25.The correlation of mineral elements and pregnancyinduced hypertension preliminarily studied.It was shown that the contents of K and Na for pregnancy-induced hypertension patients were higher than healthy pregnancy persons.While the contents of Mn and Se are lower than healthy pregnancy persons.The highly relation between Ca-Se,Cu-K were also found.The paper provides guide for prevention and clinical treatment of pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  16. STUDY OF CLINICO- EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS ADMITTED WITH INFANTILE TREMOR SYNDROME (ITS AND STATUS OF TRACE ELEMENTS (ZINC, COPPER DEFICIENCY IN THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Makwana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Under nutrition is one of the major problems in the field of Paediatrics. The greatest risk of malnutrition is in the first two years of life. The effects of this early damage on health, brain development, intelligence, educability and productivity are potentially reversible. The current study was an attempt to find out the clinico epidemiological profile, evaluate them for trace elements deficiency and most appropriate management options in those who are admitted with infantile tremor syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS The current study was a hospital based cross sectional study that was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Dr. S. N. Medical College Jodhpur. Duration of study was One Year. Any child up to the age of three years of age admitted in the paediatric wards with typical features of infantile tremor syndrome. RESULTS Maximum numbers of patients were found between 6 months to 12 months of age, there was slight male predominance. The majority of infants in our study (85% were exclusively breast fed, 66% of cases were having low serum Copper level. 9% of cases were having low serum zinc level. 8% of cases were having low serum copper level with tremors. CONCLUSION In our study the fact that NTS is mainly seen in children who are exclusively breast feed for a longer period with delayed introduction of weaning foods. The main presenting features remain developmental delay, hyper pigmentation and anemia. Among nutritional factors, deficiency of copper and zinc in children plays a big role in development of disease. Thus to prevent the development of nutritional tremor syndrome stress should be on early timely introduction of weaning foods, especially rich in copper and zinc. What is already known about this Study- low levels of trace elements like copper and zinc may be responsible for typical clinical manifestations in patients of infantile tremor syndrome. Pronged and Exclusive breast feeding further aggravate these features

  17. Self-attenuation artifacts and correction factors of light element measurements by X-ray analysis: Implication for mineral dust composition studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, P.; Nava, S.; Prati, P.; Chevaillier, S.; Klaver, A.; Lafon, S.; Mazzei, F.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.

    2010-01-01

    On a global scale, mineral dust is one of the major components of atmospheric aerosols and has important effects on the radiative budget of the atmosphere and thus on climate forcing. An accurate measurement of the concentration of crustal elements, namely Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, and Fe, is mandatory for the study of desert aerosols. The concentration of light elements, when measured by X-ray emission techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), can be underestimated owing to self-absorption of the emitted soft X-rays inside aerosol particles. In this work, we analyzed dust samples collected in field campaigns and samples produced in the laboratory using dust of known composition. Measurements have been conducted with PIXE and energy-dispersive XRF (ED-XRF), together with an attenuation-free technique such as particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) and attenuation corrected wavelength-dispersive XRF (WD-XRF) by internal standard calibration. We focus on the determination of Al and present results of a PIXE versus PIGE intercomparison. Aluminum concentration was measured with both techniques in dust samples collected by aircraft sampling over western Africa during winter 2006 and summer 2007. An underestimation of the Al concentration determined by PIXE was observed (up to 40%), and it was compared with the results of a simple calculation using basic physics and the size distribution of the collected aerosol. Similar attenuation was observed for Mg, Al, and Si in the laboratory samples analyzed by ED-XRF and WD-XRF. In order to use concentration ratios involving light elements as tracers of the region of emission of the sampled dust, these artifacts (i.e., underestimation of the concentration of light elements) induced by self-attenuation should be properly considered and corrected.

  18. Vitamin and Mineral Support in Children from Kharkiv Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Frolova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The mineral imbalance and hypovitaminosis significantly affect the level of a child’s health. The objective of the study: the analysis of vitamin and mineral supplementation of schoolchildren. 230 children aged 7 to 17 years underwent comprehensive examination with involvement of different specialty experts. Determination of vitamin content in the blood serum was conducted taking into account the analysis of actual nutrition by high performance liquid chromatography on Varian apparatus. The levels of macro- and microelements in the hair of children were evaluated by characteristic X-ray method on X-ray spectrometer X-Lab 2000. Analysis of the findings showed that nutrition of schoolchildren has 30–40 % energy deficit, which is associated with protein deficiency and excessive intake of carbohydrates (over 20 % due to simple sugars. The nutrition of all examined pupils had a significant deficiency of vitamins A, B, E, D, and vitamin C. The study of the content of vitamins in the blood serum showed that all children had a deficiency of at least one of the major vitamins, and 73.8 % of children had multivitamins deficiency. It was found that 78.8 % of children had mineral disturbances and imbalance in the ratio of major essential elements. It is established that 66.7 % of children with hypovitaminosis and mineral imbalance in the past medical history had a long period of recovery after acute diseases, and 23.1 % of children had various complications of these diseases.

  19. 探讨血清中微量元素与骨密度%Study on Trace Elements in Serum and Bone Mineral Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹毅; 李桂财; 叶茂; 冷华伟; 张玉峰

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic disease of the whole body, osteoporosis is mainly related to the intake of some minerals, excessive and uneven. It was found that the contents of trace elements in serum were mainly affected by calcium, zinc, iron, copper, phosphorus and magnesium. Therefore, the trace elements in the serum of osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment will have a very important role.%骨质疏松症是目前最常见的全身代谢疾病,骨质疏松症主要与某些矿物质的摄取不足、过量及不均衡有关。发现血清中的微量元素主要有钙、锌、铁、铜、磷、镁的含量影响着骨密度。因此,血清中微量元素在骨质疏松症的预防、诊断及治疗中将具有十分重要的作用。

  20. Transfer of selected mineral nutrients and trace elements in the host-hemiparasite association, Cistus-Odontites lutea, growing on and off metal-polluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llugany, M; Lombini, A; Dinelli, E; Poschenrieder, C; Barceló, J

    2009-03-01

    The role of a hemiparasitic life-style in plant resistance to toxic trace elements in polluted soils is unclear. Restriction of metal uptake by the host, restriction of metal transfer from host to parasite, or transformation of metals into a less toxic form may play a role. This study analysed the transfer of selected mineral elements from soil to host (Cistus spp.) and from host to hemiparasite (Odontites lutea) at locations with different metal burdens: a Cu-rich serpentine site, Pb-Ba mine spoil and an unpolluted soil. Highest soil-to-host transfer factors for K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu and Pb were observed on the unpolluted soil. Statistically significant differences among locations of host-to-parasite transfer factors were only found for Ca and Pb. Restriction of transfer of unfavourable Ca/Mg ratios, characteristic at the serpentine site, and of high Pb and Zn concentrations at the Pb-Ba mine occurred mainly at the soil-host, and not at the host-parasite, level. Odontites lutea was able to withstand enhanced Zn and Pb concentrations and low Fe/Cu ratios in shoot tissue without developing toxicity symptoms. This could be caused by specific metal resistance mechanisms in this hemiparasite and/or the transformation and transfer of these metals into a less toxic form by the metal-tolerant host.

  1. Latent manganese deficiency in barley can be diagnosed and remediated on the basis of chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Pedas, Pai; Laursen, Kristian Holst;

    2013-01-01

    chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence as a tool for diagnosis of latent Mn deficiency. Methods: Barley plants grown under controlled greenhouse conditions or in the field were exposed to different intensities of Mn deficiency. The responses were characterised by analysis of Chl a fluorescence, photosystem II (PSII......) proteins and mineral elements. Results: Analysis of the Chl a fluorescence induction kinetics (FIK) revealed distinct changes long before any visual symptoms of Mn deficiency were apparent. The changes were specific for Mn and did not occur in Mg, S, Fe or Cu deficient plants. The changes in Mn deficient......Background and aims: Manganese (Mn) deficiency represents a major plant nutritional disorder in winter cereals. The deficiency frequently occurs latently and the lack of visual symptoms prevents timely remediation and cause significant yield reductions. These problems prompted us to investigate...

  2. Mineralization and trace element distribution in pyrite using EMPA in exploration drill holes from Cheshmeh Zard gold district, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alaminia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pyrite is the most abundant sulfide mineral in low sulfidation ore deposits. Experimental studies have shown that low-temperature ( 200°C from hydrothermal or metamorphic fluids (Butler and Rickard, 2000. Framboidal pyrite mostly occurs in sedimentary environments, though it could also form during metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration (Scott et al., 2009. The pyrite formed tends to be enriched in various trace elements such as Au and As. For this study we have combined the geology, alteration, mineralization with recent studies of the description of the deposit from core logging and underground mapping and geochemistry in the CheshmehZard gold district and also investigated the compositional variation and textural differences between pyrite types. This study is based on the results of our alteration and mineralization mapping and detailed logging of 1937.8 m of drill core. Materials and Methods Geology, hydrothermal alteration and mineralization were examined in drill holes along several cross sections. Host-rock alteration minerals and veins were determined for 11 samples using standard X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF techniques. Polished sections were studied by reflected light microscopy and backscattered electron images (BSE. In this study, the trace-element composition of pyrite samples from the Au-III vein system was obtained using electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA data. All analyseswere carried out at the department of Materials Engineering and Physics of the University of Salzburg in Austria. The EMPA measurements and BSE imaging were made using a JXA-8600 electron microprobe. Spot analyses of 30 pyrite grains from CheshmehZard are given in Table 1. Results The study area is located in the north of Khorasan Razavi Province 45 km to the south of Neyshabour. The area near CheshmehZard could become important as a site of economically significant gold mineralization. Six gold-bearing vein

  3. Platinum-group elements and minerals in the lower and middle group chromitites of the western Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Malte; Oberthür, Thomas; Osbahr, Inga; Gutter, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The chromitites of the Bushveld Complex in South Africa contain vast resources of platinum-group elements (PGE). However, knowledge of the distribution and the mineralogical siting of the PGE in the lower group (LG) and middle group (MG) chromitite seams of the Bushveld Complex is limited. We studied concentrates from the LG-6 and MG-2 chromitites of the western Bushveld Complex by a variety of microanalytical techniques. The dominant PGM are sulfides, namely laurite, cooperite-braggite, and malanite-cuprorhodsite, followed by PGE-sulfarsenides, sperrylite, and Pt-Fe alloys. Laurite is the most abundant PGM (vol%). The matching sets of PGM present in the LG and MG chromitites of both the western and the eastern Bushveld Complex, and in the UG-2 chromitite, show strong similarities which support the assumption of a characteristic and general chromitite-related PGM assemblage. Palladium and Rh contents in pentlandite are low and erratic although maximum contents of 7730 ppm Pd and 6020 ppm Rh were detected. Rare thiospinels of the polydymite-linnaeite-greigite series have PGE contents of 1430 ppm Pt, 5370 ppm Rh, and 1460 ppm Pd. The various PGE occur in different deportment: Platinum is generally present in the form of discrete PGM (sulfides, arsenides, alloys). Palladium is present as a large variety of discrete PGM and also incorporated in pentlandite. Rhodium forms discrete PGM and is occasionally present in pentlandite. The IPGE (Os, Ir, and Ru) are dominantly incorporated in laurite (often as inclusions in chromite) and also occur as sulfarsenides.

  4. Transformation of organic carbon, trace element, and organo-mineral colloids in the mixing zone of the largest European Arctic river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Pokrovsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The estuarine behavior of organic carbon (OC and trace elements (TE was studied for the largest European sub-Arctic river, which is the Severnaya Dvina; this river is a deltaic estuary covered in ice during several hydrological seasons: summer (July 2010, 2012 and winter (March 2009 baseflow, and the November–December 2011 ice-free period. Colloidal forms of OC and TE were assessed using three pore size cutoff (1, 10, and 50 kDa using an in-situ dialysis procedure. Conventionally dissolved ( The most important result of this study is the elucidation of the behavior of the "truly" dissolved low molecular weight LMW fraction containing Fe, OC, and a number of insoluble elements. The concentration of the LMW fraction either remains constant or increases its relative contribution to the overall dissolved ( Overall, the observed decrease of the colloidal fraction may be related to the coagulation of organo-ferric colloids at the beginning of the mixing zone and therefore the replacement of the HMW1 kDa–0.22 μm portion by the LMW fraction. These patterns are highly reproducible across different sampling seasons, suggesting significant enrichment of the mixing zone by the most labile (and potentially bioavailable fraction of the OC, Fe and insoluble TE. The size fractionation of the colloidal material during estuarine mixing reflects a number of inorganic and biological processes, the relative contribution of which to element speciation varies depending on the hydrological stage and time of year. In particular, LMW ligand production in the surface horizons of the mixing zone may be linked to heterotrophic mineralization of allochthonous DOM and/or photodestruction. Given the relatively low concentration of particulate vs. dissolved load of most trace elements, desorption from the river suspended material was less pronounced than in other rivers in the world. As a result, the majority of dissolved components exhibited either a conservative (OC and

  5. A combined study of SHRIMP U-Pb dating, trace element and mineral inclusions on high-pressure metamorphic overgrowth zircon in eclogite from Qinglongshan in the Sulu terrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiuli; LI Shuguang; HOU Zhenhui1; HONG Jian; YANG Wei1

    2005-01-01

    Methods recently advanced for discrimination on the genesis of metamorphic zircon, such as analysis of mineral inclusions and trace elements, provide us powerful means to distinguish zircon overgrowth during high-pressure metamorphism. Zircons in ultrahigh-pressure eclogite from Qinglongshan in the Sulu terrane were studied by the SHRIMP U-Pb method in combining with trace element and mineral inclusion analyses. No inherited core was identified in the analyzed zircons by means of cathodoluminescence images. The occurrence of high-pressure metamorphic mineral inclusions in zircon, such as garnet, omphacite, rutile, and the flat HREE pattern in zircon indicate that the zircon formed at high-pressure metamorphic conditions. Therefore, a weighted average U-Pb age of 227.4 ± 3.5 Ma obtained from such a kind of zircon is interpreted to represent the timing of peak metamorphism for the Qinglongshan eclogite.

  6. The influence of Citrosept addition to drinking water and Scutellaria baicalensis root extract on the content of selected mineral elements in the blood plasma of turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Lechowski, Jerzy; Zukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Paweł; Zawiślak, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research work was to indicate the influence of Citrosept preparation and Scutellaria baicalensis root extract, administered per os to growing turkey hens in 3 different dosages, on the content of selected mineral elements in blood plasma of slaughter turkey hens. An attempt was also made to specify the most effective dosage of the applied preparations with the highest efficiency as regards increased levels of examined macro- and microelements in the birds' blood. The research experiment was conducted on 315 turkey hens randomly divided into seven groups, each consisting of 45 turkey hens. Group K constituted the control group without experimental additions of the above-mentioned preparations. When it comes to turkey hens which belonged to groups II-IV, Citrosept preparation was instilled to water in the following dosages: Group II - 0.011 ml/kg of bm; Group III - 0.021 ml/kg of bm; Group IV - 0.042 ml/kg bm. For birds which belonged to groups V-VII preparation, which was Scutellaria baicalensis root extract, was instilled to water in the following dosages: Group V - 0.009 ml/kg of bm; Group VI - 0.018 ml/kg of bm, Group VII - 0.036 ml/kg bm. In the examined plant extracts and blood plasma of the birds the levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, and Fe were identified. The use of examined extracts influenced the changes in the levels of all tested elements in slaughter turkey hens' blood plasma. An upward tendency was recorded which regarded the level of calcium and magnesium, and a downward tendency of sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, and iron in relation to the results achieved in the control group.

  7. Distribution and Accumulation Characteristics of Mineral Elements in Pitaya Seedling%火龙果幼苗矿质营养元素的分布及累积特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓仁菊; 范建新; 金吉林; 金吉芬

    2011-01-01

    为了对火龙果幼苗期的肥水管理提供科学依据,对1年生火龙果幼苗进行了树体营养分析.结果表明,根系中各营养元素含量大小表现为N>K>Ca>P>Mg>Fe>Mn>B>Cu>Zn,主干中各元素含量表现为Ca>K>N>P>Mg>Fe>Mn>B>Zn>Cu,幼茎中各营养元素含量表现为K>Ca>N>P>Mg>Fe>Mn>B>Zn>Cu.不同矿质元素的累积量大小均表现为幼茎>主干>根系,且各部位的矿质元素累积量差异显著.矿质元素的累积与各部位的生物量大小、矿质元素本身的含量和特性密切相关.%Mineral elements in one year old pitaya seeding were analyzed to provide scientific basis for fertilizer and water management. The results showed that mineral elements content showed N>K>Ca>P>Mg>Fe>Mn>B>Cu>Zn in root, Ca>K>N>P>Mg>Fe>Mn>B>Zn>Cu in cutting wood, and K>Ca>N>P>Mg>Fe>Mn>B>Zn>Cu in young stem. Accumulation of mineral elements in young stem was significantly higher than that in other parts, and root had the lowest accumulation of mineral elements, which indicated that accumulation of mineral element closely related to its content and properties, and biomass of parts in pitaya seedling.

  8. Experimental determination of carbon partitioning between upper mantle minerals and silicate melts: initial results and comparison to trace element partitioning (Nb, Rb, Ba, U, Th, K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, A.; Hauri, E. H.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Davis, F. A.; Withers, A. C.; Fogel, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Inventories of C in the mantle and magmatic fluxes of C between the mantle and the Earth's outer envelopes are poorly constrained in part owing to challenges in determining undegassed C concentrations of pristine basalts. Saal et al. [1] proposed that the behavior of Nb could be used as a proxy for C, owing to apparently similar behavior of the two elements in Siqueiros Transform MORB, but higher C/Nb ratios in popping rocks [2] call into question the applicability of the C/Nb proxy. Here, we present experimentally determined carbon partition coefficients (D's) between nominally volatile-free mantle minerals (olivine, OL; orthopyroxene, OPX; clinopyroxene, CPX; garnet, GA) and melts at 0.8-3 GPa, and 1250-1500°C. We conducted piston-cylinder experiments using an olivine-tholeiite + 4 wt% CO2, doped with Nb, Rb, U, Th, and 13C to enhance detection limits. To promote growth of crystals big enough for SIMS analyses, experiments were either long (D12C, but a few have the opposite. Continuous exchange of the liquid (initially rich in 13C) with the graphite capsules (rich in 12C) may yield D's with 13C>12C. D's with 12C>13C are likely owing to either low count rates or comparatively high analytical contamination. Concentrations in minerals vary from 0.20-3.46 ppm for C, 25-176 ppm for H2O, and 0.05-1.21 ppm for F, whereas liquids tend to much higher values (C≤0.9 wt%; H2O≤1.5 wt%; F≤34 ppm; P≤0.25 wt%; S≤43 ppm; Cl≤77 ppm). Resulting D's indicate that C is highly incompatible in all major mantle mineral phases, with D's for OL, OPX and CPX of close to 5x10-4, and for GA ~2.2x10-4. D's for H2O (2x10-4 to ~3x10-2) and F (~2.3x10-3 to ~5.8x10-2) are comparable to those found in previous studies. Trace element partition determinations are in progress, but comparison to previous studies indicates that carbon is significantly more incompatible during mantle melting than Nb, U, or Th, and has behavior approximately similar to Ba. We therefore suggest that

  9. Depositional environments of the Hart coal zone (Paleocene), Willow Bunch Coalfield, southern Saskatchewan, Canada from petrographic, palynological, paleobotanical, mineral and trace element studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; Beaton, A.P.; McDougall, W.J.; Nambudiri, E.M.V.; Vigrass, L.W. (University of Regina, SK (Canada). Energy Research Unit)

    1991-12-01

    Coal petrology, palynology, paleobotany and mineralogy of the Hart coal indicate deposition under wet, warm-temperate to subtropical climatic conditions in low-lying backswamps with fluvial channels and locally ponded areas. The coal is dominated by mixed xylitic/attrital lithotypes and by huminite macerals with secondary inertinite macerals and minor liptinite macerals. Good correlation exists between lithotypes and maceral composition. Local and vertical variations in proportions of huminites and inertinites reflect frequent fluctuations in water levels, periodic flooding, desiccation and burning of the peat. Swamps were dominated by {ital Glyptostrobus-Taxodium} forest with {ital Betula-Myrica-Alnus} communities and, locally {ital Laevigatosporites}, which are the dominant contributors to the xylite-rich lithotypes. Attrital lithotypes with abundant {ital Pandanus}, {ital Typha} and {ital Azolla} are consistent with wetter areas of a fluvial environment, including ponds and channels. Trace elements Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Si, Ti, U, Se, V, W, K and Th, typically associated with syngenetic minerals kaolinite, calcite and quartz, may have a volcanic source. High concentrations of Na, Ba and Ca found in organic complexes are of secondary origin and probably originate in deep source brines rather than marine surface waters. 55 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Growth and wood properties of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) in nursing mixtures established on nitrogen-deficient mineral soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, A.D.; Watson, B.A. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Forestry

    2000-07-01

    Rate of growth and wood properties of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were investigated in triplet mixtures with lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Loud.) (Alaskan provenance) and Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.), established on nitrogen-deficient, iron pan soils. These 'nursing' mixtures were compared with pure stands of Sitka spruce that had been either regularly or periodically fertilized with nitrogen. Japanese larch promoted a growth rate in Sitka spruce greater than that achieved in the lodgepole pine-nursed spruce and equivalent to the two pure spruce treatments over the duration of the experiment (current age 28 yrs). Growth of regularly fertilized pure Sitka spruce was not significantly greater than that of periodically fertilized pure spruce. Alaskan lodgepole pine controlled branch size on the lower part of the spruce stems more effectively than the other treatments, although this may have been a function of tree size. Branch characteristics of Japanese larch-nursed spruce, however, were similar to those of the pure spruce treatments. Japanese larch caused an imbalance in crown development in the spruce, although it is unclear from the present study whether this will have an influence on stem and wood quality by the end of the rotation. Overall, the evidence from this study suggests that Japanese larch is an effective nurse of Sitka spruce on nitrogen-deficient iron pans, maintaining a rate of growth similar to that of pure Sitka spruce periodically fertilized with nitrogen and higher than that observed in spruce nursed by Alaskan lodgepole pine.

  11. Evolution of the South African mantle — A case study of garnet peridotites from the Finsch diamond mine (Kaapvaal craton); part 1: Inter-mineral trace element and isotopic equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Marina; Brey, Gerhard P.; Weyer, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    A thorough assessment of inter-mineral equilibrium is essential for the understanding of trace element partitioning and also for the interpretation of isotopic data. Here we investigated high temperature (~ 1200 °C and 6 GPa) garnet peridotite xenoliths from the Kaapvaal craton (Finsch mine, South Africa), with exceptionally well equilibrated mineral major element compositions, for their trace element and isotopic inter-mineral equilibrium. Trace element compositions for all major mineral phases, i.e. olivine, orthopyroxene (opx), clinopyroxene (cpx) and garnet, were analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Garnet, cpx and opx of selected samples were analysed for their Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope compositions by multi collector ICP-MS. Most important mineral characteristics include: a) olivines from most samples are enriched in high-field-strength elements relative to other incompatible trace elements. Their lithium content correlates negatively with Mg#, indicating a depletion signature; b) all other minerals are depleted in heavy and middle rare earth elements (H- and M-REE) and enriched in light REE and large ion lithophile elements. This implies a complex history of depletion and metasomatic overprint for the Finsch cratonic mantle; c) orthopyroxene has similarly shaped trace element patterns as cpx, with one to two orders of magnitude lower abundances; and d) both, garnet and cpx, display variable, mostly positive ɛHf coupled with moderate variations in ɛNd. Trace element partitioning between garnet/cpx, cpx/opx and garnet/opx, displays only a weak pressure and temperature dependency. However, equilibrium partitioning of most trace elements between garnet and cpx shows a strong compositional dependency, i.e. on the Cr- (and Ca-) content of the garnets. Garnet-cpx partition coefficients follow a second grade polynomial correlation with Cr2O3 of garnet, whereby high chromium garnets (Cr2O3 > 6 wt.%) have generally higher

  12. Multi-stage metasomatism revealed by trace element and Li isotope distributions in minerals of peridotite xenoliths from Allègre volcano (French Massif Central)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoyan; Deloule, Etienne; France, Lydéric; Ingrin, Jannick

    2016-11-01

    released during the Variscan orogeny. Trace element distributions in minerals reveal that the HFSE and REE composition of Cpx and the negative δ7Li signature in Ol cores were not acquired simultaneously. Therefore at least three successive metasomatic events affected the Allegre peridotites, as revealed through the use of detailed in-situ Li isotopic analyses to trace melt-rock interactions.

  13. The therapeutic effect on bone mineral formation from biomimetic zinc containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) in zinc-deficient osteoporotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Joshua; Hao, Jia; Hatoyama, Hirokazu; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce; Otsuka, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of biomimetic zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) produced by hydrothermally converting calcium carbonate exoskeletons from foraminifera, in the treatment of osteoporotic mice. X-Ray powder diffraction showed crystallographic structures matching JCPDS profile for tricalcium phosphate. Mass spectroscopy used to calculate total composition amount showed similar amount of calcium (5×10(4) µg/g) and phosphate (4×10(4) ppm) after conversion and the presence of zinc (5.18×10(3) µg/g). In vitro zinc release showed no release in PBS buffer and <1% zinc release in 7 days. In vivo evaluation was done in ovariectomized mice by implanting the ZnTCP samples in the soft tissues near the right femur bone for four weeks. Thirty ddY mice (5 weeks old, average weight of 21 g) were divided into six experimental groups (normal, sham, OVX, β-TCP, ZnTCP and direct injection of zinc). CT images were taken every two weeks where the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were calculated by software based on CT images. The ZnTCP group exhibits cortical and cancellous bone growth of 45% and 20% respectively. While sham, OVX and β-TCP suffered from bone loss. A correlation was made between the significant body weight increase in ZnTCP with the significant increase in plasma zinc level compared with OVX. The presented results indicate that biomimetic ZnTCP were effective in preventing and treating bone loss in osteoporotic mice model.

  14. The therapeutic effect on bone mineral formation from biomimetic zinc containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP in zinc-deficient osteoporotic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chou

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of biomimetic zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP produced by hydrothermally converting calcium carbonate exoskeletons from foraminifera, in the treatment of osteoporotic mice. X-Ray powder diffraction showed crystallographic structures matching JCPDS profile for tricalcium phosphate. Mass spectroscopy used to calculate total composition amount showed similar amount of calcium (5×10(4 µg/g and phosphate (4×10(4 ppm after conversion and the presence of zinc (5.18×10(3 µg/g. In vitro zinc release showed no release in PBS buffer and <1% zinc release in 7 days. In vivo evaluation was done in ovariectomized mice by implanting the ZnTCP samples in the soft tissues near the right femur bone for four weeks. Thirty ddY mice (5 weeks old, average weight of 21 g were divided into six experimental groups (normal, sham, OVX, β-TCP, ZnTCP and direct injection of zinc. CT images were taken every two weeks where the bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC were calculated by software based on CT images. The ZnTCP group exhibits cortical and cancellous bone growth of 45% and 20% respectively. While sham, OVX and β-TCP suffered from bone loss. A correlation was made between the significant body weight increase in ZnTCP with the significant increase in plasma zinc level compared with OVX. The presented results indicate that biomimetic ZnTCP were effective in preventing and treating bone loss in osteoporotic mice model.

  15. Zebrafish in the Sea of Mineral (Iron, Zinc and Copper Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu eZhao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron, copper, zinc and eight other minerals are classified as essential trace elements because they present in minute in vivo quantities and are essential for life. Because either excess or insufficient levels of trace elements can be detrimental to life (causing human diseases such as iron-deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis, Menkes syndrome and Wilson’s disease, the endogenous levels of trace minerals must be tightly regulated. Many studies have demonstrated the existence of systems that maintain trace element homeostasis, and these systems are highly conserved in multiple species ranging from yeast to mice. As a model for studying trace mineral metabolism, the zebrafish is indispensable to researchers. Several large-scale mutagenesis screens have been performed in zebrafish, and these screens led to the identification of a series of metal transporters and the generation of several mutagenesis lines, providing an in-depth functional analysis at the system level. Moreover, because of their developmental advantages, zebrafish have also been used in mineral metabolism‒related chemical screens and toxicology studies. Here, we systematically review the major findings of trace element homeostasis studies using the zebrafish model. We also provide a homology analysis of trace mineral transporters in fish, mice and humans. Finally, we discuss the evidence that zebrafish are an ideal experimental tool for uncovering novel mechanisms of trace mineral metabolism and for improving approaches to treat mineral imbalance‒related diseases.

  16. Methodology for determination of trace elements in mineral phases of iron banded formation by LA-ICP-MS; Metodologia de determinacao de elementos-traco em fases minerais de formacoes ferriferas bandadas por LA-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Denise V.M. de; Nalini Junior, Herminio A.; Sampaio, Geraldo M.S.; Abreu, Adriana T. de; Lana, Cristiano de C., E-mail: deniseversiane2@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: nalini@degeo.ufop.br, E-mail: geraldomssampaio@gmail.com, E-mail: adrianatropia@gmail.com, E-mail: cristianodeclana@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (DEGEO/UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia

    2015-07-01

    The study of the chemical composition of mineral phases of iron formation (FF), especially of trace elements, is an important tool in the understanding of the genesis of these rocks and the contribution of the phases in the composition of whole rock. Low mass fraction of such elements in the mineral phases present in this rock type requires a suitable analytical procedure. The laser ablation technique coupled with ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) has been widely used for determination of trace elements in geological samples. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop calibration curves for determination of trace elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) in mineral phases of banded iron formations by LA-ICP-MS. Several certified reference materials (CRM) were used for calibrate the equipment. The analytical conditions were checked by CRM NIST SRM 614. The results were satisfactory, since the curves showed good linearity coefficients, good accuracy and precision of results. (author)

  17. Determination of Mineral Elements Utilization of Paeonia lactiflora Pall by ICP-AES%ICP-AES法检测芍药对矿质元素的吸收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简在友; 王文全; 李卫东; 孟丽; 许桂芳; 王秋玲; 王丹

    2011-01-01

    The contents of K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu and so on in the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall and in the soil in which they grew were determined by ICP-AES technique to study the mineral elements utilization of P. Lactiflora Pall. The results indicate that the elements utilization rate of P. Lactiflora Pall is different in different locations, so the contents of mineral elements in the roots of P. Lactiflora Pall and even the quality of medicinal materials coming from them in different locations are different The contents of Ca, Fe, Zn and so on in Chi Shao in Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia are relatively high. The contents of mineral elements in soil influence not only themselves' utilization but also other mineral elements utilization of P. Lactiflora Pall.%为了分析芍药对土壤矿质元素的吸收利用规律,采用ICP-AES法检测了不同产地芍药根和相应土壤中K,Ca,Na,Mg,Fe,Cu等主要矿质元素含量.结果表明:不同产地的芍药对土壤中矿质元素的吸收利用效率不同,反映在不同产地的芍药根中有些矿质元素含量有明显差异,从而使各地芍药药材质量在矿质元素方面也有差异,以黑龙江和内蒙古等地的赤芍中Ca,Fe,Zn等元素含量偏高;土壤中有些矿质元素不仅影响芍药对这种元素的吸收利用,而且影响芍药对其他元素的吸收利用.

  18. 不同矿物元素对干豆腐硬度的影响%Influence of different mineral elements on hardness of dry bean curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付佳; 孙冰玉; 刘琳琳; 刘颖; 石彦国

    2013-01-01

    Effects of different mineral elements(Ca,Mg,Zn,Mn,Fe,Cu) on the hardness of dry bean curd were studied by adding them in dry bean curd processing. The result showed that adding of Ca2+、Mg2+、Zn2+ and Fe3+ had significant influence on the hardness of dry bean curd,and with the increasing of the ions,the hardness increased differently. While adding of Cu2+ and Mn2+ did not have significant effect on the hardness of dry bean curd. The reason of this might be the different ionic radius and electronegativity of different ion that caused the different forms of combination with soybean protein ,thus affect the hardness of dry bean curd.%为了研究水质对干豆腐硬度的影响,将去离子水中加入不同的矿物元素(Ca、Mg、Zn、Mn、Fe、Cu)用于干豆腐加工,用物性仪测定干豆腐的硬度指标实验结果显示,Ca2+、Mg2+、Zn2+和Fe3+的添加均对干豆腐的硬度有显著影响,并且随着添加量的增加,干豆腐的硬度均有不同程度的增加而Cu2+、Mn2+的添加对干豆腐的硬度影响并不显著.分析其原因可能是,不同离子的离子半径及电负性的不同导致其与大豆蛋白质结合方式不同,进而影响干豆腐的硬度指标.

  19. Determination of Mineral Contents in Unpolished Rice and Bean Samples by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    As scientists have focused their researches on the health impacts caused by mineral nutrient deficiencies and hazardous elements, public concern regarding mineral intake from dietary food is rising. In this reason, the dietary habits of Koreans have been shifted from white rice to more nutrient rice like unpolished rice and rice mixed with beans. It is known that unpolished rice and beans contain more protein, vitamin and mineral contents than white rice and are more beneficial to human health, even though they sometimes cause indigestion or allergy. The objectives of this study were to determine the mineral contents in unpolished rice and bean samples by a neutron activation analysis (NAA) and to compare the level of mineral contents between the samples

  20. Preparation and characterization for mineral elements and total dietary fiber and testing for stability of {beta}-carotene of an ARC/CL carrot powder multipurpose candidate reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, J.T. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Hyvaerinen, H. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Haegg, M. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Plaami, S. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Tahvonen, R. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    As part of the analytical assurance system of the FAO European Cooperative Research Network on Trace Elements programme an ARC/CL-coded carrot flakes powder (CFP) candidate reference material (RM) has been prepared from a lot of commercial carrot flakes. The candidate RM has been homogenized using a Robot Coupe blender fitted with titanium blades, carefully homogenized in large teflon/polypropylene containers, bottled in 1000 numbered polyethylene containers (20 g samples) and tested for homogeneity. Interlaboratory comparison studies for 9 essential elements, cadmium and total dietary fiber (TDF) based on the AOAC-method resulted in the characterization of the contents of those compounds in the above material. After exclusion of outliers, mean values from at least nine different laboratories based altogether on three independent analytical principles have been used to calculate the recommended concentration ranges for mineral elements. Testing of homogeneity and stability for {beta}-carotene over a period of one year has been additionally carried out. The mean water content in the material amounted to 4.97% and remained stable over a one-year period. Homogeneity of the RM was within 3.0% for almost all included mineral elements as tested for a sample size of 0.5 g. The 95% confidence limits for the mean values of the established recommended concentrations of mineral elements in the present ARC/CL Carrot Powder candidate RM fell within 5% for all the other elements and TDF except for Fe (6.3%) and B (5.7%). The stability of {beta}-carotene in the present candidate RM stored in darkness over a one-year period at room temperature was within 6.3%. (orig.)

  1. Local and non-local sources of airborne particulate pollution at Beijing--The ratio of Mg/Al as an element tracer for estimating the contributions of mineral aerosols from outside Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Lihui; ZHUANG; Guoshun; SUN; Yele; WANG; Zifa

    2005-01-01

    A new element tracer technique has firstly been established to estimate the contributions of mineral aerosols from both inside and outside Beijing. The ratio of Mg/Al in aerosol is a feasible element tracer to distinguish between the sources of inside and outside Beijing. Mineral aerosol, inorganic pollution aerosol mainly as sulfate and nitrate, and organic aerosol are the major components of airborne particulates in Beijing, of which mineral aerosol accounted for 32%―67% of total suspended particles (TSP), 10%―70% of fine particles (PM2.5), and as high as 74% and 90% of TSP and PM2.5, respectively, in dust storm. The sources from outside Beijing contributed 62% (38%―86%) of the total mineral aerosols in TSP, 69% (52%―90%) in PM10, and 76% (59%―93%) in PM2.5 in spring, and 69% (52%―83%), 79% (52%―93%), and 45% (7%―79%) in TSP, PM10, and PM2.5, respectively, in winter, while only ~20% in summer and autumn. The sources from outside Beijing contributed as high as 97% during dust storm and were the dominant source of airborne particulates in Beijing. The contributions from outside Beijing in spring and winter are higher than those in summer, indicating clearly that it was related to the various meteorological factors.

  2. Rare-earth-element minerals in martian breccia meteorites NWA 7034 and 7533: Implications for fluid-rock interaction in the martian crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Ma, Chi; Beckett, John R.; Chen, Yang; Guan, Yunbin

    2016-10-01

    Paired martian breccia meteorites, Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and 7533, are the first martian rocks found to contain rare-earth-element (REE) phosphates and silicates. The most common occurrence is as clusters of anhedral monazite-(Ce) inclusions in apatite. Occasionally, zoned, irregular merrillite inclusions are also present in apatite. Monazite-bearing apatite is sometimes associated with alkali-feldspar and Fe-oxide. Apatite near merrillite and monazite generally contains more F and OH (F-rich region) than the main chlorapatite host and forms irregular boundaries with the main host. Locally, the composition of F-rich regions can reach pure fluorapatite. The chlorapatite hosts are similar in composition to isolated apatite without monazite inclusions, and to euhedral apatite in lithic clasts. The U-Th-total Pb ages of monazite in three apatite are 1.0 ± 0.4Ga (2σ), 1.1 ± 0.5Ga (2σ), and 2.8 ± 0.7Ga (2σ), confirming a martian origin. The texture and composition of monazite inclusions are mostly consistent with their formation by the dissolution of apatite and/or merrillite by fluid at elevated temperatures (>100 °C). In NWA 7034, we observed a monazite-chevkinite-perrierite-bearing benmoreite or trachyandesite clast. Anhedral monazite and chevkinite-perrierite grains occur in a matrix of sub-micrometer REE-phases and silicates inside the clast. Monazite-(Ce) and -(Nd) and chevkinite-perrierite-(Ce) and -(Nd) display unusual La and Ce depletion relative to Sm and Nd. In addition, one xenotime-(Y)-bearing pyrite-ilmenite-zircon clast with small amounts of feldspar and augite occurs in NWA 7034. One xenotime crystal was observed at the edge of an altered zircon grain, and a cluster of xenotime crystals resides in a mixture of alteration materials. Pyrite, ilmenite, and zircon in this clast are all highly altered, zircon being the most likely source of Y and HREE now present in xenotime. The association of xenotime with zircon, low U and Th contents, and the

  3. Assessment criteria for vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in Japan: proposal by an expert panel supported by the Research Program of Intractable Diseases, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the Japan Endocrine Society [Opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryo; Ozono, Keiichi; Fukumoto, Seiji; Inoue, Daisuke; Yamauchi, Mika; Minagawa, Masanori; Michigami, Toshimi; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Toshio; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is indispensable for the maintenance of bone and mineral health. Inadequate vitamin D action increases the risk for various musculoskeletal/mineral events including fracture, fall, secondary hyperparathyroidism, diminished response to antiresorptives, rickets/osteomalacia, and hypocalcemia. Its most common cause in recent years is vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, clinically defined by a low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level. Guidelines for vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency defined by serum 25(OH)D concentrations have been published all over the world. In Japan, however, the information on the associations between serum 25(OH)D and bone and mineral disorders has not been widely shared among healthcare providers, partly because its measurement had not been reimbursed with national medical insurance policy until August 2016. We have set out to collect and analyze Japanese data on the relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentration and bone and mineral events. Integrating these domestic data and published guidelines worldwide, here, we present the following assessment criteria for vitamin D sufficiency/insufficiency/deficiency using serum 25(OH)D level in Japan. (1) Serum 25(OH)D level equal to or above 30 ng/ml is considered to be vitamin D sufficient. (2) Serum 25(OH)D level less than 30 ng/ml but not less than 20 ng/ml is considered to be vitamin D insufficient. (3) Serum 25(OH)D level less than 20 ng/ml is considered to be vitamin D deficient. We believe that these criteria will be clinically helpful in the assessment of serum 25(OH)D concentrations and further expect that they will form a basis for the future development of guidelines for the management of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency.

  4. Assessment criteria for vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in Japan - proposal by an expert panel supported by Research Program of Intractable Diseases, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and The Japan Endocrine Society [Opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryo; Ozono, Keiichi; Fukumoto, Seiji; Inoue, Daisuke; Yamauchi, Mika; Minagawa, Masanori; Michigami, Toshimi; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Toshio; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2017-01-30

    Vitamin D is indispensable for the maintenance of bone and mineral health. Inadequate vitamin D action increases the risk for various musculoskeletal/mineral events including fracture, fall, secondary hyperparathyroidism, diminished response to antiresorptives, rickets/osteomalacia, and hypocalcemia. Its most common cause in recent years is vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, clinically defined by low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level. Guidelines for vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency defined by serum 25(OH)D concentrations have been published all over the world. In Japan, however, the information on the associations between serum 25(OH)D and bone and mineral disorders has not been widely shared among healthcare providers, partly because its measurement had not been reimbursed with national medical insurance policy until August 2016. We have set out to collect and analyze Japanese data on the relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentration and bone and mineral events. Integrating these domestic data and published guidelines worldwide, here we present the following assessment criteria for vitamin D sufficiency/insufficiency/deficiency using serum 25(OH)D level in Japan. 1) Serum 25(OH)D level equal to or above 30 ng/mL is considered to be vitamin D sufficient. 2) Serum 25(OH)D level less than 30 ng/mL but not less than 20 ng/mL is considered to be vitamin D insufficient. 3) Serum 25(OH)D level less than 20 ng/mL is considered to be vitamin D deficient. We believe that these criteria will be clinically helpful in the assessment of serum 25(OH)D concentrations and further expect that they will form a basis for the future development of guidelines for the management of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency.

  5. Plant macro- and micronutrient minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    All plants must obtain a number of inorganic mineral elements from their environment to ensure successful growth and development of both vegetative and reproductive tissues. A total of fourteen mineral nutrients are considered to be essential. Several other elements have been shown to have beneficia...

  6. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em gravioleiras (Annona muricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista Magnalda Maria Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da omissão de macronutrientes no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em gravioleiras, conduziu-se experimento em casa de vegetação, mediante a técnica do elemento faltante. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e sete tratamentos, sendo completo (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e micronutrientes e com omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. As omissões dos macronutrientes afetaram o crescimento em altura, diâmetro das plantas e produção de matéria seca, quando comparados ao tratamento completo. Com base nos teores em g/kg dos macronutrientes nas folhas, encontraram-se os seguintes valores adequados nos tratamento completo e com omissão: N = 14,70 e 8,82; P = 0,92 e 0,47; K = 12,35 e 2,62; Ca = 14,11 e 3,44; Mg = 3,59 e 1,09; S = 5,32 e 2,30.

  7. CO2-induced changes in mineral stoichiometry of wheat grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Malin; Pleijel, Håkan; Högy, Petra

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive review of experiments with elevated CO2 (eCO2) presenting data on grain mineral concentration in wheat grain was made. Data were collected both from FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) and OTC (Open-Top Chamber) experiments. Analysis was made i) by deriving response functions for the relative effect on yield and mineral concentration in relation to CO2 concentration, ii) meta-analysis to test the magnitude and significance of observed effects and iii) comparison of the CO2 effect on the accumulation of different minerals in relation to accumulation of biomass and accumulation of N. Data were obtained for the following minerals: N, Zn, Mn, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, S, Cr, Cu, Cd and Na. In addition, data for starch, the dominating carbohydrate of wheat grain, were extracted. The responses ranged from near zero effects to strong negative effects of eCO2 on mineral concentration. The order of effect size was the following (from largest to smallest effect) for the different elements: Fe, Ca, S, Zn, Cd, N, Mg, Mn, P, Cu, Cr, K and Na. Particularly strong negative impacts of eCO2 were found in the essential mineral elements Fe, S, Ca, Zn and Mg. Especially Fe, Zn and Mg are nutrients for which deficiency in humans is a problem in todaýs world. The rather large differences in response of different elements indicated that the CO2-induced responses cannot be explained by a simple growth dilution model. Rather, uptake and transport mechanisms may have to be considered in greater detail, as well as the link of different elements with the uptake of nitrogen, the quantitatively dominating mineral nutrient, to explain the observed pattern. No effect of eCO2 on starch concentration could be demonstrated. This substantiates the rejection of a simple dilution model, since one would expect starch concentrations to be elevated in order to explain reduced mineral concentrations by carbohydrate dilution. The concentrations of toxic Cd was negatively affected, in principle a

  8. 云南省常见野生食用菌13种矿物质元素调查分析%Analysis of 13 kinds mineral elements of familiar wild edible fungi in yunnan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林佶; 孙灿; 段志敏; 徐丹先; 白斌; 闭增辉; 魏蓉; 宋卿

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Analysis content of 13 kinds mineral elements (K,Na,Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn,Zn,Cu,Se,Li,Sr,Ni,F)of41 kinds familiar wild edible fungi in yunnan province, founded content form of 13 kinds mineral elements and databank. Methods: Use determination methods from national food saftey standard to quantitatively determine content of 13 kinds mineral elements in 41 kinds familiar wild edible fungi and statistical analyze determination data. Results: Content of Se, K and Fe of 41 kinds familiar wild edible fungi are higher than content of stem leaf moss flower and melon kinds of vegetables, the other content of 10 mineral elements are the same as content of stem leaf moss flower and melon kinds of vegetables. Conclusion: Content of mineral elements in 41 kinds familiar wild edible fungi in yunnan province are rich and are foods of high Se,K and low Na.%目的:调查分析云南省41种常见野生食用鲜蘑菇中13种矿物质元素分布情况,建立矿物质元素含量表及数据库.方法:采用国家标准检测方法对13种矿物质元素(K、Na、Ca、Mg、Fe、Mn、Zn、Cu、Se、Li、Sr,Ni、F)进行定量测定,并对检测结果进行统计分析.结果:发现41个品种的新鲜野生食用菌中硒(Se)、钾(K)、铁(Fe)总平均含量较高;而其他10种矿物质元素含量与茎、叶、苔、花、瓜类蔬菜持平.结论:云南省41种常见鲜野生食用菌矿物质元素含量广泛,是典型的富硒和高钾低钠型食品.

  9. Abundances of platinum group elements in native sulfur condensates from the Niuatahi-Motutahi submarine volcano, Tonga rear arc: Implications for PGE mineralization in porphyry deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Woo; Campbell, Ian H.; Kim, Jonguk

    2016-02-01

    Some porphyry Cu-Au deposits, which are enriched in Pd, are potentially an economic source of Pd. Magmatic volatile phases are thought to transport the platinum group elements (PGEs) from the porphyry source magma to the point of deposition. However, the compatibilities of the PGEs in magmatic volatile phases are poorly constrained. We report PGE and Re contents in native sulfur condensates and associated altered dacites from the Niuatahi-Motutahi submarine volcano, Tonga rear arc, in order to determine the compatibility of PGEs and Re in magmatic volatile phases, and their mobility during secondary hydrothermal alteration. The native sulfur we analyzed is the condensate of a magmatic volatile phase exsolved from the Niuatahi-Motutahi magma. The PGEs are moderately enriched in the sulfur condensates in comparison to the associated fresh dacite, with enrichment factors of 11-285, whereas Au, Cu and Re are strongly enriched with enrichment factors of ∼20,000, ∼5000 and ∼800 respectively. Although the PGEs are moderately compatible into magmatic volatile phases, their compatibility is significantly lower than that of Au, Cu and Re. Furthermore, the compatibility of PGEs decrease in the order: Ru > Pt > Ir > Pd. This trend is also observed in condensates and sublimates from other localities. PGE mineralization in porphyry Cu-Au deposits is characterized by substantially higher Pd/Pt (∼7-60) and Pd/Ir (∼100-10,500) than typical orthomagmatic sulfide deposits (e.g. Pd/Pt ∼0.6 and Pd/Ir ∼20 for the Bushveld). It has previously been suggested that the high mobility of Pd, relative to the other PGEs, may account for the preferential enrichment of Pd in porphyry Cu-Au deposits. However, the low compatibility of Pd in the volatile phase relative to the other PGEs, shown in this study, invalidates this explanation. We suggest that the PGE geochemistry of Pd-rich Cu-Au deposits is principally derived from the PGE characteristics of the magma from which the ore

  10. Influence of low dose of gamma radiation and storage on some vitamins and mineral elements of dried oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortei, Nii Korley; Odamtten, George Tawia; Obodai, Mary; Wiafe-Kwagyan, Michael; Addo, Edward Adotey

    2017-05-01

    Mushrooms contain some of the most potent natural medicines on the planet. Vitamins A, C, D, Mineral elements, contents, as well as total soluble solids (Brix(o)) of dried composition of Pleurotus ostreatus were investigated after exposing to gamma radiation doses of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 kGy at a dose rate of 1.7 kGy per hour in air from a Cobalt 60 source (SLL 515, Hungary) batch irradiator prior to storage (0 month) and after storage (12 months) at room temperature (28 ± 2°C). Results obtained showed some significant (p differences due to irradiation and storage. Before storage, vitamins A, C, and D contents of dried and irradiated mushrooms ranged 0.003 ± 0.08-0.014 ± 0.08, 0.042 ± 1.06-0.132 ± 1.06, and 0.040 ± 0.76-0.057 ± 0.76 mg/g, respectively. After 12 months, vitamin contents decreased and ranged 0.0029 ± 0.08-0.010 ± 0.08, 0.038 ± 1.06-0.125 ± 1.06, and 0.031 ± 0.76-0.05 ± 0.76 mg/g for vitamins A, C, and D, respectively. Total soluble solids recorded 1.5 Brix(o), however, showed no significant difference (p > .05) and did not change in 12 months after gamma irradiation up to 2 kGy. Sodium ranged from 14.00 ± 0.7 to 14.90 ± 0.8 mg/100 g. Potassium content varied from 30.20 ± 0.5 to 33.10 ± 0.6 mg/100 g. Magnesium content ranged 1.27 ± 0.15-3.53 ± 0.04 mg/100 g. Calcium ranged 11.00 ± 0.4-12.53 ± 0.4 ± 0.03 mg/100 g. Phosphorus content ranged 6.11 ± 0.30-6.41 ± 0.35 mg/100 g, whereas Nitrogen content was found to be 3.00 ± 0.03-3.60 ± 0.25 mg/100 g. Microelements or heavy metals included Copper; detected ranged 0.00 ± 0.00-0.02 ± 0.001 mg/100 g, Zinc content ranged 0.01 ± 0.002-0.03 ± 0.001 mg/100 g. Iron content was found to be in the range 0.29 ± 0.01-0.37 ± 0.1 mg/100 g. Manganese content was found to be in the range 0.03 ± 0.001-0.04 ± 0.01 mg/100 g. Lead content was found to be 0.00 ± 0.00-0.03 ± 0.001

  11. Accumulation properties of mineral elements in two types of Chinese jujube%两种枣树矿质营养元素累积特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁智; 张计峰

    2011-01-01

    为探明枣树矿质营养元素的累积分配特征,以3年生骏枣树和灰枣树为试材,采用彻底刨根、分解取样的方法,研究了生物量的构成特点、各器官矿质元素含量和累积分配特性.结果表明,骏枣树总干质量为2694.3g/plant,其中营养器官占68.0%,分别比灰枣高27.6%和21.9%.其N、P、K、Ca、Mg总累积量为33.91、3.43、22.20、31.25和5.53g/plant,分别比灰枣树高50.1%、22.5%、24.7%、51.0%和88.7%.其中,N主要分配到叶片和果实,P、K主要分配到果实和叶片,Ca、Mg主要分配到叶片和主干;新生营养器官N、P、K的吸收比例为1:0.063~0.083:0.41~0.46,果实N、P、K的吸收比例为1:0.19~0.20:1.34~1.48.每生产1000kg干质量骏枣需吸收N 32.83、P 3.41、K 23.14、Ca 29.06、Mg 5.32kg;灰枣需吸收N20.53、P 2.66、K 17.71、Ca 18.01、Mg 2.49kg.骏枣生产单位干质量果实需吸收的养分比灰枣多,养分利用效率比灰枣低.骏枣树养分在叶片中的分配率显著高于灰枣树,在果实中的分配率则显著低于灰枣树.%The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in Chinese jujube ( Ziziphus jujube Mill.) and to establish a reasonable fertilization protocol.Field experiments were conducted to analyze the composition of the characteristics of biomass, mineral elements content and its accumulation in different parts of Junzao jujube and Huizao jujube trees that were about 3 years old.The total dry biomass of Junzao jujube was 2694.3 g/plant of which the vegetative organs accounted for 68.0%; these values were 27.6% and 21.9% higher, respectively, than those of Huizao jujube.The nitrogen (N) content was highest in the leaves followed by the fine roots.The phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents were highest in the fruit followed by the leaves, and lowest in the trunk.The calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) contents were highest in the leaves followed by the

  12. Microarray analysis of iron deficiency chlorosis in near-isogenic soybean lines

    OpenAIRE

    Cianzio Silvia R; Graham Michelle A; Vodkin Lila O; Gonzalez Delkin O; Charlson Dirk V; O'Rourke Jamie A; Grusak Michael A; Shoemaker Randy C

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Iron is one of fourteen mineral elements required for proper plant growth and development of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). Soybeans grown on calcareous soils, which are prevalent in the upper Midwest of the United States, often exhibit symptoms indicative of iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC). Yield loss has a positive linear correlation with increasing severity of chlorotic symptoms. As soybean is an important agronomic crop, it is essential to understand the genetics and ...

  13. 308例骨密度结果及与"肾虚、气虚、血瘀证"相关性的分析%The correlation analysis between bone mineral density and the syndromes of kidney deficiency, qi deficiency, and blood stasis in 308 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国栋; 莫文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the T score of bone mineral density (BMD) and the syndromes of kidney deficiency, qi deficiency, and blood stasis; and to provide scientific basis for the treatment of osteoporosis with traditional Chinese medicine.Methods Patients were collected from BMD examiners at the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Longhua Hospital, from August 2010 to February 2011.The objects were screened.BMD was measured and recorded.The collected data were analyzed statistically.Results 1 ) T-Score continuously decreased with age growing, and the T-Scores in different age groups were significantly different ( P < 0.01 ).2 ) The linear correlation analysis showed that the T-Score was positively correlated with the height, weight, and BMI (P < 0.01 ).3) The bone mass in patients with or without kidney deficiency, qi deficiency, or blood stasis was significantly different (P <0.01).Conclusion T-Score is correlated with age, height, weight, BMI, kidney deficiency, qi deficiency, and blood stasis.The results obtained in this study provide reference for clinical and epidemiological study for osteoporosis treatment with Chinese medicine.%目的 探讨肾虚证、气虚证、血瘀证与骨密度T值的关系,为骨质疏松症的中医诊治提供科学依据.方法 收集2010年8月~2011年2月期间在上海中医药大学附属龙华医院骨密度室检查者,筛选符合条件的对象,测量其骨密度,并填写骨密度记录表,对收集的数据进行统计分析.结果 1.随着年龄的增长,T值不断降低,且不同年龄组T值有显著差异(P<0.01);2.根据直线相关分析显示.T值与身高、体重、BMI均呈正相关(P<0.01);3.有肾虚证表现者与无肾虚证表现者、有气虚证表现者与无气虚证表现者、有血瘀证表现者与无血瘀证表现者的骨量情况差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 T值与年龄、身高、体重、BMI、肾虚证、气虚证、血瘀证有相

  14. Magnetic susceptibility, chemical element content and morphology of magnetic mineral in surface sediment of Kamp Walker and Hubay rivers as an inlet of Sentani lake, Papua-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulaikah, Siti; Sisinggih, Dian; Bungkang, Yusuf; Dani, Zem; Ong, Mahfud David

    2017-07-01

    As an inlet of Sentani lake, Kamp Walker and Hubay rivers have a different environment characteristic, i.e. Kamp Walker has a proximate inhabitant, while Hubay has a relatively more natural environment. In this study, we conduct measurement of magnetic susceptibility, Fe content and morphology of magnetic mineral extracted from the two rivers surface sediment. The magnetic susceptibility of low frequency (χlf) of sediment samples from the two rivers are varies from 11.11 × 10-6 kg/m3 to 24.96 10-6 kg/m3 for Kamp Walker with dependence frequency susceptibility (χfd) from 0.031% to 0.367%. Meanwhile, for HubayRivers we find the χlf varies from 4.56 × 10-6 kg/m3 to 16.93 × 10-6 kg/m3 and χfd from 0.104% to 1.033%. Fe content of the sample from the two river are also has a different average i.e around 60% for Hubay and 50% for Kamp Walker, that may because of the source of magnetic minerals on sediment are mainly a lithogenic magnetic mineral in Hubay, and anthropogenic magnetic mineral in Kamp Walker. The morphology of magnetic mineral, based on the SEM image shows a rounded and crystalline shape.

  15. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 By ATA | Featured , Iodine Deficiency , News Releases , Potassium Iodide (KI) | No Comments IDD NEWSLETTER – February 2017 VOLUME ... 2016 By ATA | Featured , Iodine Deficiency , News Releases , Potassium Iodide (KI) | No Comments IDD NEWSLETTER – November 2015 (PDF ...

  16. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    The formation of acid mine drainage from metals extraction or natural acid rock drainage and its mixing with surface waters is a complex process that depends on petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology, surface-water hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology, microbiology, chemistry, and mining and mineral processing history. The concentrations of metals, metalloids, acidity, alkalinity, Cl-, F- and SO42- found in receiving streams, rivers, and lakes are affected by all of these factors and their interactions. Remediation of mine sites is an engineering concern but to design a remediation plan without understanding the hydrogeochemical processes of contaminant mobilization can lead to ineffective and excessively costly remediation. Furthermore, remediation needs a goal commensurate with natural background conditions rather than water-quality standards that might bear little relation to conditions of a highly mineralized terrain. This paper reviews hydrogeochemical generalizations, primarily from US Geological Survey research, that enhance our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of contaminants released from mined and mineralized areas.

  17. Assessment of metallic mineral resources in the Humboldt River Basin, Northern Nevada, with a section on Platinum-Group-Element (PGE) Potential of the Humboldt Mafic Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.; Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Theodore, Ted G.; Ponce, David A.; John, David A.; and Berger, Byron R.; Zientek, Michael L.; Sidder, Gary B.; Zierenberg, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The Humboldt River Basin is an arid to semiarid, internally drained basin that covers approximately 43,000 km2 in northern Nevada. The basin contains a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral deposits and occurrences, and, at various times, the area has been one of the Nation's leading or important producers of gold, silver, copper, mercury, and tungsten. Nevada currently (2003) is the third largest producer of gold in the world and the largest producer of silver in the United States. Current exploration for additional mineral deposits focuses on many areas in northern Nevada, including the Humboldt River Basin.

  18. Effect of Grafting Method, Graft Cover and Foliar Spray of some Mineral Elements on Persian Walnut Graft-take and Winter Survival Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rezaee

    2017-02-01

    the control plot with the damage rate of 29.4%. Moreover, foliar spray statistically increased the concentration of related elements in vegetative tissues of scion. Conclusion: Based on the results, using V-shaped, cleft and bark grating methods covered with moist sawdust were effective for the increase of graft success percentage. Spraying of young grafted trees with Ca, B and Zn was also effective to reduce frost damage and is thus recommended in walnut nurseries. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between grafting method and spraying treatments in terms of balanced scion growth and higher contents of mineral in scion tissues, indicating that choosing an appropriate method of grafting and spraying can be effective in the reduction of frost damage. In this study, the lowest frost injury was observed with cleft grafting and spraying treatments due to relatively reduced scion growth as well as higher content of minerals in scion tissues.

  19. Crystal chemical effects on the partitioning of trace elements between mineral and melt - An experimental study of melilite with applications to refractory inclusions from carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, John R.; Spivack, Arthur J.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Stolper, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the partitioning experiments for trace elements Be, Sc, Ba, La, Ce, and Tm between melilite and melt for a bulk composition relevant to Type B inclusions, using a technique, described by Brody and Flemings (1966), by which distributon coeffecients can be obtained over the entire range of crystallization from trace element analysis of a single zoned crystal. Zoned crystals of melilite were grown during controlled cooling rate experiments, and trace element concentrations were determined by SIMS. At each step in the crystal growth, trace element concentrations in the coexisting melt were determined by mass balance, using stepwise integration of a Rayleigh fractionation equation.

  20. The world-class Howard's Pass SEDEX Zn-Pb district, Selwyn Basin, Yukon. Part I: trace element compositions of pyrite record input of hydrothermal, diagenetic, and metamorphic fluids to mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Michael G.; Layton-Matthews, Daniel; Peter, Jan M.; Paradis, Suzanne J.

    2016-03-01

    The Howard's Pass district, located in Yukon Territory, comprises 14 Zn-Pb sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits that collectively contain approximately 400.7 Mt grading at 4.5 % Zn and 1.5 % Pb. Sulfide mineralization is hosted in carbonaceous and calcareous to siliceous mudstones. Pyrite is a minor but ubiquitous component. Detailed petrographic analyses reveal that pyrite has a complex and protracted growth history, and multiple generations of pyrite are preserved in single grains. Combined electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled mass plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of paragenetically complex pyrite reveal minor and trace element zonation that mimic textural features. These data provide information on the relative timing and cation content of depositional (i.e., ambient marine), hydrothermal, and metamorphic fluids. These data also identify a suite of nonore elements (Mn, As, Ag, Sb, and Tl) associated with the Zn-Pb mineralizing hydrothermal fluids. Lithogeochemical data and statistical results corroborate the microanalytical findings. These elements are associated with both syngenetic to earliest diagenetic pyrite and later diagenetic pyrite overgrowths, suggesting that SEDEX mineralization was not only the product of hydrothermal precipitates that settled on the seafloor, but also dense metalliferous brine also settled on, and percolated through, unconsolidated carbonaceous muds and precipitated metals. This genetic model is similar to that proposed for the Paleoproterozoic HYC Zn-Pb-Ag SEDEX deposit in northern Australia, and it is likely that common processes and ambient conditions led to the formation and preservation of both of these large SEDEX districts.

  1. 秦巴山区油桐营养成分和矿质元素分析%Analysis of the nutrient components and mineral element in vernicia fordii in Qinba Mountain regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝丽霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 对油桐不同部位枝、叶、花、果中营养成分和矿质元素测定.方法 采用重量法、分光光度法、凯氏定氮法、原子吸收分光光度法测定油桐的营养成分和矿质元素.结果 油桐果中粗脂肪、多糖和蛋白质的质量分数最高,分别为45.15%,19.14%,10.23%;Mg的总体质量分数最高,在果中达到4.84μg/g,Cu和Zn的含量最低,在0.1μg/g或以下.结论 油桐具有较高的营养价值,具有良好的开发利用前景.%Aim The nutrient components and mineral element in Evodia rutaecarpa in Qinba Mountain regions were determined. Methods The nutrient components and mineral element were determined by gravimetric, colori-metry, atom absorb spectrophotometric and kjeldahl determination method. Results The retsults showed that the crude fat, crude sugar, protein in Vemicia fordii were the most in Evodia rutaecarpa, which respectively were 45. 15% ,19. 14%and 10. 23%. In the five mineral elements, the content of Mg was the highest and the content was 4. 84μg/g in fruit. The content of Cu and Zn were less than others and not more than 0. 1 μg/g. Conclusion Vernicia fordii have nutrient and medical values, which implys good commercial prospects.

  2. Diagnosing oceanic nutrient deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. Mark

    2016-11-01

    The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales. Resultant coherent large-scale patterns in diagnosed deficiency can be linked to the interacting physical-chemical-biological processes which drive upper ocean nutrient biogeochemistry. Calculations of ranked deficiencies across multiple elements further highlight important remaining uncertainties in the stoichiometric plasticity of nutrient ratios within oceanic microbial systems and caveats with regards to linkages to upper ocean nutrient limitation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  3. 根区温度对水培生菜生长和矿质元素含量的影响%Effects of root zone temperature on the growth and mineral elements content of hydroponically-grown lettuce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润儒; 朱月林; 高垣美智子; 矢守航; 杨立飞

    2015-01-01

    The plant growth and mineral elements content were studied in hydroponically-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)under five different root zone temperatures.The results showed that with the increase of root zone temperature,the lettuce yield per plant increased first and then decreased,reaching the maximum value at 25 ℃,and the dry matter content was the highest.Effects of root zone temperature on lettuce leaf net photosyn-thetic rate and the content of mineral elements were similar to the yield.Under the treatment of 35 ℃ root zone temperature,the lettuce growth and mineral elements accumulation were significantly inhibited,and the nitrate content decreased significantly.The results indicated that the most suitable root zone temperature was 25 ℃ for the growth and mineral elements absorption of hydroponically-grown lettuce.%在水培条件下,研究了5个根区温度对生菜(Lactuca sativa L.)生长和矿质元素含量的影响。结果表明:随着根区温度的升高,生菜单株产量呈先增加后减少的趋势,在25℃时达到最大值,且干物质含量最高;根区温度对生菜叶片净光合速率和矿质元素含量的影响与对产量的影响相似,即在25℃时达到最大值。35℃根区温度处理下,根叶生长和地上部矿质元素的积累受到严重阻碍,生菜叶片硝酸盐含量显著下降。在5个根区温度处理中,25℃对水培生菜的生长及矿质元素的吸收最为适宜。

  4. A MATLAB toolbox and Excel workbook for calculating the densities, seismic wave speeds, and major element composition of minerals and rocks at pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abers, Geoffrey A.; Hacker, Bradley R.

    2016-02-01

    To interpret seismic images, rock seismic velocities need to be calculated at elevated pressure and temperature for arbitrary compositions. This technical report describes an algorithm, software, and data to make such calculations from the physical properties of minerals. It updates a previous compilation and Excel® spreadsheet and includes new MATLAB® tools for the calculations. The database of 60 mineral end-members includes all parameters needed to estimate density and elastic moduli for many crustal and mantle rocks at conditions relevant to the upper few hundreds of kilometers of Earth. The behavior of α and β quartz is treated as a special case, owing to its unusual Poisson's ratio and thermal expansion that vary rapidly near the α-β transition. The MATLAB tools allow integration of these calculations into a variety of modeling and data analysis projects.

  5. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2016-07-20

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg(-1), dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied greatly, and this was likely due to contamination of rice samples with soil. Risk of As, Cd or Pb toxicity due to rice consumption in Malawi appears to be minimal.

  6. A Synthesis of Experimental Data Describing the Partitioning of Moderately Volatile Elements in Major Rock Forming Minerals: Implications for the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; Draper, David S.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Highly volatile elements [condensation temperatures below about 700 K] and water are highly informative about lunar bulk composition (hence origin), differentiation and magmatic evolution, and the role of impacts in delivering volatiles to the Moon. Fractionation of volatile elements compared to moderately volatile and refractory elements are informative about high-temperature conditions that operated in the proto-lunar disk. Existing data show clearly that the Moon is depleted in volatile elements compared to the bulk silicate Earth. For example, K/Th is 400-700 in the Moon compared to 2800-3000 in Earth. A complicating factor is that the abundances of the highly volatile elements in major lunar lithologies vary by approximately two orders of magnitude. Perhaps most interesting, H2O is not correlated with the concentration of volatile elements, indicating a decoupling of highly volatile elements from the even more volatile H2O. We contend that this decoupling could be a significant tracer of processes operating during lunar formation, differentiation, and bombardment, and the combination of analyzing both volatile elements and water is likely to provide significant insight into lunar geochemical history. This variation and lack of correlation raises the question: what were the relative contributions of crystallization in the magma ocean, subsequent mantle overturn, production of secondary magmas, and addition of volatiles by large impacts in producing this apparently large range in volatile abundances? This current study will produce new partitioning data relevant to the role and distribution of the volatile and non-volatile, yet geochemically significant elements (Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Ce, Yb, Tl, Pb, Bi) during the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon.

  7. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  8. in situ Micro-distributions of Mineral Elements in Rice Grains with Different Zinc Efficiency%不同锌效率基因型水稻籽粒中矿质元素的原位微区分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉; 吴超; 廖海兵; 郭卫东; 陈文荣; 田生科

    2012-01-01

    采用同步辐射(SRXRF)结合ICP-MS研究了足Zn条件下不同锌效率水稻籽粒中Zn及其他矿质元素的微区分布特征.结果表明SRXRF技术可高效分析水稻籽粒锌等矿质元素的微区分布特征.水稻籽粒中K和Ca元素的分布特征与其余4种元素相关不显著,而Zn、Fe、Cu、Mn元素的含量分布相互间则显著相关;水稻籽粒中K含量最高,移动性也最强,精米中K含量可达颖壳的52.6%~90.6%,而Ca在颖壳中含量最高.其余矿质元素含量最高值均出现在糊粉层;Zn、Fe等元素主要集中在水稻籽粒的胚及糊粉层等外层功能组织,在胚乳中由外向里呈递减趋势.此外,锌高效基因型IR8192在水稻籽粒各部位的Zn含量均低于锌低效基因型二九丰.可见,与锌低效品种相比,锌高效品种仅在低Zn水平下表现出更高的锌吸能力及利用效率,在足Zn条件下并无籽粒富锌特征.%The concentrations of Zn and other mineral elements and in situ spatial distribution patterns were analyzed by combing ICP-MS with synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF). The results showed that SRXRF was a reliable technique to investigate the element micro-distribution in rice grains. Significantly positive correlations between elemental distribution of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn were observed in rice grains, while there was no such pronounced correlation for K and Ca. Among the minerals, potassium is of the highest concentration and mobility in rice grains, being up to 52. 6 - 90. 6% in polished rice of that in the hulls. Highest Ca concentration was observed in the hulls, while the other five elements were preferentially distributed in the outer layer, such as embryo and aleuronic layer. The contents of Zn and other mineral elements in the endosperm decreased rapidly from the outer layers to the central parts. Both XRF mapping and ICP-MS analysis showed that Zn level in rice grains of Zn-inefficient genotype (Erjiufeng) was significantly

  9. Disaccharidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, T M; Christopher, N L

    1969-02-01

    This review of the literature and current knowledge concerning a nutritional disorder of disaccharidase deficiency discusses the following topics: 1) a description of disorders of disaccharide digestion; 2) some historical perspective on the laboratory and bedside advances in the past 10 years that have helped define a group of these digestive disorders; 3) a classification of conditions causing disaccharide intolerance; and 4) a discussion of some of the specific clinical syndromes emphasizing nutritional consequences of these syndromes. The syndromes described include congenital lactase deficiency, acquired lactase deficiency in teenagers and adults, acquired generalized disaccharidase deficiency secondary to diffuse mucosal damage, acquired lactose intolerance secondary to alterations in the intestinal transit, sucrase-isomaltase deficiencies, and other disease associations connected with lactase deficiency such as colitis.

  10. Trace and Rare Earth Element Characteristics in Fe-Mn Carbonates Associated with Stratiform Ag-Pb-Zn Mineraliza-tion from the Lengshuikeng Ore District, Jiangxi Province:Implications for Their Genesis and Depositional Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Li; Shaoyong Jiang

    2016-01-01

    We performed a systematic trace and rare earth element analysis for the bedded Fe-Mn carbonate rocks related to the stratiform Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization in the Lengshuikeng ore district, Jiangxi Province, South China. Three types of Fe-Mn carbonates are distinguished, namely, the massive, breccia, and vein types. Both carbonate and silicate fractions in the samples are analyzed for their trace and rare earth element concentrations using a step acid-leaching technique. Our results show that the carbonate fractions in the massive type samples have the lowest REE concentrations but pronounced positive Eu and Y anomalies with Eu/Eu* value from 1.3 to 6.2 and Y/Ho value from 40.1 to 59.5, and similar characteristics are also shown for the silicate fractions in the massive type samples (Eu/Eu*=1.0–6.7, Y/Ho=20.7–55.1). These REE characteristics are similar to those of Sedex type mas-sive sulfide deposits worldwide, and we suggest that the massive type Fe-Mn carbonate rocks were likely formed from an exhalative volcanic-hydrothermal fluid feeding the depression basin of a volcanic lake. The high concentrations of redox-sensitive elements and ratios such as U/Th, V/Cr and V/(V+Ni) indicate a dysoxic environment for the Fe-Mn carbonate deposition. In contrast, the breccia type and vein type Fe-Mn carbonate samples show different trace and rare earth element features from those of massive type samples, and they are more similar to the volcanic rocks and magmatic-hydrothermal fluids in the Lengshuikeng ore district and may reflect strong overprinting from volcanic and sub-volcanic magmatism related to the porphyry type mineralization in the district.

  11. 从克拉克值到元素的地球化学性质或行为再到成矿作用%From Clark Values to Elemental Geochemical Properties or Behaviors, and to Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵博; 张德会; 于蕾; 石成龙

    2014-01-01

    克拉克值→第一类反作用→元素丰度→第二类反作用→…→进一步富集成矿的机制构成了一个完整的化学成矿过程链。克拉克值的影响通过质量作用定律可以深入到成矿作用的各个方面,但仍然只是一种必要非充分的成矿条件,因元素而异的地球化学性质或行为将产生两种“反作用”:①成矿作用是元素在地球不同圈层和不同相以及不同集合体之间多次分配的结果,一旦分配完成,各级元素丰度有望重新成为最主要成矿约束因素之一,丰度比值则体现了元素分配(异)行为的量化特征;②诸如离子电位、赋存状态等元素本身固有的性质或行为亦产生反作用,可通过固定“性质”谈“丰度”认识其成矿学意义。对于最终将工作于远离平衡态条件下的成矿系统,进一步富集的机制另将成为决定性控矿因素。%We believe that Clark values→Reaction I→elemental abundance→Reaction II→…→mechanism of further enrichment and mineralization makes a successive chain for chemical mineralization.Although,elemental abun-dance may exert significant influence on every aspect during metallogenesis in the light of Mass Action Law,it is still a necessary,but not sufficient,condition for mineralization.At the same time,elemental geochemical proper-ties or behaviors may exert two different forms of reactions on the abundance constrains:First,the enrichment and the ore formation of ore metals,in essence,result from the partitioning of ore metals among different layers,dif-ferent phases and different aggregates of the Earth,but once the partition is done and a new phase generates,ele-mental abundance at various levels will play a fundamental role in the ore-genesis again,while ratio of abundance plays as a quantitative indicator for elemental differentiation or partition behaviors;Second,there is the reaction of elemental inherent geochemical properties or

  12. A new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis for major, trace and ultra-trace element determination in atmospheric mineral dust from polar ice cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccolo, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.baccolo@mib.infn.it [Graduate School in Polar Sciences, University of Siena, Via Laterina 8, 53100, Siena (Italy); Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milano (Italy); INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Clemenza, Massimiliano [INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Delmonte, Barbara [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milano (Italy); Maffezzoli, Niccolò [Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej, 30, 2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nastasi, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio [INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea [LENA, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Maggi, Valter [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milano (Italy); INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy)

    2016-05-30

    Dust found in polar ice core samples present extremely low concentrations, in addition the availability of such samples is usually strictly limited. For these reasons the chemical and physical analysis of polar ice cores is an analytical challenge. In this work a new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis (LB-INAA) for the multi-elemental characterization of the insoluble fraction of dust from polar ice cores is presented. Thanks to an accurate selection of the most proper materials and procedures it was possible to reach unprecedented analytical performances, suitable for ice core analyses. The method was applied to Antarctic ice core samples. Five samples of atmospheric dust (μg size) from ice sections of the Antarctic Talos Dome ice core were prepared and analyzed. A set of 37 elements was quantified, spanning from all the major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe) to trace ones, including 10 (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu) of the 14 natural occurring lanthanides. The detection limits are in the range of 10{sup −13}–10{sup −6} g, improving previous results of 1–3 orders of magnitude depending on the element; uncertainties lies between 4% and 60%. - Highlights: • A new method based on neutron activation for the multi-elemental characterization of atmospheric dust entrapped in polar ice cores is proposed. • 37 elements were quantified in μg size dust samples with detection limits ranging from 10{sup −13} to 10{sup −6} g. • A low background approach and a clean analytical protocol improved INAA performances to unprecedented levels for multi-elemental analyses.

  13. Textures, trace elements, and Pb isotopes of sulfides from the Haopinggou vein deposit, southern North China Craton: implications for discrete Au and Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan-Ke; Li, Jian-Wei; Cooke, David R.; Danyushevsky, Leonid; Zhang, Lejun; O'Brien, Hugh; Lahaye, Yann; Zhang, Wen; Xu, Hai-Jun

    2016-12-01

    The Haopinggou deposit in the Xiong'ershan district, southern margin of the North China Craton, comprises numerous Au and Ag-Pb-Zn veins hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic Taihua Group. Two stages of mineralization have been recognized: Stage 1 pyrite-quartz veins and Stage 2 Pb-Zn-sulfide veins. Some pyrite-quartz veins are surrounded or cut by Pb-Zn-sulfide veins, others occur as independent veins. Six generations of pyrite have been identified at Haopinggou: Py1 to Py3 in Stage 1 and Py4 to Py6 in Stage 2. Pyrites from Stage 1 are enriched in Au, As, Co, Ni, and Bi, whereas Stage 2 pyrites contain higher Ag, Pb, Zn, Sn, and Sb. Invisible Au mostly occurs as lattice-bound gold in Py2 (up to 92 ppm Au) and Py3 (up to 127 ppm Au) and has a close relationship with As. Native Au grains are also present in Py3 and likely resulted from mobilization and reprecipitation of the invisible Au previously locked in the precursor pyrite. This view is supported by extensive plastic deformation in Stage 1 pyrite as revealed by electron backscatter diffraction analysis. In Stage 2, Ag is mostly present as lattice-bound silver closely associated with Sb in galena (up to 798 ppm Ag). A variety of silver minerals are also present as inclusions within galena or as interstitial grains. These silver minerals were likely formed via Ag-Cu exchange reaction between tetrahedrite and galena or represent exsolution from galena due to a temperature decrease. Pb isotopic compositions differ remarkably between Stage 1 and Stage 2 sulfides, indicating different sources of lead. Pb in Stage 2 Pb-Zn-sulfide veins is consistent with the Haopinggou porphyry close to the veins. The field, textural, compositional, and lead isotopic data led us to conclude that the early gold-bearing pyrite-quartz veins and late silver-bearing Pb-Zn-sulfide veins likely formed from distinct fluid systems related to discrete mineralization events. Our study suggests that Au and Ag

  14. Different supplementation of minerals in bats and the consequences on bone mineral density

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of mineral supplementation of mealworms at a facility where mustached bats (Pteronotus parnellii rubiginosus) from Trinidad were kept for experimental purposes. For 11 months after capture from the wild, the animals were constantly housed indoors and fed a diet of mealworms without mineral supplementation. After several animals died with skulls soft at palpation, this diet was suspected to be mineral deficient. From then on, mealworms were placed on a mineral ...

  15. Prolidase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Qazi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolidase deficiency is a rare inborn disorder of collagen metabolism characterized by chronic recurrent skin ulceration. A seven-year-old girl and her younger sibling with clinical features and laboratory criteria fulfilling the diagnosis of prolidase deficiency are presented in view of rarity of the condition.

  16. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected. Howeve

  17. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected. Howeve

  18. Abundances of the elements in sharp-lined early-type stars from IUE high-dispersion spectrograms; 2, the nitrogen deficiency in mercury- manganese stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roby, S W; Adelman, S J

    1999-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.419, no.1, p.276-85 (1993). The authors determine nitrogen abundances from co-added IUE high-dispersion SWP spectrograms of four HgMn stars and five normal or superficially normal main-sequence B and A stars. They find N deficiencies in the HgMn stars greater than previously reported (depletion factors of 135-400 relative to the Sun). N abundance discrepancies from UV and IR studies of normal stars are discussed in light of possible non-LTE effects. Their data set for their sample of HgMn stars (observed with a consistent strategy to maximize the benefits of co-additions) is an improvement over the single or few images previously used to derive N abundances for most of these stars. (37 refs).

  19. Ectomycorrhizal influence on particle size, surface structure, mineral crystallinity, functional groups, and elemental composition of soil colloids from different soil origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Wang, Huimei; Wang, Wenjie; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang

    2013-01-01

    Limited data are available on the ectomycorrhizae-induced changes in surface structure and composition of soil colloids, the most active portion in soil matrix, although such data may benefit the understanding of mycorrhizal-aided soil improvements. By using ectomycorrhizae (Gomphidius viscidus) and soil colloids from dark brown forest soil (a good loam) and saline-alkali soil (heavily degraded soil), we tried to approach the changes here. For the good loam either from the surface or deep soils, the fungus treatment induced physical absorption of covering materials on colloid surface with nonsignificant increases in soil particle size (P > 0.05). These increased the amount of variable functional groups (O-H stretching and bending, C-H stretching, C=O stretching, etc.) by 3-26% and the crystallinity of variable soil minerals (kaolinite, hydromica, and quartz) by 40-300%. However, the fungus treatment of saline-alkali soil obviously differed from the dark brown forest soil. There were 12-35% decreases in most functional groups, 15-55% decreases in crystallinity of most soil minerals but general increases in their grain size, and significant increases in soil particle size (P soil colloids from saline-alkali soil, moving them close to those of the good loam of dark brown forest soil.

  20. Carbon Mineral Ecology: Predicting the Undiscovered Minerals of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Hummer, D. R.; Downs, R. T.; Hystad, G.; Golden, J.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity and distribution of Earth's minerals through deep time reflects key events in our planet's crustal evolution. Studies in mineral ecology exploit mineralogical databases to document diversity-distribution relationships of minerals, which reveal that all carbon-bearing minerals, as well as subsets containing C with O, H, Ca, or Na, conform to Large Number of Rare Events (LNRE) distributions. LNRE models facilitate prediction of total mineral diversity, and thus point to minerals that exist on Earth but have not yet been discovered and described. Our model predicts that at least 548 C minerals exist on Earth today, indicating that at least 145 carbon-bearing mineral species have yet to be discovered. Furthermore, by analyzing subsets of the most common additional elements in carbon-bearing minerals (i.e., 378 C + O species; 282 C + H species; 133 C + Ca species; and 100 C + Na species), we predict that 129 of these missing carbon minerals contain oxygen, 118 contain hydrogen, 52 contain calcium, and more than 60 contain sodium. The majority of these as yet undescribed minerals are predicted to be hydrous carbonates, many of which may have been overlooked because they are colorless, poorly crystalized, and/or water-soluble. We propose the identities of plausible as yet undescribed carbon minerals, as well as search strategies for their discovery. Some of these minerals will be natural examples of known synthetic compounds, including carbides such as calcium carbide (CaC2), crystalline hydrocarbons such as pyrene (C16H10), and numerous oxalates, anhydrous carbonates, and hydrous carbonates. Many other missing carbon minerals will be isomorphs of known carbon minerals, notably of the more than 100 different hydrous carbonate structures. An understanding of Earth's "missing" minerals provides a more complete picture of geochemical processes that influence crustal evolution.

  1. BILIARY-SECRETION OF TRACE-ELEMENTS AND MINERALS IN THE RAT - EFFECTS OF BILE-FLOW VARIATION AND DIURNAL RHYTHMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJKSTRA, M; KUIPERS, F; SMIT, EP; HAVINGA, R; VONK, RJ

    Effects of bile flow variations on bile secretion of trace elements were systematically evaluated by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) in the unanesthetized rat: (i) longitudinally for a 9 day-period of bile drainage, (ii) continuously for a period of 24 h, to include circadian rhythm and (iii)

  2. A new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis for major, trace and ultra-trace element determination in atmospheric mineral dust from polar ice cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccolo, Giovanni; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Delmonte, Barbara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Nastasi, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea; Maggi, Valter

    2016-05-30

    Dust found in polar ice core samples present extremely low concentrations, in addition the availability of such samples is usually strictly limited. For these reasons the chemical and physical analysis of polar ice cores is an analytical challenge. In this work a new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis (LB-INAA) for the multi-elemental characterization of the insoluble fraction of dust from polar ice cores is presented. Thanks to an accurate selection of the most proper materials and procedures it was possible to reach unprecedented analytical performances, suitable for ice core analyses. The method was applied to Antarctic ice core samples. Five samples of atmospheric dust (μg size) from ice sections of the Antarctic Talos Dome ice core were prepared and analyzed. A set of 37 elements was quantified, spanning from all the major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe) to trace ones, including 10 (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu) of the 14 natural occurring lanthanides. The detection limits are in the range of 10(-13)-10(-6) g, improving previous results of 1-3 orders of magnitude depending on the element; uncertainties lies between 4% and 60%.

  3. Reference Intervals of Mineral Elements in Plasma of Anesthetized Free-Ranging Adult Females of South American Sea Lion, Otaria flavescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, Paula S; Boudet, L N Chiodi; de León, A Ponce; Quiroga, M; Rodríguez, D H; Atkinson, S; Gerpe, M S

    2016-12-01

    Levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P) in plasma of Otaria flavescens females (n = 29) were evaluated. Reference intervals were established for each element, being the first report for this species.

  4. Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: proximates, minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Mota, Carla; Coelho, Inês; Gueifão, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Matos, Ana Sofia; Gimenez, Alejandra; Lobo, Manuel; Samman, Norma; Castanheira, Isabel

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa, amaranth and purple corn are Andean cereals largely consumed in North of Argentina. Nutrient analysis with the purpose of inclusion in the Argentinean FCDB and e-search EuroFIR has become urgent matter. In this work proximate and mineral profile of Andean cereals cultivated in the North of Argentina were determined and compared with rice. Proximate analysis showed that Andean cereals have similar profile but significantly higher (pquinoa content could contribute up to 55% of consumers DRI. Andean cereals and rice are poor sources of potassium. To guarantee the interchange of data among users and producers of FCDB component values were obtained in compliance with EuroFIR guidelines for compilation process. Present work provides necessary information to FCDB users who wish to have access to food reference analytical parameters.

  5. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  6. Milk of Italian Saddle and Haflinger nursing mares: physico – chemical characteristics, nitrogen composition and mineral elements at the end of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Martuzzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work was to investigate nursing mares milk characteristics at the end of lactation (D and to make a comparisonwith milk taken during early lactation (3 to 30 d post partum (E. The survey was carried out on 17 Italian Saddlemares (IS (193 days in milk; 147 pregnancy days and on 12 Haflinger mares (H (174 days in milk; 146 pregnancydays. N fractions were determined by means of Kjeldahl; fat and lactose by means of mid infrared lectures; mineral elementswere determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry; P by colorimetry. Data referring to 58 individual milksamples were analyzed by ANCOVA. Significant variations, similar in both breeds, were observed (E vs D for density at15°C (1.036 vs 1.034, pH (6.94 vs 7.24, titratable acidity (3.56 vs 1.70 °SH, fat (1.17 vs 0.76% g/100g of milk,crude protein (2.31 vs 1.68% g/100g, casein number (52.37 vs 46.59 and ash (0.50 vs 0.30% g/100g; similarly(mg/100g for non casein N (172.31 vs 142.05, non protein N (34.43 vs 29.09, P (61.30 vs 32.48, Ca (112.88 vs54.42, Mg (8.40 vs 4.38 and K (60.77 vs 41.31. Freezing point, lactose and Na showed no significant variations. Atthe end of lactation, milk resulted poorer in all main organic components, except lactose, and in all mineral components,except Na. Only freezing point and phosphorus variations differed in IS from H. Breed significantly affected fat, casein Nand ash mean contents.

  7. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  8. Components Analysis of Amino Acids and Mineral Elements in Rhizome of Dioscorea Cirrhosa Lour.%薯莨块茎中氨基酸及矿质元素成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓菲; 秦培文; 胡世伟; 纪丽丽; 范润珍; 宋文东

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析测定薯莨(Dioscorea cirrhosae Lour.)块茎中的氨基酸和矿质元素的种类及含量,评价薯莨的营养价值,为薯莨的开发利用提供理论依据.[方法]采用高效液相色谱法测定氨基酸含量;采用电感耦合等离子质谱法测定矿质元素含量.[结果]测得氨基酸16种,必需氨基酸占氨基酸总量的37.98%,其中天冬氨酸、谷氨酸、亮氨酸含量较高,居于前3位,蛋氨酸含量最低;薯莨块茎中富含K、Ca、Na、P和Mg 5种常量元素和B、Mn、Mo、Co、Ni、Cr、Cu、Se、Fe、Sr、Zn、Ba、Cd和Li 14种微量元素.[结论]测得署莨块茎中富含多种营养成分及药效成分,该研究为薯莨的开发利用提供了理论依据.%[ Objective] To analyze and determine the compositions of amino acids and mineral elements in Rhizoma Dioscorea Cirrhosae tuber,so as to provide theoretical evidence for the development of rhizome of Dioscorea cirrhosa Lout. [ Method ] Contents of amino acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and that of mineral elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. [ Result ] Sixteen amino acids were obtained and lowest in methianine,the content of essential amino acids was 37.98% ,of which the content of as partic acid,glutamic acid and leucine ranked the first,second and third respectively. Dioscorea cirrhosa Lour. tuber were rich in five constant elements K,Ca,Na, P and Mg as well as fourteen trace elements B, Mn, Mo, Co, Ni, Cr, Cu, Se, Fe, Sr, Zn, Ba, Cd and Li. [ Conclusion ] Dioscorea cirrhosa Lour. tuber are rich in plenty of nutrient components and pharmacodynamic elements, and this case provides theoretical evidence for the development of Dioscorea cirrhosa Lour. tuber.

  9. Variation in Macro and Trace Elements in Progression of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro elements are the minerals of which the body needs more amounts and are more important than any other elements. Trace elements constitute a minute part of the living tissues and have various metabolic characteristics and functions. Trace elements participate in tissue and cellular and subcellular functions; these include immune regulation by humoral and cellular mechanisms, nerve conduction, muscle contractions, membrane potential regulations, and mitochondrial activity and enzyme reactions. The status of micronutrients such as iron and vanadium is higher in type 2 diabetes. The calcium, magnesium, sodium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, iron, selenium, manganese, and zinc seem to be low in type 2 diabetes while elements such as potassium and copper have no effect. In this review, we emphasized the status of macro and trace elements in type 2 diabetes and its advantages or disadvantages; this helps to understand the mechanism, progression, and prevention of type 2 diabetes due to the lack and deficiency of different macro and trace elements.

  10. Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosborg, Ingegerd

    2015-01-01

    .... However, drinking water may also provide a substantial portion of the daily mineral intake, especially for the elderly and children, or those at risk of deficiencies due to unhealthy eating habits or starvation...

  11. Iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world.

  12. Water, mineral waters and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  13. Predicted intake of trace elements and minerals via household drinking water by 6-year-old children from Krakow, Poland. Part 5: Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, H

    2010-03-01

    Zinc (Zn) exposure in pre-school children via household drinking water collected by a double sampling method (morning, evening) was evaluated in a sample of the Polish population. Zn concentration was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Rural and suburban Krakow sites were non-distinguishable in respect of Zn concentrations. However, significantly lower Zn was found in urban as compared with non-urban sites [geometric mean (95% confidence interval) 0.14 (0.01-1.95) mg l(-1) versus 0.52 (0.03-10.2) mg l(-1), p water standing overnight in pipelines were higher in all sites by 0.36 mg l(-1) on average, but observed really contaminations were higher. The Zn limit based on the taste and colour of drinking water (3 mg l(-1)) was exceeded in 1% and 10% of households from urban and non-urban sites, respectively. The Zn intake predictions for evening water samples for 6-year-old children averaged between 2% and 9% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA, 10 mg day(-1)) for urban and non-urban sites, respectively. Mean Zn intake prediction for the exceedance fraction was 64% of RDA. In conclusion, overnight contamination of drinking water from in-house pipelines was significant and common to all sites investigated. Secondly, drinking water can be considered a significant contributor to dietary Zn intake by children in non-urban sites and may shift the population borderline of deficiency.

  14. Comparison of Mineral Elements Composition and Content in Different Positions of Wheat Grains%小麦籽粒不同部位矿质元素组成及含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅洁; 郑琪

    2016-01-01

    以陇黑麦838(黑粒)、平凉44号、农大3753(黑粒)、农大5181、陇鉴108和陇育4号为试验材料,采用X-射线能谱仪测定小麦籽粒不同部位的部分矿质元素组成和相对含量。结果表明,小麦籽粒中除含有大量C、O外,皮层富含K、 Ca、 Fe,其次是Na、 Mg、 Cl和Cu。糊粉层富含K、 Mg和Fe,其次是Si、 Cl、 Ca和Mn。胚乳层O含量最高, Cl、 K、 Ca和Fe次之,并含少量Na、 Mg、和Se等元素。胚中Mg、 Cl、 K、 Ca和Fe含量较高, Na、 Mn、 Cu和Se次之。黑粒小麦陇黑麦838和农大3753籽粒Ca、 Fe、 Zn和Se元素的相对含量高于普通小麦。总体来看,所有品种(系)糊粉层矿质元素含量最高,皮层和胚次之,胚乳最低。不同类型品种(系)籽粒各部位的矿质元素含量存在基因型差异,黑粒小麦矿质价值高于普通小麦。%With Longheimai 838(black grain), Pingliang 44, Nongda 3753(black grain), Nongda 5181, Longjian 108 and Longyu 4 as the experimental materials, mineral element composition and relative content in different parts of wheat grains were determined by X-ray energy spectrometer. The result shows that wheat grains contain a large amount of C, O, the cortex is rich in K, Ca, Fe, followed by Na, Mg, Cl and Cu; aleurone layer rich in K, Mg and Fe, Si, Cl, Ca and Mn are lower; endosperm layer all of varieties (lines), content of O is the highest, followed by Cl, K, Ca and Fe, a small amount of Na, Mg, and Se and other elements; content of Mg, Cl, K, Ca and Fe are higher in embryo, Na, Mn, Cu and Se are lower; Ca, Fe, Zn and Se is higher in black grain wheat Longheimai 838 and Nongda 3753 grains than that of common wheat grains. Anyway, mineral elements contents are highest in aleurone layer of all varieties (lines), followed by cortex and embryo, the contents of mineral elements are the lowest in endosperm of all parts of the grains; different varieties (lines) exist genotype

  15. Observations on Morphological Abnormalities of the Vessel Elements of Veins and Fruit of Citrus under Boron Deficiency%缺硼导致柑橘叶脉和果实导管分子形态畸形的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爽; 彭抒昂; 刘永忠; 周高峰; 杨成泉

    2012-01-01

    缺硼可导致柑橘叶片变厚而脆、发生木栓化、“猴头果”等现象,其原因是植物组织内部起运输作用的维管组织受到损坏.导管是维管组织重要组成部分,本实验以‘纽荷尔’脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osbeck‘ Newhall')和HB柚[Citrus maxima(Burm.)Merr.‘HB You’]叶片、HB柚果实中果皮为材料,利用离析方法将导管分离,观察缺硼导管分子形态的变化.结果表明:(1)缺硼使纽荷尔脐橙叶脉中的孔纹导管数量增多;(2)缺硼使HB柚叶片和果实中果皮的孔纹导管大量增生,梯纹导管和网纹导管数量减少;(3)正常导管圆润饱满,而缺硼导管变形干瘪,且有侧壁穿孔现象;(4)缺硼导管变得短而窄,细胞壁变薄,无尾率增加,使维管组织功能丧失.(5)缺硼维管束受损,运输效率降低,是发生叶脉木栓化和“猴头果”现象的源头.%Boron deficiency resulted in thick and brittle leaves, suberification, and "contract fruit" in citrus, due to damaged vascular tissue, which usually functions for transportation. Vessels are an important component of vascular tissue. Morphological abnormalities of the vessel elements were observed using the leaves of ' Newhall' (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) Navel orange and HB Pummelo [ Citrus maxima ( Burm. ) Merr. ] by separating the vessels by means of segregation. Results indicated that; (1) The number of pitted vessels in 'Newhall' Navel oranges with boron deficiency increased; (2) A larger number of pitted vessels in the nervure and mesocarp of HB Pummelo with boron deficiency were proliferated, while scalari-form vessels and reticulate vessels decreased; (3) Normal vessels were round and full, while vessels under boron deficiency were transubstantiated shriveled; (4) Compared with the control vessels, vessels under treatment became short and narrow, cell walls turned thin and the percentage of no-tail under boron deficiency condition was increased, which finally led the vascular tissue to

  16. Zirconium, hafnium, and rare earth element partition coefficients for ilmenite and other minerals in high-Ti lunar mare basalts - An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, G.; Wagstaff, J.; Yang, S.-R.

    1986-01-01

    Partition coefficients were determined for Gd, Lu, Hf and Zr among ilmenite, armalcolite, and synthetic high-Ti mare basaltic melts at temperatures from 1122 deg to 1150 deg, and at oxygen fugacities of IW x 10 exp 0.5, by in situ analysis with an electron microprobe, using samples doped to present concentration levels. Coefficients for Zr were also measured for samples containing 600-1600 ppm Zr using this microprobe. In addition, coefficients were determined for Hf and Zr between chromian ulvospinel and melt, for Hf between pigeonite and melt, and for Lu between olivine and melt by microprobe analysis of samples doped to present levels. Values measured using the microprobe were in agreement with the values measured by analyzing mineral separates from the same run products by isotope dilution. Coefficient values for ilmenite are less than 0.01 for the LREE, are around 0.1 for the HREE, and are several times greater than this for Zr and Hf.

  17. Zirconium, hafnium, and rare earth element partition coefficients for ilmenite and other minerals in high-Ti lunar mare basalts - An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, G.; Wagstaff, J.; Yang, S.-R.

    1986-01-01

    Partition coefficients were determined for Gd, Lu, Hf and Zr among ilmenite, armalcolite, and synthetic high-Ti mare basaltic melts at temperatures from 1122 deg to 1150 deg, and at oxygen fugacities of IW x 10 exp 0.5, by in situ analysis with an electron microprobe, using samples doped to present concentration levels. Coefficients for Zr were also measured for samples containing 600-1600 ppm Zr using this microprobe. In addition, coefficients were determined for Hf and Zr between chromian ulvospinel and melt, for Hf between pigeonite and melt, and for Lu between olivine and melt by microprobe analysis of samples doped to present levels. Values measured using the microprobe were in agreement with the values measured by analyzing mineral separates from the same run products by isotope dilution. Coefficient values for ilmenite are less than 0.01 for the LREE, are around 0.1 for the HREE, and are several times greater than this for Zr and Hf.

  18. Strategic Minerals of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Wadia

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of disequilibrium in the country's mineral economy may not be harmful in time of international peace, but is a source of double danger to national security in a war emergency, when imports of essential commodities, e.g., petroleum may be jeopardised and the off-take of credit earning exports may be stopped. A healthy economy can be achieved by balancing as near as possible, the surpluses against deficits through building up civilian industrial power of production of substitute for some deficient and sub-marginal commodities and stockpiling of others.

  19. Quantification of some elements of nuclear and industrial interest from zircon mineral using neutron activation analysis and passive gamma-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, M F; Hilal, M A; Moussa, S I

    2017-10-01

    A combined of various nuclear and analytical techniques were used for characterization of Egyptian zircon ore. Neutron activation analysis has been used for determination of the major, minor and trace elements from zircon ore. Non-destructive gamma-ray technique is also used for the radiometric analysis of zircon ore to quantify the natural radionuclides such as (238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K. Zircon ore has been characterized by different analytical tools such as Fourier transformer infrared (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this study, a significant concentration of U, Th and rare earth elements (REEs) has been reported. The obtained results showed that the average activity concentration of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 4771±338, 230±17.1, 3588±125, 982±47.7 and 217±48.5Bq/kg, respectively. The results indicated that 297, 318 and 838mg/Kg for U, Th, REEs, respectively, using NAA. These results are consistent with those obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy and/or XRF. It can be concluded that zircon ore is a riche with a valuable nuclear materials such as U, Th, Zr, and Hf. It is also containing a REEs of economic and industrial interest. Also, the different radiation hazardous parameters were found much higher than the permissible values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mineral Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts of the body. Symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include weakness and fatigue, lightheadedness, and shortness of breath. Iron-rich foods include red meat, pork, fish and shellfish, poultry, lentils, beans and soy foods, green leafy vegetables, and ...

  1. Visualization of Uptake of Mineral Elements and the Dynamics of Photosynthates in Arabidopsis by a Newly Developed Real-Time Radioisotope Imaging System (RRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Hirose, Atsushi; Saito, Takayuki; Iwata, Ren; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2016-04-01

    Minerals and photosynthates are essential for many plant processes, but their imaging in live plants is difficult. We have developed a method for their live imaging in Arabidopsis using a real-time radioisotope imaging system. When each radioisotope,(22)Na,(28)Mg,(32)P-phosphate,(35)S-sulfate,(42)K,(45)Ca,(54)Mn and(137)Cs, was employed as an ion tracer, ion movement from root to shoot over 24 h was clearly observed. The movements of(22)Na,(42)K,(32)P,(35)S and(137)Cs were fast so that they spread to the tip of stems. In contrast, high accumulation of(28)Mg,(45)Ca and(54)Mn was found in the basal part of the main stem. Based on this time-course analysis, the velocity of ion movement in the main stem was calculated, and found to be fastest for S and K among the ions we tested in this study. Furthermore, application of a heat-girdling treatment allowed determination of individual ion movement via xylem flow alone, excluding phloem flow, within the main stem of 43-day-old Arabidopsis inflorescences. We also successfully developed a new system for visualizing photosynthates using labeled carbon dioxide,(14)CO2 Using this system, the switching of source/sink organs and phloem flow direction could be monitored in parts of whole shoots and over time. In roots,(14)C photosynthates accumulated intensively in the growing root tip area, 200-800 µm behind the meristem. These results show that this real-time radioisotope imaging system allows visualization of many nuclides over a long time-course and thus constitutes a powerful tool for the analysis of various physiological phenomena.

  2. Tob deficiency superenhances osteoblastic activity after ovariectomy to block estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Usui, Michihiko; Yoshida, Yutaka; Tsuji, Kunikazu; OIKAWA, kaoru; Miyazono, Kohei; Ishikawa, Isao; YAMAMOTO, Tadashi; Nifuji, Akira; Noda, Masaki

    2004-01-01

    Tob (transducer of erbB2) is a member of antiproliferative family proteins and acts as a bone morphogenic protein inhibitor as well as a suppressor of proliferation in T cells, which have been implicated in postmenopausal bone loss. To determine the effect of Tob deficiency on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, we analyzed bone metabolism after ovariectomy or sham operation in Tob-deficient mice. Ovariectomy in WT mice decreased trabecular bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD) as exp...

  3. 红菜薹主要矿质元素的配合力分析%Combining ability of major mineral elements in purple Cai-tai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 徐跃进; 谭远宝; 李亭亭; 鲁凡; 万正杰

    2012-01-01

    The combining ability and genetic parameters were estimated for four major mineral ele-ments(Ca,Mg,Fe and Zn) in F1 progenies of 32 crossing combinations of purple Cai-tai with the incomplete diallel cross using 2 novel male sterile lines as female parents and 16 inbreed lines as male parents. The results showed that male sterile line Eru-5 and male parents D,E,F and H,which had high GCA on Ca,Mg, Fe and Zn, could be regarded as good parents. The combinations Eru-5 × G, Eru-5 × H and Eru-3×L had high SCA on Ca,Mg,Fe and Zn. The analysis of heritability revealed that the heredity of Ca was mainly controlled by additive effect; those of Mg and Zn were mainly controlled by additive and non-additive effects; and the heredity of Fe was mainly controlled by non-additive effects.%利用不完全双列杂交法,对新育成的红菜薹胞质雄性不育系Eru-3、Eru-5和16个父本材料配制的32个杂交组合进行主要矿质元素Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn的配合力和遗传力分析.结果表明:雄性不育系Eru-5和父本D、E、F和H的一般配合力较高,是提高杂种一代矿质元素含量的理想亲本;组合Eru-5×G、Eru-5×H和Eru-3×L具有较好的特殊配合力效应,是矿质营养价值较高的优良杂交组合.遗传力分析表明.Ca主要受基因加性效应控制,Mg、Zn的遗传由加性和非加性基因效应共同控制,Fe主要由非加性基因效应控制.

  4. Lead isotopes and heavy minerals analyzed as tools to understand the distribution of lead and other potentially toxic elements in soils contaminated by Cu smelting (Legnica, Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Rafał; Pietranik, Anna; Kierczak, Jakub; Ettler, Vojtěch; Mihaljevič, Martin; Medyńska-Juraszek, Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Surroundings of the Legnica Cu smelter (Poland) offer insight into the behavior of Pb and other metal(oid)s in heavily contaminated soils in a relatively simple site, where lithogenic and anthropogenic Pb contributions have uniform Pb isotope composition over the time of smelter activity. Distribution of metal(oid)s decreases asymptotically with depth and below 30 cm reaches concentrations typical or lower than those of upper continental crust. Usually, such distribution is interpreted as the decrease in anthropogenic Pb contribution with depth. However, calculations based on Pb isotopes indicate that anthropogenic Pb is probably distributed both as Pb-rich particles of slags and fly ashes and Pb-poor soil solutions. Generally, anthropogenic Pb constitutes up to 100 % of Pb in the uppermost 10 cm of the soils and comes often from mechanical mixing with slag and fly ash particles as well as their weathering products. On the other hand, lower soil horizon contains anthropogenic Pb in various forms, and at depths below 30 cm, most of anthropogenic Pb comes from soil solutions and can constitute from 1 to 65 % of the Pb budget. This is consistent with secondary electron microscope (SEM) analyses of heavy mineral particles showing that, in upper horizons, Pb, Cu, and Zn are contained in various particles emitted from the smelter, which show different stages of weathering. Currently, large portion of these metals may reside in the secondary Fe-hydro-oxides. On the other hand, in deeper soil horizons, anthropogenic Pb is probably dominated by Pb coming from leaching of slag or fly ash particles. Overall, metal(oid) mobility is a dynamic process and is controlled by the soil type (cultivated versus forest) and the composition and the structure of the metal-rich particles emitted from the smelter. High proportions of anthropogenic Pb at depths below 30 cm in some soil profiles indicate that Pb (and probably other metal(oid)s) can be transported down the soil profile

  5. The Vein-type Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) mineralization at Fedj Hassene ore field, North-Western Tunisia: Mineralogy, Trace Elements, Sulfur Isotopes and Fluid Inclusions; Le champ filonien a Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) du district minier de Fedj Hassene (Nord Ouest de la Tunisie): Mineralogie, Elements en traces, Isotopes du Soufre et Inclusions Fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejaouil, J.; Bouhlel, S.; Barca, D.; Braham, A.

    2011-07-01

    The Fedj Hassene district is localized at the edge of the Tuniso-Algerian border 10 km of Ghardimaou area. It consists of a Zn-Pb vein type with minor amounts of Cu-As-Hg. The total Zn reserves are about 370.000t. The mineralization occurs within sub parallel fractures to the Ain El Kohla ESE-WNW fault. Host rocks consist of limestones and marly limestones of the Middle Turonian. In the principal lode of Fedj Hassene, the mineralization occurs as vein filling of massive and brecciated brown sphalerite and minor galena ore with gangue. Other trace minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, orpiment, realgar, smithsonite and cerussite. LA-ICP-MS analyses in sphalerites show mean contents of 0,84 wt% Fe, 0,14 wt% Cd and 0,02 wt% Mn Ore. Fluid inclusions study in calcite and sphalerite reveals one mineralizing fluid characterized by an average salinity 23% wt NaCl with decreasing homogenisation temperature. In fact the temperature shows decrease from sphalerite to calcite. The fluid density that corresponds to trapping pressure ranges between 1.00 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.11 g/cm{sup 3} and pressure close to 200 bars. Micro thermometric data in fluid inclusion hosted by gangue mineral presented by calcite show an average temperature of formation around 194 degree centigrade. These inclusions homogenized to the liquid phase between 156 degree centigrade and 210 degree centigrade and salinities values ranging from 22 to 28 wt% NaCl and an average around 23% wt NaCl. The {delta}{sup 3}4S (VCDT) values of sphalerite are in the range of + 4,6% to 6,4% (average=5,6%). Thermochemical reduction of Triassic sulfate by reaction with hydro-carbons is the most probable source for the heavy and the narrow range of the d{delta}{sup 3}4S values. Mineralogical, geochemical of trace elements, fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes studies allow to include the vein-type ore field of Fedj Hassene in the polymetallic (Pb-Zn-As-Hg) vein mineralization of the nappe zone in northern Tunisia and north eastern

  6. Cobalamin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B12) consists of a corrinoid structure with cobalt in the centre of the molecule. Neither humans nor animals are able to synthesize this vitamin. Foods of animal source are the only natural source of cobalamin in human diet. There are only two enzymatic reactions in mammalian cells that require cobalamin as cofactor. Methylcobolamin is a cofactor for methionine synthase. The enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA-mutase requires adenosylcobalamin as a cofactor. Therefore, serum concentrations of homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) will increase in cobalamin deficiency. The cobalamin absorption from diet is a complex process that involves different proteins: haptocorrin, intrinsic factor and transcobalamin (TC). Cobalamin that is bound to TC is called holotranscobalamin (holoTC) which is the metabolically active vitamin B12 fraction. HoloTC consists 6 and 20% of total cobalamin whereas 80% of total serum cobalamin is bound to another binding protein, haptocorrin. Cobalamin deficiency is common worldwide. Cobalamin malabsorption is common in elderly subjects which might explain low vitamin status. Subjects who ingest low amount of cobalamin like vegetarians develop vitamin deficiency. No single parameter can be used to diagnose cobalamin deficiency. Total serum cobalamin is neither sensitive nor it is specific for cobalamin deficiency. This might explain why many deficient subjects would be overlooked by utilizing total cobalamin as status marker. Concentration of holotranscobalamin (holoTC) in serum is an earlier marker that becomes decreased before total serum cobalamin. Concentrations of MMA and tHcy increase in blood of cobalamin deficient subjects. Despite limitations of these markers in patients with renal dysfunction, concentrations of MMA and tHcy are useful functional markers of cobalamin status. The combined use of holoTC and MMA assays may better indicate cobalamin status than either of them. Because Cbl deficiency is a risk factor

  7. 水稻胚乳细胞发育的结构观察及其矿质元素分析%Structure Observation of Rice Endosperm Cell Development and Its Mineral Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠; 顾蕴洁; 郑彦坤; 王慧慧

    2012-01-01

    In order to prove up mechanism of rice endosperm development and aleurone layer formation, structure changes of rice aleurone cells and inner endosperm cells during caryopsis development were observed under light microscope and electron microscope. Kinds and relative content of endosperm cell elements were analyzed with energy spectrometer. The results show that aleurone cells are differentiated from endosperm epidermis. The contents of P,K, Mg and Ca mineral elements in aleurone cells are obviously higher than those in inner endosperm cells. During the early development stage, aleurone cells contain many mitochondria, spherosomes and small vacuoles; during the middle and late development stages, small vacuoles accumulate protein and mineral elements to form aleurone granules. During middle and late development stages of endosperm, nuclei of endosperm cells distort and degenerate when cells accumulate starch; however, nuclei of aleurone cells do not degenerate during the development. The formation of aleurone layers is related to accumulation of mineral elements, lipids and other "filling wastes" (not endosperm cell reserve substance things). Therefore,cell layers of the aleurone layer in dorsal caryopsis through which more nutrients are transported overnumber those in ventral and side caryopsis. Development of cereal endosperm should be divided into four stages: coenocyte stage,cellularizalion stage,differentiation stage and maturation stage.%为了探明水稻胚乳发育的过程和糊粉层形成的机理,用光学显微镜和电子显微镜观察了水稻糊粉层细胞和内胚乳细胞在颖果发育过程中的结构变化,用能谱仪分析了胚乳细胞中元素的种类和相对含量.结果表明,糊粉层细胞是由胚乳表层细胞转化而来的.糊粉层细胞中的P、K、Mg和Ca等矿质元素含量要明显高于内胚乳细胞.发育初期糊粉层细胞中富含线粒体、圆球体和小液泡;发育中后期小液泡积累蛋白质和

  8. Major- and Trace-Element Compositions of Indicator Minerals that Occur as Macro- and Megacrysts, and of Xenoliths, from Kimberlites in Northeastern Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Escayola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compare the major- and trace-element compositions of olivine, garnet, and clinopyroxene that occur as single crystals (142 grains, with those derived from xenoliths (51 samples from six kimberlites in the Lucapa area, northeastern Angola: Tchiuzo, Anomaly 116, Catoca, Alto Cuilo-4, Alto Cuilo-63 and Cucumbi-79. The samples were analyzed using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. The results suggest different paragenetic associations for these kimberlites in the Lucapa area. Compositional overlap in some of the macrocryst and mantle xenolith samples indicates a xenocrystic origin for some of those macrocrysts. The presence of mantle xenocrysts suggests the possibility of finding diamond. Geothermobarometric calculations were carried out using EPMA data from xenoliths by applying the program PTEXL.XLT. Additional well calibrated single-clinopyroxene thermobarometric calculations were also applied. Results indicate the underlying mantle experienced different equilibration conditions. Subsequent metasomatic enrichment events also support a hypothesis of different sources for the kimberlites. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the petrogenetic evolution of the kimberlites in northeastern Angola and have important implications for diamond exploration.

  9. Quantitative trait loci analysis of mineral element concentrations in an Arabidopsis halleri x Arabidopsis lyrata petraea F2 progeny grown on cadmium-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Glenda; Frérot, Hélène; Gennen, Jérôme; Salis, Pietro; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2010-07-01

    This study describes the quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) accumulation in the pseudometallophyte Arabidopsis halleri under conditions of Cd excess using an interspecific A. halleri x Arabidopsis lyrata F(2) population. *Our data provide evidence for the implication of one major QTL in Cd hyperaccumulation in A. halleri, and suggests that Cd tolerance and accumulation are not independent in A. halleri. Moreover, the major loci responsible for Zn hyperaccumulation in the absence of Cd appear to be the same when Cd is present at high concentrations. *More than twofold higher Fe concentrations were measured in A. halleri shoots than in A. lyrata, suggesting a different regulation of Fe accumulation in the hyperaccumulator. *With the exception of Ca, the accumulation of Cd was significantly correlated with the accumulation of all elements measured in the F(2) progeny, suggesting pleiotropic gene action. However, QTL analysis identified pleiotropic QTLs only for Cd, Zn and Fe. Mg accumulation was negatively correlated with Cd accumulation, as well as with dry shoot biomass, suggesting that it might indicate cellular damage.

  10. Total and available soil trace element concentrations in two Mediterranean agricultural systems treated with municipal waste compost or conventional mineral fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Leone, Anna; Iovieno, Paola; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2010-08-01

    The temporal dynamics of some trace elements in two different types of Mediterranean soils were studied in order to evaluate the possible long-term contamination following compost amendments. Total and available (DTPA-extractable) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined. The study was carried out on two agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), a Sandy Loam Calcaric Cambisol (SG) and a Clay Gleyc Luvisol (CO), during 3 years of organic amendment with compost. The compost, produced from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and urban yard trimmings, in accordance with the Italian law for agricultural use, was applied at annually rates of 15, 30, and 45 t ha(-1) (on dry weight basis). Wide variations in total and available Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were observed over time, but appeared to be in many cases unrelated to the treatments, occurring also in control plots. After 3 years of compost application the amended SG soil showed the highest and significant increase in total Cd and Zn concentrations; in addition, the available Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations increased in accordance with the compost rates. The CO soil, characterized by a higher clay content, lower organic matter content and lower cation exchange capacity, exhibited a lower increase in available metal fractions. Our findings show that compost amendment affects more the available than the total metal concentrations in the two types of soils studied and thus it is important into legislation that metal "bioavailability" may be considered in defining threshold metal values.

  11. Elemental imaging at the nanoscale: NanoSIMS and complementary techniques for element localisation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katie L; Lombi, Enzo; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Grovenor, Chris R M

    2012-04-01

    The ability to locate and quantify elemental distributions in plants is crucial to understanding plant metabolisms, the mechanisms of uptake and transport of minerals and how plants cope with toxic elements or elemental deficiencies. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is emerging as an important technique for the analysis of biological material at the subcellular scale. This article reviews recent work using the CAMECA NanoSIMS to determine elemental distributions in plants. The NanoSIMS is able to map elemental distributions at high resolution, down to 50 nm, and can detect very low concentrations (milligrams per kilogram) for some elements. It is also capable of mapping almost all elements in the periodic table (from hydrogen to uranium) and can distinguish between stable isotopes, which allows the design of tracer experiments. In this review, particular focus is placed upon studying the same or similar specimens with both the NanoSIMS and a wide range of complementary techniques, showing how the advantages of each technique can be combined to provide a fuller data set to address complex scientific questions. Techniques covered include optical microscopy, synchrotron techniques, including X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, particle-induced X-ray emission and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Some of the challenges associated with sample preparation of plant material for SIMS analysis, the artefacts and limitations of the technique and future trends are also discussed.

  12. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  13. Trace elements and mineral composition of waste produced in the process of combustion of solid fuels in individual household furnaces in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smołka-Danielowska Danuta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents preliminary research results, with regard to the concentration of chosen trace elements (Mn, Cr, Tl, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ba, Pb in waste, which was produced in the process of combustion of solid fuels (hard coal and flotation concentrate of bituminous coal in individual household furnaces in Poland (in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region. 27 samples of ash, 4 samples of hard coal and 2 samples of flotation concentrate of bituminous coal were prepared for the research. Methods such as: ICP-MS, X-ray diffraction by means of the powder method and scanning electron microscopy were used during the research. In the ash samples obtained from the combustion of hard coal, the highest average concentrations were: Mn (1477.7 ppm, Ba (1336.4 ppm and Zn (599.7 ppm. In the samples obtained from the combustion of flotation concentrate of bituminous coal, the highest average concentrations was stated for: Zn (762.4 ppm, Mn (668.5 ppm, Pb (552.1 ppm and Ba (211.7 ppm. Crystalline components were determined by used the X-ray diffraction method and the samples of ash obtained from the combustion of hard coal contained: anhydrite, gypsum, hematite, magnetite, quartz, calcite, mullite, periclase, kaolinite, dolomite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena and feldspars (albite-anorthite. The samples of ash obtained from the combustion of flotation concentrate of bituminous coal contain: pyrite, quartz, potassium feldspar, muscovite and kaolinite. The scanning electron microscope analysis enabled the identification of the chemical composition of single ash grains and determined their morphology (aluminosilicate forms, substance PbS and ZnS, oxides of Ni, Cu and Mn, monazite, xenotime.

  14. VLCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boneh, A; Andresen, B S; Gregersen, N

    2006-01-01

    We diagnosed six newborn babies with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) through newborn screening in three years in Victoria (prevalence rate: 1:31,500). We identified seven known and two new mutations in our patients (2/6 homozygotes; 4/6 compound heterozygotes). Blood...

  15. Deficiências minerais nas fôlhas induzidas por moléstias e pragas Leaf deficiencies associated with virus infection or insect toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Certas moléstias de vírus e o efeito fitotóxico provocado por toxinas de alguns insetos influenciam a composição mineral das fôlhas de plantas afetadas. As alterações provocadas podem se assemelhar a deficiências minerais puramente nutricionais e, em certos casos, há realmente menor teor do elemento associado aos sintomas da moléstia. A aplicação do elemento faltante nos casos citados não provoca geralmente recuperação dos tecidos afetados, com exceção da deficiência de zinco associada à infecção de citros pela tristeza. É sugerido que a resposta à aplicação do elemento em deficiência dependerá de ser ou não esta, sintoma primário ou secundário da moléstia. É salientado que as recomendações sôbre adubação, baseadas nos resultados da diagnose foliar, deverão sempre considerar a possibilidade de não serem as deficiências constatadas resultantes sempre da falta de disponibilidade do elemento no solo, mas, possivelmente, da interferência de fatôres como a infecção por vírus, ação de toxina de inseto etc.Virus diseases or the toxicogenic effect induced by insect feeding influence the mineral content of affected plants. Some of the changes induced result in leaf deficiencies similar to those associated with lack of the available element in the soil. Application of the lacking element in most cases does not promote a favorable response with exception of the zinc deficiency associated with tristeza infection in citrus. It is suggested that the negative or positive response might depend on the symptom being primary or secondary. It is pointed out that fertilizer recommendations based on foliar diagnosis should always take into consideration that the deficiencies encountered are not necessarily theresult of lack of the available element in thesoil, but sometimes of the interference of virus diseases, insect toxins, and other factors.

  16. Infiltration of Refractory Melts into the Sub-Oceanic Mantle: Evidence from Major and Minor Element Compositions of Minerals from the 53° E Amagmatic Segment Abyssal Peridotites at the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Dick, H. J.; Zhou, H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated sodium and titanium in pyroxene and spinel with high TiO2 (> 0.2 wt%) are suggested as the geochemical characteristic for the MORB-like melt infiltration of peridotites. The petrological and geochemical results of melt infiltrating in mantle peridotites are controlled by not only the melt composition but also the melt/rock ratio. Large discordant dunite bodies in the mantle transition zone are the direct observation of large volume melt (high melt/rock ratio) infiltrating by channeled porous flow in the shallow mantle (1). In addition to dunites, melt infiltrating results in a large variety of vein lithologies in mantle, and the occurrence of plagioclases are considered as a petrological signal of melt-reaction at shallow depth (2, 3) with a medium melt/rock ratio. Because the lacking of obviously petrological and geochemical variation of peridotites, melt infiltration of peridotites with a low melt/rock ratio are rarely reported. Peridotites in this study are from the 53° E amagmatic segment at the Southwest Indian Ridge. These peridotites are suggested as highly depleted buoyant mantle drawn up from the asthenosphere beneath southern Africa during the breakup of Gondwanaland (4) and are residues of multi-stage melt extracting in both spinel and garnet field. We present a detailed analysis of mineral compositions by both the EMPA and LA-ICPMS. Mineral phases in 53°E peridotites have mantle major element compositions, although minerals show variations with the crystal size and the location from cores to rims (Fig.1). In conjunction with the profile analysis of large clinopyroxene crystals, our results document the melt infiltration occurred at the ultraslow-spreading environment. At least two kinds of percolation melts are distinguished. They are normally MORB-like melt and ultra-depleted melt. Reference1.P. B. Kelemen, H. J. B. Dick, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 100, 423 (Jan, 1995). 2.J. M. Warren, N. Shimizu, Journal of Petrology 51

  17. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... fluctuations in activity, illustrated by the example of Vulcano where the high-temperature association appears intermittently. A full survey of the mineral groups and species is given in respect to their importance and appearance in fumarolic associations....

  18. Relationship between Temperature, Accumulation of Mineral Elements and“Green ear” of Anthurium Spathe%温度和矿质元素积累与红掌佛焰苞“绿耳”的关系①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李崇晖; 黄素荣; 王兰兰; 王存; 杨光穗

    2013-01-01

    针对海南地区露地栽培红掌易发生季节性“绿耳”的现象,研究儋州地区露天遮阳大棚内切花红掌从6月份到12月份佛焰苞颜色、色素、矿质元素含量以及温度的季节性变化规律,探讨温度和矿质元素积累与佛焰苞“绿耳”的关系。研究结果表明:儋州地区从10月份开始佛焰苞显著出现“绿耳”,到12月份颜色恢复。佛焰苞中花青素苷含量从7月份开始降低,10月份以后受较低日温影响而升高;8月份以后叶绿素积累量增加,11月份开始降低。佛焰苞中氮元素在8月份以后积累较多,有利于叶绿素的合成,而钾元素含量从10月份开始升高,有利于花青素苷的积累。基于此,从7月份开始通过设施降低温度,减少氮和磷肥用量,增加钾、钙元素的施用量有利于抑制红掌生产中“绿耳”的发生。%The seasonal change of the color, the contents of pigments and mineral elements in spathe of cut flower anthurium, as well as the temperature under the sunshade shed in Danzhou area were investigated, during June to December, on account of the spathe color turning green seasonally when the anthurium was cultivated in the open air in Hainan Island. The relationship between temperature, the accumulation of mineral elements and the "green ear" of anthurium spathe was discussed. The result showed that the spathe color turned green from October and recovered in December. The anthocyanin content began to decrease from July, and then increased after October under the effect of lower average temperature. While the chlorophyll accumulation increased after August, and decreased from November. After August, more nitrogen element in the spathe was benefit for the accumulation of chlorophyll. And the content of potassium element increased from October, which was in favor of the anthocyanin accumulation. Based on that, the "green ear" of anthurium spathe would be inhibited by temperature

  19. Analysis of Mineral Elements Content in the Edible Stages of Vespa mandarinia Smith%金环胡蜂食用虫态矿质元素含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佑祥; 易浪波; 李艳丽; 方秦洪; 刘世彪

    2012-01-01

    The vespa mandarinia Smith samples in four edible stages, such as larvae, immature pupas, mature pupa* and adults were respectively digested by microwave, and the digestion solution was directly injected into inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES)lor quantitative determination of 14 mineral elements (K?P,S, Ca、Mg、Fe、Xu、GO、Mn、Se、Zn、Ba、Al and Cd). The results showed that the four edible stages contained rich components of K>P,S,Ca,Mg,Fe,Zn and Se.and had high edible value. The content of harmful element of Cd (0.09-0.36 ug/g) was in the national food contaminants limited range, and the content of Al (96.78-320.52 ug/g) was a little high.%以微波消解法处理金环胡蜂(Vespa mandarinia Smith)4种食用虫态即幼虫、初化蛹、老熟蛹和成虫,采用电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法( ICP-OES)对这4种食用虫态样品中的K、P、S、Ca、Mg、Fe、Cu、Co、Mn、Se、Zn、Ba、Al、Cd等14种矿质元素成分进行了分析.结果表明:金环胡蜂各食用虫态中的K、P、S、Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn和S;e等元素含量特别丰富,具有较高的食用价值;有害元素中Gd的含量为0.09.0.36 μg/g.尚在国家食品污染物限量范围内,而Al的含量96.78~320.52 μg/g,偏高.

  20. Minerals and Trace Elements Intakes and Food Consumption Patterns of Young Children Living in Rural Areas of Tibet Autonomous Region, P.R. China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermience, Michael; Mathieu, Françoise; Li, Xiao Wei; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Claus, William; De Maertelaer, Viviane; Dufourny, Ghislaine; Bin, Li; Yangzom, Dechen; Lognay, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Several studies revealed clinical signs of stunting and rickets among rural populations of Tibet Autonomous Region (T.A.R.), and especially amid children. Further, these populations are affected by a bone disease named Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). However, little is known about the dietary status of this population. This survey aimed to assess the usual intakes of young Tibetan children living in rural areas around Lhasa for energy, water, and ten minerals and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se) involved in bone metabolism. Design: A cross-sectional survey was designed. Totally, 250 pre-school children aged 3–5 years living in rural areas were enrolled. The 24-h food recall method was used to collect the intakes for two days, during two different seasons (September 2012 and April 2013). Because Tibetan foods are mainly derived from local agriculture and artisanal production, a combination of food composition tables was compiled, including specific and local food composition data. Results: The Chinese dietary recommended intakes are not met for most of the elements investigated. Intake of sodium is much too high, while usual intakes are too low for K, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Se. Bioavailability of Ca, Fe, and Zn may be of concern due to the high phytic acid content in the diet. Conclusion: These nutrient imbalances may impact growth and bone metabolism of young Tibetan children. The advantages of the implementation of food diversification programs are discussed as well as the relevance of supplements distribution. PMID:28257043

  1. Minerals and Trace Elements Intakes and Food Consumption Patterns of Young Children Living in Rural Areas of Tibet Autonomous Region, P.R. China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dermience

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Several studies revealed clinical signs of stunting and rickets among rural populations of Tibet Autonomous Region (T.A.R., and especially amid children. Further, these populations are affected by a bone disease named Kashin-Beck disease (KBD. However, little is known about the dietary status of this population. This survey aimed to assess the usual intakes of young Tibetan children living in rural areas around Lhasa for energy, water, and ten minerals and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se involved in bone metabolism. Design: A cross-sectional survey was designed. Totally, 250 pre-school children aged 3–5 years living in rural areas were enrolled. The 24-h food recall method was used to collect the intakes for two days, during two different seasons (September 2012 and April 2013. Because Tibetan foods are mainly derived from local agriculture and artisanal production, a combination of food composition tables was compiled, including specific and local food composition data. Results: The Chinese dietary recommended intakes are not met for most of the elements investigated. Intake of sodium is much too high, while usual intakes are too low for K, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Se. Bioavailability of Ca, Fe, and Zn may be of concern due to the high phytic acid content in the diet. Conclusion: These nutrient imbalances may impact growth and bone metabolism of young Tibetan children. The advantages of the implementation of food diversification programs are discussed as well as the relevance of supplements distribution.

  2. Zircon U-Pb ages, Hf-O isotopes and trace elements of Mesozoic high Sr/Y porphyries from Ningzhen, eastern China: Constraints on their petrogenesis, tectonic implications and Cu mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangyue; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Li, Shuguang; Akhtar, Shamim; He, Yongsheng

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between high Sr/Y (adakitic) rocks and Cu mineralization has been long recognized but the mechanism remains unclear. The Cretaceous high Sr/Y porphyries in the Ningzhen area host major Cu polymetallic deposits in the Lower Yangtze River Belt (LYRB) of eastern China. These rocks exhibit some geochemical characteristics (e.g., non-radiogenic Pb isotope ratios) that differ from adakitic rocks from adjacent locations in the LYRB. In this study, we present a study of the zircon U-Pb-Hf-O isotope and trace element compositions for five porphyries from Ningzhen to reveal their petrogenesis and how that correlates with Cu-Fe-Mo mineralization. Zircon U-Pb ages of Anjishan (Cu deposit), Tongshan (Cu-Mo deposit) and Xiangshan (Fe deposit) plutons in the Ningzhen area are 108.8 ± 1.5 Ma, 105-107 Ma and 100-105 Ma, respectively, which are significantly younger than the ore-bearing adakites (140 ± 5 Ma) in the western part of the LYRB. Zircon εHf(t) and δ18O values range from - 23.4 to - 10.6 and from 5.7 to 7.0‰, respectively, falling between subduction-related adakites from the other regions in the LYRB and delamination-related adakitic rocks from the adjacent South Tan-Lu Fault Zone. The similarities of Ce4 +/Ce3 + and Eu/Eu* ratios in zircons from Ningzhen and those from the western LYRB indicate higher oxygen fugacity in their magma sources. Ti-in-zircon thermometer yields magma temperatures of 550 to 700 °C (with an average of ~ 650 °C) for the Ningzhen porphyries, which are significantly lower than those of the South Tan-Lu Fault adakites (> 750 °C), but similar to those for the LYRB adakites ( 50), non-radiogenic Pb, enriched Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, negative zircon εHf(t), mantle-like δ18O values, high oxygen fugacities and low magma temperatures. Mafic rocks that co-exist with ore-bearing porphyries or occur as xenoliths in porphyries are widespread. We proposed that the Ningzhen high Sr/Y porphyries originated from mixing of magmas

  3. Comparison of mineral element content in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains%秦岭产9种野菜中矿质元素含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟君; 张九东; 陶贵荣; 杜喜春

    2012-01-01

    Contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in Cardamine macrophylla var. macrophylla Willd., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum ( Desv.) Underw. ex Heller, Aralia chinensis L., Osmunda japonica Thunb., Vitex trifolia L., Chenopodium album L., Lycium chinense Miller and Cichorium intybus L. from Qinling Mountains were determined, and compared to average contents of those mineral elements in cultivation foliage vegetables. The results show that contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in nine wild vegetables are 2. 90-14.20,0.5-3.6, 2.7-14.3,4.5-50.6, 141.9-4 646.0,106.3-643.9, 2 029.8-8 583.5, 295.3-1 136.0 and 3 870.0-14 011. 9 μg · g-1 , respectively. In which, Fe content in C. intybus, Ca content in V. trifolia, Mg and K contents in C. album, Zn and Mn contents in A. chinensis and Cu, N and P contents in 0. japonica all are the highest. Average contents of Ca, N, Fe and K in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains all have very obvious difference with those in cultivation foliage vegetables, but differences in average contents of Cu, Mg and P among them are relatively small.

  4. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Critical evaluation of strategies for mineral fortification of staple food crops

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Rojas, Eduard; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Zhu, Changfu; Ana M. Pelacho; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Staple food crops, in particular cereal grains, are poor sources of key mineral nutrients. As a result, the world’s poorest people, generally those subsisting on a monotonous cereal diet, are also those most vulnerable to mineral deficiency diseases. Various strategies have been proposed to deal with micronutrient deficiencies including the provision of mineral supplements, the fortification of processed food, the biofortification of crop plants at source with miner...

  6. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  7. Mineral bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  8. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome.

  9. The Vein-type Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg mineralization at Fedj Hassène orefield, North-Western Tunisia: Mineralogy, Trace Elements, Sulfur Isotopes and Fluid Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejaoui, J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fedj Hassène district is localized at the edge of the Tuniso-Algerian border 10 km of Ghardimaou area. It consists of a Zn-Pb vein type with minor amounts of Cu-As-Hg. The total Zn reserves are about 370.000t. The mineralization occurs within subparallel fractures to the Ain El Kohla ESE-WNW fault. Host rocks consist of limestones and marly limestones of the Middle Turonian. In the principal lode of Fedj Hassène, the mineralization occurs as vein filling of massive and brecciated brown sphalerite and minor galena ore with gangue. Other trace minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, orpiment, realgar, smithsonite and cerussite. LA-ICP-MS analyses in sphalerites show mean contents of 0,84 wt% Fe, 0,14 wt% Cd and 0,02 wt% Mn Ore. Fluid inclusions study in calcite and sphalerite reveals one mineralizing fluid characterized by an average salinity 23% wt NaCl with decreasing homogenisation temperature. In fact the temperature shows decrease from sphalerite to calcite. The fluid density that corresponds to trapping pressure ranges between 1.00 g/cm3 and 1.11 g/cm3 and pressure close to 200 bars. Microthermometric data in fluid inclusion hosted by gangue mineral presented by calcite show an average temperature of formation around 194°C. These inclusions homogenized to the liquid phase between 156°C and 210°C and salinities values ranging from 22 to 28 wt% NaCl and an average around 23% wt NaCl. The δ34S (VCDT values of sphalerite are in the range of + 4,6‰ to 6,4‰ (average=5,6‰. Thermochemical reduction of Triassic sulfate by reaction with hydro-carbons is the most probable source for the heavy and the narrow range of the ?34S values. Mineralogical, geochemical of trace elements, fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes studies allow to include the vein-type ore field of Fedj Hassène in the polymetallic (Pb-Zn-As-Hg vein mineralization of the nappe zone in northern Tunisia and north eastern Algeria

  10. Parity May Determine Levels of Some Antioxidant Minerals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidant minerals - copper and manganese, in rural pregnant women of different parities. Subjects and ... prevention of human diseases and that deficiencies may .... body over parity is cumulative and that those studies that recorded a ...

  11. Central (ICV) leptin injection increases bone formation, bone mineral density, muscle mass, serum IGF-1, and the expression of osteogenic genes in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Shoshana M; Rayalam, Srujana; Ambati, Suresh; Gaddam, Dhanunjaya R; Hartzell, Diane L; Hamrick, Mark; She, Jin-Xiong; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Baile, Clifton A

    2011-08-01

    Both central and peripheral leptin administrations reduce body weight, food intake, and adiposity in ob/ob mice. In this study we compared effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) and subcutaneous (SC) administration of leptin on bone metabolism in the appendicular and axial skeleton and adipose tissue gene expression and determined the effects of ICV leptin on bone marrow gene expression in ob/ob mice. In experiment 1, leptin (1.5 or 0.38 µg/d) or control was continuously injected ICV for 12 days. Gene expression analysis of femoral bone marrow stromal cells showed that expression of genes associated with osteogenesis was increased after ICV injection, whereas those associated with osteoclastogenesis, adipogenesis, and adipocyte lipid storage were decreased. In experiment 2, leptin was injected continuously ICV (0.0 or 1.5 µg/d) or SC (0.0 or 10 µg/d) for 12 days. In both experiments, regardless of mode of administration, leptin decreased body weight, food intake, and body fat and increased muscle mass, bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone area, marrow adipocyte number, and mineral apposition rate. Serum insulin was decreased, whereas serum osteocalcin, insulin-like growth factor 1, osteoprotegerin, pyridinoline, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand concentrations were increased. In experiment 2, expression of genes in adipose tissue associated with apoptosis, lipid mobilization, insulin sensitivity, and thermogenesis was increased, whereas expression of genes associated with cell differentiation and maturation was decreased regardless of mode of administration. Thus ICV injection of leptin promotes expression of pro-osteogenic factors in bone marrow, leading to enhanced bone formation in ob/ob mice.

  12. 婴幼儿微量元素缺乏与乳糖不耐受的关系%Investigation of the relationship between trace element deficiency and lactose intolerance in infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岩红; 刘洪凯; 陈春花

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨婴幼儿微量元素缺乏与乳糖不耐受的关系,以指导合理的喂养,保证婴幼儿的正常生长发育。方法:2013年1月-2014年3月收治腹泻患儿450例,通过询问病史及大便检测排除抗生素相关性腹泻及感染性腹泻后,将剩余的257例腹泻患儿尿液进行尿半乳糖测定,筛选出因乳糖不耐受引起腹泻婴幼儿128例,采其空腹静脉血,检测微量元素,分析两者之间的关系。结果:①性别:腹泻组共有患儿127例,男56例,女71例,比较性别对乳糖不耐受性腹泻组微量元素的影响,性别差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);②年龄:腹泻组共有患儿127例,其中<1个月20例,1~6个月41例,6~12个月27例,12~36个月39例,比较年龄对乳糖不耐受腹泻组微量元素的影响,年龄差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);③通过比较乳糖不耐受腹泻组和健康组微量元素的含量,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:婴幼儿的乳糖不耐受影响其微量元素的吸收,且微量元素的吸收不受性别、年龄的影响,故患有乳糖不耐受的患儿应在治疗该病的同时,积极补充相关的微量元素,以确保婴幼儿的健康成长。%Objective:To investigate the relationship between trace element deficiency and lactose intolerance in infants,and to guide the reasonable feeding,ensure the normal growth and development in infants and children.Methods:450 children with diarrhea were selected from January 2013 to March 2014.Through inquiry medical history and stool samples excluded antibiotic associated diarrhea and infectious diarrhea,we detected the urine galactose of the residual257 cases of diarrhea children.Screened 128 cases diarrhea infants caused by lactose intolerance,we pumped the fasting venous blood and traced the element detection, and we analyzed the relationship between them.Results:Gender:there were 127 cases of children in the diarrhea

  13. Screening Varieties of Brown Rice with Mineral-rich Elements and Their Sub-microscope Structures%高矿质元素糙米品种筛选与亚显微结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李明; 华泽田; 陈雅蕾; 杨剑; 刘雅婷

    2011-01-01

    [目的]从20种糙米中以蛋白质和矿质元素( Ca、Fe、Se)为主要指标对糙米的营养价值进行初步筛选,并观察筛选品种的形态结构,为功能稻米的选育提供依据.[方法]凯氏定氮法测定蛋白质含量,原子吸收光谱和原子荧光光谱法比较矿质元素含量差异,SPSS软件分析相关性,扫描电子显微镜观察筛选品种的形态.[结果]筛选出高Fe、高蛋白糙米ZT11(Fe 17.29 μg/g,蛋白质9.80%)和高Ca、高Se糙米小品比71(Ca 65.50 μg/g,Se 0.050μg/g).蛋白质含量与Fe含量在0.01水平有显著正相关性.糙米横断面有一定的差异,蛋白质含量一定程度上影响糙米品种米糠层的分布情况.[结论]筛选的富Fe、Ca、Se糙米具有广阔的市场前景、保健效果和附加价值.%[Objective] The nutritional quality of 20 varieties of brown rice was preliminarily screened using protein content and mineral ele ments (Ca, Fe, Se) concentrations as main indicators, the morphology was also observed,so as to provide a theoretical and material basis for functional rice breeding. [Method ] Protein content of brown rice was determined using Kjeldahl nitrogen determination method. Mineral ele ments such as Ca, Fe, Se concentrations were compared by atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry, respective ly. The correlation between protein content and mineral element concentration was analyzed by SPSS software. And the morphology was ob served by scanning electron microscope. [ Result] Two varieties of brown rice were filtered out, that is, varieties of ZT11 brown rice with rich Fe concentration of 17.29 μg/g and high protein content of 9. 80 % , Xiaopinbi 71 with rich-Ca (65.50 μg/g) and Se concentrations (0.050 μg/g). Protein content is found to be significantly positive correlation with Fe content by SPSS analysis ( P < 0.01). Cross section of varieties of brown rice had distinctly differences. Protein content of brown rice had a certain

  14. Mineral composition of two populations of leaves - green and iron chlorotic - of the same age all from the same tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procopiou, J.; Wallace, A.

    1981-01-01

    Since carefully washed Fe chlorotic leaves often contain more total Fe on the dry weight basis than do green leaves, a population of leaves of the same age representing chlorotic leaves from each of two lemon trees and green leaves also of the same age and from the same two trees were analyzed individually for mineral elements to determine, especially, the frequency distribution of Fe in the various groups of leaves (n = 47, 48, 71, 48). The chlorotic leaves from one tree had mineral composition typical of lime-induced chlorosis. The chlorotic leaves for this tree were, on the average, higher in P, K, and Fe and lower in Ca than the green leaves. For the other tree the chlorotic leaves appeared to be truly Fe deficient; P was not higher in these leaves but the mean K and Ca showed the same pattern as in the first tree. Zinc was higher in the deficient leaves than in the green ones on this tree which can be expected for true Fe deficiency. Mean zinc levels were below the critical levels. Mean manganese was below the critical level for all groups. The coefficient of variation for each element in each group was usually around 30%. Maximum-minimum data indicated that many individual leaves did not fit the patterns just described. Correlation coefficients indicated that most major patterns were consistent in spite of the variability, although there were some differences. The frequency distribution for each of most elements was much like a normal curve with usually a three-fold range for each of the elements. Many of the Fe-deficient leaves had more Fe than some of the green leaves. Analysis of an individual leaf, therefore, cannot result in accurate description of lime-induced chlorosis.

  15. CRESCIMENTO, COMPOSIÇÃO MINERAL E SINTOMAS VISUAIS DE DEFICIÊNCIA NUTRICIONAL EM IPECA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISMAEL DE JESUS MATOS VIEGAS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of the omission of macronutrient and micronutrient boron in dry matter production, the characterization of the symptoms of nutritional deficiencies and mineral composition in plants of ipeca, an experiment was conducted in greenhouse conditions by the technique the missing element and visual diagnosis. A randomized block experimental design with four repetitions and the treatments were: complete and omissions of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and B. The analytical results demonstrated that the production of dry matter was affected in all of the treatments with omission of nutrients and that the ipeca plants presented characteristic symptoms of nutritional deficiencies due to the omissions of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and B and the concentrations of the macronutrients and of the micronutrient boron in the different parts of the ipeca plant varied when a certain nutrient was omitted in the solution.

  16. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    -floor hydrothermal processes involving free circulation of seawater through ocean crust as convection. Heat flow, seafloor fracturing, permeability and fluid composition are the parameters governing the type and extent of mineralization. The chimney like... stream_size 23365 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Refresher_Course_Mar_Geol_Geophys_2007_Lecture_Notes_78.pdf.txt stream_source_info Refresher_Course_Mar_Geol_Geophys_2007_Lecture_Notes_78.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8...

  17. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131550 Bai Jinfeng(Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Langfang 065000,China);Bo Wei Determination of 36Elements in Geochemical Samples by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,31(5),2012,p.814

  18. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050704 Cheng Lin (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China); Feng Songlin Analysis of Colored Elements in Ancient Colored Glaze by SRXRF (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11 -2131/TD, 23 (2), 2004, p. 113-116, 120, 3 illus. , 3 tables, 6 refs. )

  19. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Mineral Element Absorption and Nutrient Quality of Asparagus in Plastic Tunnel%AM真菌对大棚芦笋矿质元素吸收和营养品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于二敏; 李聪; 贺超兴

    2014-01-01

    Effects of inoculation of arbuscular mycorrihizal fungi Glomus mosseae(GM)on biomass, mineral element absorption and nutrient quality of asparagus(Asparagus officialis L.)in plastic tunnel.The results showed that the fresh weight of GM inoculated plant increased by 45.57%than non-inoculated control,and the dry matter weight of GM inoculated plant increased by 29.65%.GM inoculation obviously increases the content of chlorophyll and carotenoids in asparagus cladophyll and strengthens the root activity.The absorption abilities for N,P,K,Mg,Mn,Cu in inoculated asparagus are also increased.The contents of rutin and saponins in GM inoculated asparagus are significantly increased than the control.%将接种丛枝菌根真菌摩西球囊霉(Glomus mosseae,GM)的芦笋菌根苗定植在大棚内,研究菌根对芦笋植株生物量、矿质元素吸收和产量品质的影响。结果表明:接种GM的芦笋单株地上部鲜质量增加了45.57%,地上部干质量增加了29.65%;拟叶叶绿素、类胡萝卜素含量和植株根系力均显著增加;植株吸收N、P、K、Mg、Mn、Cu的能力均有不同程度地提高;嫩中芦丁含量和皂苷含量也显著提高。

  20. Recovering valuable elements from flue slime of blast furnace by combining process of mineral and metallurgy%选冶联合技术提取高炉瓦斯泥中有价元素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋霞; 邹玄; 张晓亮; 牛福生

    2015-01-01

    After analyzing the properties ,chemical composition of the flue slime from the blast furnace in Tangshan Iron & Steel Company ,the paper proposed the suggestion of recovering valuable elements from flue slime by combining process of mineral and metallurgy .The laboratory test results showed that the iron concentrate with the iron grade 53 .25% and recovery of 51 .05% by tabling gravity separation as well as the carbon concentrate with fixed carbon content of 74 .21% and recovery of 66 .39% by once rough separation and two times cleaning separation were obtained .The addition of sulfuric acid to the final flotation tailings , the leaching rate of zinc is 97 .85% .When the dosage of sodium sulfide is 200kg/t ,the recovery of zinc concentrate can reach to 86 .36% .%在对高炉瓦斯泥性质、矿物成分分析的基础上,采用选冶联合技术对其有价元素进行了提取研究。试验研究表明,瓦斯泥原料经摇床分选后,获得了铁品位为53.25%,回收率为51.05%的铁精矿;摇床尾矿经浮选柱一次粗选两次精选工艺流程,得到碳品位为74.21%、作业回收率为66.39%的碳精矿;最终尾矿采用硫酸进行浸锌试验,锌的浸出率可达97.85%,向浸出液中加入硫化钠用量为200kg/t时,Zn回收率达到86.36%。

  1. 藜麦的主要营养成分、矿物元素及植物化学物质含量测定%Determination of main nutritional component,mineral element and phytochemical in Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞玲; 张文杰; 董吉林; 孙永敢

    2015-01-01

    Three South America Chenopodium quinoa Willd (black,red and ivory Chenopodium quinoa Willd)and a domestic Chenopodium quinoa Willd were used as experimental materials,and the main nutri-tional components,eight kinds of mineral elements(K,Na,Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn,Cu,Zn)and phytochemicals (polyphenols,flavonoids,saponins)content of them were measured.The results showed that the nutritional composition of these four kinds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd was slightly different.Compared with common grains(wheat,rice,corn and millet),Chenopodium quinoa Willd contains lower starch,richer protein and fat,and was a good source of dietary fiber,polyphenols and flavonoids.%以黑色、红色、乳白色3种进口南美藜麦和国产乳黄色藜麦为实验材料,对其所含主要营养素、8种矿物元素(K,Na,Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn,Cu,Zn)和植物化学物质(多酚、黄酮、皂苷)的含量进行测定。结果显示,4种藜麦的营养组成稍有差异;与常见谷物(小麦、稻米、玉米、小米)相比,藜麦中淀粉含量较低,蛋白质、脂肪含量丰富,可以作为膳食纤维、多酚、黄酮物质的良好来源。

  2. Trace Elements in Quartz Lattice and Their Implications for Petrogenesis and Mineralization%石英晶格中微量元素组成对成岩成矿作用的示踪意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑锋; 张辉

    2011-01-01

    Quartz is widely distributed in the igneous, sedimental and metamorphic rocks, and hydrothermal ore deposits. As its specific stability in composition and texture, quartz does carry much more petrogenetic and metallogenic information than other rock-forming minerals. Quartz, originated from different stages of magmatic-hydrothermal system and/or different geological settings, shows great differences in its lattice texture and distribution of trace elements, because of its different behavior in the history of geological processes. To interprate the factors affecting trace elements entering quartz lattice and find out high-sensitive elements in particular geological environments, the trace element distribution and textural characteristics of quartz lattice are investigated by use of micro-area in situ technique and cathodeluminescence. Therefore, the provenance of quartz formation can be traced, and then useful geological-geochemical information about the petrogenesis and metallization can be deduced. Moreover,as shown in this paper that there is a linear relationship between Al, Ti contents and the formation temperature of quartz. It might be extensively used as a tentative geothermometer.%相对其它造岩矿物,石英因其成分和结构具有特殊的稳定性,在地质演化过程中"携带"有更多的成岩成矿信息.由于不同地质环境下石英晶格中微量元素的地球化学行为具有明显差异,造成岩浆-热液演化不同阶段以及不同地质背景下形成的石英结构及其晶格中微量元素种类、含量显著不同.因此,利用阴极发光和微区原位测试技术对石英的结构以及晶格中微量元素分布特征的研究,总结影响微量元素通过类质同象形式进入石英晶格的因素,找出特定环境下灵敏度高的元素或元素组合,可以对不同来源的石英进行源区示踪,并可获取成岩成矿中有用的地质-地球化学信息.此外,石英晶格中的Al,Ti含量与石英形成

  3. Vitamin D deficiency and heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Drechsler, Christiane; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is present in the vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and correcting a poor vitamin D status is recommended as a treatment of CKD-mineral and bone disorders. In this review, we summarize the molecular and clinical data on the role of vitamin D status for

  4. Technology sandwich panels with mineral wool insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tyulenev M.; Burtzeva M.; Mednikova E.

    2016-01-01

    Sandwich panel — self–supporting structure consisting of metal cladding and thermal insulation core. As a heat–insulating core used mineral wool, foamed plastics. Production of sandwich panels with insulation mineral wool performed on modular lines for the production of aggregate or conveyer scheme. Sandwich panels are used as load–bearing elements of the facades, as well as a roof covering.

  5. Alteration geochemistry of the volcanic-hosted Dedeninyurdu, Yergen and Fındıklıyar Cu-Fe mineralization, Northern part of Gökçedoǧan Village, Çorum-Kargi Region, Turkey: Implications for the rare earth elements geochemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sercan; Gumus, Lokman; Abdelnasser, Amr; Yalçin, Cihan; Kumral, Mustafa; Hanilçi, Nurullah

    2016-04-01

    This study deals with the rare earth element (REE) geochemical behavior the alteration zonesassociated with the volcanic-hosted Cu-Femineralization at the northern part of Gökçedoǧan village, Çorum-Kargi region (N Turkey) which are Dedeninyurdu, Yergen and Fındıklıyar mineralization. The study areacomprises Bekirli Formation, Saraycık Formation, Beşpınar Formation, and Ilgaz Formation. Saraycık Formation consists ofUpper Cretaceous KargıOphiolites, pelagic limestone, siltstone, chert and spilitic volcanic rocks. Fe-Cu mineralization occurred in the spiliticvolcanic rocks of Saraycık Formation representing the host rockand is related with the silicification and sericitizationalteration zones. Dedeninyurdu and Yergen mineralization zone directed nearly N75-80oEis following structural a line but Fındıklıyar mineralization zone has nearly NW direction. The ore mineralogy in these zonesinclude pyrite, chalcopyrite, covellite, hematite with malachite, goethite and a limonite as a result of oxidation. The geochemical characteristics of REE of the least altered spiliticbasalt show flat light and heavy REE with slight positive Eu- and Sr-anomalies according to their chondrite-, N-type MORB, and primitive mantle-normalized REE patterns. While the REE geochemical features of the altered rocks collected from the different alteration zones show that there are negative Eu and Sr anomalies as a result of leaching during the alteration processes.There are positive and negative correlations between K2O index with LREE and HREE, respectively. This is due to the additions of K and La during the alteration processes referring to the pervasive sericitization alteration is the responsible for the Cu-Fe mineralization at the study area. Keywords: Cu-Fe mineralization, Spilitic volcanic rocks, alteration, Rare earth elements (REE) geochemistry.

  6. Development of heavy mineral and heavy element database of soil sediments in Japan using synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction and high-energy (116 keV) X-ray fluorescence analysis: 1. Case study of Kofu and Chiba region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Willy Shun Kai; Nakai, Izumi; Furuya, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Hiroko; Abe, Yoshinari; Osaka, Keiichi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Itou, Masayoshi; Imai, Noboru; Ninomiya, Toshio

    2012-07-10

    We have started the construction of a nationwide forensic soil sediment database for Japan based on the heavy mineral and trace heavy element compositions of stream sediments collected at 3024 points all over Japan obtained by high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SR-XRD) and high-energy synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis (HE-SR-XRF). In this study, the performance of both techniques was demonstrated by analyzing soil sediments from two different geological regions, the Kofu and Chiba regions in Kanto province, to construct database that can be applied in the future to provenance analysis of soil evidence from a crime scene. The sediments from the quaternary volcanic lithology of the Chiba region were found to be dominated by heavy minerals of volcanic origin - orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and amphibole, and the REEs (rare earth elements) within the region showed similar geochemical behavior. On the other hand, four distinct heavy mineral groups were identified in the sediments of the Kofu region, where there is a great variety of underlying bedrock, and the geochemical behavior of the REEs in the sediments also varied accordingly to their geological origins. As such, our study shows that high-resolution SR-XRD data can provide information on the spatial distribution patterns of heavy minerals in stream sediments, playing an important role in determining their likely geographical origin. Meanwhile, the highly sensitive HE-SR-XRF data allow us to study the geochemical behavior of trace heavy elements, especially the REEs in the sediments, providing additional support to further constrain the likely geographical origin of the sediments determined by heavy minerals.

  7. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, T.J.; Jenks, J.A.; Leslie, David M.; Neiger, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n=42) and mule deer (n=41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (T1), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P???0.05) between habitats. Because of the nutritional demands of gestation and lactation, we hypothesized that elemental concentrations would vary depending on reproductive status; Cd, Cu, Ca, P, Mn, Mo, Na, and Zn values differed (P???0.05) by reproductive status. We also hypothesized that, due to variation in feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P???0.05) between species. Further research is needed to determine causes of variation in hepatic mineral levels due to habitat, reproductive status, and species. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  8. Effects of LED Spectrum Combinations on the Absorption of Mineral Elements of Hydroponic Lettuce%LED组合光谱对水培生菜矿物质吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓丽; 郭文忠; 薛绪掌; Morewane Mmanke Beauty

    2014-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was hydroponically cultured in a completely enclosed plant factory ,in which spectrum pro-portion-adjustable LED panels were used as sole light source for plant grow th .Absorption and content of eleven mineral elements such as K ,P ,Ca ,Mg ,Na ,Fe ,Mn ,Zn ,Cu ,B and Mo in Lactuca sativa under different spectral component conditions were studied by ICP-AES technology .The results showed that :(1) Single or combined spectrums corresponding to the absorbing peaks of chlorophyll a and b (450 ,660 nm) could enhance the absorbing ability of roots especially for mineral elements Na ,Fe , Mn ,Cu and Mo ,the single red spectrum had the most significant promoting effect under which contents of those four elements were respectively 7.8 ,4.2 ,4.0 and 3.7 times more than that under FL ;(2) Absorption of K and B was the highest under FL which was 10.309 mg · g -1 and 32.6 μg · g-1 while the values decreased significantly under single or combined spectrum of red and blue;(3) Plants grown under single blue spectrum had the lowest absorption of Ca and Mg which respectively decreased by 35% and 33% than FL ;(4) Lettuce grown under the spectrum combination of 30% blue and 70% red had the highest accumula-tions of biomass while those grown under 20% blue and 80% red had the highest accumulations of the following seven elements Ca ,Mg ,Na ,Fe ,Mn ,Zn and B .The results provided theoretical basis for adjusting nutrient solution formula and selecting light spectrum of hydroponic lettuce .%在植物工厂全密闭环境中水培种植大速生生菜,以光谱比例可调节的L ED灯板为植物生长光源,应用电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱技术(ICP-AES),研究了红蓝LED组合光谱下生菜对K ,P ,Ca ,Mg , Na ,Fe ,Mn ,Zn ,Cu ,B ,Mo等11种营养元素的吸收特性。结果表明:(1)与叶绿素生理吸收波峰(峰值450和660 nm)对应的单一或组合光谱均可增强水培生菜根对Na

  9. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment ... poor skin tone, dizziness, and depression. After her doctor diagnosed her with iron-deficiency anemia, Susan got ...

  11. Determining the deficiency of the principal elements in small plants of chachafruto Erythrina edulis Determinación de deficiencias de elementos mayores en plántulas de Chachafruto Erythrina edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera Marín Nancy

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In Erythrina edulis plants, N, Ca, P, K and Mg defficiences were induced. The variables studied included: leaf area, the height of the young plants, the dry weight of its upper parts and roots, the external visible symtomatology of the defficiences and the content of nutrients in the tissue, al ninety days. The experiment was undertaken by applying different doses to twelve treatments and then repeating these with teh, chosen at random. Nitrogen showed the lowest results for all the variables studied followed by phosphorus and potassium, Treatments, where half-doses of the elements had been applied, showed significant differences compared with when complete treatments were applied; the exception being with the application of a half-dose of Potassium. The differences were noted in leaf area, the height of the young plants abd the dry weight of its upper parts, Leaf area was seen to be affected in all the treatments, except the complete treatments, due to the extent of defoliation in the young plants. N, P, and K were the first to show visual symtoms of deficiency. Ca and Mg, after the solutions had been applied, showed at 45 and 60 days respectively.

    En plántulas de Erythrina edulis sometidas a deficiencias de N, P, K, Ca y Mg, se evaluaron las variables área foliar, altura de plántula, peso seco de la parte aérea, peso seco de raíz, sintomatología visual y contenido de nutrimentos en los tejidos hasta los 90 días. Se utilizaron 12 tratamientos y 10 repeticiones, en un diseño completamente el azar. El N presentó los resultados más bajos en los parámetros evaluados; en orden de respuesta le siguieron P y K. Los tratamientos con la dosis media de los elementos, excepto Medio K, presentaron diferencias significativas con el tratamiento completo para área foliar, altura de plántula y peso seco de la parte aérea. El área foliar se vió afectada en todos los tratamientos, excepto en el completo, por la menor o mayor defoliaci

  12. Essential and Beneficial Trace Elements in Plants, and Their Transport in Roots: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Recep; Ozyigit, Ibrahim Ilker; Filiz, Ertugrul

    2017-01-01

    The essentiality of 14 mineral elements so far have been reported in plant nutrition. Eight of these elements were known as micronutrients due to their lower concentrations in plants (usually ≤100 mg/kg/dw). However, it is still challenging to mention an exact number of plant micronutrients since some elements have not been strictly proposed yet either as essential or beneficial. Micronutrients participate in very diverse metabolic processes, including from the primary and secondary metabolism to the cell defense, and from the signal transduction to the gene regulation, energy metabolism, and hormone perception. Thus, the attempt to understand the molecular mechanism(s) behind their transport has great importance in terms of basic and applied plant sciences. Moreover, their deficiency or toxicity also caused serious disease symptoms in plants, even plant destruction if not treated, and many people around the world suffer from the plant-based dietary deficiencies or metal toxicities. In this sense, shedding some light on this issue, the 13 mineral elements (Fe, B, Cu, Mn, Mo, Si, Zn, Ni, Cl, Se, Na, Al, and Co), required by plants at trace amounts, has been reviewed with the primary focus on the transport proteins (transporters/channels) in plant roots. So, providing the compiled but extensive information about the structural and functional roles of micronutrient transport genes/proteins in plant roots.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Mineral Nutrient Elements Distribution in Seven Varieties of Bougainvillea%三角梅7个品种的矿质元素的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐夙侠; 黄青云; 林春松; 许文宝; 曾碧玉

    2011-01-01

    三角梅在食品保健环保方面的价值日渐引起注意.本研究用电感耦合等离子体发射光谱仪(ICP-OES)对7个三角梅栽培种盛花期的微量元素和大量元素在花和叶中的分布特点作了调查,以期筛选出适合食用和园林环保不同用途的品种.结果表明有益健康的元素和重金属元素积累在品种间存在显著差异.叶中重金属含量最高的品种是B.peruviana‘ Thimma’(B.p),其次是B.glabra‘S’(B.g‘S’),重金属积累最少的是B.‘Raspberry ice’(B.‘R’)的叶.而花中重金属积累最多的品种是B.peruviana‘Thimma’(B.p),最少的是B.glabra ‘Alba’(B.g‘A’).而主要有益元素钙、锌和铁含量最高的品种分别是B.g‘M’和B.b ‘C’的花中钙含量最高,B.b ‘C’和B.‘Z’的花中以及B.p-n的叶中锌含量最高,B.‘Z’的花和B.R’的叶中铁含量最高.综合考虑,三角梅品种B.'R’的花比较适合用于在食品保健业的开发而品种B.p更适合于种植在高含量铅、镉、砷等重金属污染的环境用于生物环境修复.%Bougainvillea shows increasingly potential as edible plants,as well in bio-remediation environment.In the study,the micro and macro mineral contents of seven Bougainvillea in blooming were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in order to select varieties propitious to supplement food or friendly-environment.There were remarkable differences in accumulation beneficial elements among cultivars of Bougainvillea.the highest amounts of heavy metals was detected in B.peruviana ‘Thimma' (B.p),followed by B.g ‘S',the least one was in the leaves of B.‘Raspberry ice' (B.‘R').As compared with leaves,the obvious difference was found in flowers,the maximal accumulation was obtained in flowers of B.p,the minimal one was from the flowers of B.glabra ‘Alba' (B.g ‘A' ).In conclusion,as compared with beneficial effects of micro nutrients in leaves and

  14. Asupan vitamin, mineral, rasio asupan kalsium dan fosfor dan hubungannya dengan kepadatan mineral tulang kalkaneus wanita

    OpenAIRE

    Ramayulis, Rita; Pramantara, I Dewa; Pangastuti, Retno

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of osteoporosis as defined by bone mineral density (BMD) > - 2.5 below the average of young women in Indonesia is not yet known; however the risk for the prevalence of osteoporosis is relatively high. Nutrients especially micronutrients have an important role in maintaining bone status. Yet, until today millions of people have micronutrient deficiency in vitamin and mineral such as calcium, zinc and beta-carotene.Objective: To identify the relationship between intak...

  15. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin H

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Minerals are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. Some of the physiologic roles of minerals important to athletes are their involvement in: muscle contraction, normal hearth rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, enzyme activation, immune functions, antioxidant activity, bone health, and acid-base balance of the blood. The two major classes of minerals are the macrominerals and the trace elements. The scope of this article will focus on the ergogenic theory and the efficacy of such mineral supplementation.

  16. Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) for extreme acidophilic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Medium for growth of extreme acidophilic microorganisms. This medium does not contain trace elements. When not working on mineral, addition of trace element (TE) solution is necessary, see separate protocol. http://www.nature.com/protocolexchange/protocols/3811

  17. 利用拟南芥水培体系研究根部矿质养分对叶钙积累的作用%Function of different mineral element to Arabidopsis calcium accumulation base on hydroponic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚宏伟; 张丽娟; 王雪骄; 祁智; 杨菊

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore function of different mineral element to Arabidopsis calcium accumulation ,we used different concentration of Ca2+,K+,NO3-,Mg2+,SO42-,NH4+,PO43-,Fe2+,Zn2+base on the hydroponic system and choose Arabidopsis as material.In this system,while the concentration of NH4+ was 10 mmol/L,the accumulation of calcium reduced dramatically. While the concentration of K+ was 0 mmol/L, the accumulation of calcium increased obviously. Under the low and high concentration of Mg2+,Fe2+,Zn2+,the accumulation of calcium all reduced markedly. It is suggested that NH4+,K+,Mg2+,Fe2+, Zn2+possessed obvious effect on the accumulation of calcium.%为探究不同矿质养分对拟南芥叶钙积累的作用,以水培体系为基础,模式植物拟南芥为研究材料,分别用Ca2+、K+、NO3-、Mg2+、SO42-、NH4+、PO43-、Fe2+、Zn2+不同离子浓度的溶液进行处理。结果表明,处理液NH4+浓度为10 mmol/L时,拟南芥叶钙的积累量显著地降低;处理液K+浓度为0 mmol/L时,拟南芥叶钙的积累量显著地升高;在Mg2+、Fe2+、Zn2+低浓度和高浓度处理下,拟南芥叶钙的积累量都出现显著地降低。由此推断NH4+、K+、Mg2+、Fe2+、Zn2+对拟南芥叶钙积累具有显著的作用。

  18. Fermentation of food and feed: A technology for efficient utilization of macro and trace elements in monogastrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Elke; Schedle, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species.

  19. Deficiências de macronutrientes em sorgo The macronutrients deficiency in sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Santi

    2006-04-01

    of the effects in the omission of nutrients in the development of the plants and this omission effects in the mineral composition of sorghum. The sorghum plants were cultivated in nutritive complete solution of Sarruge (1975, and subordinated to the following elements omissions: N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. Two days after the start of the research the plants showed already deficiency which was described and characterized. When the symptoms were decisive the plants were collected, washed, separated in leaves, culms, roots, and put to dry, for a posterior determination of dried mass, leave's area and macro and micronutrients values. The visual symptoms of nutrients deficiency were easily seen. The treatments that most affect the dry mass of the different parts of the plants even the leaves were the Nitrogen Calcium and Magnesium omission. The accumulation of nutrients by the plants obeyed the following order: N>K>Ca>Mg>P>S.

  20. Accelerated growth plate mineralization and foreshortened proximal limb bones in fetuin-A knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Jong; Busse, Björn; Gupta, Himadri S; Schäfer, Cora; Krauss, Stefanie; Dunlop, John W C; Masic, Admir; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Zaslansky, Paul; Boesecke, Peter; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Schinke, Thorsten; Fratzl, Peter; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2012-01-01

    The plasma protein fetuin-A/alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (genetic symbol Ahsg) is a systemic inhibitor of extraskeletal mineralization, which is best underscored by the excessive mineral deposition found in various tissues of fetuin-A deficient mice on the calcification-prone genetic background DBA/2. Fetuin-A is known to accumulate in the bone matrix thus an effect of fetuin-A on skeletal mineralization is expected. We examined the bones of fetuin-A deficient mice maintained on a C57BL/6 genetic background to avoid bone disease secondary to renal calcification. Here, we show that fetuin-A deficient mice display normal trabecular bone mass in the spine, but increased cortical thickness in the femur. Bone material properties, as well as mineral and collagen characteristics of cortical bone were unaffected by the absence of fetuin-A. In contrast, the long bones especially proximal limb bones were severely stunted in fetuin-A deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates, resulting in increased biomechanical stability of fetuin-A deficient femora in three-point-bending tests. Elevated backscattered electron signal intensities reflected an increased mineral content in the growth plates of fetuin-A deficient long bones, corroborating its physiological role as an inhibitor of excessive mineralization in the growth plate cartilage matrix--a site of vigorous physiological mineralization. We show that in the case of fetuin-A deficiency, active mineralization inhibition is a necessity for proper long bone growth.

  1. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: thorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on thorium. Thorium is a natural radioactive element that can be found with other minerals. It can be used to generate power, produce light and transmit energy. Thorium has a potential to be used as a nuclear fuel. This element was discovered by Swedish chemist and mineralogist Jóns Jakob Berzelius in 1828.

  3. Mineral Analysis of Whole Grain Total Cereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of elemental iron in Whole Grain Total Cereal using visible spectroscopy is suitable for a general chemistry course for science or nonscience majors. The more extensive mineral analysis, specifically for the elements iron, calcium and zinc, is suitable for an instrumental or quantitative analysis chemistry course.

  4. A spanish mineral of zirconium and hafnium. Separation of the two elements by liquid-liquid extraction, using tributyl phosphate as chelating agent; Beneficio de un mineral espanol de circonio-hafnio. Separacion de ambos elementos por extraccion liquido-liquido, empleando fosfato de tributilo como agente de quelacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Sanchez, F.; Cruz Castillo, F. de la; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1962-07-01

    The zirconium and Hafnium oxides are obtained from a Spanish mineral of zircon with an average contest of 55% in ZrO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2}. An alkaline fusion to open the mineral, followed by a purification by crystallization as (Zr O-Hf O)Cl{sub 2} H{sub 2}O or as (Zr-Hf) (SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. 4H{sub 2}O, is used. A discussion of the best experimental conditions for opening the mineral and of the purification method is made. (Author) 45 refs.

  5. Critical evaluation of strategies for mineral fortification of staple food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Rojas, Eduard; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Zhu, Changfu; Pelacho, Ana M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2010-04-01

    Staple food crops, in particular cereal grains, are poor sources of key mineral nutrients. As a result, the world's poorest people, generally those subsisting on a monotonous cereal diet, are also those most vulnerable to mineral deficiency diseases. Various strategies have been proposed to deal with micronutrient deficiencies including the provision of mineral supplements, the fortification of processed food, the biofortification of crop plants at source with mineral-rich fertilizers and the implementation of breeding programs and genetic engineering approaches to generate mineral-rich varieties of staple crops. This review provides a critical comparison of the strategies that have been developed to address deficiencies in five key mineral nutrients-iodine, iron, zinc, calcium and selenium-and discusses the most recent advances in genetic engineering to increase mineral levels and bioavailability in our most important staple food crops.

  6. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Anouk de Bruyn; Yves Jacquemyn; Kristof Kinget; François Eyskens

    2015-01-01

    We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, su...

  7. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  8. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  9. Vitamin D deficiency and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D comprises a group of fat-soluble pro-hormones, obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements, and it must undergo two hydroxylation reactions to be activated in the body. Several studies have shown the role of vitamin D in mineral metabolism regulation, especially calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism. Some factors such as inadequate vitamin intake and liver or kidney disorders can lead to vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, vitamin D malnutrition may also be linked to susceptibility to chronic diseases such as heart failure, peripheral artery disease, high blood pressure, cognitive impairment including foggy brain and memory loss, and autoimmune diseases including diabetes type I. Recent research has revealed that low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity (Sato et al., 2004 and mortality (Pilz et al., 2008. Also, hypertension contributes to a reduction in bone mineral density and increase in the incidence of stroke and death. This article reviews the function and physiology of vitamin D and examines the effects of vitamin D deficiency on susceptibility to stroke, as a cardiovascular event, and its morbidity and subsequent mortality.

  10. 补光对青海云杉家系幼苗生物量和矿质元素的影响%Effects of Supplemental Light on Biomass and Mineral Element Content of Seedlings From Nine Families in Picea crassifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳芳群; 王军辉; 贾子瑞; 李悦; 仲永芳; 祁生秀

    2014-01-01

    Supplementing light in the night can efficiently promote the seedlings growth of Picea crassifolia,but the families genetic variation with supplemental light and the relationship between seedlings growth and mineral elements content were not clear. In this study,we explore the effects of extending lighting time on seedling growth and nutrition absorption,and analyze the response of the family genetic difference to light supplemental. The biomass and mineral element content of nine families from superior trees in P. crassifolia with supplemental light were investigated in growing and bud set period. The results showed that biomass and mineral element content were significantly affected by family, lighting time and interacted by family and lighting time. The biomass of P. crassifolia was increased with supplemental light treatment,and the aboveground biomass and underground biomass were 2. 01 and 1. 54 times higher than that of the control,respectively. The seedlings with higher growth rate had lower N:P ratio which was mainly affected by the P content. The N:P ratio of seedlings with supplemental light (7. 71) was significantly lower than that of the control (9. 05) in July. There was a significant negative correlation between the P content and the aboveground biomass. With increased seedling growth promoted by supplemental light,the P content was probably diluted in synthesizing RNA and protein. Thus,it is necessary to apply phosphate fertilizer to seedlings with supplemental light. The family genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity to lighting time together brought about the different responses of different families in biomass and nutrient element content to the supplemental light,which makes it possible to select superior family under supplemental light.

  11. Iron Deficiency, Zinc, Magnesium, Vitamin Deficiencies in Crohn's Disease: Substitute or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Wolfgang; Phuong Nguyen, G

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by inflammatory reactions, complications, extraintestinal manifestations and a loss of intestinal functions, for example, failures of absorption and secretion. According to intestinal dysfunction, a wide array of pathogenetic pathways is existing leading to iron deficiency and numerous vitamins as well as trace element deficiencies. Complications, symptoms and signs of those deficiencies are common in IBD with varying degrees of clinical significance. This review focuses on selected micronutrients including iron, zinc, magnesium and some vitamins. Epidemiology with respect to IBD, pathophysiology, diagnosis and clinical aspects are addressed. Finally, some suggestions for treatment of deficient situations are discussed. In conclusion, some micronutrients have significant impact on complications and quality of life in IBD. Deficiencies may even influence the course of the disease. Those deficiencies should be thoroughly supplemented.

  12. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  13. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  14. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Schneede, J.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods In

  15. [To the question of rational nutrition, micronutrient status correction, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayupova, I M

    2015-01-01

    In the article the features of healthy nutrition in pregnant women suffering from iron deficiency has been discussed. The criteria for diagnosis of anemia during pregnancy, the stage of the disease development, the specifics of iron deficiency during gestation, the need in this trace element in pregnant women have been defined. The necessity of an adequate selection of a balanced diet during pregnancy complicated with anemia has been based. Iron content in food products along with the extent of absorption depending upon the origin of the product have been considered. The compounds that contribute to a better absorption of iron, as well as medicinal substances that prevent its absorption have been presented. Special attention is paid to the questions of preventative measures in preventing anemia in pregnant women. In addition to a balanced diet and iron preparations for treatment and prevention of anemia, the appointment of vitamin-mineral supplements and specialized foods for pregnant enriched with micronutrients has been substantiated.

  16. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101621 Chen Heping (Nanyang Geology Testing & Research Center of Henan Province, Nanyang 473000, China); Sha Yanmei Simultaneous Determination of Major and Minor Elements in Carbonates by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry with Multi-direction Viewing Mode (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11-2131/TD, 28(4), 2009, p.367-369, 5 tables, 10 refs.)

  17. 不同品种和林分油茶树体矿质元素含量差异分析%Analysis of Mineral Elements in the Plants of Different Oil-Tea Camellia Cultivars and Stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严江勤; 姚小华; 曹永庆; 任华东; 束庆龙

    2015-01-01

    In order to clarify the differences in main mineral element contents in different cultivars and stands of Camellia oleifera ,N ,P ,K and Mn of six varieties of the Changlin series were determined .The content of N was shown to be the highest in leaves ,branches and roots of camellia ,followed by that of P and K ,while Mn content was the lowest .The coefficient of variance between different cultivars was high for P and Mn and low for N and K ,thus indicating that the capacity of absorption and enrichment of P and Mn vary with different varieties .The contents of N ,P and K differed considerably with camellia tree age :the one‐year‐old trees contained relatively high N ,P and K ,which showed a declining trend with increas‐ing tree age ,and the six‐year‐old trees contained relatively low N ,P and K .In contrast ,little difference was observed in camellia trees of different ages .In addition ,in old camellia forests ,the vigorous growing trees contained more N ,P and K than their poorly growing counterparts .Instead ,the poorly