Sample records for midwest forensics resource

  1. Midwest Forensics Resource Center Project Summary June 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Baldwin


    The mission of the MFRC Research and Development Program, is to provide technological advances in forensic science for the benefit of our regional partners as well as the forensic community at large. Key areas of forensic science need are identified through our interactions with our Midwest partners and our R&D advisory group, as well as through our participation in national meetings in forensic science. Under the sponsorship of the National Institute of Justice, the MFRC solicits proposals for the development of practical and useful technology, instrumentation, and methodology that address needs in areas related to forensic science and its application to operational crime laboratories. The MFRC facilitates proposal development by working to establish partnerships between researchers and our regional partners. The MFRC administers a peer-review of the proposals and then funds the selected projects at a cost of approximately $55,000 each, with a 12-month period of performance. The process for selection of these projects includes the following steps: (1) drafting of a call for proposals by MFRC staff, (2) review of the draft call by members of the R&D advisory committee, (3) review and approval of the call by NIJ, (4) issuance of the call to ISU, Ames Laboratory, regional partners, and research organizations, (5) receipt of proposals, (6) review of proposals by R&D advisory committee, (7) ranking and selection by MFRC staff using advisory committee reviews, with concurrence by NIJ, (8) notification of proposers, (9) receipt and review of progress reports by MFRC, (10) receipt and review of final reports by MFRC, R&D advisory committee, and NIJ. The decision to fund any specific project is based upon a peer-reviewed call-for-proposal system administered by the MFRC. The reviewers are crime laboratory specialists and scientists who are asked to rate the proposals on four criteria areas including: (1) relevance to the mission of the MFRC, (2) technical approach and

  2. Human resources and their possible forensic meanings. (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Urlić, Ivan; Kasum, Josip


    Forensics (forensic--before the Forum) means the application of knowledge from different scientific fields in order to define facts in judicial and/or administrative procedures. Nowadays forensics, besides this, finds its application even in different economic processes. For example, forensics enters the commercial areas of business intelligence and of different security areas. The European Commission recognized the importance of forensics, and underscored the importance of development of its scientific infrastructure in member States. We are witnessing the rise of various tragedies in economic and other kinds of processes. Undoubtedly, the world is increasingly exposed to various forms of threats whose occurrences regularly involve people. In this paper we are proposing the development of a new approach in the forensic assessment of the state of human resources. We are suggesting that in the focus should be the forensic approach in the psychological assessment of awareness of the individual and of the critical infrastructure sector operator (CISO) in determining the level of actual practical, rather than formal knowledge of an individual in a particular field of expertise, or in a specific scientific field, and possible forensic meanings.

  3. Adaptation resources for agriculture: Responding to climate variability and change in the midwest and northeast (United States)

    Maria K. Janowiak; Daniel D. Dostie; Michael A. Wilson; Michael J. Kucera; R. Howard Skinner; Jerry L. Hatfield; David Hollinger; Christopher W. Swanston


    Changes in climate and extreme weather are already increasing challenges for agriculture nationally and globally, and many of these impacts will continue into the future. This technical bulletin contains information and resources designed to help agricultural producers, service providers, and educators in the Midwest and Northeast regions of the United States integrate...

  4. The role of energy storage in accessing remote wind resources in the Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, Julian; Azevedo, Inês L.; Jaramillo, Paulina


    Replacing current generation with wind energy would help reduce the emissions associated with fossil fuel electricity generation. However, integrating wind into the electricity grid is not without cost. Wind power output is highly variable and average capacity factors from wind farms are often much lower than conventional generators. Further, the best wind resources with highest capacity factors are often located far away from load centers and accessing them therefore requires transmission investments. Energy storage capacity could be an alternative to some of the required transmission investment, thereby reducing capital costs for accessing remote wind farms. This work focuses on the trade-offs between energy storage and transmission. In a case study of a 200 MW wind farm in North Dakota to deliver power to Illinois, we estimate the size of transmission and energy storage capacity that yields the lowest average cost of generating and delivering electricity ($/MW h) from this farm. We find that transmission costs must be at least $600/MW-km and energy storage must cost at most $100/kW h in order for this application of energy storage to be economical. - Highlights: • We evaluate the break-even cost of energy storage to replace transmission. • We focus on a wind farm in North Dakota that must deliver power to Illinois. • Energy storage capital costs must be less than $100/kW h. • Transmission capital costs must be greater than $600/MW-km

  5. Drivers of Change in Managed Water Resources: Modeling the Impacts of Climate and Socioeconomic Changes Using the US Midwest as a Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Nathalie; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.


    A global integrated assessment model including a water-demand model driven by socio-economics, is coupled in a one-way fashion with a land surface hydrology – routing – water resources management model. The integrated modeling framework is applied to the U.S. Upper Midwest (Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and Ohio) to advance understanding of the regional impacts of climate and socio-economic changes on integrated water resources. Implications for future flow regulation, water supply, and supply deficit are investigated using climate change projections with the B1 and A2 emission scenarios, which affect both natural flow and water demand. Changes in water demand are driven by socio-economic factors, energy and food demands, global markets and prices. The framework identifies the multiple spatial scales of interactions between the drivers of changes (natural flow and water demand) and the managed water resources (regulated flow, supply and supply deficit). The contribution of the different drivers of change are quantified regionally, and also evaluated locally, using covariances. The integrated framework shows that water supply deficit is more predictable over the Missouri than the other regions in the Midwest. The predictability of the supply deficit mostly comes from long term changes in water demand although changes in runoff has a greater contribution, comparable to the contribution of changes in demand, over shorter time periods. The integrated framework also shows that spatially, water demand drives local supply deficit. Using elasticity, the sensitivity of supply deficit to drivers of change is established. The supply deficit is found to be more sensitive to changes in runoff than to changes in demand regionally. It contrasts with the covariance analysis that shows that water demand is the dominant driver of supply deficit over the analysed periods. The elasticity indicates the level of mitigation needed to control the demand in order to reduce the

  6. Renewables in the Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wager, J.S.


    Over the past three years, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) has evaluated the potential for using renewable energy for electricity in the Midwest, and has been carrying out a multifaceted effort to expand the use of renewables in the region. The UCS study presents a strategy for developing renewable-electric technologies and resources in 12 midwestern states. UCS analysts used a geographic information system (GIS) to create data-bases of renewable resources, land uses, vegetation cover, terrain elevation and locations of utility transmission lines, and to analyze and present information on a .6 mi x .6 mi (1 km x 1 km) grid scale. In addition, UCS developed a model to calculate the net employment impact of renewable versus conventional electricity technologies on a state-by-state basis. In evaluating the costs and benefits of renewable energy sources, UCS analysts explored a cost assessment that accounted for the impact of pollution from fossil fuels on energy resource cost. Researchers also considered the risks associated with fuel-price volatility, environmental regulation, construction lead times and other uncertainties. Finally, UCS researchers suggested steps to remove the institutional, regulatory and legislative barriers that inhibit renewable energy development, and proposed policies to expand the use of the region's renewable resources. The UCS analysis showed that wind is currently the least expensive renewable resource. UCS also found numerous opportunities to expand biomass-electric generation in the near term, such as converting small coal-fired power plants to wood fuel, making greater use of logging residues and co-firing a small percentage of biomass with fossil fuel at large power plants

  7. One-way coupling of an integrated assessment model and a water resources model: evaluation and implications of future changes over the US Midwest (United States)

    Voisin, N.; Liu, L.; Hejazi, M.; Tesfa, T.; Li, H.; Huang, M.; Liu, Y.; Leung, L. R.


    An integrated model is being developed to advance our understanding of the interactions between human activities, terrestrial system and water cycle, and to evaluate how system interactions will be affected by a changing climate at the regional scale. As a first step towards that goal, a global integrated assessment model, which includes a water-demand model driven by socioeconomics at regional and global scales, is coupled in a one-way fashion with a land surface hydrology-routing-water resources management model. To reconcile the scale differences between the models, a spatial and temporal disaggregation approach is developed to downscale the annual regional water demand simulations into a daily time step and subbasin representation. The model demonstrates reasonable ability to represent the historical flow regulation and water supply over the US Midwest (Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and Ohio river basins). Implications for future flow regulation, water supply, and supply deficit are investigated using climate change projections with the B1 and A2 emission scenarios, which affect both natural flow and water demand. Although natural flow is projected to increase under climate change in both the B1 and A2 scenarios, there is larger uncertainty in the changes of the regulated flow. Over the Ohio and Upper Mississippi river basins, changes in flow regulation are driven by the change in natural flow due to the limited storage capacity. However, both changes in flow and demand have effects on the Missouri River Basin summer regulated flow. Changes in demand are driven by socioeconomic factors, energy and food demands, global markets and prices with rainfed crop demand handled directly by the land surface modeling component. Even though most of the changes in supply deficit (unmet demand) and the actual supply (met demand) are driven primarily by the change in natural flow over the entire region, the integrated framework shows that supply deficit over the Missouri River

  8. Digital Forensics to Intelligent Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Irons


    Full Text Available In this paper we posit that current investigative techniques—particularly as deployed by law enforcement, are becoming unsuitable for most types of crime investigation. The growth in cybercrime and the complexities of the types of the cybercrime coupled with the limitations in time and resources, both computational and human, in addressing cybercrime put an increasing strain on the ability of digital investigators to apply the processes of digital forensics and digital investigations to obtain timely results. In order to combat the problems, there is a need to enhance the use of the resources available and move beyond the capabilities and constraints of the forensic tools that are in current use. We argue that more intelligent techniques are necessary and should be used proactively. The paper makes the case for the need for such tools and techniques, and investigates and discusses the opportunities afforded by applying principles and procedures of artificial intelligence to digital forensics intelligence and to intelligent forensics and suggests that by applying new techniques to digital investigations there is the opportunity to address the challenges of the larger and more complex domains in which cybercrimes are taking place.

  9. Midwest regional management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paton, R.F.


    In response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the States of Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin formed the Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. One of the top priorities of the Compact Commission is the development of a comprehensive regional waste management plan. The plan consists of five major elements: (1) waste inventory; (2) waste stream projections; (3) analysis of waste management and disposal options; (4) development of a regional waste management system; and (5) selection of a host state(s) for future low-level waste facilities. When completed, the Midwest Management Plan will serve as the framework for future low-level radioactive waste management and disposal decisions

  10. Forensic Science. (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.


    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  11. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: broadening DNA investigative intelligence. (United States)

    Vidaki, Athina; Kayser, Manfred


    Human genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We envision future forensic applications of DNA methylation analysis that will broaden DNA-based forensic intelligence. Together with genetic prediction of appearance and biogeographic ancestry, epigenomic lifestyle prediction is expected to increase the ability of police to find unknown perpetrators of crime who are not identifiable using current forensic DNA profiling.

  12. Forensic odontology. (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal


    Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology.

  13. Forensic Chemistry (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne


    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  14. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: Broadening DNA investigative intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vidaki (Athina); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)


    textabstractHuman genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We

  15. Midwest Transmission Workshop I Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Bryan


    OAK-B135 The meeting was opened with a review of the purposes of the workshop: (1) Present and discuss key studies and assessments of transmission upgrades, additions and related issues for the upper Midwest, including work that addresses the full range of views on these topics; (2) Understand the various transmission issues in the upper Midwest and discuss options for addressing the issues; and (3) Identify the decision makers and entities that need to play an active role if transmission issues are to be resolved, and agree on next steps for engaging these individuals and organizations through education, outreach, and information dissemination.

  16. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  17. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff


    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  18. Digital Forensics (United States)

    Harron, Jason; Langdon, John; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Cater, Scott


    The term forensic science may evoke thoughts of blood-spatter analysis, DNA testing, and identifying molds, spores, and larvae. A growing part of this field, however, is that of digital forensics, involving techniques with clear connections to math and physics. This article describes a five-part project involving smartphones and the investigation…

  19. Forensic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, E.


    Modern scientific technology now plays an increasingly important role in the process of law enforcement. Neutron activation, as developed for elemental analysis offers, in many cases, the suitable answer to forensic problems. The author discusses the use NAA has been put to in forensic science. (Auth.)

  20. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.


    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  1. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.


    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  2. Midwest Transmission Workshop II Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Bryan


    OAK-B135 After introductions of all participants, Abby Arnold, RESOLVE, reviewed the purpose of the meeting and the agenda. The purpose of the workshop was to share the results of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) scenario development for wind and other fuel sources and the corresponding implications for transmission throughout the MISO control area. The workshop agenda is included in Attachment A.

  3. Forensic psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje


    Full Text Available The paper is a review of different issues that a forensic psychologists encounter at work. Forensic assessment might be needed in civil law cases, administrative procedures and in criminal law cases. The paper focuses on referrals in criminal law cases regarding matters such as assessing competence to stand trial, criminal responsibility and violence risk assessment. Finally, the role of expert testimony on eyewitness memory, which is not used in practice in Slovenia yet, is presented.

  4. Assessment of waste characteristics and waste management practices for the Midwest Compact Region: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report has described how the Midwest Compact region's low-level radioactive waste characteristics were determined and has provided assessments of several key characteristics of the waste. Sources of the data used and comments on the validity and uncertainty of both the raw information and the region-wide estimates that have been generated are indicated. The contents and organization of the computerized Midwest Data Base are also presented. This data base is a resource for rational development of the Midwest Compact's Regional Management Plan. The value of the level of detail contained in Midwest Data Base is demonstrated in its use to analyze the viability of LLW treatment alternatives in other aspects of the regional management plan (RAE86). 10 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs

  5. 2017 Midwest Zebrafish Meeting Report. (United States)

    Sandquist, Elizabeth; Petersen, Sarah C; Smith, Cody J


    The 2017 Midwest Zebrafish meeting was held from June 16 to 18 at the University of Cincinnati, sponsored by the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Divisions of Developmental Biology, Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, and Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. The meeting, organized by Saulius Sumanas, Joshua Waxman, and Chunyue Yin, hosted >130 attendees from 16 different states. Scientific sessions were focused on morphogenesis, neural development, novel technologies, and disease models, with Steve Ekker, Stephen Potter, and Lila Solnica-Krezel presenting keynote talks. In this article, we highlight the results and emerging themes from the meeting.

  6. Teaching forensic pathology to undergraduates at Zhongshan School of Medicine. (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Wu, Qiu-Ping; Su, Terry; Zhao, Qian-Hao; Yin, Kun; Zheng, Da; Zheng, Jing-Jing; Huang, Lei; Cheng, Jian-Ding


    Producing qualified forensic pathological practitioners is a common difficulty around the world. In China, forensic pathology is one of the required major subspecialties for undergraduates majoring in forensic medicine, in contrast to forensic education in Western countries where forensic pathology is often optional. The enduring predicament is that the professional qualities and abilities of forensic students from different institutions vary due to the lack of an efficient forensic pedagogical model. The purpose of this article is to describe the new pedagogical model of forensic pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, which is characterised by: (a) imparting a broad view of forensic pathology and basic knowledge of duties and tasks in future careers to students; (b) educating students in primary skills on legal and medical issues, as well as advanced forensic pathological techniques; (c) providing students with resources to broaden their professional minds, and opportunities to improve their professional qualities and abilities; and (d) mentoring students on occupational preparation and further forensic education. In the past few years, this model has resulted in numerous notable forensic students accomplishing achievements in forensic practice and forensic scientific research. We therefore expect this pedagogical model to establish the foundation for forensic pathological education and other subspecialties of forensic medicine in China and abroad.

  7. Geoethics and Forensic Geology (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance


    is required. However, it draws attention to some of the relevant geoethical issues within forensic geology and forensic geoscience. This paper also highlights the need for the development of a set of resources; references and guidelines, standards and protocols, a code of conduct (including for example integrity, accountability, honesty, professional fairness, courtesy, trustworthiness), data sharing and information transparency, education and training, multi-disciplinary collaboration, development of research, fair debate, evaluating uncertainty and risk, regulation and accreditation, effective communication and diplomacy, attendance at crime scenes, presenting evidence in courts of law, dealing with the media and elimination of potential bias. The uptake of Forensic Geoscience brings with it considerable challenges arising from the direct and often very sensitive human interactions. By developing this ethical component to the work that the IUGS-IFG group does, combines technical approaches with sensitive solutions, and also in parallel helps define an ethical framework for forensic geoscientists' research and practice in addressing these challenges.

  8. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics. (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair


    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Forensic entomology]. (United States)

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal


    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately.

  10. Preparing tomorrow's transportation workforce : a Midwest summit. (United States)


    Preparing Tomorrows Transportation Workforce: A Midwest Summit, held April 2728, 2010, in Ames, Iowa, was one of several : regional transportation workforce development summits held across the United States in 2009 and 2010 as part of a coordin...

  11. A Harmonized Process Model for Digital Forensic Investigation Readiness


    Valjarevic , Aleksandar; Venter , Hein


    Part 2: FORENSIC MODELS; International audience; Digital forensic readiness enables an organization to prepare itself to perform digital forensic investigations in an efficient and effective manner. The benefits include enhancing the admissibility of digital evidence, better utilization of resources and greater incident awareness. However, a harmonized process model for digital forensic readiness does not currently exist and, thus, there is a lack of effective and standardized implementations...

  12. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  13. [Forensic anthropology]. (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels


    Forensic anthropology is the application of biological or physical anthropology in the service of justice. One main area is the analysis of human remains. Such analyses involve person identification by assessment of age and sex of the deceased, and comparison with ante-mortem data. Another major area is the analysis of surveillance pictures and videos. Such analyses may comprise facial and bodily morphological comparisons, multi-angle photogrammetry and gait analysis. We also perform studies of human remains for archaeologists.

  14. Procedures for a harmonised digital forensic process in live forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G


    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a novel computing paradigm that presents new research opportunities in the field of digital forensics. Cloud computing is based on the following principles: on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid...

  15. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics (United States)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  16. Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology? (United States)

    Turner, Bryan


    Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

  17. Forensic entomology (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  18. Future Midwest Heat Waves in WRF (United States)

    Huber, M.; Buzan, J. R.; Yoo, J.


    We present heat stress results for the upper Midwest derived from convection resolving Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations carried out for the RCP 8.5 Scenario and driven by Community Earth System Model (CESM) boundary conditions as part of the Indiana Climate Change Assessment. Using this modeling system we find widespread and severe increases in moist heat stress metrics in the Midwest by end of century. We detail scaling arguments that suggest our results are robust and not model dependent and describe potential health, welfare, and productivity implications of these results.

  19. The Ideological Foundations of Midwest Rural Education. (United States)

    Theobald, Paul

    A relationship exists between agrarian thought and the practice of formal schooling in the rural Midwest. Three traditions have shaped agrarian thinking about democracy and its application to social institutions, especially education. Fundamentalism, localism, and pastoralism have combined to form the ideological base for rural resistance to…

  20. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence. (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin


    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather


    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  2. American Academy of Forensic Sciences (United States)

    ... Programs Courses in Forensic Odontology Choosing a Career What is Forensic Science? What Do Forensic Scientists Do? What’s a Forensic Scientist? ... ve Decided You Want a Career in Forensic Science … Now What? Young Forensic Scientists Forum (YFSF) Annual Meeting Events ...

  3. Integrating Forensic Science. (United States)

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.


    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  4. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier


    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  5. Learning Android forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Tamma, Rohit


    If you are a forensic analyst or an information security professional wanting to develop your knowledge of Android forensics, then this is the book for you. Some basic knowledge of the Android mobile platform is expected.

  6. Midwest Logging Firm Perspectives: Harvesting on Increasingly Parcelized Forestlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorna Allred


    Full Text Available Loggers play a critical role in the sustainable production of wood and paper products, and harvesting activities contribute to economic health and viability of many Upper Midwest communities in the United States. If the logging sector is unable to procure wood efficiently and economically from an increasingly parcelized land base, the competitive ability of the forest industry could be jeopardized. Little is known about the functions of the logging sector related to the forest resource land base on which they depend, and it is imperative to improve our understanding of this important part of the forest industry. The purpose of this study was to determine prospective attitudes about the future of the logging industry and how trends in forestland parcelization and harvesting mechanization are impacting the logging industry, especially as it relates to smaller tracts of land.

  7. Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Heffner, Grayson; Sedano, Richard


    The Organization of Midwest ISO States (OMS) launched the Midwest Demand Resource Initiative (MWDRI) in 2007 to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) region and develop policies to overcome them. The MWDRI stakeholders decided that a useful initial activity would be to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This additional detail could then be used to assess any"seams issues" affecting coordination and integration of retail DR resources with MISO's wholesale markets. Working with state regulatory agencies, we conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs, dynamic pricing tariffs, and their features in MISO states. Utilities were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g., seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. This report describes the results of this comprehensive survey and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into organized wholesale markets. Survey responses from 37 MISO members and 4 non-members provided information on 141 DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs with a peak load reduction potential of 4,727 MW of retail DR resource. Major findings of this study area:- About 72percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;18percent. Almost 90percent of the DR resources included in this survey are provided by investor-owned utilities. - Approximately, 90percent of the DR resources are available with less than

  8. Forensic Computing (Dagstuhl Seminar 13482)


    Freiling, Felix C.; Hornung, Gerrit; Polcák, Radim


    Forensic computing} (sometimes also called digital forensics, computer forensics or IT forensics) is a branch of forensic science pertaining to digital evidence, i.e., any legal evidence that is processed by digital computer systems or stored on digital storage media. Forensic computing is a new discipline evolving within the intersection of several established research areas such as computer science, computer engineering and law. Forensic computing is rapidly gaining importance since the...

  9. Forensic radiology: An emerging tool in identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Kumar


    Full Text Available In any mass disaster condition, identification of the person is most important. For this purpose, the forensic investigators use different methods for identifying the dead. They consider skeletal remains of the dead as the initial step in identification. Radiographs carry great evidence to act as antemortem records and also assist in identifying the person, age, gender, race, etc. Forensic dentistry is also emerging as a new branch in forensics. So, the forensic dentist must be aware of different techniques, developments, and resources to incorporate the technology in order to achieve success in human identification. So, our aim of the present review is to focus on different radiological techniques and new developments available for successful identification of the dead.

  10. An Improved Forensic Science Information Search. (United States)

    Teitelbaum, J


    Although thousands of search engines and databases are available online, finding answers to specific forensic science questions can be a challenge even to experienced Internet users. Because there is no central repository for forensic science information, and because of the sheer number of disciplines under the forensic science umbrella, forensic scientists are often unable to locate material that is relevant to their needs. The author contends that using six publicly accessible search engines and databases can produce high-quality search results. The six resources are Google, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google Books, WorldCat, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Carefully selected keywords and keyword combinations, designating a keyword phrase so that the search engine will search on the phrase and not individual keywords, and prompting search engines to retrieve PDF files are among the techniques discussed. Copyright © 2015 Central Police University.

  11. Interdisciplinary team communication among forensic nurses and rape victim advocates. (United States)

    Patterson, Debra


    Victim advocates and forensic nurses provide integrated care to address the complex legal, medical, and mental health needs of rape survivors. Research suggests that conflict exists between nurses and advocates, but it remains unknown how their communication patterns contribute to or resolve these conflicts. Utilizing a qualitative case study approach, the current study interviewed 24 nurses and advocates from a Midwest organization to better understand team communication patterns when addressing conflicts. The findings suggest that most nurses communicate concerns directly while advocates avoid direct communication. Factors that influenced direct and indirect communication and their implications for practice will be discussed.

  12. Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners. (United States)

    Edmond, Gary; Towler, Alice; Growns, Bethany; Ribeiro, Gianni; Found, Bryan; White, David; Ballantyne, Kaye; Searston, Rachel A; Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; Kemp, Richard I; Martire, Kristy


    Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Live forensic acquisition as alternative to traditional forensic processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, M


    Full Text Available The development of live forensic acquisition in general presents a remedy for some of the problems introduced by traditional forensic acquisition. However, this live forensic acquisition introduces a variety of additional problems, unique...

  14. The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James J. Dooley; Robert Dahowski; Casie Davidson


    This final report summarizes the Phase I research conducted by the Midwest regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The Phase I effort began in October 2003 and the project period ended on September 31, 2005. The MRCSP is a public/private partnership led by Battelle with the mission of identifying the technical, economic, and social issues associated with implementation of carbon sequestration technologies in its seven state geographic region (Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) and identifying viable pathways for their deployment. It is one of seven partnerships that together span most of the U.S. and parts of Canada that comprise the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Regional Carbon Sequestration Program led by DOE's national Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The MRCSP Phase I research was carried out under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41981. The total value of Phase I was $3,513,513 of which the DOE share was $2,410,967 or 68.62%. The remainder of the cost share was provided in varying amounts by the rest of the 38 members of MRCSP's Phase I project. The next largest cost sharing participant to DOE in Phase I was the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OCDO). OCDO's contribution was $100,000 and was contributed under Grant Agreement No. CDO/D-02-17. In this report, the MRCSP's research shows that the seven state MRCSP region is a major contributor to the U. S. economy and also to total emissions of CO2, the most significant of the greenhouse gases thought to contribute to global climate change. But, the research has also shown that the region has substantial resources for sequestering carbon, both in deep geological reservoirs (geological sequestration) and through improved agricultural and land management practices (terrestrial sequestration). Geological reservoirs, especially deep saline reservoirs, offer the potential

  15. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters


    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika


    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  16. Database Application Schema Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Quintus Beyers


    Full Text Available The application schema layer of a Database Management System (DBMS can be modified to deliver results that may warrant a forensic investigation. Table structures can be corrupted by changing the metadata of a database or operators of the database can be altered to deliver incorrect results when used in queries. This paper will discuss categories of possibilities that exist to alter the application schema with some practical examples. Two forensic environments are introduced where a forensic investigation can take place in. Arguments are provided why these environments are important. Methods are presented how these environments can be achieved for the application schema layer of a DBMS. A process is proposed on how forensic evidence should be extracted from the application schema layer of a DBMS. The application schema forensic evidence identification process can be applied to a wide range of forensic settings.

  17. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1994 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high {Tc} superconductivity. During the past year, 27 projects produced over 123 talks and 139 publications. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in August and January); with the second MISCON Workshop held in August; 13 external speakers; 79 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 48 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors.

  18. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1994 Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high T c superconductivity. During the past year, 27 projects produced over 123 talks and 139 publications. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in August and January); with the second MISCON Workshop held in August; 13 external speakers; 79 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 48 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors

  19. Plethora of Cyber Forensics


    N.Sridhar; Dr.D.Lalitha Bhaskari; Dr.P.S.Avadhani


    As threats against digital assets have risen and there is necessitate exposing and eliminating hidden risks and threats. The ability of exposing is called “cyber forensics.” Cyber Penetrators have adopted more sophistical tools and tactics that endanger the operations of the global phenomena. These attackers are also using anti-forensic techniques to hide evidence of a cyber crime. Cyber forensics tools must increase its toughness and counteract these advanced persistent threats. This paper f...

  20. 7 CFR 1030.2 - Upper Midwest marketing area. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Upper Midwest marketing area. 1030.2 Section 1030.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order...


    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab MissionEstablish and maintain a Digital...

  2. Past and future changes in streamflow in the U.S. Midwest: Bridging across time scales (United States)

    Villarini, G.; Slater, L. J.; Salvi, K. A.


    Streamflows have increased notably across the U.S. Midwest over the past century, principally due to changes in precipitation and land use / land cover. Improving our understanding of the physical drivers that are responsible for the observed changes in discharge may enhance our capability of predicting and projecting these changes, and may have large implications for water resources management over this area. This study will highlight our efforts towards the statistical attribution of changes in discharge across the U.S. Midwest, with analyses performed at the seasonal scale from low to high flows. The main drivers of changing streamflows that we focus on are: urbanization, agricultural land cover, basin-averaged temperature, basin-averaged precipitation, and antecedent soil moisture. Building on the insights from this attribution, we will examine the potential predictability of streamflow across different time scales, with lead times ranging from seasonal to decadal, and discuss a potential path forward for engineering design for future conditions.

  3. Forensic Science Technician (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010


    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  4. Forensic Toxicology: An Introduction. (United States)

    Smith, Michael P; Bluth, Martin H


    This article presents an overview of forensic toxicology. The authors describe the three components that make up forensic toxicology: workplace drug testing, postmortem toxicology, and human performance toxicology. Also discussed are the specimens that are tested, the methods used, and how the results are interpreted in this particular discipline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels


    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics.......Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...

  6. Digital forensics and its application to forensic audit


    Martinka, Jan


    This thesis aims to describe a process framework suitable for conducting digital forensics investigation projects as support for forensic audit. Selection of existing digital forensics investigation framework was a subject of criterial comparison. Described new framework is a result of combination and enhancement of those frameworks, which were suitable for the characteristics of forensic audit. Thesis also discusses digital forensics methods for fraud examination and risk assessment as a par...

  7. Midwest Research Institute to Initiate New Energy Resource Alliance (United States)

    ) will pursue innovative, market-oriented activities aimed at improving consumer's knowledge of, access international energy marketplace." MRI has selected Dr. Charles F. Gay, the present director of NREL, to world who don't currently have access to adequate energy services. New ERA will play a vital role in

  8. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1995 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high Tc superconductivity. During the past year, 26 projects produced over 133 talks and 127 publications. Three Master`s Degrees and 9 Doctor`s of Philosophy Degrees were granted to students working on MISCON projects. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in January and July); the third MISCON Summer School held in July; 12 external speakers; 81 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 54 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temp superconductors.

  9. Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkert, Wynn; Kumar, Arvind; Becker, Bryan; Schwinke, Victor; Gonzalez, Angel; McGregor, Douglas


    The objective of the Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium (MNSEC) is to enhance the scope, quality and integration of educational and research capabilities of nuclear sciences and engineering (NS/E) programs at partner schools in support of the U.S. nuclear industry (including DOE laboratories). With INIE support, MNSEC had a productive seven years and made impressive progress in achieving these goals. Since the past three years have been no-cost-extension periods, limited -- but notable -- progress has been made in FY10. Existing programs continue to be strengthened and broadened at Consortium partner institutions. The enthusiasm generated by the academic, state, federal, and industrial communities for the MNSEC activities is reflected in the significant leveraging that has occurred for our programs.

  10. Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Wynn Volkert; Dr. Arvind Kumar; Dr. Bryan Becker; Dr. Victor Schwinke; Dr. Angel Gonzalez; Dr. DOuglas McGregor


    The objective of the Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium (MNSEC) is to enhance the scope, quality and integration of educational and research capabilities of nuclear sciences and engineering (NS/E) programs at partner schools in support of the U.S. nuclear industry (including DOE laboratories). With INIE support, MNSEC had a productive seven years and made impressive progress in achieving these goals. Since the past three years have been no-cost-extension periods, limited -- but notable -- progress has been made in FY10. Existing programs continue to be strengthened and broadened at Consortium partner institutions. The enthusiasm generated by the academic, state, federal, and industrial communities for the MNSEC activities is reflected in the significant leveraging that has occurred for our programs.

  11. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1995 Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high Tc superconductivity. During the past year, 26 projects produced over 133 talks and 127 publications. Three Master's Degrees and 9 Doctor's of Philosophy Degrees were granted to students working on MISCON projects. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in January and July); the third MISCON Summer School held in July; 12 external speakers; 81 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 54 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temp superconductors

  12. Forensic SNP genotyping with SNaPshot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fondevila, M; Børsting, C; Phillips, C


    to routine STR profiling, use of SNaPshot is an important part of the development of SNP sets for a wide range of forensic applications with these markers, from genotyping highly degraded DNA with very short amplicons to the introduction of SNPs to ascertain the ancestry and physical characteristics......This review explores the key factors that influence the optimization, routine use, and profile interpretation of the SNaPshot single-base extension (SBE) system applied to forensic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Despite being a mainly complimentary DNA genotyping technique...... of an unidentified contact trace donor. However, this technology, as resourceful as it is, displays several features that depart from the usual STR genotyping far enough to demand a certain degree of expertise from the forensic analyst before tackling the complex casework on which SNaPshot application provides...

  13. Forensic Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.


    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  14. Course constructions: A case-base of forensic toxicology. (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Wu, Yeda; Su, Terry; Zhang, Liyong; Yin, Kun; Zheng, Da; Zheng, Jingjing; Huang, Lei; Wu, Qiuping; Cheng, Jianding


    Forensic toxicology education in China is limited by insufficient teaching methods and resources, resulting in students with adequate theoretical principles but lacking practice experience. Typical cases used as teaching materials vividly represent intoxication and provide students with an opportunity to practice and hone resolving skills. In 2013, the Department of Forensic Pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine began to construct top-quality courses in forensic toxicology, with its first step, creating a base containing typical cases of intoxication. This essay reviews the construction process of said cases-base, which is intended to set an example of forensic toxicology education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Forensic DNA testing. (United States)

    Butler, John M


    Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques.

  16. Upper Midwest Gap Analysis Program, Image Processing Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lillesand, Thomas


    This document presents a series of technical guidelines by which land cover information is being extracted from Landsat Thematic Mapper data as part of the Upper Midwest Gap Analysis Program (UMGAP...

  17. CITGO Petroleum Corporation and PDV Midwest Refining, LLC Settlement (United States)

    CITGO Petroleum Corporation and PDV Midwest Refining, LLC (collectively, CITGO) have agreed to pay a $1,955,000 civil penalty, perform environmental projects totaling more than $2 million, and spend an estimated $42 million in injunctive relief to resolve.

  18. Current and future directions of DNA in wildlife forensic science. (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca N; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Linacre, Adrian


    Wildlife forensic science may not have attained the profile of human identification, yet the scale of criminal activity related to wildlife is extensive by any measure. Service delivery in the arena of wildlife forensic science is often ad hoc, unco-ordinated and unregulated, yet many of those currently dedicated to wildlife conservation and the protection of endangered species are striving to ensure that the highest standards are met. The genetic markers and software used to evaluate data in wildlife forensic science are more varied than those in human forensic identification and are rarely standardised between species. The time and resources required to characterise and validate each genetic maker is considerable and in some cases prohibitive. Further, issues are regularly encountered in the construction of allelic databases and allelic ladders; essential in human identification studies, but also applicable to wildlife criminal investigations. Accreditation and certification are essential in human identification and are currently being strived for in the forensic wildlife community. Examples are provided as to how best practice can be demonstrated in all areas of wildlife crime analysis and ensure that this field of forensic science gains and maintains the respect it deserves. This review is aimed at those conducting human identification to illustrate how research concepts in wildlife forensic science can be used in the criminal justice system, as well as describing the real importance of this type of forensic analysis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M


    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  20. Physics and forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.


    This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources

  1. What is nuclear forensics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halevy, Itzhak


    Nuclear forensics is the investigation of nuclear materials to find evidence for example the source, the trafficking, and the enrichment of the material. The material can be recovered from various sources including dust from the vicinity of a nuclear facility, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion. Results of nuclear forensic testing are used by different organizations to make decisions. The information is typically combined with other sources of information such as law enforcement and intelligence information

  2. Mac OS X Forensics (United States)

    Craiger, Philip; Burke, Paul

    This paper describes procedures for conducting forensic examinations of Apple Macs running Mac OS X. The target disk mode is used to create a forensic duplicate of a Mac hard drive and preview it. Procedures are discussed for recovering evidence from allocated space, unallocated space, slack space and virtual memory. Furthermore, procedures are described for recovering trace evidence from Mac OS X default email, web browser and instant messaging applications, as well as evidence pertaining to commands executed from a terminal.

  3. Research in computer forensics


    Wai, Hor Cheong


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Computer Forensics involves the preservation, identification, extraction and documentation of computer evidence stored in the form of magnetically encoded information. With the proliferation of E-commerce initiatives and the increasing criminal activities on the web, this area of study is catching on in the IT industry and among the law enforcement agencies. The objective of the study is to explore the techniques of computer forensics ...

  4. Coordinators for health science libraries in the Midwest Health Science Library Network. (United States)

    Holtum, E A; McKloskey, J; Mahan, R


    In the summer of 1973 one resource library in each of the six states of the Midwest Health Science Library Network received funding from the National Library of Medicine to hire a coordinator for health science libraries. The development of the role of coordinator is examined and evaluated. The coordinators have proved valuable in the areas of consortium formation, basic unit development, communication facilitation, and program initiation. The function of the coordinators in the extensive planning effort now being undertaken by the network and the future need for the coordinator positions are discussed.

  5. Northeast and Midwest regional species and habitats at greatest risk and most vulnerable to climate impacts (United States)

    Staudinger, Michelle D.; Hilberg, Laura; Janowiak, Maria; Swanton, C.O.


    The objectives of this Chapter are to describe climate change vulnerability, it’s components, the range of assessment methods being implemented regionally, and examples of training resources and tools. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments (CCVAs) have already been conducted for numerous Regional Species of Greatest Conservation Need and their dependent 5 habitats across the Northeast and Midwest. This chapter provides a synthesis of different assessment frameworks, information on the locations (e.g., States) where vulnerability assessments were conducted, lists of individual species and habitats with their respective vulnerability rankings, and a comparison of how vulnerability rankings were determined among studies.

  6. [Research Progress on Forensic Dentistry]. (United States)

    Liu, F; Dang, Y H


    Forensic dentistry is an interdiscipline of forensic medicine and stomatology, which provides legal information by collecting, testing and assessing the dental evidence scientifically. In this review, the present application of forensic dentistry has been described, such as the estimation of age, sex, species, occupation and living habit, as well as the identification of individual, domestic violence or abuse, which aims to enrich and improve forensic dentistry for making it be more useful in forensic medicine even in juridical practice. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  7. Midwest Lake uranium discovery, Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, F.


    The discovery of the Midwest Lake uranium deposit in Saskatchewan came some ten years after the start of exploration. The original mining rights were acquired on the basis of regional published, geology and proximity to the earlier discovery. Aerial radiometric surveys led to the location of a train of radioactive, glacially transported sandstone boulders and cobbles. The source of these mineralized erratics did not outcrop, and an extensive series of magnetic, electromagnetic, seismic and gravity surveys was carried out in an unsuccessful attempt to identify the source location. These surveys were followed by several programmes of diamond drilling, geochemical surveys and Pleistocene geological studies. None of these programmes or surveys encountered bedrock mineralization. When information about ore controls in the Athabasca Basin became available, a limited programme of three 300-m wildcat diamond-drill holes was proposed. The second of these holes cut weak radioactivity in a poorly cored intersection. This intersection was at an unconformity at a depth of 200 m. The programme terminated prematurely with early melting of lake ice. The first hole in the subsequent winter's follow-up drilling intersected uranium values in excess of 8%. (author)

  8. Computational intelligence in digital forensics forensic investigation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choo, Yun-Huoy; Abraham, Ajith; Srihari, Sargur


    Computational Intelligence techniques have been widely explored in various domains including forensics. Analysis in forensic encompasses the study of pattern analysis that answer the question of interest in security, medical, legal, genetic studies and etc. However, forensic analysis is usually performed through experiments in lab which is expensive both in cost and time. Therefore, this book seeks to explore the progress and advancement of computational intelligence technique in different focus areas of forensic studies. This aims to build stronger connection between computer scientists and forensic field experts.   This book, Computational Intelligence in Digital Forensics: Forensic Investigation and Applications, is the first volume in the Intelligent Systems Reference Library series. The book presents original research results and innovative applications of computational intelligence in digital forensics. This edited volume contains seventeen chapters and presents the latest state-of-the-art advancement ...

  9. From Computer Forensics to Forensic Computing: Investigators Investigate, Scientists Associate


    Dewald, Andreas; Freiling, Felix C.


    This paper draws a comparison of fundamental theories in traditional forensic science and the state of the art in current computer forensics, thereby identifying a certain disproportion between the perception of central aspects in common theory and the digital forensics reality. We propose a separation of what is currently demanded of practitioners in digital forensics into a rigorous scientific part on the one hand, and a more general methodology of searching and seizing digital evidence an...

  10. Defense Forensics: Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring Expeditionary Forensic Capability (United States)


    forensic pathology, forensic anthropology, and forensic toxicology . 13DOD’s forensic directive defines DOD components as the Office of the...DEFENSE FORENSICS Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring Expeditionary Forensic ...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Forensics : Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring

  11. Integrating climate change into northeast and midwest State Wildlife Action Plans (United States)

    Staudinger, Michelle D.; Morelli, Toni Lyn; Bryan, Alexander


    The Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center (NE CSC) conducts research that responds to the regional natural resource management community’s needs to anticipate, monitor, and adapt to climate change. The NE CSC is supported by a consortium of partners that includes the University of Massachusetts Amherst, College of Menominee Nation, Columbia University, Marine Biological Laboratory, University of Minnesota, University of Missouri Columbia, and University of Wisconsin. The NE CSC also engages and collaborates with a diversity of other federal, state, academic, tribal, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to conduct collaborative, stakeholder-driven, and climate-focused work. The State Wildlife Action Plans (SWAPs) are revised every 10 years; states are currently working towards a target deadline of October 2015. SWAP coordinators have been challenged to incorporate climate change impacts and species responses into their current revisions. This synthesis is intended to inform the science going into Northeast and Midwest SWAPs across the 22 NE CSC states ranging from Maine to Virginia, and Minnesota and Missouri in the eastern United States. It is anticipated that this synthesis will help guide SWAP authors in writing specific sections, help revise and finalize existing sections, or be incorporated as an appendix or addendum. The purpose of this NE CSC-led cooperative report is to provide a synthesis of what is known and what is uncertain about climate change and its impacts across the NE CSC region, with a particular focus on the responses and vulnerabilities of Regional Species of Greatest Conservation Need (RSGCN) and the habitats they depend on. Another goal is to describe a range of climate change adaptation approaches, processes, tools, and potential partnerships that are available to State natural resource managers across the Northeast and Midwest regions of the United States. Through illustrative case studies submitted by the NE CSC and

  12. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM


    Full Text Available With the explosion of digital crime, digital forensics is more often applied. The digital forensic discipline developed rather rapidly, but up to date very little international standardization with regard to processes, procedures or management has...

  13. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore. (United States)

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd


    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.



    Zawoad , Shams; Hasan , Ragib


    Part 5: CLOUD FORENSICS; International audience; The rapid migration from traditional computing and storage models to cloud computing environments has made it necessary to support reliable forensic investigations in the cloud. However, current cloud computing environments often lack support for forensic investigations and the trustworthiness of evidence is often questionable because of the possibility of collusion between dishonest cloud providers, users and forensic investigators. This chapt...

  15. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013


    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  16. Nuclear forensic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, B.S.


    In the present talk the fundamentals of the nuclear forensic investigations will be discussed followed by the detailed standard operating procedure (SOP) for the nuclear forensic analysis. The characteristics, such as, dimensions, particle size, elemental and isotopic composition help the nuclear forensic analyst in source attribution of the interdicted material, as the specifications of the nuclear materials used by different countries are different. The analysis of elemental composition could be done by SEM-EDS, XRF, CHNS analyser, etc. depending upon the type of the material. Often the trace constituents (analysed by ICP-AES, ICP-MS, AAS, etc) provide valuable information about the processes followed during the production of the material. Likewise the isotopic composition determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry provides useful information about the enrichment of the nuclear fuel and hence its intended use

  17. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel


    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  18. Efficacy of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Reshmi


    In a strange turn of history, the threat of global nuclear war has gone down, but the risk of a nuclear attack has gone up. The danger of nuclear terrorism and ways to thwart it, tackle it and manage it in the event of an attack is increasingly gaining the attention of nuclear analysts all over the world. There is rising awareness among nuclear experts to develop mechanisms to prevent, deter and deal with the threat of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear specialists are seeking to develop and improve the science of nuclear forensics so as to provide faster analysis during a crisis. Nuclear forensics can play an important role in detecting illicit nuclear materials to counter trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. An effective nuclear forensic and attribution strategy can enable policy makers, decision makers and technical managers to respond to situations involving interception of special nuclear materials

  19. Audit in forensic pathology. (United States)

    Burke, M P; Opeskin, K


    Autopsy numbers in Australian hospitals have declined markedly during the past decade despite evidence of a relatively static rate of demonstrable clinical misdiagnosis during this time. The reason for this decrease in autopsy numbers is multifactorial and may include a general lack of clinical and pathologic interest in the autopsy with a possible decline in autopsy standard, a lack of clinicopathologic correlation after autopsies, and an increased emphasis on surgical biopsy reporting within hospital pathology departments. Although forensic autopsies are currently maintaining their numbers, it is incumbent on forensic pathologists to demonstrate the wealth of important information a carefully performed postmortem examination can reveal. To this end, the Pathology Division of the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine has instituted a program of minimum standards in varied types of coroner cases and commenced a system of internal and external audit. The minimum standard for a routine, sudden, presumed natural death is presented and the audit system is discussed.

  20. Developing forensic mental healthcare in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Joachim Salize


    Full Text Available In many economically struggling societies forensic psychiatry is still in its initial developmental stages and thus forensic patients pose an ongoing challenge for the healthcare and juridical systems. In this article we present the various issues and problems that arose when establishing the first forensic psychiatric institute in Kosovo- a country whose population has constantly been reported as suffering from a high psychiatric morbidity due to long-lasting traumatic experiences during the war of 1999. The implementation of a new forensic psychiatric institute in the developing mental healthcare system of Kosovo, still characterized by considerable shortages, required substantial effort on various levels. On the policy and financial level, it was made possible by a clear intent and coordinated commitment of all responsible national stakeholders and authorities, such as the Ministries of Health and Justice, and by the financial contribution of the European Commission. Most decisive in terms of the success of the project was capacity building in human resources, i.e. the recruitment and training of motivated staff. Training included essential clinical and theoretical issues as well as clearly defined standard operation procedures, guidelines and checklists to aid daily routine work and the management of challenging situations.

  1. Radiochronology in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.


    Nuclear forensics corresponds to the forensic analysis of nuclear materials. The samples analysed may either be those that are confiscated during any act of smuggling or that is retrieved from a postexplosion debris. The characterisation of the material is based on the isotopic composition, physical and chemical compositions, age and history of the material which are determined by suitable analytical techniques. The interpretation of the analytical results is necessary to understand the details of the material such as its provenance, the industrial history of the material as well as the implications of the probable use of the material

  2. Kindle Forensics: Acquisition & Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hannay


    Full Text Available The Amazon Kindle eBook reader supports a wide range of capabilities beyond reading books. This functionality includes an inbuilt cellular data connection known as Whispernet. The Kindle provides web browsing, an application framework, eBook delivery and other services over this connection. The historic data left by user interaction with this device may be of forensic interest. Analysis of the Amazon Kindle device has resulted in a method to reliably extract and interpret data from these devices in a forensically complete manner.

  3. La geomatica forense e il Forensic GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci


    Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali.AbstractIn the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings. 

  4. La geomatica forense e il Forensic GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci


    Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali. Abstract In the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings.

  5. Digital Forensics in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is a rather new technology which has the goal of efficiently usage of datacenter resources and offers them to the users on a pay per use model. In this equation we need to know exactly where and how a piece of information is stored or processed. In today's cloud deployments this task is becoming more and more a necessity and a must because we need a way to monitor user activity, and furthermore, in case of legal actions, we must be able to present digital evidence in a way in which it is accepted. In this paper we are going to present a modular and distributed architecture that can be used to implement a cloud digital forensics framework on top of new or existing datacenters.

  6. Social and ethical aspects of forensic genetics: A critical review. (United States)

    Williams, R; Wienroth, M


    This review describes the social and ethical responses to the history of innovations in forensic genetics and their application to criminal investigations. Following an outline of the three recurrent social perspectives that have informed these responses (crime management, due process, and genetic surveillance), it goes on to introduce the repertoire of ethical considerations by describing a series of key reports that have shaped subsequent commentaries on forensic DNA profiling and databasing. Four major ethical concerns form the focus of the remainder of the paper (dignity, privacy, justice, and social solidarity), and key features of forensic genetic practice are examined in the light of these concerns. The paper concludes with a discussion of the concept of "proportionality" as a resource for balancing the social and ethical risks and benefits of the use of forensic genetics in support of criminal justice. Copyright © 2017 Central Police University.

  7. 75 FR 51996 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance at Midwest ISO Meetings (United States)


    ... Midwest ISO Meetings August 16, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission and Commission staff may attend the following Midwest ISO-related meetings...., St. Paul, MN) [cir] September 15 [cir] October 20 [cir] November 17 [cir] December 1 Midwest ISO...

  8. 76 FR 4104 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance at Midwest ISO Meetings (United States)


    ... Midwest ISO Meetings January 13, 2011. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission and Commission staff may attend the following Midwest ISO-related meetings...] September 14 [cir] October 19 [cir] November 16 [cir] December 6 Midwest ISO Informational Forum (3 p.m.-5 p...

  9. 75 FR 3228 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance at Midwest ISO Meetings (United States)


    ... Midwest ISO Meetings January 12, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission and Commission staff may attend the following Midwest ISO-related meetings...] November 17 [cir] December 1 Midwest ISO Informational Forum (3 p.m.-5 p.m., ET) [cir] January 19 [cir...

  10. Forensic Applications of LIBS (United States)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  11. Nuclear forensics case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedchenko, Vitaly


    The objective of this presentation is to share three case studies from the Institute of Transuranium Elements (ITU) which describe the application of nuclear forensics to events where nuclear and other radioactive material was found to be out of regulatory control



    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu


    Forensic Criminology – Fugitive Psychology, 2010 Security Summit (Regional Security Exhibition & Conference ) a forum hosted by Kenya Security Industry Association, Securi Fast Trainers & Consultants, Fidelity Security Limited at Desmond Tutu Conference Centre, Nairobi Kenya from 4th-5th March, 2010  

  13. Forensic importance of jealousy. (United States)

    Muzinić, Lana; Goreta, Miroslav; Jukić, Vlado; Dordević, Veljko; Koić, Elvira; Herceg, Miroslav


    The aim of the investigation is to define as clearly as possible specific forensic psychiatric characteristics of persons who committed homicide and or attempted due to jealousy (the nature and severity of psychopathology, the level of responsibility, danger for the community, intensity and nature of aggression, the victimologic dimension, the relation of alcohol and jealousy). A retrospective method based on forensic psychiatric expertises in the period 1975-1999 was used. They encompassed 200 examinees that committed murder or attempted it. The results show the connection of psychotic jealousy with the highest degree of danger in diagnostic categories of paranoid psychosis and paranoid schizophrenia. The time span from the first manifestations of jealousy until the actual commitment of a crime is the longest in personality disorders and the shortest in schizophrenia. Exogenous provoking situations were dominant for committing homicide due to jealousy in personality disorders. Acute alcohol intoxication has a specific significance in crime due to jealousy in the same diagnostic category. Clear criteria were designed for forensic psychiatric evaluation of murder and attempts of homicide caused by jealousy, which will be of help in everyday practice in the field forensic work and treatment.

  14. Forensic postmortem computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lundemose, Sissel; Banner, Jytte


    differences. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive in situ PMCT methods for organ measuring, as performed in this study, are not useful tools in forensic pathology. The best method to estimate organ volume is a CT-scan of the eviscerated organ. PMCT-determined CTR seems to be useless for ascertaining cardiomegaly...

  15. Soil Science Forensic Application


    Rēpele, M; Alksne, M


    The forensic potential of soil and geological evidence has been recognized for more than a century, but in the last 15 years these types of evidence have been used much more widely both as an investigative intelligence tool and as evidence in court.

  16. Forensic learning disability nursing skills and competencies: a study of forensic and non-forensic nurses. (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne


    This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.

  17. Site development in the Central Midwest Compact Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, T.R.


    Illinois and Kentucky, the two members of the Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact, are well along in fulfilling their responsibility to provide new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal capacity, which has been delegated to states and regions by federal law. The host state for facilities under the compact will be Illinois, and thus the focus of this paper is on Illinois' siting process. Illinois has both the statutory authority for LLW management and a cabinet-level agency, the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS), which has the responsibility for implementing the state management act. Based on activities to date, the Central Midwest Region expects to meet the milestones established by the federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. Illinois, however, cannot take further progress toward managing and disposing of our LLW for granted. IDNS and the Central Midwest Compact Commission (CMCC) must continue vigorously to press ahead to assure timely development of new disposal capacity. This paper provides background information on (1) the laws under which new facilities will be established in the Central Midwest Region, (2) the activities of IDNS and CMCC, and (3) planned activities by both IDNS and the CMCC

  18. Funding Models of Community Colleges in 10 Midwest States (United States)

    Kenton, Carol Piper; Schuh, John H.; Huba, Mary E.; Shelley, Mack C., II


    The extent to which community colleges in 10 Midwest states relied on 12 current funds revenue sources between 1990 and 2000 is presented in this study. Four models of funding were identified and evaluated. All models generated revenue in excess of the change in the Higher Education Price Index (HEPI), a measure of inflation over the period…

  19. Geographic Constructions of Race: The Midwest Asian American Students Union (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne M.; Poon, OiYan A.; Manzano, Lester J.; Sihite, Ester U.


    This case study was focused on the establishment of the Midwest Asian American Students Union (MAASU) as a racial project reflecting students' articulations of a regional, panethnic identity in response to racism. A critical race theory lens was used to analyze interviews with 13 MAASU founders. Findings highlight the role of social context (in…

  20. Reflections on the 34th Midwest Solid State Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, B.J.


    The 34th Midwest Solid State Conference was held October 24 and 25, 1986 in St. Louis, Missouri. The topics covered included quantum wells, superlattices, tunneling current, periodicities in liquid crystals, nonlinear patterns in dendritic crystal growth, and current fluctuations in disordered metals

  1. Regional climate change projections of streamflow characteristics in the Northeast and Midwest U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora M.C. Demaria


    Full Text Available Study region: Northeast and Midwest, United States. Study focus: Assessing the climate change impacts on the basin scale is important for water and natural resource managers. Here, the presence of monotonic trends and changes in climate-driven simulated 3-day peak flows, 7-day low flows, and mean base flows are evaluated in the Northeast and Midwest U.S. during the 20th and the 21st centuries using climate projections from sixteen climate models. Proven statistical methods are used to spatially and temporally disaggregate precipitation and temperature fields to a finer resolution before being used as drivers for a hydrological model. New hydrological insights for the region: Changes in the annual cycle of precipitation are likely to occur during the 21st century as winter precipitation increases and warmer temperatures reduce snow coverage across the entire domain especially in the northern basins. Maximum precipitation intensities are projected to become more intense across the region by mid-century especially along the coast. Positive trends in 3-day peak flows are also projected in the region as a result of the more intense precipitation, whereas the magnitude of 7-day low flows and mean base flows are projected to decrease. The length of the low flows season will likely extend by mid-century despite the increased precipitation as the atmospheric demand increases. Keywords: Streamflow peaks, Low flows, Trend analysis, Intense precipitation, Base flows

  2. 75 FR 3225 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance at Organization of MISO States and Midwest ISO Meetings (United States)


    ... Organization of MISO States and Midwest ISO Meetings January 12, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...: Midwest ISO Headquarters, 720 City Center Drive, Carmel, IN 46032. Except as otherwise noted above, the... Operator, Inc. Docket No. ER08-15, Midwest ISO Transmission Owners Docket No. ER08-55, Midwest Independent...

  3. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dry, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Podlesak, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  4. Liforac - A Model For Live Forensic Acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM


    Full Text Available ways in which such an acquisition should take place to ensure forensic soundness. The study presents information on a relatively new field of expertise and considers the Digital Forensic discipline, forensic tools, practical problems experienced during...

  5. Forensic geotechnical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, GL


    In this edited volume on advances in forensic geotechnical engineering, a number of technical contributions by experts and professionals in this area are included. The work is the outcome of deliberations at various conferences in the area conducted by Prof. G.L. Sivakumar Babu and Dr. V.V.S. Rao as secretary and Chairman of Technical Committee on Forensic Geotechnical Engineering of International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMGE). This volume contains papers on topics such as guidelines, evidence/data collection, distress characterization, use of diagnostic tests (laboratory and field tests), back analysis, failure hypothesis formulation, role of instrumentation and sensor-based technologies, risk analysis, technical shortcomings. This volume will prove useful to researchers and practitioners alike.

  6. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology. (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M


    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Forensic DNA typing from teeth using demineralized root tips. (United States)

    Corrêa, Heitor Simões Dutra; Pedro, Fabio Luis Miranda; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Pereira, Thiago Machado; Siebert Filho, Gilberto; Borges, Álvaro Henrique


    Teeth are widely used samples in forensic human genetic identification due to their persistence and practical sampling and processing. Their processing, however, has changed very little in the last 20 years, usually including powdering or pulverization of the tooth. The objective of this study was to present demineralized root tips as DNA sources while, at the same time, not involving powdering the samples or expensive equipment for teeth processing. One to five teeth from each of 20 unidentified human bodies recovered from midwest Brazil were analyzed. Whole teeth were demineralized in EDTA solution with daily solution change. After a maximum of approximately seven days, the final millimeters of the root tip was excised. This portion of the sample was used for DNA extraction through a conventional organic protocol. DNA quantification and STR amplification were performed using commercial kits followed by capillary electrophoresis on 3130 or 3500 genetic analyzers. For 60% of the unidentified bodies (12 of 20), a full genetic profile was obtained from the extraction of the first root tip. By the end of the analyses, full genetic profiles were obtained for 85% of the individuals studied, of which 80% were positively identified. This alternative low-tech approach for postmortem teeth processing is capable of extracting DNA in sufficient quantity and quality for forensic casework, showing that root tips are viable nuclear DNA sources even after demineralization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



    Elfadil Sabeil; Azizah Bt Abdul Manaf; Zuraini Ismail; Mohamed Abas


    Lack of Cyber Forensics experts is a huge challenge facing the world today. It comes due to the fancy of Cyber Forensics training or education. The multidisciplinary nature of Cyber Forensics proliferates to diverse training programmes, from a handful day‟s workshop to Postgraduate in Cyber Forensics. Consequently, this paper concentrates on analyzing the Cyber Forensics training programmes in terms of Competency-Based Framework. The study proves that Cyber Forensics training or education h...

  9. Technical and legal perspectives on forensics scenario


    Solinas, Fabrizio


    The dissertation concerns digital forensic. The expression digital forensic (sometimes called digital forensic science) is the science that studies the identification, storage, protection, retrieval, documentation, use, and every other form of computer data processing in order to be evaluated in a legal trial. Digital forensic is a branch of forensic science. First of all, digital forensic represents the extension of theories, principles and procedures that are typical and importa...

  10. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Manigandan


    Full Text Available Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  11. Forensic implications of rape


    Novaković Milan


    Introduction. Rape is a sexual act of violence in which physical strength is used. Criminal law imposes strict punishments for such crimes as rape. Psycho-pathologically, rape is among the gravest of crimes, often associated with extremely deviated behavior. This article deals with the forensic aspects of sexual violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2000-2004. We report about sexual assaults, personality of delinquents, motives and consequences of rape. Material and Methods. T...

  12. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.


    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  13. Tattoos: forensic considerations. (United States)

    Byard, Roger W


    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations.

  14. DNS in Computer Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Fowler Wright


    Full Text Available The Domain Name Service (DNS is a critical core component of the global Internet and integral to the majority of corporate intranets. It provides resolution services between the human-readable name-based system addresses and the machine operable Internet Protocol (IP based addresses required for creating network level connections. Whilst structured as a globally dispersed resilient tree data structure, from the Global and Country Code Top Level Domains (gTLD/ccTLD down to the individual site and system leaf nodes, it is highly resilient although vulnerable to various attacks, exploits and systematic failures. This paper examines the history along with the rapid growth of DNS up to its current critical status. It then explores the often overlooked value of DNS query data; from packet traces, DNS cache data, and DNS logs, with its use in System Forensics and more frequently in Network Forensics, extrapolating examples and experiments that enhance knowledge.Continuing on, it details the common attacks that can be used directly against the DNS systems and services, before following on with the malicious uses of DNS in direct system attacks, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS, traditional Denial of Service (DOS attacks and malware. It explores both cyber-criminal activities and cyber-warfare based attacks, and also extrapolates from a number of more recent attacks the possible methods for data exfiltration. It explores some of the potential analytical methodologies including; common uses in Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, as well as infection and activity tracking in malware traffic analysis, and covers some of the associated methods around technology designed to defend against, mitigate, and/or manage these and other risks, plus the effect that ISP and nation states can have by direct manipulation of DNS queries and return traffic.This paper also investigates potential behavioural analysis and time-lining, which can then be used for the

  15. New perspectives in forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A


    A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field.

  16. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective. (United States)

    Oakley, Kate


    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  17. Outbreak of caprine abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in Midwest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Bravim Caldeira


    Full Text Available An outbreak of abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in goats on a farm in the Brazilian Midwest is reported. Gross lesions were not observed in seven aborted fetuses submitted to the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Mato Grosso, for necropsy investigation. The main histologic lesions were mononuclear cell pneumonia and necrotizing encephalitis in varying degrees of intensity. PCR for Brucella abortus and Neospora caninum and aerobic cultures were negative in all cases. Antibody titles against T. gondii varying from 1:1024 to 1:32.768 were detected in serum samples from four aborted goats. Nested-PCR assay for T. gondii were positive in brain samples of all cases submitted. These findings indicate that T. gondii infection should be considered in the diagnosis of abortion in goats in Midwest Brazil.

  18. The evaporation from ponds in the French Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AL DOMANY


    Full Text Available This research shows the results of a study about evaporation in five ponds in the Midwest of France. To realize this study we used climate data from the meteorological station of the Limoges-Bellegarde airport and the data of a weather station installed by us near one of the ponds. We used eight different methods to calculate the evaporation rate and we modified the Penman-Monteith method by replacing the air temperature by water temperature. To understand the role of ponds in water loss through evaporation, we proposed a hypothesis that says : if the pond did not exist, what results would we get? Based on this hypothesis we calculated the potential evapotranspiration rate taking into account the percentage of interception by vegetation. In conclusion, this study indicates that the ponds in the French Midwest present a gain of water

  19. Nuclear Forensics Technologies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, N.; Kimura, Y.; Okubo, A.; Tomikawa, H.


    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material to provide evidence for nuclear attribution by determining origin, history, transit routes and purpose involving such material. Nuclear forensics activities include sampling of the illicit material, analysis of the samples and evaluation of the attribution by comparing the analysed data with database or numerical simulation. Because the nuclear forensics methodologies provide hints of the origin of the nuclear materials used in illegal dealings or nuclear terrorism, it contributes to identify and indict offenders, hence to enhance deterrent effect against such terrorism. Worldwide network on nuclear forensics can lead to strengthening global nuclear security regime. In the ESARDA Symposium 2015, the results of research and development of fundamental nuclear forensics technologies performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency during the term of 2011-2013 were reported, namely (1) technique to analyse isotopic composition of nuclear material, (2) technique to identify the impurities contained in the material, (3) technique to determine the age of the purified material by measuring the isotopic ratio of daughter thorium to parent uranium, (4) technique to make image data by observing particle shapes with electron microscope, and (5) prototype nuclear forensics library for comparison of the analysed data with database in order to evaluate its evidence such as origin and history. Japan’s capability on nuclear forensics and effective international cooperation are also mentioned for contribution to the international nuclear forensics community.

  20. Towards automatic forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our

  1. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan


    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is

  2. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.


    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  3. An introduction to computer forensics. (United States)

    Furneaux, Nick


    This paper provides an introduction to the discipline of Computer Forensics. With computers being involved in an increasing number, and type, of crimes the trace data left on electronic media can play a vital part in the legal process. To ensure acceptance by the courts, accepted processes and procedures have to be adopted and demonstrated which are not dissimilar to the issues surrounding traditional forensic investigations. This paper provides a straightforward overview of the three steps involved in the examination of digital media: Acquisition of data. Investigation of evidence. Reporting and presentation of evidence. Although many of the traditional readers of Medicine, Science and the Law are those involved in the biological aspects of forensics, I believe that both disciplines can learn from each other, with electronic evidence being more readily sought and considered by the legal community and the long, tried and tested scientific methods of the forensic community being shared and adopted by the computer forensic world.

  4. Selling from Ontario into the U.S. midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.


    The market structure of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) for the electric power grid was described with reference to physical bilateral markets, multi-control areas, and MISO services such as security coordination, congestion management, billing, generator interconnections, tariff administration, energy imbalance, market monitoring, and electronic scheduling. The drivers impacting MISO development include MISO-PJM-SPP common market initiative, the FERC Standard Market Design initiative, the integration of alliance companies with MISO, and the division of functional responsibilities between RTOs and ITCs. The characteristics of the Michigan market were described, along with participation in the midwest (Ohio and Michigan) wholesale and retail markets. It was noted that in order for Ontario to sell to the midwest, the Ontario market design would need a successful export bid each hour to get power out of the province. Sales of ancillary services from Ontario-based generation are not permitted in the initial Ontario market design. Energy and transmission is currently bundled in Ontario tariffs. 1 fig

  5. Selling from Ontario into the U.S. midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)


    The market structure of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) for the electric power grid was described with reference to physical bilateral markets, multi-control areas, and MISO services such as security coordination, congestion management, billing, generator interconnections, tariff administration, energy imbalance, market monitoring, and electronic scheduling. The drivers impacting MISO development include MISO-PJM-SPP common market initiative, the FERC Standard Market Design initiative, the integration of alliance companies with MISO, and the division of functional responsibilities between RTOs and ITCs. The characteristics of the Michigan market were described, along with participation in the midwest (Ohio and Michigan) wholesale and retail markets. It was noted that in order for Ontario to sell to the midwest, the Ontario market design would need a successful export bid each hour to get power out of the province. Sales of ancillary services from Ontario-based generation are not permitted in the initial Ontario market design. Energy and transmission is currently bundled in Ontario tariffs. 1 fig.

  6. Computer forensics with FTK

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Fernando


    This tutorial contains detailed instructions with useful integrated examples that help you understand the main features of FTK and how you can use it to analyze evidence. This book has clear and concise guidance in an easily accessible format.This tutorial-based guide is great for you if you want to conduct digital investigations with an integrated platform. Whether you are new to Computer Forensics or have some experience, this book will help you get started with FTK so you can analyze evidence effectively and efficiently. If you are a law enforcement official, corporate security, or IT profe

  7. Forensic applications of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Ernesto N.


    Science and the law are considered to be the two main shaping forces in modern societies. The Regional Seminars on Forensic Physics are organized by (mostly CNEA) scientists in Bariloche with a twofold purpose: to increase the participation of researchers as experts witnesses in the solution of legal problems, and to make judges aware of facilities and techniques that might prove useful. Some of the contributions to the last seminar are discussed, ranging from the numerical simulation of mayor explosions to the behavior of snow avalanches, and from the proper control of a trace laboratory to the distribution of words in the plays of Shakespeare. (author)

  8. Defining a Forensic Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson G. Smith


    Full Text Available Disclosures about new financial frauds and scandals are continually appearing in the press.  As a consequence, the accounting profession's traditional methods of monitoring corporate financial activities are under intense scrutiny.  At the same time, there is recognition that principles-based GAAP from the International Accounting Standards Board will become the recognized standard in the U.S.  The authors argue that these two factors will change the practices used to fight corporate malfeasance as investigators adapt the techniques of accounting into a forensic audit engagement model.

  9. Pharmacogenetics and forensic toxicology. (United States)

    Musshoff, Frank; Stamer, Ulrike M; Madea, Burkhard


    Large inter-individual variability in drug response and toxicity, as well as in drug concentrations after application of the same dosage, can be of genetic, physiological, pathophysiological, or environmental origin. Absorption, distribution and metabolism of a drug and interactions with its target often are determined by genetic differences. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variations can appear at the level of drug metabolizing enzymes (e.g., the cytochrome P450 system), drug transporters, drug targets or other biomarker genes. Pharmacogenetics or toxicogenetics can therefore be relevant in forensic toxicology. This review presents relevant aspects together with some examples from daily routines. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  11. Forensic Memories: After Testimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøndergaard, Johanne Helbo


    of writing that might in fact come “after” testimony. In this paper I attempt to describe a mode of writing in contemporary literature on memory and history, which allows later generations to address historical events to which they did not bear witness, challenging the testimonial mode while bearing its...... strategies and strengths in mind - “after” in both senses of the word. The central argument is that just as the legal concept of testimony was introduced into the cultural sphere to describe a particular genre or mode of writing, the legal concept of forensics will serve as a useful term for describing...

  12. Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science. (United States)

    Cole, Simon A


    This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Recommended Practice: Creating Cyber Forensics Plans for Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Cornelius; Mark Fabro


    Cyber forensics has been in the popular mainstream for some time, and has matured into an information-technology capability that is very common among modern information security programs. The goal of cyber forensics is to support the elements of troubleshooting, monitoring, recovery, and the protection of sensitive data. Moreover, in the event of a crime being committed, cyber forensics is also the approach to collecting, analyzing, and archiving data as evidence in a court of law. Although scalable to many information technology domains, especially modern corporate architectures, cyber forensics can be challenging when being applied to non-traditional environments, which are not comprised of current information technologies or are designed with technologies that do not provide adequate data storage or audit capabilities. In addition, further complexity is introduced if the environments are designed using proprietary solutions and protocols, thus limiting the ease of which modern forensic methods can be utilized. The legacy nature and somewhat diverse or disparate component aspects of control systems environments can often prohibit the smooth translation of modern forensics analysis into the control systems domain. Compounded by a wide variety of proprietary technologies and protocols, as well as critical system technologies with no capability to store significant amounts of event information, the task of creating a ubiquitous and unified strategy for technical cyber forensics on a control systems device or computing resource is far from trivial. To date, no direction regarding cyber forensics as it relates to control systems has been produced other than what might be privately available from commercial vendors. Current materials have been designed to support event recreation (event-based), and although important, these requirements do not always satisfy the needs associated with incident response or forensics that are driven by cyber incidents. To address these

  14. Nuclear Forensics: Report of the AAAS/APS Working Group (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Benn


    This report was produced by a Working Group of the American Physical Society's Program on Public Affairs in conjunction with the American Association for the Advancement of Science Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the Congress, U.S. government agencies and other institutions involved in nuclear forensics with a clear unclassified statement of the state of the art of nuclear forensics; an assessment of its potential for preventing and identifying unattributed nuclear attacks; and identification of the policies, resources and human talent to fulfill that potential. In the course of its work, the Working Group observed that nuclear forensics was an essential part of the overall nuclear attribution process, which aims at identifying the origin of unidentified nuclear weapon material and, in the event, an unidentified nuclear explosion. A credible nuclear attribution capability and in particular nuclear forensics capability could deter essential participants in the chain of actors needed to smuggle nuclear weapon material or carry out a nuclear terrorist act and could also encourage states to better secure such materials and weapons. The Working Group also noted that nuclear forensics result would take some time to obtain and that neither internal coordination, nor international arrangements, nor the state of qualified personnel and needed equipment were currently enough to minimize the time needed to reach reliable results in an emergency such as would be caused by a nuclear detonation or the intercept of a weapon-size quantity of material. The Working Group assesses international cooperation to be crucial for forensics to work, since the material would likely come from inadequately documented foreign sources. In addition, international participation, if properly managed, could enhance the credibility of the deterrent effect of attribution. Finally the Working Group notes that the U.S. forensics

  15. Forensic botany: using plant evidence to aid in forensic death investigation. (United States)

    Miller Coyle, Heather; Lee, Cheng-Lung; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lee, Henry C; Palmbach, Timothy M


    Forensic botany is still an under-utilized resource in forensic casework, although it has been used on occasion. It is an area of specialty science that could include traditional botanical classification of species, DNA, or materials evidence (trace and transfer evidence), crime mapping or geo-sourcing, all dependent on the specific case application under consideration. Critical to the evaluation of plant evidence is careful collection, documentation, and preservation for later scientific analysis. This article reviews proper procedures and recent cases where botanical evidence played a role in establishing either manner or time of death. Plant evidence can be useful for determining if a death was due to an accident, suicide, or homicide, or what time of year burial may have taken place. In addition, plant evidence can be used to determine if a crime scene is a primary or secondary scene and to locate missing bodies.

  16. Nanoparticles in forensic science (United States)

    Cantu, Antonio A.


    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  17. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy


    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  18. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  19. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.


    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  20. Challenges with modifications of the McClean Lake mill to process midwest ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.T.; Backham, L.


    Midwest is a unique uranium deposit with exceptionally high arsenic content. The ore body is located 17 km west of the McClean Lake operation. The McClean Lake mill will be modified to process Midwest ore and handle solid wastes from the Midwest water treatment plant. This paper describes the modifications required of the McClean Lake mill, process challenges associated with treatment of the arsenic, and the possibility of recovering nickel and cobalt as a by-product. It also reviews the complexity in the design of the Midwest water treatment facility which incorporates reverse osmosis technology with conventional physical-chemical water treatment. (author)

  1. The role of spatial aggregation in forensic entomology. (United States)

    Fiene, Justin G; Sword, Gregory A; Van Laerhoven, Sherah L; Tarone, Aaron M


    A central concept in forensic entomology is that arthropod succession on carrion is predictable and can be used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of human remains. However, most studies have reported significant variation in successional patterns, particularly among replicate carcasses, which has complicated estimates of PMIs. Several forensic entomology researchers have proposed that further integration of ecological and evolutionary theory in forensic entomology could help advance the application of succession data for producing PMI estimates. The purpose of this essay is to draw attention to the role of spatial aggregation of arthropods among carrion resources as a potentially important aspect to consider for understanding and predicting the assembly of arthropods on carrion over time. We review ecological literature related to spatial aggregation of arthropods among patchy and ephemeral resources, such as carrion, and when possible integrate these results with published forensic literature. We show that spatial aggregation of arthropods across resources is commonly reported and has been used to provide fundamental insight for understanding regional and local patterns of arthropod diversity and coexistence. Moreover, two suggestions are made for conducting future research. First, because intraspecific aggregation affects species frequency distributions across carcasses, data from replicate carcasses should not be combined, but rather statistically quantified to generate occurrence probabilities. Second, we identify a need for studies that tease apart the degree to which community assembly on carrion is spatially versus temporally structured, which will aid in developing mechanistic hypotheses on the ecological factors shaping community assembly on carcasses.

  2. Use of images for human identification in forensic dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Suzana Papile Maciel; Lopes-Junior, Cesar; Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves da; Peres, Arsenio Sales


    The present systematic review article is aimed at describing radiological methods utilized for human identification in forensic dentistry. For this purpose, a literature review was undertaken, and out of 45 papers, 19 were selected in accordance with inclusion criteria. Several radiological techniques can be used to assist in both individual and general identification, including determination of gender, ethnic group and, mainly, age. The analysis of ante-mortem and post-mortem radiographic and tomographic images has become an essential tool for human identification in forensic dentistry, particularly with the refinement of techniques resulting from developments in the field of the radiology itself as well as the incorporation of information technology resources to the technique. It can be concluded that, based on an appropriate knowledge on the available methods, forensic dentists can choose the best method to achieve a successful identification with a careful application of the technique and accurate interpretation of data. (author)

  3. The state of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.


    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  4. The state of nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristo, Michael J. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-186, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Tumey, Scott J., E-mail: [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-397, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)


    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  5. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems (United States)

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.


    The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (<1% differences) when a cover crop was or was not included in the simulation. Further, a "bad spring" scenario (where every third year had an abnormally wet/cold spring and cover crop termination and planting cash crop were within one day) did not result in any major changes to cash crop yields. Through simulations we estimate an average increase of 4-9% organic matter improvement in the topsoil and an average decrease in soil erosion of 14-32% depending on cover crop planting date and growth. Our work is part of the Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP), a collaboration of eleven Midwestern

  6. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing. (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Palynology: its position in the field of forensic science. (United States)

    Walsh, Kevan A J; Horrocks, Mark


    Here we examine the current state of palynology in the field of forensic science. Forensic palynology is discussed with reference to other forensic disciplines to help understand what is required for its progress. Emerging developments are also discussed. Palynomorphs potentially deliver excellent trace evidence, fulfilling the requirements relating to the transfer, persistence, and detection of such evidence. Palynological evidence can provide very powerful investigative and associative evidence. Despite this, the application of palynology to forensic science has had mixed success. There are many anecdotal stories where pollen evidence has had spectacular successes. But it is extremely underutilized in most countries because it is labor-intensive and requires considerable expertise and experience, there is a lack of control over sample collection and inadequate resourcing and funding, and its crime-solving power is not well known. Palynology has been applied to forensic problems in an unstructured way, resulting in a lack of formalized discussion of the underlying principles. As there is renewed questioning of the acceptability of most evidence types in the current legal environment, there is a need for the establishment of palynological evidence through validation-type studies and experimentation, and the implementation of independent proficiency testing.

  8. Developing Flexible, Integrated Hydrologic Modeling Systems for Multiscale Analysis in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Chiu, C. M.; Sharma, A.; Byun, K.; Hanson, Z.


    Physically based hydrologic modeling of surface and groundwater resources that can be flexibly and efficiently applied to support water resources policy/planning/management decisions at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales are greatly needed in the Midwest, where stakeholder access to such tools is currently a fundamental barrier to basic climate change assessment and adaptation efforts, and also the co-production of useful products to support detailed decision making. Based on earlier pilot studies in the Pacific Northwest Region, we are currently assembling a suite of end-to-end tools and resources to support various kinds of water resources planning and management applications across the region. One of the key aspects of these integrated tools is that the user community can access gridded products at any point along the end-to-end chain of models, looking backwards in time about 100 years (1915-2015), and forwards in time about 85 years using CMIP5 climate model projections. The integrated model is composed of historical and projected future meteorological data based on station observations and statistical and dynamically downscaled climate model output respectively. These gridded meteorological data sets serve as forcing data for the macro-scale VIC hydrologic model implemented over the Midwest at 1/16 degree resolution. High-resolution climate model (4km WRF) output provides inputs for the analyses of urban impacts, hydrologic extremes, agricultural impacts, and impacts to the Great Lakes. Groundwater recharge estimated by the surface water model provides input data for fine-scale and macro-scale groundwater models needed for specific applications. To highlight the multi-scale use of the integrated models in support of co-production of scientific information for decision making, we briefly describe three current case studies addressing different spatial scales of analysis: 1) Effects of climate change on the water balance of the Great Lakes, 2) Future

  9. Computer Forensics JumpStart

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Michael G; Tittel, Ed; Broom, Neil; Barrett, Diane


    Essential reading for launching a career in computer forensicsInternet crime is on the rise, catapulting the need for computer forensics specialists. This new edition presents you with a completely updated overview of the basic skills that are required as a computer forensics professional. The author team of technology security veterans introduces the latest software and tools that exist and they review the available certifications in this growing segment of IT that can help take your career to a new level. A variety of real-world practices take you behind the scenes to look at the root causes

  10. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology]. (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan


    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue.

  11. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists. (United States)

    Gaensslen, Robert E.


    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  12. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM)


    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine


    The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC), international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc.), forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics), forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants), psychiatry and...

  13. Assessing the influence of multiple stressors on stream diatom metrics in the upper Midwest, USA (United States)

    Munn, Mark D.; Waite, Ian R.; Konrad, Christopher P.


    Water resource managers face increasing challenges in identifying what physical and chemical stressors are responsible for the alteration of biological conditions in streams. The objective of this study was to assess the comparative influence of multiple stressors on benthic diatoms at 98 sites that spanned a range of stressors in an agriculturally dominated region in the upper Midwest, USA. The primary stressors of interest included: nutrients, herbicides and fungicides, sediment, and streamflow; although the influence of physical habitat was incorporated in the assessment. Boosted Regression Tree was used to examine both the sensitivity of various diatom metrics and the relative importance of the primary stressors. Percent Sensitive Taxa, percent Highly Motile Taxa, and percent High Phosphorus Taxa had the strongest response to stressors. Habitat and total phosphorous were the most common discriminators of diatom metrics, with herbicides as secondary factors. A Classification and Regression Tree (CART) model was used to examine conditional relations among stressors and indicated that fine-grain streams had a lower percentage of Sensitive Taxa than coarse-grain streams, with Sensitive Taxa decreasing further with increased water temperature (>30 °C) and triazine concentrations (>1500 ng/L). In contrast, streams dominated by coarse-grain substrate contained a higher percentage of Sensitive Taxa, with relative abundance increasing with lower water temperatures (water depth (water temperature appears to be a major limiting factor in Midwest streams; whereas both total phosphorus and percent fines showed a slight subsidy-stress response. While using benthic algae for assessing stream quality can be challenging, field-based studies can elucidate stressor effects and interactions when the response variables are appropriate, sufficient stressor resolution is achieved, and the number and type of sites represent a gradient of stressor conditions and at least a quasi

  14. Biosensors in forensic sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederickx, C.


    Full Text Available A biosensor is a device that uses biological materials to detect and monitor the presence of specific chemicals in an area. Traditional methods of volatile detection used by law enforcement agencies and rescue teams typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. This concept of using dogs to detect specific substances is quite old. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. Thus, the possibility of using other organisms as biosensors including rats, dolphins, honeybees, and parasitic wasps for detecting explosives, narcotics and cadavers has been developed. Insects have several advantages unshared by mammals. Insects are sensitive, cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical-detection task. Moreover, insects might be a preferred sensing method in scenarios that are deemed too dangerous to use mammals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the biosensors used in forensic sciences.

  15. A history of forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H


    Forensic anthropology represents a dynamic and rapidly evolving complex discipline within anthropology and forensic science. Academic roots extend back to early European anatomists but development coalesced in the Americas through high-profile court testimony, assemblage of documented collections and focused research. Formation of the anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1972, the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 1977/1978 and other organizational advances provided important stimuli for progress. While early pioneers concentrated on analysis of skeletonized human remains, applications today have expanded to include complex methods of search and recovery, the biomechanics of trauma interpretation, isotopic analysis related to diet and region of origin, age estimation of the living and issues related to humanitarian and human rights investigations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Professional convergence in forensic practice. (United States)

    Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J


    This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.

  17. Forensic historiography: narratives and science. (United States)

    Drukteinis, Albert M


    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  18. Forensic Science--A Proposal (United States)

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.


    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  19. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M


    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  20. Selecting the recommended waste management system for the midwest compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Robertson, B.C.; Drobny, N.L.


    One of the early important steps in the evolution of a low-level waste Compact is the development of a Regional Management Plan. Part of the Regional Management Plan is a description of the waste management system that indicates what kinds of facilities that will be available within the compact's region. The facilities in the waste management system can include those for storage, treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The Regional Management Plan also describes the number of facilities that will be operated simultaneously. This paper outlines the development of the recommended waste management system for the Midwest Compact. It describes the way a data base on low-level radioactive waste from the Compact was collected and placed into a computerized data base management system, and how that data base was subsequently used to analyze various options for treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive waste within the Midwest Compact. The paper indicates the thought process that led to the definition of four recommended waste management systems. Six methods for reducing the volume of waste to be disposed of in the Midwest Compact were considered. Major attention was focused on the use of regional compaction or incineration facilities. Seven disposal technologies, all different from the shallow land burial currently practiced, were also considered for the waste management system. After evaluating the options available, the Compact Commissioners recommended four waste disposal technologies--above-ground vaults, below-ground vaults, concrete canisters placed above ground, and concrete canisters placed below ground--to the host state that will be chosen in 1987. The Commissioners did not recommend use of a regional waste treatment facility

  1. Parasites in Forensic Science: a historic perspective (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    Parasites show a great potential to Forensic Science. Forensic Science is the application of any science and methodology to the legal system. The forensic scientist collects and analyses the physical evidence and produce a report of the results to the court. A parasite is an organism that lives at the expense of another and they exist in any ecosystem. Parasites are the cause of many important diseases. The forensic scientists can use the parasites to identify a crime scene, to determine the murder weapon or simply identify an individual. The applications for parasites in the Forensic Science can be many and more studies should be made in Forensic Parasitology. The most important parasites in Forensic Science are helminths specifically schistosomes. Through history there are many cases where schistosomes were described in autopsies and it was related to the cause of death. Here we review the applications of parasites in Forensic Science and its importance to the forensic scientist.

  2. The spiritual care meanings of adults residing in the midwest. (United States)

    Sellers, S C


    Only limited nursing knowledge exists as theoretical guidance for nurses in providing spiritual care. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, the purpose of this ethnonursing research study was to discover the embedded spiritual care meanings, expressions, lived experiences, and practices of adults residing in the Midwest and their perceptions of spiritual nursing care. Data were collected through interviews of 6 key and 12 general informants. Five universal spiritual themes were supported by the findings. Culture care modes were used to explicate spiritual knowledge that can be integrated into nursing practice.

  3. Ethical issues in purchasing: a field study of Midwest hospitals. (United States)

    Tomaszewski, K; Motwani, J


    A large sum of money is spent annually by salespeople on gifts and favors for purchasing executives. The provision of gifts and favors to buyers remains a common practice despite the fact that it often leads to ethical conflicts for purchasing executives, sales managers, and salespeople. This paper investigates the perceptions of 51 purchasing executives of midwest hospitals regarding their behavior towards certain buying practices, the favors offered by vendors, favors actually accepted, as well as purchasers' discomfort and repayment levels regarding indebtedness. Based on the data analysis, this paper provides conclusions and directions for future research.

  4. Forensic hash for multimedia information (United States)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min


    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.




  6. 77 FR 60457 - Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning... (United States)


    ...-FF03E00000] Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning... of comments pertaining to the development of the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat..., intend to prepare the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan (MSHCP) under the...

  7. Food Security and Diet Among American Indians in the Midwest. (United States)

    Berryhill, Kelly; Hale, Jason; Chase, Brian; Clark, Lauren; He, Jianghua; Daley, Christine M


    The purpose of this study was to determine levels of food security among American Indians (AI) living in the Midwest and possible correlations between food security levels and various health outcomes, diet, and demographic variables. This study used a cross-sectional design to determine health behaviors among AI. Participants (n = 362) were recruited by AI staff through various cultural community events in the Midwest, such as powwows and health fairs. Inclusion criteria included the following: age 18 years or older, self-identify as an AI, and willing to participate in the survey. Of all participants, 210 (58%) had either low or very low food security, with 96 in the very low category (26.5%). Participants with very low food security tended to have significantly more chronic conditions. Additional significant differences for very low food security existed by demographic variables, including having no insurance (p security levels and the consumption of fast food within the past week (p value = 0.0420), though no differences were found in fruit and vegetable consumption. AI in our sample had higher levels of food insecurity than those reported in the literature for other racial/ethnic groups. AI and non-Native health professionals should be aware of the gravity of food insecurity and the impact it has on overall health. Additional research is needed to determine specific aspects of food insecurity affecting different Native communities to develop appropriate interventions.

  8. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry. (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja


    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  9. Forensic psychiatry in Chile. (United States)

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu


    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethanol Forensic Toxicology. (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Van Dyke, Priscilla


    Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure. Because of individual variability in ethanol pharmacology and toxicology, careful extrapolation and interpretation of the BAC is needed, to justify an arrest and assignment of criminal liability. This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol and the clinical effects of acute intoxication as they relate to common forensic questions. Concerns regarding the extrapolation of BAC and the implications of impaired memory caused by alcohol-induced blackouts are discussed. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  11. Forensic Physics 101: Falls from a height (United States)

    Cross, Rod


    The physics of falling from a height, a topic that could be included in a course on forensic physics or in an undergraduate class as an example of Newton's laws, is applied to a common forensic problem.

  12. Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lamont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Nuclear forensics assists in responding to any event where nuclear material is found outside of regulatory control; a response plan is presented and a nuclear forensics program is undergoing further development so that smugglers are sufficiently deterred.

  13. Drawbacks in the scientification of forensic science. (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Curran, J


    This letter to the Editor comments on the article On the limitations of probability in conceptualizing pattern matches in forensic science by P. T. Jayaprakash (Forensic Science International, [10]). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  15. Understanding Climate Adaptation on Public Lands in the Upper Midwest: Implications for Monitoring and Tracking Progress (United States)

    Anhalt-Depies, Christine M.; Knoot, Tricia Gorby; Rissman, Adena R.; Sharp, Anthony K.; Martin, Karl J.


    There are limited examples of efforts to systematically monitor and track climate change adaptation progress in the context of natural resource management, despite substantial investments in adaptation initiatives. To better understand the status of adaptation within state natural resource agencies, we utilized and problematized a rational decision-making framework to characterize adaptation at the level of public land managers in the Upper Midwest. We conducted in-depth interviews with 29 biologists and foresters to provide an understanding of managers' experiences with, and perceptions of, climate change impacts, efforts towards planning for climate change, and a full range of actions implemented to address climate change. While the majority of managers identified climate change impacts affecting their region, they expressed significant uncertainty in interpreting those signals. Just under half of managers indicated planning efforts are underway, although most planning is remote from local management. Actions already implemented include both forward-looking measures and those aimed at coping with current impacts. In addition, cross-scale dynamics emerged as an important theme related to the overall adaptation process. The results hold implications for tracking future progress on climate change adaptation. Common definitions or measures of adaptation (e.g., presence of planning documents) may need to be reassessed for applicability at the level of public land managers.

  16. Forensic seismology revisited (United States)

    Douglas, A.


    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  17. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness (United States)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  18. Methodology of Implementation of Computer Forensics


    Gelev, Saso; Golubovski, Roman; Hristov, Risto; Nikolov, Elenior


    Compared to other sciences, computer forensics (digital forensics) is a relatively young discipline. It was established in 1999 and it has been an irreplaceable tool in sanctioning cybercrime ever since. Good knowledge of computer forensics can be really helpful in uncovering a committed crime. Not adhering to the methodology of computer forensics, however, makes the obtained evidence invalid/irrelevant and as such it cannot be used in legal proceedings. This paper is to explain the methodolo...

  19. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 1: an overview. (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H


    Objectives This paper provides an overview for general and forensic psychiatrists of the complexity and challenge of working in the civil medico-legal arena. It covers expert evidence, ethics, core concepts in civil forensic psychiatry and report writing. Conclusions Civil forensic psychiatry is an important sub-speciality component of forensic psychiatry that requires specific skills, knowledge and the ability to assist legal bodies in determining the significance of psychiatric issues.

  20. Home - Virginia Department of Forensic Science (United States)

    Collecting DNA Data Bank Samples Forensic Training Forensic Science Academy Short Course Schedule Forensic gross weights, marijuana food products and search warrant cases. Click anywhere on the image to open the -screen comparison software system to perform and document the comparison. Virginia DNA Data Bank


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and dental practitioners of the crucial role of dentist in victim's identification and ... role of forensic dental personnel in human identification following ... matrimonial, or financial reasons6. The first and .... chief physician during the systematic extermination of the Jews at ... of police officers with forensic pathologist and forensic.

  2. Effective use of forensic science in volume crime investigations: identifying recurring themes in the literature. (United States)

    Ludwig, Anika; Fraser, Jim


    New scientific, technological and legal developments, particularly the introduction of national databases for DNA and fingerprints, have led to increased use of forensic science in the investigation of crime. There is an assumption, and in some instances specific assertions, that such developments bring improvements either in broad criminal justice terms or more narrowly in terms of economic or practical efficiencies. The underlying presumption is that the new technological opportunities will be understood and effectively implemented. This research investigates whether such increases in activity have also been accompanied by improvements in the effective use of forensic science. A systematic review of thirty-six reports published (predominantly in England and Wales) since the 1980s, which have considered the use of forensic science in the investigation of volume crimes, was carried out. These reports have identified a number of recurrent themes that influenced how effectively forensic science was used in investigations. The themes identified included forensic knowledge and training of investigators, communication and information exchange between specialists and investigators, timeliness of forensic results, interagency relationships and deployment of crime scene examiner resources. The research findings suggest that these factors continue to hinder the effective use of forensic science despite technological advances and this paper considers their potential causes. © 2013.

  3. Interrelationship between core interventions and core competencies of forensic psychiatric nursing in Finland. (United States)

    Tenkanen, Helena; Tiihonen, Jari; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Kinnunen, Juha


    The importance of core competencies (CC) and their relationship to core interventions in clinical practice guidelines on schizophrenia (CPGS), and the abilities to master these competencies were studied among registered nurses (RN) and practical mental nurses (PMN) in a forensic psychiatric setting. Data were collected from RNs, PMNs, and managers of all five forensic psychiatric facilities in Finland. The research material was obtained by using a 360-degree feedback method. The response rate was 68% (N = 428). The differences between the nurse groups were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) regarding the importance of and ability to master the following CCs: (1) pharmacotherapy, (2) knowledge in forensic psychiatry and violent behavior, (3) the treatment of violent patients, (4) processing patient's and own emotion, and (5) need-adapted treatment of the patient. Overall, RNs exceeded PMNs in mastering the CCs, however the principles of the CPGS were not achieved within the current resources in Finland. In summary, RNs, rather than PMNs, should be recruited for work in forensic psychiatric nursing, although a considerable amount of specific training would still be required to achieve competence. Implications of our research indicate that all nurses working in this area need to receive further education in forensic psychiatry and in forensic psychiatric nursing. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  4. System Support for Forensic Inference (United States)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  5. Oral Pathology in Forensic Investigation. (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal


    Forensic odontology is the subdiscipline of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Oral pathology is the subdiscipline of dentistry that deals with the pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. This subdiscipline is utilized for identification through oral and maxillofacial pathologies with associated syndromes, enamel rod patterns, sex determination using exfoliative cytology, identification from occlusal morphology of teeth, and deoxyribonucleic acid profiling from teeth. This subdiscipline is also utilized for age estimation studies which include Gustafson's method, incremental lines of Retzius, perikymata, natal line formation in teeth, neonatal line, racemization of collagen in dentin, cemental incremental lines, thickness of the cementum, and translucency of dentin. Even though the expertise of an oral pathologist is not taken in forensic investigations, this paper aims to discuss the role of oral pathology in forensic investigation.

  6. Identical twins in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Morling, Niels


    The increase in the number of forensic genetic loci used for identification purposes results in infinitesimal random match probabilities. These probabilities are computed under assumptions made for rather simple population genetic models. Often, the forensic expert reports likelihood ratios, where...... published results accounting for close familial relationships. However, we revisit the discussion to increase the awareness among forensic genetic practitioners and include new information on medical and societal factors to assess the risk of not considering a monozygotic twin as the true perpetrator......, then data relevant for the Danish society suggests that the threshold of likelihood ratios should approximately be between 150,000 and 2,000,000 in order to take the risk of an unrecognised identical, monozygotic twin into consideration. In other societies, the threshold of the likelihood ratio in crime...

  7. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Traore, Issa; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens


    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  8. The business of optimism. Wisconsin's Midwest Renewable Energy Fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, J.


    The paper reports on the Wisconsin Midwest Renewable Energy Fair. The renewable energy business is said to be based on sound technology and sustainable development and is being largely embraced with enthusiasm. However, the keynote speaker, James Kunstler, warned that the transition from fossil fuels to renewables will be complicated and messy. The report mentions the views of several speakers but not all shared Kunstler's views. There were more than 100 workshops at the fair. Although big business was well represented, there were also home-made devices on show including a motorcycle powered by electricity. The importance of the fair is probably best judged by the way in which it generates enthusiasm for preserving the planet through the sustainable development of environmentally-friendly technology. (author)

  9. Efficiency in Midwest US corn ethanol plants: A plant survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Richard K.; Fretes, Nickolas F.; Sesmero, Juan Pablo


    Continuation of policy support for the US corn ethanol industry is being debated due to doubts about the greenhouse gas effects of the industry and the effects of the industry on food prices. Yet there is no publicly available data on the economic and technical performance of the current generation of plants, which constitute the overwhelming majority of the industry. This study helps to fill that gap. Seven recently constructed ethanol plants in seven Midwest US states provided details on input requirements and operating costs during 2006 and 2007. Results show that technical performance is substantially better than current estimates available in the literature. Average net operating returns exceeded capital costs during the survey period, but price changes by mid-2008 reduced these margins to near zero. While the economic performance of the industry is currently viable, this study demonstrates that it can be threatened by current price trends, and certainly would be in the absence of current subsidies

  10. Digital forensics for handheld devices

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, Eamon P


    Approximately 80 percent of the world's population now owns a cell phone, which can hold evidence or contain logs about communications concerning a crime. Cameras, PDAs, and GPS devices can also contain information related to corporate policy infractions and crimes. Aimed to prepare investigators in the public and private sectors, Digital Forensics for Handheld Devices examines both the theoretical and practical aspects of investigating handheld digital devices. This book touches on all areas of mobile device forensics, including topics from the legal, technical, academic, and social aspects o

  11. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena


    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  12. Technological Innovations in Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin


    This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology...... expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage...

  13. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature. (United States)

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B


    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at Copyright © 2015 Central Police University.

  14. [Advances of forensic entomology in China]. (United States)

    Lan, Ling-mei; Liao, Zhi-gang; Chen, Yao-qing; Yao, Yue; Li, Jian-bo; Li, Mao-yang; Cai, Ji-feng


    Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies studies of insects and arthropods to getting evidence for court and has an analogous advantage in the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) and other questions of forensic relevance. The paper expounds its definition and contents and reviews some progress of the studies in some aspects in China such as the constitution and succession of insect community on the different cadavers, the applications of morphological features of insects and the technology of analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in forensic entomology, and forensic entomological toxicology etc.

  15. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth. (United States)

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J


    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine


    Full Text Available The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC, international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc., forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics, forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants, psychiatry and hypnotics, forensic anthropology and archeology, forensic odontology, fingerprints and impressions, firearms and tool marks, white collar crimes (counterfeit and forgery; questioned documents, digital forensics; cyber-crimes, criminal justice and crime scene investigation, as well as many other disciplines where science and medicine interact with the law.

  17. On the Development of Digital Forensics Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manghui Tu


    Full Text Available Computer Crime and computer related incidents continue their prevalence and frequency and result in loss of billions of dollars. To fight against those crimes and frauds, it is urgent to develop digital forensics education programs to train a suitable workforce to efficiently and effectively investigate crimes and frauds. However, there is no standard to guide the design of digital forensics curriculum for an academic program. In this research, we investigate the research works on digital forensics curriculum design and existing education programs.  Both digital forensics educators and practitioners were surveyed and the results are analyzed to determine what industry and law enforcement need. Based on the survey results and what the industry certificate programs cover, we identified topics that are desired to be covered in digital forensics courses. Finally, we propose six digital forensics courses and their topics that can be offered in both undergraduate and graduate digital forensics programs.

  18. Research in forensic radiology and imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalders, M. C.; Adolphi, N. L.; Daly, B.


    of America, and the Netherlands Forensic Institute. During this meeting, an international and multidisciplinary panel of forensic scientists discussed the current state of science in forensic radiology, and drafted a research agenda to further advance the field. Four groups for further research focus were...... identified: big data and statistics, identification and biological profiling, multimodal imaging, and visualization and presentation. This paper describes each of these research topics and thereby hopes to contribute to the development of this exciting new field of forensic medical science.......This paper presents the outcome of the first international forensic radiology and imaging research summit, organized by the International Society of Forensic Radiology and Imaging, the International Association of Forensic Radiographers, the National Institute of Justice of the United States...

  19. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community. (United States)

    van Asten, Arian C


    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Forensic Science Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Forensic trace DNA: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.H. van Oorschot (Roland ); K. Ballantyne (Kaye); R.J. Mitchell (R. John)


    textabstractDNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so

  1. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.


    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  2. Peer review in forensic science. (United States)

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Edmond, Gary; Found, Bryan


    Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony. While peer review has considerable potential, and is a key component of modern quality management systems, its actual value in most forensic science settings has yet to be determined. In consequence, forensic practitioners should reflect on why they use specific review procedures and endeavour to make their actual practices and their potential value transparent to consumers; whether investigators, lawyers, jurors or judges. Claims that review increases the validity of a scientific technique or accuracy of opinions within a particular case should be avoided until empirical evidence is available to support such assertions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry (United States)

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie


    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  4. Genomic applications in forensic medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels


    Since the 1980s, advances in DNA technology have revolutionized the scope and practice of forensic medicine. From the days of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to short tandem repeats (STRs), the current focus is on the next generation genome sequencing. It has been almost a decad...

  5. Selection effects in forensic science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, G.J.; Gennip, van Yves; Hochs, P.; Nuyens, M.; Palla, L.; Quant, C.; Trapman, P.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F.


    In this report we consider the following question: does a forensic expert need to know exactly how the evidential material was selected? We set up a few simple models of situations in which the way evidence is selected may influence its value in court. Although reality is far from a probabilistic

  6. Forensic nursing in secure environments. (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah


    There are few well-designed studies of corrections or prison nursing roles. This study seeks to describe the corrections or prison role of forensic nurses in the United States who provide care in secure environments. National data detailing the scope of practice in secure environments are limited. This pencil and paper survey describes the roles of 180 forensic nurses from 14 states who work in secure environments. Descriptive statistics are utilized. A repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses was implemented. These nurses were older than average in age, but had 10 years or less experience in forensic nursing practice. Two significant roles emerged to "promote and implement principles that underpin effective quality and practice" and to "assess, develop, implement, and improve programs of care for individuals." Significant roles varied based upon the security classification of the unit or institution in which the nurses were employed. Access to information about these nurses and their nursing practice was difficult in these closed systems. Minimal data are available nationally, indicating a need for collection of additional data over time to examine changes in role. It is through such developments that forensic nursing provided in secure environments will define its specialization and attract the attention it deserves.

  7. Learning iOS forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Epifani, Mattia


    If you are a digital forensics examiner daily involved in the acquisition and analysis of mobile devices and want to have a complete overview of how to perform your work on iOS devices, this book is definitely for you.

  8. Review: domestic animal forensic genetics - biological evidence, genetic markers, analytical approaches and challenges. (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S


    This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample

  9. Development of a socketed foundation for the Midwest Weak Post (MWP) v1. (United States)


    A socketed foundation was designed and evaluated for use with the Midwest Weak Post (MWP), Version 1. : Dynamic component testing was conducted on five different design configurations with varying embedment : depths, steel reinforcement, and soil con...

  10. Organizational Contexts and Texts: The Redesign of the Midwest Bell Telephone Bill. (United States)

    Keller-Cohen, Deborah


    Offers a retrospective view of organizational factors affecting the redesign of the Midwest Bell Telephone Bill. Shows how financial considerations, organizational time frame, and employee training and experience influenced the bill's development process. (MM)

  11. A data library management system for midwest FreightView and its data repository. (United States)


    Midwest FreightView (MWFV) and its associated data repository is part of a large multifaceted : effort to promote regional economic development throughout the Great Lakes : system. The main objective for the system is to promote sustainable maritime ...

  12. Evaluation and analysis of Texas biofuel supply chains originating in the United States Midwest and Brazil. (United States)


    This 2009 study, funded by the Southwest Region University Transportation Center, investigates : competing ethanol supply chains terminating in the State of Texas. Midwest corn ethanol and : Brazilian sugarcane ethanol constitute two sources of the b...

  13. Essentials of forensic post-mortem MR imaging in adults (United States)

    Ruder, T D; Thali, M J; Hatch, G M


    Post-mortem MR (PMMR) imaging is a powerful diagnostic tool with a wide scope in forensic radiology. In the past 20 years, PMMR has been used as both an adjunct and an alternative to autopsy. The role of PMMR in forensic death investigations largely depends on the rules and habits of local jurisdictions, availability of experts, financial resources, and individual case circumstances. PMMR images are affected by post-mortem changes, including position-dependent sedimentation, variable body temperature and decomposition. Investigators must be familiar with the appearance of normal findings on PMMR to distinguish them from disease or injury. Coronal whole-body images provide a comprehensive overview. Notably, short tau inversion–recovery (STIR) images enable investigators to screen for pathological fluid accumulation, to which we refer as “forensic sentinel sign”. If scan time is short, subsequent PMMR imaging may be focussed on regions with a positive forensic sentinel sign. PMMR offers excellent anatomical detail and is especially useful to visualize pathologies of the brain, heart, subcutaneous fat tissue and abdominal organs. PMMR may also be used to document skeletal injury. Cardiovascular imaging is a core area of PMMR imaging and growing evidence indicates that PMMR is able to detect ischaemic injury at an earlier stage than traditional autopsy and routine histology. The aim of this review is to present an overview of normal findings on forensic PMMR, provide general advice on the application of PMMR and summarise the current literature on PMMR imaging of the head and neck, cardiovascular system, abdomen and musculoskeletal system. PMID:24191122

  14. Design and methods of the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (MSQA), 2013 (United States)

    Garrett, Jessica D.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Journey, Celeste A.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Button, Daniel T.; Nowell, Lisa H.


    During 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Project (NAWQA), in collaboration with the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA), and the EPA Office of Pesticide Programs assessed stream quality across the Midwestern United States. This Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (MSQA) simultaneously characterized watershed and stream-reach water-quality stressors along with instream biological conditions, to better understand regional stressor-effects relations. The MSQA design focused on effects from the widespread agriculture in the region and urban development because of their importance as ecological stressors of particular concern to Midwest region resource managers.A combined random stratified selection and a targeted selection based on land-use data were used to identify and select sites representing gradients in agricultural intensity across the region. During a 14-week period from May through August 2013, 100 sites were selected and sampled 12 times for contaminants, nutrients, and sediment. This 14-week water-quality “index” period culminated with an ecological survey of habitat, periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish at all sites. Sediment was collected during the ecological survey for analysis of sediment chemistry and toxicity testing. Of the 100 sites, 50 were selected for the MSQA random stratified group from 154 NRSA sites planned for the region, and the other 50 MSQA sites were selected as targeted sites to more evenly cover agricultural and urban stressor gradients in the study area. Of the 50 targeted sites, 12 were in urbanized watersheds and 21 represented “good” biological conditions or “least disturbed” conditions. The remaining 17 targeted sites were selected to improve coverage of the agricultural intensity gradient or because of historical data collection to provide temporal context for the

  15. The brazilian midwest and its economic transformations from 1970 to 2012


    Haddad, Marcos Bittar; Pastre, Rafael


    The Midwest is the Brazilian region comprising the Central Highlands in the Country. It is the second least populated region of Brazil. Its vegetation is predominantly composed of the Cerrado ecosystem and the region holds important fresh water reserve and focuses the headwaters of rivers belonging to the main river basins of South America. Politically, the Midwest is the seat of the national political administrative decisions, housing the Federal District. Economically, after the decline of ...

  16. The impact of expanding Canadian gas imports in the U.S. Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, S.


    The new competitive natural gas market in the U. S. Midwest is surveyed from an interstate pipeline point of view, taking into account Canadian gas imports, increase in Rocky Mountain imports competing with Canadian imports, the flow dynamics in the Midwest market, supply basin production trends, the infrastructure improvements in local distribution companies, improvements in storage facilities, and the growing demand for natural gas-fired generation

  17. 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, January 18-20, 2013, Urbana, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, Kevin T. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign


    This document is the program for the 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, which was held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on January 18-20, 2013. The goals of the conference were to foster a culture in which undergraduate women are encouraged and supported to pursue, and also to succeed in, higher education in physics; to provide career information to students in physics and related fields; to give women the resources, motivation, and confidence to apply to graduate school and successfully complete a Ph.D. program in Physics; to provide information and dispel misconceptions about the application process for graduate school and the diverse employment opportunities in physics and related fields, enabling women to make more informed decisions about their goals and attain them; and to connect female physics students with successful female physicists to whom they can relate and who can act as inspirational role models and mentors.

  18. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.


    , soil) adhering to a meteorite are samples of the actual physical environment in which the meteorite rested. Adhesion may derive from chemical cementation (incl. rust from the meteorite), biologic activity (incl. desert varnish?), or impact processes [2]. Given the wide diversity of geological materials and processes on the Earth, adhering geological materials may be useful forensic tools. For instance, fall in a volcanic terrane may be inconsistent with adhering sediments of clean quartz sand. Biologic matter on meteorites includes animal and vegetable matter mixed with the adhering geological materials, lichens and other plants growing in place, and purposefully attached animal matter (e.g. insect eggs). The most useful biological data may be provided by pollen, which can often be referred unambiguously to genera and species of plants. For example, sediments adhering to meteorites from the central Nullabor Plain (W. Australia) are different from sediments from the Plain's margin in S. Australia. Sediment on meteorites from the central Nullabor (e.g. Mundrabilla) lacks quartz sand and consists almost entirely of clay-sized particles, consistent with derivation from the local saprolitic soil. Sediment on meteorites from the eastern Nullabor (e.g. Hughes and Cook, S.A.) contains a significant fraction of quartz sand, 1/4- to 1/2-mm grains, probably blown from the Great Victoria Desert to the north and northwest. However, sedimentologic data alone may be misleading. For instance, sediments adhering to Nuevo Mercurio stones (H5; Zacatecas, Mexico) are clay-sized and lack coarser material. But sediment on Nuevo Mercurio (b), a ureilite found in the Nuevo Mercurio strewn field, consists of quartz sand and clay pellets, 1/4 to 1/2 mm diameter. Clearly, local environments may affect the character of sediment adhering to a meteorite, and careful detailed study may be required to determine whether a meteorite has been transported. I am grateful to R. Farrell and D. New for

  19. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, Paul


    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating

  20. Climatic and hydrologic aspects of the 2008 Midwest floods (United States)

    Budikova, D.; Coleman, J.; Strope, S. A.


    Between May and June 2008 the Midwest region of the United States (U.S.) experienced record flooding. The event was produced by distinct hydroclimatic conditions that included saturated antecedent soil moisture conditions and atmospheric circulation that guided moist air from the Gulf of Mexico into the area between late May and mid-June. The latter included a well-developed trough over the central/west U.S., a strong Great Plains Low Level Jet (GPLLJ), and unseasonably strong westerlies that promoted upper level divergence in regions of positive vorticity advection. The flooding coincided with a strongly negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation linked to the strength of the GPLLJ. The atmospheric flow contributed to flooding within three river basins across nine states. Iowa, southern Wisconsin, and central Indiana located within the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) and the Wabash River Basin were most impacted and also recorded the greatest anomalies in rainfall. Record rainfall, persistent multi-day precipitation events, high frequency of localized high-intensity rainfall events all contributed to the severity of the flooding. Conditions peaked between May 21 and June 13 when rain fell somewhere within the region each day. River discharge rates reached record levels in June at many locations; return periods throughout Iowa, southern Wisconsin and in central Indiana were estimated to exceed 100 years, and often times 200 years. Record river stage levels were observed during this time in similar areas. Conditions began to recover into July and August. The timing of occurrence of the precipitation and hydrological anomalies towards late spring and into early summer in the Midwest was rather unusual. The 2008 flood event occurred 15 years after the infamous 1993 event. The importance of its occurrence is underscored by the observed increasing trends in extreme and flood-related precipitation characteristics during the 20th century and the anticipated

  1. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinz, M; Carracedo, A; Mayr, W R


    The ISFG membership consists of scientists and medical professionals specialized in using genetic testing for kinship analysis and the individualization of biological material. This expertise makes the forensic geneticist a resource of advice to international and national organizations dealing...... discussion between scientists and pathologists that had been involved in the International Center in Khao Lak, Thailand, revealed the need for the scientific community to be better prepared to answer the local authorities' questions by formulating generally acceptable scientific standards for the most...... efficient use of DNA-based victim identification methods. These recommendations, as well as the many cited references, are intended to provide guidance on establishing preparedness for the forensic genetics laboratory, on collecting and storing ante-mortem and post-mortem samples suitable for DNA analysis...

  2. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. (United States)

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi


    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.

  3. Forensic analysis of video steganography tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sloan


    resource for forensic examiners to determine the existence of any video steganography materials over the course of a computer forensic investigation.

  4. Community Health Worker Employer Survey: Perspectives on CHW Workforce Development in the Midwest. (United States)

    Chaidez, Virginia; Palmer-Wackerly, Angela L; Trout, Kate E


    A statewide Community Health Worker Employer Survey was administered to various clinical, community, and faith-based organizations (n = 240) across a range of rural and urban settings in the Midwest. At least 80% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that items characterized as supervisory support were present in their work environment. Thirty-six percent of respondents currently employed CHWs, over half (51%) of survey respondents reported seeing the need to hire/work with more CHWs, and 44% saw the need for CHWs increasing in the future. Regarding CHW support, a majority of respondents indicated networking opportunities (63%), paid time for networking (80%), adequate time for supervision (75%), orientation training (78%), mandatory training (78%), ongoing training (79%), and paid time for training (82%). Open-ended responses to the question "In your organization, what needs could CHWs meet?" resulted in the largest number of respondents reporting mental health issues as a priority, followed by connecting people with services or resources, educating the public on preventive health, family support, and home care/visitations. Our findings suggest that respondents, who largely have supervisory or managerial roles, view workplace environments in Nebraska favorably, despite the fact that nearly two-thirds of respondents typically work well over 40 h per week. In addition, CHWs could help address mental and physical health needs in a variety of community and clinical settings through primary and secondary prevention activities, such as provision of health screenings, health and nutrition education, connecting people to resources and empowering community members through these activities and more.

  5. Using environmental forensic microscopy in exposure science. (United States)

    Millette, James R; Brown, Richard S; Hill, Whitney B


    Environmental forensic microscopy investigations are based on the methods and procedures developed in the fields of criminal forensics, industrial hygiene and environmental monitoring. Using a variety of microscopes and techniques, the environmental forensic scientist attempts to reconstruct the sources and the extent of exposure based on the physical evidence left behind after particles are exchanged between an individual and the environments he or she passes through. This article describes how environmental forensic microscopy uses procedures developed for environmental monitoring, criminal forensics and industrial hygiene investigations. It provides key references to the interdisciplinary approach used in microscopic investigations. Case studies dealing with lead, asbestos, glass fibers and other particulate contaminants are used to illustrate how environmental forensic microscopy can be very useful in the initial stages of a variety of environmental exposure characterization efforts to eliminate some agents of concern and to narrow the field of possible sources of exposure.

  6. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I.; Summerell, I.; Totland, M.; Jonkmans, G.; Whitlock, J.; El-jaby, A.; Inrig, E.


    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  7. Understanding Nuclear Forensics in 5 Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Forensic science, commonly referred to as forensics, is the examination of physical, biological, behavioural and documentary evidence. The goal of forensics is to discover linkages among people, places, things and events. A sub-discipline of forensic science, nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material, which can assist in law enforcement investigations as well as assessments of the potential vulnerabilities associated with the use, production and storage of these materials as part of a nuclear security infrastructure. The analysis of nuclear or other radioactive material seeks to identify what the materials are, how, when, and where the materials were made, and what their intended uses were. Nuclear forensics is an important tool in the fight against illicit trafficking in nuclear and radiological material

  8. Forensic Taxonomy of Android Social Apps. (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin


    An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I., E-mail: [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Summerell, I. [Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Totland, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jonkmans, G. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Whitlock, J. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); El-jaby, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Inrig, E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  10. Factors affecting length of stay in forensic hospital setting: need for therapeutic security and course of admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Mary


    Patients admitted to a secure forensic hospital are at risk of a long hospital stay. Forensic hospital beds are a scarce and expensive resource and ability to identify the factors predicting length of stay at time of admission would be beneficial. The DUNDRUM-1 triage security scale and DUNDRUM-2 triage urgency scale are designed to assess need for therapeutic security and urgency of that need while the HCR-20 predicts risk of violence. We hypothesized that items on the DUNDRUM-1 and DUNDRUM-2 scales, rated at the time of pre-admission assessment, would predict length of stay in a medium secure forensic hospital setting.

  11. Integrating Forensic Accounting Core Competency into the Study of Accounting. Case of Nigeria Tertiary Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel F. Johnson-Rokosu


    Full Text Available Fraud and forensic accounting education is a necessity in very corrupt corporate and government institutions across the globe. Accounting educators have been pressured to make changes to the accounting curriculum and to include courses in forensic accounting and fraud examination by professional organizations and legislators as fraud cases have mounted and academic were criticized for not preparing their students for this professional environment. Accounting graduate trained under the existing curriculum exhibit lesser knowledge, skills and abilities in fraud detection, prevention and deterrence. This study therefore examined the philosophical beliefs, behavioural science concepts and approaches that can be adopted in integrating a fraud/ forensic accounting (FFA into existing accounting curriculum. The study adopted mixed research methods, content analysis and quantitative method of data analysis was employed. This paper basically made use of the content analysis in analyzing the content of the existing accounting curriculum in Nigeria universities. This study involved selected universities in South West region of Nigeria using survey research method. Findings in this study revealed that most respondents would prefer integrating fraud/forensic accounting education into accounting curriculum by offering a separate fraud/forensic accounting courses. Also, the study revealed that fraud/ forensic accounting education has positive impact on student expertise, skepticism and fraud judgment. The study identified the following consideration that Accounting course developers need to consider before, during and after curriculum revision. Involvement of faculty; consider stakeholders opinion; accreditation agencies’ and governmental requirements; resources available; need for change; among others.

  12. Experiences of psychiatric nurses exposed to hostility from patients in a forensic ward. (United States)

    Tema, T R; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C P H


    Hostile behaviour is becoming a way of life in South Africa. Hostility prevails at all settings, including in the health sector. In a forensic ward psychiatric nurses are subjected to hostile behaviour by the patients. The aim of the present study was to explore and describe the psychiatric nurses' experiences of hostile behaviour by patients in a forensic ward and make recommendations for nurse managers to empower these psychiatric nurses to cope with the patients' aggression. Qualitative, in-depth, phenomenological interviews were conducted with nine psychiatric nurses exposed to hostility from patients in a forensic ward. Recommendations were derived from the results from nurse managers to assist psychiatric nurses. It became apparent from the findings that psychiatric nurses in a forensic ward work in a stressful environment. Hostile behaviour in the forensic ward is consistently experienced by the psychiatric nurses as hindering therapeutic relationships. The psychiatric nurses experienced being disempowered. Psychiatric nurses experience hostile behaviour by patients in a forensic ward as disempowering. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSE MANAGEMENT: Nurse managers can facilitate psychiatric nurses' empowerment by providing them access to: information, support, resources, opportunity and growth. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Threatened and endangered fish and wildlife of the midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, D.W.; Robeck, K.E.


    This report contains information of federally-listed endangered and/or threatened fish and wildlife occurring in the midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The information was compiled as a support document for the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) project sponsored by the Regional Assessments Division of the Office of Technology Impacts within the Department of Energy. The information on midwestern endangered species distribution, habitats, and reasons for population decline included in this document are designed to help assess the potential for adverse impacts if energy activities are sited within the general range of an endangered species. It is hoped that this document will thereby enhance the reliability of one portion of energy-related assessments performed in the Midwest. This report considers only those species listed prior to October 1979 as endangered and/or threatened in the federal endangered species list published in the Federal Register and that have been known to occur in the region in the last 20 years.

  14. Microbiome Tools for Forensic Science. (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Z; Bouslimani, Amina; Dorrestein, Pieter; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob


    Microbes are present at every crime scene and have been used as physical evidence for over a century. Advances in DNA sequencing and computational approaches have led to recent breakthroughs in the use of microbiome approaches for forensic science, particularly in the areas of estimating postmortem intervals (PMIs), locating clandestine graves, and obtaining soil and skin trace evidence. Low-cost, high-throughput technologies allow us to accumulate molecular data quickly and to apply sophisticated machine-learning algorithms, building generalizable predictive models that will be useful in the criminal justice system. In particular, integrating microbiome and metabolomic data has excellent potential to advance microbial forensics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Method Development in Forensic Toxicology. (United States)

    Peters, Frank T; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona


    In the field of forensic toxicology, the quality of analytical methods is of great importance to ensure the reliability of results and to avoid unjustified legal consequences. A key to high quality analytical methods is a thorough method development. The presented article will provide an overview on the process of developing methods for forensic applications. This includes the definition of the method's purpose (e.g. qualitative vs quantitative) and the analytes to be included, choosing an appropriate sample matrix, setting up separation and detection systems as well as establishing a versatile sample preparation. Method development is concluded by an optimization process after which the new method is subject to method validation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  16. Statistical aspects of forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben

    This PhD thesis deals with statistical models intended for forensic genetics, which is the part of forensic medicine concerned with analysis of DNA evidence from criminal cases together with calculation of alleged paternity and affinity in family reunification cases. The main focus of the thesis...... is on crime cases as these differ from the other types of cases since the biological material often is used for person identification contrary to affinity. Common to all cases, however, is that the DNA is used as evidence in order to assess the probability of observing the biological material given different...... of the DNA evidence under competing hypotheses the biological evidence may be used in the court’s deliberation and trial on equal footing with other evidence and expert statements. These probabilities are based on population genetic models whose assumptions must be validated. The thesis’s first two articles...

  17. A brief overview of forensic herpetology


    Baker, Barry


    The emerging field of forensic herpetology is reviewed. This research focus, defined here as the application of science to studies of reptiles and amphibians when these animals become the subject of legal investigations, has gained increasing attention in recent years. A diverse range of experts contributes to methods in forensic herpetology including forensic scientists, herpetologists, veterinarians, zookeepers, physicians, pathologists and toxicologists. The English language literature in ...

  18. Client-side Skype forensics: an overview (United States)

    Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner


    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

  19. Risk assessment of forensic patients: nurses' role. (United States)

    Encinares, Maxima; McMaster, Jeff James; McNamee, Jim


    One of the unique roles of forensic nurses is to conduct risk assessments. Establishing a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship helps forensic nurses perform accurate and useful risk assessments. Accurate risk assessments can facilitate formulation of individualized risk management plans, designed to meet patients' needs and ensure public safety. The importance of forensic nurses' knowledge and application of appropriate communication and proper documentation cannot be overemphasized.

  20. Forensic experience of Saudi nurses; an emerging need for forensic qualifications. (United States)

    Alsaif, Dalia M; Alfaraidy, Maram; Alsowayigh, Kholoud; Alhusain, Awal; Almadani, Osama M


    Forensic nursing was recognized as a nursing subspecialty after the perceived need for forensic nurses to bring about their nursing duties while at the same time helping legal authorities to deliver justice. With the increased rate of cases that are presenting to the forensic centers in Saudi Arabia, there was a need for the presence of nurses to work side by side to physicians. This study was aimed at determining the forensic qualifications of nurses working in emergency departments in the area of Dammam and their knowledge about principles of forensic nursing. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to registered nurses who are working in Emergency departments of secondary hospitals in the area of Dammam. Questions included knowledge, awareness and attitude toward forensic nursing. A total of 96 participants responded to the questionnaire with females representing 78% (n: 75). Diploma was the highest earned nursing degree in 95% (n: 91) of participants. Only 33% (n: 32) were aware of the term forensic nursing and the majority of the respondents gave invalid or didn't know the answers to knowledge questions. A total of 77% (n: 74) agreed that they are not adequately trained for handling forensic cases. Saudi nurses need forensic education. The presence of qualified forensic nurses would help delivering optimal forensic services and would assist in bringing justice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear forensic analysis of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, K.J.; Grant, P.M.


    A comprehensive radiochemical isolation procedure and data analysis/interpretation method for the nuclear forensic investigation of Th has been developed. The protocol includes sample dissolution, chemical separation, nuclear counting techniques, consideration of isotopic parent-daughter equilibria, and data interpretation tactics. Practical application of the technology was demonstrated by analyses of a questioned specimen confiscated at an illegal drug synthesis laboratory by law enforcement authorities. (author)

  2. Systematic Digital Forensic Investigation Model


    Systematic Digital Forensic Investigation Model


    Law practitioners are in an uninterrupted battle with criminals in the application of digital/computertechnologies, and require the development of a proper methodology to systematically searchdigital devices for significant evidence. Computer fraud and digital crimes are growing day by dayand unfortunately less than two percent of the reported cases result in confidence. This paperexplores the development of the digital forensics process model, compares digital forensicmethodologies, and fina...

  3. Audit Log for Forensic Photography (United States)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  4. Particle Analysis in Forensic Science. (United States)

    Bisbing, R E; Schneck, W M


    Microscopic trace evidence includes particles from many sources such as biologicals, soil, building materials, metals, explosives, gunshot residues, and cosmetics. The particles are identified by morphological analysis, microscopy, and chemical analysis. Their identity is confirmed by comparison with reference materials or other comparison samples. The probative value of particles of forensic interest depends on their nature and the circumstances of their presence. Copyright © 2006 Central Police University.

  5. Forensic aspects of animal abusing


    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub


    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  6. Forensic entomology: applications and limitations. (United States)

    Amendt, J; Richards, C S; Campobasso, C P; Zehner, R; Hall, M J R


    Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the corpse. In addition, toxicological and molecular examinations of these insects may help reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim, by associating a larva with its last meal, for example, in cases where insect evidence is left at a scene after human remains have been deliberately removed. Some fly species can develop not only on corpses but on living bodies too, causing myiasis. Analysis of larvae in such cases can demonstrate the period of neglect of humans or animals. Without the appropriate professional collection of insect evidence, an accurate and convincing presentation of such evidence in court will be hampered or even impossible. The present paper describes the principles and methods of forensic entomology and the optimal techniques for collecting insect evidence.

  7. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future. (United States)

    Roewer, Lutz


    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting.

  8. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy. (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin


    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. The forensic aspects of sexual violence. (United States)

    Newton, Mary


    Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology. (United States)

    Black, Steve


    Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.

  11. 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference, ASFSFM 2017: Conference Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsallam A. Bakdash


    Full Text Available The Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM at Naif Arab University for Security Sciences seeks to present the latest developments in all fields of forensic sciences through holding specialized scientific events and academic activities. This is also achieved through its periodic scientific peer-reviewed journal, the Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine. It also seeks to promote scientific research in all fields of forensic science and forensic medicine, and seeks actively to contribute in holding scientific meetings in accordance with advanced scientific standards, including the 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference. This important event was attended by scientists and experts from various fields of criminal and forensic sciences from both Arab and non-Arab countries. This conference was a significant scientific accomplishment that contributed to the advancement of forensic sciences and forensic medicine in the Arab world. The conference aimed, in accordance with the vision of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, to enhance peace, security and justice in Arab societies.  Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, represented by the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine, held the 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference on the University's campus during the period from 21st to 23rd November 2017. The event included the participation of more than 720 experts in forensic sciences and forensic medicine from 33 countries all over the world. Experts discussed and presented the latest developments in their fields. The conference provided a creative environment for students from both local and international universities to benefit from experts and specialists, and to access the most recent research.  On behalf of His Excellency the president of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, and the Arab Society for

  12. The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology. (United States)

    Joseph, Isaac; Mathew, Deepu G; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Vargheese, Geetha


    Forensic entomology is the study of insects/arthropods in criminal investigation. Right from the early stages insects are attracted to the decomposing body and may lay eggs in it. By studying the insect population and the developing larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index, any change in position of the corpse as well as the cause of death. Forensic odontologists are called upon more frequently to collaborate in criminal investigations and hence should be aware of the possibilities that forensic entomology have to offer and use it as an adjunct to the conventional means of forensic investigation.

  13. Status of nuclear forensic support in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Mohammedelmoez Eltayeb Abderahman


    The central problem investigated in this thesis is nuclear forensic support in Sudan, the thesis comprises five chapters, began with an introduction containing the art of forensic science, stated the importance of the it in criminal investigations. The forensic science was defined, and stated the principle of which it underlying, including: principle of individuality and principle of exchange, the divisions of this science has been clarified, then it discussed the crime scene and the collecting of evidence, where starting the forensic science at the crime scene, with clarifying the principle of crime scene investigation. Nuclear and other radioactive material was discussed: defining a radioactivity with the material source. It placed into 3 general categories: special nuclear materials, reactor fuel, and commercial radioactive sources, and mention each category and it characteristics. Radiation is part of our environment was clarified, and discussed what the effect on organisms and populations are. Nuclear forensics was presented,and how problem of the safeguarding of the nuclear material beginning. The emerging nature of the problem was discussed, the radiological crime scene management was explained, importance of securing the scene with an examples of equipment and instruments for on-scene radiation safety assessment and how the collection of evidence, storage forensic laboratory analysis was discussed and how set the designated nuclear forensic laboratory, also nuclear forensic interpretation, and the chain of custody was mentioned. The role of Regulating Authority in Nuclear forensic support was discussed, specifically in Sudan, International Cooperation have also been reminded, as well as memorandum of understanding was mentioned between SNRRA and the administration of forensic evidence, and one of it results is the radiological surveys unit in forensic administration, how the unit is configured, the role of the unit, finally conclusion of research was

  14. 2nd Arab Forensic Science & Forensic Medicine Meeting, ASFSFM 2016: Meeting Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsallam Bakdash


    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS is to enhance peace, security, and justice in Arab societies through education, research, and advanced professional training in various disciplines of security and forensic sciences. NAUSS strives to improve the academic and professional skills of forensic scientists and security personnel to combat crime and terrorism by utilizing all the available tools of modern technology. NAUSS also realizes the importance of scientific research in the social, economic, and technological development of a society and is, therefore, committed to encouraging and supporting research at every level. NAUSS has given the fields of forensic sciences and forensic medicine a top priority and the attention they deserve. In pursuit of its objectives, and in cooperation with other Arab member organizations, NAUSS launched the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM in 2013. The Society had the honour of being officially launched by His Royal Highness, Prince Mohammed bin Naif bin Abdul Aziz, Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister and the Minister of the Interior, Honorary President of the Council of Arab Ministers of Interior and Chairman of the Supreme Council of NAUSS. The 2nd Arab Forensic Science & Forensic Medicine Meeting (ASFSFM Meeting 2016 was yet another part of the efforts and concern of NAUSS to advance the skills and knowledge of Arab specialists and to facilitate cooperation among forensic scientists and institutions engaged in the practice, education and research of forensic sciences and forensic medicine at various levels.

  15. Handbook of digital forensics of multimedia data and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shujun


    Digital forensics and multimedia forensics are rapidly growing disciplines whereby electronic information is extracted and interpreted for use in a court of law. These two fields are finding increasing importance in law enforcement and the investigation of cybercrime as the ubiquity of personal computing and the internet becomes ever-more apparent. Digital forensics involves investigating computer systems and digital artefacts in general, while multimedia forensics is a sub-topic of digital forensics focusing on evidence extracted from both normal computer systems and special multimedia devices, such as digital cameras. This book focuses on the interface between digital forensics and multimedia forensics, bringing two closely related fields of forensic expertise together to identify and understand the current state-of-the-art in digital forensic investigation. Both fields are expertly attended to by contributions from researchers and forensic practitioners specializ ng in diverse topics such as forensic aut...

  16. Midwest Joint Venture high-grade uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, H.K.


    Midwest Joint Venture (MJV) owns a high-grade uranium deposit in northern Saskatchewan. The deposit is located too deep below surface to be mined economically by open pit methods, and as a consequence, present plans are that it will be mined by underground methods. High-grade uranium ore of the type at MJV, encased in weak, highly altered ground and with radon-rich water inflows, has not before been mined by underground methods. The test mining phase of the project, completed in 1989, had three objectives: To evaluate radiation protection requirements associated with the handling of large quantities of radon-rich water and mining high-grade uranium ore in an underground environment; to investigate the quantity and quality of water inflows into the mine; and, to investigate ground conditions in and around the ore zone as an aid in determining the production mining method to be used. With information gained from the test mining project, a mining method for the production mine has been devised. Level plans have been drawn up, ventilation system designed, pumping arrangements made and methods of ore handling considered. All this is to be done in a manner that will be safe for those doing the work underground. Some of the mining methods planned are felt to be unique in that they are designed to cope with mining problems not known to have been encountered before. New problems underground have required new methods to handle them. Remote drilling, blasting, mucking and backfilling form the basis of the planned mining method

  17. Forensic use of fingermarks and fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Li, Stan Z.; Jain, Anil K.


    The aim of this entry is to describe and explain the main forensic uses of fingermarks and fingerprints. It defines the concepts and provides the nomenclature related to forensic dactyloscopy. It describes the structure of the papillary ridges, the organization of the information in three levels,

  18. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat


    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  19. Bovine and equine forensic DNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Goor, L.H.P.


    Animal forensic DNA analysis is being used for human criminal investigations (e.g traces from cats and dogs), wildlife management, breeding and food safety. The most common DNA markers used for such forensic casework are short tandem repeats (STR). Rules and guidelines concerning quality assurance

  20. Massively parallel sequencing of forensic STRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parson, Walther; Ballard, David; Budowle, Bruce


    The DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) is reviewing factors that need to be considered ahead of the adoption by the forensic community of short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping by massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies. MPS produces sequence data that...

  1. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine F.


    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  2. Building a framework to explore water-human interaction for sustainable agro ecosystems in US Midwest (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Ding, D.; Rapolu, U.


    Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. On this context, this team has investigated connections among agriculture, policy, climate, land use/land cover, and water quality in Iowa over the past couple of years. To help explore these connections the team is developing a variety of cyber infrastructure tools that facilitate the collection, analysis and visualization of data, and the simulation of system dynamics. In an ongoing effort, the prototype system is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa in the US Midwest, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. The primary aim of this research is to understand the connections that exist among the agricultural and biofuel economy, land use/land cover change, and water quality. To help explore these connections an agent-based model (ABM) of land use change has been developed that simulates the decisions made by farmers given alternative assumptions about market forces, farmer characteristics, and water quality regulations. The SWAT model was used to simulate the impact of these decisions on the movement of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus across the landscape. The paper also demonstrate how through the use of this system researchers can, for example, search for scenarios that lead to desirable socio-economic outcomes as well as preserve water quantity and quality.

  3. Ethical considerations in forensic genetics research on tissue samples collected post-mortem in Cape Town, South Africa. (United States)

    Heathfield, Laura J; Maistry, Sairita; Martin, Lorna J; Ramesar, Raj; de Vries, Jantina


    The use of tissue collected at a forensic post-mortem for forensic genetics research purposes remains of ethical concern as the process involves obtaining informed consent from grieving family members. Two forensic genetics research studies using tissue collected from a forensic post-mortem were recently initiated at our institution and were the first of their kind to be conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. This article discusses some of the ethical challenges that were encountered in these research projects. Among these challenges was the adaptation of research workflows to fit in with an exceptionally busy service delivery that is operating with limited resources. Whilst seeking guidance from the literature regarding research on deceased populations, it was noted that next of kin of decedents are not formally recognised as a vulnerable group in the existing ethical and legal frameworks in South Africa. The authors recommend that research in the forensic mortuary setting is approached using guidance for vulnerable groups, and the benefit to risk standard needs to be strongly justified. Lastly, when planning forensic genetics research, consideration must be given to the potential of uncovering incidental findings, funding to validate these findings and the feedback of results to family members; the latter of which is recommended to occur through a genetic counsellor. It is hoped that these experiences will contribute towards a formal framework for conducting forensic genetic research in medico-legal mortuaries in South Africa.

  4. Error and its meaning in forensic science. (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M


    The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Criminalistics and the forensic nursing process. (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Piatelli, Michael J; Pasqualone, Georgia


    Students learn science by actually performing science activities. The 12 laboratories described in this article assist students in applying the fundamental techniques germane to the field of forensic science to "solve" contrived cases and present "evidence" in a mock trial. Moreover, students are also confronted with some of the legal and ethical issues concerning the validity, reliability, and application of some forensic techniques. The pedagogical design of the laboratory course provides a rich, challenging, and interdisciplinary academic experience intended to augment and compliment the didactic forensic lecture portion of the course. This laboratory course was designed to engender, embody, and articulate one of the University's directive goals to support interdisciplinary teaching, research, and programming. Because we developed the laboratories on minimal funds, we demonstrated that it could be cost-effective. And thus, we recommend a laboratory science course be included as part of the curriculum of all forensic nursing students and practitioners. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  6. Digital Forensic Investigation Models, an Evolution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Mushtaque


    Full Text Available In business today, one of the most important segments that enable any business to get competitive advantage over others is appropriate, effective adaptation of Information Technology into business and then managing and governing it on their will. To govern IT organizations need to identify value of acquiring services of forensic firms to compete cyber criminals. Digital forensic firms follow different mechanisms to perform investigation. Time by time forensic firms are facilitated with different models for investigation containing phases for different purposes of the entire process. Along with forensic firms, enterprises also need to build a secure and supportive platform to make successful investigation process possible. We have underlined different elements of organizations in Pakistan; need to be addressed to provide support to forensic firms.

  7. Authentication of forensic DNA samples. (United States)

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon


    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system.

  8. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Radiochemistry has been used to study fission since it’ discovery. Radiochemical methods are used to determine cumulative mass yields. These measurements have led to the two-mode fission hypothesis to model the neutron energy dependence of fission product yields. Fission product yields can be used for the nuclear forensics of nuclear explosions. The mass yield curve depends on both the fuel and the neutron spectrum of a device. Recent studies have shown that the nuclear structure of the compound nucleus can affect the mass yield distribution.

  9. Suicide among forensic psychiatric patients. (United States)

    Johnson, C; Smith, J; Crowe, C; Donovan, M


    This paper examines the problem of suicide among patients discharged from a Regional Secure Unit. The stereotype that emerges is a young man with anti-social personality traits, suffering from an affective psychosis, with a history of substance abuse and impulsive violence directed both towards himself and others, who is alienated from care staff and social supports because of his provocative and uncooperative behaviour. In contrast with the general population, forensic patients are more likely to commit suicide using a violent method and are more likely to have a suicide verdict recorded by the coroner. The implications of these findings for treatment and preventive interventions are discussed.

  10. Methodologies Used by Midwest Region States for Studying Teacher Supply and Demand. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-080 (United States)

    Lindsay, James J.; Wan, Yinmei; Gossin-Wilson, Will


    This report describes how state education agencies in the Midwest Region monitor teacher supply, demand, and shortage; details why they monitor these data; and offers estimates of the monetary costs incurred in performing such studies. This study responds to a request from state education agencies in the Midwest Region (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,…

  11. 77 FR 52754 - Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning Area (United States)


    ...-FF03E00000] Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning... our planning partners, intend to prepare the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation... decommissioning of wind energy facilities within all or portions of the eight-State planning area. Activities...

  12. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From... (United States)


    ... Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including... Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject worker group includes on-site leased workers...

  13. Designing an effective microbial forensics program for law enforcement and national security purposes. (United States)

    Murch, Randall S


    Forensic capabilities that provide lead information, and investigative, intelligence, prosecution and policy decision support can be invaluable for responding to and resolving bioterrorism events. Attributing biological attacks through scientific and other resources and processes is an important goal, for which science can be instrumental. Some even believe that having effective microbial forensics capabilities along with others can even deter adversaries from using biological weapons. For those nations that do not have such or wish to integrate or upgrade capabilities, thoughtful analysis and consideration of certain design principles will increase the likelihood that success will be attained.

  14. Forensic Experts′ Opinion Regarding Clinical Forensic Medicine Practice in Indonesia and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanusha Nair Gopalakrishnan


    Full Text Available Clinical forensic medicine is a progressing branch. In Indonesia and Malaysia, there is inadequate information regarding this practice. It is always unclear about the job scopes and practitioners involved in this field. The study outlined in this article is aimed to explore the current clinical forensic medicine practice compared to existing systematic practice globally and hence analyzing for presence of difference in this practice between these two countries. A qualitative study was conducted by forensic experts in Indonesia and Malaysia from September to November 2015. In-depth interview was carried out to obtain data which were then validated using literature and legal documents in Indonesia and Malaysia known as the triangulation validation method. Data were presented in narrative form. In Indonesia, forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine were approached as one whereas in Malaysia separately. This practice was conducted by a general practitioner in collaboration with other specialists if needed in Indonesia; whereas, in Malaysia, this practice was conducted by forensic pathologists or medical officers in the absence of forensic pathologists. Both Indonesia and Malaysia followed the continental regimen in practicing clinical forensic medicine. There was still a lack of involvement of doctors in this field due to lack of understanding of clinical forensic medicine. The current clinical forensic medicine practice has not developed much and has no much difference in both countries. The gap between the current practice with systematic practice cannot be justified due to the absence of one standardized code of practice.

  15. Data-base system for northern Midwest regional aquifer-system analysis (United States)

    Kontis, A.L.; Mandle, Richard J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a study of the Cambrian and Ordovician aquifer system of the northern Midwest as part of a national series of Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis (RASA). An integral part of this study will be a simulation of the ground-water flow regime using the Geological Survey's three-dimensional finite-difference model. The first step in the modeling effort is the design and development of a systematic set of processes to facilitate the collection, evaluation, manipulation, and use of large quantities of information. A computerized data-base system to accomplish these goals has been completed for the northern Midwest RASA.

  16. The Role Of Forensic Accountants In Fraud Detection And National Security In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Mukoro


    Full Text Available This study aims at exploring the relevance of forensic accounting in curbing crime and corruption in public sector. The objective of the research work seeks to explore the role a forensic accountant can play in the fight against corruption by applying his investigative skills, providing litigation support service and documentation and reporting. The population used in the research was the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS. The research design employed was the survey research. Data were majorly collected from primary sources. The hypothesis testing in this research work was done using regression analysis. The results of the empirical findings show that forensic accountants are relevant in investigating crime and corruption in the public sector. Forensic accountants play a role in litigation support services in the public sector, and forensic accountants are relevant in documentation and reporting. It was observed that the forensic accountants play a significant role in curbing crime and corrupt practices in any public sector since they provide a mechanism to hold people accountable, such that those who manage resources in a fiduciary capacity do not easily abuse that trust without detection. Amongst other proferred solutions, it was recommended that accounting professionals should always act proactively such that the members of the profession in Nigeria are kept abreast of emerging technologies, especially in the area of forensic accounting. The legislature should also see to it that the executive grants full autonomy to the agents of government that are charged with enforcing accountability. Office of the Auditor-General of the Federation, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, Independent Corrupt Practices Commission, and Code of Conduct Bureau, should be fully independent entities free to do their jobs without undue meddling and interference

  17. Electron microscopy and forensic practice (United States)

    Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana


    Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

  18. Uncertainty propagation in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommé, S.; Jerome, S.M.; Venchiarutti, C.


    Uncertainty propagation formulae are presented for age dating in support of nuclear forensics. The age of radioactive material in this context refers to the time elapsed since a particular radionuclide was chemically separated from its decay product(s). The decay of the parent radionuclide and ingrowth of the daughter nuclide are governed by statistical decay laws. Mathematical equations allow calculation of the age of specific nuclear material through the atom ratio between parent and daughter nuclides, or through the activity ratio provided that the daughter nuclide is also unstable. The derivation of the uncertainty formulae of the age may present some difficulty to the user community and so the exact solutions, some approximations, a graphical representation and their interpretation are presented in this work. Typical nuclides of interest are actinides in the context of non-proliferation commitments. The uncertainty analysis is applied to a set of important parent–daughter pairs and the need for more precise half-life data is examined. - Highlights: • Uncertainty propagation formulae for age dating with nuclear chronometers. • Applied to parent–daughter pairs used in nuclear forensics. • Investigated need for better half-life data

  19. Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime. (United States)

    Lee, Henry C.


    Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

  20. Aspects of Digital Forensics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ophoff


    Full Text Available This paper explores the issues facing digital forensics in South Africa. It examines particular cyber threats and cyber threat levels for South Africa and the challenges in addressing the cybercrimes in the country through digital forensics. The paper paints a picture of the cybercrime threats facing South Africa and argues for the need to develop a skill base in digital forensics in order to counter the threats through detection of cybercrime, by analyzing cybercrime reports, consideration of current legislation, and an analysis of computer forensics course provision in South African universities. The paper argues that there is a need to develop digital forensics skills in South Africa through university programs, in addition to associated training courses. The intention in this paper is to promote debate and discussion in order to identify the cyber threats to South Africa and to encourage the development of a framework to counter the threats – through legislation, high tech law enforcement structures and protocols, digital forensics education, digital forensics skills development, and a public and business awareness of cybercrime threats.

  1. Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students (United States)

    Burgess, Christiana J.

    Over the last several decades, forensic science---the application of science to civil and criminal legal matters---has become of increasing popularity with the public. The range of disciplines within the field is immense, offering individuals the potential for a unique career, regardless of their specific interests or expertise. In response to this growth, many organizations, both public and private, have recognized the need to create forensic science programs that strive to maintain and enhance the quality of forensic science education. Unfortunately, most of the emphasis placed on developing these materials relates to post-secondary education, and creates a significant lack of forensic science educational materials available in the U.S., especially in Oklahoma. The purpose of this project was to create a high school curriculum that provides the foundation for building a broad, yet comprehensive, overview of the field of forensic science and its associated disciplines. The overall goal was to create and provide course materials to high school teachers in order to increase their knowledge of forensic science such that they are able to teach its disciplines effectively and with accuracy. The Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students includes sample lesson plans, PowerPoint presentations, and lab activities with step-by-step instructions.

  2. Forensic Entomologists: An Evaluation of their Status (United States)

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian


    The National Academy of Sciences (2009) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists. PMID:24219583

  3. Forensic entomologists: an evaluation of their status. (United States)

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian


    The National Academy of Sciences ( 2009 ) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists.

  4. Nuclear forensics: a comprehensive model action plan for Nuclear Forensics Laboratory in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, A.V.; Nyati, S.; Fatangre, N.M.; Raghav, N.K.; Reddy, P.G.


    Nuclear forensic is an emerging and highly specialized discipline which deals with nuclear investigation and analysis of nuclear or radiological/radioactive materials. Nuclear Forensic analysis includes various methodology and analytical methods along with morphology, physical, chemical, elemental and isotopic analysis to characterize and develop nuclear database for the identification of unknown nuclear or radiological/radioactive material. The origin, source history, pathway and attribution of unknown radioactive/nuclear material is possible with certainty through Nuclear Forensics. Establishment of Nuclear Forensic Laboratory and development of expertise for nuclear investigation under one roof by developing the nuclear data base and laboratory network is need of the hour to ably address the problems of all the law enforcement and nuclear agencies. The present study provides insight in Nuclear Forensics and focuses on an urgent need for a comprehensive plan to set up Nuclear Forensic Laboratory across India. (author)

  5. Direct analysis in real time-Mass spectrometry (DART-MS) in forensic and security applications. (United States)

    Pavlovich, Matthew J; Musselman, Brian; Hall, Adam B


    Over the last decade, direct analysis in real time (DART) has emerged as a viable method for fast, easy, and reliable "ambient ionization" for forensic analysis. The ability of DART to generate ions from chemicals that might be present at the scene of a criminal activity, whether they are in the gas, liquid, or solid phase, with limited sample preparation has made the technology a useful analytical tool in numerous forensic applications. This review paper summarizes many of those applications, ranging from the analysis of trace evidence to security applications, with a focus on providing the forensic scientist with a resource for developing their own applications. The most common uses for DART in forensics are in studying seized drugs, drugs of abuse and their metabolites, bulk and detonated explosives, toxic chemicals, chemical warfare agents, inks and dyes, and commercial plant and animal products that have been adulterated for economic gain. This review is meant to complement recent reviews that have described the fundamentals of the ionization mechanism and the general use of DART. We describe a wide range of forensic applications beyond the field of analyzing drugs of abuse, which dominates the literature, including common experimental and data analysis methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 37:171-187, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. MetricForensics: A Multi-Level Approach for Mining Volatile Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Keith [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eliassi-Rad, Tina [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Faloutsos, Christos [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Akoglu, Leman [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Li, Lei [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maruhashi, Koji [Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Prakash, B. Aditya [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tong, H [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Advances in data collection and storage capacity have made it increasingly possible to collect highly volatile graph data for analysis. Existing graph analysis techniques are not appropriate for such data, especially in cases where streaming or near-real-time results are required. An example that has drawn significant research interest is the cyber-security domain, where internet communication traces are collected and real-time discovery of events, behaviors, patterns and anomalies is desired. We propose MetricForensics, a scalable framework for analysis of volatile graphs. MetricForensics combines a multi-level “drill down" approach, a collection of user-selected graph metrics and a collection of analysis techniques. At each successive level, more sophisticated metrics are computed and the graph is viewed at a finer temporal resolution. In this way, MetricForensics scales to highly volatile graphs by only allocating resources for computationally expensive analysis when an interesting event is discovered at a coarser resolution first. We test MetricForensics on three real-world graphs: an enterprise IP trace, a trace of legitimate and malicious network traffic from a research institution, and the MIT Reality Mining proximity sensor data. Our largest graph has »3M vertices and »32M edges, spanning 4:5 days. The results demonstrate the scalability and capability of MetricForensics in analyzing volatile graphs; and highlight four novel phenomena in such graphs: elbows, broken correlations, prolonged spikes, and strange stars.

  7. Illustration and analysis of a coordinated approach to an effective forensic trace evidence capability. (United States)

    Stoney, David A; Stoney, Paul L


    An effective trace evidence capability is defined as one that exploits all useful particle types, chooses appropriate technologies to do so, and directly integrates the findings with case-specific problems. Limitations of current approaches inhibit the attainment of an effective capability and it has been strongly argued that a new approach to trace evidence analysis is essential. A hypothetical case example is presented to illustrate and analyze how forensic particle analysis can be used as a powerful practical tool in forensic investigations. The specifics in this example, including the casework investigation, laboratory analyses, and close professional interactions, provide focal points for subsequent analysis of how this outcome can be achieved. This leads to the specification of five key elements that are deemed necessary and sufficient for effective forensic particle analysis: (1) a dynamic forensic analytical approach, (2) concise and efficient protocols addressing particle combinations, (3) multidisciplinary capabilities of analysis and interpretation, (4) readily accessible external specialist resources, and (5) information integration and communication. A coordinating role, absent in current approaches to trace evidence analysis, is essential to achieving these elements. However, the level of expertise required for the coordinating role is readily attainable. Some additional laboratory protocols are also essential. However, none of these has greater staffing requirements than those routinely met by existing forensic trace evidence practitioners. The major challenges that remain are organizational acceptance, planning and implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vulnerabilities of national parks in the American Midwest to climate and land use changes (United States)

    Stroh, Esther D.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Shaver, David; Karstensen, Krista A.


    Many national parks in the American Midwest are surrounded by agricultural or urban areas or are in highly fragmented or rapidly changing landscapes. An environmental stressor is a physical, chemical, or biological condition that affects the functioning or productivity of species or ecosystems. Climate change is just one of many stressors on park natural resources; others include urbanization, land use change, air and water pollution, and so on. Understanding and comparing the relative vulnerability of a suite of parks to projected climate and land use changes is important for region-wide planning. A vulnerability assessment of 60 units in the 13-state U.S. National Park Service Midwestern administrative region to climate and land use change used existing data from multiple sources. Assessment included three components: individual park exposure (5 metrics), sensitivity (5 metrics), and constraints to adaptive capacity (8 metrics) under 2 future climate scenarios. The three components were combined into an overall vulnerability score. Metrics were measures of existing or projected conditions within park boundaries, within 10-kilometer buffers surrounding parks, and within ecoregions that contain or intersect them. Data were normalized within the range of values for all assessed parks, resulting in high, medium, and low relative rankings for exposure, sensitivity, constraints to adaptive capacity, and overall vulnerability. Results are consistent with assessments regarding patterns and rates of climate change nationwide but provide greater detail and relative risk for Midwestern parks. Park overall relative vulnerability did not differ between climate scenarios. Rankings for exposure, sensitivity, and constraints to adaptive capacity varied geographically and indicate regional conservation planning opportunities. The most important stressors for the most vulnerable Midwestern parks are those related to sensitivity (intrinsic characteristics of the park) and

  9. Psychological effects of violence on forensic nurses. (United States)

    Zimmer, Katherine K; Cabelus, Nancy B


    1. Forensic nurses frequently work in violent settings without regard for self-preservation to save the lives of injured individuals or investigate the deaths of deceased individuals. 2. Cases involving children and victims with disfiguring injuries, and incidents when their personal safety was compromised are most disturbing to forensic nurses. 3. Providing means for health care professionals to cope appropriately encourages healthy healing. 4. Forensic nurses must learn to self-assess and recognize the signs and symptoms associated with unhealthy coping, depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder.

  10. The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology


    Joseph, Isaac; Mathew, Deepu G; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Vargheese, Geetha


    Forensic entomology is the study of insects/arthropods in criminal investigation. Right from the early stages insects are attracted to the decomposing body and may lay eggs in it. By studying the insect population and the developing larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index, any change in position of the corpse as well as the cause of death. Forensic odontologists are called upon more frequently to collaborate in criminal investigations and hence should be aware of ...

  11. Forensic recovery within contaminated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.


    Full text: The Exhibit Handling System, operated by the Anti-Terrorist Branch, has evolved from experiences whilst dealing with long term domestic terrorism and the subsequent prosecution of the offenders. Stringent U.K. criminal law in regard to exhibits and forensic evidence required a strict system in order to provide continuity and integrity to every item that came into possession of the Police. This system also applies to items that are eventually deemed 'unused', as nearly all evidence is disclosed to the defence. I believe that if a system can withstand the close examination that British Criminal Law provides, it will probably be suitable in most countries. The system relies on each item being supplied with a documented trail of all persons who have had possession of it and who have opened the security packaging for examination purposes. In contaminated environments the initial process within the system has to be adapted in order that strict monitoring of the items can be carried out during the packaging process. It is also recognized that access to many exhibits will be heavily restricted and therefore protocols are in place to interrogate the evidence at the packaging stage in order to avoid unnecessary spread of contamination. The protocols are similar for both radiological and nuclear incidents as well as chemical and biological. Regardless of the type of incident the system can be adapted on the advice of the relevant scientific authority. In the U.K. for radiological and nuclear incidents that authority would be the A.W.E. Aldermaston. The integrity and continuity regime should be continued within laboratories which are conducting examinations of exhibits recovered. It is also important that Nuclear Forensic Laboratories do not overlook possibilities of traditional evidence, such as DNA, Fingerprints and fibre traces. Good record photography of items which are unlikely to be released by the laboratory is essential. Finally, cross-contamination has in

  12. The Big Squeeze on Tax Revenues for the Public Schools: The Midwest in the 1980s. (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.

    Potential revenue prospects for the public schools in the Midwest basically depend on the future outlook for the midwestern economy as a whole. Accordingly, a comprehensive analysis is undertaken of the midwestern economy and tax base, and then of trends in educational spending. Topics include: (1) economic growth and taxation systems; (2)…

  13. Factors Affecting the Job Satisfaction of Latino/a Immigrants in the Midwest (United States)

    Valdivia, Corinne; Flores, Lisa Y.


    This study examined the job satisfaction of 253 Latino/a newcomers in three rural communities in the Midwest. Specifically, the authors explored the effects of ethnic identity, Anglo acculturation, Latino/a acculturation, perceptions of the community (social relations, discrimination/racism, and language pressures), job tenure, work hours, and…

  14. Regional patterns of major nonnative invasive plants and associated factors in upper Midwest forests (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Mark D. Nelson


    Nonnative invasive plants (IPs) are rapidly spreading into natural ecosystems (e.g., forests and grasslands). Potential threats of IP invasion into natural ecosystems include biodiversity loss, structural and environmental change, habitat degradation, and economic losses. The Upper Midwest of the United States encompasses the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan...

  15. NOAA predicts moderate flood potential in Midwest, elevated risk of ice (United States)

    March 20, 2014 U.S. Spring Flood Risk Map for 2014. U.S. Spring Flood Risk Map for 2014. (Credit: NOAA moderate flood potential in Midwest, elevated risk of ice jams; California and Southwest stuck with drought minor or moderate risk of exceeding flood levels this spring with the highest threat in the southern

  16. Wood-plastic composites utilizing wood flours derived from fast- growing trees common to the midwest (United States)

    There are several non- or under-utilized hardwood trees common to the Midwestern states. Wood flour (WF) derived from fast-growing Midwest trees (Osage orange, Black Locust and Red Mulberry) were evaluated as a source of bio-based fiber reinforcements. Wood plastic composites (WPC) of high density p...

  17. The Year in Forestry State and Private Forestry in the Northeast and Midwest Fiscal Year 2005 (United States)

    Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry


    The geographic region we call the Northeast and Midwest stretches from Maine to Minnesota, south to Missouri, and east to Maryland and the District of Columbia. Nearly half of the Nation's population lives here on slightly less than 20 percent of the Nation's land area. Representing one of the largest concentrations of privately owned forests in the world,...

  18. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest (United States)

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen


    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  19. 77 FR 24950 - Midwest Independent Transmission, System Operator, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference (United States)


    ... Conference. The Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) and/or Potomac Economics, Inc... that is less than 50 percent of the applicable Reference Level. Provide a justification for this... committed? Please explain. b. Can units committed based on economics in the SCUC and SCED processes be...

  20. Low-level radioactive waste in the Midwest: an economic analysis of selected management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Possible economic scenarios for disposal of low-level radioactive waste generated in the Midwest are presented. Relative waste disposal site costs are estimated for each state separately, and for 5-state, 13-state, and 16-state regions. Costs for publicly and privately owned and operated sites are estimated as are incineration and transportation costs

  1. Exploring the Special Education versus Regular Education Decisions of Future Teachers in the Rural Midwest (United States)

    DeSutter, Keri L.; Lemire, Steven Dale


    Persistent shortages of special education teachers, particularly in rural areas, exist across the country. This study assessed the openness of teacher candidates enrolled in an introductory education course at two rural Midwest universities to a special education career path. Survey findings confirmed that work or volunteer experience involving…

  2. Vulnerability of grain crops and croplands in the Midwest to climatic variability and adaptation strategies (United States)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Gylcine max (L.) Merr.) are the dominant grain crops across the Midwest and are grown on 75% of the arable land with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.) small but economically important crops. Historically there have been variations in annual yiel...

  3. Status of neotropical migrant landbirds in the Midwest: identifying species of management concern (United States)

    Frank R. Thompson; Stephen J. Lewis; Janet D. Green; David N. Ewert


    We ranked species of neotropical migrant landbirds by decreasing management concern for their viability in the Midwest. This was part of a coordinated effort by regional working groups of the Partners In Flight Program, an interagency program for the conservation of neotropical migratory birds (NTMBs). Species were ranked by seven criteria, developed by working group...

  4. 76 FR 43682 - Shetek Wind Inc. Jeffers South, LLC Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Midwest Independent... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-53-000] Shetek Wind Inc. Jeffers South, LLC Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc...), Shetek Wind Inc., Jeffers South, LLC, and Allco Renewable Energy Limited (collectively Complainants...

  5. 76 FR 71007 - Shetek Wind Inc., Jeffers South, LLC and Allco Renewable Energy Limited, Midwest Independent... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-53-000] Shetek Wind Inc., Jeffers South, LLC and Allco Renewable Energy Limited, Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator... an original and 14 copies of the protest or intervention to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  6. 77 FR 12896 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Clearing Corporation; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency... (United States)


    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66458; File No. 600-9] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Clearing Corporation; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency Registration February 24, 2012. I... Act provides that in the event any self- regulatory organization is no longer in existence or has...

  7. 77 FR 12898 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Securities Trust Company; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency... (United States)


    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66461; File No. 600-7] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Securities Trust Company; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency Registration February 24, 2012... the event any self-regulatory organization is no longer in existence or has ceased to do business in...

  8. Cybercrime, digital forensics and jurisdiction

    CERN Document Server

    Chawki, Mohamed; Khan, Mohammad Ayoub; Tyagi, Sapna


    The purpose of law is to prevent the society from harm by declaring what conduct is criminal, and prescribing the punishment to be imposed for such conduct. The pervasiveness of the internet and its anonymous nature make cyberspace a lawless frontier where anarchy prevails. Historically, economic value has been assigned to visible and tangible assets. With the increasing appreciation that intangible data disseminated through an intangible medium can possess economic value, cybercrime is also being recognized as an economic asset. The Cybercrime, Digital Forensics  and Jurisdiction disseminate knowledge for everyone involved with understanding and preventing cybercrime - business entities, private citizens, and government agencies. The book is firmly rooted in the law demonstrating that a viable strategy to confront cybercrime must be international in scope.

  9. Nuclear forensics support. Reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    or Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material (IAEA-TECDOC-1313). It was quickly recognized that much can be learned from the analysis of reported cases of illicit trafficking. For example, what specifically could the material have been used for? Where was the material obtained: in stock, scrap or waste? Was the amount seized only a sample of a much more significant quantity? These and many other questions can be answered through detailed technical characterization of seized material samples. The combination of scientific methods used for this purpose is normally referred to as 'nuclear forensics', which has become an indispensable tool for use in law enforcement investigations of nuclear trafficking. This publication is based on a document entitled Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution (UCLR-TR-202675). The document is unique in that it brings together, for the first time, a concise but comprehensive description of the various tools and procedures of nuclear forensic investigations that was earlier available only in different areas of the scientific literature. It also has the merit of incorporating experience accumulated over the past decade by law enforcement agencies and nuclear forensics laboratories confronted with cases of illicit events involving nuclear or other radioactive material

  10. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene

  11. Forensic psychiatry in Africa: prospects and challenges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mental health professionals burdened with large numbers of patients.6. In most ... by the courts for forensic assessments and testimony in the region. .... A comparison of risk factors for habitual violence in pre- ... Homicide and suicide in Benin-.

  12. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology (United States)

    Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek


    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

  13. Forensic Accounting And Financial Crisis In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Osuagwwu

    findings of the study show that forensic accounting is significant in the face of the increasing ... and the more sophisticated Information. Communication. Technology. (ICT), .... (9) studied the impact ... financial reporting and internal control.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnaen Akbar


    Full Text Available Salah satu applikasi jejaring sosial yang sangat populer saat ini adalah WhatsApp. Hampir seluruh pengguna smartphone menggunakan applikasi ini sebagai media komunikasi. Berbagai macam perkembangan atau fitur baru telah banyak ditambahkan pengembang sebagai fasilitas yang dapat memanjakan para pengguna. Peranan sistem keamanan tentunya sangat penting untuk menunjang keamanan privasi para pengguna agar kerahasiaan tetap terjaga. Beberapa peneliti telah banyak melakukan experimen mobile forensics untuk mendapatkan berbagai informasi dari para pengguna WhatsApp. Pada paper ini membahas survey berbagai metoda dari berbagai para peneliti WhatsApp forensics. Dalam sebuah proses mobile metoda yang digunakan dalam proses forensics antara lain menggunakan internet protocol dan live memory. Untuk proses mobile forensics khususnya pada applikasi WhatsApp dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan metoda tersebut untuk memperoleh data informasi yang dibutuhkan.

  15. PIXE and ion beam analysis in forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Melanie; Warmenhoven, John; Chrislopher, Matt; Kirkby, Karen; Palitsin, Vladimir; Grime, Geoff; Jeynes, Chris; Jones, Brian; Wenn, Roger


    Full text: University of Surrey has, for the past four years, collaborated with police institutions from across Europe and the rest of the world lo scope potential applications of ion beam analysis (IBA) in forensic science. In doing this we have consulted practitioners across a range of forensic disciplines, and critically compared IBA with conventional characterisation techniques to investigate the areas in which IBA can add evidential value. In this talk, the results of this feasibility study will be presented, showing the types of sample for which IBA shows considerable promise. We will show how a combination of PIXE with other IBA techniques (EBS, PIGE, MeV-SIMS) can be used to give unprecedented characterisation of forensic samples and comment on the significance of these results for forensic casework. We will also show cases where IBA not appear to add any significant improvement over conventional techniques. (author)

  16. Brain injury in a forensic psychiatry population. (United States)

    Colantonio, A; Stamenova, V; Abramowitz, C; Clarke, D; Christensen, B


    The prevalence and profile of adults with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been studied in large North American forensic mental health populations. This study investigated how adults with a documented history of TBI differed with the non-TBI forensic population with respect to demographics, psychiatric diagnoses and history of offences. A retrospective chart review of all consecutive admissions to a forensic psychiatry programme in Toronto, Canada was conducted. Information on history of TBI, psychiatric diagnoses, living environments and types of criminal offences were obtained from medical records. History of TBI was ascertained in 23% of 394 eligible patient records. Compared to those without a documented history of TBI, persons with this history were less likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia but more likely to have alcohol/substance abuse disorder. There were also differences observed with respect to offence profiles. This study provides evidence to support routine screening for a history of TBI in forensic psychiatry.

  17. Multimedia security watermarking, steganography, and forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Shih, Frank Y


    Multimedia Security: Watermarking, Steganography, and Forensics outlines essential principles, technical information, and expert insights on multimedia security technology used to prove that content is authentic and has not been altered. Illustrating the need for improved content security as the Internet and digital multimedia applications rapidly evolve, this book presents a wealth of everyday protection application examples in fields including multimedia mining and classification, digital watermarking, steganography, and digital forensics. Giving readers an in-depth overview of different asp

  18. Nuclear forensics in law enforcement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Moody, K.J.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Phinney, D.L.; Whipple, R.E.; Haas, J.S.; Alcaraz, A.; Andrews, J.E.; Klunder, G.L.; Russo, R.E.


    Over the past several years, the Livermore Forensic Science Center has conducted analyses of nuclear-related samples in conjunction with domestic and international criminal investigations. Law enforcement officials have sought conventional and nuclear-forensic analyses of questioned specimens that have typically consisted of miscellaneous metal species or actinide salts. The investigated activities have included nuclear smuggling and the proliferation of alleged fissionable materials, nonradioactive hoaxes such as 'Red Mercury', and the interdiction of illegal laboratories engaged in methamphetamine synthesis. (author)

  19. PBX Security and Forensics A Practical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif I


    PBX Security and Forensics begins with an introduction to PBXs (Private Branch Exchanges) and the scene, statistics and involved actors. This book discusses confidentiality, integrity and availability threats in PBXs. The author examines the threats and the technical background as well as security and Forensics involving PBXs. The purpose of this book is to raise user awareness in regards to security and privacy threats present in PBXs, helping both users and administrators safeguard their systems.

  20. Death: clinical and forensic anthropological perspectives


    Etty Indriati, Etty Indriati


    All biological living beings inevitably die, and the ways to die vary although in essence death is a manifestation of the absence of Oxygen in the brain. After death, biological remains undertake proteolysis and decomposition. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical death, cerebral or medicolegal death, social death, phases of cerebral death, and biological process after death—which is important for forensic medicine and forensic anthropology. How long a person die, if the time elaps...

  1. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology* (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.


    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  2. Molecular DNA Analysis in Forensic Identification. (United States)

    Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Enache, Alexandra


    Serological and biochemical identification methods used in forensics have several major disadvantages, such as: long time in processing biological sample and lack of sensitivity and specificity. In the last 30 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples. Forensic genetics, can provide information on the events which occurred at the crime scene or to supplement other methods of forensic identification. Currently, the methods used in identification are based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. This method analyses the autosomal STRs, the Y-chromosome, and the mitochondrial DNA. Correlation of biological samples present at the crime scene with identification, selection, and the probative value factor is therefore the first aspect to be taken into consideration in the forensic genetic analysis. In the last decade, because of the advances in the field of molecular biology, new biomarkers such as: microRNAs (miR), messenger RNA (mRNA), and DNA methylation have been studied and proposed to be used in the forensic identifications of body fluids.

  3. Molecular Imprinting Applications in Forensic Science. (United States)

    Yılmaz, Erkut; Garipcan, Bora; Patra, Hirak K; Uzun, Lokman


    Producing molecular imprinting-based materials has received increasing attention due to recognition selectivity, stability, cast effectiveness, and ease of production in various forms for a wide range of applications. The molecular imprinting technique has a variety of applications in the areas of the food industry, environmental monitoring, and medicine for diverse purposes like sample pretreatment, sensing, and separation/purification. A versatile usage, stability and recognition capabilities also make them perfect candidates for use in forensic sciences. Forensic science is a demanding area and there is a growing interest in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in this field. In this review, recent molecular imprinting applications in the related areas of forensic sciences are discussed while considering the literature of last two decades. Not only direct forensic applications but also studies of possible forensic value were taken into account like illicit drugs, banned sport drugs, effective toxins and chemical warfare agents in a review of over 100 articles. The literature was classified according to targets, material shapes, production strategies, detection method, and instrumentation. We aimed to summarize the current applications of MIPs in forensic science and put forth a projection of their potential uses as promising alternatives for benchmark competitors.

  4. Principal forensic physicians as educational supervisors. (United States)

    Stark, Margaret M


    This research project was performed to assist the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine (FFLM) with the development of a training programme for Principal Forensic Physicians (PFPs) (Since this research was performed the Metropolitan Police Service have dispensed with the services of the Principal Forensic Physicians so currently (as of January 2009) there is no supervision of newly appointed FMEs or the development training of doctors working in London nor any audit or appraisal reviews.) to fulfil their role as educational supervisors. PFPs working in London were surveyed by questionnaire to identify the extent of their knowledge with regard to their role in the development training of all forensic physicians (FPs) in their group, the induction of assistant FPs and their perceptions of their own training needs with regard to their educational role. A focus group was held at the FFLM annual conference to discuss areas of interest that arose from the preliminary results of the questionnaire. There is a clear need for the FFLM to set up a training programme for educational supervisors in clinical forensic medicine, especially with regard to appraisal. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

  5. Forensic intelligence applied to questioned document analysis: A model and its application against organized crime. (United States)

    De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Roberts, Katherine A


    The capability of forensic sciences to fight crime, especially against organized criminal groups, becomes relevant in the recent economic downturn and the war on terrorism. In view of these societal challenges, the methods of combating crime should experience critical changes in order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the current resources available. It is obvious that authorities have serious difficulties combating criminal groups of transnational nature. These are characterized as well structured organizations with international connections, abundant financial resources and comprised of members with significant and diverse expertise. One common practice among organized criminal groups is the use of forged documents that allow for the commission of illegal cross-border activities. Law enforcement can target these movements to identify counterfeits and establish links between these groups. Information on document falsification can become relevant to generate forensic intelligence and to design new strategies against criminal activities of this nature and magnitude. This article discusses a methodology for improving the development of forensic intelligence in the discipline of questioned document analysis. More specifically, it focuses on document forgeries and falsification types used by criminal groups. It also describes the structure of international criminal organizations that use document counterfeits as means to conduct unlawful activities. The model presented is partially based on practical applications of the system that have resulted in satisfactory outcomes in our laboratory. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Overall approaches and experiences of first-time participants in the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group's Fourth Collaborative Material Exercise (CMX-4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.M.L.; Nelwamondo, A.N.; Hancke, J.J.; Ramebaeck, Henrik


    The Fourth Collaborative Material Exercise (CMX-4) of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) registered the largest participation for this exercise in nuclear forensics, with seven of the 17 laboratories participating for the first time. Each of the laboratories had their strategic role to play in its respective country, analyzing real-world samples using their in-house resources. The scenario was fictitious but was thoughtfully crafted to engage participants in nuclear forensic investigations. In this paper, participants from five of the first-time laboratories shared their individual experience in this exercise, from preparation to analysis of samples. (author)

  7. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III. (United States)

    Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

    The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature…

  8. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asten, A.C.


    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the

  9. The modeling of a digital forensic readiness approach to WLAN digital forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, S


    Full Text Available digital forensics is seen as not only a counterproposal but as a solution to the rapid increase of cyber crime in WLANs. The key issue impacting WLAN digital forensics is that, it is an enormous challenge to intercept and preserve all the communications...

  10. Hardwood genetics and tree improvement - A Midwest USA perspective (United States)

    C. H. Michler; R. Meilan; K. E. Woeste; P. M. Pijut; D. Jacobs; P. Aldrich; J. Glaubitz


    Fine hardwood trees in the Central Hardwoods region of the United States are an important resource for the furniture, cabinetry, flooring, modular home, and paneling manufacturing industries. Consumers find wood from these trees to be very desirable because of quality factors such as grain, strength and color. To enhance wood production, tree improvement programs can...


    Brkić, Hrvoje


    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world.

  12. Accuracy Rates of Ancestry Estimation by Forensic Anthropologists Using Identified Forensic Cases. (United States)

    Thomas, Richard M; Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H


    A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the ancestry of a decedent by comparing their skeletal morphology and measurements to skeletons of individuals from known geographic groups. However, the accuracy rates of ancestry estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses 99 forensic cases with identified skeletal remains to develop accuracy rates for ancestry estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct ancestry estimation from these cases is 90.9%, which is comparable to most research-derived rates and those reported by individual practitioners. Statistical tests showed no significant difference in accuracy rates depending on examiner education level or on the estimated or identified ancestry. More recent cases showed a significantly higher accuracy rate. The incorporation of metric analyses into the ancestry estimate in these cases led to a higher accuracy rate. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Book Review: The Basics of Digital Forensics: The Primer for Getting Started in Digital Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Larson


    Full Text Available Sammons, John. (2012. The Basics of Digital Forensics: The Primer for Getting Started in Digital Forensics. Waltham, MA: Syngress, 208 pages, Print Book ISBN: 9781597496612.eBook ISBN : 9781597496629. Print: US $29.95. eBook: US$20.97. Includes exercises, case studies, references, and index.Reviewed by Stephen Larson, PhD. Assistant Professor, Slippery Rock University of PAThe Basics of Digital Forensics: The Primer for Getting Started in Digital Forensics is well-named–it really is very basic. And it should be, as the book’s intended audience includes entry-level digital forensics professionals and complimentary fields such as law enforcement, legal, and general information security. Though the copyright is 2012, some of the data is from 2009, and there is mention of estimates for 2010.(see PDF for full review

  14. Forensic and non-forensic psychiatric nursing skills and competencies for psychopathic and personality disordered patients. (United States)

    Bowen, Matt; Mason, Tom


    To understand better the skills and competencies for forensic and non-forensic nursing of psychopathic and personality disordered patients. In the UK, there has been growing interest in service provision for this client group, but with little research to support the nursing skills required. A non-experimental design, using a postal survey to 990 forensic and 500 non-forensic nurses. An information gathering schedule was used to generate data about the most desirable skills and competencies and least desirable weaknesses and nursing attributes to nurse this group. The results for the forensic nurses. Main strengths and skills: being firm, setting limits and defining boundaries. Main weaknesses: inability to engage, inability to resolve conflict and impatience. Main skills and competencies: being non-threatening, non-judgemental and able to expect anything. Least desirable qualities: over-reacting, being judgemental and over-confrontational. The results for the non-forensic nurses. Main strengths and skills: being non-judgemental, listening skills and good risk assessment. Main weaknesses: frustration with the system, a fear of aggression and no skills to engage. Main skills and competencies: being open-minded, non-judgemental and forming relationships. Least desirable qualities: a supercilious attitude, cynicism and being judgemental. The results highlight the importance of forming therapeutic relationships as the bedrock of both forensic and non-forensic nursing, and they also highlight the important differences with regard to the significance of therapeutic action and therapeutic verbal interaction. The provision of better care for this client group will rely on appropriate training for nurses. This research highlights the need for training that supports the development of engagement skills, communication skills and an ability to use reflection in action as a means of providing therapeutic care. It also highlights the different emphasis on the use of these skills

  15. Translation of clinical practice guidelines for childhood obesity prevention in primary care mobilizes a rural Midwest community. (United States)

    Gibson, S Jo


    The purpose of this project was to implement clinic system changes that support evidence-based guidelines for childhood obesity prevention. Adherence rates for prevention and screening of children in a rural Midwest primary care setting were used to measure the success of the program. Retrospective chart reviews reflected gaps in current practice and documentation. An evidence-based toolkit for childhood obesity prevention was used to implement clinic system changes for the identified gaps. The quality improvement approach proved to be effective in translating knowledge of obesity prevention guidelines into rural clinic practices with significant improvements in documentation of prevention measures that may positively impact the childhood obesity epidemic. Primary care providers, including nurse practitioners (NPs), are at the forefront of diagnosing, educating, and counseling children and families on obesity prevention and need appropriate resources and tools to deliver premier care. The program successfully demonstrated how barriers to practice, even with the unique challenges in a rural setting, can be overcome. NPs fulfill a pivotal primary care role and can provide leadership that may positively impact obesity prevention in their communities. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  16. 76 FR 49762 - FirstEnergy Service Co. v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc.; Notice of... (United States)


    ... declaratory order asking that the Commission declare that Multi-Value Project (MVP) transmission usage charges... unreasonable to apply MVP transmission usage charges to FirstEnergy or its customers migrated from the Midwest...

  17. Understanding the economic, environmental and energy consequences of the Panama Canal expansion on Midwest grain and agricultural exports. (United States)


    The Panama Canal Authority (ACP) is currently building a third lock scheduled to open in 2014, significantly changing the capacity of the : canal for inter-ocean movements. Midwest specialty grain and agricultural product exporters will be directly a...

  18. Forensic anthropology and mortuary archaeology in Lithuania. (United States)

    Jankauskas, Rimantas


    Forensic anthropology (in Lithuania, as everywhere in Eastern Europe, traditionally considered as a narrower field--forensic osteology) has a long history, experience being gained both during exhumations of mass killings during the Second World War and the subsequent totalitarian regime, investigations of historical mass graves, identification of historical personalities and routine forensic work. Experts of this field (usually a branch of forensic medicine) routinely are solving "technical" questions of crime investigation, particularly identification of (usually dead) individuals. Practical implementation of the mission of forensic anthropology is not an easy task due to interdisciplinary character of the field. On one hand, physical anthropology has in its disposition numerous scientifically tested methods, however, their practical value in particular legal processes is limited. Reasons for these discrepancies can be related both to insufficient understanding of possibilities and limitations of forensic anthropology and archaeology by officials representing legal institutions that perform investigations, and sometimes too "academic" research, that is conducted at anthropological laboratories, when methods developed are not completely relevant to practical needs. Besides of answering to direct questions (number of individuals, sex, age, stature, population affinity, individual traits, evidence of violence), important humanitarian aspects--the individual's right for identity, the right of the relatives to know the fate of their beloved ones--should not be neglected. Practical use of other identification methods faces difficulties of their own (e.g., odontology--lack of regular dental registration system and compatible database). Two examples of forensic anthropological work of mass graves, even when the results were much influenced by the questions raised by investigators, can serve as an illustration of the above-mentioned issues.

  19. Good Practices in Forensic Toxicology. (United States)

    Drummer, Olaf H


    This manuscript provides an overview for analysts, medical and scientific investigators, and laboratory administrators, the range of factors that should be considered to implement best practice forensic toxicology. These include laboratory influence over the collection of specimens, their proper transport and chain-of-custody before arrival in the laboratory. In addition, the laboratory needs to ensure properly trained staff use suitably validated and documented analytical procedures that meet the intended purpose and type of case in an accredited or suitably quality oriented management system. To assist the investigating officers laboratory results require an interpretation over their possible significance when sufficient details are available over the circumstances of the case. This requires a thorough understanding of the various factors that influence concentrations of substances and ultimately their likely physiological effect. These include consideration of the route of ingestion, influence over chronicity of usage on tissue concentrations and tolerance, possible combined drug effects or likely adverse reactions and consideration of relevant genetic factors that may have influenced pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic response. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  20. Cleaning Puparia for Forensic Analysis. (United States)

    Higley, Leon G; Brosius, Tierney R; Reinhard, Karl J; Carter, David


    We tested procedures for removing adipocere from insect samples to allow identification. An acceptable procedure was determined: (i) Samples were sorted in petri dishes with 75% alcohol to remove any larvae, adult insects, or other soft-bodied material. (ii) Samples of up to 24 puparia were placed in a vial with 15 mL of 95% acetone, capped, and vortexed for a total of 30-90 sec in 10- to 15-sec bursts. This step removed large masses of adipocere or soil from specimen. (iii) Specimens were removed from acetone and placed in a vial of 15 mL of 2% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and vortexed in 10- to 15-sec bursts until all puparia appeared clean (with our samples this required a total of 60-120 sec). (iv) Specimens were removed from the 2% KOH, placed in 75% ethanol, and examined microscopically. (v) Material was stored in 75% ethanol for identification and long-term preservation. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Nuclear Forensics: A Holistic Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luksic, Andrzej T.; Friese, Judah I.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Starner, Jason R.; Wacker, John F.


    Discussions of nuclear forensics are often restricted to work performed by radio-chemists measuring nuclear material attributes in the laboratory. However, this represents only one portion of the work required to answer critical questions. Laboratory analysis results in measurements that need to be evaluated. The results of those evaluations must be put into their proper context in order for them to be useful to others and often require merging those results with additional information. This may contribute to attribution, by virtue of inclusion or exclusion. Finally, the end product must be presented such that appropriate actions can be taken. This could include prosecution by law enforcement, policy initiatives on the part of legislative bodies, or military action in the case of nuclear attack (whether that attack is preempted or not). Using the discovery of a sample of plutonium during cleanup activities at Hanford in 2004, we will step through the process of discovery (representing an interdiction), initial field analysis, laboratory analysis, data evaluation and merging with additional data (similar to law enforcement and/or all source), thereby providing an example of an integrated approach.


    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  3. Science Column: Reconstruction: The Experimental Side of Digital Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cohen


    Full Text Available Many in digital forensics seem to forget that the science part of digital forensics means experimentation and that implies a whole lot of things that most practitioners never learned.(see PDF for full column

  4. First Responders Guide to Computer Forensics: Advanced Topics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nolan, Richard; Baker, Marie; Branson, Jake; Hammerstein, Josh; Rush, Kris; Waits, Cal; Schweinsberg, Elizabeth


    First Responders Guide to Computer Forensics: Advanced Topics expands on the technical material presented in SEI handbook CMU/SEI-2005-HB-001, First Responders Guide to Computer Forensics [Nolan 05...

  5. Child abduction murder: the impact of forensic evidence on solvability. (United States)

    Brown, Katherine M; Keppel, Robert D


    This study examined 733 child abduction murders (CAMs) occurring from 1968 to 2002 to explore the influence of forensic evidence on case solvability in CAM investigations. It was hypothesized that the presence of forensic evidence connecting the offender to the crime would enhance case solvability in murder investigations of abducted children. This study examined the impact of CAM of different types of forensic evidence and the impact of the summed total of forensic evidence items on case solvability by controlling for victim age, victim race, victim gender, and victim-offender relationship. Time and distance theoretical predictors were also included. Binomial logistic regression models were used to determine whether forensic evidence was a critical solvability factor in murder investigations of abducted children. This research indicated that, while forensic evidence increased case solvability, the impact of forensic evidence on solvability was not as important as other solvability factors examined. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. The “Maya Express”: Floods in the U.S. Midwest (United States)

    Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Kinter, James L.


    The 2008 floods in the U.S. Midwest culminated in severe river flooding, with many rivers in the region cresting at record levels during May and particularly June. Twenty-four people were killed and more than 140 were injured as a result of the floods. Nine states were affected: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, 83 of the state's 99 counties were declared disaster areas. Cedar Rapids, Iowa, was among the cities hardest hit by flooding. At one point, water covered 1300 city blocks across 24 square kilometers, inundating 3900 homes and most of the city's infrastructure and municipal facilities. The flood, which also damaged the Midwest's corn and soybean crops, was presaged by unusually heavy snowpack the preceding winter and by anomalously heavy rainfall during the spring.

  7. Mapping of sand deposition from 1993 midwest floods with electromagnetic induction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, N.R.; Sudduth, K.A.; Drummond, S.T.


    Sand deposition on river-bottom farmland was extensive from the 1993 Midwest floods. A technique coupling electromagnetic induction (EM) ground conductivity sensing and Global Positioning System (GPS) location data was used to map sand deposition depth at four sites in Missouri along the Missouri River. A strong relationship between EM reading and probe measured depth of sand deposition (r 2 values between 0.73-0.94) was found. This relationship differed significantly between sites, so calibration by ground-truthing was required for each sand deposition survey. An example of the sand deposition mapping using the EM/GPS system is shown for two 50-60 ha (125-150 ac) sites. Such maps can provide valuable detailed information for developing restoration plans for land affected by 1993 Midwest floods. (author)

  8. Testing Framework for Mobile Device Forensics Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Anobah


    Full Text Available The proliferation of mobile communication and computing devices, in particular smart mobile phones, is almost paralleled with the increasing number of mobile device forensics tools in the market. Each mobile forensics tool vendor, on one hand claims to have a tool that is best in terms of performance, while on the other hand each tool vendor seems to be using different standards for testing their tools and thereby defining what support means differently. To overcome this problem, a testing framework based on a series of tests ranging from basic forensics tasks such as file system reconstruction up to more complex ones countering antiforensic techniques is proposed. The framework, which is an extension of an existing effort done in 2010, prescribes a method to clearly circumscribe the term support into precise levels. It also gives an idea of the standard to be developed and accepted by the forensic community that will make it easier for forensics investigators to quickly select the most appropriate tool for a particular mobile device.

  9. The development and practice of forensic podiatry. (United States)

    Vernon, Wesley


    Forensic podiatry is a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms captured on Closed Circuit Television Cameras. The most valuable techniques relate to the comparison of the foot impressions inside shoes. Tools to describe, measure and compare foot impressions with footwear wear marks have been developed through research with potential for further development. The role of forensic podiatrists is of particular value when dealing with variable factors relating to the functioning and the shod foot. Case studies demonstrate the approach of podiatrists, in footwear identification, when comparing exemplar with questioned foot impressions. Forensic podiatry practice should be approached cautiously and it is essential for podiatrists undertaking this type of work to understand the context within which the process of person identification takes place.

  10. Forensic bitemark identification: weak foundations, exaggerated claims (United States)

    Saks, Michael J.; Albright, Thomas; Bohan, Thomas L.; Bierer, Barbara E.; Bowers, C. Michael; Bush, Mary A.; Bush, Peter J.; Casadevall, Arturo; Cole, Simon A.; Denton, M. Bonner; Diamond, Shari Seidman; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Epstein, Jules; Faigman, David; Faigman, Lisa; Fienberg, Stephen E.; Garrett, Brandon L.; Giannelli, Paul C.; Greely, Henry T.; Imwinkelried, Edward; Jamieson, Allan; Kafadar, Karen; Kassirer, Jerome P.; Koehler, Jonathan ‘Jay’; Korn, David; Mnookin, Jennifer; Morrison, Alan B.; Murphy, Erin; Peerwani, Nizam; Peterson, Joseph L.; Risinger, D. Michael; Sensabaugh, George F.; Spiegelman, Clifford; Stern, Hal; Thompson, William C.; Wayman, James L.; Zabell, Sandy; Zumwalt, Ross E.


    Abstract Several forensic sciences, especially of the pattern-matching kind, are increasingly seen to lack the scientific foundation needed to justify continuing admission as trial evidence. Indeed, several have been abolished in the recent past. A likely next candidate for elimination is bitemark identification. A number of DNA exonerations have occurred in recent years for individuals convicted based on erroneous bitemark identifications. Intense scientific and legal scrutiny has resulted. An important National Academies review found little scientific support for the field. The Texas Forensic Science Commission recently recommended a moratorium on the admission of bitemark expert testimony. The California Supreme Court has a case before it that could start a national dismantling of forensic odontology. This article describes the (legal) basis for the rise of bitemark identification and the (scientific) basis for its impending fall. The article explains the general logic of forensic identification, the claims of bitemark identification, and reviews relevant empirical research on bitemark identification—highlighting both the lack of research and the lack of support provided by what research does exist. The rise and possible fall of bitemark identification evidence has broader implications—highlighting the weak scientific culture of forensic science and the law's difficulty in evaluating and responding to unreliable and unscientific evidence. PMID:28852538

  11. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil. (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J


    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  12. Network Intrusion Forensic Analysis Using Intrusion Detection System


    Manish Kumar; Dr. M. Hanumanthappa; Dr. T.V. Suresh Kumar


    The need for computer intrusion forensics arises from the alarming increase in the number of computer crimes that are committed annually. After a computer system has been breached and an intrusion has been detected, there is a need for a computer forensics investigation to follow. Computer forensics is used to bring to justice, those responsible for conducting attacks on computer systems throughout the world. Because of this the law must be follow precisely when conducting a forensics investi...

  13. Defense Forensic Enterprise: Assessment and Status Report Personnel Accounting Extract (United States)


    pathology , forensic anthropology, forensic toxicology, and DNA analysis to iden- tify human remains. Per DOD Directive 5205.15E, the stakeholders fall...Defense Forensic Enterprise Assessment and Status Report Personnel Accounting Extract Christine A. Hughes • Jeffrey E. Chilton John J. Clifford • sections from a CNA report titled, “Defense Forensic Enterprise Assessment and Status Report” [1]. The first sec- tion within this

  14. [Application of DNA labeling technology in forensic botany]. (United States)

    Znang, Xian; Li, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Xiang-Yu


    Forensic botany is a study of judicial plant evidence. Recently, researches on DNA labeling technology have been a mainstream of forensic botany. The article systematically reviews various types of DNA labeling techniques in forensic botany with enumerated practical cases, as well as the potential forensic application of each individual technique. The advantages of the DNA labeling technology over traditional morphological taxonomic methods are also summarized.

  15. Identity and Mobility: Historical Fractionalization, Parochial Institutions, and Occupational Choice in the American Midwest


    Kaivan Munshi; Nicholas Wilson


    This paper examines the role played by identity, or a sense of belonging to a home community, in determining occupational choice and mobility. The analysis links competition between migrant networks in the Midwest when it was rst developing, and the in-group identity that emerged endogenously to support these networks, to institutional participation and occupational choice today. Individuals born in counties with greater ethnic fractionalization in 1860, where identity was more likely to have...

  16. An examination of ethnic entrepreneurship in the Mid-West of Ireland


    Birdthistle, Naomi


    non-peer-reviewed EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis research was commissioned by Doras Luimní  with the aim of providing a micro and strategic analysis of ethnic entrepreneurs in the Midwest region of Ireland. A number of objectives were formed in order to answer this aim. The study examined two sets of entrepreneurs: those in the planning phase and those that have been established. Both established entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs in the planning phase were studied so as to provide a skill set analysi...

  17. Forensic odontological observations in the victims of DANA air crash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Forensic odontology or forensic dentistry is that aspect of forensic science that uses the application of dental science for the identification of unknown human remains and bite marks. Deaths resulting from mass disasters such as plane crash or fire incidence have always been given mass burial in Nigeria.

  18. 28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment... Program § 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement. (a) For the purpose of this subpart B, a... entity incurs the full out-of-pocket costs of forensic medical examinations for victims of sexual assault...

  19. Practice Parameter for Child and Adolescent Forensic Evaluations (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011


    This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic…

  20. Setting Course: The Case for the Credentialing of Forensic Interviewers (United States)

    Haney, Mike; Vieth, Victor I.; Campos, Hector M.


    The article provides a history of efforts to develop a credentialing or certification process for forensic interviewers and reviews the multitiered credentialing process offered by the National Association of Certified Child Forensic Interviewers. The authors argue the benefits of a credentialing process for forensic interviewers and respond to…

  1. The science and knowledge of forensic odontology: repositioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper was based on a survey of the knowledge of forensic odontology among professionals in medicine, dentistry, law and the law enforcement agents. The results show low level knowledge of forensic odontology among the professionals. It is recommended that forensic odontology be introduced as a course in dental ...

  2. Forensic Face Recognition : From characteristic descriptors to strength of evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, Christopher Gerard


    Forensic Face Recognition (FFR) is the use of biometric face recognition for several appli- cations in forensic science. Biometric face recognition uses the face modality as a means to discriminate between human beings; forensic science is the application of science and tech- nology to law

  3. Remarks on forensically interesting Sony Playstation 3 console features (United States)

    Daugs, Gunnar; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner


    This paper deals with forensically interesting features of the Sony Playstation 3 game console. The construction and the internal structure are analyzed more precisely. Interesting forensic features of the operating system and the file system are presented. Differences between a PS3 with and without jailbreak are introduced and possible forensic attempts when using an installed Linux are discussed.

  4. Preliminary study and Identification of insects' species of forensic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proper identification of the insect and arthropod species of forensic importance is the most crucial element in the field of forensic entomology. The main objective in this study was the identification of insects' species of forensic importance in Urmia (37°, 33 N. and 45°, 4, 45 E.) and establishment of a preliminary ...

  5. Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O (United States)

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.


    "Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and…

  6. Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams (United States)

    Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.


    This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

  7. Adapting to warmer climate through prolonged maize grain filling period in the US Midwest (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Zhuang, Q.; Jin, Z.


    Climate warming is expected to negatively impact the US food productivity. How to adapt to the future warmer environment and meet the rising food requirement becomes unprecedented urgent. Continuous satellite observational data provides an opportunity to examine the historic responses of crop plants to climate variation. Here 16 years crop growing phases information across US Midwest is generated based on satellite observations. We found a prolonged grain-filling period during 2000-2015, which could partly explain the increasing trend in Midwest maize yield. This longer grain-filling period might be resulted from the adoption of longer maturity group varieties or more resistant varieties to temperature variation. Other management practice changes like advance in planting date could be also an effective way of adapting future warmer climate through lowering the possibility of exposure to heat and drought stresses. If the progress in breeding technology enables the maize grain-filling period to prolong with the current rate, the maize grain filling length could be longer and maize yield in Midwest could adapt to future climate despite of the warming.

  8. Assessment of waste characteristics and waste management practices for the Midwest compact region:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.


    To define that system and optimize its components, it is necessary to know various characteristics of the LLW generated in the Midwest Compact Region. It must have projections for the annual volumes from the states in the compact to determine the size and lifetimes of waste management facilities. Information on the different volumes of the region's LLW that fall into NRC waste classes will help determine volumes of waste that may need separate disposal. Eventually, licensing a LLW disposal facility will require source terms /emdash/ quantities and concentrations of nuclides placed in the facility /emdash/ in order to conduct performance assessments. To provide the information needed to make informed decisions about the nature and size of the Midwest region's low-level waste management system, information was gathered from a number of sources. The information was placed in a computer data base to preserve it and to facilitate extracton of combinations of data. This report describes how the information was assembled and the nature of the computerized data base. It also provides a baseline characterization of the low-level waste being generated and shipped for disposal from the Midwest region in the late 1980's. 10 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs

  9. System reliability worth assessment at a midwest utility-survey results for residential customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, A.A.; Mielnik, T.C. [Electric System Planning, MidAmerican Energy Company, Davenport, Iowa (United States); Lawton, L.E.; Sullivan, M.J.; Katz, A. [Population Research Systems, San Francisco, CA (United States)


    This paper presents the overall results of a residential customer survey conducted in service areas of MidAmerican Energy Company, a Midwest utility. A similar survey was conducted concurrently in the industrial, commercial and institutional sectors and the survey results are presented in a companion paper. The results of this study are compared with the results of other studies performed in the high cost areas of the US east and west coasts. This is the first ever study of this nature performed for the residential customers in the US Midwest region. Methodological differences in the study design compared to coastal surveys are discussed. Customer survey costing techniques can be categorized into three main groups: contingent valuation techniques, direct costing techniques and indirect costing techniques. Most customer surveys conducted by different organizations in the last two decades used a combination of all three techniques. The selection of a technique is mainly dependent on the type of customer being surveyed. In this MidAmerican study, contingent valuation techniques and an indirect costing technique have been used, as most consequences of power outages to residential users are related to inconvenience or disruption of housekeeping and leisure activities that are intangible in nature. The major contribution of this paper is that particulars of Midwest residential customers compared to residential customers of coastal utilities are noted and customer responses on power quality issues that are important to customers are summarized. (author)

  10. Clinical criminology: a bridge between forensic professionals. (United States)

    Silfen, P; Ben-David, S


    In recent decades a new profession has developed--clinical criminology. The purpose of this article is to highlight its development. Criminology is defined as a interdisciplinary super-profession. We tend to view criminology as a basic profession with a number of specializations. Clinical criminology is one of these specializations. Forensic psychiatry and clinical criminology have common roots in psychiatry, law and behavioural sciences. They overlap in some fields. Members of both professions work in the same setting and share some of the tasks, but the formal and professional responsibilities differ significantly. We perceive clinical criminology and forensic psychiatry as complementary professions belonging to medicine. The multidisciplinary educated clinical criminologist is the only professional in the forensic system who is qualified to moderate between the mental health and legal expert.

  11. [Forensic analysis of injuries in dentistry]. (United States)

    Heltai, Nóra; Baráth, Zoltán; Kereszty, Éva M


    Documentation and evaluation of dental injuries in forensic medicine are rather problematic. It needs a professional work up why dental injuries are out of focus, and how the diagnosis, pattern and treatment are influenced by novel approaches of dentistry. The aims of the authors were to characterize dental injuries, to compare their own findings to literature data concerning the type and characteristics of injuries, and propose a diagnostic workflow. Expert's reports between 2009 and 2013 at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Szeged were reviewed. Review of about 7000 reports revealed only 20 cases with dental injury, which is in contrast with literature data indicating a significantly higher frequency of dental injuries. Although the number of "dental cases" was low, there were several additional cases where the trauma probably affected the teeth but the injury was not documented. In future more attention is needed in forensic evaluation of the mechanism, therapeutic strategy and prognosis of dental injuries.

  12. Developing a Forensic Continuous Audit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover S. Kearns


    Full Text Available Despite increased attention to internal controls and risk assessment, traditional audit approaches do not seem to be highly effective in uncovering the majority of frauds. Less than 20 percent of all occupational frauds are uncovered by auditors. Forensic accounting has recognized the need for automated approaches to fraud analysis yet research has not examined the benefits of forensic continuous auditing as a method to detect and deter corporate fraud. The purpose of this paper is to show how such an approach is possible. A model is presented that supports the acceptance of forensic continuous auditing by auditors and management as an effective tool to support the audit function, meet management’s regulatory objectives, and to combat fraud. An approach to developing such a system is presented.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael


    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  14. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Swanepoel


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.

  15. The future of forensic DNA analysis (United States)

    Butler, John M.


    The author's thoughts and opinions on where the field of forensic DNA testing is headed for the next decade are provided in the context of where the field has come over the past 30 years. Similar to the Olympic motto of ‘faster, higher, stronger’, forensic DNA protocols can be expected to become more rapid and sensitive and provide stronger investigative potential. New short tandem repeat (STR) loci have expanded the core set of genetic markers used for human identification in Europe and the USA. Rapid DNA testing is on the verge of enabling new applications. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to provide greater depth of coverage for information on STR alleles. Familial DNA searching has expanded capabilities of DNA databases in parts of the world where it is allowed. Challenges and opportunities that will impact the future of forensic DNA are explored including the need for education and training to improve interpretation of complex DNA profiles. PMID:26101278

  16. Role of Radiology in Forensic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Chandrasekhar


    Full Text Available Forensic radiology is a specialized area of medical imaging utilizing radiological techniques to assist physicians and pathologists in matter pertaining to the law. Postmortem dental radiographs are the most consistent part of the antemortem records that can be transmitted during the forensic examination procedures. Pathologists regularly use radiographic images during the course of autopsy to assist them in identification of foreign bodies or determination of death. Forensic radiology can be used in suspicious death or murder, in analysis of adverse medical events, solving legal matters, to detect child abuse, drug trafficking, body identification and disease identification. Using the possibilities of radiology, special characteristics of the internal structures of the dentomaxillofacial region can be revealed. We can also detect endodontic treatments, healing extraction sockets, implants or even tooth colored restoration. Therefore, we can give answers to problems dealing with identification procedures, mass disaster and dental age estimation.

  17. Forensic neuropsychology and expert witness testimony: An overview of forensic practice. (United States)

    Leonard, Elizabeth L


    Neuropsychologists are frequently asked to serve as expert witnesses in an increasing number of legal contexts for civil and criminal proceedings. The skills required to practice forensic neuropsychology expand upon the knowledge, skills, and abilities developed by clinical neuropsychologists. Forensic neuropsychologists acquire expertise in understanding the roles and various functions of the legal system, as well as their role in addressing psycholegal questions to assist fact finders in making legal decisions. The required skills and the unique circumstances for clinical neuropsychologists pursing forensic work are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computer Forensics Field Triage Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus K. Rogers


    Full Text Available With the proliferation of digital based evidence, the need for the timely identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence is becoming more crucial. In many investigations critical information is required while at the scene or within a short period of time - measured in hours as opposed to days. The traditional cyber forensics approach of seizing a system(s/media, transporting it to the lab, making a forensic image(s, and then searching the entire system for potential evidence, is no longer appropriate in some circumstances. In cases such as child abductions, pedophiles, missing or exploited persons, time is of the essence. In these types of cases, investigators dealing with the suspect or crime scene need investigative leads quickly; in some cases it is the difference between life and death for the victim(s. The Cyber Forensic Field Triage Process Model (CFFTPM proposes an onsite or field approach for providing the identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence in a short time frame, without the requirement of having to take the system(s/media back to the lab for an in-depth examination or acquiring a complete forensic image(s. The proposed model adheres to commonly held forensic principles, and does not negate the ability that once the initial field triage is concluded, the system(s/storage media be transported back to a lab environment for a more thorough examination and analysis. The CFFTPM has been successfully used in various real world cases, and its investigative importance and pragmatic approach has been amply demonstrated. Furthermore, the derived evidence from these cases has not been challenged in the court proceedings where it has been introduced. The current article describes the CFFTPM in detail, discusses the model’s forensic soundness, investigative support capabilities and practical considerations.

  19. Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences (United States)

    Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.


    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955–1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 ± 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

  20. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession. A Survey of Educational Offerings in the Forensic Sciences. Volume I. (United States)

    Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

    This survey of the educational offerings in the Forensic Sciences was initiated to identify institutions and agencies offering educational courses and/or programs in the forensic sciences and to evaluate the availability of these programs. The information gathered by surveying members of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences reveals that…

  1. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 2: specific issues. (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H


    This paper describes the main areas of civil forensic psychiatry (FP) and the skills required by psychiatric experts. Some specific areas of civil FP are discussed, including tort law reform, reliability of psychiatric evidence, contentious psychiatric disorders, and the many domains of civil FP. Civil FP is an important sub-specialty component of forensic psychiatry that requires greater emphasis in the training and continuing education of psychiatrists. A process of accrediting psychiatrists as having competency in advanced civil FP may be of value.

  2. Discourses of aggression in forensic mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berring, Lene Lauge; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels


    aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale......Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how...

  3. Location tracking forensics on mobile devices (United States)

    Sack, Stefan; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner


    The spread of navigation devices has increased significantly over the last 10 years. With the help of the current development of even smaller navigation receiver units it is to navigate with almost any current smart phone. Modern navigation systems are no longer limited to satellite navigation, but use current techniques, e.g. WLAN localization. Due to the increased use of navigation devices their relevance to forensic investigations has risen rapidly. Because navigation, for example with navigation equipment and smartphones, have become common place these days, also the amount of saved navigation data has risen rapidly. All of these developments lead to a necessary forensic analysis of these devices. However, there are very few current procedures for investigating of navigation devices. Navigation data is forensically interesting because by the position of the devices in most cases the location and the traveled path of the owner can be reconstructed. In this work practices for forensic analysis of navigation devices are developed. Different devices will be analyzed and it is attempted, by means of forensic procedures to restore the traveled path of the mobile device. For analysis of the various devices different software and hardware is used. There will be presented common procedures for securing and testing of mobile devices. Further there will be represented the specials in the investigation of each device. The different classes considered are GPS handhelds, mobile navigation devices and smartphones. It will be attempted, wherever possible, to read all data of the device. The aim is to restore complete histories of the navigation data and to forensically study and analyze these data. This is realized by the usage of current forensic software e.g. TomTology or Oxygen Forensic Suite. It is also attempted to use free software whenever possible. Further alternative methods are used (e.g. rooting) to access locked data of the unit. To limit the practical work the

  4. Children's developmental characteristics in the forensic interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje


    Full Text Available Children can be credible witnesses in court procedures given an adequately conducted forensic interview with them. This paper presents the most important features of a child's development (the cognitive and socioemotional development and the development of language and communication and from these features derives the specific guidelines for forensic interviews of children. Due to the frequent belief that children can be led to false witnessing and that they do not differentiate between reality and fantasy the topics of lying and suggestibility are also discussed. At the end some practical suggestions are given with recommendations for trainings of all professionals working with children that are potential witnesses.

  5. Forensic 3D documentation of skin injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara


    An accurate and precise documentation of injuries is fundamental in a forensic pathological context. Photographs and manual measurements are taken of all injuries during autopsies, but ordinary photography projects a 3D wound on a 2D space. Using technologies such as photogrammetry, it is possible...... methods (p > 0.05). The results of intra- and inter-observer tests indicated perfect agreement between the observers with mean value differences of ≤ 0.02 cm. This study demonstrated the validity of using photogrammetry for documentation of injuries in a forensic pathological context. Importantly...

  6. [Forensic toxicology, a growing scientific discipline]. (United States)

    Augsburger, Marc; Staub, Christian


    Forensic toxicology has to bring evidence of substances that could have been involved directly or indirectly in the cause of death or that could influence the behaviour of somebody. The increase of the consumption of illegal and legal drugs in modern societies during last decades gave a boost to forensic toxicology. Moreover, improvement with analytical technology gave tools with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity for the screening and quantification of a large amount of substances in various biological specimens, even with very low concentration resulting of a single dose of medication.

  7. The Research on Linux Memory Forensics (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Che, ShengBing


    Memory forensics is a branch of computer forensics. It does not depend on the operating system API, and analyzes operating system information from binary memory data. Based on the 64-bit Linux operating system, it analyzes system process and thread information from physical memory data. Using ELF file debugging information and propose a method for locating kernel structure member variable, it can be applied to different versions of the Linux operating system. The experimental results show that the method can successfully obtain the sytem process information from physical memory data, and can be compatible with multiple versions of the Linux kernel.

  8. Using noise inconsistencies for blind image forensics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saic, Stanislav; Mahdian, Babak


    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2009), s. 1497-1503 ISSN 0262-8856 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Image forensics * Digital forgery * Image tampering * Image segmentation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2009

  9. Distinguishing between forensic science and forensic pseudoscience: testing of validity and reliability, and approaches to forensic voice comparison. (United States)

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart


    In this paper it is argued that one should not attempt to directly assess whether a forensic analysis technique is scientifically acceptable. Rather one should first specify what one considers to be appropriate principles governing acceptable practice, then consider any particular approach in light of those principles. This paper focuses on one principle: the validity and reliability of an approach should be empirically tested under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation using test data drawn from the relevant population. Versions of this principle have been key elements in several reports on forensic science, including forensic voice comparison, published over the last four-and-a-half decades. The aural-spectrographic approach to forensic voice comparison (also known as "voiceprint" or "voicegram" examination) and the currently widely practiced auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach are considered in light of this principle (these two approaches do not appear to be mutually exclusive). Approaches based on data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models are also considered in light of this principle. © 2013.

  10. Nuclear forensics and nuclear analytical chemistry - iridium determination in a referred forensic sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.K.; Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Tripathi, A.B.R.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Ghosh, P.


    Nuclear approaches for compositional characterization has bright application prospect in forensic perspective towards assessment of nature and origin of seized material. The macro and micro physical properties of nuclear materials can be specifically associated with a process or type of nuclear activity. Under the jurisdiction of nuclear analytical chemistry as well as nuclear forensics, thrust areas of scientific endeavor like determination of radioisotopes, isotopic and mass ratios, analysis for impurity contents, arriving at chemical forms/species and physical parameters play supporting evidence in forensic investigations. The analytical methods developed for this purposes can be used in international safeguards as well for nuclear forensics. Nuclear material seized in nuclear trafficking can be identified and a profile of the nuclear material can be created

  11. Digital Records Forensics: A New Science and Academic Program for Forensic Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Duranti


    Full Text Available This paper introduces the Digital Records Forensics project, a research endeavour located at the University of British Columbia in Canada and aimed at the development of a new science resulting from the integration of digital forensics with diplomatics, archival science, information science and the law of evidence, and of an interdisciplinary graduate degree program, called Digital Records Forensics Studies, directed to professionals working for law enforcement agencies, legal firms, courts, and all kind of institutions and business that require their services. The program anticipates the need for organizations to become “forensically ready,” defined by John Tan as “maximizing the ability of an environment to collect credible digital evidence while minimizing the cost of an incident response (Tan, 2001.” The paper argues the need for such a program, describes its nature and content, and proposes ways of delivering it.

  12. Guidelines for procedures of a harmonised digital forensic process in network forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G


    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new computing paradigm that presents fresh research issues in the field of digital forensics. Cloud computing builds upon virtualisation technologies and is distributed in nature. Depending on its implementation, the cloud can...

  13. Broad-Scale Genetic Diversity of Cannabis for Forensic Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Dufresnes

    Full Text Available Cannabis (hemp and marijuana is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative to characterize drug vs. non-drug Cannabis. However, forensic applications require rapid and affordable genotyping of informative and reliable molecular markers for which a broad-scale reference database, representing both intra- and inter-variety variation, is available. Here we provide such a resource for Cannabis, by genotyping 13 microsatellite loci (STRs in 1 324 samples selected specifically for fibre (24 hemp varieties and drug (15 marijuana varieties production. We showed that these loci are sufficient to capture most of the genome-wide diversity patterns recently revealed by NGS data. We recovered strong genetic structure between marijuana and hemp and demonstrated that anonymous samples can be confidently assigned to either plant types. Fibres appear genetically homogeneous whereas drugs show low (often clonal diversity within varieties, but very high genetic differentiation between them, likely resulting from breeding practices. Based on an additional test dataset including samples from 41 local police seizures, we showed that the genetic signature of marijuana cultivars could be used to trace crime scene evidence. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive genetic resource for Cannabis forensics worldwide.

  14. Broad-Scale Genetic Diversity of Cannabis for Forensic Applications. (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Jan, Catherine; Bienert, Friederike; Goudet, Jérôme; Fumagalli, Luca


    Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative to characterize drug vs. non-drug Cannabis. However, forensic applications require rapid and affordable genotyping of informative and reliable molecular markers for which a broad-scale reference database, representing both intra- and inter-variety variation, is available. Here we provide such a resource for Cannabis, by genotyping 13 microsatellite loci (STRs) in 1 324 samples selected specifically for fibre (24 hemp varieties) and drug (15 marijuana varieties) production. We showed that these loci are sufficient to capture most of the genome-wide diversity patterns recently revealed by NGS data. We recovered strong genetic structure between marijuana and hemp and demonstrated that anonymous samples can be confidently assigned to either plant types. Fibres appear genetically homogeneous whereas drugs show low (often clonal) diversity within varieties, but very high genetic differentiation between them, likely resulting from breeding practices. Based on an additional test dataset including samples from 41 local police seizures, we showed that the genetic signature of marijuana cultivars could be used to trace crime scene evidence. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive genetic resource for Cannabis forensics worldwide.

  15. Significance of Dental Records in Personal Identification in Forensic Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagish Kumar L Shanbhag


    Full Text Available Forensic odontology is a branch that connects dentistry and the legal profession. One of the members in the forensic investigation team is a dentist. Dentists play an important and significant role in various aspects of the identification of persons in various forensic circumstances. However, several dentists and legal professionals are quite ignorant of this fascinating aspect of forensic odontology. A need was felt to fill this gap. The dental record is a legal document possessed by the dentist and it contains subjective and objective information about the patient. A PubMed search and Google search were done for articles highlighting the importance of dental records in forensic sciences using the key words "forensic odontology, forensic dentistry, forensic dentists, identification, dental records, and dental chart". A total of 42 articles relevant to the title of the article were found and reviewed. The present article highlights the role of dentists in forensic sciences, their possible contributions to forensics, and the various aspects of forensic dentistry, thus bridging the gap of knowledge between the legal and the dental fraternities.

  16. Cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry training. (United States)

    Layde, Joseph B


    Forensic psychiatry was officially recognized as a subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties in the 1990's. In 1994, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) gave its first written examination to certify forensic psychiatrists. In 1996, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) began to officially accredit one-year residency experiences in forensic psychiatry, which follow a 4-year residency in general psychiatry. The extra year of training, colloquially known as a fellowship, is required for candidates who wish to receive certification in the subspecialty of forensic psychiatry; since 2001, completion of a year of training in a program accredited by ACGME has been required for candidates wishing to take the ABPN forensic psychiatry subspecialty examination. With the formal recognition of the subspecialty of forensic psychiatry comes the need to examine special issues of cultural importance which apply specifically to forensic psychiatry training. This paper examines the current literature on cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry, sets out several of the societal reasons for the importance of emphasizing those issues in forensic psychiatric training, and discusses how those issues are addressed in the curriculum of one forensic psychiatry fellowship at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW). While much has been written about cross-cultural issues in general psychiatry, very little has appeared in the literature on the topic of cross-cultural issues in forensic psychiatry.

  17. Computer Forensics for Graduate Accountants: A Motivational Curriculum Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Kearns


    Full Text Available Computer forensics involves the investigation of digital sources to acquire evidence that can be used in a court of law. It can also be used to identify and respond to threats to hosts and systems. Accountants use computer forensics to investigate computer crime or misuse, theft of trade secrets, theft of or destruction of intellectual property, and fraud. Education of accountants to use forensic tools is a goal of the AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Accounting students, however, may not view information technology as vital to their career paths and need motivation to acquire forensic knowledge and skills. This paper presents a curriculum design methodology for teaching graduate accounting students computer forensics. The methodology is tested using perceptions of the students about the success of the methodology and their acquisition of forensics knowledge and skills. An important component of the pedagogical approach is the use of an annotated list of over 50 forensic web-based tools.

  18. Scenario-Based Digital Forensics Challenges in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Miranda Lopez


    Full Text Available The aim of digital forensics is to extract information to answer the 5Ws (Why, When, Where, What, and Who from the data extracted from the evidence. In order to achieve this, most digital forensic processes assume absolute control of digital evidence. However, in a cloud environment forensic investigation, this is not always possible. Additionally, the unique characteristics of cloud computing create new technical, legal and architectural challenges when conducting a forensic investigation. We propose a hypothetical scenario to uncover and explain the challenges forensic practitioners face during cloud investigations. Additionally, we also provide solutions to address the challenges. Our hypothetical case scenario has shown that, in the long run, better live forensic tools, development of new methods tailored for cloud investigations and new procedures and standards are indeed needed. Furthermore, we have come to the conclusion that forensic investigations biggest challenge is not technical but legal.

  19. Application of DNA-based methods in forensic entomology. (United States)

    Wells, Jeffrey D; Stevens, Jamie R


    A forensic entomological investigation can benefit from a variety of widely practiced molecular genotyping methods. The most commonly used is DNA-based specimen identification. Other applications include the identification of insect gut contents and the characterization of the population genetic structure of a forensically important insect species. The proper application of these procedures demands that the analyst be technically expert. However, one must also be aware of the extensive list of standards and expectations that many legal systems have developed for forensic DNA analysis. We summarize the DNA techniques that are currently used in, or have been proposed for, forensic entomology and review established genetic analyses from other scientific fields that address questions similar to those in forensic entomology. We describe how accepted standards for forensic DNA practice and method validation are likely to apply to insect evidence used in a death or other forensic entomological investigation.

  20. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA (United States)

    Butler, John M.


    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. PMID:26164236

  1. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA. (United States)

    Butler, John M


    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Analysis of forensic odontological examinations at the National Forensic Service of Korea from 2011 to 2015. (United States)

    Roh, Byung-Yoon; Lee, Won-Joon; Seo, Jeong-Uk; Lee, U-Young; Lee, Sang-Seob


    The National Forensic Service (NFS) of Korea is a government agency responsible for examining and evaluating evidence obtained at crime scenes. The Section of Forensic Odontology of the Medical Examiner's Office conducts forensic odontological analyses of human remains, and mainly criminal cases are handled. In this study, 588 forensic odontological cases referred to NFS during 2011-2015 were analyzed for referral pattern, evidence material, examination criteria, and other factors and were compared with respective data from 2007 to 2010. Majority of the requests were internal (further dental examinations after autopsy) rather than external (direct requests from other agencies such as police departments). Regarding evidence materials, "Teeth" (including teeth and resected jaws) were dominant evidences. Due to the seasonal effects in Korea, the highest number of requests was in September of each year, but the number of requests in April has recently increased. Evidence materials were mostly found in suburban and rural area, especially in mountainous area due to the geographic characteristics of Korea. Regarding specific examinations, profiling, including age estimation, accounted for majority of the requests; this number had increased relative to the findings of a previous study, whereas the number of requests for dental identification and bite mark analysis had decreased. With this analysis, trends in forensic odontology can be observed, and we expect that these trends would be served as a reference for designing study and making training protocol for forensic odontology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Rise of Forensic Pathology in Human Medicine: Lessons for Veterinary Forensic Pathology. (United States)

    Pollanen, M S


    The rise of forensic pathology in human medicine has greatly contributed to the administration of justice, public safety and security, and medical knowledge. However, the evolution of human forensic pathology has been challenging. Veterinary forensic pathologists can learn from some of the lessons that have informed the growth and development of human forensic pathology. Three main observations have emerged in the past decade. First, wrongful convictions tell us to use a truth-seeking stance rather than an a priori "think dirty" stance when investigating obscure death. Second, missed homicides and concealed homicides tell us that training and certification are the beginning of reliable forensic pathology. Third, failure of a sustainable institutional arrangement that fosters a combination of service, research, and teaching will lead to stagnation of knowledge. Forensic pathology of humans and animals will flourish, help protect society, and support justice if we embrace a modern biomedical scientific model for our practice. We must build training programs, contribute to the published literature, and forge strong collaborative institutions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Summary of the Midwest conference on small-scale hydropower in the Midwest: an old technology whose time has come

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A variety of decision makers convened to examine and discuss certain significant problems associated with small-scale hydroelectric development in the Midwestern region, comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. The conference opened with an introductory panel of resource persons who outlined the objectives of the conference, presented information on small-scale hydro, and described the materials available to conference participants. A series of workshop sessions followed. Two of the workshop sessions discussed problems and policy responses raised by state and Federal regulation. The remaining two workshops dealt with economic issues confronting small-scale hydro development and the operation and usefulness of the systems dynamics model developed by the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College. A plenary session and recommendations completed the workshop.

  5. Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; de Bruin, Karla G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.


    Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time

  6. Review of Forensic Tools for Smartphones (United States)

    Jahankhani, Hamid; Azam, Amir

    The technological capability of mobile devices in particular Smartphones makes their use of value to the criminal community as a data terminal in the facilitation of organised crime or terrorism. The effective targeting of these devices from criminal and security intelligence perspectives and subsequent detailed forensic examination of the targeted device will significantly enhance the evidence available to the law enforcement community. When phone devices are involved in crimes, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval and prompt examination of information present on these devices. Smartphones that are compliant to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) standards, will maintains their identity and user's personal information on Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). Beside SIM cards, substantial amount of information is stored on device's internal memory and external memory modules. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the currently available forensic software tools that are developed to carry out forensic investigation of mobile devices and point to current weaknesses within this process.

  7. Microfluidic chips for clinical and forensic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorte, Elisabeth


    This review gives an overview of developments in the field of microchip analysis for clinical diagnostic and forensic applications. The approach chosen to review the literature is different from that in most microchip reviews to date, in that the information is presented in terms of analytes tested

  8. Unsupervised signature extraction from forensic logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaler, S.M.; Menkovski, V.; Petkovic, M.; Altun, Y.; Das, K.; Mielikäinen, T.; Malerba, D.; Stefanowski, J.; Read, J.; Žitnik, M.; Ceci, M.


    Signature extraction is a key part of forensic log analysis. It involves recognizing patterns in log lines such that log lines that originated from the same line of code are grouped together. A log signature consists of immutable parts and mutable parts. The immutable parts define the signature, and

  9. SOFIR: Securely Outsourced Forensic Image Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bösch, C.T.; Peter, Andreas; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem

    Forensic image recognition tools are used by law enforcement agencies all over the world to automatically detect illegal images on confiscated equipment. This detection is commonly done with the help of a strictly confidential database consisting of hash values of known illegal images. To detect and

  10. DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment (United States)

    Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.


    This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

  11. Best practice approach to live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM


    Full Text Available acquisition should take place to ensure forensic soundness. At the time of writing, this Liforac model is the first document of this nature that could be found for analysis. It serves as a foundation for future models that can refine the current processes....

  12. View based approach to forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; van Rootseler, R.T.A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    Face recognition is a challenging problem for surveillance view images commonly encountered in a forensic face recognition case. One approach to deal with a non-frontal test image is to synthesize the corresponding frontal view image and compare it with frontal view reference images. However, it is

  13. Service audit of a forensic rehabilitation ward. (United States)

    Young, Susan; Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Needham-Bennett, Humphrey; Chick, Kay


    An open forensic rehabilitation ward provides an important link bridging the gap between secure and community provisions. This paper provides an audit of such a service by examining the records of an open forensic rehabilitation ward over a five-year period from 1 June 2000 until 31 May 2005. During the audit period there were 51 admissions, involving 45 different patients, and 50 discharges. The majority of the patients came from secure unit facilities, acute psychiatric wards or home. Thirty-nine patients were discharged either into hostels (66%) or their home (12%). The majority of patients (80%) had on admission a primary diagnosis of either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Most had an extensive forensic history. The focus of their admission was to assess and treat their mental illness/disorder and offending behaviour and this was successful as the majority of patients were transferred to a community placement after a mean of 15 months. It is essential that there is a well-integrated care pathway for forensic patients, involving constructive liaison with generic services and a well-structured treatment programme which integrates the key principles of the 'recovery model' approach to care.

  14. Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton. (United States)

    Bruce, Alease


    Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

  15. A forensic application of PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, I.I.; Dunnam, F.E.; Rinsvelt, H.A. van; Warren, M.W.; Falsetti, A.B.


    PIXE measurements were performed on various calcareous materials including identified bone residues, human cremains, and samples of disputed origin. In a forensic application, the elemental analysis suggests that the origin of a sample suspectly classified as human cremains can tentatively be identified as a mixture of sandy soil and dolomitic limestone

  16. Extraction and Forensic Analysis of wearables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, J.; Geradts, Z.


    Wearables are an increasingly big item in mobile forensics, in large part due to the ever increasing popularity of social media. A device that falls into this category is Google Glass. A big part of the Google Glass interface is dedicated to social media functions. A side-effect of these functions

  17. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Radiation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Radiation detection is necessary for isotope identification and assay in nuclear forensic applications. The principles of operation of gas proportional counters, scintillation counters, germanium and silicon semiconductor counters will be presented. Methods for calibration and potential pitfalls in isotope quantification will be described.

  18. Forensic Psychology in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polišenská, Veronika


    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2007), s. 55-67 ISSN 1544-4759 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA406/07/0261 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : forensic psychology * Czech Republic * institutions Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  19. Domain-Specific Optimization in Digital Forensics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van den Bos (Jeroen); T. van der Storm (Tijs); Z. Hu; J. de Lara


    htmlabstractFile carvers are forensic software tools used to recover data from storage devices in order to find evidence. Every legal case requires different trade-offs between precision and runtime performance. The resulting required changes to the software tools are performed manually and under

  20. Automatic Speaker Recognition for Mobile Forensic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Algabri


    Full Text Available Presently, lawyers, law enforcement agencies, and judges in courts use speech and other biometric features to recognize suspects. In general, speaker recognition is used for discriminating people based on their voices. The process of determining, if a suspected speaker is the source of trace, is called forensic speaker recognition. In such applications, the voice samples are most probably noisy, the recording sessions might mismatch each other, the sessions might not contain sufficient recording for recognition purposes, and the suspect voices are recorded through mobile channel. The identification of a person through his voice within a forensic quality context is challenging. In this paper, we propose a method for forensic speaker recognition for the Arabic language; the King Saud University Arabic Speech Database is used for obtaining experimental results. The advantage of this database is that each speaker’s voice is recorded in both clean and noisy environments, through a microphone and a mobile channel. This diversity facilitates its usage in forensic experimentations. Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients are used for feature extraction and the Gaussian mixture model-universal background model is used for speaker modeling. Our approach has shown low equal error rates (EER, within noisy environments and with very short test samples.

  1. Implant - Identification Tool for Forensic Dentistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálová, T.; Eliášová, H.; Seydlová, M.; Zvárová, Jana


    Roč. 19, č. 9 (2008), s. 926-926 ISSN 0905-7161. [EAO Annual Scientific Meeting /17./. 18.09.2008-20.09.2008, Warsaw] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : forensic dentistry * identification * electronic health record Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  2. Electronic Health Record for Forensic Dentistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvárová, Jana; Dostálová, T.; Hanzlíček, Petr; Teuberová, Z.; Nagy, Miroslav; Pieš, Martin; Seydlová, M.; Eliášová, H.; Šimková, H.


    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2008), s. 8-13 ISSN 0026-1270 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : electronic health record * structured data entry * forensic dentistry Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.057, year: 2008

  3. Digital forensic readiness in a cloud environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G


    Full Text Available -jurisdictions. As such, service providers hosting the data that may be required for digital forensic investigation may be reluctant to comply with foreign law enforcement agencies. Even if they comply, this may be a costly and time-consuming exercise, given the amount...

  4. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, Robert S.


    Radiation detection is necessary for isotope identification and assay in nuclear forensic applications. The principles of operation of gas proportional counters, scintillation counters, germanium and silicon semiconductor counters will be presented. Methods for calibration and potential pitfalls in isotope quantification will be described.

  5. Qualify of Life of Forensic Psychiatric Inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, C. van; Nijman, H.L.I.


    In this article, the quality of life (QoL) of mentally disordered offenders was investigated. The data of 44 forensic psychiatric inpatients were analyzed using the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile (LQoLP), Rehabilitation Evaluation Hall and Baker (REHAB), and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised

  6. Biometric Score Calibration for Forensic Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef


    When two biometric specimens are compared using an automatic biometric recognition system, a similarity metric called “score‿ can be computed. In forensics, one of the biometric specimens is from an unknown source, for example, from a CCTV footage or a fingermark found at a crime scene and the other

  7. Forensic accounting in the fraud auditing case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Simeunović


    Full Text Available This paper presents a real case of digital forensic analysis in organizational fraud auditing process investigated using two different forensic tools, namely Tableau TD3 Touch Screen Forensic Imager and Access Data FTK Imager. Fraud auditing is more of a mindset than a methodology and has different approaches from financial auditing. Fraud auditors are mostly focused on exceptions, accounting irregularities, and patterns of their conduct. Financial auditors place special emphasis on the audit trail and material misstatements. A fraud case investigation of non-cash misappropriations committed by an employee, the warehouseman, will be presented herein in order to highlight the usefulness of fraud auditing, which can reveal many forms of financial crime and can be used in both private and public sector companies. Due to the computerized accounting environment, fraud investigation requires a combination of auditing, computer crime and digital forensic investigation skills, which can be achieved through joint efforts and cooperation of both digital investigator and fraud auditor as proposed herein.

  8. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison. (United States)

    White, David; Phillips, P Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J


    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. 'Forensic' labelling: an empirical assessment of its effects on self-stigma for people with severe mental illness. (United States)

    Livingston, James D; Rossiter, Katherine R; Verdun-Jones, Simon N


    Increasingly, specialized 'forensic' mental health services are being developed to address the criminogenic and clinical needs of people with mental illness who are involved in the criminal justice system. Theoretically, the construction of such specialized services can produce simultaneous positive benefits and negative consequences. This mixed methods study examined and compared the level of self-stigma that was experienced by people who receive compulsory community-based treatment services in the forensic (n=52) and civil (n=39) mental health systems of British Columbia, Canada. The quantitative findings indicate that 'forensic' labelling was not associated with elevated levels of self-stigma. Quantitative level of self-stigma was significantly associated with psychiatric symptom severity, history of incarceration, and history of homelessness. The qualitative findings suggest that access to high-quality, well-resourced forensic mental health services may, for some service users, come at the risk of increased exposure to social and structural stigma. Together, these findings reveal some of the strengths and weaknesses that are associated with organizing forensic mental health services using a specialized service delivery model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nurses' Views Highlight a Need for the Systematic Development of Patient Safety Culture in Forensic Psychiatry Nursing. (United States)

    Kuosmanen, Anssi; Tiihonen, Jari; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Eronen, Markku; Turunen, Hannele


    Although forensic nurses work with the most challenging psychiatric patients and manifest a safety culture in their interactions with patients, there have been few studies on patient safety culture in forensic psychiatric nursing. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe nurses' views of patient safety culture in their working unit and daily hospital work in 2 forensic hospitals in Finland. Data were collected over a period of 1 month by inviting nurses to answer an open-ended question in an anonymous Web-based questionnaire. A qualitative inductive analysis was performed on nurses' (n = 72) written descriptions of patient safety culture in state-owned forensic hospitals where most Finnish forensic patients are treated. Six main themes were identified: "systematization of an open and trusting communication culture," "visible and close interaction between managers and staff," "nonpunitive responses to errors, learning and developing," "balancing staff and patient perspectives on safety culture," "operational safety guidelines," and "adequate human resources to ensure safety." The findings highlight the influence of the prevailing culture on safety behaviors and outcomes for both healthcare workers and patients. Additionally, they underline the importance of an open culture with open communication and protocols.

  11. On the application of semantic technologies to the domain of forensic investigations in financial crimes (United States)

    Scheidat, Tobias; Merkel, Ronny; Krummel, Volker; Gerlach, Andreas; Weisensee, Michala; Zeihe, Jana; Dittmann, Jana


    In daily police practice, forensic investigation of criminal cases is mainly based on manual work and the experience of individual forensic experts, using basic storage and data processing technologies. However, an individual criminal case does not only consist of the actual offence, but also of a variety of different aspects involved. For example, in order to solve a financial criminal case, an investigator has to find interrelations between different case entities as well as to other cases. The required information about these different entities is often stored in various databases and mostly requires to be manually requested and processed by forensic investigators. We propose the application of semantic technologies to the domain of forensic investigations at the example of financial crimes. Such combination allows for modelling specific case entities and their interrelations within and between cases. As a result, an explorative search of connections between case entities in the scope of an investigation as well as an automated derivation of conclusions from an established fact base is enabled. The proposed model is presented in the form of a crime field ontology, based on different types of knowledge obtained from three individual sources: open source intelligence, forensic investigators and captive interviews of detained criminals. The modelled crime field ontology is illustrated at two examples using the well known crime type of explosive attack on ATM and the potentially upcoming crime type data theft by NFC crowd skimming. Of these criminal modi operandi, anonymized fictional are modelled, visualized and exploratively searched. Modelled case entities include modi operandi, events, actors, resources, exploited weaknesses as well as flows of money, data and know how. The potential exploration of interrelations between the different case entities of such examples is illustrated in the scope of a fictitious investigation, highlighting the potential of the

  12. The redesigned Forensic Research/Reference on Genetics-knowledge base, FROG-kb. (United States)

    Kidd, Kenneth K; Soundararajan, Usha; Rajeevan, Haseena; Pakstis, Andrew J; Moore, Katherine N; Ropero-Miller, Jeri D


    The Forensic Resource/Reference on Genetics-knowledge base (FROG-kb) web site was introduced in 2011 and in the five years since the previous publication ongoing research into how the database can better serve forensics has resulted in extensive redesign of the database interface and functionality. Originally designed as a prototype to support forensic use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), FROG-kb provides a freely accessible web interface that facilitates forensic practice and can be useful for teaching and research. Based on knowledge gained through its use, the web interface has been redesigned for easier navigation through the multiple components. The site also has functional enhancements, extensive new documentation, and new reference panels of SNPs with new curated data. FROG-kb focuses on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and provides reference population data for several published panels of individual identification SNPs (IISNPs) and several published panels of ancestry inference SNPs (AISNPs). For each of the various marker panels with reference population data, FROG-kb calculates random match probabilities (RMP) and relative likelihoods of ancestry for a user-entered genotype profile (either completely or partially specified). Example genotype profiles are available and the User's Manual presents interpretation guidelines for the calculations. The extensive documentation along with ongoing updates makes FROG-kb a comprehensive tool in facilitating use of SNPs in forensic practice and education. An overview of the new FROG-kb with examples and material explaining the results of its use are presented here. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A feasibility study of stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected photovoltaic systems in the Upper Midwest (United States)

    Warren, Ryan Duwain

    performance analyses were performed for both systems; results were quantified and compared between systems, focusing on measures of solar resource, energy generation, power production, and efficiency. This work also presents heat transfer characteristics of both arrays and quantifies the affects of operating temperature on PV system performance in terms of overall heat transfer coefficients and temperature coefficients for power. To assess potential performance of PV in the Upper Midwest, models were built to predict performance of the PV systems operating at lower temperatures. Economic analyses were performed for both systems focusing on measures of life-cycle cost, payback period, internal rate of return, and average incremental cost of solar energy. The potential economic feasibility of grid-connected stationary PV systems used for building energy generation in the Upper Midwest was assessed under assumptions of higher utility energy costs, lower initial installed costs, and different metering agreements. The annual average daily solar insolation seen by the stationary and dual-axis tracking systems was found to be 4.37 and 5.95 kWh/m2, respectively. In terms of energy generation, the tracking system outperformed the stationary system on annual, monthly, and often daily bases; normalized annual energy generation for the tracking and stationary systems were found to be 1,779 and 1,264 kWh/kWp, respectively. The annual average conversion efficiencies of the tracking and stationary systems were found to be approximately 11 and 10.7 percent, respectively. Annual performance ratio values of the tracking and stationary system were found to be 0.819 and 0.792, respectively. The net present values of both systems under all assumed discount rates were determined to be negative. Further, neither system was found to have a payback period less than the assumed system life of 25 years. The rate-of-return of the stationary and tracking systems were found to be -3.3 and -4.9 percent

  14. Book Review: Computer Forensics: Principles and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigang Liu


    Full Text Available Linda Volonino, Reynaldo Anzaldua, and Jana Godwin (2007. Computer Forensics: Principles and Practices. Pearson/Prentice Hall. 534 pages, ISBN: 0-13-154727-5 (paper, US$85.33Reviewed by Jigang Liu (, Department of Information and Computer Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Metropolitan State University, St. Paul, MN 55106“Computer Forensics: Principles and Practices” by Linda Volonino, Reynaldo Anzaldua, and Jana Godwin, published by Pearson/Prentice Hall in 2007 is one of the newest computer forensics textbooks on the market. The goal of the book, as the authors put it, is to teach “students who want to learn about electronic evidence – including what types exist and where it may be found – and the computer forensics methods to investigate it” so that they will be prepared “in a career in information security, criminal justice, accounting, law enforcement, and federal investigations – as well as computer forensics.”Linda, Reynaldo, and Jana are not only experienced college professors, but also industry bounded professionals. All of them have substantial working experience with law firms or law enforcement in dealing with both civil and criminal cases. They are all certified information system security professionals (CISSP. Their teaching experience at the college level and their working experience on real cases make this book a must-read book for a college professor.(see PDF for full review

  15. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics. (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun


    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium bovis from Cattle Reared in Midwest Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo César Tavares Carvalho

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB, the pathogen responsible for serious economic impact on the livestock sector. In order to obtain data on isolated M. bovis strains and assist in the control and eradication program for BTB, a cross sectional descriptive molecular epidemiology study in the Brazilian Midwest was conducted. Through spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR methods, 37 clinical isolates of M. bovis circulating in the region were analyzed, 10 isolated from the state of Mato Grosso, 12 from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and 15 from the state of Goiás. The spoligotyping analysis identified 10 distinct M. bovis profiles (SB0121 n = 14, SB0295 n = 6, SB0140 n = 6, SB0881 n = 3, SB1144 n = 2, SB1145 n = 2, SB0134 n = 1, SB1050 n = 1, SB1055 n = 1, SB1136 n = 1 grouped in six clusters and four orphan patterns. The MIRU-VNTR 24-loci grouped the same isolates in six clusters and 22 unique orphan patterns, showing higher discriminatory power than spoligotyping. When associating the results of both techniques, the isolates were grouped in five clusters and 24 unique M. bovis profiles. Among the 24-loci MIRU-VNTR evaluated, two, ETR-A and QUB 11b loci, showed high discriminatory ability (h = ≥ 0.50, while MIRU 16, MIRU 27, ETR-B, ETR-C, Mtub21 and QUB 26 loci showed moderate ability (h = 0.33 or h = 0.49 and were the most effective in evaluating the genotypic similarities among the clinical M. bovis isolate samples. Herein, the 29 patterns found amongst the 37 isolates of M. bovis circulating in the Brazilian Midwest can be due to the animal movement between regions, municipalities and farms, thus causing the spread of various M. bovis strains in herds from Midwest Brazil.

  17. Recent Acceleration of the Terrestrial Hydrologic Cycle in the U.S. Midwest (United States)

    Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Wu, Chuanhao


    Most hydroclimatic trend studies considered only a subset of water budget variables; hence, the trend consistency and a holistic assessment of hydrologic changes across the entire water cycle cannot be evaluated. Here we use a unique 31 year (1983-2013) observed data set in Illinois (a representative region of the U.S. Midwest), including temperature (T), precipitation (P), evaporation (E), streamflow (R), soil moisture, and groundwater level (GWL), to estimate the trends and their sensitivity to different data periods and lengths. Both the Mann-Kendall trend test and the least squares linear method identify trends in close agreement. Despite no clear trends during 1983-2013, increasing trends are found in P (8.73-9.05 mm/year), E (6.87-7.47 mm/year), and R (1.57-3.54 mm/year) during 1992-2013, concurrently with a pronounced warming trend of 0.029-0.037 °C/year. However, terrestrial water storageis decreased by -2.0 mm/year (mainly due to declining GWL), suggesting that the increased R is caused by increased surface runoff rather than baseflow. Monthly analyses identify warming trends for all months except winter. In summer, P (E) exhibits an increasing (decreasing) trend, leading to increasing R, soil moisture, GWL, and terrestrial water storage. Most trends estimated for different subperiods are found to be sensitive to data lengths and periods. Overall, this study provides an internally consistent observed evidence on the intensification of the hydrologic cycle in response to recent climate warming in U.S. Midwest, in agreement with and well supported by several recent studies consistently reporting the increased P, R and E over the Midwest and Mississippi River basin.

  18. Toward a general ontology for digital forensic disciplines. (United States)

    Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S


    Ontologies are widely used in different disciplines as a technique for representing and reasoning about domain knowledge. However, despite the widespread ontology-related research activities and applications in different disciplines, the development of ontologies and ontology research activities is still wanting in digital forensics. This paper therefore presents the case for establishing an ontology for digital forensic disciplines. Such an ontology would enable better categorization of the digital forensic disciplines, as well as assist in the development of methodologies and specifications that can offer direction in different areas of digital forensics. This includes such areas as professional specialization, certifications, development of digital forensic tools, curricula, and educational materials. In addition, the ontology presented in this paper can be used, for example, to better organize the digital forensic domain knowledge and explicitly describe the discipline's semantics in a common way. Finally, this paper is meant to spark discussions and further research on an internationally agreed ontological distinction of the digital forensic disciplines. Digital forensic disciplines ontology is a novel approach toward organizing the digital forensic domain knowledge and constitutes the main contribution of this paper. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Forensic age assessment of asylum seekers in Finland. (United States)

    Metsäniitty, Mari; Varkkola, Olli; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Ranta, Helena


    In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays. Forensic age assessment is always performed by two forensic odontologists. In 2015, the total number of forensic age assessment examinations was 149, and the countries of origin of the asylum seekers were most commonly Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia. The current legislation on forensic age assessment has been well received and approved. Radiological and other examinations can be performed in different parts of Finland, but the forensic odontologist at the University of Helsinki is always involved in the process and ensures joint quality standards for the forensic age assessment.

  20. A call for more science in forensic science. (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne; Sah, Sunita; Albright, Thomas D; Gates, S James; Denton, M Bonner; Casadevall, Arturo


    Forensic science is critical to the administration of justice. The discipline of forensic science is remarkably complex and includes methodologies ranging from DNA analysis to chemical composition to pattern recognition. Many forensic practices developed under the auspices of law enforcement and were vetted primarily by the legal system rather than being subjected to scientific scrutiny and empirical testing. Beginning in the 1990s, exonerations based on DNA-related methods revealed problems with some forensic disciplines, leading to calls for major reforms. This process generated a National Academy of Science report in 2009 that was highly critical of many forensic practices and eventually led to the establishment of the National Commission for Forensic Science (NCFS) in 2013. The NCFS was a deliberative body that catalyzed communication between nonforensic scientists, forensic scientists, and other stakeholders in the legal community. In 2017, despite continuing problems with forensic science, the Department of Justice terminated the NCFS. Just when forensic science needs the most support, it is getting the least. We urge the larger scientific community to come to the aid of our forensic colleagues by advocating for urgently needed research, testing, and financial support.

  1. Informing climate change adaptation in the Northeast and Midwest United States: The role of Climate Science Centers (United States)

    Bryan, A. M.; Morelli, T. L.


    The Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center (NE CSC) is part of a federal network of eight Climate Science Centers created to provide scientific information and tools that managers and other parties interested in land, water, wildlife, and cultural resources can use to anticipate, monitor, and adapt to climate change. The NE CSC partners with other federal agencies, universities, and NGOs to facilitate stakeholder interaction and delivery of scientific products. For example, NE CSC researchers have partnered with the National Park Service to help managers at Acadia National Park adapt their infrastructure, operations, and ecosystems to rising seas and more extreme events. In collaboration with the tribal College of Menominee Nation and Michigan State University, the NE CSC is working with indigenous communities in Michigan and Wisconsin to co-develop knowledge of how to preserve their natural and cultural values in the face of climate change. Recently, in its largest collaborative initiative to date, the NE CSC led a cross-institutional effort to produce a comprehensive synthesis of climate change, its impacts on wildlife and their habitats, and available adaptation strategies across the entire Northeast and Midwest region; the resulting document was used by wildlife managers in 22 states to revise their Wildlife Action Plans (WAPs). Additionally, the NE CSC is working with the Wildlife Conservation Society to help inform moose conservation management. Other research efforts include hydrological modeling to inform culvert sizing under greater rainfall intensity, forest and landscape modeling to inform tree planting that mitigates the spread of invasive species, species and habitat modeling to help identify suitable locations for wildlife refugia. In addition, experimental research is being conducted to improve our understanding of how species such as brook trout are responding to climate change. Interacting with stakeholders during all phases of

  2. Conceptualising forensic science and forensic reconstruction. Part I: A conceptual model. (United States)

    Morgan, R M


    There has been a call for forensic science to actively return to the approach of scientific endeavour. The importance of incorporating an awareness of the requirements of the law in its broadest sense, and embedding research into both practice and policy within forensic science, is arguably critical to achieving such an endeavour. This paper presents a conceptual model (FoRTE) that outlines the holistic nature of trace evidence in the 'endeavour' of forensic reconstruction. This model offers insights into the different components intrinsic to transparent, reproducible and robust reconstructions in forensic science. The importance of situating evidence within the whole forensic science process (from crime scene to court), of developing evidence bases to underpin each stage, of frameworks that offer insights to the interaction of different lines of evidence, and the role of expertise in decision making are presented and their interactions identified. It is argued that such a conceptual model has value in identifying the future steps for harnessing the value of trace evidence in forensic reconstruction. It also highlights that there is a need to develop a nuanced approach to reconstructions that incorporates both empirical evidence bases and expertise. A conceptual understanding has the potential to ensure that the endeavour of forensic reconstruction has its roots in 'problem-solving' science, and can offer transparency and clarity in the conclusions and inferences drawn from trace evidence, thereby enabling the value of trace evidence to be realised in investigations and the courts. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of selected near-term energy-conservation options for the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.R.; Colsher, C.S.; Hamilton, R.W.; Buehring, W.A.


    This report evaluates the potential for implementation of near-term energy-conservation practices for the residential, commercial, agricultural, industrial, transportation, and utility sectors of the economy in twelve states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The information used to evaluate the magnitude of achievable energy savings includes regional energy use, the regulatory/legislative climate relating to energy conservation, technical characteristics of the measures, and their feasibility of implementation. This work is intended to provide baseline information for an ongoing regional assessment of energy and environmental impacts in the Midwest. 80 references.

  4. Management and characteristics of recycled manure solids used for bedding in Midwest freestall dairy herds. (United States)

    Husfeldt, A W; Endres, M I; Salfer, J A; Janni, K A


    Interest in using recycled manure solids (RMS) as a bedding material for dairy cows has grown in the US Midwest. Cost of common bedding materials has increased in recent years and availability has decreased. Information regarding the composition of RMS and its use as a bedding material for dairy cows in the Midwest is very limited. The objectives of this study were to characterize RMS as a bedding material, observe bedding management practices, document methods of obtaining RMS, and describe housing facilities. We visited 38 Midwest dairy operations bedding freestalls with RMS to collect data. Methods of obtaining RMS for bedding included separation of anaerobic digested manure, separation of raw manure, and separation of raw manure followed by mechanical drum-composting for 18 to 24 h. Average bedding moisture of unused RMS was 72.4% with a pH of 9.16. Unused samples contained (on a dry basis) 1.4% N, 44.9% C, 32.7C:N ratio, 0.44% P, 0.70% K, 76.5% neutral detergent fiber, 9.4% ash, 4.4% nonfiber carbohydrates, and 1.1% fat. Moisture was lowest for drum-composted solids before and after use as freestall bedding. After use in the stalls, digested solids had lower neutral detergent fiber content (70.5%) than drum-composted (75.0%) and separated raw (73.1%) solids. Total N content was greater in digested solids (2.0%) than in separated raw (1.7%) solids. Total bacterial populations in unused bedding were greatest in separated raw manure solids but were similar between digested and drum-composted manure solids. Drum-composted manure solids had no coliform bacteria before use as freestall bedding. After use as bedding, digested manure solids had lower total bacteria counts compared with drum-composted and separated raw manure solids, which had similar counts. Used bedding samples of digested solids contained fewer environmental streptococci than drum-composted and separated raw solids and had reduced Bacillus counts compared with separated raw solids. Coliform counts

  5. Plans for dealing with loss of access to the Midwest Compact Regional Disposal Facility: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report describes events that could lead to the premature closure of a disposal facility and the prospects that the closed facility could eventually be reopened. Possible courses of action leading to disposal outside the Midwest region while the Midwest Compact works to reestablish a regional disposal capability are also discussed. A likely division of responsibilities between the Compact Commission and the individual member states, with emphasis on managing low-level waste after a loss of access when disposal outside the Midwest is not possible is presented. Key elements in an agreement between compacts to accept each other's waste when one compact has experienced an unexpected interruption of its disposal operation are described

  6. 76 FR 63991 - Midwest Rail d/b/a Toledo, Lake Erie and Western Railway-Lease and Operation Exemption-Toledo... (United States)


    ... provide common carrier rail service over the Line, connecting with and interchanging traffic with NSR, and... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35555] Midwest Rail d/b/a... Railway and Museum, Inc. Midwest Rail d/b/a Toledo, Lake Erie and Western Railway (Toledo), a noncarrier...

  7. The forensic entomologist in the context of the forensic pathologist's role. (United States)

    Campobasso, C P; Introna, F


    An adequate death investigation requires the combined efforts and cooperation of experts in different disciplines: crime scene technicians, death investigators, forensic pathologists, anthropologists, entomologists, other medical and non-medical professionals. These front-line experts play a crucial role in every death investigation process. The forensic pathologist normally has the legal authority to take charge of the dead body at a death scene and his primary functions are the exterior and interior examination of the cadaver by analyzing the extent of antemortem injuries and the postmortem changes and the recovery of physical evidence. He is responsible for determining how, when and why of any death which is the result of violence, suspicious or unexplained circumstances or a death which is sudden or unattended, defending and explaining the reasons for making these diagnoses in a courtroom. The forensic entomologist can provide invaluable aid in death cases where human remains are colonized by insects and in the overall investigation. His principal role is to identify the arthropods associated with such cases and to analyze entomological data for interpreting insect evidence. He is responsible for determining the period of insect activity according to all the variables affecting insect invasion of remains and their development. The major goal of medico-criminal entomology is to contribute to the determination of the time, cause, manner and place of the investigated death (especially on badly decomposed corpses or skeletonized human remains) with the support of all the elements which can be inferred from the study of insects found on the cadaver or nearby. The application of techniques devised recently in forensic entomology can allow experts in the field to collect strong entomological evidence and provide useful information not only in a death investigation including movement or storage of the remains following death, time of dismemberment, postmortem artifacts

  8. [Applicability of non-invasive imaging methods in forensic medicine and forensic anthropology in particular]. (United States)

    Marcinková, Mária; Straka, Ľubomír; Novomeský, František; Janík, Martin; Štuller, František; Krajčovič, Jozef


    Massive progress in developing even more precise imaging modalities influenced all medical branches including the forensic medicine. In forensic anthropology, an inevitable part of forensic medicine itself, the use of all imaging modalities becomes even more important. Despite of acquiring more accurate informations about the deceased, all of them can be used in the process of identification and/or age estimation. X - ray imaging is most commonly used in detecting foreign bodies or various pathological changes of the deceased. Computed tomography, on the other hand, can be very helpful in the process of identification, whereas outcomes of this examination can be used for virtual reconstruction of living objects. Magnetic resonance imaging offers new opportunities in detecting cardiovascular pathological processes or develompental anomalies. Ultrasonography provides promising results in age estimation of living subjects without excessive doses of radiation. Processing the latest information sources available, authors introduce the application examples of X - ray imaging, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in everyday forensic medicine routine, with particular focusing on forensic anthropology.

  9. When forensic odontology met biochemistry: Multidisciplinary approach in forensic human identification. (United States)

    Adserias-Garriga, Joe; Thomas, Christian; Ubelaker, Douglas H; C Zapico, Sara


    When human remains are found, the priority of the investigation is to ascertain the identity of the deceased. A positive identification is a key factor in providing closure for the family of the deceased; it is also required to issue the death certificate and therefore, to settle legal affairs. Moreover, it is difficult for any forensic investigation involving human remains to be solved without the determination of an identity. Therefore, personal identification is necessary for social, legal and forensic reasons. In the last thirty years forensic odontology has experienced an important transformation, from primarily involving occasional dental identification into a broader role, contributing to the determination of the biological profile. In the same way, "DNA fingerprinting" has evolved not only in terms of improving its technology, but also in its application beyond the "classical": helping with the estimation of sex, age and ancestry. As these two forensic disciplines have developed independently, their pathways have crossed several times through human identification operations, especially the ones that require a multidisciplinary approach. Thus, the aim of this review is to describe the contributions of both forensic odontology and molecular biology/biochemistry to human identification, demonstrating how a multidisciplinary approach can lead to a better and more efficient identification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in Australia; are they keeping forensically valuable dental records? (United States)

    Al-Azri, Abdul Rahman; Harford, Jane; James, Helen


    Forensic odontologists provide an important service to the community by identifying unknown deceased people, allowing both legal outcomes and family closure. Non-visual identification may be achieved by comparison of post-mortem data with ante-mortem dental records provided by oral health practitioners. Success is dependent largely on the accuracy and adequacy of data in the dental records. An online self-administered questionnaire evaluated Australian dentists' knowledge and behaviours relevant to forensic odontology. Reported record keeping practices were assessed for detail, legibility, accessibility and retention. Behaviours were classified according to the frequency of response. Dentists reported overall reasonable awareness of the major applications of forensic odontology. Personal information and details of restorative treatment were recorded at high levels, while tooth anomalies, photography, additional patient details and denture marking were recorded inadequately. Legible tooth coding was reported at a high level, while other key legibility practices were recorded inadequately. Few of the behaviours related to retention or to maximise accessibility were recorded at a high level. Australian dentists have high expectations of the forensic value of their dental records; however many practices that would enhance the diagnostic, medico-legal and forensic value of dental records are not routinely applied. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: understanding and utilizing the human element (United States)

    Dror, Itiel E.


    The human element plays a critical role in forensic science. It is not limited only to issues relating to forensic decision-making, such as bias, but also relates to most aspects of forensic work (some of which even take place before a crime is ever committed or long after the verification of the forensic conclusion). In this paper, I explicate many aspects of forensic work that involve the human element and therefore show the relevance (and potential contribution) of cognitive neuroscience to forensic science. The 10 aspects covered in this paper are proactive forensic science, selection during recruitment, training, crime scene investigation, forensic decision-making, verification and conflict resolution, reporting, the role of the forensic examiner, presentation in court and judicial decisions. As the forensic community is taking on the challenges introduced by the realization that the human element is critical for forensic work, new opportunities emerge that allow for considerable improvement and enhancement of the forensic science endeavour. PMID:26101281

  12. Approach for Establishing a National Nuclear Forensics System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaekwang; Hyung, Sangcheol


    The increasing number could give rise to posing a potential threat to national infrastructure which is very vulnerable to radiological sabotage with the materials. International community has been emphasizing the importance of nuclear forensics through the Nuclear Security Summit process as a countermeasure against nuclear terrorism. Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism(GICNT) and nuclear forensics International Technology Working Group(ITWG) suggest the establishment of national nuclear forensics system which has a law enforcement for forensic management and maintenance of nuclear forensics database including nuclear material and other radioactive materials. We suggest the legal and institutional system through this paper in an effort to set up a multi expert group and the nuclear forensics DB which can contribute to effective Core capabilities

  13. Approach for Establishing a National Nuclear Forensics System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaekwang; Hyung, Sangcheol [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The increasing number could give rise to posing a potential threat to national infrastructure which is very vulnerable to radiological sabotage with the materials. International community has been emphasizing the importance of nuclear forensics through the Nuclear Security Summit process as a countermeasure against nuclear terrorism. Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism(GICNT) and nuclear forensics International Technology Working Group(ITWG) suggest the establishment of national nuclear forensics system which has a law enforcement for forensic management and maintenance of nuclear forensics database including nuclear material and other radioactive materials. We suggest the legal and institutional system through this paper in an effort to set up a multi expert group and the nuclear forensics DB which can contribute to effective Core capabilities.

  14. Evaluation of stature estimation from the database for forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Wilson, Rebecca J; Herrmann, Nicholas P; Jantz, Lee Meadows


    Trotter and Gleser's (1-3) stature equations, conventionally used to estimate stature, are not appropriate to use in the modern forensic context. In this study, stature is assessed with a modern (birth years after 1944) American sample (N = 242) derived from the National Institute of Justice Database for Forensic Anthropology in the United States and the Forensic Anthropology Databank. New stature formulae have been calculated using forensic stature (FSTAT) and a combined dataset of forensic, cadaver, and measured statures referred to as Any Stature (ASTAT). The new FSTAT-based equations had an improved accuracy in Blacks with little improvement over Ousley's (4) equations for Whites. ASTAT-based equations performed equal to those of FSTAT equations and may be more appropriate, because they reflect both the variation in reported statures and in cadaver statures. It is essential to use not only equations based on forensic statures, but also equations based on modern samples.

  15. Meeting a Forensic Podiatry Admissibility Challenge: A Daubert Case Study. (United States)

    Nirenberg, Michael


    This article is an introduction to the United States Supreme Court's standard of admissibility of forensic evidence and testimony at trial, known as the Daubert standard, with emphasis on how this standard applies to the field of forensic podiatry. The author, a forensic podiatrist, provided law enforcement with evidence tying a bloody sock-clad footprint found at the scene of a homicide to the suspect. In 2014, the author testified at a pretrial hearing, known as "a Daubert hearing," to address the admissibility of this evidence in court. This was the first instance of forensic podiatry being the primary subject of a Daubert hearing. The hearing resulted in the court ordering this evidence admissible. The expert's testimony contributed to the suspect's conviction. This article serves as a reference for forensic podiatrists and experts in similar fields that involve impression evidence, providing evidentiary standards and their impact on expert evidence and testimony. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Ecological state of the urban environment as an object of forensic analysis within the period of introducing the judicial reform of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskresenskaya Elena


    Full Text Available For today, environmental protection is one of the most serious issues for the government. The urban environment is exposed to numerous negative natural and anthropogenic processes. The scientific article considers the main problems of forensic analysis of the ecological state of the urban environment. Reduction in the scope of environmental expertise caused by urban development reformation became the negative matter. The authors believe that the forensic analysis is an important legal instrument for ensuring rational environmental resources management and environmental protection from harmful impacts on urban areas. Along with rationing, licensing, certification, audit, the forensic analysis performs the function of environmental control, acting as a guarantor of compliance with legal requirements. In order to integrate new kinds (types of forensic analysis into a unified list of kinds (types of analysis and to regulate the existing lists, the adoption of the National Standard on Forensic Ecological Expert Analysis is demanded; however, the adoption of a unified National Standard of the Russian Federation on forensic analysis is also required.

  17. Towards a consensus Y-chromosomal phylogeny and Y-SNP set in forensics in the next-generation sequencing era. (United States)

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Kayser, Manfred; van Oven, Mannis; Decorte, Ronny


    Currently, several different Y-chromosomal phylogenies and haplogroup nomenclatures are presented in scientific literature and at conferences demonstrating the present diversity in Y-chromosomal phylogenetic trees and Y-SNP sets used within forensic and anthropological research. This situation can be ascribed to the exponential growth of the number of Y-SNPs discovered due to mostly next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies. As Y-SNPs and their respective phylogenetic positions are important in forensics, such as for male lineage characterization and paternal bio-geographic ancestry inference, there is a need for forensic geneticists to know how to deal with these newly identified Y-SNPs and phylogenies, especially since these phylogenies are often created with other aims than to carry out forensic genetic research. Therefore, we give here an overview of four categories of currently used Y-chromosomal phylogenies and the associated Y-SNP sets in scientific research in the current NGS era. We compare these categories based on the construction method, their advantages and disadvantages, the disciplines wherein the phylogenetic tree can be used, and their specific relevance for forensic geneticists. Based on this overview, it is clear that an up-to-date reduced tree with a consensus Y-SNP set and a stable nomenclature will be the most appropriate reference resource for forensic research. Initiatives to reach such an international consensus are therefore highly recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Latin American forensic pathology: scope and needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Fonseca


    Full Text Available Pathology pertains to the study of a disease; from ancient times it has sought to explain the cause of death through postmortem examination. The advancement of science and technology has led to a greater definition of roles and has favored its development through different subspecialties among which we stands out forensic pathology. This discipline has its own characteristics, scope, case series, procedures and terminology. Likewise, although forensic pathology does not differ substantially from clinical pathology, significant differences can be found between the Anglo American approach and the Latin American approach. Beyond semantics of these alleged differences, the article reviews the concepts involved and discusses the scope and requirements needed to qualify experts, in the understanding that globalizing criteria should establish new paradigms and define the specific roles of the specialty.

  19. Addressing Attribution - Advances in Nuclear Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetzenkirchen, K.; Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Varga, Z.


    In nuclear forensic investigations the information is typically used to find out the origin of the material including its production place and process. As nuclear material is an industrial product, the respective production process will unavoidably leave a 'fingerprint' in the material. In consequence, parameters related to process and source material are measured and conclusions about the history and origin of the nuclear material can be drawn. Chemical impurities, microstructure, molecular structure or isotopic composition are examples of such parameters, which compose a characteristic 'signature'. The rare-earth elemental (REE) pattern has been found to be an important signature to determine the type of ore used as source material for the production of uranium ore concentrate, since the REE pattern is invariable in most hydrometallurgical processes. Generally, Decrypting the information for nuclear forensic investigations requires sophisticated methodology, subject matter expertise and reference data. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  20. Nuclear forensics: strategies and analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Rafael C.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Pestana, Rafael C.B.


    The development of nuclear forensics as a field of science arose in response to international demand for methods to investigate the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. After being seized, unknown nuclear material is collected and analyzed by a set of analytical methods. The fingerprints of these materials can be identified and further used during the investigations. Data interpretation is an extensive process aiming to validate the hypotheses made by the experts, and can help confirm the origin of seized nuclear materials at the end of the process or investigation. This work presents the set of measures and analytical methods that have been inherited by nuclear forensics from several fields of science. The main characteristics of these methods are evaluated and the analytical techniques employed to determine the fingerprint of nuclear materials are described. (author)

  1. Blurriness in Live Forensics: An Introduction (United States)

    Savoldi, Antonio; Gubian, Paolo

    The Live Forensics discipline aims at answering basic questions related to a digital crime, which usually involves a computer-based system. The investigation should be carried out with the very goal to establish which processes were running, when they were started and by whom, what specific activities those processes were doing and the state of active network connections. Besides, a set of tools needs to be launched on the running system by altering, as a consequence of the Locard’s exchange principle [2], the system’s memory. All the methodologies for the live forensics field proposed until now have a basic, albeit important, weakness, which is the inability to quantify the perturbation, or blurriness, of the system’s memory of the investigated computer. This is the very last goal of this paper: to provide a set of guidelines which can be effectively used for measuring the uncertainty of the collected volatile memory on a live system being investigated.

  2. Next generation DRM: cryptography or forensics? (United States)

    Robert, Arnaud


    Current content protection systems rely primarily on applied cryptographic techniques but there is an increased use of forensic solutions in images, music and video distribution alike. The two approaches differ significantly, both in terms of technology and in terms of strategy, and thus it begs the question: will one approach take over in the long run, and if so which one? Discussing the evolution of both cryptographic and forensic solutions, we conclude that neither approach is ideal for all constituents, and that in the video space at least they will continue to co-exist for the foreseeable future - even if this may not be the case for other media types. We also analyze shortcomings of these approaches, and suggest that new solutions are necessary in this still emerging marketplace.

  3. Postmortem aviation forensic toxicology: an overview. (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K


    An overview of the subtopic aviation combustion toxicology of the field of aerospace toxicology has been published. In a continuation of the overview, the findings associated with postmortem aviation forensic toxicology are being summarized in the present overview. A literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed. The important findings related to postmortem toxicology were evaluated. In addition to a brief introduction, this overview is divided into the sections of analytical methods; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion; ethanol; drugs; result interpretation; glucose and hemoglobin A(1c); and references. Specific details of the subject matter were discussed. It is anticipated that this overview will be an outline source for aviation forensic toxicology within the field of aerospace toxicology.

  4. The Forensics Aspects of Event Data Recorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. Daily


    Full Text Available The proper generation and preservation of digital data from Event Data Recorders (EDRs can provide invaluable evidence to automobile crash reconstruction investigations. However, data collected from the EDR can be difficult to use and authenticate, complicating the presentation of such information as evidence in legal proceedings. Indeed, current techniques for removing and preserving such data do not meet the court’s standards for electronic evidence. Experimentation with an EDR unit from a 2001 GMC Sierra pickup truck highlighted particular issues with repeatability of results. Fortunately, advances in the digital forensics field and memory technology can be applied to EDR analysis in order to provide more complete and usable data. The presented issues should assist in the identification and development of a model for forensically sound collection and investigation techniques for EDRs.

  5. [New discoveries in forensic medicine. Hair analysis]. (United States)

    Kaempe, B


    A review of forensic chemical drug testing in hair is given. Applications for analysis of hair are described. The special problems linked to the determination of drugs in hair such as contamination, differences in sex and ethnic groups and cosmetic pretreatment of the hair are outlined. It is concluded that greater knowledge of hair analysis is needed before the results can be used for toxicological evaluation at the same level as blood. On the other hand, a chemical hair analysis might expose a (mis)use of drugs and follow it step by step up to half a year back in time. In this way, it may supplement a systematic toxicological analysis (STA) for 'a general unknown' for use by police and forensic pathologists.

  6. Forensic science: the truth is out there (United States)

    Herold, Lynne D.


    Criminalistics, one of the many sub-divisions of forensic science, is an applied science in which items of evidence are analyzed to provide investigative information and scientific evidence to be used in courts of law. Laboratories associated with governmental public agencies are typically involved in criminal cases as opposed to civil cases, and those types of cases that fall within the jurisdiction of the particular agency. Common analytical divisions within criminalistics laboratories include blood alcohol testing, toxicology, narcotics, questioned documents, biology, firearms, latent fingerprints, physical and trace evidence sections. Specialized field investigative services may be provided in the areas of clandestine drug laboratories and major crimes (firearms, biology, trace, arson/explosives). Forensic science best practice requires the use of non-destructive testing whenever reasonably possible. Several technically difficult situations (bodies and evidence encased in cement and metal) are presented as a challenge to audience.

  7. Computer Forensics for Graduate Accountants: A Motivational Curriculum Design Approach


    Grover Kearns


    Computer forensics involves the investigation of digital sources to acquire evidence that can be used in a court of law. It can also be used to identify and respond to threats to hosts and systems. Accountants use computer forensics to investigate computer crime or misuse, theft of trade secrets, theft of or destruction of intellectual property, and fraud. Education of accountants to use forensic tools is a goal of the AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants). Accounting stu...

  8. IoT-Forensics Meets Privacy: Towards Cooperative Digital Investigations


    Ana Nieto; Ruben Rios; Javier Lopez


    IoT-Forensics is a novel paradigm for the acquisition of electronic evidence whose operation is conditioned by the peculiarities of the Internet of Things (IoT) context. As a branch of computer forensics, this discipline respects the most basic forensic principles of preservation, traceability, documentation, and authorization. The digital witness approach also promotes such principles in the context of the IoT while allowing personal devices to cooperate in digital investigations by voluntar...



    Monika Raghuvanshi*, Rahul Patel


    In a forensic analysis, large numbers of files are examined. Much of the information comprises of in unstructured format, so it’s quite difficult task for computer forensic to perform such analysis. That’s why to do the forensic analysis of document within a limited period of time require a special approach such as document clustering. This paper review different document clustering algorithms methodologies for example K-mean, K-medoid, single link, complete link, average link in accorandance...

  10. Forensic science in the context of Islamic law: A review. (United States)

    Alkahtani, Theeb; Aljerian, Khaldoon; Golding, Bartholomew; Alqahtani, Sakher


    Even though it is still in its nascent phase, forensic science has already encountered strong resistance in Saudi Arabia due to its incompatibility with their present legal system. What follow is a review on the status of forensic medicine and its future in terms of acceptance and use in legal action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of a wireless forensic readiness model (WFRM)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, SJ


    Full Text Available ] Solomon, M.G., Barrett, D. & Broom, N. (2005). Computer forensics, The Best First Step towards a Career in Computer Forensics. SYBEX Inc, San Francisco, London. [13] RICCA Act, (22 January 2002). Regulation of Interception of Communications...:, (Accessed 05 April 2009). [15] Forensic Toolkit. (10 July 2008). Access Data, A pioneer in digital investigations since 1987. Available from: http...

  12. [Polish forensic entomology--the past, present and future perspectives]. (United States)

    Skowronek, Rafał; Chowaniec, Czesław


    Forensic medicine increasingly more often benefits from the achievements of other biological sciences, which may be used in post mortem investigation. One of them is forensic entomology--the science based on the knowledge about biology of insects preying on cadavers. The objective of this article is to present the history of Polish forensic entomology, its present state and possibilities and directions of further development.

  13. Opportunities to preserve forensic evidence in emergency departments. (United States)

    Peel, Matthew


    Victims of violence often seek assistance from emergency departments, so emergency nurses are ideally placed to identify them, and other 'forensic' patients, and protect the evidence that could support any ensuing legal process. Emergency nurses who are trained to identify, collect and preserve forensic evidence can support the identification, elimination and prosecution of suspects. This article gives an overview of forensic evidence, and explains how emergency nurses can preserve and collect samples effectively.

  14. What is the future of imaging in forensic practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Jamie J.W.


    The last two decades has seen increased use of imaging in forensic practice. Although radiography has been used historically, the evidence base for the use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in forensic practice appears to be growing. This article reviews the evidence base for the use of radiography, CT and MRI in an attempt to ascertain the future use of these imaging techniques in forensic medicine.

  15. Wetland use and feeding by lesser scaup during spring migration across the upper Midwest, USA (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.


    Low food availability and forage quality and concomitant decreased lipid reserves of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; hereafter scaup) during spring migration in the upper Midwest may partially explain reductions in the continental population of scaup. In springs 20042005, we examined wetland use and feeding activity of scaup on 356 randomly-selected wetlands within 6 regions in Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota. We examined wetland characteristics that favor high scaup use in 286 of these wetlands. We found that probabilities of wetland use and feeding by scaup increased with turbidity up to 45 and 30 NTU, respectively, but then declined at higher turbidity levels. Wetland use was positively correlated with size of open-water zone and amphipod densities, but was not correlated with chironomid densities. Feeding increased with amphipod density up to 26 m-3 and then declined at higher amphipod densities; scaup seemingly forage most efficiently at amphipod densities above 26 m -3. Wetland use was higher in North Dakota than in southern Minnesota and Iowa. Our results indicate that effective wetland restoration efforts to benefit scaup require maintaining abundant populations of amphipods (generally near 26 m-3 landscape geometric mean) in wetlands with large (> 500 m diameter) open-water zones throughout the upper Midwest, but especially within Iowa and southern Minnesota.

  16. Biophysical impacts of climate-smart agriculture in the Midwest United States. (United States)

    Bagley, Justin E; Miller, Jesse; Bernacchi, Carl J


    The potential impacts of climate change in the Midwest United States present unprecedented challenges to regional agriculture. In response to these challenges, a variety of climate-smart agricultural methodologies have been proposed to retain or improve crop yields, reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, retain soil quality and increase climate resilience of agricultural systems. One component that is commonly neglected when assessing the environmental impacts of climate-smart agriculture is the biophysical impacts, where changes in ecosystem fluxes and storage of moisture and energy lead to perturbations in local climate and water availability. Using a combination of observational data and an agroecosystem model, a series of climate-smart agricultural scenarios were assessed to determine the biophysical impacts these techniques have in the Midwest United States. The first scenario extended the growing season for existing crops using future temperature and CO2 concentrations. The second scenario examined the biophysical impacts of no-till agriculture and the impacts of annually retaining crop debris. Finally, the third scenario evaluated the potential impacts that the adoption of perennial cultivars had on biophysical quantities. Each of these scenarios was found to have significant biophysical impacts. However, the timing and magnitude of the biophysical impacts differed between scenarios. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Risk and Protective Factors for Breast Cancer in Midwest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Emi Inumaru


    Full Text Available Patterns of physical activity, body composition, and breastfeeding are closely related to health and are influenced by environmental, economic, and social factors. With the increase of sedentary lifestyle and overweight, many chronic diseases have also increased, including cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and the knowledge of its risk and protective factors is important to the adoption of primary prevention strategies. We aimed to investigate some risk and protective factors for breast cancer among women from Midwest Brazil. It is a case-control study of outpatient basis, carried out with 93 breast cancer cases and 186 controls. Socioeconomic, gynecological, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables were collected, and odds ratios (ORs values were estimated (significance level, 5%; confidence interval (CI, 95%. Per capita income equal to or lower than 1/2 Brazilian minimum wage (OR=1.88; CI=1.06–3.29, residence in rural area (OR=4.93; CI=1.65–14.73, and presence of family history of breast cancer (OR=5.38; CI=1.46–19.93 are risk factors for breast cancer. In turn, physical activity (past 6 months (OR=0.23; CI=0.10–0.55 and leisure physical activity at 20 years old (OR=0.13; CI=0.03–0.54 are protective factors for the disease in women who live in Midwest of Brazil.

  18. Effects of Land Use Change for Crops on Water and Carbon Budgets in the Midwest USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun


    Full Text Available Increasing demand for food and bioenergy has altered the global landscape dramatically in recent years. Land use and land cover change affects the environmental system in many ways through biophysical and biogeochemical mechanisms. In this study, we evaluate the impacts of land use and land cover change driven by recent crop expansion and conversion on the water budget, carbon exchange, and carbon storage in the Midwest USA. A dynamic global vegetation model was used to simulate and examine the impacts of landscape change in a historical case based on crop distribution data from the United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Services. The simulation results indicate that recent crop expansion not only decreased soil carbon sequestration (60 Tg less of soil organic carbon and net carbon flux into ecosystems (3.7 Tg·year−1 less of net biome productivity, but also lessened water consumption through evapotranspiration (1.04 × 1010 m3·year−1 less over 12 states in the Midwest. More water yield at the land surface does not necessarily make more water available for vegetation. Crop residue removal might also exacerbate the soil carbon loss.

  19. Hepatic element concentrations of lesser scaup (aythya affinis) during spring migration in the upper midwest (United States)

    Pillatzki, A.E.; Neiger, R.D.; Chipps, S.R.; Higgins, K.F.; Thiex, N.; Afton, A.D.


    High concentrations of some hepatic elements might be contributing to the decline of the continental lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) population. We evaluated hepatic element concentrations of male and female lesser scaup collected from the upper Midwest (Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) during the 2003 and 2004 spring migrations. We measured concentrations of 24 elements in livers of 117 lesser scaup. We found that only selenium concentrations were at levels (>3.0 ??g/g wet weight [ww)]) proposed to adversely affect reproduction. Approximately 49% of females (n = 61) had individual hepatic concentrations >3.0 ??g/g ww selenium (Se). Our observed hepatic concentration of Se was similar to that reported in lesser scaup collected from the mid-continental United States but less than Se concentrations reported from the Great Lakes region. We found that the liver cadmium (Cd) concentration for males was significantly higher than that for females. Gender differences in hepatic Cd concentrations have not been previously reported for lesser scaup, but Cd is known to have negative impacts on male reproduction. Our results indicate that lesser scaup migrating through the upper Midwest in spring have elevated Se levels and that males carry a significantly greater Cd burden than females. Moreover, elemental concentrations might be high enough to affect reproduction in both male and female lesser scaup, but controlled laboratory studies are needed to adequately assess the effects of Se and Cd on lesser scaup reproduction. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Long-term monitoring studies of pollutants on public lands: Bald Eagles in the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowerman, W.W. [Eagle Environmental Inc., Haslett, MI (United States)


    The role of public agencies to monitor the populations of wildlife species with protected status is paramount to the recovery of these species. Since the early 1960s, the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations within the Midwest have been monitored to determine number of breeding pairs, nest occupancy, and success rates. In addition to the reproductive outcome studies, abandoned eggs, blood samples, and feather samples have been collected to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and heavy metals. These surveys give an actual measure of population dynamics of a top-predator species in aquatic systems that integrates the effects of many different environmental pollutants. As concentrations of the organochlorine compounds have declined, bald eagle populations have increased in numbers and their reproductive success has improved. The recovery of this species has not been uniform however. In regions where DDT and PCB concentrations are still above thresholds associated with reproductive impairment, eagles still have impaired reproduction. These areas include the shorelines of the Great Lakes and Voyageurs National Park. Some areas such as the Chippewa National Forest have begun to show declines in reproduction due to density dependent factors. Recent proposals for ecosystem management and reclassification of the bald eagle have led to reduced emphasis for maintaining these long-term data sets. The utility and importance of maintaining surveys of top-predators that can give a measure of population-level effects of pollutants rather than an index will be discussed using examples from the Midwest.