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Sample records for middle class latinos

  1. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and the latter are non-manual office workers, supervisors and profession...

  2. Are Ghanaian Diaspora Middle Class? Linking Middle Class to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... Enfin, nous analyserons l'influence de cette élite dans le .... In other words, many people who are considered middle class, sometimes in a month ..... the same area, will in future help my children to have a network of friends .... Ghanaian politics since 1992, where the ruling party does not win an election to.

  3. What Is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijit V. Banerjee; Esther Duflo

    2008-01-01

    We expect a lot from the middle classes. At least three distinct arguments about the special economic role of the middle class are traditionally made. In one, new entrepreneurs armed with a capacity and a tolerance for delayed gratification emerge from the middle class and create employment and productivity growth for the rest of society. In a second, perhaps more conventional view, the middle class is primarily a source of vital inputs for the entrepreneurial class: it is their "middle class...

  4. Latino Students' Transition to Middle School: Role of Bilingual Education and School Ethnic Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N; Im, MyungHee; Kwok, Oi-Man; Cham, Heining; West, Stephen G

    2015-09-01

    Participants were 204 academically at-risk Latino students recruited into a study when in first grade and followed for 9 years. Using piecewise latent growth curve analyses, we investigated trajectories of teacher-rated behavioral engagement and student-reported school belonging during elementary school and middle school and the association between trajectories and enrollment in bilingual education classes in elementary school and a change in school ethnic congruence across the transition to middle school. Overall, students experienced a drop in school belonging and behavioral engagement across the transition. A moderating effect of ethnic congruence on bilingual enrollment was found. A decline in ethnic congruence was associated with more positive trajectories for students previously enrolled in bilingual classes but more negative trajectories for non-bilingual students.

  5. Middle Class Youth: Myth or Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U V Goliusova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researches both in Russia and abroad are concerned with the question of whether middle class exists in Russia and, if so, what its distinctive features are. The problem of particular interest is the sources of recruiting to that social group. One of its source clusters is youth. The article considers main traits of middle class youth, their self-identification and their perception of Russian middle class.

  6. Middle-class projects in modern Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2017-01-01

    picture surrounding this class and its relationship to Malaysian national repertoires such as Islamic revivalism, politics, consumer culture, social mobility and the state-market nexus. I understand middle-class projects to be the making of local class culture in Malaysia and explore these in four...... research projects that each in their own way examine how Malay Muslim informants understand and practice “middle-classness” in different spatial and temporal contexts. In short, my findings show how Malay Muslim middle-class projects such as Islamic consumption shape local class culture in Malaysia....

  7. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  8. Latinos' Changing Ethnic Group Representation From Elementary to Middle School: Perceived Belonging and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Chicas, Jessica; Graham, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the association between change in ethnic group representation from elementary to middle school and Latino students' school belonging and achievement. The ethnic diversity of students' middle school was examined as a moderator. Participants were 1,825 Latino sixth graders from 26 ethnically diverse urban middle schools. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that a change in ethnic representation toward fewer Latinos in middle school than elementary school was related to less perceived belonging and lower achievement in schools with low ethnic diversity. There were no mean differences as a function of declining representation in more diverse middle schools, suggesting that greater school diversity was protective. Findings highlight the importance of examining school ethnic context, especially across the middle school transition. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  9. Transactional Relationships between Latinos' Friendship Quality and Academic Achievement during the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebanc, Anne M.; Guimond, Amy B.; Lutgen, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether friendship quality, academic achievement, and mastery goal orientation predict each other across the transition to middle school. Participants were 146 Latino students (75 girls) followed from the end of elementary school through the first year of middle school. Measures included positive and negative friendship…

  10. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  11. The Relationship between Mental Health, Acculturative Stress, and Academic Performance in a Latino Middle School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albeg, Loren J.; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between acculturative stress, symptoms of internalizing mental health problems, and academic performance in a sample of 94 Latino middle school students. Students reported on symptoms indicative of depression and anxiety related problems and acculturative stress. Teachers reported on students' academic…

  12. Bilingual Latino Middle Schoolers on Languaging and Racialization in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores bilingual Latino middle schoolers' articulated understandings of their language practices as well as the links between language practices and processes of racialization and discrimination in the US. The research was conducted in the context of an after-school program whose explicit aim was to not only document students'…

  13. Middle Class Fortunes in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kochhar, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the state of the middle classes in the U.S. and 11 countries in Western Europe and how it has changed since 1991. Among Western Europe's six largest economies, the shares of adults living in middle-income households increased in France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom from 1991 to 2010, but shrank in Germany, Italy and Spain. France, the Netherlands and the UK also experienced notable growth in disposable household income, but incomes were either stagnant or falling...

  14. Multiple meanings of the middle class in Soweto, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that a diverse number of people call themselves middle class and defined class in terms of ability to afford basic goods. The label middle class seems also to denote self-sufficiency, responsibility and social mobility The paper concludes that studies of the middle class does not seen to focus on how social ...

  15. Gender roles and binge drinking among Latino emerging adults: a latent class regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ellen L; Wong, Y Joel; Middendorf, Katharine G

    2014-09-01

    Gender roles are often cited as a culturally specific predictor of drinking among Latino populations. This study used latent class regression to test the relationships between gender roles and binge drinking in a sample of Latino emerging adults. Participants were Latino emerging adults who participated in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,442). A subsample of these participants (n = 660) completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory--Short. We conducted latent class regression using 3 dimensions of gender roles (femininity, social masculinity, and personal masculinity) to predict binge drinking. Results indicated a 3-class solution. In Class 1, the protective personal masculinity class, personal masculinity (e.g., being a leader, defending one's own beliefs) was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking. In Class 2, the nonsignificant class, gender roles were not related to binge drinking. In Class 3, the mixed masculinity class, personal masculinity was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking, whereas social masculinity (e.g., forceful, dominant) was associated with an increase in the odds of binge drinking. Post hoc analyses found that females, those born outside the United States, and those with greater English language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 1 (vs. Class 2). Males, those born outside the United States, and those with greater Spanish language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 3 (vs. Class 2). Directions for future research and implications for practice with Latino emerging adults are discussed.

  16. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able......, ethnicity, class or other social categories normally recognized as influential in case of disastrous events. Since the population in the area was very homogenous, the axis of differentiation was instead linked to the social category of affectedness, and a hierarchy of affectedness was identified within...

  17. Statistical Inference on the Canadian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Davidson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom says that the middle classes in many developed countries have recently suffered losses, in terms of both the share of the total population belonging to the middle class, and also their share in total income. Here, distribution-free methods are developed for inference on these shares, by means of deriving expressions for their asymptotic variances of sample estimates, and the covariance of the estimates. Asymptotic inference can be undertaken based on asymptotic normality. Bootstrap inference can be expected to be more reliable, and appropriate bootstrap procedures are proposed. As an illustration, samples of individual earnings drawn from Canadian census data are used to test various hypotheses about the middle-class shares, and confidence intervals for them are computed. It is found that, for the earlier censuses, sample sizes are large enough for asymptotic and bootstrap inference to be almost identical, but that, in the twenty-first century, the bootstrap fails on account of a strange phenomenon whereby many presumably different incomes in the data are rounded to one and the same value. Another difference between the centuries is the appearance of heavy right-hand tails in the income distributions of both men and women.

  18. Acculturation and Self-Rated Mental Health Among Latino and Asian Immigrants in the United States: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Elif; Gayman, Matthew D

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses variations in acculturation experiences by identifying distinct acculturation classes, and investigates the role of these acculturation classes for self-rated mental health among Latino and Asian immigrants in the United States. Using 2002-2003 the National Latino and Asian American Study, Latent Class Analysis is used to capture variations in immigrant classes (recent arrivals, separated, bicultural and assimilated), and OLS regressions are used to assess the link between acculturation classes and self-rated mental health. For both Latinos and Asians, bicultural immigrants reported the best mental health, and separated immigrants and recent arrivals reported the worst mental health. The findings also reveal group differences in acculturation classes, whereby Latino immigrants were more likely to be in the separated class and recent arrivals class relative to Asian immigrants. While there was not a significant group difference in self-rated mental health at the bivariate level, controlling for acculturation classes revealed that Latinos report better self-rated mental health than Asians. Thus, Latino immigrants would actually have better self-rated mental health than their Asian counterparts if they were not more likely to be represented in less acculturated classes (separated class and recent arrivals) and/or as likely to be in the bicultural class as their Asian counterparts. Together the findings underscore the nuanced and complex nature of the acculturation process, highlighting the importance of race differences in this process, and demonstrate the role of acculturation classes for immigrant group differences in self-rated mental health.

  19. Self-Education, Class and Gender in Edwardian Britain: Women in Lower Middle Class Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Once societies embarked on programmes of mass education home schooling became essentially a middle-class project and remains so. This paper looks at the educational experiences of some lower middle class women at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries for whom the resources of the middle-class home were simply not available. It…

  20. A Tale of Two Classes: The Black Poor and the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Arthur

    1991-01-01

    To understand the African-American family, the African-American poor and middle class must be investigated. Extra costs mean that it is much harder for African Americans to reach the middle class. Ways to improve the economic status of African-American families and to increase the middle class are discussed. (SLD)

  1. Teachers in the 'Hood: Hollywood's Middle-Class Fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulman, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the urban-high-school film genre (in which a classroom of socially troubled, low-achieving students is transformed by the singular efforts of an outside middle class teacher or principal) reinforces the "culture of poverty" thesis, representing the fantasies that suburban middle class America has about life in urban high…

  2. Impact of telecommunication technologies on the middle class formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnullova, A.; Absalyamova, S.; Sakhapov, R.; Mukhametgalieva, Ch

    2017-12-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the impact of the information economy on the formation of the middle class. The paper identifies factors contributing to the increase in the share of the middle class in the transition to the information economy. The positive synergetic influence of telecommunication technologies on the formation of the middle class is considered through a possibility of using virtual spaces for labor and educational activities, a possibility of obtaining high returns in the form of dividends on intellectual capital, a qualitative change in the structure of needs, an access to new types of information services, etc. Authors develop a complex model of research of the middle class in the information economy, differing from those available using an expanded list of criteria. In addition to such widely used criteria as income level, level of education and self-identification, the criterion "degree of involvement in the information society" was introduced. The study substantiates that the transition to the information economy made an access to information and communication technologies one of the most significant criteria for social differentiation of society. On the basis of the model, an econometric estimate of the middle class has been carried out, which makes it possible to reveal the share of the middle class in modern society, dynamics of its development, as well as multicollinearity between spending on education, the Gini coefficient, access to information and telecommunication technologies and the size of the middle class.

  3. Modernity, cosmopolitanism, and the emergence of middle classes in Tonga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of social classes in Pacific Islands societies and in their diasporas continues to raise theoretical questions about the nature of social classes and their relationship to prior forms of social organization. In Tonga, middle classes both reproduce aspects of the older rank-based system

  4. Multiple meanings of the middle class in soweto, south Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    symbolic container labeled middle class. (By social position here we mean class but also, for example, labour-market stratificiations within classes (see Ceruti 2010) and age.) We re-establish a link between 'where we stand in the world and how we see ourselves' (Bottero, 2005; 10). Olin-Wright (1989) concedes to Brenner ...

  5. Classroom and School Predictors of Civic Engagement Among Black and Latino Middle School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagers, Robert J; Lozada, Fantasy T; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Guillaume, Casta

    2017-07-01

    This study used short-term longitudinal data to examine the contributions of democratic teaching practices (e.g., the Developmental Designs approach) and equitable school climate to civic engagement attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors among 515 Black and Latino middle school students (47.9% male). Concurrent experiences of democratic homeroom and classroom practices, and equitable school climate were associated with higher scores on each civic engagement component. The relation between classroom practices and civic attitudes was more robust when school climate was seen as more equitable. Longitudinally, homeroom practices and equitable school climate predicted higher civic attitudes 1 year later. Discussion focuses on civic attitudes and future research on school experiences that support civic engagement among youth of color. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Class Counts: Education, Inequality, and the Shrinking Middle Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Class differences and class warfare have existed since the beginning of western civilization, but the gap in income and wealth between the rich (top 10 percent) and the rest has increased steadily in the last twenty-five years. The U.S. is heading for a financial oligarchy much worse than the aristocratic old world that our Founding Fathers feared…

  7. Punk and Middle-Class Values: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Philip; Levin, Jack

    1985-01-01

    Compares periodical articles representing the "Punk" movement with articles from the "Reader's Digest" and the 1960s hippie movement. Concludes that the punk movement is more expressive and less instrumental than its middle-class counterpart. (KH)

  8. Photographs and Classroom Response Systems in Middle School Astronomy Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of being readily available, photographs have played a minor and passive role in science classes. In our study, we present an active way of using photographs in classroom discussions with the use of a classroom response system (CRS) in middle school astronomy classes to teach the concepts of day-night and seasonal change. In this new…

  9. Making the middle classes on shifting ground? Residential status, performativity and middle-class subjectivities in contemporary London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michaela; Jackson, Emma

    2017-06-01

    This paper argues that shifts in access to housing - both in relation to rental and ownership - disrupt middle-class reproduction in ways that fundamentally influence class formation. While property ownership has had a long association with middle-class identities, status and distinction, an increasingly competitive rental market alongside inflated property prices has impacted on expectations and anxieties over housing futures. In this paper, we consider two key questions: (1) What happens to middle-class identities under the conditions of this wider structural change? (2) How do the middle classes variously manoeuvre within this? Drawing on empirical research conducted in London, we demonstrate that becoming an owner-occupier may be fractured along lines of class but also along the axes of age, wealth and timing, particularly as this relates to the housing market. It builds on understandings of residential status and place as central to the formation of class, orienting this around the recognition of both people and place as mutable, emphasizing that changing economic and social processes generate new class positionalities and strategies for class reproduction. We argue that these processes are writ large in practices of belonging and claims to place, with wider repercussions within the urban landscape. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  10. Social Class (In)Visibility and the Professional Experiences of Middle-Class Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David; Jones, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses upon the classed and early professional experiences of middle-class novice teachers in England experiencing and contemplating working in schools serving socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Through an examination of the visibility and invisibility of social class in education set within an increasingly unequal and…

  11. Simbolic boundaries and middle classes. Social mobility in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayarí Castillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available After more than three decades of the implementation of the policies of structural adjustment in Chile, the middle classes increased their weight in the social structure and changed their economic sector, occupation and trajectories of social mobility. This article analyzes the perceptionof symbolic boundaries, which emerging of these macro-processes and shapes the subjectivity of middle class subjects into upward mobility processes and modifies their perceptions of inequality. Whit this objective the paper presents a qualitative analysis of cases in which discursive components like meritocracy, the effort and the idea of “barriers/obstacles” became a key discursive axis. This article is inscribed within the recent studies on middle classes for the Chilean case, which focus specially on the cultural aspects after reproduction of stratification and inequality in Chile.

  12. The effect of language on functional capacity assessment in middle-aged and older US Latinos with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Eneritz; Burton, Cynthia Z; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2014-08-15

    The U.S. Latino population is steadily increasing, prompting a need for cross-cultural outcome measures in schizophrenia research. This study examined the contribution of language to functional assessment in middle-aged Latino patients with schizophrenia by comparing 29 monolingual Spanish-speakers, 29 Latino English-speakers, and 29 non-Latino English-speakers who were matched on relevant demographic variables and who completed cognitive and functional assessments in their native language. There were no statistically significant differences between groups on the four everyday functioning variables (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment [UPSA], Social Skills Performance Assessment [SSPA], Medication Management Ability Assessment [MMAA], and the Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF]). The results support the cross-linguistic and cross-cultural acceptability of these functional assessment instruments. It appears that demographic variables other than language (e.g., age, education) better explain differences in functional assessment among ethnically diverse subpopulations. Considering the influence of these other factors in addition to language on functional assessments will help ensure that measures can be appropriately interpreted among the diverse residents of the United States. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. The effect of language on functional capacity assessment in middle-aged and older US Latinos with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Eneritz; Burton, Cynthia Z.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Latino population is steadily increasing, prompting a need for cross-cultural outcome measures in schizophrenia research. This study examined the contribution of language to functional assessment in middle-aged Latino patients with schizophrenia by comparing 29 monolingual Spanish-speakers, 29 Latino English-speakers, and 29 non-Latino English-speakers who were matched on relevant demographic variables and who completed cognitive and functional assessments in their native language. There were no statistically significant differences between groups on the four everyday functioning variables (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment [UPSA], Social Skills Performance Assessment [SSPA], Medication Management Ability Assessment [MMAA], and the Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF]). The results support the cross-linguistic and cross-cultural acceptability of these functional assessment instruments. It appears that demographic variables other than language (e.g., age, education) better explain differences in functional assessment among ethnically diverse subpopulations. Considering the influence of these other factors in addition to language on functional assessments will help ensure that measures can be appropriately interpreted among the diverse residents of the United States. PMID:24751379

  14. Audiences, museums and the English middle class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Longhurst

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly accepted way to analyse any media product is to consider production, text and audience processes. In a deceptively simple way, a television programme, for example, can be examined in the institutional, social and political context in which it is produced and with respect to the organizational framework that provides its immediate production environment. Second, its textual structures and strategies can be analysed using different approaches, such as structuralism or (in certain respects content analysis. Third, the way in which the audience understands (or decodes the text can be considered, as can the makeup of the audience, in terms of standard factors such as class, gender, age, ethnicity and so on. There are many variations on this sort of approach. This paper starts from such a premise. It suggests that in addition to the well formulated approaches to the study of the museum that focus generally on the institutional and wider social context for museums, or on specific museums and the processes that occur within them, or on the much studied strategies for display and narration of texts, the audiences for museums are also important.

  15. Residential practices of middle classes in the field of parenthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boterman, W.R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is about the changes in the lives of members of the middle classes in Amsterdam when they become parents for the first time. It is about how becoming a parent affects their working life, their consumption patterns, and their social life. It is about how identities as new parents

  16. Mutation Accumulation, Soft Selection and the Middle-Class Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A.; Hall, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The “middle-class neighborhood” is a breeding design intended to allow new mutations to accumulate by lessening the effects of purifying selection through the elimination of among-line fitness variation. We show that this design effectively applies soft selection to the experimental population, potentially causing biased estimates of mutational effects if social effects contribute to fitness. PMID:19448272

  17. Living Sexualities: Negotiating Heteronormativity in Middle Class Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Karim (Shuchi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstract‘Living Sexualities’ is a study of erotic desires, practices and identities, lived within the heteronormative and marriage-normative socio-sexual structures of the urban middle class in contemporary Bangladesh. The study is based on two years fieldwork during which data was

  18. Financial Literacy: Thai Middle Class Women Do Not Lag Behind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Grohmann (Antonia); O. Hübler (Olaf); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy); L. Menkhoff (Lukas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis research studies the stylized fact of a “gender gap” in that women tend to have lower financial literacy than men. Our data which samples middle-class people from Bangkok does not show a gender gap. This result is not explained by men’s low financial literacy, nor by women’s high

  19. MIDDLE-CLASS FORMATION STRATEGY IN THE REGION: PRACTICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Pereguda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to generalize knowledge about the formation of the middle class in the region, practical aspects of this problem. The author shows details of formation strategy, its social aspects in the view of human geography. Also in this paper, the author discloses items in regional development studying, the role of society in it and its structure, tides between processes in society and features of regional placement of productive forces. The main goal of this article is to make an analysis of the middle class in the view of human geography; show aspects of the territorial organization of the middle class, their influence on the economic development. Another purpose of this article is to disclose the essence of the mechanism of interaction between middle class and regional development, the interrelation of these two various processes. The methodology of this article is based on the human geography conceptions. The author considers aspects of regional social and economic development of regions: theoretical justification of this process and the analysis of its examples of modern Ukrainian economic activity. The thesis of this analysis is that regional development in the country has to be based on a number of the basic principles (they are picked up for the concrete territory and proved. Results. The author pays attention to the social and economic methodology of research of the middle class and regional development. She considers features of spatial manifestation of the middle class, and also categories, which anyway characterize it. Also, the author makes an analysis of indicators of the middle class, which allow identifying it in its relation to other structural elements of society. Value. In the article, there are different points of view to strategy as a category, its role in economic policy and state development. Both strategies (development strategy for the territory and strategy as the instrument of regional policy in the

  20. Developing Occupation-Based Preventive Programs for Late-Middle-Aged Latino Patients in Safety-Net Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Carlson, Mike; Martínez, Jenny; Guzmán, Laura; Mahajan, Anish; Clark, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Latino adults between ages 50 and 60 yr are at high risk for developing chronic conditions that can lead to early disability. We conducted a qualitative pilot study with 11 Latinos in this demographic group to develop a foundational schema for the design of health promotion programs that could be implemented by occupational therapy practitioners in primary care settings for this population. One-on-one interviews addressing routines and activities, health management, and health care utilization were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Results of a content analysis of the qualitative data revealed the following six domains of most concern: Weight Management; Disease Management; Mental Health and Well-Being; Personal Finances; Family, Friends, and Community; and Stress Management. A typology of perceived health-actualizing strategies was derived for each domain. This schema can be used by occupational therapy practitioners to inform the development of health-promotion lifestyle interventions designed specifically for late-middle-aged Latinos. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. Shrinking Middle Class and Changing Income Distribution of Korea: 1995-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Joon-Woo Nahm

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the shrinking middle class hypothesis and reveals more details about recent trends in income distribution of Korea from 1995 to 2005. We find that the consensus view of a declining middle class is correct and the decline in the middle class splited equally into the lower class and the upper class in Korea. Furthermore, while the size and income share of the middle class declined, the share of the upper class increased rapidly and the share of the lower class remained s...

  2. Making the Invisible More Visible: Home Literacy Practices of Middle-Class and Working-Class Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthey, Sarah J.

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with eight families showed that literacy materials and goals for using literacy differed between middle and working class families, with middle class families drawing on more resources to learn about the child's classroom. However, all families expressed value for literacy activities, challenging the myth that working-class families do…

  3. Early Talk About the Past Revisited: Affect in Working-Class and Middle-Class Children's Co-Narrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Lisa K.; Miller, Peggy J.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated personal storytelling among young working-class and middle-class children, observing them at home at age 2; age 6 and 3; and under-one year. Analysis of generic properties, narrative content, and emotion talk revealed a complex configuration of similarities and differences. Differentiation between working-class and middle-class…

  4. An Assessment of School Belonging and Academic Motivation among Latino Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate and examine the self-reported feelings of school belonging and academic motivation among seventh and eighth grade students in a suburban setting, with a specific focus on the Latino subgroup. A corollary purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between school belonging and…

  5. Food Standards are Good– for Middle-class Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Trifkovic, Neda

    results indicate that large returns can be accrued from food standards, but only for the upper middle-class farmers, i.e., those between the 50% and 85% quantiles of the expenditure distribution. Overall, our result points to an exclusionary impact of standards for the poorest farmers while the richest do......We estimate the causal effect of food standards on Vietnamese pangasius farmers’ wellbeing measured by per capita consumption expenditure. We estimate both the average effects and the local average treatment effects on poorer and richer farmers by instrumental variable quantile regression. Our...

  6. Food Standards are Good – for Middle-Class Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the causal effect of food standards on Vietnamese pangasius farmers’ wellbeing measured by per capita consumption expenditure. We estimate both the average effects and the local average treatment effects on poorer and richer farmers by instrumental variable quantile regression. Our...... results indicate that large returns can be accrued from food standards, but only for the upper middle-class farmers, i.e., those between the 50% and 85% quantiles of the expenditure distribution. Overall, our result points to an exclusionary impact of standards for the poorest farmers while the richest do...

  7. Social class and body weight among Chinese urban adults: the role of the middle classes in the nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefond, Céline; Clément, Matthieu

    2014-07-01

    While a plethoric empirical literature addresses the relationship between socio-economic status and body weight, little is known about the influence of social class on nutritional outcomes, particularly in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the social determinants of adult body weight in urban China by taking into account the influence of social class. More specifically, we propose to analyse the position of the Chinese urban middle class in terms of being overweight or obese. The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on a sample of 1320 households and 2841 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 2009. For the first step, we combine an economic approach and a sociological approach to identify social classes at household level. First, households with an annual per capita income between 10,000 Yuan and the 95th income percentile are considered as members of the middle class. Second, we strengthen the characterization of the middle class using information on education and employment. By applying clustering methods, we identify four groups: the elderly and inactive middle class, the old middle class, the lower middle class and the new middle class. For the second step, we implement an econometric analysis to assess the influence of social class on adult body mass index and on the probability of being overweight or obese. We use multinomial treatment regressions to deal with the endogeneity of the social class variable. Our results show that among the four subgroups of the urban middle class, the new middle class is the only one to be relatively well-protected against obesity. We suggest that this group plays a special role in adopting healthier food consumption habits and seems to be at a more advanced stage of the nutrition transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social class differences in self, attribution, and attention: socially expansive individualism of middle-class Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E

    2009-07-01

    Although U.S. culture strongly sanctions the ideal of independence, the specific ways in which independence is realized may be variable depending, among other factors, on social class. Characterized by relative scarcity of social and material resources, working-class (WC) Americans were expected to strongly value self-reliance. In contrast, with choices among abundant resources, middle-class (MC) Americans were expected to value personal control and social expansiveness. In support of this analysis, relative to their WC counterparts, MC Americans reported more support from friends and greater likelihood of giving and receiving advice but less self-reliance (Study 1). Furthermore, we found evidence that this social difference has cognitive consequences: College students with MC backgrounds were more likely than their WC counterparts were to endorse situational attributions for others' behavior (Studies 2a and 2b) as well as to show holistic visual attention (Study 3).

  9. Strategic Note-Taking for Middle-School Students with Learning Disabilities in Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    While today's teachers use a variety of teaching methods in middle-school science classes, lectures and note-taking still comprise a major portion of students' class time. To be successful in these classes, middle-school students need effective listening and note-taking skills. Students with learning disabilities (LD) are poor note-takers, which…

  10. ISLAM IN PROVINCIAL INDONESIA: Middle Class, Lifestyle, and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorhaidi Hasan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Islamic symbols have flourished in the public spaces of Indonesian provincial towns after Suharto. This phenomenon has occurred in parallel with the  significant shifts in the social, economic and political fields, which is tied to the mounting impact of Islamization, social mobility, economic growth, and democratization occurring among town people. It is as if we see a parallel move between Islamization, modernization, globalization and democratization. Key concepts associated with these trends are appropriated with those rooted in tradition and local culture to inform the whole dynamics of Indonesian provincial towns today. The key player in this process is the new middle class, who look to Islam for inspiration both to claim distinction and social status and to legitimize their consumptive lifestyle. They are newly pious who act as active negotiators between the global and the local as well as the cosmopolitan centre and the hinterland. They also play a pivotal role as an agency that liberalizes religion from its traditionally subservient, passive and docile posture by turning it into a source of moral legitimacy and distinction to represent a modern form of life. Given its intimate relationship with locality, tradition, modernity as well as globalization, Islam has increasingly assumed a greater importance for local politics. Political elites have used Islamic symbols for the instrumental purpose of extending their political legitimacy and mobilizing constituency support, in a political environment of open competition and increased public participation in decision making. In this process religious symbols have irrefutably been distanced from their religious moorings and narrow, Islamist understandings, in favor of pragmatic political purposes. Keywords: Islamic symbols, middle class, globalization, lifestyle, local politics

  11. Caught in the Middle: Some in Canada’s Middle Class are Doing Well; Others Have Good Reason to Worry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Cross

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is sometimes difficult to tell which group is more distressed about the purportedly deteriorating well-being of Canada’s middle class: Politicians courting middle-class voters, or the Canadians who actually identify as middle class. Even more difficult to discern is whether either group truly understands precisely who it is they are worrying about. There is no firm consensus on where the upper and lower boundaries of the middle class lie, with economists and statisticians disagreeing on the income levels and brackets that should be included in the definition of middle class, and some even arguing that income itself may be an inappropriate measure (preferring instead, for instance, consumption and lifestyle. And yet, despite all the conflicting approaches to measuring the middle class, what emerges from a review of the array of definitions and data sources is that the politicians and voters can at least partly justify their angst. While the middle class has seen its income grow, it has not kept pace with the income growth rate of higherearning groups. But not all members of the so-called middle class face the same plight. The workers who have lost the most ground relative to higher-income groups, are those with below-average human capital (that is, lower skill and education, and are at the lower end of the middle-income bracket. The largest source of downward pressure on middle-class incomes has been the decline of Canada’s manufacturing industry. Beginning in the postwar years, factory jobs developed a misplaced reputation for being well-paying middleclass work. In fact, the work provided generous pay and benefits only relative to the low human capital that was necessary to find employment in manufacturing. As manufacturing has declined across all industrialized countries, lower-skilled workers have been forced to accept lower rates of income growth. Meanwhile, more gains have been made by those with high levels of human capital. Public

  12. THE REPRESENTATION OF URBAN UPPER MIDDLE CLASS AMERICAN WOMEN'S COMMUNITY IN SEX AND THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yola Damayanti Gani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The portrayal of urban upper middle class American women's community in Sex and the City-SATC-is built upon constructed symbols related to the position of urban upper middle class American Women's community and how cosmopolitan the women are. The symbol's construction is characterized by singleness, upper middle class social status, well-established career, alienation, consumptiveness, independence, gender consciousness, and open mindedness in their sexual knowledge. Television has helped to fracture traditional conventions about how women should place themselves in the midst of their society and constructed urban upper middle class American women's image and identity.

  13. (Iliterate Identities in Adult Basic Education: A Case Study of a Latino Woman in an ESOL and Computer Literacy Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Jiménez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult Basic Education (ABE, namely English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL in the United States has been understood and assessed as the mastering of skills increasingly aimed at meeting the demands of the workplace. This ethnographic case study examines how the literacy practices a Latino woman engages in through her participation in an ABE-ESOL class relate to her developing identities of mother, student and citizen. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, the findings demonstrate the contextual nature of adult literacy, showing how learners appropriate available tools and texts and enact purposeful and meaningful literacy practices, which traditional ABE assessment dismiss or do not account for. Implications for adult literacy pedagogy and research are discussed.

  14. Race/Ethnicity and Social Capital among Middle- and Upper-Middle-Class Elementary School Families: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Cornigans, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to conduct a first and second order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of a scale developed by McDonald and Moberg (2002) to measure three dimensions of social capital among a diverse group of middle- and upper-middle-class elementary school parents in suburban New York. A structural path model was…

  15. Expectations of Developmental Milestones by Middle Class Parents and College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Frank A.; And Others

    It has generally been assumed that lower socioeconomic status teenage parents are atypical in their expectations about child development compared to other parental groups. However there is little information available concerning the expectations of middle class parents. Middle class nonparent teenagers (N=50) and two parental groups (participants…

  16. Measuring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Knowledge and Perceptions of Risk in Middle-Class African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Erica C.; Guidry, Jeffrey J.; Harvey, Idethia S.

    2018-01-01

    There is a paucity in the literature examining the African American middle-class. Most studies of African Americans and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have concentrated on lower-SES individuals, or make no distinction between African Americans of varying socio-economic positions. Middle-class African Americans are vulnerable in ways often…

  17. Patterns of intergenerational mobility of the old and new middle classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güveli, Ayse; Luijkx, Ruud; Ganzeboom, Harry B.G.

    2013-01-01

    It has often been proposed that new cleavages have emerged within the middle class. In this paper, we examine the distinction between social and cultural specialists and technocrats, and investigate whether these new and old middle class fractions are differentiated by their patterns of

  18. Enriching Intimacy: The Role of the Emotional in the "Resourcing" of Middle-Class Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansen, Kari; Aarseth, Helene

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses qualitative interviews conducted with Norwegian middle-class parents. It explores how a particular type of intimacy--an "enriching intimacy"--is produced as part of everyday parent-child interactions and considers the notion of the social self that spurs middle-class parents to seek this very type of intimacy with…

  19. 3 CFR - White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working Families Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 30, 2009 White House... times. To these ends, I hereby direct the following: Section 1. White House Task Force on Middle-Class...

  20. A Reinterpretation of the Writings of Frazier on the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Bart

    1978-01-01

    A careful review of all of E. Franklin Frazier's writings dealing with the Black middle class will put into perspective the distorted view many people have regarding his criticism in "Black Bourgeoisie" of the attitudes and behavior of the Black middle class. (EB)

  1. "They Think Minority Means Lesser than": Black Middle-Class Sons and Fathers Resisting Microaggressions in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Quaylan

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on Black middle-class men is sparse, leaving little to be known about the raced, classed, and gendered experiences for many Black middle-class male students and their families. Employing qualitative methodology, this study uses critical race theory (CRT) to examine the educational experiences of Black middle-class high…

  2. Language Brokering and Self-Concept: An Exploratory Study of Latino Students' Experiences in Middle and High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Kate; Kumpiene, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships among individual characteristics, language brokering experiences and attitudes, and multiple dimensions of self-concept among a sample of Latino adolescents. The sample was comprised of 66 Latino students in 6th through 11th grades who were proficient in both Spanish and English. Results from…

  3. Social-Class Differences in Consumer Choices: Working-Class Individuals Are More Sensitive to Choices of Others Than Middle-Class Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jinkyung; McDonough, Ian M; Chan, Micaela Y; Park, Denise C

    2016-04-01

    The present research shows that, when making choices, working-class Americans are more affected by others' opinions than middle-class Americans due to differences in independent versus interdependent self-construal. Experiment 1 revealed that when working-class Americans made decisions to buy products, they were more influenced by the choices of others than middle-class Americans. In contrast, middle-class Americans were more likely to misremember others' choices to be consistent with their own choices. In other words, working-class Americans adjusted their choices to the preference of others, whereas middle-class Americans distorted others' preferences to fit their choices. Supporting our prediction that this social-class effect is closely linked to the independent versus interdependent self-construal, we showed that the differences in self-construal across cultures qualified the social-class effects on choices (Experiment 2). Moreover, when we experimentally manipulated self-construal in Experiment 3, we found that it mediated the corresponding changes in choices regardless of social class. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Regular Latin Dancing and Health Education may Improve Cognition of Late Middle-Aged and Older Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, David X.; Wilson, Robert; Aguiñaga, Susan; Vásquez, Priscilla; Fogg, Louis; Yang, Zhi; Wilbur, JoEllen; Hughes, Susan; Spanbauer, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Disparities exist between Latinos and non-Latino whites in cognitive function. Dance is culturally appropriate and challenges individuals physically and cognitively, yet the impact of regular dancing on cognitive function in older Latinos has not been examined. A two-group pilot trial was employed among inactive, older Latinos. Participants (N = 57) participated in the BAILAMOS© dance program or a health education program. Cognitive test scores were converted to z-scores and measures of global cognition and specific domains (executive function, episodic memory, working memory) were derived. Results revealed a group × time interaction for episodic memory (pdance group showed greater improvement in episodic memory than the health education group. A main effect for time for global cognition (pdance programs can positively influence episodic memory; and participation in structured programs may improve overall cognition among older Latinos. PMID:28095105

  5. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  6. Living in the city: school friendships, diversity and the middle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Carol; Neal, Sarah; Iqbal, Humera

    2018-06-01

    Much of the literature on the urban middle classes describes processes of both affiliation (often to the localities) and disaffiliation (often from some of the non-middle-class residents). In this paper, we consider this situation from a different position, drawing on research exploring whether and how children and adults living in diverse localities develop friendships with those different to themselves in terms of social class and ethnicity. This paper focuses on the interviews with the ethnically diverse, but predominantly white British, middle-class parent participants, considering their attitudes towards social and cultural difference. We emphasize the importance of highlighting inequalities that arise from social class and its intersection with ethnicity in analyses of complex urban populations. The paper's contribution is, first, to examine processes of clustering amongst the white British middle-class parents, particularly in relation to social class. Second, we contrast this process, and its moments of reflection and unease, with the more deliberate and purposeful efforts of one middle-class, Bangladeshi-origin mother who engages in active labour to facilitate relationships across social and ethnic difference. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  7. Chinese Middle Classes: Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2018-01-01

    Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846......Book review of: Chinese Middle Classes:Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. Edited by Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Pp. 268. ISBN 10: 1138120847; ISBN 13: 978-1138120846...

  8. Negotiating Middle-class Respectable Femininity: Bangladeshi Women and their Families

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Nazia

    2017-01-01

    Using qualitative data, this article explains how affluent urban and new middle-class women in Bangladesh reconstruct the notion of respectable femininity within the family. The normative conception of middle-class women’s respectability is measured against women prioritizing family above work by performing their domestic, care, and socializing roles and by maintaining moral propriety. Using Bourdieu’s theory of capitals and Lamont’s formulation of boundary work, I demonstrate that by reinsta...

  9. Cultural influences, decision making process and consumer behaviour of the Middle Class Chinese Outbound Tourist.

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The research investigates the consumer behaviour of the emerging “Middle Class Mainland Chinese Outbound Tourist”. With the Chinese outbound tourism market being one of the fastest growing worldwide and poised for exponential growth in years to come, tourism industry professionals would benefit from a deeper understanding. The focus of the thesis considers which cultural influences are important in the decision making process of the Chinese middle class consumer, what are the pre-cons...

  10. The Rise of the Middle Class in the People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yuan; Guanghua Wan; Khor, Niny

    2011-01-01

    Using {dollar}2–{dollar}20 purchasing power parity per capita daily income as the definition of middle class, Zhang Yuan, Guanghua Wan, and Niny Khor find that majority of households in the People's Republic of China have become middle class by 2007. This is especially impressive given that around 40% of households were still considered poor in 1991. This paper discusses these trends, their main determinants, and geographical distributions.

  11. Age-Graded Themes in White American Middle-Class Slang: A Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Thomas S.

    It is proposed that middle- and upper-middle-class slang used among white young people in modern America shows age-related themes. For youngsters between the ages of eight and early adolescence, the major theme in slang use is to establish in-group and out-group membership, with standards of judgment based on clothes, manners, and physical appeal.…

  12. Re-establishing Class Privilege: The Ideological Uses of Middle and Working-Class Female Characters in Downton Abbey

    OpenAIRE

    Laetitia Kevers

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that the British period drama Downton Abbey, which aired between 2010 and 2015 and encountered worldwide success, uses working class and middle-class female characters to promote the aristocracy and conservative ideas, while hiding behind historical accuracy and seemingly progressive patterns of behaviour. Through a close reading of four female characters, I will demonstrate how the series’ author, Julian Fellowes, uses the show to endorse his own political ag...

  13. Middle classes: theoretical principles, contemporary working out, regarding the hired workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of defining middle classes. Theoretical principles of social and class structures, including middle classes, are examined. The criteria of reckoning some hired workers as middle classes worked out on the basis of normative methodology (normative criteria are submitted, the most important of them being educational qualifications, occupation, personal income and provision of housing. Methods of statistical and sociologic analysing data are applied. The results of analysing the conformity of the hired workers to the normative criteria of representing middle classes are produced. It is determined that today heads of organizations and their subdivisions as well as certified top and middle management specialists representing middle classes comprise only 2-3 per cent of the total number of the hired workers. It should be noted that there are practically no-one among them who has got a family with two and more children. The low level of wages is the main reason for that. In addition there are some other reasons, too. The results of the research could find application in the state social and economic policy

  14. "It All depends...": Middle School Teachers Evaluate Single-Sex Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhagen, Frances R.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explored the effectiveness of single-sex classes according to key stakeholders in this educational reform--the teachers who choose or are hired to teach in single-sex classes and schools. Specifically, this study examined the on-the-ground experiences of middle school teachers as they attempted to implement a relatively…

  15. Rebels Without a Cause? Socialization and Subcultural Style among the Children of the New Middle Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggleton, Peter J.; Whitty, Geoff

    1985-01-01

    A study of upper-middle-class college students in England who responded with "resistance" to their schooling showed that the students' challenges do not constitute effective resistances to prevailing patterns of class or gender relations, i.e., their challenges are not transformative. (RM)

  16. Cognitive Performance and Competence Characteristics of Lower- and Middle-Class Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Reports two experiments to assess the usefulness of an alternative position to the "deficit hypothesis" and the "differences hypothesis," namely, that environmental/situational factors attenuate the performance of lower-class children, but that their competence, while genotypically equivalent to that of middle-class children,…

  17. THE ANALYSIS OF THE STATE AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF THE MIDDLE CLASS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Salo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to study and represent the current state of the middle class in Ukraine, the problems of its formation and development prospects in the future with the definition of the complementary set of internal and external factors of its formation. Methodology. The survey is based on statistical data from open official sources, which makes it possible to confirm the thesis of the critical proportion of the middle class in Ukraine. Besides, the data are obtained from electronic sources, the State Statistics Service of Ukraine. During the study, the paper uses analytical articles on the economic development of the middle class in Ukraine. The results of the survey shows that the middle class is critically low for stable functioning of Ukraine’s modern economy. One of the main problems of the middle class development is the absence of state support of small and medium-sized businesses. The government with the repressive model of the economy in relation to business-oriented monopolization was formed in Ukraine. The distribution of the «shadow» model of social and economic relations leads to the limitation of legal opportunities of employment and income. Besides, it complicates the development of small and mediumsized businesses. As a consequence, the number of entrepreneurs and small business owners are constantly increasing, but due to the absence of a favorable business climate a significant number of small businesses were forced to move into the shadow. The peculiarity of the formation of the middle class in Ukraine is that its social basis in contrast to Western Europe is not the owners, but employees. We have a unique situation, when most of the highly skilled workers (the representatives of the spheres of education, health, public administration, which should be the core of the middle class, in terms of income are on the verge or below the poverty line. The level of wages of such specialists does not even correspond to

  18. Work–life balance/imbalance: the dominance of the middle class and the neglect of the working class

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    The paper was stimulated by the question of class in work-life debates. The common conclusion from work-life studies is that work-life imbalance is largely a middle class problem. It is argued here that this assertion is a direct outcome of a particular and narrow interpretation of work-life imbalance in which time is seen to be the major cause of difficulty. Labour market time, and too much of it, dominates the conceptualisation of work-life and its measurement too. This heavy focus on a cer...

  19. Re-establishing Class Privilege: The Ideological Uses of Middle and Working-Class Female Characters in Downton Abbey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Kevers

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the British period drama Downton Abbey, which aired between 2010 and 2015 and encountered worldwide success, uses working class and middle-class female characters to promote the aristocracy and conservative ideas, while hiding behind historical accuracy and seemingly progressive patterns of behaviour. Through a close reading of four female characters, I will demonstrate how the series’ author, Julian Fellowes, uses the show to endorse his own political agenda, as a Conservative member of the House of Lords in the British Parliament.

  20. "Martin Luther King Stopped Discrimination": Multi-Generational Latino Elementary Students' Perceptions of Social Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwen, Margie Sauceda

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how multi-generational, middle-class, fifth-graders from Latino families responded to classroom discussions of social issues--particularly discrimination--and draws upon sociocultural views of culture, educational theory, and sociological perspectives of immigration to provide insight into the learning experiences of one group…

  1. Translating Bourdieu: cultural capital and the English middle class in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Simon

    2005-03-01

    This article examines the ways in which Pierre Bourdieu's work on culture and cultural capital can be applied to the study of the English middle class in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Drawing on a wide historical literature, the article argues for the significance of culture as a constitutive element of middle-class identities in England since 1800. It goes on to examine Bourdieu's ideas of 'objectivated', 'instutionalized' and 'incorporated' cultural capital, in the context of family, inheritance, education and the body. The article identifies changes in the historical forms which cultural capital has taken and emphasizes the importance of analysing family processes of intergenerational transmission.

  2. Boycott or Buycott? Malay Middle-Class Consumption Post-9/11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Much current anti-consumerist and anti-globalisation discourse identifies boycotting as an immensely powerful force. Religious and secular activists alike promote consumer boycotts as a type of practised resistance that promises to break US economic, military and cultural hegemony. Obviously...... in Malaysia in the wake of 9/11. I shall show how this issue evokes a wide range of contestations and paradoxes in the everyday lives of suburban Malay Muslim middle-class families. Most of all, the boycott confronts divergent Malay middle-class groups with the problem of how to translate intentionality...

  3. The Capability Threshold: Re-examining the Definition of the Middle Class in an Unequal Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Ronelle; McAravey, Camren; van der Berg, Servaas

    2015-01-01

    In a polarised and highly unequal country such as South Africa, it is unlikely that a definition of the middle class that is based on an income threshold will adequately capture the political and social meanings of being middle class. We therefore propose a multi-dimensional definition, rooted in the ideas of empowerment and capability, and find that the 'empowered middle class' has expanded significantly since 1993 also across vulnerable subgroups such as blacks, female-headed households and...

  4. Work-life balance/imbalance: the dominance of the middle class and the neglect of the working class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Tracey

    2015-12-01

    The paper was stimulated by the relative absence of the working class from work-life debates. The common conclusion from work-life studies is that work-life imbalance is largely a middle-class problem. It is argued here that this classed assertion is a direct outcome of a particular and narrow interpretation of work-life imbalance in which time is seen to be the major cause of difficulty. Labour market time, and too much of it, dominates the conceptualization of work-life and its measurement too. This heavy focus on too much labour market time has rendered largely invisible from dominant work-life discourses the types of imbalance that are more likely to impact the working class. The paper's analysis of large UK data-sets demonstrates a reduction in hours worked by working-class men, more part-time employment in working-class occupations, and a substantial growth in levels of reported financial insecurity amongst the working classes after the 2008-9 recession. It shows too that economic-based work-life imbalance is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction than is temporal imbalance. The paper concludes that the dominant conceptualization of work-life disregards the major work-life challenge experienced by the working class: economic precarity. The work-life balance debate needs to more fully incorporate economic-based work-life imbalance if it is to better represent class inequalities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  5. The Paradox of Middle-Class Attitudes in China: Democracy, Social Stability, and Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Miao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the seemingly paradoxical attitudes of the Chinese middle class towards democracy, social stability, and reform. Using fieldwork data from Ningbo, this article shows that a group of objective, middle-class individuals can concurrently display high levels of support for democratic principles and low levels of participation in real-life socio-political events. Being generally confident in China’s social stability, these individuals have little to no desire for significant democratic reform, or indeed any reform that occurs outside the purview of the state, as it is considered destabilising. By highlighting the distinction between how these members of the middle class respond to generic democratic concepts, real-life socio-political affairs, and the idea of democratic reform, this article argues that the Chinese middle class are aware of what “should be,” what “could be,” and what “is,” which lends their socio-political attitudes a paradoxical appearance.

  6. ‘Cuteifying’ spaces and staging marine animals for Chinese middle-class consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, Chin Ee

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, Chimelong Ocean Kingdom in Zhuhai is considered an aestheticised space for the growing Chinese middle class. Located within the booming and fast-urbanising Pearl River Delta, the theme park is a sizeable project consisting of rides, marine mammal enclosures and a well-equipped

  7. The housing careers of black middle-class residents in a South African metropolitan area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, L

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Africans was restored in the mid-1980s and the Group Areas Act was repealed in 1991. Democracy opened up economic opportunities previously unavailable to black people. This paper investigates the effect on black middle-class South African households...

  8. Protect and Survive: "Whiteness" and the Middle-Class Family in Civil Defence Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John

    2008-01-01

    "Civil defence pedagogies" normalise continuous emergency through educational channels such as school, community and adult education. Using critical whiteness studies, and critiques of white supremacy from critical race theory, as a conceptual base, the protection of whiteness, and particularly the white middle-class family, is considered to be…

  9. Parental Goals and Parenting Practices of Upper-Middle-Class Korean Mothers with Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Young In

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand how mothers develop their parenting styles under rapidly changing cultural contexts, this study examines and compares Korean upper-middle-class mothers' parental goals and real parenting practices as they reported. For this purpose, face-to-face in-depth interviews with 20 Korean mothers were conducted. By analyzing the…

  10. Curriculum, Credentials, and the Middle Class: A Case Study of a Nineteenth-Century High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaree, David F.

    1986-01-01

    Described is the development of the modern hegemonic curriculum--i.e., one in which knowledge is stratified, academic, and appropriated through individual competition--in a nineteenth century high school. This developmental process hinged on the relationship between the school's curriculum and its middle-class constituency, a relationship…

  11. The correlation of urban heat island in tropical middle-class housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazir, Zuber Angkasa

    2017-11-01

    A very limited number of green and sustainable construction studies have explored factors related to Urban Heat Island (UHI) in tropical middle-class housing. This paper aimed to investigate the correlation of Urban Heat Island in tropical middle-class housing in three urban housing for middle-class residents of Palembang, which were Taman Sari Kenten, TOP Jakabaring, and Talang Kelapa. Samples consisted of 125 Taman Sari Kenten housing, 27 Talang Kelapa housing, and 12 TOP Jakabaring housing. Independent variables were the resident density, socioeconomic status, house location, roof type, green area ratio, weather, time, air conditioner, pro-environment institution, and NEP scale. The Analytic method included correlation and regression. We identified that all housing had different UHI profiles where Taman Sari Kenten had the highest UHI (4.17 K), followed by Talang Kelapa (2.66 K) and TOP Jakabaring (0.66 K) against temperature in measuring station nearby, owned by BMKG (National Meteorological Station). UHI correlated with the resident density, roof type, green area ratio, weather, time, and air conditioner. The results should add to the design of ideal housing in the tropical climate for middle-class residents, focusing on its ability to mitigate Urban Heat Island.

  12. Middle School Students' Attitudes toward Science, Scientists, Science Teachers and Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapici, Hasan Özgür; Akçay, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    It is an indispensable fact that having a positive attitude towards science is one of the important factors that promotes students for studying in science. The study is a kind of national study that aims to investigate middle school students', from different regions of Turkey, attitudes toward science, scientists and science classes. The study was…

  13. Politics, Religion and Morals: The Symbolism of Public Schooling for the Urban Middle-Class Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Emma E.

    2016-01-01

    Research points to sections of the middle-class repopulating the "ordinary" urban public school and whilst there are key differences in how they are navigating public school choices, from "seeking a critical mass" to resisting traditional methods of choice and going "against-the-grain", or collectively campaigning for…

  14. Involved Fatherhood? Exploring the Educational Work of Middle-Class Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottzen, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    The present paper explores middle-class fathers' educational work by studying how they and their partners are involved in their children's education at home, in school, and how they investigate school options and make decisions about educational issues. Drawing on data from an ethnographic study of 30 dual-earner couples in the Greater Los Angeles…

  15. Elite International Schools in the Global South: Transnational Space, Class Relationalities and the "Middling" International Schoolteacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarc, Paul; Mishra Tarc, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The elite international school is a rich site for sociological inquiry in global times. In this paper, we conceptualize the international school as a transnational space of agonist social class-making given the dynamic positioning of the complement of international school actors. We position international schoolteachers in the middle of these…

  16. Navigating Polycentric Governance from a Citizen’s Perspective: The Rising New Middle Classes Respond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Fowler (Alan); K. Biekart (Kees)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractA global growth in the middle class is anticipated to influence development choices and the evolution of domestic polities associated with a ‘rising‘ South. Responding to the local effects of a multipolar world order will add to a citizen’s existing need to navigate national

  17. Vulnerability Factors in the Middle Class: Evidence for Argentina and Mexico after the Crisis of the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Galassi, Gabriela Liliana; González, Leandro Mariano

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the profile of the Argentinean and Mexican middle classes during the most recent crisis in both countries. It combines the perspectives of social vulnerability and class analysis theoretically underlying a "matrix of vulnerability and social classes." The analysis used household surveys in Argentina for 1998 and 2003 and those in Mexico for 1994 and 1996. The results show that whereas the Mexican middle class was primarily affected during the "Tequila crisis" through its p...

  18. Middle Class and Democracy: An Assessment on the 2014 Indonesian’s Presidential Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxensius Tri Sambodo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the role of middle class in Indonesia’s democracy, with the particular focus of the last Indonesian Presidential election. This study uses econometric analyses to assess preferences of middle class in presidential election by exploring data at district/city and provincial. The main finding in this study strongly suggests that religious and personality are still important elements under the race of Indonesia president. This study also found that different group of middle class has different attitudes in selecting the presidential candidate and the upper group of middle class is more likely to select Joko Widodo. Finally, a fragile middle class and a relatively high number of abstainers could be a barrier toward more substantive democracy. Abstrak Makalah ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis peran kelompok kelas menengah dalam proses demokrasi di Indonesia, secara khusus peran mereka difokuskan pada hasil pemilihan presiden yang terakhir. Studi ini menggunakan pendekatan ekonometrik untuk mengalisis preferensi kelompok kelas menengah dalam memilih calon presiden, dengan melakukan eksplorasi data pada tingkat kabupaten/kota dan provinsi. Hasil studi menunjukkan, agama dan personalitas calon presiden menjadi faktor penting dalam pertarungan pemilihan presiden. Studi ini juga menunjukkan, berbagai kelompok dalam kelas menengah memiliki preferensi yang berbeda dalam memilih kandidat presiden dan kelompok kelas menengah atas cenderung memilih Joko Widodo. Akhirnya, kelas menengah yang rentan dan tingginya kelompok yang abstain, akan menjadi hambatan untuk menuju demokrasi yang lebih substantif. Kata kunci: Kelas Menengah; Demokrasi; Pemilihan Presiden; Indonesia JEL classifications: A12; C33

  19. Plot and irony in childbirth narratives of middle-class Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen

    2013-03-01

    Brazil's rate of cesarean deliveries is among the highest in the world and constitutes the majority of childbirths in private hospitals. This study examines ways middle-class Brazilian women are exercising agency in this context. It draws from sociolinguistics to examine narrative structure and dramatic properties of 120 childbirth narratives of 68 low- to high-income women. Surgical delivery constituted 62% of the total. I focus on 20 young middle-class women, of whom 17 had C-sections. Doctors determined mode of childbirth pre-emptively or appeared to accommodate women's wishes, while framing the scenario as necessitating surgical delivery. The women strove to imbue C-section deliveries with value and meaning through staging, filming, familial presence, attempting induced labor, or humanized childbirth. Their stories indicate that class privilege does not lead to choice over childbirth mode. The women nonetheless struggle over the significance of their agency in childbirth. © 2013 by the American Anthropological Association.

  20. "He Was a Bit of a Delicate Thing": White Middle-Class Boys, Gender, School Choice and Parental Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katya; Jamieson, Fiona; Hollingworth, Sumi

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of gender on white middle-class parents' anxiety about choosing inner-city comprehensives and their children's subsequent experiences within school, particularly in relation to social mixing. Drawing on interview data from an ESRC funded study of white middle-class parents whose children attend inner-city…

  1. Housing as a way of life: towards an understanding of middle-class families' preferences for an urban residential location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, L.; Paddison, R.; Ostendorf, W.

    2010-01-01

    Housing studies show an overwhelming preference by middle-class families for suburban living locations. In this paper an atypical category, middle-class families living in the city, is addressed. The aim is to understand why these households disconnect the seemingly natural relationship between

  2. THE MIDDLE CLASS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: DETERMINANT FACTORS OF FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila MALCOCI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The research of the middle class formation process in the Republic of Moldova is of majorimportance, as it allows to identify its main elements and the possibilities of formation under the currentconditions. The article presents the results of the sociological study on the premises of the middle classformation in the Republic of Moldova, carried out during June-September 2016. The results from thisstudy show that the society is distributed in 6 social strata that vary by socio-professional status, level ofeducation and level of wellbeing. The status inconsistency and low level of status crystallisation arecharacteristics for all strata within the conditions of dysfunctionality of logical chain: education-socialoccupational status-welfare. As per the research, the process of classes’ formation is just at the initialstage in the Republic of Moldova. The analysis of the social strata in terms of middle class criteria: highsocio professional status, high education level, high level of welfare, shows some prospects of formationof the middle class in the upper strata within the following conditions: development of wage policies;reforming tax policies by promoting the progressive taxation of income; ensuring equitable distribution ofwages according to work; elimination of corruption in power structures; improving legislation; ensuringaccess of the population to decision – making process; creating favourable conditions for development ofsmall and medium business; development of a transparent environment for the market economy; guarantyof fair conditions to population to ensure access to education and health services.

  3. Identify the consumption patterns of the second generation Chinese middle class. Does culture influence their consumption habits?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kim Man

    2012-01-01

    Background: The 1978 political social reform in China has led to the emergence of the rapid and fast growing urban ‘middle class’ population. With the rise of the large population of middle class consumers, global market developers and opportunists are targeting this group of people to maximize their profits in developing countries. This research aimed to identify the consumption patterns of the second generation Chinese middle class and to investigate if their unique Chinese culture influenc...

  4. Sex differences in obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Juliann; Saquib, Nazmus; Stefanick, Marcia L; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Anand, Shuchi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Chertow, Glenn M; Barry, Michele; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    The sustained economic growth in Bangladesh during the previous decade has created a substantial middle-class population, who have adequate income to spend on food, clothing, and lifestyle management. Along with the improvements in living standards, has also come negative impact on health for the middle class. The study objective was to assess sex differences in obesity prevalence, diet, and physical activity among urban middle-class Bangladeshi. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, we randomly selected 402 adults from Mohammedpur, Dhaka. The sampling technique was multi-stage random sampling. We used standardized questionnaires for data collection and measured height, weight, and waist circumference. Mean age (standard deviation) was 49.4 (12.7) years. The prevalence of both generalized (79% vs. 53%) and central obesity (85% vs. 42%) were significantly higher in women than men. Women reported spending more time watching TV and spending less time walking than men (pmiddle-class Bangladeshis than previous urban estimates, and the burden of obesity disproportionately affects women. Future research and public health efforts are needed to address this severe obesity problem and to promote active lifestyles.

  5. Ethno beauty: practices of beautification among urban muslim middle-class women in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listyani, RH; Sadewo, FX S.; Legowo, M.

    2018-01-01

    This research examines practices of beautification by urban middle-class Muslim women using an ethnomethodology approach. Several theories are employed in this research including the theory of consumption (leisure class), sociology of body, middle-class theory and the concept of modern Islam. Results indicate that the beautiful concept according to Muslim middle-class urban women is white skin without stains, face without wrinkles, nose sharp, eyelashes and thick eyebrows and red lips. To be said to be beautiful, they took various efforts through beauty treatment, diet, fashion and dress up. In this study also revealed that their goal to self-care is pride and recognition in front of other fellow female friends and to happy partner (husband). This shows that the consumption through the body (fashions, diets, make up) and consumption around the body (beauty treatments) represent symbolic and material ways of positioning themselves within contemporary society - thus becoming ‘visible’. The implications of this research are this study is expected to contribute information and enrich the repertoire of social science especially sociology also for the development of research on body and beauty.

  6. Racial Microaggressions: The Schooling Experiences of Black Middle-Class Males in Arizona’s Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaylan Allen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Black education has often neglected significant analysis of life in schools and the experience of racism among Black middle-class students in general and Black middle-class males specifically. Moreover, the achievement gap between this population and their White counterparts in many cases is greater than the gap that exists among working-class Blacks and Whites. This study begins to document the aforementioned by illuminating the racial microaggressions experienced by Black middle-class males while in school and how their families’ usage of social and cultural capital deflect the potential negative outcomes of school racism.

  7. Economic exchanges in a stratified society: End of the middle class?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, M.F.; Risau Gusman, S.; Iglesias, J.R.

    2005-05-01

    We study the effect of the social stratification on the wealth distribution on a system of interacting economic agents that are constrained to interact only within their own economic class. The economical mobility of the agents is related to its success in exchange transactions.Different wealth distributions are obtained as a function of the width of the economic class. We and a range of widths in which the society is divided into two classes separated by a deep gap that prevents further exchange between poor and rich agents. As a consequence, the middle wealth class is eliminated. The high values of the Gini indices obtained in these cases indicate a highly unequal society. On the other hand, lower and higher widths induce lower Gini indices and a fairer wealth distribution. (author)

  8. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Queering the spinsters: single middle-class women in Norway, 1880-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellesund, Tone

    2008-01-01

    Constituting what may be called "a community of spinsters," Norwegian middle-class unmarried woman played an important role in undermining and destabilizing the heterosexual cultural matrix during the period 1880-1920. In their anti-sexuality, self-sufficiency and hatred of men the spinsters challenged the heteronormativity of the period, and their queerness still presents a challenge to the harmony-oriented, heteromormative Norwegian women's history.

  10. Was Africa Rising? Narratives of Development Success and Failure among the Mozambican Middle Class

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Andrew Richard

    2017-01-01

    In the 2000s and 2010s a narrative of ‘Africa Rising’ was popularised by businesses, donors, media and political leaders. High economic growth rates, increased investment from the BRICS and the export of natural resources supported claims of development success. One group held up as beneficiaries were the emerging African middle class. Despite the optimism, poverty ratios remained stable and impoverishment was widespread. Change was occurring, but the gains were uneven. Mozambique had a liber...

  11. Navigating Polycentric Governance from a Citizen’s Perspective: The Rising New Middle Classes Respond

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Alan; Biekart, Kees

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractA global growth in the middle class is anticipated to influence development choices and the evolution of domestic polities associated with a ‘rising‘ South. Responding to the local effects of a multipolar world order will add to a citizen’s existing need to navigate national polycentrism. Exploration of this citizen-centric phenomenon introduces a new, comprehensive analytic framework that combines public with private governance, the latter categorised as modern, traditional a...

  12. Intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with meeting recommended physical activity among rural Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K; Saelens, Brian E; Thompson, Beti

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to identify intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with engaging in recommended levels of physical activity among rural Latino middle school youth. Data were from an anonymous survey of 773 Latino youth (51% female) about level of and barriers and motivators to physical activity, risk behaviors, and park use. Logistic regression models identified factors correlated with meeting recommended levels of physical activity (5 days or more 3 60 min/day). Thirty-four percent of girls and 41% of boys reported meeting this physical activity recommendation. Participation in an organized after school activity (p < .001) and in physical education (PE) classes 5 days a week (p < .001) were strongly associated with meeting recommended physical activity level. Making PE available 5 days a week and creating opportunities for organized after school physical activity programs may increase the number of rural Latino middle school youth who meet recommended physical activity level.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors in a Mexican middle-class urban population. The Lindavista Study. Baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Alejandra; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Gutiérrez-Salmean, Gabriela; Samaniego-Méndez, Virginia; Vela-Huerta, Agustín; Alcocer, Luis; Zárate-Chavarría, Elisa; Mendoza-Castelán, Emma; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne; García-Sánchez, Rubén; Martínez-Marroquín, Yolanda; Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Meaney, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to describe the cardiovascular risk factors affecting a Mexican urban middle-class population. A convenience sample of 2602 middle class urban subjects composed the cohort of the Lindavista Study, a prospective study aimed to determine if conventional cardiovascular risks factors have the same prognosis impact as in other populations. For the baseline data, several measurements were done: obesity indexes, smoking, blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides. This paper presents the basal values of this population, which represents a sample of the Mexican growing urban middle-class. The mean age in the sample was 50 years; 59% were females. Around 50% of the entire group were overweighed, while around 24% were obese. 32% smoked; 32% were hypertensive with a 20% rate of controlled pressure. 6% had diabetes, and 14% had impaired fasting glucose; 66% had total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL; 62% showed HDL-c levels150 mg/dL, and 34% levels of LDL-c ≥ 160 mg/dL. Half of the population studied had the metabolic syndrome. These data show a population with a high-risk profile, secondary to the agglomeration of several cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Food, eating and taste: parents' perspectives on the making of the middle class teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backett-Milburn, Kathryn C; Wills, Wendy J; Roberts, Mei-Li; Lawton, Julia

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports findings from a qualitative study of views and understandings of dietary practices in middle class families. Thirty five parents/main food providers of boys and girls aged 13/14 years, living in Eastern Scotland, were interviewed about their and their teenagers' everyday lives, food, health and family practices. One of our aims was to understand more about the social and cultural conditions which might be promoting more positive dietary health and physical well-being amongst middle class families. Most parents' accounts appeared rooted in a taken-for-grantedness that family members enjoyed good health, lived in relatively secure and unthreatening environments regarding health and resources, and were able to lead active lives, which they valued. Although controlling teenagers' eating practices was presented as an ongoing challenge, active supervision and surveillance of their diets was described, as was guiding tastes in 'the right direction'. Parents described attempts to achieve family eating practices such as commensality, cooking from scratch, and encouraging a varied and nutritional 'adult' diet and cosmopolitan tastes, though work and activities could compromise these. These middle class families might be characterized as having future oriented 'hierarchies of luxury and choice', in which controlling and moulding teenagers' food practices and tastes was assigned a high priority.

  15. ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF HOUSEHOLD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT IN BRAZILIAN LOWER-MIDDLE-CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Miotto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through two complementary and exploratory studies – one qualitative and one quantitative – this research aims to understand the ways in which lower-middle-class families in Brazil manage their household finances. The study proposes an integrated framework that brings together various previously disconnected theoretical fragments. Based on a survey with a sample of 165 lower-middle-class female consumers of a retail company in São Paulo, we explored and tested, via a quantitative study, how antecedents such as personal characteristics affect the financial management process, as well as its consequences, either negatively as defaults or positively as savings. The model calibration and analysis were derived from a series of regression analyses. The results revealed the mediator role that financial management plays in the relationship between personal characteristics and defaults and savings. Compared to previous studies with consumers of more affluent countries, we identified peculiar findings among Brazilian lower-middle-class consumers: inadequate attention to control, weak or no focus on short- or long-range planning, widespread absence of budget surplus, and influence of critical events on episodes of default.

  16. A classe média no mundo do neoliberalismo Middle classes in the world of neoliberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Grün

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available O texto procura dar conta das recentes transformações na maneira como as classes médias brasileiras apreendem e dão sentido à sua vida na esfera econômica. Para isso, utiliza dados e análises de pesquisas sobre transformações em ambientes de trabalho burocráticos, construção de espaços argumentativos dos gerentes, formas tradicionais e mais recentes do pequeno comércio e sobre o também recente fenômeno do desemprego gerencial. Procura entender o problema mediante um estudo de transformações das convenções cognitivas implícitas nas formas de se entender o mundo social e seus reflexos nas vivências da esfera econômica. Da análise emerge um interessante caso de cegueira institucional, onde todas as evidências que põem em xeque a nova ordem são descartadas e onde a antiga divisão das classes médias em estratos assalariados e autônomos tem de ser repensado.The text tries to analyse recent transformations in the manner how the Brazilian middle classes perceive and signify their lives in the economic sphere. For this I make use of dates and analyses produced in researches about the transformations of the bureaucratic-work milieu, about the construction of managers' argumentative spaces, about traditional and more recent forms of the small trade and about the also recent phenomenon of management unemployment. I try to understand the problem based on a study on the transformations of the cognitive conventions inherent to the way people comprehend the social world and experience the consequences of its changes in the economic sphere. The analysis shows that there exists an interesting case of institutional blindness in which all the evidences that threaten the new order are rejected and in which the old division of the middle classes between employed and autonomous strata has to be rethought.

  17. George Augustus Sala and the English Middle-Class View of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blake

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1850 the journalist George Augustus Sala appealed to the perceived moral superiority of the English middle classes by satirising American slavery and Southern slave-owners. When Sala first visited America in 1863, as Special Correspondent for the 'Daily Telegraph' during the Civil War, his articles were some of the most pro-slavery, pro-Southern and anti-Union pieces the English public had read. Sala attacked all aspects of Northern life, disputed the North’s reasons for war, criticised their treatment of free blacks and maintained that claims of barbarity towards slaves in the South had been grossly exaggerated. Despite his previous pronouncements, Sala returned to America for the 'Telegraph' in 1879 and was greeted favourably wherever he went. He declared that he had been a ‘fool’ for supporting the wrong side during the Civil War but still maintained that African-Americans had been better off under the slave-system and that they were incapable of practising self-government. He observed that America was now ‘a wonderful country and a wonderful people.’ Although hitherto neglected in scholarly debates on Anglo-American relations in the nineteenth century, this paper will highlight Sala’s importance in this context, not least because of the large readership he commanded. As a journalist for the newspaper with the largest daily circulation in the world, Sala’s fluctuating and controversial opinions on America were read by some 250,000 middle class English men and women every day. This essay will also question to what extent Sala’s changing perceptions of America were influenced by the contemporary racial discourse of other middle-class commentators like Thomas Carlyle, Charles Dickens and Richard Burton, and by events like the Governor Eyre Affair. Using recent scholarship in the field of racial theory by critics including Catherine Hall, Robert Young and Tim Barringer, this paper will reassess English middle-class views on

  18. Hegemonic developments: the new Indian middle class, gendered subalterns, and diasporic returnees in the event of neoliberalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Amy; Murty, Madhavi; Ramamurthy, Priti

    2010-01-01

    The "new middle class" as a political construct is valuable for feminist theorizations of international political economy, particularly those concerned with development. The rise of the new middle class is usually juxtaposed with neoliberalism, so we offer a new theorization of neoliberalism-as-event and analyze an array of new-middle-class signs and subjects in India. Questioning the repetition of the figure of the new Indian woman in resolving the sociotemporal and spatiotemporal paradoxes of the nation, we argue, first, that the figure of the subaltern woman is a necessary counter to the new Indian woman. The arrival of the gendered subaltern on the national stage is celebrated through discourses that articulate and disarticulate the subaltern woman and bear the traces of subaltern struggles. Her gendered body constitutes the line between who can be new middle class and at the vanguard of neoliberal development and who cannot. Second, we argue that new-middle-class formation is taking place in the households of diasporic returnees through class practices that involve speaking to and for domestic servants. Returnees hold in tension urges to encourage class mobility and to discipline their servants through neoliberal governmentalities that draw on global discourses of corporate responsibility, professionalism, and empowerment. These development scripts are interspersed with reflections on the poor material conditions of domestic service work. The implications of this article for feminist theorizations of international political economy are methodological, analytical, and political.

  19. Paradoxes of Social Rise. The Expansion of Middle Classes and the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Deutschmann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article views the current financial crisis from the background of long term socio-economic changes in advanced industrial societies. Central points are the rise of middle classes, the accumulation of financial wealth in the upper strata of middle classes in combination with an increasing concentration of financial assets at the level of the top rich, and the advance of pension and investment funds as collective actors at financial markets. The paper analyses the interconnections between these developments in the framework of a multilevel model, culminating in the thesis of a collective “Buddenbrooks”-effect: a structural upward mobility of society will lead to an increasing imbalance at capital markets because a strongly rising volume of financial assets searching profitable investment opportunities will go parallel with a decline of the social reservoir of solvent entrepreneurial debtors. Therefore, advanced industrial economies are faced with chronic excess liquidity and export surpluses at capital markets, leading to the build-up of speculative bubbles and subsequent crashes. The author argues that the present crisis cannot be understood properly without taking account of these backgrounds.

  20. Perceptions and attitudes of formative assessments in middle-school science classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Penny Denyse

    No Child Left Behind mandates utilizing summative assessment to measure schools' effectiveness. The problem is that summative assessment measures students' knowledge without depth of understanding. The goal of public education, however, is to prepare students to think critically at higher levels. The purpose of this study was to examine any difference between formative assessment incorporated in instruction as opposed to the usual, more summative methods in terms of attitudes and academic achievement of middle-school science students. Maslow's theory emphasizes that individuals must have basic needs met before they can advance to higher levels. Formative assessment enables students to master one level at a time. The research questions focused on whether statistically significant differences existed between classrooms using these two types of assessments on academic tests and an attitude survey. Using a quantitative quasi-experimental control-group design, data were obtained from a sample of 430 middle-school science students in 6 classes. One control and 2 experimental classes were assigned to each teacher. Results of the independent t tests revealed academic achievement was significantly greater for groups that utilized formative assessment. No significant difference in attitudes was noted. Recommendations include incorporating formative assessment results with the summative results. Findings from this study could contribute to positive social change by prompting educational stakeholders to examine local and state policies on curriculum as well as funding based on summative scores alone. Use of formative assessment can lead to improved academic success.

  1. Public Education: A Route into Lebanon’s Middle Class in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Zbib

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Lebanon during the 1960s, public education became more accessible to members of the lower classes and different sectarian denominations, after a time when education had been, to a large extent, a privilege of upper- and middle-class Christians. This paper examines the socioeconomic conditions of public school teachers as a result of this process. Using Bourdieusian analysis, I argue that these teachers used cultural capital acquired through free education to become part of a rising professional middle class. To a large extent, these teachers’ definition of their own social positions and roles was a result of their individual histories and internalized values.

  2. Evaluation of ¡Vivir Mi Vida! to improve health and wellness of rural-dwelling, late middle-aged Latino adults: results of a feasibility and pilot study of a lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Blanchard, Jeanine; Vigen, Cheryl L P; Martínez, Jenny; Guzmán, Laura; Concha, Alyssa; Fluke, Michelle; Carlson, Mike

    2018-05-06

    AimThe aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally tailored lifestyle intervention, ¡Vivir Mi Vida! (Live My Life!). This intervention was designed to improve the health and well-being of high risk late middle-aged Latino adults and to be implemented in a rural primary care system. Rural-dwelling Latino adults experience higher rates of chronic disease compared with their urban counterparts, a disparity exacerbated by limited access to healthcare services. Very few lifestyle interventions exist that are both culturally sensitive and compatible for delivery within a non-metropolitan primary care context. Participants were 37 Latino, Spanish-speaking adults aged 50-64-years-old, recruited from a rural health clinic in the Antelope Valley of California. ¡Vivir Mi Vida! was delivered by a community health worker-occupational therapy team over a 16-week period. Subjective health, lifestyle factors, and cardiometabolic measures were collected pre- and post-intervention. Follow-up interviews and focus groups were held to collect information related to the subjective experiences of key stakeholders and participants.FindingsParticipants demonstrated improvements in systolic blood pressure, sodium and saturated fat intake, and numerous patient-centered outcomes ranging from increased well-being to reduced stress. Although participants were extremely satisfied with the program, stakeholders identified a number of implementation challenges. The findings suggest that a tailored lifestyle intervention led by community health workers and occupational therapists is feasible to implement in a primary care setting and can improve health outcomes in rural-dwelling, late middle-aged Latinos.

  3. Glycemic control, cognitive function, and family support among middle-aged and older Hispanics with diabetes: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizich, Garrett; Kaplan, Robert C; González, Hector M; Daviglus, Martha L; Giachello, Aida L; Teng, Yanping; Lipton, Richard B; Grober, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    To examine among Hispanics in the U.S., a population with increased reliance on informal healthcare support structures, (1) the association between cognitive function and control of diabetes; and (2) whether this association is modified by family support. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), word fluency, and learning and delayed recall components of the Spanish English Verbal Learning Test were administered to 1794 Hispanic adults aged 45-76years with diagnosed diabetes. An executive function index and global cognitive function index (GCFI) were derived. Uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c⩾7% [53mmol/mol]) was compared across quartiles of cognitive function using multivariable logit models with interaction terms for cognitive function and family support. After adjustment, lower DSST scores were associated with uncontrolled diabetes (P=0.03). Family support modified the relationship between other measures of cognition and diabetes control (Pinteraction: 0.002, 0.09). Among individuals with low family support, as cognitive function declined, the odds of uncontrolled diabetes increased (P-trend across quartiles of the GCFI, 0.015). Among those with low family support, persons in the lowest quartile of global cognitive function were more than twice as likely to have uncontrolled diabetes as those in the highest performing quartile (OR=2.31; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.55). There was no similar effect among those with high family support. Family support may buffer the negative association between low cognitive functioning and diabetes control in US Hispanics/Latinos. Educational programs targeted at family members of middle-age and older persons with diabetes regardless of neurocognitive status may help improve population-level glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Credit Card Blues: The Middle Class and the Hidden Costs of Easy Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Randy; Dwyer, Rachel; Neilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In an era of increased access to credit, it becomes increasingly important to understand the consequences of taking on unsecured consumer debt. We argue that credit can have both positive and negative consequences resulting from its ability to smooth life transitions and difficulties but that this occurs simultaneously with increased financial risks and stress resulting from carrying unsecured debt. We find that those in the middle of the income distribution suffer the greatest disruptions to mental health from carrying debt. Affluent borrowers are relatively unmoved by debt, suggesting the use of short-term debt as a convenience strategy for the financially well-heeled. The least advantaged borrowers are also suffer emotionally less from debt, possibly because securing spendable funds for necessities remains their most pressing concern. The onset of the Great Recession, however, produced increased emotional distress for all classes.

  5. Middle Classes in China: Force for Political Change or Guarantee of Stability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Tomba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the factors that contributed to the production of a Chinese middle class during the reform period and to the role that a growing group of big spenders and consumers play for China’s economic growth and political stability. It argues that a dramatic status enhancement for wage-earning Chinese professionals was among the major determinants of social change in the late 1990s and that this process happened despite the market more than because of it. The ongoing development of a high-consuming urban society in China has been as much the outcome of the social engineering project of the contemporary reformist state and its agencies as it has been a consequence of the opening up of the economy and society.

  6. Gendered power in cultural contexts: Part II. Middle class African American heterosexual couples with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, Randi S; Scarborough, Norma; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Seshadri, Gita; Lewis, Monique E; Mahoney, Anne Rankin

    2009-03-01

    When race and gender intersect, understanding gendered power may be complicated. The authors first describe the historical context that serves as important background for understanding gender and power in heterosexual African American relationships. Then they show how family solidarity in the face of social injustices often overrides gender equality as a goal for middle class African American couples with young children. The findings illustrate pragmatic equality within couple relationships and the willful suspension of gender roles for the well-being of the family as a whole. However, gendered power impacts couples in a variety of ways. Sometimes a woman's fear that the man might leave, for example, diminished her power in the relationship. Often a woman accommodated a man's greater power in the family because of her perception that he was often denied power in the larger society. Societal discrimination of women was less visible to couples. Implications for practice are provided.

  7. Middle-class household food providers' views and experiences of food marketing in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quynh Th; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Food marketing has been identified as a target for intervention in the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity within countries and globally, and promotion of healthy diets has been classified as a key strategy to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases and health inequalities. The present study aims to investigate how Vietnamese middle-class household food providers are impacted by food advertising communications, their views of food marketing and the ways they think the government can control food marketing to assist people to consume healthier diets. 810 household food providers participated in the online survey. Frequency counts were calculated using IBM SPSS version 21. Many respondents had been exposed to food marketing; 82.8% had seen food advertising in magazines at least once a month, 65.1% had received free food samples in public places, 68.0% had received food advertising information via email. Many household food providers appeared to support food marketing; 73.3% approved of nutrition education in schools or on television being provided by soft drink or fast food companies, 63.7% supported the marketing of infant formula milk. There were mixed views about what actions the government could implement to control food marketing; 88.2% supported clearer food content on food labels, 84.1% believed that children should learn how to purchase and cook foods at school. A substantial majority of Vietnamese middle-class household food providers appeared unaware of the adverse effects of food marketing. Education and policy leadership in food and nutrition are urgently required.

  8. DOWNSIZING TO CORPORATE ANOREXIA WHILE DISMANTLING THE MIDDLE CLASS: ARE WE IN DANGER OF RECREATING THE 1920S?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Winpenny

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate downsizing has run rampant on the American scene during the 1990s. Indeed, Business Week claimed it had become a fad. Ironically, the new “lean and mean” look did not apply to CEO compensation packages. More critically, corporate downsizing hurt middle class purchasing power. The Big Lie that emerged from this was that America could dismantle the middle class and have a booming economy. Much of this reasoning sounds, sadly enough, like the thinking so prevalent in the 1920s.

  9. Reaching out to the American middle class: Peggy Noonan’s conservatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc BENOIT A LA GUILLAUME

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les idéologues qui popularisent les idées conservatrices auprès du grand public, Peggy Noonan occupe une place intéressante. Moins extrémiste que Rush Limbaugh ou Ann Coulter, elle exprime les angoisses et les espoirs des Reagan Democrats, ces Américains moyens devenus conservateurs depuis les années 80. Cet article analyse les ambivalences d’un discours qui entre en résonance avec celles d’une partie de la classe moyenne américaine.Since the 1990s, Peggy Noonan’s writings have translated conservative ideas into articles and bestselling books for the wider American public. In a less abrasive way than Rush Limbaugh or Ann Coulter, she expresses the hopes and fears of the Reagan Democrats. This article analyzes Noonan’s ambivalent rhetoric, which mirrors the ambivalent attitudes of parts of America’s embattled middle class.

  10. Vocational education and the technical middle class in Spain (1924-1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Rico Gómez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examine the extent to which technical-professional education during Primo de Rivera´s dictatorship in Spain influenced the creation of a new middle class of technicians by means of the decrees of the Industrial Education Statute of 1924 and the Professional Staff Training Statute of 1928. These initiatives were aimed at the working class and the petty bourgeoisie that were to later become the supporters of the State´s social and corporative system as well as the promoters of the country´s modernization. However, the disconnection between the economic and social reality, on the one hand, and the State´s objectives, on the other hand, led to the failure of these projects that were decisively interrupted by the establishment of the Spanish Second Republic in 1931. In researching this study, I focus on the legislation enacted on this matter and other printed sources including specialized journals of this period, theoretical writings of contemporary authors and abundant archival material on the dynamics of the industrial schools that were created thanks to this new project.

  11. Taking tea in the parlour: middle-class formation and gender construction in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1760-1850

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Ann Judith

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of tea etiquette was a significant marker of middle-class gentility and contributed to middle-class formation and gender construction in colonial Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Early middle-class settlers brought tea ware and employed the tea ritual to set standards of gentility that determined social inclusion or exclusion. Tea drinking shifted from a predominantly masculine activity in the late eighteenth century, as commercial and political men met in their parlours over tea, to ...

  12. Brasil: nova classe média ou novas formas de superexploração da classe trabalhadora? Brazil: new middle class or new ways of overexploiting the working class?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Seibel Luce

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Com base na categoria da superexploração da força de trabalho, formulada no âmbito da teoria marxista da dependência, apresentamos uma crítica à tese de que o Brasil estaria se tornando 'país de classe média' e sustentamos que um contingente substancial dentre o que vem sendo nomeado de 'nova classe média' consiste, na verdade, de trabalhadores - e suas famílias - vivendo em condições de superexploração. O texto encontra-se dividido em três seções. Na primeira, questionamos os pressupostos básicos da tese Brasil, país de classe média. Na segunda, expomos os fundamentos da categoria da superexploração e demonstramos seu incremento nas relações de produção do capitalismo brasileiro na década de 2000. Na terceira, demonstramos como o acesso da população trabalhadora ao consumo de bens duráveis no período recente, antes que a ascensão de uma suposta 'nova classe média', configura uma forma renovada de superexploração. Por fim, salientamos os nexos entre as condições de trabalho, saúde e direitos da classe trabalhadora no Brasil e as tendências do capitalismo mundial, questionando o falso dilema neoliberalismo e neodesenvolvimentismo no debate atual e colocando a real disjuntiva do ponto de vista da emancipação da classe trabalhadora em relação ao poder despótico do capital.Based on the workforce overexploitation category, formulated in the context of the Marxist Theory of Dependence, we critique the thesis that Brazil is becoming 'a middle class nation' and state that a substantial contingent of what has been named the 'new middle class' is, in fact, one of workers - and their families - living in overexploitation conditions. The article is divided into three sections. In the first, we questioned the basic assumptions of the 'Brazil, a middle class nation' thesis. In the second, we explain the fundamentals of the overexploitation category and show how it increased in Brazilian capitalism production

  13. Strategies to Help ESL Students Improve their Communicative Competence and Class Participation: A Study in a Middle School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gómez Palacio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a qualitative study carried out at a middle school in North Carolina, the United States of America. The main purpose of the study was to find effective strategies that teachers can use to help ESL students improve their speaking skills and class participation. Results indicated that both communicative and social strategies as well as exposure to independent reading help ESL students improve their communicative skills and class participation.

  14. Public Education: A Route into Lebanon’s Middle Class in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef Zbib

    2014-01-01

    In Lebanon during the 1960s, public education became more accessible to members of the lower classes and different sectarian denominations, after a time when education had been, to a large extent, a privilege of upper- and middle-class Christians. This paper examines the socioeconomic conditions of public school teachers as a result of this process. Using Bourdieusian analysis, I argue that these teachers used cultural capital acquired through free education to become part of a rising profess...

  15. Crossing Boundaries: Exploring Black Middle and Upper Class Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in High Poverty Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrea D.

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to explore the perceptions of Black middle and upper class preservice teachers as they relate to teaching and learning in high poverty urban schools. Participants included 11 senior early childhood education preservice teachers at a historically Black college in the southeast region of the United States. The study was…

  16. Middle-class mythology and the Houdini disappearing act: health care and jobs joined at the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrle, Lynn Howard; Cleveland, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Myths have long legs. Once they become integrated into the cultural ethos they are almost impossible to dislodge. The Middle Class Myth is a case in point. Spoken of in reverential terms, the conventional wisdom holds that the U.S. economy is driven by a vast middle class, anchoring its consumer-driven system of goods and services. But contrary to frequent statements by pundits, politicians, and many economists, the middle class has actually disappeared. Another commonly held myth--that the United States has the best health care system in the world--is perpetuated by medical leaders and the mainstream media. Despite huge worker layoffs causing 50 million to be without health insurance, and millions more who are underinsured, the myth persists. A third myth, one currently in vogue among media pundits and politicians, is that health care and jobs are two separate issues and policymakers can deal with them as unrelated to each other, when in reality they are inextricably interwoven--the connective tissue of a physically and mentally robust workforce. The authors use Census Bureau after-tax income and Federal Reserve data to demonstrate that the middle class has disappeared, leaving millions of Americans with little disposable income, meager savings, and no health care safety net.

  17. Strategies to Help ESL Students Improve Their Communicative Competence and Class Participation: A Study in a Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Palacio, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This article examines a qualitative study carried out at a middle school in North Carolina, the United States of America. The main purpose of the study was to find effective strategies that teachers can use to help ESL students improve their speaking skills and class participation. Results indicated that both communicative and social strategies as…

  18. Perceptions of Middle-Class Mothers of Their Children with Special Needs Participating in Motor and Sport Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Dana; Rimmerman, Arie

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory research studied middle-class mother's primary reason for registering their young children, mean age 6.9 years, in adapted motor and sports programs and their perceptions of their children upon entering the program and upon completion. Analyses also examined the possible relationship between mothers' age, education or children's…

  19. Socialization Environments of Chinese and Euro-American Middle-Class Babies: Parenting Behaviors, Verbal Discourses and Ethnotheories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi; Abels, Monika; Borke, Jorn; Lamm, Bettina; Su, Yanjie; Wang, Yifang; Lo, Wingshan

    2007-01-01

    Children's socialization environments reflect cultural models of parenting. In particular, Euro-American and Chinese families have been described as following different socialization scripts. The present study assesses parenting behaviors as well as parenting ethnotheories with respect to three-month-old babies in middle-class families in Los…

  20. Dealing with diversity: middle-class family households and the issue of 'black' and 'white' schools in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boterman, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    The urban middle classes often celebrate the diversity of their neighbourhood. As soon as they have children, however, the desire to display symbolic capital may conflict with the need to reproduce cultural capital through the educational system. In the ethnically diverse Amsterdam schooling

  1. Evaluating Online Resources in Terms of Learning Environment and Student Attitudes in Middle-Grade Mathematics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, James E.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to use learning environment and attitude scales in evaluating online resource materials for supporting a traditional mathematics curriculum. The sample consisted of 914 middle-school students in 49 classes. A second research focus was the validation of the chosen learning environment questionnaire, the…

  2. Step-change: how micro-entrepreneurs enter the upcoming middle-class market in developing and emerging countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babah Daouda, Falylath

    2017-01-01

    In developing and emerging (D&E) countries, the large number of poor people, most of whom are female, earn a living based on small-scale self-employed units established in subsistence marketplaces in the large informal sector. With the recent rise of middle-classes in developing and emerging

  3. Feeding Practices and Expectations among Middle-Class Anglo and Puerto Rican Mothers of 12-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Pamela A.; Harwood, Robin L.; Schoelmerich, Axel

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in beliefs and practices about infant feeding among middle class Anglo and Puerto Rican mothers. Interviews and observations indicated that Anglo mothers reported earlier attainment of self-feeding and more emphasis on child rearing goals related to self-maximization. Puerto Rican mothers reported later attainment of…

  4. Disparities in Prevalence of Cardiometablic Risk Factors in Rural, Urban-Poor, and Urban-Middle Class Women in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Mohan

    Full Text Available Urbanization is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. To determine location-based differences in CVD risk factors in India we performed studies among women in rural, urban-poor and urban middle-class locations.Population-based cross-sectional studies in rural, urban-poor, and urban-middle class women (35-70 y were performed at multiple sites. We evaluated 6853 women (rural 2616, 5 sites; urban-poor 2008, 4 sites; urban middle-class 2229, 11 sites for socioeconomic, lifestyle, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors. Descriptive statistics are reported.Mean levels of body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR, systolic BP, fasting glucose and cholesterol in rural, urban-poor and urban-middle class women showed significantly increasing trends (ANOVAtrend, p 80 cm (28.3, 63.4, 61.9%, waist >90 cm (8.4, 31.4, 38.2%, waist hip ratio (WHR >0.8 (60.4, 90.7, 88.5, WHR>0.9 (13.0, 44.3, 56.1%, hypertension (31.6, 48.2, 59.0% and hypercholesterolemia (13.5, 27.7, 37.4% (Mantel Haenszel X2 ptrend <0.01. Inverse trend was observed for tobacco use (41.6, 19.6, 9.4%. There was significant association of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes with overweight and obesity (adjusted R2 0.89-0.99.There are significant location based differences in cardiometabolic risk factors in India. The urban-middle class women have the highest risk compared to urban-poor and rural.

  5. The Middle Class Is Key to a Better-Educated Nation: A Stronger Middle Class Is Associated with Better Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madland, David; Bunker, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Education is key to America's economic success as technological change and global competition increase exponentially. Unfortunately, where once the nation was atop the world academically, today American students rank in the middle of the pack. Not surprisingly, business leaders and the American public are concerned about the quality of American…

  6. Love and desire amongst middle-class Gujarati Indians in the UK and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twamley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes findings from an ethnographic study exploring understandings of love and intimacy amongst young heterosexual middle-class Indians of Gujarati origin in the UK and India. A two-site comparative study was used to enable an understanding of how social and economic contexts shape cultural constructions of intimate relationships and sexuality. Focusing on attitudes to 'love at first sight', this paper shows that, for Indian participants, love based on physical attraction denotes a lesser kind of love. A relationship based on 'physical love' is not expected to last, since it has been formed without regard to family and status concerns. Even couples who meet outside of the arranged marriage system demonstrate the quality of their love by not having sex with one another before marriage. In the UK, however, participants view love as properly spontaneous. Love at first sight is considered desirable and demonstrates how the relationship must be based on love only, without any concern for (for example) material gain. This spontaneous love entails both physical attraction and emotional connection - an early transition to sex, usually before marriage, was seen as both desirable and inevitable.

  7. Similarities and Differences of Preferred Traits in Character Education Programs by Ethnicity and Class According to Parents, Faculty/Staff, and Students at Two Middle Schools in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boen, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study provides two perspectives on the various character traits provided by character education programs by comparing the voices of minority and lower-lower middle class stakeholders with those of upper middle class stakeholders. The literature on the values and virtues based approaches to moral development and character education were…

  8. Latino Children's Math Confidence: The Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes and Involvement across The Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Jill; Laursen, Brett; Dickson, Daniel; Hartl, Amy C.

    2018-01-01

    The influence of parental beliefs and behaviors on children's math confidence and performance is well documented, but few studies examine these associations over time, or in large samples of Latino/a families. This study used longitudinal data from 247 (114 sons and 133 daughters) mother-child dyads to examine whether maternal math gender…

  9. The social competence of Latino kindergartners and growth in mathematical understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Claudia; Fuller, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    We know that social competence contributes to young children's adaptation to, and cognitive learning within, classroom settings. Yet initial evidence is mixed on the social competencies that Latino children bring to kindergarten and the extent to which these skills advance cognitive growth. Building from ecocultural and developmental-risk theory, this paper shows children's social competence to be adaptive to the normative expectations and cognitive requirements of culturally bounded settings in both the home and classroom. Latino socialization in the home may yield social competencies that teachers value rather than reflect "risk factors" that constrain children's school readiness. We draw on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, kindergarten cohort (N = 19,590) to detail 5 social competencies at entry to school--self-control, interpersonal skills, approaches to learning, internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors--and to examine variability among Latino subgroups. We then test the extent to which baseline variation in social competence accounts for children's cognitive growth during the kindergarten year. We find that Latino children from poor, but not middle-class, families display weaker social competencies vis-à-vis White children (all relationships p cognitive growth, which is shaped most strongly by positive approaches to learning. The disparities in competencies observed for Latino children from poor families, relative to White children, are significant yet much smaller than gaps in baseline levels of mathematical understanding. We discuss how the consonance or mismatch between competencies acquired at home and those valued by teachers must consider cultural differences, social-class position, and variation among diverse Latino subgroups. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Religious experiments in colonial Calcutta: modern Hinduism and bhakti among the Indian middle class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Sardella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Any discussion of India from the point of view of the West must deal with the problem posed by the colonial past and the ways in which India was colonized, interpreted and constructed to fit into an imperialist agenda. The terms ‘Hinduism’ and ‘religion’, for example, are themselves quite problematic, since they are born of Western and Judeo-Christian thought, and may not reflect the complexity and diversity of Indic traditions well enough. A translation and transmission of terms and concepts from one cultural domain to another is required, but it is bound to be merely tentative and approximate, since a comprehension of the full meaning of words and concepts related to Indic religions presupposes an extensive grounding in the rich religious thought of India. Bhaktisiddhānta lived on the border between the nineteenth and the twentieth century, between the black and the white towns of Calcutta, between India and the West, and between two world wars. His effort to search for and apply bhakti to the social, political and cultural crises of his time is important for grasping the vitality and dynamism of Indic religions in our time. It is also important for appreciating the struggle carried out by a growing Indian and Hindu middle class to bridge the gaps between East and West, and on the basis of indigenous culture produce new ideas for reciprocal co-operation, which in the case of Bhaktisiddhānta were related to the idea and practice of bhakti.

  11. “Battlers” and Their Homes: About Self-Production of Residences Made by the Brazilian New Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary results and qualitative analysis obtained from the doctoral research provisory entitled “How do Brazilian ‘battlers’ reside?”, which is in progress at the Institute for European Urban Studies, Bauhaus University Weimar. It critically discusses the contradictions of the production of residences in Brazil made by an emerging social group, lately called the Brazilian new middle class. For the last ten years, a number of government policies have provoked a general improvement of the purchasing power of the poor. Between those who completely depend on the government to survive and the upper middle class, there is a wide (about 100 million people and economically stable lower middle group, which has found its own ways of dealing with its demand for housing. The conventional models of planning, building and buying are not suitable for their technical, financial and personal needs. Therefore, they are concurrently planners, constructors and residents, building and renovating their own properties themselves, but still with very limited education and technical knowledge and restricted access to good building materials and constructive elements, formal technicians, architects or engineers. On the one hand, the result is an informal and more or less autonomous self-production, with all sorts of technical problems and very interesting and creative spatial solutions to everyday domestic situations. On the other hand, the repercussions for urban space are questionable: although basic infrastructure conditions have improved, building densities are high and green areas are few. Lower middle class neighbourhoods present a restricted collective everyday life. They look like storage spaces for manpower; people who live to work in order to be able to consume—and build—what they could not before. One question is, to what extent the latest economic rise of Brazil has really resulted in social development for lower middle

  12. Black carbon exposure more strongly associated with census tract poverty compared to household income among US black, white, and Latino working class adults in Boston, MA (2003–2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D.; Gryparis, Alexandros; Coull, Brent A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association of individual-level ambient exposure to black carbon (spatiotemporal model-based estimate for latitude and longitude of residential address) with individual, household, and census tract socioeconomic measures among a study sample comprised of 1757 US urban working class white, black and Latino adults (age 25–64) recruited for two studies conducted in Boston, MA (2003–2004; 2008–2010). Controlling for age, study, and exam date, the estimated average annual black carbon exposure for the year prior to study enrollment at the participants' residential address was directly associated with census tract poverty (beta = 0.373; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.322, 0.423) but not with annual household income or education; null associations with race/ethnicity became significant only after controlling for socioeconomic position. - Highlights: • The study included 1757 black, Latino, and white working class adults in Boston, MA. • Census tract poverty was associated with annual average black carbon exposure. • Annual household income was not associated with black carbon exposure. • Individual-level education was not associated with black carbon exposure. • The observed socioeconomic patterns varied by race/ethnicity. - In a US multiethnic urban working adult population, exposure to black carbon was more strongly associated with census tract as compared to household- or individual-level socioeconomic measures

  13. Family and Cultural Influences on Low-Income Latino Children's Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined family and cultural influences on adjustment among 90 low-income Latino middle school children (46% girls; average age = 11.38, SD = 0.66) and their primary caregivers (93% female; average age = 36.12, SD = 6.13). All participants identified as Hispanic/Latino, with 75% of families identifying as Mexican-origin Latino, and 77%…

  14. Factors for Formation and Regulation of the Ukrainian Population’s Incomes in the Context of the Middle Class Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A key criterion for identification of the middle class is income level enabling for the households’ consumption by the socialy acceptable standards. The share of middle class can grow only in parallel with the increasing polulation incomes. The article’s objective is to study incomes of the Ukrainian population in the context of the middle class formation and analyze regulatory mechanisms pertaining to the populations’ incomes and wages in Ukraine. The study is based on the official statistical data for 2012–2016 (population’s incomes and employment, nominal sages in hryvnya and dollar equivelant. The Kaitz index is calculated for Ukraine by data for 2015–2017. An extendive review of the data obtained from the sample survey of householdes on self-assessment of their incomes, conducted in January 2017, is given. The analysis of factors behind the formation of population’s incomes in Ukraine gives evidence of the low life standards in Ukraine, the wide income gap and the threatening scales of poverty. The main source of the population incomes in Ukraine is salary, with the insignificant share of income from property. While the nominal wage was growing year-to-year in 2012–2016, its dollar equivalent reduced twofold. According to the data of the abovemenationed sample survey, only 0.7% of city households and 0.3% of rural ones classified themselves in the middle class. Ukrainian still lacks appropriate mechanisms for regulation of incomes and wages through differentiated taxation of various population strata; the domestic stock market needs to be built in as way to ensure the increasing incomes from property; the rate of minimal wage should be better justified.

  15. The "paradox" of being young in New Delhi : urban middle class youth negotiations with popular Indian film

    OpenAIRE

    Williams-Ørberg, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This thesis attempts to understand the ways in which popular film is integrated into the everyday lives of urban middle class youth in India. Approaching the study of film through an audience reception approach, I engaged in participant observation and interviews during a fieldwork period in New Delhi in order to better understand how a young audience might negotiate the fantasy of filmic images into the reality of their own lives. The two movies, Salaam Namaste and Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (KA...

  16. The Rise of New Urban Middle Classes in Southeast Asia: What is its national and regional significance?

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Shiraishi

    2004-01-01

    Middle classes in East Asia are a product of regional economic development which has taken place in waves under an American informal empire, over half a century, first in Japan, then in NIEs, then in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines and now in China. They are a product of developmental states and their politics of economic growth. Their life styles have been shaped in complex ways by their appropriation of things American, Japanese, Chinese, Islamic, and others. Though create...

  17. Nutritional deficiencies in German middle-class male alcohol consumers: relation to dietary intake and severity of liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Dierks, C.

    2003-01-01

    . SETTING: Southern Germany. SUBJECTS: Seventy-six hospitalized German middle-class alcohol consumers with different stages of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and 22 healthy control subjects. METHODS: Subjects and controls were nutritionally assessed and mineral and vitamin content was measured in blood...... increase in carbohydrates (Pvitamin E, micronutrient intake of alcoholics was equal to that of controls; however, blood vitamin (vitamin C, retinol, lycopene, alpha- and gamma-carotene) and trace element (selenium, zinc) concentrations of alcohol-drinking patients were lower...

  18. A New Middle Class on Old Academic Grounds: Law Students of the Cluj University in the 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pálffy Zoltán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main tasks of universities of Central and Eastern Europe is that of forming loyal and reliable citizens ready to fill in the ranks of public service. Educational credentials make for social elevation into the ranks of this peculiarly state-dependent middle class. Law students make the relative majority of those engaged in higher learning in the region all through the first half of the 20th century. Where and when there is an acute need for a new middle class under a new state sovereignty, it is law studies that are notoriously perceived as meant to producing the bulk of it. The University of Cluj in the inter-war period is a case in point. The paper shall put forward a selection of data (from an ample statistical survey of elite formation via upper-level education in Central Europe on this segment of the student population in the 1930s, setting it against a dramatically changed background (the general one and the local one, as traced in secondary sources: how do Romanians cope with the task of producing this new middle class on old grounds, and what are the unwanted side-effects of such state-related social emancipation mechanisms? And how non-Romanians behave in the new situation?

  19. Social class differences in physical functions in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Andersen, Lars Louis; Skotte, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze gender differences and social class gradients in physical functions; and to study whether the social class gradients in physical functions in midlife differed between men and women.......The objective of the present study is to analyze gender differences and social class gradients in physical functions; and to study whether the social class gradients in physical functions in midlife differed between men and women....

  20. Implementing Team-Based Learning in Middle School Social Studies Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Kent, Shawn C.; Vaughn, Sharon; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Greg; Haynes, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of team-based learning (TBL) implemented in Grade 8 social studies classes on student content acquisition. Twenty-four classes were randomly assigned to treatment or comparison blocking on teacher. In the treatment classes teachers integrated TBL practices in the content instruction. The authors examined teacher…

  1. But I Like PE: Factors Associated With Enjoyment of Physical Education Class in Middle School Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity...

  2. But I like PE: factors associated with enjoyment of physical education class in middle school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ward, Dianne S; Conway, Terry L; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R

    2008-03-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity, self-efficacy for leisure time physical activity, and perceived school climate for girls' physical activity as influenced by teachers, while body mass index was inversely associated with PE class enjoyment. After adjusting for all variables in the model, PE class enjoyment was significantly greater in Blacks than in Whites. In model testing, with mutual adjustment for all variables, self-efficacy was the strongest correlate of PE class enjoyment, followed by perceived benefits, race/ethnicity, and teachers' support for girls' physical activity, as compared to boys, at school. The overall model explained 11% of the variance in PE class enjoyment. Findings suggest that efforts to enhance girls' self-efficacy and perceived benefits and to provide a supportive PE class environment that promotes gender equality can potentially increase PE class enjoyment among young girls.

  3. Hinduism: A Unit for Junior High and Middle School Social Studies Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Louis J.

    As an introduction and explanation of the historical development, major concepts, beliefs, practices, and traditions of Hinduism, this teaching unit provides a course outline for class discussion and activities for reading the classic epic, "The Ramayana." The unit requires 10 class sessions and utilizes slides, historical readings,…

  4. The Achievement Ideology and Whiteness: "Achieving Whiteness" or "Achieving Middle Class?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ricky Lee

    Over the past few decades, social reproduction theorists have criticized achievement ideology as a dominant and dominating myth that hides the true nature of class immobility. Social reproductionists' primary criticism of achievement ideology is that it blinds the working class, regardless of race or gender, to the possibilities of collective…

  5. Sterilization and birth control in the shadow of eugenics: married, middle-class women in Alberta, 1930-1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The history of eugenic sterilization connotes draconian images of coerced and involuntary procedures robbing men and women of their reproductive health. While eugenics programs often fit this characterization, there is another, smaller, and less obvious legacy of eugenics that arguably contributed to a more empowering image of reproductive health. Sexual sterilization surgeries as a form of contraception began to gather momentum alongside eugenics programs in the middle of the 20th century and experiences among prairie women serve as an illustrative example. Alberta maintained its eugenics program from 1929 to 1972 and engaged in thousands of eugenic sterilizations, but by the 1940s middle-class married women pressured their Albertan physicians to provide them with sterilization surgeries to control fertility, as a matter of choice. The multiple meanings and motivations behind this surgery introduced a moral quandary for physicians, which encourages medical historians to revisit the history of eugenics and its relationship to the contemporaneous birth control movement.

  6. Trends in overweight among women differ by occupational class : Results from 33 low-and middle-income countries in the period 1992-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. López Arana (Sandra Liliana); M. Avendano Pabon (Mauricio); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective:There has been an increase in overweight among women in low-and middle-income countries but whether these trends differ for women in different occupations is unknown. We examined trends by occupational class among women from 33 low-and middle-income countries in four

  7. When Mothers and Fathers Are Seen as Disproportionately Valuing Achievements: Implications for Adjustment Among Upper Middle Class Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciolla, Lucia; Curlee, Alexandria S.; Karageorge, Jason; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2016-01-01

    High achievement expectations and academic pressure from parents have been implicated in rising levels of stress and reduced well-being among adolescents. In this study of affluent, middle-school youth, we examined how perceptions of parents' emphasis on achievement (relative to prosocial behavior) influenced youth's psychological adjustment and school performance, and examined perceived parental criticism as a possible moderator of this association. The data were collected from 506 (50% female) middle school students from a predominately white, upper-middle-class community. Students reported their perceptions of parents' values by rank ordering a list of achievement- and prosocial-oriented goals based on what they believed was most valued by their mothers and fathers for them (the child) to achieve. The data also included students' reports of perceived parental criticism, internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and self-esteem, as well as school-based data on grade point average and teacher-reported classroom behavior. Person-based analyses revealed six distinct latent classes based on perceptions of both mother and father emphases on achievement. Class comparisons showed a consistent pattern of healthier child functioning, including higher school performance, higher self-esteem, and lower psychological symptoms, in association with low to neutral parental achievement emphasis, whereas poorer child functioning was associated with high parental achievement emphasis. In variable-based analyses, interaction effects showed elevated maladjustment when high maternal achievement emphasis coexisted with high (but not low) perceived parental criticism. Results of the study suggest that to foster early adolescents' well-being in affluent school settings, parents focus on prioritizing intrinsic, prosocial values that promote affiliation and community, at least as much as, or more than, they prioritize academic performance and external achievement; and strive to limit

  8. Constructing a "Fast Protocol" for Middle School Beginner Violin Classes in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Taichi

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the process of constructing a "fast-protocol" for violin instruction. Since learning string instruments has not been common, and because there are limited hours for music in Japanese schools, the author, a violinist, collaborated with the general music teacher at a middle school in the Tokyo metropolitan…

  9. Narratives of Inquiry Learning in Middle-School Geographic Inquiry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Merja

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at modifying a teaching and learning model for a geographic inquiry to enhance both the subject-related skills of geography and so-called twenty-first century skills in middle-school students (14-15 years old). The purpose of this research is to extend our understanding of the user experiences concerning certain tools for learning…

  10. Understanding Middle School Students' Motivation in Math Class: The Expectancy-Value Model Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important variables affecting middle school students' mathematics performance is motivation. Motivation is closely related with expectancy belief regarding the task and value attached to the task. Identification of which one or ones of the factors constituting motivation is more closely related to mathematics performance may help…

  11. Keep it looking beautiful! Historicised residential architecture as a means of reproducing the middle class self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how residents of Helmond Brandevoort, a neotraditional neighbourhood in the Netherlands, socially construct a 'classed' place identity and what role the historicised architecture plays within that process. Given that place identity is constructed through social and cultural

  12. Latino Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Do Mental Health Conditions Affect the Latino Community? Common mental health disorders among Latinos are generalized anxiety disorder , major ... quality care. Lack of Information and Misunderstanding about Mental Health Overall, the Latino community does not talk about mental health issues. There ...

  13. Is Perceptual Priming Affected by Culture? A Study With German Middle-Class and Cameroonian Nso Farmer Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vöhringer, Isabel Aline; Poloczek, Sonja; Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Teiser, Johanna; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Suhrke, Janina; Teubert, Manuel; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The authors explored priming in children from different cultural environments with the aim to provide further evidence for the robustness of the priming effect. Perceptual priming was assessed by a picture fragment completion task in 3-year-old German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer children. As expected, 3-year-olds from both highly diverging cultural contexts under study showed a priming effect, and, moreover, the effect was of comparable size in both cultural contexts. Hence, the children profited similarly from priming, which was supported by the nonsignificant interaction between cultural background and identification performance as well as the analysis of absolute difference scores. However, a culture-specific difference regarding the level of picture identification was found in that German middle-class children identified target as well as control pictures with less perceptual information than children in the Nso sample. Explanations for the cross-cultural demonstration of the priming effect as well as for the culturally diverging levels on which priming occurs are discussed.

  14. The Specter of Divorce: Views from Working- and Middle-Class Cohabitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amanda J.; Sassler, Sharon; Kusi-Appouh, Dela

    2011-01-01

    Young Americans increasingly express apprehension about their ability to successfully manage intimate relationships. Partially in response, cohabitation has become normative over the past few decades. Little research, however, examines social class distinctions in how emerging adults perceive challenges to sustaining intimate unions. We examine…

  15. Exploring the Relationships among Race, Class, Gender, and Middle School Students' Perceptions of School Racial Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Natasha D.; Aber, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    Although school climate has been thought to be especially important for racial minority and poor students (Booker, 2006; Haynes, Emmons, & Ben-Avie, 1997), little research has explored the significance of racial climate for these students. Furthermore, research in the area has tended to treat race, socioeconomic class, and gender separately,…

  16. Processes of Middle-Class Reproduction in a Graduate Employment Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Sarah; Hutchings, Merryn; Maylor, Uvanney; Mendick, Heather; Menter, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Teach First is an educational charity that places graduates to teach in "challenging" schools for two years. It is marketed as an opportunity to develop employability while "making a difference". In this paper, I examine the process of class reproduction occurring in this graduate employment scheme through examining the…

  17. The Social Geography of Childcare: Making up a Middle-Class Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Carol; Ball, Stephen J.; Kemp, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    Childcare is a condensate of disparate social forces and social processes. It is gendered and classed. It is subject to an excess of policy and political discourse. It is increasingly a focus for commercial exploitation. This is a paper reporting on work in progress in an ESRC funded research project (R000239232) on the choice and provision of…

  18. Attention and Achievement Exhibited by Middle- and Lower Class Black and White Elementary School Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Vernon C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Although there were social class and race differences in achievement and intelligence test scores, no relationship was found between attending and these variables. There was a significant correlation between the intelligence and achievement test scores, but no evidence that the relationship was different for the different groups. (Author/MV)

  19. From Peripheral to Central, the Story of Melanie's Metamorphosis in an Urban Middle School Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Edna; Barton, Angela Calabrese

    2008-01-01

    Identity formation is a critical dimension of how and why students engage in science to varying degrees. In this paper, we use the lens of identity formation, and in particular identities in practice, to make sense of how and why Melanie, over the course of sixth grade, transformed from a marginalized member of the science class with a failing…

  20. Diversity and distribution of rush communities from the phragmito-magno-caricetea class in pamir alai mountains (middle asia: tajikistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowaki, A.; Nowaki, S.

    2014-01-01

    The study presents results of geobotanical investigations conducted in rush vegetation from the Phragmito-Magno- Caricetea class in the central Pamir-Alai Mts (Tajikistan, Middle Asia). Studies were carried out mainly within the Syr- Daria, Pyandzh, Zeravshan, Kafirnighan, Khanaka and Surkhandaria river valleys in the years 2008, 2012. The research was focused on the classification of rush plant communities developing within this poorly-investigated area. Habitat conditions were checked for all vegetation plots, including pH reaction, water depth, inclination and altitude. Altogether 231 phytosociological releves using the Braun-Blanquet method were sampled. The analyses classified the vegetation into 28 plant communities, including 26 associations. Eight new plant associations were proposed: Scirpetum hippolytii, Mentho asiaticae-Nasturtietum microphyllae, Juncetum brachytepali, Sparganietum stoloniferi, Eleocharitetum argyrolepis, Eleocharitetum mitracarpae, Caricetum songoricae and Rorippo palustris-Alismatetum graminei. The main discrimination factor for the data set is the floristic structure of the associations. Rush vegetation from the Phragmito- Magno-Caricetea class is spread throughout all river valleys of the research areas in montane and subalpine as well as in alpine zones. The vegetation patches occur mainly along the shores of water bodies and in ditches. Only sporadically have rush communities been noted within rice fields, where communities of the class Oryzetea sativae prevail. The study shows that riverside habitats with rush vegetation can harbour a relatively rich flora. Almost 200 species were found in vegetation plots, including some which are rare and have not been recorded until now in this part of Middle Asia. (author)

  1. Public foetal images and the regulation of middle-class pregnancy in the online media: a view from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Catriona; Howell, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography images and their derivatives have been taken up in a range of 'public' spaces, including medical textbooks, the media, anti-abortion material, advertising, the Internet and public health facilities. Feminists have critiqued the personification of the foetus, the bifurcation of the woman's body and the reduction of the pregnant woman to a disembodied womb. What has received less attention is how these images frequently intersect with race, class, gender and heteronormativity in the creation of idealised and normative understandings of pregnancy. This paper focuses on the discursive positioning of pregnant women as 'mothers' and foetuses as 'babies' in online media targeted at a South African audience, where race and class continue to intersect in complex ways. We show how the ontologically specific understandings of 'mummies' and 'babies' emerge through the use of foetal images to construct specific understandings of the 'ideal' pregnancy. In the process, pregnant women are made responsible for ensuring that their pregnancy conforms to these ideals, which includes the purchasing of the various goods advertised by the websites. Not only does this point to a commodification of pregnancy, but also serves to reinforce a cultural understanding of White, middle-class pregnancy as constituting the normative 'correct' form of pregnancy.

  2. The Impact Of Middle Class Consumption On Democratization In Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ways in which countries democratized during this time period. He first noted, “Oil price hikes in some countries and Marxist-Leninist constraints in...Class Without Democracy, 50. 57 Ibid., 51. 58 Ibid., 52. 17 lucrative form of state-employment.59 The benefit -laden “iron rice bowl” positions...achieve rapid economic growth. Akin to Japan and Taiwan during the Cold War, South Korea’s economy benefited enormously from the geopolitical stability of

  3. Electrifying Engagement in Middle School Science Class: Improving Student Interest Through E-textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby; Fields, Deborah; Searle, Kristin; Maahs-Fladung, Cathy; Feldon, David; Gu, Grace; Sun, Chongning

    2017-08-01

    Most interventions with "maker" technologies take place outside of school or out of core area classrooms. However, intervening in schools holds potential for reaching much larger numbers of students and the opportunity to shift instructional dynamics in classrooms. This paper shares one such intervention where electronic textiles (sewable circuits) were introduced into eighth grade science classes with the intent of exploring possible gains in student learning and motivation, particularly for underrepresented minorities. Using a quasi-experimental design, four classes engaged in a traditional circuitry unit while the other four classes undertook a new e-textile unit. Overall, students in both groups demonstrated significant learning gains on standard test items without significant differences between conditions. Significant differences appeared between groups' attitudes toward science after the units in ways that show increasing interest in science by students in the e-textile unit. In particular, they reported positive identity shifts pertaining to their perceptions of the beliefs of their friends, family, and teacher. Findings and prior research suggest that student-created e-textile designs provide opportunities for connections outside of the classroom with friends and family and may shift students' perceptions of their teacher's beliefs about them more positively.

  4. The importance of a child’s education in middle class families [Znaczenie edukacji dziecka w rodzinie z klasy średniej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława NYCZAJ-DRĄG

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The following study proves the thesis that in present-day Polish conditions children’s education does not depend on their intellectual capacity, but it rather depends on the financial background, the social and cultural capital and parent’s social class. In addition, family status and family members contribute to a child’s position in a specific social space. At the beginning I would like to indicate Pierre Bourdieu’s theory as the main basis upon which this study is based, afterwards I present selected conceptions and definitions of the middle class. In the next part I describe the research concerning middle class children’s standard of education. This is the background on which I present the program of self-study and its results. The materials presented show the value which is assigned by parents to their children, their upbringing, and education. In addition, it enables one to analyse the mentality of this specific group of parents and the educational patterns which they use to support their children. The research results and the opinions described in the text lead us to assume that parents from the middle class provide their children with practically unlimited support, which will help them in the future to reconstruct their social status. In general, the main goal of parents from the middle class is to create life chances for their children, so they can succeed in life. The analysis proves that middle class children can count on financial, material, psychological, and public support from their parents. In my paper I elaborate on how much importance middle class parents attach to their children’s education as well as what their expectations and plans related to education are

  5. Child feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers of Indonesian middle class urban families: what are the problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers with children (aged 12-36 months) of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver in Indonesian urban middle class families. It was designed as a qualitative multiple case study. Mothers and caregivers from 26 families were interviewed in depth, and caregivers were categorized as family and domestic-paid caregivers. The result suggested that offering formula milk to young children was a common practice, and there was a high recognition and familiarity toward a range of formula milk brands. Mothers reported challenges in encouraging their children to eat, and in some cases they appeared to lack knowledge on overcoming their child's feeding problem. The findings suggested the need to address the child feeding problems experienced by mothers in order to overcome the double burden of child nutrition in Indonesia.

  6. Cultural Capital and the Consumption of Cultural Goods: Strategies Used for Status Consumption Among New Middle Class Brazilian Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucivânia Filomeno Ponte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Holt (1998 investigated the application of  the concept of consumption of cultural products as a means of acquiring status by conducting research in the United States and Turkey (Üstüner & Holt, 2010. This present research was based on this latest study and aimed to study the relationship between the consumption of cultural products and the consumption of status among Brazilian women in the new middle class. It was concluded that the cultural capital acts as a determining factor in the consumption of status, being converted in tastes and consumption practices. The consumption of cultural products is critical to the building of the status strategies, however, the cultural products used may vary according to the greater or lesser cultural capital of the interviewees.

  7. Rural N(SO) and German middle-class mothers' interaction with their 3- and 6-month-old infants: A longitudinal cross-cultural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Bettina; Gudi, Helene; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Teubert, Manuel; Knopf, Monika; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Keller, Heidi

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to analyze culture-specific development of maternal interactional behavior longitudinally. Rural Cameroonian Nso mothers (n = 72) and German middle-class mothers (n = 106) were observed in free-play interactions with their 3- and 6-month-old infants. Results reveal the expected shift from a social to a nonsocial focus only in the German middle-class mothers' play interactions but not the rural Nso mothers' play. Nso mothers continue their proximal interactional style with a focus on body contact and body stimulation, whereas German middle-class mothers prefer a distal style of interaction with increasing object-centeredness. These cultural differences are in line with broader cultural models and become more accentuated as the infants grow older. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Effects of Single-Gender Middle School Classes on Science Achievement and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Tanisha

    Many girls continue to achieve below their male counterparts and portray negative attitudes towards science classes. Some school districts are using single-gender education as a way to shrink the gender gap in school achievement and science related attitude. The purpose of this study was to compare achievement and science-related attitudes of 7th grade girls in single-gender education to 7th grade girls in mixed-gender education. The theoretical base for this study included knowledge from brain-based learning and assimilation, accommodation and age factors of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. The 12-week study included 48 7th grade girls, 21 in the single-gender classroom and 14 in each mixed-gender classroom. This quantitative randomized posttest only control group design utilized the TerraNova Science Assessment and the Test of Science Related Attitudes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine if significant differences existed in the achievement and attitudes of girls in single and mixed-gender science classes. ANOVA analyses revealed that the girls in the single-gender classroom showed a significantly higher achievement level when compared to girls in the mixed-gender classrooms. Results showed no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The results of this study contribute to social change by raising awareness about gender issues in science achievement and attitude, addressing a deficiency in the single-gender science education literature, and assisting educational systems in decision making to address achievement gaps while moving toward adequate yearly progress and meeting the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

  9. Defining Social Class Across Time and Between Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dov; Shin, Faith; Liu, Xi; Ondish, Peter; Kraus, Michael W

    2017-11-01

    We examined changes over four decades and between ethnic groups in how people define their social class. Changes included the increasing importance of income, decreasing importance of occupational prestige, and the demise of the "Victorian bargain," in which poor people who subscribed to conservative sexual and religious norms could think of themselves as middle class. The period also saw changes (among Whites) and continuity (among Black Americans) in subjective status perceptions. For Whites (and particularly poor Whites), their perceptions of enhanced social class were greatly reduced. Poor Whites now view their social class as slightly but significantly lower than their poor Black and Latino counterparts. For Black respondents, a caste-like understanding of social class persisted, as they continued to view their class standing as relatively independent of their achieved education, income, and occupation. Such achievement indicators, however, predicted Black respondents' self-esteem more than they predicted self-esteem for any other group.

  10. Fora do jogo: a experiência dos negros na classe média brasileira Out of the game: brazilian black middle class experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Figueiredo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abordo neste texto o significado da mobilidade social para empresários negros que fazem parte da classe média, a partir do relato das trajetórias de mobilidade e do significado da cor nesse processo. Ao contrário da maioria dos estudos clássicos sobre o tema, que viam na mobilidade social dos negros um exemplo contundente da não existência do preconceito de cor no Brasil, destaco na análise a forma como o preconceito e a discriminação são percebidos pelos entrevistados. Mas ainda que a maioria deles tenha relatado terem sido vítimas do preconceito racial, as respostas variam muito e nenhum deles relatou ter recorrido à justiça. Por este motivo, tenho insistido no fato de que o reconhecimento ou a percepção que o próprio indivíduo tem acerca de ser alvo do preconceito racial não se traduz, necessariamente, na tomada de uma atitude que consideremos eficaz ou politicamente relevante no combate ao racismo.The article deals with the meaning of social mobility for black entrepreneurs and businessmen that can be considered as part of a middle class. The metodology consists of the study of life careers and the place of colour therein. In spite of most canonical studies pointing out to the simple fact of social mobility for Black Brazilians as the best piece of evidence of the absence of a colour bar in Brazil, I single out the way in which such bar is perceived by the informants. However, even though most of them have experienced racial discrimination, their response to it varies a lot and none ever lodged a legal complaint. My argument is that individual recognition or perception of racial discrimination do not conflate straightforwardly with an actual and effective political stance in the struggle against racism.

  11. Factors affecting nutrition behavior among middle-class adolescents in urban area of Northern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle Eva I.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil has been called a nation in nutrition transitional because of recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. With overweight conditions already prevalent among middle-income populations, there exists a need to identify factors that influence nutrition behavior within this group. OBJECTIVE: To address this subject, a research study was implemented among middle-class adolescents attending a large private secondary school in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The study determined the availability and accessibility of snack foods as well as subjects' attitudes and preferences towards, and the influence of family and friends on healthy (high-nutrient density snack choices. METHODS: The 4-stage process included: (a a nutrition expert focus group discussion that reported local nutrition problems in general and factors related to adolescent nutrition, (b an adolescent pilot survey (n=63 that solicited information about snacking preferences and habits as well as resources for nutrition information and snack money; (c a survey of various area food market sources to determine the availability and accessibility of high nutrient density snacks; and (d a follow-up adolescent survey (n=55 that measured snack food preferences and perceptions about their cost and availability. RESULTS: Results included the finding that, although affordable high nutrient density snacks were available, preferences for low nutrient density snacks prevailed. The adolescents were reportedly more likely to be influenced by and obtain nutrition information from family members than friends. CONCLUSION: From study results it is apparent that a focus on food availability will not automatically result in proper nutritional practices among adolescents. This fact and the parental influence detected are evidence of a need to involve adolescents and their parents in nutrition education campaigns to improve adolescent snack food choices.

  12. Factors affecting nutrition behavior among middle-class adolescents in urban area of Northern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva I. Doyle

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil has been called a nation in nutrition transitional because of recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. With overweight conditions already prevalent among middle-income populations, there exists a need to identify factors that influence nutrition behavior within this group. OBJECTIVE: To address this subject, a research study was implemented among middle-class adolescents attending a large private secondary school in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The study determined the availability and accessibility of snack foods as well as subjects’ attitudes and preferences towards, and the influence of family and friends on healthy (high-nutrient density snack choices. METHODS: The 4-stage process included: (a a nutrition expert focus group discussion that reported local nutrition problems in general and factors related to adolescent nutrition, (b an adolescent pilot survey (n=63 that solicited information about snacking preferences and habits as well as resources for nutrition information and snack money; (c a survey of various area food market sources to determine the availability and accessibility of high nutrient density snacks; and (d a follow-up adolescent survey (n=55 that measured snack food preferences and perceptions about their cost and availability. RESULTS: Results included the finding that, although affordable high nutrient density snacks were available, preferences for low nutrient density snacks prevailed. The adolescents were reportedly more likely to be influenced by and obtain nutrition information from family members than friends. CONCLUSION: From study results it is apparent that a focus on food availability will not automatically result in proper nutritional practices among adolescents. This fact and the parental influence detected are evidence of a need to involve adolescents and their parents in nutrition education campaigns to improve adolescent snack food choices.

  13. Latino College Completion: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  14. Latino College Completion: Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  15. Planning and implementation of a cardiovascular prevention strategy in a lower middle class community in Pakistan - a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, K.; Faruqui, A.M.A.; Manolio, T.; Davis, C.E.; Denis, B.H.; Burke, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors (RF) and coronary heart diseases (CHD) are increasing in Pakistan. The National Inst. of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi, in collaboration with National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, designed a 5-year diet intervention study (MHS) for modification of RF. This was done by education, designed to increase knowledge and attitudes regarding CHD and by modifying the diet in 400 households in Metrovitte, which is a lower middle class community in Karachi. The Department of preventive cardiology of NICVD trained doctors, social workers including volunteers from the community for data collection and recording. The education was imparted in health fairs and home conferences and diet modification was achieved by 14 home visits of social workers over a 28-month period with a final goal of reducing salt by 28% and replacement of ghee with vegetable oils and reducing fat by 33%. Community center was used for data collection and involved demographic, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, hemoglobin and blood glucose data at base line and at screening 11(280) households. All phases of the study have been successfully implemented and results are being analyzed. Various aspects of the methods of implementation are discussed. (author)

  16. 'I don't get this climate stuff!' Making sense of climate change among the corporate middle class in Lagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiyanbi, Adeniyi P

    2015-11-01

    Public engagement continues to be central to wider efforts to address climate change. This study contributes to public engagement debates by investigating engagement with climate change among an often overlooked group, the corporate middle class in Africa's second largest megacity, Lagos. Combining survey and interviews, I focus analysis on three aspects: awareness, knowledge and concern; role of scientific and social frames in shaping general attitude; and spatial attribution of causes and consequences. The study reveals a universal awareness and high concern about climate change among the respondents, although understanding and perceptions of climate change are significantly socially framed. Social situatedness, more than scientific facts, is the most important definer of overall engagement with climate change. This study thus underscores a nuanced constructionist stance, showing how corporate professionals' 'ways of knowing' climate change is underpinned by a certain co-production between scientific and socio-experiential frames. I highlight implications for research and public engagement with climate change. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Literacy, Parental Roles, and Support Systems among Single Latino Father Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rose A.; Alfred, Mary V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of eight Latino single fathers as primary caregivers and their engagement with the literacy development of their children. The sample for this study consisted of eight single Latino fathers with children of elementary to middle school age. The primary method of data collection was…

  18. Student Academic Self-Concept and Perception of Classroom Environment in Single-Sex and Coeducational Middle Grades Mathematics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombe, Dennis; Che, S. Megan; Carter, Traci L.; Bridges, William

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present findings from a study that investigated the relationship between all-girls classes, all-boys classes, and coeducational classes on student mathematics self-concept and student perception of classroom environment. Further, we compared responses of girls in all-girls classes to girls in coeducational classes and responses…

  19. Understanding Cultural Influences on Dietary Habits in Asian, Middle Eastern, and Latino Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Review of Current Literature and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Natalie; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-10-23

    This review focuses on evaluating and identifying gaps in the current literature regarding culturally specific dietary influences for patients with type 2 diabetes. As this topic has previously been examined in African American populations, we chose to focus on four other distinct populations (Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Western Pacific, South Asian). Given the rapid increase in global rates of type 2 diabetes and high rates of diabetes among certain ethnic groups, it is important to understand how culturally adapted strategies in diabetes management have been described in different regions and populations. The specific role of nutrition in controlling diabetes is tied to cultural habits and customs. Variation in cultural practices, including diet, create unique environments in which patients with diabetes must navigate. The role of family, particularly among Hispanics, is crucial to cultural adaptations of diabetes management. Incorporating alternative medicine, namely observed in Chinese and Indian populations, also guided diabetes care strategies. Language barriers, health literacy, and acculturation were all unique factors affecting cultural approaches to diabetes management in these four populations. Understanding such cultural determinants is crucial to addressing diabetes disparities and improving outcomes.

  20. Class Collective Efficacy and Class Size as Moderators of the Relationship between Junior Middle School Students’ Externalizing Behavior and Academic Engagement: A Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement, and tested the possibility of class collective efficacy and class size moderating this relationship. Data were collected from 28 Chinese classrooms (N = 1034 students; grades 7, 8, and 9 with student reports. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test all hypotheses and results revealed a negative relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement; class collective efficacy was also significantly related to academic engagement. Additionally, class collective efficacy and class size moderated the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement: For students in a class with high collective efficacy or small size (≤30 students, the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement was weaker than for those in a class with low collective efficacy or large size (≥43 students. Results are discussed considering self-regulatory mechanisms and social environment theory, with possible implications for teachers of students’ learning provided.

  1. The Expanding Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟文

    2004-01-01

    Has the perennial dream finally come true?According to official figures,the answer is yes indeed.At last,the Chinese market is what British colonists and the like were imagining two hundred years ago:enormous.It can,so went the dream,easily be tapped and consequently will bring a boon.Until now though,the dream has not transcended into reality.

  2. Associations of adolescent cannabis use with academic performance and mental health: A longitudinal study of upper middle class youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H; Hill, Melanie L; Small, Phillip J; Luthar, Suniya S

    2015-11-01

    There is a hypothesis that low socioeconomic status (SES) may explain the link between cannabis use and poorer academic performance and mental health. A key question, therefore, is whether adolescent cannabis use is associated with poorer academic performance and mental health in high SES communities where there is reduced potential for confounding. Youth (n=254) from an upper middle class community were followed prospectively through the four years of high school (from age 14/15 to age 17/18). Past-year frequency of cannabis use was assessed annually. Official school records of academic performance and self-reported mental health symptoms (externalizing and internalizing symptoms) were assessed in grades 9 and 12. Persistent cannabis use across the four years of high school was associated with lower grade-point average (β=-0.18, p=.006), lower Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score (β=-0.13, p=.038), and greater externalizing symptoms (β=0.29, pgrade, but not with greater internalizing symptoms (β=0.04, p=.53). Moreover, persistent cannabis use was associated with lower grade-point average (β=-0.13, p=.014) and greater externalizing symptoms (β=0.24, p=.002) in 12th grade, even after controlling for 9th grade levels of these outcomes. Similar associations were observed for persistent alcohol and tobacco use. Effects for persistent cannabis use became non-significant after controlling for persistent alcohol and tobacco use, reflecting the difficulties of disentangling effects of cannabis from effects of alcohol and tobacco. Low SES cannot fully explain associations between cannabis use and poorer academic performance and mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Manufacturing Marginality among Women and Latinos in Neoliberal America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S

    2014-01-01

    Intersectionality is the study of how categorical distinctions made on the basis of race, class, and gender interact to generate inequality, and this concept has become a primary lens by which scholars have come to model social stratification in the United States. In addition to the historically powerful interaction between race and class, gender interactions have become increasingly powerful in exacerbating class inequalities while the growing exclusion of foreigners on the basis of legal status has progressively marginalized Latinos in U.S. society. As a result, poor whites and immigrant-origin Latinos have increasingly joined African Americans at the bottom of American society to form a new, expanded underclass.

  4. Un « Nouvel hygiénisme » ? Le bruit, l’odeur et l’émergence d’une new middle class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Matthey

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available La tentation est grande aujourd’hui d’envisager un « Nouvel hygiénisme » qui façonnerait les espaces urbains et les corps. Cet article défend cependant l’hypothèse que ce qu’il est convenu d’appeler « Nouvel hygiénisme » est en fait un ensemble de pratiques sociales qui reposent sur la consommation ostentatoire et la distinction sociologique d’une classe sociale en ascension (la new middle class.

  5. Investigation of factors influencing the formation of the middle class on the territory of regions of Capital socio-geographical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Pereguda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article stated that to determine the specifics of a middle class it is necessary to apply economic and mathematical methods allowing one to display a certain proportion and sometimes qualitative patterns of distribution of different forms and types of settlement and problems that are investigated. The key components of each factor can be determined based on the analysis of factor analysis and the indicators playing a major role in shaping sets of factors can be shown based on a factor variance. The spatial organization of society in this research study has been noted to have a multi-level character, because it is going to cover the territory within the regions and the accommodation of diverse population on it will include spatial distribution of various types of economic activity and economic indicators. In this study, the special attention has been paid to economic poverty to determine the boundaries of the middle class, and conduction of more accurate inequality of economic indicators in the regions. The regional specifics of the Capital socio-geographical area has been conducted through socio-geographical approach aimed at disclosing the middle class. Based on statistical data systematization, the analysis has been conducted due to the matrix factorization of selected indicators intercorrelation. It has been noted that the study of the middle class from the standpoint of social geography as spatially conditioned phenomenon requires the formulation of methodological regulations, it defines procedures for research highlighting the main stages, and it studies the techniques and methods of forming the system of scientific research to further disclosure issues.

  6. Deferred imitation in 18-month-olds from two cultural contexts: the case of Cameroonian Nso farmer and German-middle class infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Sonja; Lamm, Bettina; Graf, Frauke; Knopf, Monika

    2013-12-01

    Imitative learning has been described in naturalistic studies for different cultures, but lab-based research studying imitative learning across different cultural contexts is almost missing. Therefore, imitative learning was assessed with 18-month-old German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants - representing two highly different eco-cultural contexts associated with different cultural models, the psychological autonomy and the hierarchical relatedness - by using the deferred imitation paradigm. Study 1 revealed that the infants from both cultural contexts performed a higher number of target actions in the deferred imitation than in the baseline phase. Moreover, it was found that German middle-class infants showed a higher mean imitation rate as they performed more target actions in the deferred imitation phase compared with Cameroonian Nso farmer infants. It was speculated that the opportunity to manipulate the test objects directly after the demonstration of the target actions could enhance the mean deferred imitation rate of the Cameroonian Nso farmer infants which was confirmed in Study 2. Possible explanations for the differences in the amount of imitated target actions of German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants are discussed considering the object-related, dyadic setting of the imitation paradigm with respect to the different learning contexts underlying the different cultural models of learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing Student Preconceptions of Sport Management Faculty: Where Do Women and Latinos Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Jason; Sagas, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Latino individuals and women as a group have found it difficult to become established within the professorate. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine student preconceptions of Latino professors within sport management. The study was conducted within a sport management class (N = 102), utilizing self-categorization theory based on race…

  8. Acculturative Stress and School Belonging among Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Cathy; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2012-01-01

    Dimensions of acculturative stress and their implications for school belonging and achievement were examined among 199 Latino middle-school students. The proposed model hypothesized that school belonging would mediate the association between acculturative stress dimensions and low school achievement. Eighty percent youth of the sample were…

  9. Convivencia to Empowerment: Latino Parent Organizing at La Familia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasis, Pablo; Ordonez-Jasis, Rosario

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the emergence of La Familia Initiative, a Latino parent-organizing project at a public middle school. Motivated by their urgency to improve their children's schooling and enhance their opportunities for a better high school experience in the future, the participants organize to establish a more inclusive partnership with the…

  10. Single-gender mathematics and science classes and the effects on urban middle school boys and girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudler, Dawn M.

    This study compared the differences in the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics and science achievement scores of boys and girls in Grade 7 at two urban middle schools. The data allowed the researcher to determine to what degree boys and girls in Grade 7 differ in their mathematics and science achievements within a single-gender environment versus a coeducational learning environment. The study compared any differences between boys and girls in Grade 7 within a single-gender environment in the subjects of mathematics and science, as measured by the CRCT assessments. The study also compared differences between boys and girls in Grade 7 within a coeducational environment in the subjects of mathematics and science, as measured by the CRCT assessments. Two middle schools were used within the study. One middle school was identified as a single-gender school (Middle School A); the other was identified as a coeducational school (Middle School B). This quantitative study applied the use of a descriptive research design. In addition, CRCT scores for the subjects of mathematics and science were taken during the spring of 2008 from both middle schools. Data were measured using descriptive statistics and independent t test calculations. The frequency statistics proceeded to compare each sample performance levels. The data were described in means, standard deviations, standard error means, frequency, and percentages. This method provided an excellent description of a sample scored on the spring 2008 CRCT mathematics and science assessments.

  11. National Latino AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, to increase awareness of the disproportionate impact of HIV on the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States and dependent territories. The podcast reminds Hispanics or Latinos that they have the power to take control of their health and protect themselves against HIV.

  12. Latino Students and Degree Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jacquelyn D.; Parks, Rodney

    2018-01-01

    Latinos are the largest growing population in America, and thus, have the potential to have the greatest impact on our nation's economy. However, Latinos also graduate college at a lower rate than their counterparts. This article focuses on the various cultural, social, and financial barriers Latino students face and provides recommendations for…

  13. Caring for Latino patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Latinos comprise nearly 16 percent of the U.S. population, and this proportion is anticipated to increase to 30 percent by 2050. Latinos are a diverse ethnic group that includes many different cultures, races, and nationalities. Barriers to care have resulted in striking disparities in quality of health care for these patients. These barriers include language, lack of insurance, different cultural beliefs, and in some cases, illegal immigration status, mistrust, and illiteracy. The National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services address these concerns with recommendations for culturally competent care, language services, and organizational support. Latinos have disproportionately higher rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus. Other health problems include stress, neurocysticercosis, and tuberculosis. It is important to explore the use of alternative therapies and belief in traditional folk illnesses, recognizing that health beliefs are dependent on education, socioeconomic status, and degree of acculturation. Many-but not all-folk and herbal treatments can be safely accommodated with conventional therapy. Physicians must be sensitive to Latino cultural values of simpatia (kindness), personalismo (relationship), respeto (respect), and modestia (modesty). The LEARN technique can facilitate cross-cultural interviews. Some cultural barriers may be overcome by using the "teach back" technique to ensure that directions are correctly understood and by creating a welcoming health care environment for Latino patients.

  14. A Case Study of Single-Sex Middle School Mathematics Classes in a Mixed-Sex Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasha, Fridah Singongi Silishebo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to (a) examine the main and interaction effects of gender, race and class-type on mathematics achievement, mathematics attitudes and sources of mathematics self-efficacy, (b) investigate teacher-student interactions in the single-sex mathematics classes and (c) investigate perspectives about single-sex…

  15. [Food and health risks: views on healthy food and food consumption practices among middle-class women and men in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Betina

    2016-01-01

    In this article we analyze notions about healthy food and the perceptions of risks related to industrialized foodstuffs within a group of young and middle-aged females and males who belong to the middle class and live in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. Data come from eight focus groups that were carried out in 2013. The study shows that the participants of the focus group have incorporated scientific-nutritional knowledge into their conceptions of healthy food. However, few discuss the risks of industrialized food beyond the growing public attention regarding trans fats and salt content. Although organic foods are positively valued, participants object to their high cost and the location of their commercialization. We show how in their food practices, the participants of the focus groups weigh their concern about health against other priorities such as costs, convenience, aesthetics, pleasure and sociability.

  16. “WEALTH OR LOVE, WHAT DOES A WOMAN WANT?” AN IRONIC LOOK AT THE MIDDLE CLASS NORMS IN CHARLOTTE BRONTE’S JANE EYRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afina Murtiningrum

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jane Eyre is a novel written in the early nineteenth century (1847. It depicts the English society of the upper, middle and lower class and their habits and attitudes towards life. The opening of the novel points to social class, wealth and marriage as its major theme. Throughout the novel, the relationship between social awareness of class and marriage, especially dealing with money or property are highlighted, the reason why society tends to consider about social class, money and property in finding a suitable partner to marry. This paper relies on the examples from the novel to show how nineteenth-century women imagined their marriage. In terms of women’s social rights and roles, Charlotte Bronte tries to open readers' eyes to the idea that women's abilities should not be limited only to the sphere of the family. Bronte’s novel does not only attack Victorian class structure but also the issue of gender.   Keywords : marriage, wealth, property, women’s roles, gender

  17. Preparing and Supporting Black Students to Enroll and Achieve in Advanced Mathematics Classes in Middle School: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cobbs, Joyce Bernice

    2015-01-01

    The literature on minority student achievement indicates that Black students are underrepresented in advanced mathematics courses. Advanced mathematics courses offer students the opportunity to engage with challenging curricula, experience rigorous instruction, and interact with quality teachers. The middle school years are particularly significant for mathematics education since the courses students pursue during those years affect later access to rigorous mathematics coursework at the high ...

  18. Preparing and Supporting Black Students to Enroll and Achieve in Advanced Mathematics Classes in Middle School: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbs, Joyce Bernice

    2014-01-01

    The literature on minority student achievement indicates that Black students are underrepresented in advanced mathematics courses. Advanced mathematics courses offer students the opportunity to engage with challenging curricula, experience rigorous instruction, and interact with quality teachers. The middle school years are particularly…

  19. Marital and parental relationships: a comparison of middle and working class families / Relações conjugais e parentais: uma comparação entre famílias de classes sociais baixa e média

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pereira Braz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to study the interrelatedness between marital and parental relationships in order to understand children's social adjustment and development. Therefore, this study aims to describe aspects of the quality of marital and parental relationships from Brazilian working and middle class families. Fourteen families consisting of father, mother, and target preschool children at the age of 4-5 years were selected to participate in this study. A questionnaire on social-demographic data, family structure, lifestyles, and division of home tasks was answered by mothers. A semi-structured interview was conducted with mothers and fathers, separately, including questions on marital satisfaction, conflict, coalition, values and beliefs on marriage and parenting, and their influence on parents-child interactions. The results indicate that a good marital relationship fosters sharing domestic tasks and childrearing practices between wives and husbands and promotes the development of security feelings in their children. The discussion is based on the differences between working and middle class families in terms of mutual influences between both kinds of relationships.

  20. Pathological and non-pathological variants of restrictive eating behaviors in middle childhood: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ricarda; Vogel, Mandy; Hiemisch, Andreas; Kiess, Wieland; Hilbert, Anja

    2018-08-01

    Although restrictive eating behaviors are very common during early childhood, their precise nature and clinical correlates remain unclear. Especially, there is little evidence on restrictive eating behaviors in older children and their associations with children's shape concern. The present population-based study sought to delineate subgroups of restrictive eating patterns in N = 799 7-14 year old children. Using Latent Class Analysis, children were classified based on six restrictive eating behaviors (for example, picky eating, food neophobia, and eating-related anxiety) and shape concern, separately in three age groups. For cluster validation, sociodemographic and objective anthropometric data, parental feeding practices, and general and eating disorder psychopathology were used. The results showed a 3-cluster solution across all age groups: an asymptomatic class (Cluster 1), a class with restrictive eating behaviors without shape concern (Cluster 2), and a class showing restrictive eating behaviors with prominent shape concern (Cluster 3). The clusters differed in all variables used for validation. Particularly, the proportion of children with symptoms of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder was greater in Cluster 2 than Clusters 1 and 3. The study underlined the importance of considering shape concern to distinguish between different phenotypes of children's restrictive eating patterns. Longitudinal data are needed to evaluate the clusters' predictive effects on children's growth and development of clinical eating disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Africa’s Legends: digital technologies, aesthetics and middle-class aspirations in Ghanaian games and comics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnaker, T.; Spronk, R.

    2017-01-01

    Africa’s Legends is a mobile application developed by the Ghanaian game development company Leti Arts in 2012. The app consists of one game and two comics about eight ‘African’ superheroes. This article aims to give insight into the intersection of digital technologies and social class; it

  2. Identifying Students' Expectancy-Value Beliefs: A Latent Class Analysis Approach to Analyzing Middle School Students' Science Self-Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Julia; Ing, Marsha; Nylund-Gibson, Karen; Brown, Richard S.

    2017-01-01

    This study extends current research by organizing information about students' expectancy-value achievement motivation, in a way that helps parents and teachers identify specific entry points to encourage and support students' science aspirations. This study uses latent class analysis to describe underlying differences in ability beliefs, task…

  3. Son los latinos estadounidenses?

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    En el año 2050 la población blanca no latina de Estados Unidos sumará el 46% del total de los ciudadanos de ese país. Para entonces, la población latina, negra y asiática combinada representará el 54%. En ese horizonte que predicen los cálculos oficiales, los latinos habrán crecido en un 15%, pasando de los 47 millones que viven ahora EEUU a 133 millones. Mientras que los latinos y los asiáticos (de 16 millones a 41 millones para entonces) no pararán de crecer, las poblaciones blanca y negra ...

  4. "Sobresalir": Latino Parent Perspectives on New Latino Diaspora Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah; Wortham, Stanton

    2012-01-01

    Although many have documented the high value Latino families place on education, prevalent discourses nonetheless characterize Latino immigrant parents as not caring about their children's education. This paper describes the practice-based components of a participatory action research project in which we created a collaborative film, intended for…

  5. Performing the Grade: Urban Latino Youth, Gender Performance, and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foiles Sifuentes, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the intersection of race, gender, class, and academic success through an ethnographic case study in a Texas charter high school. The 98% working-class, Latino student population was exposed to an array of stigmas ascribed to their persons based on negative social stereotypes of race, ethnicity, gender, and class due to the…

  6. Culture or No Culture? A Latino Critical Research Analysis of Latino Persistence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Roger Geertz; Morrison, Jeaná

    2016-01-01

    The recent literature on Latino persistence does not take into account these students' distinct cultural backgrounds. Most researchers of Latino persistence use the self-designation "Latino" as a proxy variable representing Latino culture. A Latino Critical Theory (LatCrit) lens is applied to the persistence literature to demonstrate the…

  7. Stigma in an era of medicalisation and anxious parenting: how proximity and culpability shape middle-class parents' experiences of disgrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Ara

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the stigma experiences of middle-class parents whose children have physical, psychological and behavioural problems. Qualitative interviews with 34 mothers and 21 fathers demonstrate that parents experience two types of stigma: courtesy stigma and the stigma of being a bad parent. While the former stems from close social proximity to stigmatised children, the latter stems from ostensible culpability for children's problems. Both characteristics are social constructs embedded in the larger contexts of an anxious, intensive parenting culture and the problematisation and medicalisation of childhood. As a consequence, mothers, parents whose children have invisible disabilities, and the parents of young children are particularly susceptible to negative labelling. These findings highlight the constructed and political nature of parents' stigmatisation. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Understanding the New Public Outlook on the Economy and Middle-Class Decline: How FDI Attitudes are caught in a Tentative Closing of the Canadian Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Graves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While a single survey is a snapshot of a given moment in time, a series of surveys on the same topics over the years is akin to time-lapse photography, tracing the unfurling trends of public opinion. In examining the results of surveys conducted in recent decades by EKOS Research Associates on Canadians’ views of the economy, the prospects of the middle class, immigration and foreign trade, the time-lapse images show a dispiriting pessimism, especially among younger Canadians. For example, in 2002, nearly 70 per cent of Canadians surveyed described themselves as middle class. That figure dropped precipitously to just 47 per cent in 2015. Nearly half (46 per cent of those aged 25-44 said they were earning less in inflation-adjusted dollars last year than their fathers earned at the same age. Fewer than one in five Canadians believed their personal economic lot improved last year. Thirty-seven per cent of respondents said they had fallen behind economically in the last year and the last five years. When a society sees shared progress as an imperative, it is truly dismal that fewer than one in five Canadians thought things had improved for them last year. Just over a month and a half before the October 2015 federal election, a survey showed that restoring middle-class prosperity was the top issue for all demographic groups, standing at 35 per cent of respondents between the ages of 35 and 49 and 55 per cent among those aged 49 to 64. Accompanying this incipient uneasiness about the future of the middle class in Canada is a concomitant drawing inwards, a tendency towards parochialism about aspects of foreign trade and immigration, which may be perceived as threatening an economic future already considered to be tenuous. For example, support dropped dramatically (from 47 per cent the year before the 2008 recession to 25 per cent last year for the notion that Canadians, Americans and Mexicans should be free to work anywhere in North America. While

  9. Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubjuhn, S.; Pratt, N.

    2009-11-01

    This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

  10. Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubjuhn, S; Pratt, N

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

  11. Latino College Completion: New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  12. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  13. Latino College Completion: South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  14. Latino College Completion: North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  15. Latino College Completion: New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  16. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  17. Gender and Power: Reconstructing Latino Ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavella, Patricia; Takash, Paule Cruz

    1993-01-01

    Introduces selected papers delivered at the 91st Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association. Papers explore gender as experienced by Latinas and Latinos, examine gendered relationships between Latino men and women, and discern how Latino gender norms in Latin America are perpetrated and negotiated by Latinos within the U.S.…

  18. In Their Own Voices: Latino Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longerbeam, Susan D.; Sedlacek, William E.; Alatorre, Helen M.

    2004-01-01

    In a study of 2,991 college students, researchers found significant differences between Latino and non-Latino students using MANOVA and chi-square statistics. Latino students were more likely to embrace diversity than non-Latino students, and were more likely to be concerned about financing their college educations. In addition, they were more…

  19. A qualitative study of how to create supportive environments for the implementation of in-class-activities in middle school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Anne-Didde; Smedegaard, Søren; Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov

    Purpose School physical activity (SPA) holds the potential to benefit children’s psychosocial well-being. PA can positively influence mental health through social connectedness, physical self-perception, and improvements in emotions. For such reasons, in-class-activities (ICA) (e.g. energizers...... of lessons and inform them about the following assignments to increase on-task behavior. Regarding creating a supportive environment, it was found that student motivation increased if they were involved in choosing, developing and instructing the ICA’s themselves. Furthermore, the variation in ICAs...... was important to satisfy different needs of the students, and the focus on social connectedness instead of competition was essential regarding the motivation of the less active students....

  20. Experiencing community psychology through community-based learning class projects: reflections from an American University in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Mona M; Mohamed, Salma N; Ganzon, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Many introductory community psychology courses do not incorporate community-based learning (CBL), and when they do, it is most often in the form of individualized volunteer hours. We present an alternative model for CBL in which the entire class collaborates on an experiential project that promotes community action. We believe that such an approach better embodies the values and methods of the discipline and has a more powerful impact on the students and stakeholders. It may be especially effective in developing countries that do not have an established network of service infrastructures; in such nations the onus is on the teachers and learners of community psychology to contribute to transformative change. In this article practical guidelines are provided by the instructor regarding how to structure and implement this CBL model. Additionally, two students describe how the CBL experience solidified their learning of course concepts and significantly impacted them personally.

  1. Perinatal grief in Latino parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Claudia; Kavanaugh, Karen; Klima, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research exists that describes the meaning of perinatal loss to some parents, but the experience of loss from the perspective of Latino parents is not clearly understood. Additionally, current perinatal bereavement practices used often to facilitate memory making for parents (such as viewing or holding the baby, taking photographs, or collecting mementos) are based on research done primarily with non-Latino families. Are these common practices appropriate for this population? Because there is a paucity of research on this topic, this article describes what has been written over the past 30 years on the topic of grief and perinatal loss in Latino culture.

  2. National Latino AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-08

    This podcast highlights National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, to increase awareness of the disproportionate impact of HIV on the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States and dependent territories. The podcast reminds Hispanics or Latinos that they have the power to take control of their health and protect themselves against HIV.  Created: 10/8/2014 by Office of Health Equity, Office of the Director, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 10/14/2014.

  3. Doing, talking and writing science: A discourse analysis of the process of resemiotization in a middle school lab-based science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Laura J.

    This study examines students' sense making practices in a middle school science class from a discourse analytic perspective. Using Mediated Discourse Analysis (MDA) (Scollon 1998, 2001) and interactional sociolinguistics (Gumperz 1999, 2001, Schiffrin 1994), my research seeks to enrich findings from recent sociocultural studies of science classrooms that focus on doing, talking and writing science (Roth 2005, Kress, et al. 2002, Halliday & Martin 1993, Lemke 1990). Within a middle school science classroom, these fundamental activities form a nexus of practice (Scollon 1998, 2001) basic to science literacy (AAAS 1989) and reflective of the work of practicing scientists. Moreover, students' engagement in these practices provides insight into the cultural production and reproduction of science and scientist. I first examine how the students' curriculum text encourages these three scientific practices and then trace students' uptake; that is, how they subsequently do, talk, and write science throughout the course of the unit. I argue that learning science with this curriculum unit requires students to resemiotize (Iedema 2001, 2003) first hand experience so they can represent their knowledge cohesively and coherently in evaluable forms. Ultimately, students must transform language from the curriculum text and their teacher into action in their laboratory activities and action in their laboratory activities into language. In addition, I show how students are apprenticed to the conventionalized practices and voices (Bakhtin 1986) of science (i.e. the scientific register), and how their figures of personhood (Agha 2005) reflect the development of their scientific identities. Overall, I argue that the microanalytic methods I use illuminate how students draw upon curricular resources to become scientifically literate and develop scientific identities.

  4. KELAS MENENGAH, UMNO DAN INTELIGENSIA: TENTANGAN DOMINASI POLITIK BUMIPUTERA ISLAM DI SARAWAK (MIDDLE CLASS, UMNO AND INTELLIGENTSIA: CONTESTING THE MUSLIM BUMIPUTERA'S POLITICAL DOMINATION IN SARAWAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S. Hazis

    2011-01-01

    contributed to over four decades of domination. Despite this domination, new sources of contestation have emerged, namely the middle class, United Malays National Organisation (UMNO and the intelligentsia. This article analyses the contestation instigated by these forces and its impact on Sarawak politics particularly the leadership of Muslim bumiputera.

  5. "Hows" and "Whys" of Parental Involvement in a National "Neoliberal Laboratory": Aspirations, Values and Beliefs in Relation to Children's Education among Chilean Urban Lower-Middle-Class Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Arellano, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    This paper sought to shed light on the beliefs, aspirations and values in relation to education that shape parental ways of involvement among Chilean urban lower-middle-class parents. Using the capability approach as the main theoretical framework and a critical epistemology, the discussion focuses on the way in which the pre-eminence of…

  6. Latinos in science: Identifying factors that influence the low percentage of Latino representation in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Susan Jennifer

    A mixed methods approach was used to identify factors that influence the underrepresentation of Latinos in the domain of science. The researcher investigated the role of family influences, academic preparation, and personal motivations to determine science-related career choices by Latinos. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted using information from Latinos gathered from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88) administered by the National Center for Education Statistics. For the present study, data were analyzed using participants' responses as high school seniors, college students, and post-baccalaureates. Students responded to questions on school, work, parental academic influences, personal aspirations, and self-perception. To provide more insight into the experiences of Latinos in science and support the statistical analyses, nine students majoring in science in a private, urban university located in the northeastern part of the country were interviewed. Eleven variables related to parents' academic support and students' perceptions of parental support were taken together as predictors for two separate criteria from the survey. These results identified parents' level of education and the importance of academics to parents in their teen's college choice as significant predictors in determining college major in science. When the criterion was degree in science, the significant predictor was the frequency parents contacted high school as volunteers. Student interviews supported this information, demonstrating the importance of parental support in attaining a degree in science. Academic preparation was also analyzed. Students' reasons for taking science classes in high school was a significant predictor for science major; significant predictors for science degree were the emphasis placed on objectives in math and science classes and number of courses in biology and physics. Student interviews supported this information and

  7. Culture versus the law in the decision not to vaccinate children: meanings assigned by middle-class couples in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Carolina Luisa Alves; Couto, Márcia Thereza; Aith, Fernando Mussa Abujamra

    2017-03-09

    This study aimed to learn how middle-class parents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, interpreted the country's prevailing vaccination requirements, based on their experiences with vaccinating, selectively vaccinating, or not vaccinating their children. A qualitative approach was used with in-depth interviews. The analytical process was guided by content analysis and the theoretical framework of the anthropology of the law and morality. For parents that vaccinated, Brazil's culture of immunization outweighed the feeling of compliance with the law; for selective parents, selection of vaccines was not perceived as deviating from the law. In both, the act of vaccinating their children was a matter of moral status. Meanwhile, the non-vaccinators, counter to the legal perspective, attributed their choice to care for the child on grounds that mandatory vaccination was contrary to their way of life; they experienced a feeling of social coercion and fear of legal impositions. Vaccination is an important practice in public health, but it can reveal tensions and conflicts from normative systems, whether moral, cultural, or legal.

  8. Factors affecting nutrition behavior among middle-class adolescents in urban area of Northern region of Brazil Preferências nutricionais entre adolescentes da classe média de Manaus, AM (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva I. Doyle

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil has been called a nation in nutrition transitional because of recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. With overweight conditions already prevalent among middle-income populations, there exists a need to identify factors that influence nutrition behavior within this group. OBJECTIVE: To address this subject, a research study was implemented among middle-class adolescents attending a large private secondary school in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The study determined the availability and accessibility of snack foods as well as subjects’ attitudes and preferences towards, and the influence of family and friends on healthy (high-nutrient density snack choices. METHODS: The 4-stage process included: (a a nutrition expert focus group discussion that reported local nutrition problems in general and factors related to adolescent nutrition, (b an adolescent pilot survey (n=63 that solicited information about snacking preferences and habits as well as resources for nutrition information and snack money; (c a survey of various area food market sources to determine the availability and accessibility of high nutrient density snacks; and (d a follow-up adolescent survey (n=55 that measured snack food preferences and perceptions about their cost and availability. RESULTS: Results included the finding that, although affordable high nutrient density snacks were available, preferences for low nutrient density snacks prevailed. The adolescents were reportedly more likely to be influenced by and obtain nutrition information from family members than friends. CONCLUSION: From study results it is apparent that a focus on food availability will not automatically result in proper nutritional practices among adolescents. This fact and the parental influence detected are evidence of a need to involve adolescents and their parents in nutrition education campaigns to improve adolescent snack food choices.INTRODUÇÃO: O

  9. Obesity among Latino children within a migrant farmworker community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Javier I; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; McGinnity, Kelly A; Cuevas, Jordan P

    2013-03-01

    Childhood obesity has increased substantially among Latino children, placing them at risk for its related health consequences. Limited attention has been given to childhood obesity among Latino migrant farm-working communities. To examine, within a migrant farm-working community, (1) the prevalence of obesity among Latino children and parents and (2) parent perceptions of children's weight status and intentions to take corrective action. Structured interviews were completed with the parents of 495 children seen for well-child office visits in the pediatric department of a community health center during a 15-month period between 2010 and 2011. Medical chart reviews were completed for each child participant. Forty-seven percent of the children were overweight (20%) or obese (27%). In comparison to preschool-aged children, those in elementary and middle school were more likely to be obese. In elementary school, girls were more likely than boys to be overweight or obese. Child obesity was associated with parent obesity. Parental concern about their child's weight was associated with child obesity but not with child overweight. Parental concern was associated with parent intention to address the child's weight, particularly in older children. Analysis was completed in 2012. Interventions are needed that address both childhood obesity and parent weight status among Latino migrant farmworkers. Prevention programs that address the weight status of Latino children who are overweight, but not necessarily obese, are also needed, as their parents tend to be no more concerned about a child who is overweight than one who is normal weight. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Socialização econômica em famílias chilenas de classe média: educando cidadãos ou consumidores? Economic socialization in chilean families of middle class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Denegri Coria

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O propósito desta investigação foi descrever as estratégias e práticas de socialização econômica numa mostra de 132 famílias de classe média da cidade de Temuco,Chile. Os resultados assinalam que existe consenso entre as famílias a respeito da necessidade de educar aos meninos no uso do dinheiro e que esta é uma responsabilidade dos pais. Aprecia-se uma ampla dispersão entre as práticas que os pais dizem utilizar para alfabetizar os seus filhos no uso do dinheiro. As que são mais bem intuitivas, pouco sistemáticas e isoladas, não constituindo Estratégias de Socialização. Mostra-se inconsistência entre os valores expressados pelos pais e as práticas que empregam. A experiência de socialização temporã dos pais em suas famílias de origem repercute na educação de seus filhos, o que leva a concluir a presença de uma influência entre gerações no processo de socialização econômica.The purpose of this investigation was to describe the strategies and practices of economic socialization in a sample of 132 middle class families of Temuco, a city in Chile. The results show that there is an agreement among the families about the necessity to educate the children about the use of money, and that this is a responsibility that concerns the parents. A wide dispersion is observed among the practices that the parents claim to use to educate their children about the use of money. The practices which are rather intuitive, not very systematic and isolated, do not constitute strategies of socialization, and show inconsistency among the values expressed by the parents and the practices used by them. The parents' experience of an early socialization in their origin families rebounds in the education of their children, consequently leading to the presence of an intergenerational influence in the process of economic socialization.

  11. Placing Math Reform: Locating Latino English Learners in Math Classrooms and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbstein, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how place matters in public school reform efforts intended to promote more equitable opportunities and outcomes. Qualitative case studies of three California middle schools' eighth grade math reforms and the resulting opportunities for Latino English learners are presented, using the conceptual frameworks of critical human…

  12. Correlates of adiposity among Latino preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood obesity is at record high levels in the US and disproportionately affects Latino children; however, studies examining Latino preschool children's obesity-related risk factors are sparse. This study determined correlates of Latino preschoolers' (ages 3-5 years) adiposity to inform future ob...

  13. Child-care and feeding practices of urban middle class working and non-working Indonesian mothers: a qualitative study of the socio-economic and cultural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2012-07-01

    The double-burden problem of malnutrition in many developing countries is occurring against a backdrop of complex changes in the socio-economic and cultural environment. One such change is the increasing rate of female employment, a change that has attracted researchers to explore the possible relationships between maternal employment and child nutritional status. The present study employs a qualitative approach to explore the socio-economic and cultural environments that may influence child-care practices in families of working and non-working mothers with children of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver. It was conducted in Depok, a satellite city of Jakarta, Indonesia, and was designed as a case study involving 26 middle class families. The children were categorized as underweight, normal weight and obese, and caregivers were grouped as family and domestic paid caregivers. Twenty-six mothers and 18 caregivers were interviewed. Data were analysed by the constant comparative approach. The study identified five emerging themes, consisting of reason for working and not working, support for mother and caregivers, decision maker on child food, maternal self-confidence and access to resources. It confirmed that mothers and caregivers need support and adequate resources to perform child-care practices regardless of the child nutritional and maternal working status. Further research is required into how Indonesian mothers across a range of socio-economic strata can have increased options for quality child-care arrangements and support with child feeding. Additionally, this paper discussed the importance of enhanced dissemination of health information addressing both child underweight and obesity problems. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Europe is for being recognized for more than an ethnic background” : middle class British, Dutch and German minority citizens’ perspectives on EU citizenship and belonging to Europe’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike M Vieten

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper pinpoints some crucial themes of European belonging arising in the narratives of minority key activists with various hyphened legal national citi-zenship status, e.g. South Asian Brits, Moroccan-Dutch and Turkish/ Kurd-ish-Germans. The interviews capture how visible minorities’ perspectives on European belonging are influenced by structural racism, but also by national-ly specific discourses of symbolic inclusion or exclusion of ethnic minorities respectively. In this original research project in total 43 key minority activists, men and women and all of middle class social status were interviewed between au-tumn 2009 and summer 2012, e.g. pre-Brexit, in Britain, the Netherlands and Germany. The findings of the study underline ambivalent post-cosmopolitan identities and more contradictory notions of ‘race’ and ‘ethnicity in Britain and the Netherlands, due to specific colonial / post-colonial contexts, and a different use of these categories in Britain and the rest of Europe. The minor-ity citizens interviewed in Germany expressed a more troubled position here as their relationship to the European Union is influenced by their feelings of belonging to Turkey, the latter outside the EU and at the border of Europe. As the ‘new’ citizens interviewed in this sample live in major cities, such as London, Berlin and Amsterdam, individual feelings of belonging to Europe, perceptions of being European and cosmopolitan were very much shaped by the concrete city spaces and a positive identification with metropolitan urban identity.

  15. Bullying Experiences and Compromised Academic Performance across Middle School Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Jaana; Wang, Yueyan; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether bullying experiences are associated with lower academic performance across middle school among urban students.The ethnically diverse sample was drawn from a longitudinal study of 2,300 sixth graders (44% Latino, 26% African American, 10% Asian, 10% White, and 10% mixed) from 11 public middle schools.…

  16. What Types of Instructional Shifts Do Students Experience? Investigating Active Learning in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Classes across Key Transition Points from Middle School to the University Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Akiha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the need for a strong Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM workforce, there is a high attrition rate for students who intend to complete undergraduate majors in these disciplines. Students who leave STEM degree programs often cite uninspiring instruction in introductory courses, including traditional lecturing, as a reason. While undergraduate courses play a critical role in STEM retention, little is understood about the instructional transitions students encounter upon moving from secondary to post-secondary STEM courses. This study compares classroom observation data collected using the Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM from over 450 middle school, high school, introductory-level university, and advanced-level university classes across STEM disciplines. We find similarities between middle school and high school classroom instruction, which are characterized by a large proportion of time spent on active-learning instructional strategies, such as small-group activities and peer discussion. By contrast, introductory and advanced university instructors devote more time to instructor-centered teaching strategies, such as lecturing. These instructor-centered teaching strategies are present in classes regardless of class enrollment size, class period length, or whether or not the class includes a separate laboratory section. Middle school, high school, and university instructors were also surveyed about their views of what STEM instructional practices are most common at each educational level and asked to provide an explanation of those perceptions. Instructors from all levels struggled to predict the level of lecturing practices and often expressed uncertainty about what instruction looks like at levels other than their own. These findings suggest that more opportunities need to be created for instructors across multiple levels of the education system to share their active-learning teaching practices and

  17. Occupational class and cause specific mortality in middle aged men in 11 European countries: comparison of population based studies. EU Working Group on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, A. E.; Groenhof, F.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Health, E. W.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare countries in western Europe with respect to class differences in mortality from specific causes of death and to assess the contributions these causes make to class differences in total mortality. DESIGN: Comparison of cause of death in manual and non-manual classes, using data

  18. O significado da experiência escolar para segmentos das camadas médias The meaning of school experience for middle class segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Lelis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem como objetivo revelar o sentido da experiência escolar para jovens de camadas médias, alunos de uma instituição privada confessional, da zona sul da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Algumas questões serviram de ponto de partida para a pesquisa realizada de 2001 a 2003: como alunos com esse perfil socioeconômico e educacional constroem o seu ofício de estudante? Como articulam as relações com professores e colegas? Que relações estabelecem com as práticas de avaliação e os processos de ensinar e aprender? Relações instrumentais? Relações as quais permitem que os significados de seus grupos de referência aflorem? Que modelos de socialização são veiculados por essas escolas? O foco de análise apoiou-se em algumas das condições de produção e expressão do ofício do aluno como a caracterização socioeconômica das famílias, a trajetória escolar dos estudantes ao longo do ensino fundamental, o papel do estudo em suas vidas e práticas culturais e o lazer dos jovens.The objective of this text is to disclose the meaning of school education for middle class youngsters who are students of a private confessional institution in the South zone of Rio de Janeiro city. Some questions have served as the starting point for the research carried out from 2001 to 2003: How do students with this social, economic, and educational profile frame their role as students? How do they articulate their relationships with teachers and colleagues? What relationships do they establish with evaluation practices and teaching and learning processes? Instrumental relationships? Relationships that allow the meanings of their reference groups to emerge? What socialization models are transmitted by these schools? The focus of the analysis was based on some of the conditions of production and expression of the role of the student as a social and economic characterization of his/her family, the learning path of students along primary school, the

  19. The Effects of Teacher Efficacy, Teacher Certification Route, Content Hours in the Sciences, Field-Based Experiences and Class Size on Middle School Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Robina

    No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was signed into law in 2002 with the idea that all students, no matter the circumstances can learn and that highly qualified teachers should be present in every classrooms (United Stated Department of Education, 2011). The mandates of NCLB also forced states to begin measuring the progress of science proficiency beginning in 2007. The study determined the effects of teacher efficacy, the type of certification route taken by individuals, the number of content hours taken in the sciences, field-based experience and class size on middle school student achievement as measured by the 8th grade STAAR in a region located in South Texas. This data provides knowledge into the effect different teacher training methods have on secondary school science teacher efficacy in Texas and how it impacts student achievement. Additionally, the results of the study determined if traditional and alternative certification programs are equally effective in properly preparing science teachers for the classroom. The study described was a survey design comparing nonequivalent groups. The study utilized the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI). A 25-item efficacy scale made up of two subscales, Personal Science Teaching Efficacy Belief (PSTE) and Science Teaching Outcome Expectancy (STOE) (Bayraktar, 2011). Once the survey was completed a 3-Way ANOVA, MANOVA, and Multiple Linear Regression were performed in SPSS to calculate the results. The results from the study indicated no significant difference between route of certification on student achievement, but a large effect size was reported, 17% of the variances in student achievement can be accounted for by route of certification. A MANOVA was conducted to assess the differences between number of science content hours on a linear combination of personal science teacher efficacy, science teaching outcome expectancy and total science teacher efficacy as measured by the STEBI. No significant

  20. Latino Literature Mediating Teacher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Roldan, Carmen M.; Heineke, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    This interpretive study draws on data from a larger inquiry into teacher learning in a graduate-level course on Latino literature at a large southwestern university. The article focuses on a small diverse group of educators taking part in a literature discussion of the novel "Before We Were Free" by J. Alvarez (2002). Using a…

  1. Latinos' Perceptions of Interethnic Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Amber L.; Riggio, Heidi R.; Palavinelu, Subha; Culpepper, Lane Locher

    2012-01-01

    Numerous survey findings indicate that the majority of White Americans are accepting of interracial romantic relationships. However, relatively few studies have looked at how different American ethnic minority groups view such relationships. The current research examined Latinos' evaluations of intraethnic and interethnic couples. Latino…

  2. Cultural orientations, parental beliefs and practices, and latino adolescents' autonomy and independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Kathleen M; Caughy, Margaret O; Schuster, Mark A; Bogart, Laura M; Dittus, Patricia J; Franzini, Luisa

    2014-08-01

    Despite the salience of behavioral autonomy and independence to parent-child interactions during middle adolescence, little is known about parenting processes pertinent to youth autonomy development for Latino families. Among a diverse sample of 684 Latino-origin parent-adolescent dyads in Houston, Texas, this study examines how parents' cultural orientations are associated directly and indirectly, through parental beliefs, with parenting practices giving youth behavioral autonomy and independence. Informed by social domain theory, the study's parenting constructs pertain to youth behaviors in an "ambiguously personal" domain-activities that adolescents believe are up to youth to decide, but which parents might argue require parents' supervision, knowledge, and/or decision-making. Results for latent profile analyses of parents' cultural identity across various facets of acculturation indicate considerable cultural heterogeneity among Latino parents. Although 43% of parents have a Latino cultural orientation, others represent Spanish-speaking/bicultural (21%), bilingual/bicultural (15%), English-speaking/bicultural (15%), or US (6%) cultural orientations. Structural equation modeling results indicate that bilingual/bicultural, English-speaking/bicultural, and US-oriented parents report less emphasis on the legitimacy of parental authority and younger age expectations for youth to engage in independent behaviors than do Latino-oriented parents. Parental beliefs endorsing youth's behavioral independence and autonomy, in turn, are associated with less stringent parental rules (parental report), less parental supervision (parental and youth report), and more youth autonomy in decision-making (parental and youth report). Evidence thus supports the idea that the diverse cultural orientations of Latino parents in the US may result in considerable variations in parenting processes pertinent to Latino adolescents' development.

  3. In Search of Culturally Appropriate Autism Interventions: Perspectives of Latino Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, Michaela; Watson, Linda R.; Zhang, Wanqing

    2018-01-01

    Most evidence-based autism spectrum disorder (ASD) interventions are tested with primarily White, mid-upper class, English-speaking populations, despite the increase in Latino children with ASD in early intervention programs throughout the United States. Unfortunately, interventions that are incongruent with a target population's culture may be…

  4. The Western States: Profound Diversity but Severe Segregation for Latino Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucsera, John; Flaxman, Greg

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Western region and its public schools are in the midst of its largest racial and economic transformation, as the area witnesses a shrinking white majority, a surging Latino minority, and a growing class of poor. These groups, along with blacks and Asian, more often than not attend very different and segregated schools both in educational…

  5. An Examination of Dropout Rates for Hispanic or Latino Students Enrolled in Online K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Michael; Dardick, William; Stella, Julie

    2017-01-01

    As the number of online K-12 educational offerings continues to grow it is important to better understand key indicators of success for students enrolled in these classes. One of those indicators is student dropout rates. This is particularly important for Hispanic or Latino students who traditionally have high dropout rates. The purpose of this…

  6. Patterns of Dating Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T

    2017-08-01

    Theory and research suggest that there may be significant heterogeneity in the development, manifestation, and consequences of adolescent dating violence that is not yet well understood. The current study contributed to our understanding of this heterogeneity by identifying distinct patterns of involvement in psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence victimization and perpetration in a sample of Latino youth (n = 201; M = 13.87 years; 42% male), a group that is understudied, growing, and at high risk for involvement in dating violence. Among both boys and girls, latent class analyses identified a three-class solution wherein the largest class demonstrated a low probability of involvement in dating violence across all indices ("uninvolved"; 56% of boys, 64% of girls) and the smallest class demonstrated high probability of involvement in all forms of dating violence except for sexual perpetration among girls and physical perpetration among boys ("multiform aggressive victims"; 10% of boys, 11% of girls). A third class of "psychologically aggressive victims" was identified for which there was a high probability of engaging and experiencing psychological dating violence, but low likelihood of involvement in physical or sexual dating violence (34% of boys, 24% of girls). Cultural (parent acculturation, acculturation conflict), family (conflict and cohesion) and individual (normative beliefs, conflict resolution skills, self-control) risk and protective factors were associated with class membership. Membership in the multiform vs. the uninvolved class was concurrently associated with emotional distress among girls and predicted emotional distress longitudinally among boys. The results contribute to understanding heterogeneity in patterns of involvement in dating violence among Latino youth that may reflect distinct etiological processes.

  7. Rural Latino youth park use: characteristics, park amenities, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K; Saelens, Brain E; Thompson, Beti

    2011-06-01

    Less than half of youth engage in sufficient physical activity to achieve health benefits. Key environmental factors of park and recreation spaces may influence youth physical activity. We sought to ascertain youth characteristics and behaviors that attract youth to parks with specific amenities and encourage physical activity while at the parks in a rural, predominantly Latino community. We examined the quality of amenities in the 13 parks and recreation spaces that middle school aged youth have access to in their community using the Environmental Assessment of Parks and Recreation Spaces (EAPRS) tool. Middle school students completed surveys in the school classroom (n = 1,102) regarding park use, physical activity, and intrapersonal characteristics (e.g., motivators). We used logistic regression to identify correlates of any park use, use of higher quality field and court parks, and active and sedentary park use. Younger age, participation in an after school activity, and identification of a team as a motivator were positively associated with any park use. Use of higher quality court and field parks was associated with participation in an after school activity and being Latino. The odds of being active in the parks were greater for boys and Latinos. Older age and alcohol use are correlated with being sedentary at the park, while odds of being sedentary at the park were lower for boys and youth who met physical activity guidelines. Organized team activities may encourage active use of higher quality fields and courts parks by Latino youth; thereby, increasing their level of physical activity.

  8. "Teaching Is a Lot More than Just Showing up to Class and Grading Assignments": Preparing Middle-Level Teachers for Longevity in the Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overschelde, James P.; Saunders, Jane M.; Ash, Gwynne Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The university's teacher preparation program has implemented and continually refined a professional development school program, with extended university-school relationships in its middle-level certification program. This program offers dialogue, targeted learning activities, and intensive field-based experiences to help ease preservice teachers…

  9. Dynamics of Acculturation, Enculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Influence of Psychocultural Constructs on Conscientiousness and Expectations of Higher Education among Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Linda G.; Davis, Matthew J.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Vaquero, Juana; Thompson, Keisha V.; Saldivar, Isaac M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of psychocultural variables (e.g., acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity) and personality characteristics in relation to educational expectations among 345 Latino middle school students in the U.S. Results from a path model indicate that 24.4% of the variance of educational expectations was accounted…

  10. Acculturation, Enculturation, Ethnic Identity, and Conscientiousness as Predictors of Latino Boys' and Girls' Career Decision Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Pina-Watson, Brandy; Castillo, Linda G.; Castillo, Rosalinda; Khan, Noshaba; Leigh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of culture and personality on the career decision self-efficacy of 338 Latino seventh-grade public middle school students. Specifically, we examined the role of acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity, and conscientiousness on career decision self-efficacy. Findings indicated Latina girls were more acculturated…

  11. Beat the Odds...Why Some Schools With Latino Children Beat the Odds and Others Don't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waits, Mary Jo; Campbell, Heather E.; Gau, Rebecca; Jacobs, Ellen; Rex, Tom; Hess, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Using the methodology of Jim Collins from his book "Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap...and Other's Don't," the authors of this report, under the sponsorship of the Center for the Future of Arizona and the Morrison Institute, found 12 elementary and middle schools in Arizona--schools whose students are mostly Latino and…

  12. The Voces Project: Investigating How Latino/a Immigrant Children Make Sense of Engaging in School and School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson-Martin, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how a group of Mexican immigrant children in the United States made sense of engaging in school and school mathematics. The research focused on a population of Latino/a middle school students who were a distinct minority, building a model that shows how a complex set of cognitive, sociocultural, and institutional factors…

  13. Social marketing to plan a fall prevention program for Latino construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Nancy N; Shrestha, Pramen P

    2012-08-01

    Latino construction workers experience disparities in occupational death and injury rates. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration funded a fall prevention training program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas in response to sharp increases in fall-related accidents from 2005 to 2007. The grant's purpose was to improve fall protection for construction workers, with a focus on Latinos. This study assessed the effectiveness of social marketing for increasing fall prevention behaviors. A multi-disciplinary team used a social marketing approach to plan the program. We conducted same day class evaluations and follow-up interviews 8 weeks later. The classes met trainee needs as evidenced by class evaluations and increased safety behaviors. However, Spanish-speaking Latinos did not attend in the same proportion as their representation in the Las Vegas population. A social marketing approach to planning was helpful to customize the training to Latino worker needs. However, due to the limitations of behavior change strategies, future programs should target employers and their obligation to provide safer workplaces. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  15. Bringing Culture into Parent Training with Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional frameworks of parenting have failed to capture the distinctive nature of parenting in Latino families. Cultural values likely influence parenting practices. The study of cultural values may allow us to identify aspects of parenting that are unique to Latinos and which complement traditional frameworks of parenting. This paper presents…

  16. "La Influencia De La Familia": Latino Retention in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort Daniels, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Although the Latino population is currently the largest minority ethnicity in the U.S. (U.S. Census, 2008), Latino students enroll in college and graduate in proportionately the smallest numbers (Latino, 2002). This dissertation examined the effect of Latino students' families on their decision to remain in school and finish a bachelor's…

  17. A Framework for Latino Nursing Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarruel, Antonia M

    2017-10-01

    There is an urgent need for Latino leaders in nursing, yet little has been written about Latino leaders and leadership. Leadership comes with challenges and opportunities in particular for Latino nurses who contend with specific cultural imperatives and obstacles. In this article, I review the current healthcare environment and propose a framework for Latino nursing leadership within the context of current challenges and opportunities and my personal experience in nursing. This framework is meant to serve as a guide for the development of Latino nurses who will improve the health and well-being of those in the most vulnerable communities by utilizing their cultural strengths and professional skills to deliver quality and compassionate care.

  18. Familias, retornos educativos y clases sociales. Valorización de capital cultural y estrategias escolares de clase media y clase trabajadora en Córdoba (Argentina (Families, educational rewards and social classes. Cultural capital valorization and scholar strategies of middle class and working class in Córdoba (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Assusa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto analiza las estrategias de inversión y valorización del capital cultural en familias de clases media y trabajadora. Desde la teoría de la práctica de Pierre Bourdieu, y utilizando metodología que combina técnicas multivariadas (ACM y entrevistas en profundidad, realizamos un análisis comparado de las apuestas escolares de las posiciones intermedias del espacio social de Gran Córdoba (Argentina. El objetivo es complejizar el análisis sobre las recientes dinámicas de desigualdad social, y desplazar la mirada desde la noción de retornos educativos hacia las lógicas de inversión, las disposiciones prácticas y los modos de reproducción social de las familias. | The current document analyzes the strategies of cultural capital investment and valorization of the middle and working class families. From the Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice, and using methodology that combines multivariate techniques (ACM and in-depth interviews, we conducted a comparative analysis of school investments in the intermediate positions of the social space of Gran Córdoba (Argentina. The goal is to open the analysis of the recent dynamics of social inequality and to shift the focus from the notion of educational returns to the investment logic, practical dispositions and social reproduction modes of the families.

  19. Spirituality and Cultural Identification Among Latino and Non-Latino College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campesino, Maureen; Belyea, Michael; Schwartz, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine (a) differences in spiritual perspectives and practices of Latino and non-Latino young adults and (b) the cultural relevance of the Latino Spiritual Perspective Scale (LSPS). Studies indicate that spiritual perspectives are embedded within cultural group norms and vary significantly across ethnic groups. A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample of 223 Latino and non-Latino university students in the Southwestern United States. The Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), the LSPS, the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale, and a demographic questionnaire were used. Latinos scored significantly higher than non-Latinos in both measures of spiritual perspectives. Self-reported behavioral measures, such as frequency of personal prayer, were also higher among the Latino group. Latino cultural identification was the only significant predictor of LSPS scores. Findings from this study indicate that spirituality among Latinos has meanings specific to the cultural group context. These findings have implications for nursing research involving the conceptualization and measurement of spirituality among multiethnic groups.Los propósitos de este estudio eran examinar: (a) diferencias en perspectivas espirituales y prácticas de jóvenes Latinos y no Latinos; y (b) la relevancia cultural de la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina. Estudios indican que perspectivas espirituales están incrustadas entre normas culturales del grupo y varían considerablemente entre grupos étnicos. Un diseño transversal y de encuesta fue utilizado con una muestra de conveniencia de 233 estudiantes universitarios Latinos y no Latinos en el Suroeste de los Estados Unidos. La Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual (EPE), la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina (EPEL), la Escala Ortogonal de Identificación Cultural, y un cuestionario demográfico fueron utilizados. Los Latinos calificaron considerablemente más alto que los no

  20. Escaping Poverty and Securing Middle Class Status: How Race and Socioeconomic Status Shape Mobility Prospects for African Americans During the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R.; Mcloyd, Vonnie C.

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility through where African Americans live, whom they associate with, and how they are impacted by racial and class-related stigma. Of particular interest is social mobility as accomplished through academic achievement, educational attainment, employment, economic independence, and homeownership. Research on five issues is reviewed and discussed: (a) the unique vulnerabilities of newly upwardly mobile African Americans, (b) wealth as a source of inequality, (c) racism and discrimination, (d) the stigma associated with lower-class status, and (e) social and cultural capital. The article concludes with a summary and directions for future research. PMID:19636721

  1. Escaping Poverty and Securing Middle Class Status: How Race and Socioeconomic Status Shape Mobility Prospects for African Americans during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on extant research from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, and economics to identify linkages between individual, family, community, and structural factors related to social mobility for African Americans during the transition to adulthood. It considers how race and class together affect opportunities for social mobility…

  2. The relationship between violent video games, acculturation, and aggression among Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Chaves, S Liliana; Kelder, Steve; Orpinas, Pamela

    2002-12-01

    Multiple factors are involved in the occurrence of aggressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypotheses that Latino middle school children exposed to higher levels of video game playing will exhibit a higher level of aggression and fighting compared to children exposed to lower levels and that the more acculturated middle school Latino children will play more video games and will prefer more violent video games compared to less acculturated middle school Latino children. This study involved 5,831 students attending eight public schools in Texas. A linear relationship was observed between the time spent playing video games and aggression scores. Higher aggression scores were significantly associated with heavier video playing for boys and girls (p video games, the more they fought at school (p video game playing increased, as well as the amount of time they played video games. Students who reported speaking more Spanish at home and with their friends were less likely to spend large amounts of time playing video games and less likely to prefer violent video games (p < 0.05).

  3. An examination of single-gender and coeducational classes: Their impact on the academic achievement of middle school students enrolled in mathematics and science at selected schools in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeanette H.

    The purpose of this study was to compare the academic performance of students enrolled in coeducational instruction and single-gender instruction. Within this framework, the researcher examined class type, gender, and racial/ethnicity using the sixth grade CRCT scores of selected students in the areas of mathematics and science. The fifth-grade mathematics and science scores for the same population were used to control for prior knowledge. This study examined the academic achievement of students based on class type, gender, and racial/ethnicity in relation to academic achievement. The study included the CRCT scores for mathematics and science of 6th-grade students at the middle school level who were tested during the 2007--2008 school year. Many studies conducted in the past have stressed females performed better in mathematics and science, while others have stated males performed better in the same areas. Yet, other studies have found conflicting results. A large Australian study (1996), compared the academic performance of students at single-gender and coeducational schools. The conclusion of this study indicated that both males and females who were educated in single-gender classrooms scored significantly higher than did males and females in coeducational classes. A study conducted by Graham Able (2003) documented superior academic performance of students in single-gender schools, after controlling for socioeconomic class and other variables. Able's most significant finding was that the advantage of single-gender schooling was greater for males in terms of academic results than for females. This directly contradicted the educational myth that males performed better in classrooms if females were present. The sample in this study consisted of CRCT scores for 304 sixth-grade students from four different middle schools. Due to the racial composition of the sample, the study only focused on black and white students. School 1 and School 2 involved single

  4. What Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latinos say when they talk about Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason; Barg, Frances K; Augsburger, Deborah; Beaver, James; Ferguson, Allison; Nunez, Jessica

    2011-03-01

    To discover whether Latino Puerto Rican and non-Latino communities differ in the words they use to talk about Alzheimer's disease (AD). Four groups of 30 persons per group defined by self-identified ethnicity and caregiver status: Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites, who were either caregivers or non-caregivers completed free-listing exercises to identify the words they use when they describe AD causes, symptoms, caregiving, and research risks and benefits. Both Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites recognize AD as a disease of memory loss and other cognitive problems. Although both groups used the term "sadness" to describe AD, non-Latino Whites did not feature emotional, behavioral, or psychological problems as among the causes of AD. Although all the groups' descriptions of a person who lives with and cares for a person with AD shared the word "loving," Latino Puerto Ricans focused on a good spouse who exercises intelligence, patience, and attention on behalf of the person with AD and did not use the term "caregiver." In contrast, non-Latino Whites typically used the term "caregiver." Both groups' lists shared words that describe research as presenting harms to an AD patient and requiring a commitment of time. Latino Puerto Ricans' lists suggested an understanding of research benefits akin to clinical care. Notable differences exist in how Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites talk about AD and AD research. Clinicians, clinical investigators, and patient educators need to consider these differences when they conduct clinical care and research and design outreach and educational materials. Copyright © 2011 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G; Negroni, Lirio K; Hesselbrock, Michie N

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9-12 year old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted with each family. Parental stress, parent-child dysfunctional relations, and child behavior problems were reduced in the families receiving the intervention; family hardiness and family attachment were improved. Findings contribute to the validation of the SFP with Latinos, and can be used to inform social work practice with Puerto Rican families.

  6. Peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in Latino and non-Latino whites with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Torres, Maribel; Jeffers, Lennox J; Sheikh, Muhammad Y; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Ankoma-Sey, Victor; Hamzeh, Fayez M; Martin, Paul

    2009-01-15

    Race has been shown to be a factor in the response to therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and limited data suggest that ethnic group may be as well; however, Latinos and other ethnic subpopulations have been underrepresented in clinical trials. We evaluated the effect of Latino ethnic background on the response to treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in patients infected with HCV genotype 1 who had not been treated previously. In a multicenter, open-label, nonrandomized, prospective study, 269 Latino and 300 non-Latino whites with HCV infection received peginterferon alfa-2a, at a dose of 180 microg per week, and ribavirin, at a dose of 1000 or 1200 mg per day, for 48 weeks, and were followed through 72 weeks. The primary end point was a sustained virologic response. We enrolled Latinos whose parents and grandparents spoke Spanish as their primary language; nonwhite Latinos were excluded. Baseline characteristics were similar in the Latino and non-Latino groups, although higher proportions of Latino patients were 40 years of age or younger, had a body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of more than 27 or more than 30, and had cirrhosis. The rate of sustained virologic response was higher among non-Latino whites than among Latinos (49% vs. 34%, PLatino whites at week 4 (P=0.045) and throughout the treatment period (PLatino or non-Latino background was an independent predictor of the rate of sustained virologic response in an analysis adjusted for baseline differences in BMI, cirrhosis, and other characteristics. Adherence to treatment did not differ significantly between the two groups. The numbers of patients with adverse events and dose modifications were similar in the two groups, but fewer Latino patients discontinued therapy because of adverse events. Treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for 48 weeks resulted in rates of sustained virologic response among patients

  7. Class impressions : Higher social class elicits lower prosociality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doesum, Niels J.; Tybur, Joshua M.; Van Lange, Paul A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Social class predicts numerous important life outcomes and social orientations. To date, literature has mainly examined how an individual's own class shapes interactions with others. But how prosocially do people treat others they perceive as coming from lower, middle, or higher social classes?

  8. Engaging Latino audiences in informal science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, Susan B.

    Environment for the Americas (EFTA), a non-profit organization, developed a four-year research project to establish a baseline for Latino participation and to identify practical tools that would enable educators to overcome barriers to Latino participation in informal science education (ISE). Its national scope and broad suite of governmental and non-governmental, Latino and non-Latino partners ensured that surveys and interviews conducted in Latino communities reflected the cosmopolitan nature of the factors that influence participation in ISE programs. Information about economic and education levels, country of origin, language, length of residence in the US, and perceptions of natural areas combined with existing demographic information at six study sites and one control site provided a broader understanding of Latino communities. The project team's ability to work effectively in these communities was strengthened by the involvement of native, Spanish-speaking Latino interns in the National Park Service's Park Flight Migratory Bird Program. The project also went beyond data gathering by identifying key measures to improve participation in ISE and implementing these measures at established informal science education programs, such as International Migratory Bird Day, to determine effectiveness. The goals of Engaging Latino Audiences in Informal Science Education (ISE) were to 1) identify and reduce the barriers to Latino participation in informal science education; 2) provide effective tools to assist educators in connecting Latino families with science education, and 3) broadly disseminate these tools to agencies and organizations challenged to engage this audience in informal science education (ISE). The results answer questions and provide solutions to a challenge experienced by parks, refuges, nature centers, and other informal science education sites across the US. Key findings from this research documented low participation rates in ISE by Latinos, and that

  9. Variation in genetic admixture and population structure among Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study (LALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Marchand Loic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population structure and admixture have strong confounding effects on genetic association studies. Discordant frequencies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD risk alleles and for AMD incidence and prevalence rates are reported across different ethnic groups. We examined the genomic ancestry characterizing 538 Latinos drawn from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES] as part of an ongoing AMD-association study. To help assess the degree of Native American ancestry inherited by Latino populations we sampled 25 Mayans and 5 Mexican Indians collected through Coriell's Institute. Levels of European, Asian, and African descent in Latinos were inferred through the USC Multiethnic Panel (USC MEP, formed from a sample from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC study, the Yoruba African samples from HapMap II, the Singapore Chinese Health Study, and a prospective cohort from Shanghai, China. A total of 233 ancestry informative markers were genotyped for 538 LALES Latinos, 30 Native Americans, and 355 USC MEP individuals (African Americans, Japanese, Chinese, European Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. Sensitivity of ancestry estimates to relative sample size was considered. Results We detected strong evidence for recent population admixture in LALES Latinos. Gradients of increasing Native American background and of correspondingly decreasing European ancestry were observed as a function of birth origin from North to South. The strongest excess of homozygosity, a reflection of recent population admixture, was observed in non-US born Latinos that recently populated the US. A set of 42 SNPs especially informative for distinguishing between Native Americans and Europeans were identified. Conclusion These findings reflect the historic migration patterns of Native Americans and suggest that while the 'Latino' label is used to categorize the entire population, there exists a strong degree of heterogeneity within that population, and that

  10. Variation in genetic admixture and population structure among Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study (LALES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtir, Corina J; Marjoram, Paul; Azen, Stanley; Conti, David V; Le Marchand, Loic; Haiman, Christopher A; Varma, Rohit

    2009-11-10

    Population structure and admixture have strong confounding effects on genetic association studies. Discordant frequencies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk alleles and for AMD incidence and prevalence rates are reported across different ethnic groups. We examined the genomic ancestry characterizing 538 Latinos drawn from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES] as part of an ongoing AMD-association study. To help assess the degree of Native American ancestry inherited by Latino populations we sampled 25 Mayans and 5 Mexican Indians collected through Coriell's Institute. Levels of European, Asian, and African descent in Latinos were inferred through the USC Multiethnic Panel (USC MEP), formed from a sample from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) study, the Yoruba African samples from HapMap II, the Singapore Chinese Health Study, and a prospective cohort from Shanghai, China. A total of 233 ancestry informative markers were genotyped for 538 LALES Latinos, 30 Native Americans, and 355 USC MEP individuals (African Americans, Japanese, Chinese, European Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians). Sensitivity of ancestry estimates to relative sample size was considered. We detected strong evidence for recent population admixture in LALES Latinos. Gradients of increasing Native American background and of correspondingly decreasing European ancestry were observed as a function of birth origin from North to South. The strongest excess of homozygosity, a reflection of recent population admixture, was observed in non-US born Latinos that recently populated the US. A set of 42 SNPs especially informative for distinguishing between Native Americans and Europeans were identified. These findings reflect the historic migration patterns of Native Americans and suggest that while the 'Latino' label is used to categorize the entire population, there exists a strong degree of heterogeneity within that population, and that it will be important to assess this heterogeneity

  11. The “Cadillac Tax” on Health Benefits in the United States Will Hit the Middle Class Hardest: Refuting the Myth That Health Benefit Tax Subsidies Are Regressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U

    2016-01-01

    U.S. employment-based health benefits are exempt from income and payroll taxes, an exemption that provided tax subsidies of $326.2 billion in 2015. Both liberal and conservative economists have denounced these subsidies as “regressive” and lauded a provision of the Affordable Care Act—the Cadillac Tax—that would curtail them. The claim that the subsidies are regressive rests on estimates showing that the affluent receive the largest subsidies in absolute dollars. But this claim ignores the standard definition of regressivity, which is based on the share of income paid by the wealthy versus the poor, rather than on dollar amounts. In this study, we calculate the value of tax subsidies in 2009 as a share of income for each income quintile and for the wealthiest Americans. In absolute dollars, tax subsidies were highest for families between the 80th and 95th percentiles of family income and lowest for the poorest 20%. However, as shares of income, subsidies were largest for the middle and fourth income quintiles and smallest for the wealthiest 0.5% of Americans. We conclude that the tax subsidy to employment-based insurance is neither markedly regressive, nor progressive. The Cadillac Tax will disproportionately harm families with (2009) incomes between $38,550 and $100,000, while sparing the wealthy.

  12. The Association of Latino Children's Kindergarten School Readiness Profiles with Grade 2-5 Literacy Achievement Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Matthew; Grimm, Ryan; Furlong, Michael J.; Nylund-Gibson, Karen; Swami, Sruthi

    2016-01-01

    This study utilized latent class analysis (LCA) to identify 5 discernible profiles of Latino children's (N = 1,253) social-emotional, physical, and cognitive school readiness at the time of kindergarten entry. In addition, a growth mixture modeling (GMM) approach was used to identify 3 unique literacy achievement trajectories, across Grades 2-5,…

  13. The middle-class nature of identity and its implications for education: a genealogical analysis and reevaluation of a culturally and historically bounded concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusov, Eugene; Smith, Mark Philip

    2012-09-01

    We consider identity as a historically emerging discourse that requires genealogical analysis - not to discover the roots of our identity but to commit [ourselves] to its dissipation (Foucault 1977, p. 162). We suggest analyzing identity through the history of socio-economic classes, their life struggles, ambitions, development, and reproduction. We see learning not as a project of transformation of identity, but rather as developing access to socially valuable practices and developing one's own voice within these practices (through addressing and responding to other voices). The access and voice projects free agents from unnecessary finalization and objectivization by oneself and others (Bakhtin 1999; Bakhtin 1990). In education, we should develop indigenous discourses of learning and develop a conceptual framework that makes analysis of diverse discourses possible. We argue that learning, as transformation of participation in a sociocultural practice to gain more access, is a better conceptual framework than learning as transformation of identity.

  14. Improving Diabetes Care in the Latino Population: The Emory Latino Diabetes Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotberg, Britt; Greene, Rachel; Ferez-Pinzon, Anyul M.; Mejia, Robert; Umpierrez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of diabetes in Latinos is 12.8% compared to 9.3% of the general population. Latinos suffer from a higher prevalence of diabetic complications and mortality than whites yet receive less monitoring tests and education. Purpose: (1) Identify changes in clinical indicators among subjects with type 2 diabetes participating in…

  15. The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

  16. Consejos para los adolescentes latinos que adoptan ambas culturas (Tips for Latino teens)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Podcast para los adolescentes latinos: Este podcast ofrece consejos útiles a los adolescentes latinos sobre cómo encontrar un equilibrio entre su cultura de origen y la cultura estadounidense, con el fin de disfrutar de una vida más feliz y saludable.

  17. Comparative activity of ceftobiprole against Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates from Europe and the Middle East: the CLASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossolini, Gian M; Dryden, Matthew S; Kozlov, Roman S; Quintana, Alvaro; Flamm, Robert K; Läuffer, Jörg M; Lee, Emma; Morrissey, Ian; CLASS Study Group

    2011-01-01

    to assess the in vitro activity of ceftobiprole and comparators against a recent collection of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, in order to detect potential changes in susceptibility patterns, and to evaluate the Etest assay for ceftobiprole susceptibility testing. contemporary Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates (excluding extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates) from across Europe and the Middle East were collected, and their susceptibility to ceftobiprole, vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, ceftazidime and cefepime was assessed using the Etest method. Quality testing [using Etest and broth microdilution (BMD)] was conducted at a central reference laboratory. some 5041 Gram-positive and 4026 Gram-negative isolates were included. Against Gram-positive isolates overall, ceftobiprole had the lowest MIC50 (0.5 mg/L), compared with 1 mg/L for its comparators (vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid). Against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, all four agents had a similar MIC90 (2 mg/L), but ceftobiprole had a 4-fold better MIC90 (0.5 mg/L) against methicillin-susceptible strains. Only 38 Gram-positive isolates were confirmed as ceftobiprole resistant. Among Gram-negative strains, 86.9%, 91.7% and 95.2% were susceptible to ceftobiprole, ceftazidime and cefepime, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was less susceptible to all three antimicrobials than any other Gram-negative pathogen. There was generally good agreement between local Etest results and those obtained at the reference laboratory (for ceftobiprole: 86.8% with Gram-negatives; and 94.7% with Gram-positives), as well as between results obtained by BMD and Etest methods (for ceftobiprole: 98.2% with Gram-negatives; and 98.4% with Gram-positives). ceftobiprole exhibits in vitro activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including multidrug-resistant strains. No changes in its known susceptibility profile were identified.

  18. The Middle Class in China and the West under Society-building Perspective%社会建设视野下的城市中产阶层1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹飞廉

    2014-01-01

    本文从社会建设的视角出发,对中国和西方国家城市中产阶层的起源和形成进行了梳理和考察。笔者的主要观点是:在西方国家工业革命早期,竞争伦理、谋利动机、经商欲望和新教信仰造就了一个以商人、工场主和专业人士(主要包括医生、律师和神职人员)为主体的中产群体。他们所享有的共同的经济和社会经历,促进了西方中产阶级的阶级意识和身份认同的形成。这种阶级意识和身份认同成为推动西方各国资产阶级民主革命以及之后的多次社会建设和改良运动的重要经济与思想力量。在中国改革开放的三十年的时间里,也产生了一个商人、民营企业主、专业人士以及职业经理人为主体的中产群体。其中的部分有识之士也已成为转型中国社会建设重要的支持者和领导者。然而在城乡二元体制格局和贫富差距不断扩大的背景下,较小的规模,较高的异质性,以及价值理念上的分歧,阻碍了中国中产阶层阶级身份认同的形成。%From the society-building perspective, this article explores the origin and formation of Chinese and Western middle class. In the early period of industrial revolution, competing ethics, profit motives, business desire and the Protestant ethics created businessman, factory owners and professionals(like doctors, lawyers and clergy) formed the main body of middling-groups. They enjoyed the common economic and social experience, which promoted the Western bourgeois class consciousness and identity formation. During three decades of China’s reform and opening, there is also a middle groups including businessman, private business owners, professionals and managers. Some of them have become the main supporters and leaders of China’s society-building. However, in the context of urban-rural dual structure pattern and the widening gap between the rich and the poor, a smaller scale

  19. Acculturation and Healthy Lifestyle Among Latinos With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mainous, Arch G.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Geesey, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE Latinos have a high prevalence of diabetes and disproportionately experience diabetic complications. We sought to examine the association of acculturation on healthy lifestyle habits among the Latino population in the United States with diabetes.

  20. Development and Validation of the Coping with Acculturative Stress in American Schools (Casas-A) Scale on a Latino Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M.; Palardy, Gregory J.; Albeg, Loren; Williamson, Ariel A.

    2014-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Coping With Acculturative Stress in American Schools (CASAS-A) scale were examined using a sample of 148 Latino middle school students. CASAS-A is a self-report scale designed to identify students in need of culturally responsive social-emotional interventions due to having high levels of school-related…

  1. A.D.E.L.A.N.T.E. Alliance for Developing and Enhancing Latino Awareness and Needs in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Alicia L.

    ADELANTE (Spanish for Forward), Alliance for Developing and Enhancing Latino Awareness and Needs in Teacher Education, is a program designed to enhance the cultural sensitivity and teaching skills of experienced teachers. Developed cooperatively by Harrison-Morton Middle School, Kutztown University, and the community-based organization, Casa…

  2. Positive Reading Attitudes of Low-Income Bilingual Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussert-webb, Kathy M.; Zhang, Zhidong

    2018-01-01

    Many assume low-income, emergent bilingual Latinos have poor reading attitudes. To investigate this issue, we surveyed 1,503 Texas public high school students through stratified cluster sampling to determine their reading attitudes. Most represented Latinos and mixed-race Latinos/Whites who heard Spanish at home and whose mother tongue was…

  3. Latino/a Student Misbehavior and School Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Shekarkhar, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Although Latino/as are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. student population, Latino/a youth face a number of educational hurdles, such as disproportionate school punishment. This topic is particularly relevant today in the midst of the current social, political, and economic debate over the influence of Latino/a immigration in the US school…

  4. Voces (Voices): A Profile of Today's Latino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Latinos are the youngest and fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. It is imperative that institutional leaders and decision makers have a better understanding of Latino students today in order to shape the policies and practices to serve college students in the future. Currently, disparate statistics about Latino students in higher…

  5. Anti-Black Latino Racism in an Era of Trumpismo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Jasmine M.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the Latino population that voted for the current president and overview reasons as to why they voted for the current president. I purposefully center the anti-Black racism within the Latino community and focus specifically on recent political and nationwide events that are connected to anti-Black Latino racism. Additionally,…

  6. Improving treatment in Hispanic/Latino patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cersosimo, Eugenio; Musi, Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is higher in Hispanic/Latino individuals living in the United States compared with their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Many factors contribute to the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, including biological characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, and cultural aspects. The contribution of genetics to the risk of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients is becoming increasingly clear, but this inherent risk factor cannot be modified. However, certain socioeconomic and cultural factors, such as reduced access to healthcare, language barriers, cultural beliefs, and lack of cultural competence by the healthcare provider, are modifiable and should be overcome in order to improve the management of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients. At the healthcare system level, policies should be put into place to reduce disparities between Hispanics/Latinos and non-Hispanic whites regarding health insurance coverage and access to healthcare. At the healthcare provider and patient level, cultural beliefs should be taken into consideration when selecting adequate treatment. Overall, type 2 diabetes management should be individualized by identifying the preferred language and level of acculturation for each patient. These considerations are necessary to further improve communication through culturally appropriate educational materials and programs. These strategies may help to overcome the barriers in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic/Latino patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlates of Social Support Among Latino Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Mary L

    2018-04-01

    Latino immigrants encounter considerable stressors that pose risks to health and well-being during settlement in the USA. Social support serves as a protective factor that can help to buffer the negative effects of stress. Despite the importance of social support, we know little about how Latino immigrants differentially experience this protective factor. The current study analyzed data from 100 Latino immigrants residing in Tennessee. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was employed to examine variation in self-reported social support by immigrant characteristics and immigration-related factors. Females, immigrants who are not married/cohabitating, and those who reported experiencing a greater number of discrete stressors in the USA each reported lower levels of social support. Implications for practice include an increased emphasis on assessing levels of social support and designing services to strengthen support for the most vulnerable immigrants. Future research should consider a longitudinal analysis and specific types of social support.

  8. Reducing Discipline Referrals in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Ronald K.

    2005-01-01

    You see them every day in middle schools: students who seem to spend more time in the office than they do in class. In Florida, middle school students are more likely than elementary or high school students to be suspended, according to the Florida Department of Education (2001). While many adolescents go through their middle school years…

  9. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A.; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida. PMID:22367261

  10. Latino Retail Entrepreneurship in Minnesota: Implications for Extension Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Young Kim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Minnesota has become a “new destination” state for Latino migrants in the United States. What has made Latinos in Minnesota successful? In a narrower sense, what has provided them with a route out of poverty and an alternative to unemployment or discrimination in the labor market? Our purpose was to (a compile characteristics associated with the Latino community and successful Latino-owned retail businesses in Minnesota, (b identify unique problems encountered by Latino retail entrepreneurs, and (c develop recommendations to overcome obstacles encountered. To meet our objectives, we employed two methods: a Delphi study with Latino community leaders and a case study with Latino retail entrepreneurs. Implications for Extension educators are discussed.

  11. The Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Latino Poultry Processing Workers and Other Latino Manual Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Michael S.; Walker, Francis O.; Blocker, Jill N.; Schulz, Mark R.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Mora, Dana; Chen, Haiying; Marín, Antonio J.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in Latino poultry processing workers. Methods Symptoms and nerve conduction studies were used to prospectively assess 287 Latino poultry processing workers and 226 Latinos in other manual labor occupations. Results The prevalence of CTS was higher in poultry processing (8.7%) compared to non-poultry manual workers (4.0%, p poultry workers was 2.51 (95% CI of 1.80 to 3.50) compared to non-poultry workers. Within the poultry workers, those who performed packing, sanitation, and chilling had a trend toward less CTS than those who performed tasks requiring more repetitive and strenuous hand movements. Discussion Latino poultry processing workers have a high prevalence of CTS, which likely results from the repetitive and strenuous nature of the work. PMID:22258161

  12. Too Latino and Not Latino Enough: The Role of Ethnicity-Related Stressors on Latino College Students' Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Navarro, Rachel L.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Arbona, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between demographics (generation status, age, gender, education level) and ethnicity-related stressors, namely, perceived discrimination, stereotype confirmation concern, and own-group conformity pressure, and the life satisfaction of 115 Latino college students was examined. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated…

  13. Consejos para los adolescentes latinos que adoptan ambas culturas (Tips for Latino teens)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-19

    Podcast para los adolescentes latinos: Este podcast ofrece consejos útiles a los adolescentes latinos sobre cómo encontrar un equilibrio entre su cultura de origen y la cultura estadounidense, con el fin de disfrutar de una vida más feliz y saludable.  Created: 8/19/2009 by Centro Coordinador de Salud Ambiental y Prevención de Lesiones (CCEHIP).   Date Released: 8/19/2009.

  14. Structural Vulnerability and Health: Latino Migrant Laborers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, James; Hart, Laurie K.; Bourgois, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Latino immigrants in the United States constitute a paradigmatic case of a population group subject to structural violence. Their subordinated location in the global economy and their culturally depreciated status in the United States are exacerbated by legal persecution. Medical Anthropology Volume 30, issues 4 and 5, include a series of ethnographic analyses of the processes that render undocumented Latino immigrants structurally vulnerable to ill-health. We hope to extend the social science concept of ‘structural vulnerability’ to make it a useful tool for health care. Defined as a positionality that imposes physical/emotional suffering on specific population groups and individuals in patterned ways, structural vulnerability is a product of two complementary forces: (1) class-based economic exploitation and cultural, gender/sexual, and racialized discrimination; and (2) processes of symbolic violence and subjectivity formation that have increasingly legitimized punitive neoliberal discourses of individual unworthiness. PMID:21777121

  15. Parenting Styles and Practices of Latino Parents and Latino Fifth Graders' Academic, Cognitive, Social, and Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabagchourian, John J.; Sorkhabi, Nadia; Quach, Wendy; Strage, Amy

    2014-01-01

    A vast literature documents a host of advantages conferred upon middle class European American children whose parents employ an authoritative style of parenting, including enhanced academic achievement and positive behavioral outcomes. The literature is much less clear about the relationship between parental authority style and child outcomes in…

  16. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  17. Bringing Together Latino Children and Their Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachter, Jaqueline

    In order to acquaint teachers with the range of children's literature about Latino culture, this paper describes works of writers from both the United States and Latin America. The materials described, written in English or Spanish, range from fiction and nonfiction to filmstrips and magazines. A list of 50 books, magazines, and nonprint materials…

  18. Training Materials Developed for Latino Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreo, Christina; Miller, Wayne; Farmer, Frank; Moon, Zola; McCullough, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the materials and training program that Extension created to assist current and potential Latino immigrant entrepreneurs in starting businesses in Arkansas. The content-based educational materials describe the process for starting a new business, government regulatory requirements, start-up costs and considerations, and how…

  19. How Elite Universities Fail Latino Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavans, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    The US Census Bureau reveals that although there are more than 41.3 million Latinos in the US as on 2004--about 14 percent of the population, only a very small percentage of them attend the country's elite colleges. A large part of the problem is that, like most of the nation, elite colleges and universities have little awareness of the…

  20. Reflections of a Latino Associate Professor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.

    2018-01-01

    The following reflection essay is about my experiences as a Latino Associate Professor who focuses on criminology, youth violence, juvenile justice, and the associated disparities with race, ethnicity, and immigration. I reflect about the "race and justice" job market, pursuing and establishing a Latina/o Criminology working group, often…

  1. Luke's accommodation for middle-class Christians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cf Lk 11:45-52) and the sense of conflict between Jesus and the Jewish leaders, spe cifically the Pharisees and .... In Luke they connive to 'deliver him up to the authority and jurisdiction of the governor' (Lk 20:20b). ... accord between the two men (Lk 23:12) and the double verdict of not guilty (Lk 23: ISSN0259<)422 -. 91 ...

  2. Sexualidade e gravidez na adolescência entre jovens de camadas médias do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Middle-class teenage sexuality and pregnancy in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Reis Brandão

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aborda-se a gravidez na adolescência entre jovens de camadas médias, prisma pouco estudado no Brasil. Realizou-se um estudo qualitativo sócio-antropológico com 14 famílias do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, cujos filhos permaneciam solteiros e residindo com os pais, após o nascimento da criança. Foram realizadas 25 entrevistas em profundidade com 6 rapazes e 7 moças entre 18 e 24 anos e seus pais (11 mães e 1 pai, para avaliação retrospectiva da gravidez e de seus impactos na trajetória juvenil e familiar. Três aspectos são analisados: as dificuldades de internalização da norma contraceptiva; a descoberta tardia da gravidez e a tomada de decisão ­ aborto ou reprodução ­ pelos jovens e seus pais. O estudo permitiu configurar a gravidez na adolescência como um evento contingente ao processo de construção da autonomia pessoal em curso nessa fase da vida, no qual a sexualidade tem grande relevância. Conclui-se que o fenômeno precisa ser compreendido em um contexto histórico e cultural específico, distinto de sua ocorrência décadas atrás, pois está marcado pelas regras que organizam o processo de individualização juvenil na contemporaneidade.The subject of this paper is teenage pregnancy among middle-class youth, a topic not sufficiently studied in Brazil. The paper is based on a qualitative, socio-anthropological study of 14 middle-class families in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose children have remained single, living with their parents after the child's birth. A total of 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with 6 young men and 7 young women, ages 18 to 24, and their parents (11 mothers, one father, to examine the event in retrospect and its impact on these young people and their families. Three aspects are analyzed: difficulties young people face in internalizing contraception as a norm; late discovery of pregnancy; and how the decision to either have an abortion or give birth is made by young people and their parents

  3. A comparative analysis of homosexual behaviors, sex role preferences, and anal sex proclivities in Latino and non-Latino men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, William L

    2009-10-01

    Machismo prescribes that homosexual encounters among Latino men are conducted along highly gendered lines: men tend to be anally insertive or receptive over the lifecourse, but not both. Some have argued that Latino men have more lifecourse homosexual behaviors in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. This is often due to the perception that Latin America has quasi-institutionalized homosexuality, which sharply contrasts it with the United States. Although scholars suggest that sex role preferences and greater likelihoods for homosexual behaviors exist among Latino men in the United States, limited empirical data validate these claims. Latino/non-Latino differences in male homosexual behaviors and sex role preferences were analyzed by using the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representative, probability sample of 4,928 men. Findings revealed that non-Mexican Latino, but not Mexican, men had increased likelihoods of ever having anal sex than non-Latino Whites and oral sex than non-Latino Blacks. These relationships remained after controlling for age, education, and foreign birth. Latino men preferred insertive or receptive sex in comparison to non-Latino Blacks and Whites, but this difference disappeared after education was controlled. In full and reduced models, Mexican men tended to be orifice-specific (oral or anal), while non-Mexican Latinos were more oriented to both oral and anal sex. Controlling for other factors, all Latinos were more likely than non-Latino Blacks and Whites to refuse to answer male homosexual behavior questions. The implications of race/ethnicity are discussed for homosexual behavior patterns among U.S. men.

  4. Recruiting and retaining low-income Latinos in psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J; Azocar, F; Organista, K C; Muñoz, R F; Lieberman, A

    1996-10-01

    This article offers suggestions for recruiting and retaining low-income Latinos in treatment studies. Because Latinos underuse traditional mental health services, places such as medical centers or churches with large Latino constituents are suggested as useful alternative sources. To keep Latinos in research protocols, providing culturally sensitive treatments are necessary. Culturally sensitive treatments should incorporate families as part of recruitment efforts, particularly older men in the family. In addition, showing respect is an important aspect of traditional Latino culture that includes using formal titles and taking time to listen carefully. Finally, traditional Latinos tend to like interactions with others that are more warm and personal than is generally part of a research atmosphere.

  5. Latino Male Ethnic Subgroups: Patterns in College Enrollment and Degree Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponjuan, Luis; Palomin, Leticia; Calise, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Latino male ethnic subgroups and their college enrollment and degree completion patterns. The chapter also offers recommendations to improve Latino male ethnic subgroups' educational achievement.

  6. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  7. Overcoming Barriers: Tailoring Climate Education for Latino and non-Latino Citizen to Impact Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, M.; Boudrias, M. A.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Gershunov, A.; Anders, S.

    2013-12-01

    Culture has been shown to be an important determinant of Latino/Hispanic American environmental attitudes (Schultz, Unipan, & Gamba, 2000), which might help to explain the underrepresentation of Latinos in the U.S. 'environmental' movement. With shifting U.S. demographics, however, there is increased urgency to understand how Latinos integrate into the community that is concerned and literate about climate change. As part of the Climate Education Partners (CEP) work in San Diego, we investigated how to address this ethnic group disparity. In this paper, we describe a study of how climate change science knowledge relates to Latino and Non-Latino citizen (a) engagement in conservation behaviors and (b) more informed decision-making. Drawing upon previous work on the Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influence (TIMSI) (Estrada et al., 2011), we hypothesized that climate change knowledge that promotes efficacy (i.e., a sense that one can do something) would relate to greater engagement in conservation behaviors and more informed decision-making (both common of community members concerned about climate change). To test this model, 1001 San Diego residence participated in a telephone survey in which the attitudes towards climate change were assessed using '6 Americas' segmentation (Leiserowitz et al., 2011), in addition to climate change science knowledge, efficacy, values, and engagement in weekly and yearly climate change friendly behaviors (e.g., conservation, transportation, community engagement behaviors). Results showed that there were significant differences in the 6 America segmentation distributions, knowledge, efficacy and behavioral engagement with Latinos significantly more concerned than Non-Latinos, and reporting greater knowledge, efficacy and engagement in behaviors. However, data from both groups showed support for the TIMSI theoretical framework, such that efficacy mediated the relationship between climate change knowledge and behavior. Thus, for

  8. We are all ordinary people : Perceptions of class and class differences in personal relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijk, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines people’s perceptions of class and class differences—in general and with regard to personal relationships. Data from an original survey on personal networks (n=195) shows that most people think they are middle class, although many lower class respondents classify themselves as

  9. Focus group evaluation of "Secret Feelings": a depression fotonovela for Latinos with limited English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Contreras, Sandra; Aragón, Rebeca; Molina, Gregory B; Baron, Melvin

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the authors examined reactions of Latino adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) to a culturally and linguistically adapted depression fotonovela, titled "Secret Feelings." Fotonovelas are popular health education tools that use posed photographs, text bubbles with simple text, and dramatic narratives to engage audiences and raise their awareness and knowledge about specific health issues. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted at an adult school program (e.g., GED classes). Content analysis was used to generate themes from transcripts and memos. "Secret Feelings" was viewed as an entertaining, engaging, and educational tool that helped combat stigma toward depression and its treatments in the Latino community. Despite learning about depression, participants reported they wanted more information about the causes of depression, the process of recovery, and felt that the story did not shift their apprehensions toward antidepressants. The findings suggest that "Secret Feelings" is a promising depression literacy tool for Latinos with LEP that can raise awareness and knowledge about depression and its treatments, reduce stigma toward depression and antidepressant medications, and model appropriate help-seeking behaviors.

  10. Substance abuse treatment response in a Latino sample: the influence of family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica N; Maier, Candice A; Priest, Jacob B

    2015-02-01

    Latino Americans report underutilization of treatment and poor treatment response for substance use and abuse compared to other racial/ethnic groups; thus, it is important to assess factors that contribute to these disparities. The current study objective was to assess the influence of family conflict on substance abuse treatment response in a sample of Latino Americans using two different yet complementary analyses. First, ordinary least squares regression was used to assess the association between overall family conflict and pre- and post-treatment substance use. Second, repeated measures latent class analysis was used to identify groups based on family member conflict and timing of conflict during treatment. Findings indicated that family conflict contributed unique variance to concurrent substance use; however pre-treatment family conflict was not related to post-treatment outcomes. Results also identified three distinct family conflict groups: no/low conflict, pre-treatment conflict, and post-treatment conflict who differed in pre- and post-treatment substance use. Post hoc investigation revealed that those who experienced pre-treatment conflict but low post-treatment conflict showed the greatest decrease in substance use. Findings highlight the importance of considering family conflict during all stages of treatment for Latino American substance users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cultural factors in preventive care: Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Victor Alejandro

    2002-09-01

    For many, the term "Hispanic" places undue emphasis on the European influence of Spanish colonialism and may even have negative connotations for some. "Latino" is a more encompassing term that gives recognition to the influences of the indigenous and African cultures on modern day Latin Americans. Nevertheless, recognition of typical Latino attitudes and beliefs may assist health care providers. Poverty, unemployment, and low level of education usually account for adverse health in this population. Anti-immigrant sentiment and discrimination in health care and education add adversity to the immigrant's experience. Lack of health insurance and access to quality health care typically plague the adult immigrant. For many, the nearest emergency department is their only source of medical care.

  12. Origins of the New Latino Underclass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Pren, Karen A

    2012-04-01

    Over the past four decades, the Latino population of the United States was transformed from a small, ethnically segmented population of Mexicans in the southwest, Puerto Ricans in New York, and Cubans in Miami into a large national population dominated by Mexicans, Central Americans, and South Americans. This transformation occurred through mass immigration, much of it undocumented, to the point where large fractions of non-Caribbean Hispanics lack legal protections and rights in the United States. Rising illegality is critical to understanding the disadvantaged status of Latinos today. The unauthorized population began to grow after avenues for legal entry were curtailed in 1965. The consequent rise in undocumented migration enabled political and bureaucratic entrepreneurs to frame Latino migration as a grave threat to the nation, leading to a rising frequency of negative framings in the media, a growing conservative reaction, and increasingly restrictive immigration and border policies that generated more apprehensions. Rising apprehensions, in turn, further enflamed the conservative reaction to produce even harsher enforcement and more still more apprehensions, yielding a self-feeding cycle in which apprehensions kept rising even though undocumented inflows had stabilized. The consequent militarization of the border had the perverse effect of reducing rates of out-migration rather than inhibiting in-migration, leading to a sharp rise in net undocumented population and rapid growth of the undocumented population. As a result, a majority of Mexican, Central American, and South American immigrants are presently undocumented at a time when unauthorized migrants are subject to increasing sanctions from authorities and the public, yielding down-ward pressure on the status and well-being of Latinos in the United States.

  13. Ankle brachial index and cognitive function among Hispanics/Latinos: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarraf, Wassim; Criqui, Michael H; Allison, Matthew A; Wright, Clinton B; Fornage, Myriam; Daviglus, Martha; Kaplan, Robert C; Davis, Sonia; Conceicao, Alan S; González, Hector M

    2018-04-01

    The Ankle-Brachial index (ABI) is a well-accepted measure of peripheral artery disease (arterial stenosis and stiffness) and has been shown to be associated with cognitive function and disorders; however, these associations have not been examined in Hispanics/Latinos. Therefore, we sought to examine relationships between ABI and cognitive function among diverse middle-age and older Hispanics/Latinos. We used cross-sectional data on n = 7991 participants aged 45-74 years, without stroke or coronary heart disease, from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Our primary outcome, global cognition (GC), was a continuous composite score of four cognitive domains (verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and mental status). Secondary outcomes were the individual tests representing these domains. The ABI was analyzed continuously and categorically with standard clinical cut-points. We tested associations using generalized survey regression models incrementally adjusting for confounding factors. Age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia moderations were examined through interactions with the primary exposure. In age, sex, and education adjusted models, continuous ABI had an inverse u-shape association with worse GC. We found similar associations with measures of verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, executive function, but not with low mental status. The associations were attenuated, but not completely explained, by accounting for the confounders and not modified by age, sex, education, and vascular disease risks. In addition to being a robust indicator of arterial compromise, our study suggests that abnormal ABI readings may also be useful for early signaling of subtle cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bottled, filtered, and tap water use in Latino and non-Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Wendy L; Knochel, Miguel L; Byington, Carrie L; Young, Paul C; Hoff, Charles J; Buchi, Karen F

    2007-05-01

    To describe bottled, filtered, and tap water consumption and fluoride use among pediatric patients; to analyze differences between ethnic and socioeconomic groups; and to describe the frequency of physician-parent discussions regarding water consumption. Convenience sample survey. An urban public health clinic. Parents attending a public health clinic. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of tap, filtered, and bottled water use. The secondary outcome measures were supplemental fluoride use and the percentage of patients reporting discussions of water consumption with their physician. A total of 216 parents (80.5% Latino and 19.5% non-Latino) completed the survey. Of the parents, 30.1% never drank tap water and 41.2% never gave it to their children. Latino parents were less likely than non-Latino parents to drink tap water (odds ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.67) and less likely to give tap water to their children (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.70). More Latinos believed that tap water would make them sick (odds ratio, 5.63; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-14.54). Approximately 40% of children who never drank tap water were not receiving fluoride supplements. Of the lowest-income families (water to their children. Of the parents surveyed, 82.5% reported that their child's physician had never discussed the type of water they should use. Many Latino families avoid drinking tap water because they fear it causes illness. Unnecessary use of bottled and filtered water is costly and may result in adverse dental health outcomes. Physicians should provide guidance to families regarding the safety, low cost, and dental health benefits of drinking tap water.

  15. Collectivism and individualism in Latino recovery homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A; Luna, Roberto D; Alvarez, Josefina; Stevens, Ed

    2016-04-26

    Research indicates that Latinos underutilize substance abuse interventions; cultural variables may contribute to difficulties accessing and completing treatment for this group. As a result, there is a need to understand the role of cultural constructs in treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate how levels of collectivism (COL) and individualism (IND) relate to length of stay and relapse outcomes in self-run recovery homes. We compared Latinos in several culturally modified recovery Oxford Houses to Latinos in traditional recovery Oxford Houses. By examining COL and IND in the OH model, we explored whether aspects of COL and IND led to longer lengths of stay and better substance use outcomes. We hypothesized that higher levels of COL would predict longer stays in an Oxford House and less relapse. COL did not have a main effect on length of stay. However, COL had a significant interaction effect with house type such that COL was positively correlated with length of stay in traditional houses and negatively correlated with length of stay in the culturally modified condition; that is, those with higher collectivism tended to stay longer in traditional houses. When we investigated COL, length of stay, and substance use, COL was negatively correlated with relapse in the culturally modified houses and positively correlated with relapse in the traditional houses. In other words, those with higher COL spent less time and had less relapse in the culturally modified compared to the traditional Oxford Houses. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. The Social Psychology of Class and Classism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent--divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a…

  17. Age Differences Explain Social Class Differences in Students' Friendship at University: Implications for Transition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Wright, Chrysalis L.

    2015-01-01

    The present research tested the hypotheses that (a) working-class students have fewer friends at university than middle-class students and (b) this social class difference occurs because working-class students tend to be older than middle-class students. A sample of 376 first-year undergraduate students from an Australian university completed an…

  18. Pensamento, Teoria e Estudos Latino-americanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques de Novion

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente trabalho configura como artigo inicial do Dossiê Especial – Pensamento, Teoria e Estudos Latino-americanos, organizado conjuntamente por nós, a pedido da Revista de Estudos e Pesquisas sobre as Américas (CEPPAC, do Instituto de Ciências Sociais (ICS, da Universidade de Brasília (UnB. De forma breve, este artigo apresenta a importância alcançada pelo Pensamento, pela Teoria, e, sobre tudo, pelos Estudos Latino-americanos nas últimas décadas. Em seguida, o artigo apresenta os quatorze trabalhos e uma resenha que compõem este Dossiê, resultado da contribuição de diferentes pesquisadores de distintas localidades da região, organizados em três blocos: Ciências Sociais Latino-americanas, Pensamento e Estudos. PALAVRAS CHAVE: Ciências Sociais Latino-americanas; Pensamento Latino-americanos; Teoria Latino-americana; Estudos Latino-americanos. --- RESUMEN El presente trabajo configura como articulo inicial del Dossier Especial – Pensamiento Teoría y Estudios Latinoamericanos, organizado conjuntamente por nosotros, a pedido de la Revista de Estudos e Pesquisas sobre as Américas (CEPPAC, del Instituto de Ciências Sociais (ICS, de la Universidade de Brasília (UnB. De forma breve, este articulo presenta la importancia alcanzada por el Pensamiento, por la Teoría, y, sobre todo, por los Estudios Latinoamericanos en las últimas décadas. En seguida, el articulo presenta los catorce trabajos e una reseña que componen este Dossier, resultado de la contribución de diferentes investigadores de distintas localidades de la región, organizados en tres bloques: Ciencias Sociales Latinoamericanas, Pensamiento y Estudios. PALABRAS CLAVE: Ciencias Sociales Latinoamericanas; Pensamiento Latinoamericano; Teoría Latinoamericana; Estudios Latinoamericanos. --- ABSTRACT This paper is set up as the initial article of this Special Dossier - Thought, Theory and Latin American Studies, which we organized collectively, at the request

  19. Predictive Variables of Success for Latino Enrollment in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jafeth E.; Usinger, Janet; Thornton, Bill W.

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to better understand the unique variables that serve as predictors of Latino students' postsecondary enrollment and success. Impacts of various variables were examined among 850 Latino and Caucasian students (76% and 24% of the sample, respectively). Gender, ethnicity, perceived affordability, high school grade point average, and…

  20. Latino Immigration: Preparing School Psychologists to Meet Students' Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Joslin, Jacqueline J.; Carrillo, Gerardo L.; Guzman, Veronica; Vega, Desireé; Plotts, Cynthia A.; Lasser, Jon

    2016-01-01

    As the population of immigrant Latino students continues to rise, school psychologists serving Latino children and families must develop the knowledge and skills necessary to provide high-quality psychological services to culturally and linguistically diverse students from immigrant families. Following a review of the relevant literature on the…

  1. Latino Demographics, Democratic Individuality, and Educational Accountability: A Pragmatist's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Aleman, Ana M.

    2006-01-01

    In an era of heightened teacher and school accountability, what are the implications of standards-based reform for individual Latino children and their democratic self-realization? The educational demography of the fastest-growing and largest ethnic group in the United States suggests that the future of Latino self-realization is in jeopardy.…

  2. Perceived Academic Preparedness of First-Generation Latino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Karen

    2011-01-01

    First-generation Latino college students may be characterized as underprepared for college. Research points to low performance on placement tests. However, students may not perceive themselves as academically underprepared for college. This study explored first-generation Latino students' perceptions of their academic preparedness. Seven students…

  3. Latino Solo Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Health Risks and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this descriptive report is to provide the first representative information on the sociodemographic profile and the prevalence of mental and physical health conditions of two "at-risk" groups of Latino caregivers: solo grandparent caregivers and single parents. The 2012 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System was used to compare five dimensions of health on a sample of Latino solo grandparents and Latino single parents, raising their grandchildren/children alone. Bivariate and logistic regression comparative analyses were conducted on study measures. Latino solo grandparents have a high prevalence of chronic health conditions, including arthritis (51%), depression (40%), diabetes (34%), and asthma (34%). Latino single parents have lower but troubling health risks, including depression (22%), diabetes (14%), and asthma (14%). Differences between the two groups were largely due to the grandparents older age. Latino solo grandparents have a high prevalence of several chronic medical conditions. The prevalence of disorders is much lower for Latino single parents, although they too have disturbing health risks. Latino solo grandparents perform their parenting role under intense physical and emotional strain. Health professionals can be instrumental in facilitating interventions that affect the well-being of this expanding family group.

  4. The Role of Collectivism among Latino American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Irving; So, Dominicus; McNaughton-Cassill, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to explain the lower Latino college graduation rate, the current study focuses on collectivism in kin and nonkin helping situations. The sample comprised 60 students at a 4-year college in the southwestern United States. Results revealed significance between ethnicity and nonkin collectivism: Latino American college students were…

  5. Socio-Psychological Predictors of Acculturative Stress among Latino Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alexis O.; Matheny, Kenneth B.

    2000-01-01

    A random sample (N=197) of two social service agencies completed a questionnaire to assess family cohesion and adaptability, acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping-resources effectiveness among Latino adults. The results suggest that acculturative stress experienced by Latinos relates to the efficacy of stress-coping resources, degree of…

  6. Latino Associate Degree Completion: Effects of Financial Aid over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jacob P. K.; Zerquera, Desiree; Inge, Brittany; Berry, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Lack of financial resources to pay for postsecondary education--perceived and actual--has been cited as a barrier to student access and persistence, particularly for Latino students. This study investigates the following question: "To what extent does financial aid affect the educational attainment of Latinos enrolled in Associate's degree…

  7. Adult Latino College Students: Experiencias y la Educacion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Ana Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the learning experiences of adult Latino college students, as described directly in their own voices. The study was guided by two research questions: RQ1: "How do adult Latinos describe their undergraduate college learning experiences?" and RQ2: "How do culture, gender, and ethnic…

  8. Dispelling Myths about Latino Parent Participation in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiocho, Alice M. L.; Daoud, Annette M.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to discuss and dispel commonly held myths about Latino parents' involvement in their children's education. Differences between teacher perceptions of Latino parent involvement and parents' understanding of their roles in supporting their children's education--including the learning and use of the English…

  9. What Would They Do? Latino Church Leaders and Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Andrew O.; Ames, Natalie; Hancock, Tina U.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding what Latino church leaders believe about domestic violence, and what they do when they confront it, is a key step in developing programs to help them engage in domestic violence prevention and intervention activities in their congregations. This article presents the findings from an exploratory study of 28 Latino church leaders. The…

  10. The Connections between Latino Ethnic Identity and Adult Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Vasti; Martinez, Sylvia; Wallace, Lisa D.; Medrano, Christianne I.; Robledo, Andrea L.; Hernandez, Ebelia

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the influence of adult experiences on the development of Latino ethnic identity. Using purposeful and snowball sampling, adult participants responded to open-ended questions about their understanding of being Latino. Analysis indicated that changes in the environment or life circumstances had the greatest effect on the…

  11. Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Caring: Keys to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Rubén; Soto Huerta, Mary Esther

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods investigation specifically examined Latino high school adolescents' perceptions of teacher behaviors that demonstrate caring. A chi-square test was conducted to analyze the frequency of responses, and focus group interviews were conducted to expand on the results. The data indicated that although Latino male students were as…

  12. "Salud America!" Developing a National Latino Childhood Obesity Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J.; Green, Lawrence W.; Ottoson, Judith

    2011-01-01

    U.S. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, with one third of children overweight or obese. Latino children have some of the highest obesity rates, a concern because they are part of the youngest and fastest-growing U.S. minority group. Unfortunately, scarce research data on Latinos hinders the development and implementation of…

  13. Latinos, the Academic Ethic, and the Transition to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Nathan W.; Martinez-Ramos, Gloria P.; Smith, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the academic ethic of Latino college students has not yet been conducted. In order to begin filling this gap in the literature, we surveyed Latino students at a state university to determine whether those who had an academic ethic in high school performed better in college. We also assessed the perceived helpfulness of a variety of…

  14. Supporting the Development of Latino Bilingual Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michelle L.; Sawyer, Cheryl B.; Guzmán, Michele R.; Graziani, Cate

    2014-01-01

    Latino individuals who prefer to communicate in Spanish lack linguistically and culturally proficient mental health professionals with whom they can communicate effectively. This study illustrates the components necessary to facilitate the overall success of Latino, Spanish-speaking students in attaining advanced degrees in mental health services…

  15. Latino Parent Involvement: Seeing What Has Always Been There

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patricia L.; Nelson, Sarah W.

    2013-01-01

    This study reviews 20 years (1990-2010) of scholarly literature on parent involvement related to Latino parents. Parent involvement behaviors of Latino parents were identified and analyzed according to the dimensions of culture theoretical framework--specifically, the dimension of individualism-collectivism (Hofstede, 1984, 1997; Triandis, 1995;…

  16. Food and Beverage Marketing to Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeigbe, Rebecca T.; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers…

  17. Cutting Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    Provides critical reviews of three books, "The Political Economy of Social Class", "Ethnicity: Theory and Experience," and "Ethnicity in the United States," focusing on the political economy of social class and ethnicity. (Author/AM)

  18. (Re)visioning U.S. Latino Literatures in High School English Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Mary Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The term "Latino" in this paper adopts a U.S. definition to refer to those persons born/living in the United States who are of Latin American ancestry. U.S. Latino literature is defined as literature that is originally composed mostly in English, but not exclusively, by authors of U.S. Latino background. Selections of Latino literature…

  19. The Influence of Exercise on Cognitive Function in Older Hispanic/Latino Adults: Results From the "¡Caminemos!" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Lissette M; Andrade, Flavia C D; Hernandez, Rosalba; Boughton, Seth William; Trejo, Laura; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2017-11-10

    We examined the prospective effect of an evidence-based exercise intervention (¡Caminemos!) on cognitive function among older Hispanic/Latino adults and the potential synergistic effects (if any) of an attribution-retraining intervention given to a random sample to counter negative ascriptions of the aging process. We analyzed baseline and follow-up (1- and 2-year) data collected from Hispanics/Latinos ≥60 years (N = 571) who participated in ¡Caminemos! across 27 senior centers. All participants were randomly assigned to either (a) the treatment group-a 1-hr attribution-retraining session plus a 1-hr exercise class or (b) the control group-health education plus a 1-hr exercise class. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to determine the effects of the exercise class and the attribution-retraining component on longitudinal changes in cognitive functioning, as measured by the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, income, and medical comorbidities, participants in both trial arms displayed higher cognitive functioning scores at the 1-year (β = 1.76, p = .001) and 2-year (β = 1.37, p = .013) follow-ups when compared with original baseline scores. However, we found no significant difference in cognitive function between the treatment versus control conditions (β = 0.41, p = .582), nor were any differences found across groups over time. The exercise intervention improved cognitive function in older Hispanics/Latinos, regardless of whether it was supplemented with the age-related attribution retraining. These findings suggest that limited access to exercise programs may be a greater obstacle in forestalling cognitive decline in older Hispanics/Latinos than the negative beliefs they might hold of the aging process. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Predicting levels of Latino depression: acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lucas

    2010-04-01

    Past research has noted that aspects of living in the United States place Latinos at risk for experiencing psychological problems. However, the specific features of the adaptation process that contribute to depression remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping to predict membership into low, medium, and high groups of depression among Latinos. Within a group of 148 Latino adults from the community, a multinomial logistic regression revealed that an Anglo orientation, English competency pressures, and active coping differentiated high from low depression and that a Latino orientation and, to some extent, the pressure to acculturate distinguished medium from low depression. These results highlight a pattern of characteristics that function as risk and protective factors in relation to level of symptom severity. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for Latino mental health, including considerations for intervention and prevention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Latino Educational Leadership across the Pipeline: For Latino Communities and Latina/o Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Cristóbal; Martinez, Melissa A.; Valle, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Educational leaders have challenges providing rich and equitable education for the Latino community, the fastest growing underserved demographic in the United States. Although the field of educational leadership draws connections to serve diverse populations, this work uses existing research and theory to establish the concept of Latino…

  2. Ensuring America's Future by Increasing Latino College Completion: Latino College Completion in 50 States. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Deborah; Soliz, Megan

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. This initiative included the release of a benchmarking guide for projections of degree attainment disaggregated by race/ethnicity that offered multiple metrics to track…

  3. Morality from infancy to middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, Fieke Dineke

    2007-01-01

    In the present thesis, a homogeneous upper middle class sample of firstborn girls and their mothers were followed from infancy (18 and 24 months) to middle childhood (89 months) using questionnaires and observations. The focus of the study was on three components of moral behavior, i.e. empathy,

  4. Introduction: Democracy, markets and the assertive middle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, G.; van Klinken, G.; Berenschot, W.

    2014-01-01

    This introductory chapter provides an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book In Search of Middle Indonesia, which examines the expanding Indonesian middle class up close. Instead of statistics, it contains ethnographic studies conducted in provincial towns, where most of its members

  5. Sex Differences in Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Hispanic/Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Parrinello, Christina M; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Delamater, Alan M; Perreira, Krista M; Daviglus, Martha L; Elder, John P; Marchante, Ashley N; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Van Horn, Linda; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    2016-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic risk in US Hispanic/Latino youth and examine whether there are disparities by sex in cardiometabolic risk factors. Study of Latino Youth is a population-based cross-sectional study of 1466 Hispanic/Latino youth (8-16 years old) who were recruited from 4 urban US communities (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA) in 2012-2014. The majority of children were US-born (78%) and from low-income and immigrant families. Cardiometabolic risk factors were defined by the use of national age- and sex-specific guidelines. The prevalence of obesity was 26.5%. The prevalence of class II-III obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia was high (9.7%, 16.5%, and 23.3%, respectively). The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors increased with severity of obesity in both boys and girls. Boys had a greater prevalence of diabetes and of elevated blood pressure than girls (20.9% vs 11.8% and 8.5% vs 3.3%). In multivariable analyses, younger boys were more likely to have obesity class II-III than girls (OR 3.59; 95% CI 1.44-8.97). Boys were more likely to have prediabetes than girls (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.35-3.02), and the association was stronger at older ages. The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors was high in this sample of Hispanic youth. Boys had a more adverse cardiometabolic profile compared with girls that may put them at higher risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Reasons for this disparity and the long-term clinical implications remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Social cognitive correlates of leisure time physical activity among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, David X; McAuley, Edward

    2006-06-01

    Despite the well-documented benefits of leisure time physical activity, Latinos are reported to be highest among all ethnic groups in leisure time inactivity. The present study examined the relationship between leisure time physical activity and exercise self-efficacy, exercise barriers self-efficacy, exercise social support, and perceived importance of physical activity. Data were obtained from 153 Latinos (n = 86 female, n = 67 male). Comparisons were made between Latinos with high and low levels of leisure time physical activity and between men and women. Results revealed that Latinos high in leisure time physical activity had significantly greater exercise and barriers self-efficacy, received more social support from friends to exercise, and placed greater importance on physical activity outcomes than did Latinos low in leisure time physical activity. No significant differences were revealed for social support from family, nor between men and women on the psychosocial variables. Physical activity interventions targeting sources of self-efficacy, increasing social support, and emphasizing the importance of regular physical activity should be helpful in increasing leisure time physical activity of Latinos. Future research should examine the influence of environmental and cultural variables on the leisure time physical activity of Latinos and how they interact with psychosocial factors.

  7. Food and Beverage Marketing to Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2015-10-01

    Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos' food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. Clinical trials attitudes and practices of Latino physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Wildes, Kimberly; Talavera, Greg; Nápoles-Springer, Anna; Gallion, Kipling; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2008-07-01

    Ethnic differences in physicians' attitudes and behaviors related to clinical trials might partially account for disparities in clinical trial participation among Latino patients. Literature regarding Latino physicians' clinical trials attitudes and practices, in comparison to White physicians, was lacking. Cross-sectional data from randomly selected physicians (N=695), stratified by ethnicity, were analyzed to test associations of ethnicity with physicians' participation in and attitudes toward referral of patients to clinical trials. Chi-square analyses showed significant (pLatino physicians were significantly less involved in clinical trials than White physicians and found less scientific value in them, highlighting areas for future education and intervention.

  9. Differences in clinical characteristics and disease-free survival for Latino, African American, and non-Latino White men with localized prostate cancer: Data from CaPSURE™

    OpenAIRE

    Latini, DM; Elkin, EP; Cooperberg, MR; Sadetsky, N; DuChane, J; Carroll, PR

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Few studies of ethnicity and prostate cancer have included Latino men in analyses of baseline clinical characteristics, treatment selection, and disease-free survival (DFS). The present study examines the impact of Latino ethnicity on these parameters in a large, multiinstitutional database of men with prostate cancer. METHODS. We compared baseline disease characteristics and clinical outcomes for Latino (N = 138), non-Latino White (NLW, N = 5619), and African-American (AA, N = 60...

  10. Perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino and non-Latino male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed.

  11. Making Invisible Latino Adolescents Visible: A Critical Approach to Latino Diversity. Michigan State University Series on Children, Youth, and Families, Volume 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Sieburth, Martha, Ed.; Villarruel, Francisco A., Ed.

    The papers in this collection explore a variety of economic and social issues facing Latino adolescents, including those of Latino diversity or unity, sexuality, and family values. The authors discuss ways to respond to these issues, suggesting approaches that can contribute to the healthy development of Latino adolescents. The chapters are: (1)…

  12. Imagining class: A study into material social class position, subjective identification, and voting behavior across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hooge, Lorenzo; Achterberg, Peter; Reeskens, Tim

    2018-02-01

    The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans' material and subjective social class do not coincide. Seminal studies on voting behavior have suggested that members of lower classes are more likely to vote for the economic left and cultural right and that higher classes demonstrate the opposite pattern. Yet, these studies have on the one hand overlooked the possibility that there is a mismatch between the material class people can be classified in and the class they think they are part of, and on the other hand the consequences of this discordant class identification on voting behavior. Analyzing the 2009 wave of the European Elections Study, we find that the majority of the Europeans discordantly identify with the middle class, whereas only a minority of the lower and higher classes concordantly identify with their material social class. Further, material class only seems to predict economic voting behavior when it coincides with subjective class; for instance, individuals who have an inflated class identification are more likely to vote for the economic left, even when they materially can be classified as middle or high class. We conclude this paper with a discussion on scholarly debates concerning class and politics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 7 CFR 28.432 - Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Tinged Color. 28.432 Section 28.432... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.432 Middling Tinged Color. Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  14. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  15. 7 CFR 28.434 - Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.434 Section 28.434... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.434 Low Middling Tinged Color. Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the...

  16. Latino Teen Theater: A Theater Intervention to Promote Latino Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Joanne; Castillo, Nancy; Allen, Tiffany L; Esqueda, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Latina teen pregnancy rates continue to be a health disparity in the United States. This study evaluated a parenting intervention using interactive theater to facilitate Latino parent-adolescent communication about sexuality and pregnancy prevention. The intervention, conducted in Spanish and with teen actors, consisted of scenes involving the audience. Fifty-nine parents participated in this 3-month prospective study. Spanish measures of comfort with communication, general communication, and parent-child sexual communication were employed comparing paired t tests for each scale. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed and demonstrated. Eighty-six percent of parents used information from the performance to talk to their child. Improvements in general communication (p < .02), sexual communication (p < .001), and comfort (p < .001) occurred. Interactive theater is an innovative approach to facilitate Latino parent communication about sexuality and pregnancy prevention.

  17. Poniendo tu granito de arena: Latinos and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, E

    1999-01-01

    Because the Latino community often lacks the money and power of large, white-run agencies in HIV prevention efforts, Latino HIV-service providers often turn to bootstrap efforts that are well-grounded in cultural realities. The community response to HIV prevention efforts is examined in terms of the cultural sensitivity needed to reach this ethnic group more effectively. Reasons why grassroots efforts are more effective in a Latino community than traditional agencies, and some examples of successful programs are outlined. The discrepancies seen in HIV services due to lack of resources and connections to needed funding are also discussed. Discussions on the Latino understanding of fatalism, homophobia, family values, and machismo that all affect the spread of HIV are highlighted.

  18. Recognising the Latino Immigrant's Space in the American ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zeleza

    cultural values that motivate Latino consumer behavior (Lopez, 2003; Padilla, 2002; and ..... individuals are perceived, influencing future behavior and cooperation. .... restaurant, also visited by Caucasian American retired couples, construction workers, ..... uncertainty reduction, and communication satisfaction during initial ...

  19. Latinos, acculturation, and acculturative stress: a dimensional concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Susan

    2007-05-01

    Acculturation can be conceived of as a process of adaptation to stressful changes. In the field of public health, research indicates that recently arrived Latino immigrants, presumably most affected by acculturative stress, have better health outcomes than those who have spent greater time in the United States. This "immigrant paradox" is not well understood but supports the distinction between the process of acculturation and acculturative stress. To understand the nature of acculturative stress for Latinos in the context of political, historical, and societal forces. Acculturative stress significantly affects the physical and mental health of many Latino immigrants. Types of stressors vary by ethnicity. Separation from family and lack of a community was the most often-cited stressor for new immigrants. Most Latino immigrants were adversely affected by discrimination. By developing an understanding of acculturative stress, nurses can better attend to the needs of our increasingly diverse population.

  20. HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Young Latino Immigrant MSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Solorio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay.

  1. Deporting the American Dream: Immigration Enforcement and Latino Foreclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S. Rugh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, Latinos have been buffeted by two major forces: a record number of immigrant deportations and the housing foreclosure crisis. Yet, prior work has not assessed the link between the two. We hypothesize that deportations exacerbate rates of foreclosure among Latinos by removing income earners from owner-occupied households. We employ a quasi-experimental approach that leverages variation in county applications for 287(g immigration enforcement agreements with Immigration and Customs Enforcement and data on foreclosure filings from 2005–2012. These models uncover a substantial association of enforcement with Hispanic foreclosure rates. The association is stronger in counties with more immigrant detentions and a larger share of undocumented persons in owner-occupied homes. The results imply that local immigration enforcement plays an important role in understanding why Latinos experienced foreclosures most often. The reduced home ownership and wealth that result illustrate how legal status and deportation perpetuate the racial stratification of Latinos.

  2. The Political Consequences of Latino Prejudice against Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnikov, Yanna; Piston, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    A good deal of scholarship examines the effects of prejudice against blacks on public opinion and vote choice in the United States. Despite producing valuable insights, this research largely ignores the attitudes of Latinos—a critical omission, since Latinos constitute a rapidly growing share of the population. Using two nationally representative survey data sets, we find that the level of racial prejudice is comparable for Latinos and non-Hispanic whites. Equally comparable are associations between prejudice and political preferences: policy opinion and support for Obama in the 2008 presidential election. Our findings suggest that despite demographic changes, efforts to enact policies intended to assist blacks and elect black candidates will continue to be undermined by prejudice. That said, Latinos are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to support policies intended to assist blacks, because Latinos are more Democratic than non-Hispanic whites, more egalitarian, and less committed to the value of limited government. PMID:27274574

  3. Depression as a mediator between family factors and peer-bullying victimization in Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabko, Brandon A; Hokoda, Audrey; Ulloa, Emilio C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating role of depression in three different relationships: (a) sibling bullying and peer victimization, (b) mothers' power-assertive parenting and peer victimization, and (c) fathers' power-assertive parenting and peer victimization. Results from 242 Latino middle school adolescents from a large southwestern city bordering Mexico revealed that both boys' and girls' peer victimization were related to familial factors and depression. Regression analyses for boys revealed that depression mediated three relationships: (a) sibling bullying and peer victimization, (b) mothers' power-assertive parenting and peer victimization, and (c) fathers' power-assertive parenting and peer victimization. Depression also mediated the relationship between fathers' power-assertive parenting and girls' victimization by peers. The findings support the development of family-based interventions for peer victimization that include curriculum addressing depression.

  4. Soul Mates: Religion, Sex, Love, and Marriage among African Americans and Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, Richard F; Dodd, Kristen D

    2016-01-01

    This book review analyzes the complex and profound impact active religious participation has on relationships and family outcomes among African Americans and Latinos. In Soul Mates, Wilcox and Wolfinger discuss the legacy of slavery and Jim Crow laws and the resulting devastating effects on African American and Latino families despite their high religious involvement. The authors make the case that many African American men are unlikely candidates for marriage or stable relationships due to trends of family instability driven by the declining income-power of working-class men as well as entry of more women into the labor force, government penalties for low-income couples, revolt against traditional values, increased access to birth control and abortion, and the persistence of discrimination and incarceration of minority men. The authors examine data from six national surveys as well as additional data from interviews, focus groups, ethnographic field work, and an extensive literature review. Wilcox and Wolfinger find evidence that when African American couples actively participate in Christian churches, the men are more likely to adhere to a "code of decency" which decreases street behaviors, such as binge drinking, having multiple sex partners, and having multi-partner fertility, which are known to inhibit family stability. This book will be helpful for health providers who would like to better understand and serve their African American and Latino patients. The findings suggest that health care providers can promote a healthy emotional environment for families by encouraging minority men to renew or maintain church involvement. Copyright © 2016 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. "¿Qué Estoy Haciendo Aquí? (What Am I Doing Here?)": Chicanos/Latinos(as) Navigating Challenges and Inequalities During Their First Year of Graduate School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Elvia

    2014-01-01

    Based on in-depth qualitative interviews, this study analyzed the challenges and structural inequities that Chicanos/Latinos(as) encountered and resisted during their first year of graduate school. Grounded in intersectionality theory, this study analyzed how race, class, and gender inequalities that are embedded in the graduate schooling process…

  6. Impact of Motivational Pharmacotherapy on Treatment Retention among Depressed Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Balán, Iván C.; Patel, Sapana R.; Sánchez-Lacay, J. Arturo; Alfonso, César; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Blanco, Carlos; Schmidt, Andrew; Jiang, Huiping; Schneier, Franklin; Moyers, Theresa B.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to non-Latino Whites, US racial/ethnic minority groups show higher non-adherence with outpatient antidepressant therapy, including lower retention, despite adjusting for sociodemographic and insurance covariates. Culturally salient concerns about antidepressants leading to ambivalence about treatment engagement may contribute to this discrepancy. To improve treatment adherence among depressed Latinos, we developed Motivational Pharmacotherapy, a novel approach that combines Motivational Interviewing, standard pharmacotherapy, and attention to Latino cultural concerns about antidepressants. This 12-week, open-trial, pre-post pilot study assessed the impact of Motivational Pharmacotherapy on antidepressant therapy retention, response (symptoms, functioning, and quality of life), and visit duration among N=50 first-generation Latino outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder. At study endpoint, 20% of patients discontinued treatment, with a mean therapy duration of 74.2 out of 84 days. Patients’ symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life improved significantly. Mean visit length was 36.7 minutes for visit 1 and 24.3 minutes for subsequent visits, compatible with use in community clinics. Responder and remitter rates were 82% and 68%. Compared to published Latino proportions of non-retention (32-53%) and previous studies at our clinic with similar samples and medications (36-46%), Motivational Pharmacotherapy appears to improve Latino retention in antidepressant therapy, and should be investigated further in controlled designs. PMID:23965261

  7. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...... – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology....

  8. Participatory assessment of the health of Latino immigrant men in a community with a growing Latino population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documėt, Patricia I; Kamouyerou, Andrea; Pesantes, Amalia; Macia, Laura; Maldonado, Hernan; Fox, Andrea; Bachurski, Leslie; Morgenstern, Dawn; Gonzalez, Miguel; Boyzo, Roberto; Guadamuz, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Latino immigrant men are an understudied population in the US, especially in areas with small yet growing Latino populations. For this community-based participatory health assessment we conducted four focus groups and 66 structured surveys with Latino immigrant men, and 10 openended interviews with service providers. We analyzed transcripts using content analysis and survey data using Pearson Chi-square tests. Overall, 53% of participating men had not completed high school. Our findings suggest that their social circumstances precluded men from behaving in a way they believe would protect their health. Loneliness, fear and lack of connections prompted stress among men, who had difficulty locating healthcare services. Newly immigrated men were significantly more likely to experience depression symptoms. Latino immigrant men face social isolation resulting in negative health consequences, which are amplified by the new growth community context. Men can benefit from interventions aimed at building their social connections.

  9. Race, class, gender, and American environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorceta E. Taylor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental experiences of middle and working class whites and people of color in the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. It examines their activism and how their environmental experiences influenced the kinds of discourses they developed. The paper posits that race, class, and gender had profound effects on people's...

  10. Special Classes for Gifted Students? Absolutely!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Szabo, Sally

    1996-01-01

    This article makes a case for special classes for gifted students and answers objections to special classes raised by the middle school movement and the cooperative learning movement. A sample "Celebration of Me" unit taught to gifted seventh graders which involved poetry, literature, personal development, art, music, and physical fitness is…

  11. Improving Latino disaster preparedness using social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David P; Glik, Deborah; Gonzalez, Lupe; Maranon, Richard; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Asch, Steven M

    2009-12-01

    Culturally targeted, informal social networking approaches to improving disaster preparedness have not been empirically tested. In partnership with community health promoters and the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, this study tested a disaster preparedness program for Latino households. This study had a community-based, randomized, longitudinal cohort design with two groups and was conducted during February-October 2007. Assessments were made at baseline and 3 months. Analyses were carried out January-October 2008. Community-based study of 231 Latinos living in Los Angeles County. Participants were randomly assigned to attending platicas (small-group discussions led by a health promoter/promotora de salud) or receiving "media" (a culturally tailored mailer). A total of 187 (81.0%) completed the 3-month follow-up. A self-reported disaster preparedness checklist was used. Among participants who did not have emergency water pre-intervention, 93.3% of those in the platica arm had it at follow-up, compared to 66.7% in the media arm (p=0.003). Among participants who did not have food pre-intervention, 91.7% in the platica arm reported it at follow-up, compared to 60.6% in the media arm (p=0.013). Finally, among participants who did not have a family communication plan pre-intervention, 70.4% in the platica arm reported one at follow-up, compared to 42.3% in the media arm (p=0.002). Although both arms improved in stockpiling water and food and creating a communication plan, the platica arm showed greater improvement than the media group.

  12. Día Nacional Latino para la Concientización del SIDA (National Latino AIDS Awareness Day)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Este podcast destaca el Día Nacional Latino para la Concientización acerca del SIDA, para aumentar el conocimiento sobre el impacto desproporcionado del VIH en la población hispana o latina en los Estados Unidos y sus territorios dependientes. El podcast hace recordar a los hispanos o latinos que ellos tienen el poder de tomar el control de su salud y protegerse contra el VIH.

  13. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  14. Social Support Networks and HIV/STI Risk Behaviors Among Latino Immigrants in a New Receiving Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D; Theall, Katherine; Schmidt, Norine; Hembling, John; Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Thompson, Michelle M; Muth, Stephen Q; Friedman, Samuel R; Kissinger, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the quantity and quality of social support networks of Latino immigrants living in a new receiving environment, and (2) determine the role such networks play in their HIV/STI risk behaviors, including substance use. Double incentivized convenience sampling was used to collect egocentric social support network data on 144 Latino immigrants. Latent class analysis was used for data reduction and to identify items best suited to measure quality and quantity of social support. Moderate and high quantity and quality of social support were protective of HIV/STI sexual risk behavior compared to low quantity and quality of support, after adjustment for gender, years in New Orleans and residing with family. Neither measure of social support was associated with binge drinking. The findings suggest that increased quantity and quality of social support decrease HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors but do not influence binge drinking. Interventions that improve the quantity and quality of social support are needed for Latino immigrants.

  15. Focus Group Evaluation of “Secret Feelings”: A Depression Fotonovela for Latinos With Limited English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Contreras, Sandra; Aragón, Rebeca; Molina, Gregory B.; Baron, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined reactions of Latino adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) to a culturally and linguistically adapted depression fotonovela, titled “Secret Feelings.” Fotonovelas are popular health education tools that use posed photographs, text bubbles with simple text, and dramatic narratives to engage audiences and raise their awareness and knowledge about specific health issues. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted at an adult school program (e.g., GED classes). Content analysis was used to generate themes from transcripts and memos. “Secret Feelings” was viewed as an entertaining, engaging, and educational tool that helped combat stigma toward depression and its treatments in the Latino community. Despite learning about depression, participants reported they wanted more information about the causes of depression, the process of recovery, and felt that the story did not shift their apprehensions toward antidepressants. The findings suggest that “Secret Feelings” is a promising depression literacy tool for Latinos with LEP that can raise awareness and knowledge about depression and its treatments, reduce stigma toward depression and antidepressant medications, and model appropriate help-seeking behaviors. PMID:21807951

  16. Learning-style preferences of Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantopoulos, Helen D.

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the learning-style preferences and the demographic variables of age, gender, number of prior science courses, second language learner status, and earlier exposure to scientific information. Methodology. The study design was descriptive and ex post facto. The sample consisted of a total of 332 Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in General Biology 3. Major findings. The study revealed that Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in introductory biology at a large urban community college scored higher for the learning preference element of structure. Students twenty-five years and older scored higher for the learning preference elements of light, design, persistence, responsibility, and morning time (p learning-style preferences were found between second English language learners and those who learned English as their primary language (p tactile (p learning-style model and instruments and on recent learning-style research articles on ethnically diverse groups of adult learners; and (2) Instructors should plan their instruction to incorporate the learning-style preferences of their students.

  17. An Examination of Single-Gender and Coeducational Classes: Their Impact on the Academic Achievement of Middle School Students Enrolled in Mathematics and Science at Selected Schools in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeanette H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the academic performance of students enrolled in coeducational instruction and single-gender instruction. Within this framework, the researcher examined class type, gender, and racial/ethnicity using the sixth grade CRCT scores of selected students in the areas of mathematics and science. The fifth-grade…

  18. Startup circuit training program reduces metabolic risk in Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jaimie Nicole; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Vanni, Amanda A; Meija, Mathew; Tung, Amy; Schroeder, E Todd; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to test the effects of a circuit training (CT; aerobic + strength training) program, with and without motivational interviewing (MI) behavioral therapy, on reducing adiposity and type 2 diabetes risk factors in Latina teenagers. Thirty-eight Latina adolescents (15.8 ± 1.1 yr) who are overweight/obese were randomly assigned to control (C; n = 12), CT (n = 14), or CT + MI (n = 12). The CT classes were held twice a week (60-90 min) for 16 wk. The CT + MI group also received individual or group MI sessions every other week. The following were measured before and after intervention: strength by one-repetition maximum; cardiorespiratory fitness (V·O 2max) by submaximal treadmill test; physical activity by accelerometry; dietary intake by records; height, weight, waist circumference; total body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and hepatic fat fraction by magnetic resonance imaging; and glucose/insulin indices by fasting blood draw. Across-intervention group effects were tested using repeated-measures ANOVA with post hoc pairwise comparisons. CT and CT + MI participants, compared with controls, significantly increased fitness (+16% and +15% vs -6%, P = 0.03) and leg press (+40% vs +20%, P = 0.007). Compared with controls, CT participants also decreased waist circumference (-3% vs +3%; P < 0.001), subcutaneous adipose tissue (-10% vs 8%, P = 0.04), visceral adipose tissue (-10% vs +6%, P = 0.05), fasting insulin (-24% vs +6%, P = 0.03), and insulin resistance (-21% vs -4%, P = 0.05). CT may be an effective starter program to reduce fat depots and improve insulin resistance in Latino youth who are overweight/obese, whereas the additional MI therapy showed no additive effect on these health outcomes.

  19. Identification of barriers to medication adherence in a Latino population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Sheryl; Haack, Sally; Phillips, Charles R

    2010-12-01

    Barriers to medication adherence may present differently in diverse patient populations. Because of changing U.S. demographics, health care providers will be required to identify alternative strategies for managing increasingly diverse patient populations. This pilot project identified barriers that may hinder medication adherence in a Latino population. The results of the survey may identify trends in barriers allowing for the development of interventions aimed at improving medication adherence. The study used a convenience sample of Spanish-labeled prescriptions that had not been picked up from a community pharmacy after a 2-week period to identify study subjects. Patients were contacted by phone and surveyed regarding reasons for not picking up their prescription medication. The 24-item survey instrument consisted of demographic and medication-related questions, reasons for, and associated barriers with failure to pick up medications. The most common classes of medications patients failed to pick up were chronic medications. More than 90% of the patients thought that the medication in question was helpful to them, and nearly 80% thought that the medicine was still needed. Patients cited communication issues (ie, content matter, such as when the prescription was ready), logistics, and limited hours of pharmacy operation as the primary barriers in picking up their medications, whereas nearly 40% failed to identify any barriers. Barriers identified by patients that could be improved included confusion regarding when their prescription was ready and limited hours of pharmacy operation. Most of the patients were comfortable using the American health care system. The barriers to medication adherence identified did not appear to be the result of cultural influences. This could be because the community pharmacy had bilingual staff and interpreters available for patient education and prescription processing. Alternative methods are needed to further identify reasons for

  20. Picture Good Health: A Church-Based Self-Management Intervention Among Latino Adults with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Arshiya A; Benitez, Amanda; Locklin, Cara A; Gao, Yue; Lee, Sang Mee; Quinn, Michael T; Solomon, Marla C; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Burnet, Deborah L; Chin, Marshall H

    2015-10-01

    Churches may provide a familiar and accessible setting for chronic disease self-management education and social support for Latinos with diabetes. We assessed the impact of a multi-faceted church-based diabetes self-management intervention on diabetes outcomes among Latino adults. This was a community-based, randomized controlled, pilot study. One-hundred adults with self-reported diabetes from a Midwestern, urban, low-income Mexican-American neighborhood were included in the study. Intervention participants were enrolled in a church-based diabetes self-management program that included eight weekly group classes led by trained lay leaders. Enhanced usual care participants attended one 90-minute lecture on diabetes self-management at a local church. The primary outcome was change in glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C). Secondary outcomes included changes in low-density lipoproteins (LDL), blood pressure, weight, and diabetes self-care practices. Participants' mean age was 54 ± 12 years, 81 % were female, 98 % were Latino, and 51 % were uninsured. At 3 months, study participants in both arms decreased their A1C from baseline (-0.32 %, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: -0.62, -0.02 %). The difference in change in A1C, LDL, blood pressure and weight from baseline to 3-month and 6-month follow-up was not statistically significant between the intervention and enhanced usual care groups. Intervention participants reported fewer days of consuming high fat foods in the previous week (-1.34, 95 % CI: -2.22, -0.46) and more days of participating in exercise (1.58, 95 % CI: 0.24, 2.92) compared to enhanced usual care from baseline to 6 months. A pilot church-based diabetes self-management intervention did not reduce A1C, but resulted in decreased high fat food consumption and increased participation in exercise among low-income Latino adults with diabetes. Future church-based interventions may need to strengthen linkages to the healthcare system and provide continued support to

  1. The World Is Waiting for the Sunrise: African Americans "yel Mundo Latino."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Danny

    1998-01-01

    Traces the long and varied history of interaction and collective action by African Americans and Latinos, focusing on common culture and political cooperation. Outlines issues related to the continued cooperation of African Americans and Latinos, and common political projects. (SLD)

  2. Comparisons of Latinos, African Americans, and Caucasians with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Robert J; Zuniga, Miguel A; Carrillo-Zuniga, Genny; Chakravorty, Bonnie J; Tyry, Tuula; Moreau, Rachel L; Huang, Chunfeng; Vollmer, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Identify racial/ethnic differences among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in demographics, MS disease characteristics, and health services received. We analyzed enrollment data from the Registry of the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Project to compare 26,967 Caucasians, 715 Latinos, and 1,313 African Americans with MS. Racial/ethnic analyses of NARCOMS data focused on descriptive characteristics, using ANOVA and chi-square tests to identify significant differences in means and frequencies among Caucasians, Latinos, and African Americans. We identified significant racial/ethnic differences in demographics, MS disease characteristics, and treatments. Caucasians were older when first MS symptoms were experienced (30.1 years) and at MS diagnosis (37.4 years) than Latinos (28.6 years and 34.5 years) or African Americans (29.8 years and 35.8 years). Larger proportions of Latinos reported normal function for mobility and bladder/bowel function compared to Caucasians. Larger proportions of Latinos (44.2 percent) and African Americans (45.8 percent) reported at least mild depression compared to only 38.7 percent of Caucasians. Larger proportions of Latinos never received mental health care or care from rehabilitation specialists than Caucasians or African Americans. A larger proportion of African Americans had never been treated by a neurologist specializing in MS and a smaller proportion of African Americans received care at a MS clinic than Caucasians or Latinos. Our findings highlight the need for future analyses to determine if age, disease duration, MS symptoms, and disability levels provide additional insights into racial/ethic differences in the use of MS-related providers.

  3. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    . Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas......The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general...

  4. Mothers' beliefs about emotions, mother-child emotion discourse, and children's emotion understanding in Latino families

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Rivera, Marie Belle

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand associations between acculturation, parental beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in Latino preschool-aged children. Research on Latino families may prove to be important given the little research that has focused on emotion understanding strictly in Latino cultures. Forty Latino mother-child dyads were observed throughout a series of naturalistic observations. Mothers self-reported their acculturation and their belie...

  5. Get Ready, Get in, Get through: Factors That Influence Latino College Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joel P.; Murphy, Shirley A.

    2018-01-01

    "Get ready, get in, and get through." Latino adolescents and young adults are enrolling in the nation's colleges and universities at record numbers. However, completion rates of Latinos range from 8% to 25%. We examined individual rather than organizational factors shown to influence Latino student post-secondary levels of success.…

  6. Ethnographies "de Lucha" (of Struggle) in Latino Education: Toward Social Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villenas, Sofia A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe the fight back imperatives of Latino educational ethnography at a time when Latino children's education continues to be the battleground for nation and culture wars. I briefly trace the expansion of the field of Latino educational ethnography during the last two decades, and point to the possibilities for the future of…

  7. The Role of Social Capital and School Structure on Latino Access to Elite Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jeremiah J.

    2013-01-01

    Latinos make up the fastest growing population in the United States. However, this group has some of the lowest educational outcomes (Gandara & Contreras, 2009). Although large numbers of Latinos fail to achieve high levels of academic success, some Latinos are able to accomplish educational outcomes that compare with those of the most…

  8. Diverging fortunes? Economic well-being of Latinos and African Americans in new rural destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Martha; Lichter, Daniel T; Turner, Richard N

    2015-05-01

    The geographic diffusion of Latinos from immigrant gateways to newly-emerging rural destinations is one of the most significant recent trends in U.S. population redistribution. Yet, few studies have explored how Latinos have fared in new destinations, and even fewer have examined economic implications for other minority workers and their families. We use county-level data from the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey to compare the changing economic circumstances (e.g., employment and unemployment, poverty, income, and homeownership) of Latinos and African Americans in new Latino boomtowns. We also evaluate the comparative economic trajectories of Latinos in new destinations and established gateways. During the 1990s, new rural destinations provided clear economic benefits to Latinos, even surpassing African Americans on some economic indicators. The 2000s, however, ushered in higher rates of Latino poverty; the economic circumstances of Latinos also deteriorated more rapidly in new vis-à-vis traditional destinations. By 2010, individual and family poverty rates in new destinations were significantly higher among Latinos than African Americans, despite higher labor force participation and lower levels of unemployment. Difference-in-difference models demonstrate that in both the 1990s and 2000s, economic trajectories of African Americans in new Latino destinations largely mirrored those observed in places without large Latino influxes. Any economic benefits for Latinos in new rural destinations thus have not come at the expense of African Americans. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. No Latino Left Behind? Determinants of Support for Education Reform in the U.S. Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, Jason; Shelly, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    With education consistently ranked as the highest priority for Latino voters, how have members of Congress responded to Latino constituents on this dimension? This article explores the relationship between Latino constituencies and the importance members of Congress have placed on this issue. Through an analysis of National Hispanic Leadership…

  10. Religious Literacy in the New Latino Diaspora: Combating the "Othering" of Muslim Refugee Students in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierk, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Many communities across the United States have been undergoing recent demographic changes. Since the 1980s, low-skilled labor (e.g. meatpacking) has attracted Latino families to settle in communities that historically have been home to few, if any, Latinos (i.e. the New Latino Diaspora). In more recent years, these same job opportunities have also…

  11. Variations in Latino Parenting Practices and Their Effects on Child Cognitive Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Von Figueroa-Moseley, Colmar; Ramey, Craig T.; Keltner, Bette; Lanzi, Robin G.

    2006-01-01

    This research examines variations in parenting and its effects on child cognitive outcomes across Latino subgroups from a national sampling that utilized a subset of 995 former Head Start Latino parents and children. Comparisons of the Parenting Dimension Inventory scaled scores revealed Latino subgroup differences on nurturance and consistency.…

  12. Nuestras Voces: (Our Voices): A Phenomenological Study of Latino Parents' Perceptions of Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kathleen Mary

    2013-01-01

    There is a rise in the Latino population, a growing need to close the achievement gap, and yet there exists a paucity of research on Latino infant and child development. This phenomenological study of Latino parents explores the thoughts and feelings of a representative sample of parents pertaining to the early intervention services that their…

  13. Beer Advertising to Latino Youth: The Effects of Spanish vs. English Language Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech Rodriguez, Melanie M.; And Others

    Although Latino youth have slightly lower rates of alcohol use than Anglo youth, evidence suggests that as Latinos acculturate their rates of use increase to match those of the Anglo adolescent population. In light of these cultural patterns, a study examined the reactions of young adult males of Latino origin to television beer and non-beer…

  14. Perceptions of Educational Barriers Affecting the Academic Achievement of Latino K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined different factors affecting the perceptions of barriers in academic achievement of Latino K-12 students. The study used data from 1,508 participants who identified themselves as being of Hispanic or Latino heritage in the 2004 National Survey of Latinos: Education, compiled by the Pew Hispanic Center between August 7 and…

  15. Strengthening rural Latinos' civic engagement for health: The Voceros de Salud project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cevallos, Daniel; Dierwechter, Tatiana; Volkmann, Kelly; Patton-López, Megan

    2013-11-01

    This article describes the Latino Health Ambassadors Network (Voceros de Salud ) project created to support and mobilize Latino community leaders to address health inequalities in a rural Oregon county. Voceros de Salud is discussed as a model that other rural communities may implement towards strengthening Latino civic engagement for health.

  16. The Impact of a Collaborative Family Involvement Program on Latino Families and Children's Educational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Julie; Kirkner, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Latino families highly value education and are committed to their children's educational success; however, Latino students often experience educational challenges. Well-designed family involvement programs can encourage Latino families, especially new immigrants or monolingual Spanish-speakers, to increase their involvement resulting in positive…

  17. The Professional Educator: Why Supporting Latino Children and Families Is Union Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortino, Catalina R.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the creation and promise of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) resolution "¡Si Se Puede!: Improving Outcomes for Latino Children and Youth and Addressing the Needs of the Latino Community." The resolution affirms the AFT's commitment to elevating the importance of Latino issues. As a union committed to…

  18. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  19. Psychosocial Benefits of Cross-Ethnic Friendships in Urban Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra; Munniksma, Anke; Juvonen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    To examine the unique functions of same- and cross-ethnic friendships, Latino (n = 536) and African American (n = 396) sixth-grade students (M[subscript age] = 11.5 years) were recruited from 66 classrooms in 10 middle schools that varied in ethnic diversity. Participants reported on the number of same- and cross-ethnic friends, perceived…

  20. African Ancestry Is Associated with Higher Intraocular Pressure in Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Drew; Torres, Mina; Chen, Yii-Der I; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I; Varma, Rohit; Gao, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor, as well as the only modifiable risk factor, for glaucoma. Racial differences have been observed in IOP measurements with individuals of African descent experiencing the highest IOP when compared with other ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP in Latinos. Population-based genetic association study. A total of 3541 participants recruited from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Study participants were genotyped using the Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip (∼730K markers). We used STRUCTURE to estimate individual genetic ancestry. Simple and multiple linear regression, as well as quantile regression, analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP. The relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP in Latinos. African ancestry was significantly associated with higher IOP in Latinos in our simple linear regression analysis (P = 0.002). After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, central corneal thickness, and type 2 diabetes, this association remained significant (P = 0.0005). The main association was modified by a significant interaction between African ancestry and hypertension (P = 0.037), with hypertensive individuals experiencing a greater increase in IOP with increasing African ancestry. To our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that African ancestry and its interaction with hypertension are associated with higher IOP in Latinos. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heterogeneity in Past Year Cigarette Smoking Quit Attempts among Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gundersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the association between English language proficiency (ELP and immigrant generation and having made a cigarette smoking quit attempt in the past 12 months among Latinos. Examine if gender moderates the association between acculturation and quit attempts. Methods. Latino past year smokers from the 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between quit attempt and ELP and immigrant generation, controlling for demographics and smoking characteristics. Results. Latinos with poor ELP were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to those with good ELP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.22, confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.46 after controlling for demographic and smoking characteristics. First (AOR=1.21, CI: 1.02–1.43 and second generation immigrants (AOR=1.36, CI: 1.12–1.64 were more likely than third generation immigrants to have made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Conclusion. Quit behaviors are shaped by differences in language ability and generational status among Latinos. This underscores the need to disaggregate Latinos beyond racial/ethnic categories to identify subgroup differences relevant for smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in this population.

  2. [Social classes and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Amable, Marcelo

    2004-05-01

    Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants fundamental to understand how disease and health inequalities are produced. During the 90's in Spain there has been a notable oscillation in the inequality and poverty levels, with an increase in the middle of the decade when new forms of social exclusion, high levels of unemployment and great difficulties in accessing the labour market, especially for those workers with less resources, emerged. Today society is still characterized by a clear social stratification and the existence of social classes with a predominance of high levels of unemployment and precarious jobs, and where poverty is an endemic social problem much worse than the EU average. To diminish health inequalities and to improve the quality of life will depend very much on the reduction of the poverty levels and the improvement of equal opportunities and quality of employment. To increase understanding of how social class and poverty affect public health, there is a need to improve the quality of both information and research, and furthermore planners and political decision makers must take into account those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotion.

  3. The Emergence of Social Capital in Low-Income Latino Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Megan N.; Haskins, Anna R.; Rangel, David E.; Sorensen, Kia N.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars suggest that racial/ethnic and class disparities in school-based social capital contribute to educational inequalities. Previous studies demonstrate that social capital (relations of trust, mutual expectations, and shared values) between parents and schools supports children's development. Yet we know little about the emergence of social capital, that is, the processes through which it develops. In this study, we explore mechanisms of social capital emergence in predominantly low-income Latino school communities. We draw data from an experimental study that manipulated social capital through an after-school family engagement program. Based on interviews and focus groups with participating parents, teachers, and program staff in two elementary schools, we identified four types of interactions that act as mechanisms of social capital emergence: (1) responsive communication; (2) reciprocal communication; (3) shared experiences; and (4) institutional linkage. The article connects these mechanisms to theoretically linked sources of social capital and discusses implications for theory and practice. PMID:25246729

  4. Sex differences in cardiometabolic risk factors among Hispanic/Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Parrinello, Christina M; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Delamater, Alan M; Perreira, Krista M; Daviglus, Martha L; Elder, John P; Marchante, Ashley N; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Van Horn, Linda; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic risk in US Hispanic/Latino youth and examine whether there are disparities by sex in cardiometabolic risk factors. Study design SOL Youth is a population-based cross-sectional study of 1466 Hispanic/Latino youth (8-16 years old) who were recruited from four urban US communities (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA) in 2012-2014. The majority of children were US-born (78%) and from low-income and immigrant families. Cardiometabolic risk factors were defined using national age- and sex-specific guidelines. Results The prevalence of obesity was 26.5%. The prevalence of class II-III obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia was high (9.7%, 16.5%, and 23.3%, respectively). The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors increased with severity of obesity in both, boys and girls. Boys had a higher prevalence of diabetes and of elevated blood pressure than girls (20.9% vs. 11.8% and 8.5% vs. 3.3%). In multivariable analyses, younger boys were more likely to have obesity class II-III than girls (OR = 3.59; 95% CI 1.44, 8.97). Boys were more likely to have prediabetes than girls (OR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.35, 3.02), and the association was stronger at older ages. Conclusions The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors was high in this sample of Hispanic youth. Boys had a more adverse cardiometabolic profile compared with girls that may put them at higher risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Reasons for this disparity and the long-term clinical implications remain to be elucidated. PMID:27344220

  5. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  6. Gift and sacrifice: parental involvement in Latino adolescents' education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballo, Rosario; Maurizi, Laura K; Suarez, Gloria A; Aretakis, Maria T

    2014-01-01

    Although myriad studies document the benefits of parental involvement in education on various indicators of children's academic performance, less research examines parental involvement among adolescents in low-income Latino families. Incorporating a multidimensional conceptualization of parental involvement, this study examined the relation between parental involvement and academic outcomes in a sample of 223 low-income, Latino adolescents. Results indicated that three types of parental involvement (gift/sacrifice, future discussions/academic socialization, and school involvement) had significant, positive associations with academic outcomes. Moreover, our results suggest that parents' stories about struggles with poverty and immigration are an important component of parental involvement, contributing to adolescents' desire to succeed academically and "give back" to parents. Additionally, our findings indicated that the positive relations between parental involvement and academic outcomes were stronger for immigrant youth and for those with higher endorsements of the Latino cultural value of respeto (respect).

  7. The myth of sameness among Latino men and their machismo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, José B; Solberg, V Scott H; Carlstrom, Aaron H

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the construct of machismo in relationship to measures of machismo, masculinity, and gender role identity. One hundred forty-eight Latino men with an average age of 36, primarily Mexican American and Puerto Rican, participated. Results indicate that machismo can be characterized as a multidimensional construct, and cluster analyses found that traditional definitions of machismo as authoritarian, emotionally restrictive, and controlling represented only about 10% of the classified Latinos. Most of the sample identified with more emotionally responsive, collaborative, and flexible masculinity styles. Five identity dimensions identified were Contemporary Masculinity, Machismo, Traditional Machismo, Conflicted/Compassionate Machismo, and Contemporary Machismo. Implications include the need to change stereotypes of machismo to be more congruent with the variation in Latino male identity.

  8. Parenting Practices, Interpretive Biases, and Anxiety in Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, R. Enrique; Niditch, Laura A.; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W.; Creveling, C. Christiane

    2013-01-01

    A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n = 27) and non-clinical (n = 20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionnaires in a lab setting. Results indicated that child anxiety was: linked with parental control and child interpretative biases; associated with parental modeling of anxious behaviors at a trend level; and not associated with low parental acceptance. Findings that controlling parenting and child interpretive biases were associated with anxiety extend current theories of anxiety development to the Latino population. We speculate that strong family ties may buffer Latino children from detrimental effects of perceived low parental acceptance. PMID:23434545

  9. Parenting practices, interpretive biases, and anxiety in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, R Enrique; Niditch, Laura A; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W; Creveling, C Christiane

    2013-03-01

    A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n=27) and non-clinical (n=20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionnaires in a lab setting. Results indicated that child anxiety was: linked with parental control and child interpretative biases, associated with parental modeling of anxious behaviors at a trend level, and not associated with low parental acceptance. Findings that controlling parenting and child interpretive biases were associated with anxiety extend current theories of anxiety development to the Latino population. We speculate that strong family ties may buffer Latino children from detrimental effects of perceived low parental acceptance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FROM EXCLUSION TO INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION: THE CASE OF LATINO YOUTHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez R, Magaly

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I refer to structural tendencies reflected in the responses of excluded Latinos youths, who range from street children to radical youths (gangs or not) and finally to migrants. The latter, face unusual challenges as a result of being undocumented, forcing them to pursue mobility within a formal system that blocks their way. I review these tendencies through a "positive" lens, focusing mainly on Latino youth who are using different strategies to fight social exclusion. I aim to raise the paradoxical temporality , which indicates that as we learn and analyze more, we tend to move further away from the possibility of transforming pressing problems in society. I raise the question of how to intervene using more knowledge in the alarming situation of one of the most excluded social groups, Latino Youth and also of how to alert and visualize ways of integrating those youth who migrate and become undocumented.

  11. Poor representation of Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M; Adelson, Wendi J

    2015-04-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how various systems in medicine are limiting representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans. Flat and decreasing percentages of Underrepresented Minorities in Medicine (URMM), especially in the black and Native American populations, is concerning for family medicine since members from URMM groups care for minority and underserved populations in greater numbers. Underrepresentation is not only noted in the medical community but also in our medical schools when it comes to numbers of URMM faculty. The changing definition of "disadvantaged" in medical school admissions has also played a part in limiting URMM representation. In addition, the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) excludes black, Latino, and Native American students in greater numbers. The authors support these arguments with evidence from the medical literature. Although unintentional, these systems effectively limit representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine. Effective changes are suggested and can be implemented to ensure that URMM individuals have equal representation in careers in medicine.

  12. Latino Adults' Perspectives on Treating Tobacco Use Via Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguiano, Beatriz; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Rosas, Lisa G; Pechmann, Cornelia; Prochaska, Judith J

    2017-02-08

    Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States, and in California they outnumber non-Hispanic whites. Smoking cessation programs tailored for Latino culture, and this population's specific smoking patterns, are needed. Online social networks for smoking cessation have high potential for Latinos, but have not been tested to date. Building a research program on social media apps for cancer prevention in diverse populations, this qualitative study assessed acceptability of tobacco treatment that was distributed via social media for Latino smokers. We conducted three focus groups with Latino adults who were former and current smokers recruited from Santa Clara County, California in 2015 (N=32). We assessed participants' smoking histories, attempts to quit, social media exposure, and receptivity to a social media-based smoking cessation intervention. Audio transcripts were translated and coded for themes. Participants reported factors driving their tobacco use and motivations to quit, and emphasized the importance of community and family in influencing their smoking initiation, cravings and triggers, attempts to quit, and abstinence. Participants valued the communal aspect of social media and suggested strategically tailoring groups based on key features (eg, age, gender, language preference). Participants reported preferring visual, educational, and motivational messages that were connected with existing services. Participants generally voiced acceptability of a social media-delivered intervention to help them quit smoking, viewed the intervention as well-equipped for catering to the strong community orientation of Latinos, and suggested that the platform was able to address variation within the population through strategic group creation. As a group member reflected, "Podemos hacerlo juntos" (We can do it together). ©Beatriz Anguiano, Cati Brown-Johnson, Lisa G. Rosas, Cornelia Pechmann, Judith J. Prochaska. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and

  13. Selected cultural factors associated with physical activity among Latino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Janine M; Mosquera, Margarita; Ramos, Blanca

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, Latinos are the largest ethnic group after non-Hispanic whites. Latinos currently represent 15% of the U.S. population and their numbers are growing in nontraditional areas. Latino women (Latinas) disproportionately experience chronic disease risk factors and report low levels of leisure time physical activity. This study examined cultural factors associated with leisure time physical activity among Latinas living in a new Latino destination in northeastern New York. Community-based participatory research, a collaborative approach in which community members are equitably and actively involved in the research process, was employed for this study. The Latina Health Survey was administered in Spanish and English to 289 Latina adults through snowball sampling. Women reported that their national origin was predominantly Puerto Rican (58.7%) or Dominican (18.2%). Only 6.6% of women met American College of Sports Medicine's physical activity recommendations of exercising 5 days a week; 25% participated in physical activity two or more times per week. Acculturation and religious service attendance at least once a week was positively associated and fast food consumption one or more times a week was negatively associated with physical activity. This study implicates the need for physical activity promotion efforts among Latinas who are culturally responsive and that address fast food consumption. In addition to acculturation, other, more specific cultural factors need to be examined to understand physical activity correlates among Latinas. Research among Latinas living in new Latino destinations is important for understanding behavior and tailoring health interventions among Latinos living in nontraditional areas. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  14. Fall risk and prevention needs assessment in an older adult Latino population: a model community global health partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlin, Erin R; Delgado-Rendón, Angélica; Lerner, E Brooke; Hargarten, Stephen; Farías, René

    2013-01-01

    The impact of falls in older adults presents a significant public health burden. Fall risk is not well-described in Latino populations nor have fall prevention programs considered the needs of this population. The objectives of this study were to develop a needs assessment of falls in older adult Latinos at a community center (CC), determine fall prevention barriers and strengths in this population, determine the level of interest in various fall prevention methods, and provide medical students an opportunity for participation in a culturally diverse community project. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of older adult program participants. The survey was developed in collaboration with both partners. CC participants were approached by the interviewer and asked to participate. They were read the survey in their preferred language and their answers were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. We conducted 103 interviews. We found that 54% of participants had fallen in the last year, and of those 21% required medical care, 81% were afraid of falling again, and 66% considered themselves at risk for falling again. Of all respondents, 52% had 5 or more of the 10 surveyed risk factors for falling; 4% had no risk factors. Of all respondents, 75% were afraid of falling. Talking with health care providers and participating in an exercise class were the preferred methods of health information delivery (78% and 65%, respectively). Older adult Latinos in this selected population frequently fall and are worried about falling. Risk factors are prevalent. A fall prevention program is warranted and should include exercise classes and a connection with local primary care providers. A partnership between an academic organization and a CC is an ideal collaboration for the future development of prevention program.

  15. Political Identity Convergence: On Being Latino, Becoming a Democrat, and Getting Active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Huddy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Latinos in the United States identify with the Democratic Party, a tendency with broad political implications as Latinos become an increasingly large segment of the population. Little research, however, has delved into the origins of this preference. In this research, we contrast two explanations for Latinos’ Democratic proclivities: an instrumental explanation grounded in ideological policy preferences and an expressive identity account based on the defense of Latino identity and status. In analysis of data from two large national datasets, the 2012 Latino Immigrant National Election Study and American National Election Study focused on Latino immigrants and citizens respectively, we find strong support for the expressive identity explanation. Hispanic and partisan identities have converged among Latinos in the United States to create a large number of Latino Democrats regardless of citizenship status. Those who identify strongly as Latinos and see pervasive discrimination against Latinos are the strongest Democrats, a process that further intensified over the course of the 2012 election. A strong partisan preference increased political campaign activity, though this activity level was modest overall. Relatively few Latinos had worked on a campaign or given money to a candidate; somewhat larger numbers had tried to convince others about a candidate or worn a button or displayed a sticker. Finally, some support was evident for an instrumental account. Latino support for government-provided health insurance in 2012 consistently increased support for the Democratic Party.

  16. Pathways from acculturation stress to substance use among latino adolescents.

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    Buchanan, Rachel Lee; Smokowski, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the link between acculturation stress and substance use among Latino adolescents. In-home interviews were completed with the participants at four time-points between 2005 and 2007. Path analysis was completed using longitudinal data from 286 Latino adolescents living in North Carolina and Arizona (65% foreign-born). Results indicate that acculturation stress influences family and friend relationships, which in turn affect adolescent mental health problems, and finally, substance use. Key mediators in the pathway from acculturation stress to substance use were parent-adolescent conflict, internalizing, and externalizing problems. Implications for practice and research have been discussed here.

  17. Parental Perceptions of Neighborhood Effects in Latino Comunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Sanchez, Ninive; Castillo, Marcela; Delva, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To obtain rich information about how adult Latinos living in high-poverty/high-drug use neighborhoods perceive and negotiate their environment. Methods In 2008, thirteen adult caregivers in Santiago, Chile were interviewed with open-ended questions to ascertain beliefs about neighborhood effects and drug use. Analysis Inductive analysis was used to develop the codebook/identify trends. Discussion Residents externalized their understanding of drug use and misuse by invoking the concept of delinquent youth. A typology of their perceptions is offered. Learning more about residents’ circumstances may help focus on needs-based interventions. More research with Latino neighborhoods is needed for culturally-competent models of interventions. PMID:22497879

  18. Upwardly Mobile: Attitudes toward the Class Transition among First-Generation College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Serena E.

    2016-01-01

    First-generation, working-class college students are on the path to upward mobility and may have social and psychological problems related to cultural differences between the working class and the middle class. In her study, Hurst (2007, 2010) reports that students of working-class origin often choose loyalty to one class. However, I revise…

  19. Time and Money Explain Social Class Differences in Students' Social Integration at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Wright, Chrysalis L.

    2017-01-01

    Working-class students tend to be less socially integrated at university than middle-class students. The present research investigated two potential reasons for this working-class social exclusion effect. First, working-class students may have fewer finances available to participate in social activities. Second, working-class students tend to be…

  20. Latino and African-American Students' Transfer Pathway to Elite Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melguizo, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    Transfer is a crucial point in a student's educational pathway since a student who fails to transfer will not be able to attain a bachelor's degree or the benefits that accompany it, such as middle-class status and higher earnings. When members of ethnic minority groups are particularly disadvantaged in reaching their full educational potential, a…

  1. High cancer mortality for US-born Latinos: evidence from California and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Paulo S; Callahan, Karen E; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Cobb, Taylor R; Roca-Barcelo, Aina; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2017-07-11

    Latinos born in the US, 36 million, comprise 65% of all US Latinos. Yet their cancer experience is nearly always analyzed together with their foreign-born counterparts, 19 million, who constitute a steady influx of truly lower-risk populations from abroad. To highlight specific cancer vulnerabilities for US-born Latinos, we compare their cancer mortality to the majority non-Latino white (NLW) population, foreign-born Latinos, and non-Latino blacks. We analyzed 465,751 cancer deaths from 2008 to 2012 occurring among residents of California and Texas, the two most populous states, accounting for 47% of US Latinos. This cross-sectional analysis, based on granular data obtained from death certificates on cause of death, age, race, ethnicity and birthplace, makes use of normal standardization techniques and negative binomial regression models. While Latinos overall have lower all-cancers-combined mortality rates than NLWs, these numbers were largely driven by low rates among the foreign born while mortality rates for US-born Latinos approach those of NLWs. Among Texas males, rates were 210 per 100,000 for NLWs and 166 for Latinos combined, but 201 per 100,000 for US-born Latinos and 125 for foreign-born Latinos. Compared to NLWs, US-born Latino males in California had mortality rate ratios of 2.83 (95% CI: 2.52-3.18) for liver cancer, 1.44 (95% CI: 1.30-1.61) for kidney cancer, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.17-1.34) for colorectal cancer (CRC). Texas results showed a similar site-specific pattern. Specific cancer patterns for US-born Latinos, who have relatively high cancer mortality, similar overall to NLWs, are masked by aggregation of all Latinos, US-born and foreign-born. While NLWs had high mortality for lung cancer, US-born Latinos had high mortality for liver, kidney and male colorectal cancers. HCV testing and reinforcement of the need for CRC screening should be a priority in this specific and understudied population. The unprecedented proximity of overall rates between

  2. Building social capital to promote adolescent wellbeing: a qualitative study with teens in a Latino agricultural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Raymond-Flesch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latino youth, particularly in rural settings, experience significant disparities in rates of teen pregnancy and violence. Few data are available regarding social and structural influences on Latino youth’s developmental trajectories, specifically on factors that promote wellbeing and protect them from engagement in high-risk sexual and violence-related behaviors. Methods Forty-two youth aged 13 to 19 years old were recruited from middle schools and youth leadership programs to participate in one of eight community-based focus groups in Salinas, a predominantly Latino, urban center in California’s rural central coast. Focus groups covered youths’ experiences with the risk and protective factors associated with exposure to violence and romantic relationships. Four researchers completed coding with a Grounded Theory approach, informed by the theoretical frameworks of the social ecological model and social capital. The study’s design and participant recruitment were informed by a community advisory board of local youth-serving organizations and health care providers. Results Participants described family lives rich in bonding social capital, with strong ties to parents and near-peer family members. They reported that while parents had a strong desire to promote healthful behaviors and social mobility, they often lacked the bridging or linking social capital required to help youth navigate structural systems, such as college applications and access to confidential health care. Youth also reported that some families link their children to negative social capital, such as exposure to gang affiliation. Conclusion Adolescents in this agricultural community identified robust sources of bonding social capital within their families. However, they identified limitations in their families’ capacities to link them to structural resources in education, employment, and health care that could support healthful behaviors and upward

  3. Building social capital to promote adolescent wellbeing: a qualitative study with teens in a Latino agricultural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond-Flesch, Marissa; Auerswald, Colette; McGlone, Linda; Comfort, Megan; Minnis, Alexandra

    2017-02-08

    Latino youth, particularly in rural settings, experience significant disparities in rates of teen pregnancy and violence. Few data are available regarding social and structural influences on Latino youth's developmental trajectories, specifically on factors that promote wellbeing and protect them from engagement in high-risk sexual and violence-related behaviors. Forty-two youth aged 13 to 19 years old were recruited from middle schools and youth leadership programs to participate in one of eight community-based focus groups in Salinas, a predominantly Latino, urban center in California's rural central coast. Focus groups covered youths' experiences with the risk and protective factors associated with exposure to violence and romantic relationships. Four researchers completed coding with a Grounded Theory approach, informed by the theoretical frameworks of the social ecological model and social capital. The study's design and participant recruitment were informed by a community advisory board of local youth-serving organizations and health care providers. Participants described family lives rich in bonding social capital, with strong ties to parents and near-peer family members. They reported that while parents had a strong desire to promote healthful behaviors and social mobility, they often lacked the bridging or linking social capital required to help youth navigate structural systems, such as college applications and access to confidential health care. Youth also reported that some families link their children to negative social capital, such as exposure to gang affiliation. Adolescents in this agricultural community identified robust sources of bonding social capital within their families. However, they identified limitations in their families' capacities to link them to structural resources in education, employment, and health care that could support healthful behaviors and upward social mobility.

  4. Parents' views on engaging families of middle school students in obesity prevention and control in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowgill, Burton O; Chung, Paul J; Thompson, Lindsey R; Elijah, Jacinta; Lamb, Sheila; Garcia, Vanessa P; Bastani, Roshan

    2014-04-04

    Overweight and obesity remain significant public health risks for youth in the United States, particularly among racial/ethnic minority groups. Efforts at obesity prevention and control have targeted youth and family members in diverse settings. Although involving parents in obesity prevention programs for youth may improve the potential of these programs, less is known about parents' preferred methods of engagement, especially among racial/ethnic minority parents and parents whose primary language is not English. In this qualitative study, parents of middle-school-aged children were asked how best to engage their children in obesity prevention and control efforts. We recruited 38 parents whose children attended Los Angeles middle schools to participate in focus groups. Two English-language focus groups with 14 parents of different racial/ethnic backgrounds and 2 Spanish language groups with 24 Latino parents were conducted from 2010 through 2011. We analyzed focus group transcripts by using content analysis using inductive and deductive techniques. Findings from focus groups confirmed that parents want to help their children avoid obesity but feel constrained in their ability to take action. Participants identified an overarching desire to become better parents as a potential incentive to engage in obesity prevention efforts. Parents advocated for family-focused approaches in obesity prevention programs, including family sports leagues and cooking classes. Most findings were consistent between language groups, but parents in the Spanish language groups cited language-related barriers. The development and testing of simple programs that are sustainable, community-based, and family-focused may empower families to address obesity prevention and control.

  5. Parents’ Views on Engaging Families of Middle School Students in Obesity Prevention and Control in a Multiethnic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Paul. J.; Thompson, Lindsey R.; Elijah, Jacinta; Lamb, Sheila; Garcia, Vanessa P.; Bastani, Roshan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Overweight and obesity remain significant public health risks for youth in the United States, particularly among racial/ethnic minority groups. Efforts at obesity prevention and control have targeted youth and family members in diverse settings. Although involving parents in obesity prevention programs for youth may improve the potential of these programs, less is known about parents’ preferred methods of engagement, especially among racial/ethnic minority parents and parents whose primary language is not English. In this qualitative study, parents of middle-school–aged children were asked how best to engage their children in obesity prevention and control efforts. Methods We recruited 38 parents whose children attended Los Angeles middle schools to participate in focus groups. Two English-language focus groups with 14 parents of different racial/ethnic backgrounds and 2 Spanish language groups with 24 Latino parents were conducted from 2010 through 2011. We analyzed focus group transcripts by using content analysis using inductive and deductive techniques. Results Findings from focus groups confirmed that parents want to help their children avoid obesity but feel constrained in their ability to take action. Participants identified an overarching desire to become better parents as a potential incentive to engage in obesity prevention efforts. Parents advocated for family-focused approaches in obesity prevention programs, including family sports leagues and cooking classes. Most findings were consistent between language groups, but parents in the Spanish language groups cited language-related barriers. Conclusion The development and testing of simple programs that are sustainable, community-based, and family-focused may empower families to address obesity prevention and control. PMID:24698532

  6. A dietary behaviors measure for use with low-income, Spanish-speaking Caribbean Latinos with type 2 diabetes: The Latino Dietary Behaviors Questionnaire (LDBQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Senaida; Olendzki, Barbara; Rosal, Milagros C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the validity of a Spanish-language dietary behaviors self-report questionnaire (LDBQ) for Latinos with diabetes. The sample (n = 252) was Spanish-speaking, female (77%), middle-aged (mean age = 55 years), low-education (56% internal consistency analysis; and correlation analysis using baseline and change scores for: LDBQ, three day 24-hour dietary recall nutrient mean, and clinical measures. Cronbach’s alphas were moderate. Four factors were identified at both time points. Significant baseline correlations (r) were found for LDBQ total scores, factor scores and: caloric intake (r = −.29 to −.34); total dietary fiber (r = .19); sodium (r = −.24 to −.30); percent calories from total fat (r = −.16); fat subtypes (r = −.16 to .15); and percent calories from protein (r = .17). Twelvemonth data produced a similar pattern. T-tests of LDBQ change scores showed significantly greater change in dietary behaviors for the intervention group than for the control group, t(135) = −4.17, p < .01. LDBQ change scores correlated significantly with mean 24-hour nutrient intake and a subset of clinical measures, but were not associated with clinical change scores (except HDL). The LDBQ is a useful tool to assess and target behaviors for change and assess intervention effects. PMID:21443994

  7. Parenting classes: focus on discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J M

    1992-01-01

    Nurses in community settings have an opportunity to provide instruction related to health and life-style needs. An important consideration is the parental role. A particularly controversial and opinion-laden aspect of parenting is disciplining children. Discipline provides children with the security of clearly enforced rules to help them learn self-control and social standards. Parenting classes are worthwhile for people who have little formal or informal preparation. A survey of middle-class elementary school district parents' and childrens' attitudes toward discipline was conducted to develop meaningful parenting classes. Parents' feelings about being a mother or father were surprisingly negative. A parent educational program was developed to cover child growth and development and disciplinary practices. Parent evaluations led to continuation and an expansion of this program to other schools within the area.

  8. Thermal stability of the aromatic fraction of Safaniya crude oil (Middle East): experimental study, kinetic scheme by molecular classes and geochemical implications; Stabilite thermique de la fraction aromatique de l'huile brute safaniya (Moyen-Orient): etude experimentale, schema cinetique par classes moleculaires et implications geochimiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Darouich, T.

    2005-07-15

    The thermal evolution of reservoir oils is controlled by the kinetics of cracking reactions. The present work is concerned with the study of the thermal stability of the light aromatic components (C{sub 6}-C{sub 14}) of crude oils under geological conditions. The aim is to predict this stability through a mode l derived from laboratory pyrolyses. The light cut < 250 deg. C of Safaniya crude oil, corresponding to the C{sub 15} components, was obtained by fractionated distillation; pure aromatic fraction was then separated by liquid chromatography. Detailed molecular characterisation of the aromatic fraction was acquired using HPLC, GC and GC/MS. Then, quantified individual aromatic compounds were lumped into six molecular classes: BTXN, methyl-aromatics, alkyl-aromatics, naphthenic-aromatics, indene and sulphur - containing aromatics. Pyrolyses of the aromatic fraction were performed in gold tubes at 100 bars and different temperature/time conditions in a wide range (1 to 93%) of global conversion. Pyrolysis effluents were analysed and lumped into classes. The pyrolysis data were used to elaborate a semi - empirical kinetic scheme of 13 stoichiometric reactions for the primary and secondary cracking of the unstable classes. The scheme kinetic parameters were first estimated, and then numerically optimised, with the constraints of mass balance and hydrogen conservation. A set of pyrolysis experiments was performed at 375 deg.C under high pressures: 400, 800 and 1200 bars. Increasing slowing down in conversion rate with increasing pressure was thus observed compared to experiments at 100 bars. A slight selective effect of pressure on the different aromatic classes of the charge and on the product distribution was evidenced. The extrapolation of the kinetic model to the conditions of Elgin Field (North Sea) showed that pressure effect should shift the thermal cracking of light aromatics to higher temperatures by almost 8 deg. C. (author)

  9. A longitudinal study of Latino and non-Hispanic mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms and its association with parent-child communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Susan M; Yueqi, Yan; DiCorcia, Daley; Padilla, Yolanda

    2018-02-01

    Roughly 8% of the U.S. population report moderate or severe depression for two or more weeks and Latinos (3.7%) report higher rates of severe depression compared to non-Hispanic whites (2.6%) (Pratt and Brody, 2014). As the Latino population continues to grow in the U.S., there is little research on the manifestations for depression, and how this affects the family system longitudinally. Based on data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a 3-step latent class analysis examined the association of self-reported parental depressive symptoms and their children's perceived levels of closeness and openness to communicate with their parents over 9 years (N=3956 families). Latino parents reported four different depressive patterns, while non-Hispanic parents were more diversified and had six patterns in terms of latent class analysis. Latinos reported episodic symptoms, while NH parents were more likely to report chronic depressive symptoms over time. Regardless of race/ethnicity, parental depressive symptoms negatively affected their children's reported level of parental closeness and openness to communicate with mothers and fathers. As with any self-report data, the risk of social desirability bias is likely still present. Additionally, these results cannot be generalized to the broader U.S. Due to the different mental health presentations over 9 years, and following the federal initiatives (National Institute of Mental Health, 2015) of early and consistent surveillance, we advise that clinicians and primary care physicians screen for depressive symptoms at least yearly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. School Psychologists' Family-School Partnering Experiences with Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Desireé; Lasser, Jon; Fernandez, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify the beliefs, perceptions, and actions of school psychologists toward family-school partnering (FSP) with Latino families in the public school system. Existing research in this area is extremely limited; therefore, the present study has significant implications for pre- and in-service…

  11. Culinary School Gives Latinos a Taste of the Top

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Lee

    2012-01-01

    With scholarships and other special programs, the Culinary Institute of America's (CIA) Texas campus hopes to make its Latino students into industry leaders. CIA is considered as the most august culinary school in the United States. CIA San Antonio dispatches chefs to study and document traditional cuisines throughout Latin America for its Center…

  12. Hispanics/Latinos & Cardiovascular Disease: Statistical Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistical Fact Sheet 2013 Update Hispanics/Latinos & Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD/10 codes I00-I99, Q20-Q28) (ICD/9 codes 390-459, 745-747)  Among Mexican-American adults age 20 ...

  13. MAT@USC Candidates and Latino English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomeli, Cynthia Leticia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further understand the perceptions of MAT@USC teacher candidates and how their perceptions and previous experiences affect the educational experiences of Latino English language learners. Three questions were developed to guide this study: (1) What are the perceptions of MAT@USC candidates in selected courses…

  14. Parent-Child Communication and Parental Involvement in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Tatiana M.; Cardemil, Esteban V.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the associations among parent-child relationship characteristics, acculturation and enculturation, and child externalizing symptoms in a sample of 40 Latino parent-adolescent dyads. Specifically, the associations between parent-child relationship characteristics (i.e., communication and parental involvement) and adolescents'…

  15. Cultural Considerations in Advising Latino/a Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni-Rodriguez, Lirio K.; Dicks, Barbara A.; Morales, Julio

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model for advising Latino/a students in graduate social work programs. The model is based on ecological-systemic and empowerment theory and ascribes to the social work values and cultural competence standards proposed by the National Association of Social Workers. It has been developed within an institution that has sought…

  16. Educating Latino Children: International Perspectives and Values in Early Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2009-01-01

    To implement culturally responsive early education that is developmentally appropriate for Latino children, it is important to look at values that permeate education in Latin America. Therefore, the author draws on ethnographic data (interviews, observations, artifacts, and field notes) from early childhood centers and schools in Mexico, Brazil…

  17. Los Grammy Latino, su meta inicial y su fin comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinés Arroyo Sotomayor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo refiere lo que es este festival musical que premia el talento latino, quienes participan, su meta inicial y su fin comercial. Muestra que a pesar de la tradición de intolerancia del exilio cubano, la música sirvió, una vez más, como puente de cultura

  18. Parenting Latino Toddlers and Preschoolers: Clinical and Nonclinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Maria E.; Fox, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Parenting practices contribute significantly to the social-emotional development of young children. There is limited literature that addresses the role of culture in parenting, particularly among Latino families who have very young children with significant behavior problems. The current study compared the parenting practices of 30 low-income…

  19. Preschool Education: Delivering on the Promise for Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This publication highlights opportunities to improve the educational outcomes of Hispanic children at an early age, a time that is critical to setting up the academic success of children. Specifically, this paper examines barriers to quality and access that limit the participation of Latino children and families in preschool and offers…

  20. Heteronormativity and sexual partnering among bisexual Latino men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-05-01

    Our analyses address the question of how bisexual Latino men organize their sexual partnerships. Heteronormativity can be understood as the set of social norms and normative structures that guide sexual partnering among men and women. We provide descriptive statistics to describe bisexual Latino men's sexual partnerships. Logistic and linear regression modeling were used to explore bivariate and multivariate relationships. Of our total sample (N = 142), 41.6 % had unprotected vaginal intercourse 2 months prior to the interview; 21.8 % had unprotected anal intercourse with female partners; 37.5 % had unprotected insertive anal intercourse with male partners; and 22.5 % had unprotected receptive anal intercourse with male partners. In our multivariate model, machismo was directly associated with meeting female partners through formal spaces (workplace, school, and/or church), but inversely associated with meeting male partners in formal spaces. Machismo was positively associated with meeting male sex partners through social networks (i.e., friendship and kinship networks). The more comfortable men were with homosexuality the less likely they were to meet men online and the more likely they were to meet men through social networks of friends and kinship. Interventions to reduce sexually transmitted diseases that target bisexual behavior as an epidemiological "bridge" of transmission from homosexual to heterosexual networks might very well benefit from a more complex understanding of how Latino bisexuality is patterned. Thus, this exploratory analysis might lead to a rethinking of how to address risk and vulnerability among Latino bisexual men and their sexual networks.

  1. Addressing Cultural Variables in Parent Training Programs with Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Chikira H.; Cook, Katrina L.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been increased attention given to understanding how cultural variables may have an impact on the efficacy of treatments with Latino families seeking psychological services. Within parent training programs, understanding the extent to which culture can affect parenting practices is vital to providing quality care. The focus of…

  2. Institutional and Structural Barriers to Latino/a Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Angela; Garcia, Emmanuel; Romo, Harriett; Perez, Beatrix

    2012-01-01

    The problem of low academic attainment for Latino/a students may be a result of the situation at the K-12 levels, a situation that is beyond the control of students or their families (Martinez, 2003). Analyses of school success must take into account the social and political hierarchies in schools, school systems, and communities, as well as the…

  3. Culturally Responsive Social Skill Instruction for Latino Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ya-yu; Correa, Vivian I.; Anderson, Adrienne L.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural friendships and peer interactions are important skills for Latino students to become socially adjusted in U.S. schools. Culturally responsive social skill instruction allows educators to teach essential social skills while attending to the native culture and personal experiences of the students. The present study examined the…

  4. Emergent Target Language Identities among Latino English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriza-Lope, Maria; Shappeck, Marco; Arxer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    During 2nd language acquisition, a learner's identity is consigned, juxtaposed, coconstructed, and reified through various affective positions and mitigating linguistic behaviors. Our study of adult Latino ESL students in Dallas, Texas, shows how language socialization experiences are shaped by the learners' affective stances toward the project of…

  5. An Art Therapy Exploration of Immigration with Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linesch, Debra; Aceves, Hilda C.; Quezada, Paul; Trochez, Melissa; Zuniga, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This grounded theory study utilized art therapy techniques to explore the experiences of 8 Latino families that had immigrated to the United States. Focus group facilitators invited the parents and adolescent children in the families to share their acculturation experiences verbally and in family drawings. Emergent themes from each of three focus…

  6. Familial Influences on Dating Violence Victimization Among Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Klevens, Joanne; Tharp, Andra Teten; Chapman, Mimi V; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T

    2016-01-01

    Despite theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting that the family environment plays a central role in Latino youth development, relatively little is known about how family processes influence dating violence victimization among Latino adolescents. To address this gap in the literature, we used data from 210 Latino parents and their 13- to 15-year-old adolescents to examine associations between several different family processes, including both parenting practices (parent monitoring, parent-adolescent communication) and aspects of the family relational climate (family cohesion, family conflict, acculturation conflict) and psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence victimization. Consistent with expectations, lower levels of family cohesion and higher levels of family and acculturation conflict were associated with risk for dating violence victimization, although associations varied depending on victimization type. In contrast, neither parental monitoring nor parent-adolescent communication was significantly associated with any type of dating violence victimization. In addition, we found that parent, but not teen, Anglo-American acculturation was associated with higher dating violence victimization risk. Findings suggest that family-based dating abuse prevention programs for Latino youth should seek to increase family cohesion and decrease family conflict, including acculturation-based conflict.

  7. Social Work Practice with Latinos: Key Issues for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Rich; Negi, Nalini Junko; Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Rowan, Diana; Shukraft, Allison; Gragg, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The Latino population is the fastest growing group in the United States; thus, it is imperative that social workers and other mental health practitioners be knowledgeable about the current literature on how to effectively serve this population. This article elucidates key issues and knowledge, such as immigration and migration concerns; discusses…

  8. Cultural conflicts in the weight loss experience of overweight Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, V A; Mainous, A G; Pope, C

    2007-02-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of obesity in the Latino population, there is limited recent information that can be used by health-care providers to develop culturally appropriate weight loss strategies for this population. Therefore, we describe weight loss experiences, attitudes and barriers in overweight Latino adults. Qualitative study using focus group methodology. Twenty-one overweight adults (body mass index >/=25, age >/=20 years) self-identified as Latinos. Subjects participated in one of three focus groups. Reccurring themes within group discussions were identified by three independent investigators, one who was ethnicity concordant. Themes included the presence of mixed messages when determining one's appropriate weight, with participants' desire to lose weight to be healthy (based on professional advice and personal experience) conflicting with the cultural idea that being overweight is healthy. Participants described discordance when adapting to the mainstream, leading to the loss of healthy traditional habits. Participants expressed interest in weight loss and familiarity with dieting and weight loss interventions. They desired culturally appropriate nutrition education and reassurance regarding healthy dieting from health-care providers. The importance of interactions with peers during education was another relevant theme, and participants were overwhelmingly positive about group education. To improve health promotion for Latinos, cultural factors distinctive to this underserved population, and barriers they articulate, should be considered when developing weight loss interventions.

  9. Redefining Rurality: Cosmopolitanism, Whiteness, and the New Latino Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierk, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    In mainstream discourse, rural generally implies white, while urban signifies not-white. However, what happens when "rural" communities experience demographic change? This paper examines how students from a rural, New Latino Diaspora community in a Midwestern state complicate traditional notions of rurality. Data from participant…

  10. Latino Bilingual Teachers: Negotiating the Figured World of Masculinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Gilberto P.; Fránquiz, María E.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on a group of male teachers from Proyecto Bilingüe, a professional development master's degree program for bilingual teachers. The study is guided by one broad research question: How do Latino male bilingual teachers negotiate their identities in a gendered profession? Specifically the study addresses: What spaces for…

  11. Hispanic or Latino Student Success in Online Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine graduation and dropout rates for Hispanic or Latino K-12 students enrolled in fully online and blended public school settings in Arizona. The independent variables of school type (charter vs. non-charter) and delivery method (fully online vs. blended) were examined using multivariate and univariate methods…

  12. Recommended and Not Recommended Bilingual Books and Books about Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    1995-01-01

    Describes several noteworthy books about Latinos that contrast cultures, explain a unique Mexican and Mexican American celebration, explore the debate over illegal immigration, and convey the quandaries of adolescence. Several publications are considered inferior because they disregard the Spanish language and present negative historical…

  13. Latino Adolescents' Academic Motivation: The Role of Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Edna C.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2010-01-01

    Guided by an ecological perspective, two competing models were tested to examine how sibling relationship quality directly predicted or interacted with academic support from siblings to predict Latino adolescents' academic motivation (N = 258). Gender differences were examined utilizing multiple group analysis in structural equation modeling.…

  14. Social network characteristics associated with health promoting behaviors among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Becky; Elder, John P; Arredondo, Elva M; Madanat, Hala; Ji, Ming; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between social network characteristics and health promoting behaviors (having a routine medical check-up, consuming no alcohol, consuming no fast food, and meeting recommendations for leisure-time physical activity and sleep duration) among Latinos to identify potential targets for behavioral interventions. Personal network characteristics and health behavior data were collected from a community sample of 393 adult Latinos (73% women) in San Diego County, California. Network characteristics consisted of size and composition. Network size was calculated by the number of alters listed on a name generator questionnaire eliciting people with whom respondents discussed personal issues. Network composition variables were the proportion of Latinos, Spanish-speakers, females, family, and friends listed in the name generator. Additional network composition variables included marital status and the number of adults or children in the household. Network members were predominately Latinos (95%), Spanish-speakers (80%), females (64%), and family (55%). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, gender moderated the relationship between network composition, but not size, and a health behavior. Married women were more likely to have had a routine medical check-up than married men. For both men and women, having a larger network was associated with meeting the recommendation for leisure-time physical activity. Few social network characteristics were significantly associated with health promoting behaviors, suggesting a need to examine other aspects of social relationships that may influence health behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. How Community Colleges in Texas Prioritize Resources for Latino Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Sarah L.; Garbee, Kelty T.; Miller, Ryan A.; Saenz, Victor B.

    2018-01-01

    This study explored how administrators at community colleges conceptualized change related to resource allocation and managing competing priorities to support targeted programming for Latino men. The study included the perspectives of 39 administrators from seven community colleges across Texas using concepts associated with institutional change…

  16. Latino Parents and Teachers: Key Players Building Neighborhood Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Elizabeth; Ulanoff, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    This narrative study examines how Latino parents and teachers in the Boyle Heights/East Los Angeles community create and appropriate social capital to increase student achievement. Specifically, the study explores how parents and teachers participate in two community organizations to extend resources that have the potential to positively impact…

  17. Scattered Challenges, Singular Solutions: The New Latino Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Stanton; Clonan-Roy, Katherine; Link, Holly; Martinez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    A new Latino diaspora has seen the arrival of Spanish-speaking students in rural and suburban America--places that had not experienced Hispanic immigration in the way the Southwest and urban centers have. This new development presents educators with challenges in meeting these students' needs. But educators also have the opportunity to draw…

  18. Psychosocial Correlates of Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth; Kerr, Melissa Hallmark; Shattuck, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    To examine the association between physical dating violence victimization and risk and protective factors, an anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to Latino youth (n = 446) residing in suburban Washington, DC. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed, and adjusted OR and 95% CI were examined.…

  19. Collaborative Assessment: Middle School Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkison, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…

  20. Middle School Girls' Envisioned Future in Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…

  1. History Repeats Itself at Yorktown Middle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, Teresa T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two interdisciplinary units that can be used in most middle school classrooms, one on the sinking of the "Titanic" and one on Pickett's charge at Gettysburg during the Civil War. Describes how each unit involves English, math, social studies, and science classes and activities. (SR)

  2. The Role of Parent Communication and Connectedness in Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Nicole Rebecca; Eisenberg, Marla E; Sieving, Renee E

    2016-06-01

    Dating violence among U.S. adolescents is a substantial concern. Previous research indicates that Latino youth are at increased risk of dating violence victimization. This secondary data analysis examined the prevalence of physical and sexual dating violence victimization among subgroups of Latino adolescents and associations of parent communication, parent caring, and dating violence victimization using data from the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 4,814). Parallel analyses were conducted for Latino-only and multiple-race Latino adolescents, stratified by gender. Multivariate logistic regression models tested associations between race/ethnicity, parent communication, perceived parent caring, and adolescent dating violence experiences. Overall, 7.2% to 16.2% of Latinos reported physical or sexual dating violence. Both types of dating violence were more prevalent among multiple-race Latinos than among Latino-only adolescents, with prevalence rates highest among multiple-race Latino females (19.8% and 19.7% for physical and sexual dating violence victimization, respectively). In multivariate models, perceived parent caring was the most important protective factor against physical and sexual dating violence among males and females. High levels of mother and father communication were associated with less physical violence victimization among males and females and with less sexual violence victimization among females. Results highlight the importance of parent communication and parent caring as buffers against dating violence victimization for Latino youth. These findings indicate potential for preventive interventions with Latino adolescents targeting family connectedness to address dating violence victimization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Modern Middle Eastern Fiction: An Approach to Studying the Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Frank A., Comp.

    The annotated listing cites Middle Eastern fiction which has been translated into English and can be used in humanities or social studies classes at the secondary level. The eight works of fiction listed contain materials that can be used to investigate the following topics: 1) contrasts between urban and village styles of life in the Middle East;…

  4. Weaving latino cultural concepts into Preparedness Core Competency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Jacome, Mary; Parker, Blanca Angelica Gonzalez; Waltz, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    The New York • New Jersey Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (NY•NJ PERLC) is one of 14 Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention designed to address the preparedness and response training and education needs of the public health workforce. One of the important niches, or focus areas for the Center, is training to improve the capacity of public health workers to respond with competence to the needs of vulnerable populations. During every phase of a disaster, racial and ethnic minorities, including Latinos, suffer worse outcomes than the general population. Communities with diverse cultural origins and limited English speakers often present more complex issues during public health emergencies. Training that incorporates cultural concepts into the Preparedness Core Competencies may improve the ability of public health workers to engage the Latino community in preparedness activities and ultimately improve outcomes during disasters. This article describes initiatives undertaken by the NY•NJ PERLC to improve the capacity of the public health workforce to respond competently to the needs of Latino populations. In 2012, the Center collaborated with national, state, and local partners to develop a nationwide broadcast founded on the Preparedness Core Competencies, Latinos During Emergencies: Cultural Considerations Impacting Disaster Preparedness. The widely viewed broadcast (497 sites in 47 states and 13 nations) highlighted the commonalities and differences within Latino culture that can impact emergency preparedness and response and outlined practical strategies to enhance participation. The success of the broadcast spurred a number of partner requests for training and technical assistance. Lessons learned from these experiences, including our "undercover" work at local Points of Dispensing, are incorporated into subsequent interactive trainings to improve the competency of public health workers. Participants recommended

  5. Restraint use law enforcement intervention in Latino communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechter, Judy; Uhlhorn, Susan B

    2011-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for U.S. Latinos aged 1 to 35 years. Restraint use is an effective means of prevention of motor vehicle crash injury. Effective interventions to raise restraint use include the following: legislation, law enforcement, education, and equipment distribution. The effects of law enforcement interventions in Latino immigrant communities are understudied. We measured the community-level effect of a combined intervention that included warnings and citations phase enforcement in Latino communities. We designed and implemented in two of three Latino-majority communities a multicomponent intervention consisting of a community awareness campaign, restraint use education with equipment distribution, and a two-staged law enforcement intervention. Restraint use observations were conducted in all three communities at baseline, after the warnings phase and again after the citations phase of the intervention were completed. The combined intervention of community awareness, education, child passenger restraint distribution, and law enforcement focused on educational traffic stops with incentives and warnings was associated with a significant increase in both driver and child passenger restraint use in one intervention community, but only driver restraint increased to a level of significance in the other intervention community; significant increase was also noted among nonintervention drivers. The citations phase of the intervention did not result in a significant increase in restraint use and was complicated by interruptions due to unlicensed drivers. The combined effort of community awareness, education, equipment distribution and law enforcement intervention that included incentives and warnings may be effective at increasing seat belt use in Latino communities without the need for citations.

  6. Patterns of Change in Adolescent Dating Victimization and Aggression During Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncy, Elizabeth A; Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N

    2018-03-01

    Although mounting evidence suggests dating victimization and aggression begin in early adolescence, little work has examined the pattern of these behaviors across this age. This longitudinal study examined trajectories of dating victimization and aggression across middle school using 12 waves of data. A sample of early adolescents (N = 1369, 52.3% girls; 83% African American; 15% Hispanic or Latino) residing in an urban, economically disadvantaged area participated in this study. Youth completed measures of dating victimization and aggression quarterly across the 3 years of middle school. Although results indicated a general trend of increasing dating victimization and aggression across middle school, variation existed for boys and girls. Specifically, girls showed increasing patterns of both, whereas boys remained relatively stable across time. Dating victimization and aggression were also highly correlated across time. These findings support the implementation and refinement of prevention programming aimed at preventing and reducing dating aggression and victimization in middle school.

  7. Physical activity among Hispanic/Latino and non-Hispanic/Latino white visitors to urban-proximate public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia A. Wilhelm Stanis; Ingrid E. Schneider; Kimberly J. Shinew; Deborah J. Chavez; Mary C. Vogel

    2008-01-01

    Health benefits of physical activity are well recognized and documented, yet obesity rates remain high in the United States, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos. As our population becomes more urban and ethnically diverse, a greater understanding of specific populations may help agencies better address issues related to obesity and sedentary lifestyles. This study...

  8. Quantitative Anthropometric Measures of Facial Appearance of Healthy Hispanic/Latino White Children: Establishing Reference Data for Care of Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhun; Ku, Brian; Combs, Patrick D.; Da Silveira, Adriana. C.; Markey, Mia K.

    2017-06-01

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± P) is one of the most common congenital facial deformities worldwide. To minimize negative social consequences of CL ± P, reconstructive surgery is conducted to modify the face to a more normal appearance. Each race/ethnic group requires its own facial norm data, yet there are no existing facial norm data for Hispanic/Latino White children. The objective of this paper is to identify measures of facial appearance relevant for planning reconstructive surgery for CL ± P of Hispanic/Latino White children. Quantitative analysis was conducted on 3D facial images of 82 (41 girls, 41 boys) healthy Hispanic/Latino White children whose ages ranged from 7 to 12 years. Twenty-eight facial anthropometric features related to CL ± P (mainly in the nasal and mouth area) were measured from 3D facial images. In addition, facial aesthetic ratings were obtained from 16 non-clinical observers for the same 3D facial images using a 7-point Likert scale. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to find features that were correlated with the panel ratings of observers. Boys with a longer face and nose, or thicker upper and lower lips are considered more attractive than others while girls with a less curved middle face contour are considered more attractive than others. Associated facial landmarks for these features are primary focus areas for reconstructive surgery for CL ± P. This study identified anthropometric measures of facial features of Hispanic/Latino White children that are pertinent to CL ± P and which correlate with the panel attractiveness ratings.

  9. Examining the Influence of Family Environments on Youth Violence: A Comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Non-Latino Black, and Non-Latino White Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Padilla, Mark B.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-01-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of…

  10. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  11. Residential energy consumption across different population groups: Comparative analysis for Latino and non-Latino households in U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Henderson, L. [Univ. of Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Residential energy cost, an important part of the household budget, varies significantly across different population groups. In the United States, researchers have conducted many studies of household fuel consumption by fuel type -- electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) -- and by geographic areas. The results of past research have also demonstrated significant variation in residential energy use across various population groups, including white, black, and Latino. However, research shows that residential energy demand by fuel type for Latinos, the fastest-growing population group in the United States, has not been explained by economic and noneconomic factors in any available statistical model. This paper presents a discussion of energy demand and expenditure patterns for Latino and non-Latino households in the United States. The statistical model developed to explain fuel consumption and expenditures for Latino households is based on Stone and Geary`s linear expenditure system model. For comparison, the authors also developed models for energy consumption in non-Latino, black, and nonblack households. These models estimate consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and LPG by various households at the national level. The study revealed significant variations in the patterns of fuel consumption for Latinos and non-Latinos. The model methodology and results of this research should be useful to energy policymakers in government and industry, researchers, and academicians who are concerned with economic and energy issues related to various population groups.

  12. Health status, activity limitations, and disability in work and housework among Latinos and non-Latinos with arthritis: an analysis of national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; White, Kellee; Armbrister, Adria N; Link, Bruce G

    2006-06-15

    To document disparities in health status, activity limitations, and disability in work and housework between Latinos and non-Latino whites with arthritis. We examined whether sociodemographic factors (age, income, and education) account for the disparities between the ethnic groups, and whether comorbid conditions, disease duration, health care utilization, and functional abilities predict health status, activity limitations, and work and housework disability after controlling for sociodemographic variables. We analyzed data from the Condition file of the 1994 National Health Interview Survey on Disability, Phase I. The risk of worse health, activity limitations, and work and housework disability was >2 times greater among Latinos compared with non-Latino whites. In the regression models accounting for potential confounders, Latino ethnicity remained significantly associated with poorer health status, but not activity limitations or disability in work or housekeeping. Of the socioeconomic status variables, education had a significant protective effect on work disability and health status. Comorbid conditions and health care utilization increased the likelihood of worse health, activity limitations, and work disability. Limitations in physical function were associated with poorer health and disability in work and homemaking. Social status differences between Latinos and non-Latinos may account for disparities in activity limitations and disability in work and housework. Education may provide various health benefits, including access to a range of occupations that do not require physical demands. The findings help to address the great gap in knowledge concerning factors related to the health and disability status of Latinos with arthritis.

  13. Synopsis of key persons, events, and associations in the history of Latino psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Amado M; Olmedo, Esteban

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we present a brief synopsis of six early Latino psychologists, several key conferences, the establishment of research centers, and early efforts to create an association for Latino psychologists. Our chronology runs from approximately 1930 to 2000. This history is a firsthand account of how these early leaders, conferences, and efforts to bring Latinos and Latinas together served as a backdrop to current research and practice in Latino psychology. This history of individuals and events is also intertwined with the American Psychological Association and the National Institute of Mental Health and efforts by Latino psychologists to obtain the professional support necessary to lay down the roots of a Latino presence in psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Carolina del Norte and the New South: Social Work Practice with New Latino Immigrant Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa de Saxe Zerden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the Latino population in North Carolina has increased 111%. More than half of North Carolina Latinos are foreign-born and most face issues related to immigration, acculturation, and often, discrimination. This article provides a brief overview of the historical context in which social workers engaged with immigrant communities, and argues that the profession brings strengths and unique skills to address North Carolina’s Latino immigrant population, historically, and within the current context. Key social demographics of Latino populations, sociopolitical realities, as well as theoretical and methodological issues related to the complex needs of this diverse population group are addressed. Two examples of Latino vulnerability in North Carolina, HIV/AIDS and discriminatory local immigration enforcement practices, are discussed to further highlight the unique strengths and challenges social workers in North Carolina and the New South face when working with Latino immigrants.

  15. Impact of end-of-life discussions on the reduction of Latino/non-Latino disparities in do-not-resuscitate order completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Megan Johnson; Prigerson, Holly G; Paulk, Elizabeth; Trevino, Kelly M; Penedo, Frank J; Tergas, Ana I; Epstein, Andrew S; Neugut, Alfred I; Maciejewski, Paul K

    2016-06-01

    Compared with non-Latino, white patients with advanced cancer, Latino patients with advanced cancer are less likely to sign do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders, which is a form of advance care planning associated with better quality of life at the end of life (EOL). Latinos' completion of DNR orders may be more sensitive to clinical discussions regarding EOL care. The current study examined differences between Latino and white terminally ill patients with cancer with regard to the association between EOL discussions and DNR order completion. A total of 117 participants with advanced cancer (61 of whom were Latino and 56 of whom were non-Latino white individuals) were recruited between 2002 and 2008 from Parkland Hospital (a public hospital in Dallas, Texas) as part of the Coping with Cancer study, which is a large, multiinstitutional, prospective cohort study of patients with advanced cancer that is designed to examine social and psychological influences on EOL care. In structured interviews, patients reported if they had EOL discussions with their physicians, and if they completed DNR orders. The association between EOL discussions and DNR order completion was significantly greater in Latino compared with white patients, adjusting for potential confounds (interaction adjusted odds ratio, 6.64; P = .041). Latino patients who had an EOL discussion were >10 times more likely (adjusted odds ratio, 10.91; P = .001) to complete a DNR order than those who had not, and were found to be equally as likely to complete a DNR order as white patients. Differences in the impact of EOL discussions on DNR order completion may explain Latino/non-Latino ethnic disparities in DNR order completion in EOL care, and point to a means to eliminate those disparities. Cancer 2016;122:1749-56. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  16. Differences in clinical characteristics and disease-free survival for Latino, African American, and non-Latino white men with localized prostate cancer: data from CaPSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, David M; Elkin, Eric P; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Sadetsky, Natalia; Duchane, Janeen; Carroll, Peter R

    2006-02-15

    Few studies of ethnicity and prostate cancer have included Latino men in analyses of baseline clinical characteristics, treatment selection, and disease-free survival (DFS). The present study examines the impact of Latino ethnicity on these parameters in a large, multiinstitutional database of men with prostate cancer. We compared baseline disease characteristics and clinical outcomes for Latino (N = 138), non-Latino White (NLW, N = 5619), and African-American (AA, N = 608) men with localized prostate cancer by using chi-square and ANOVA for baseline variables and survival analysis to examine differences in time to recurrence. Latino men resembled AA men more than NLW on sociodemographic characteristics. AA men had higher Gleason scores and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis than Latino or NLW men (both P Latino and AA men presented with advanced disease (T3b/T4/N+/M+) versus 4% of NLW (P Latino men did not receive different treatments than NLW or AA men after controlling for clinical and demographic factors; however, AA men were more likely to receive external beam radiation (OR = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99-2.31) and hormone treatment (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.05-2.32) then NLW men. For prostatectomy patients, 3-year actuarial DFS rates were 83% for NLW men and 86% for Latino men versus 69% for AA men (P Latinos are more similar to African Americans on sociodemographic characteristics but more similar to NLW on clinical presentation, treatments received, and DFS. Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.

  17. Aspirations, Barriers, and Transfer Opportunities for Latina and Latino Community College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The majority of California's students seeking higher education are enrolled in a community college and approximately a third are Latino. Yet as the number of Latinos in community colleges has risen, their degree completion and transfer rates lag in comparison to other major ethnic groups. To investigate the academic aspirations and barriers of community college students, this mixed-methods case study focused on Latinos in a specialized learning community for students entering their first year...

  18. Latino/a Youth Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes: Exploring the Roles of Culture and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for cigarette smoking. This risk seems to increase as youth navigate the U.S. cultural context, especially for girls. To investigate how acculturation may influence Latino/a youths’ intentions to use cigarettes, this study combines a bidimensional/multidomain model of acculturation and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Our sample consisted of 303 recent Latino/a immigrant youth who had resided in the United States for five years or less at baseline (1...

  19. Santería as Informal Mental Health Support Among U.S. Latinos with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    ROSARIO, ADELAIDA M.; DE LA ROSA, MARIO

    2014-01-01

    This article explores and examines Santería’s function as a culturally congruent informal mental health support that assists U.S. Latinos to cope with the psychosocial sequelae of living with cancer. Research has demonstrated that Santería serves as a mediating institution for many Latinos. The tradition functions as both a religion and a health care system within various Latino subgroups and has functioned as an informal mental health service in occurrences of health versus illness.

  20. USSTRIDE program is associated with competitive Black and Latino student applicants to medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Kendall M.; Berne-Anderson, Thesla; Wang, Aihua; Dormeus, Guy; Rodríguez, José E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We compared MCAT scores, grade point averages (GPAs), and medical school acceptance rates of Black and Latino students in an outreach program called Undergraduate Science Students Together Reaching Instructional Diversity and Excellence (USSTRIDE) to non-USSTRIDE students. We hypothesized that Black and Latino participants in USSTRIDE had higher acceptance rates to medical school, higher MCAT scores, and college GPAs when compared to other Black and Latino medical school applicants f...