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Sample records for microbiologically confirmed cases

  1. Updated Cases for Medical Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda Govindan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 4th ed.; Peter H. Gilligan, Daniel S. Shapiro, and Melissa B. Miller; (2014. ASM Press, Washington, DC. 589 pages.

  2. Culture confirmation of tuberculosis cases in Birmingham, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Kalbir S; Sitch, Alice J; Dedicoat, Martin; Wood, Annette L

    2013-10-01

    The proportion of culture-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) cases in Birmingham had gradually decreased to less than 65% in 2008. Reasons for this were unclear, therefore this study assessed diagnostic methods used for confirming TB and reviewed factors involved in positive culture. A cross-sectional study was carried out. A list of notified TB cases for Birmingham in those aged 16 y and over in 2009 was collated. Where no positive culture was recorded, further data were collected from hospital databases and case notes. Of 449 TB cases, 419 (93%) had samples taken for culture testing. Of all cases, 309 (69%) were confirmed by culture testing; of those receiving culture testing, 73% were confirmed. Pulmonary TB was identified as a predictor of positive culture in both the unadjusted and adjusted analyses: odds ratio (OR) 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-3.19, and OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.29-4.17, respectively. Gender, age, ethnicity, UK born, and treatment delay were not significantly associated with positive culture. Of 140 cases not confirmed by culture, 129 (92%) had their diagnosis supported by at least one other test. The vast majority of TB cases had microbiological specimens taken to help confirm the disease. Furthermore, culture confirmation rates in Birmingham were meeting national targets in 2009. However culture confirmation rates were significantly lower in extrapulmonary TB, therefore further work is suggested in this group. The role of other investigations (e.g. interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), Mantoux) is unclear. Further collaboration between clinicians, histopathologists, and microbiologists is advised to ensure samples are sent appropriately and culture confirmation is optimized.

  3. Teaching microbiological food safety through case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Dubois-Brissonnet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education students usually ask for more training based on case studies. This was addressed by designing a specific food safety module (24 hours in which students were shown how to predict microbiological risks in food products i.e. they were asked to determine product shelf-life according to product formulation, preservation methods and consumption habits using predictive microbiology tools. Working groups of four students first identified the main microbiological hazards associated with a specific product. To perform this task, they were given several documents including guides for good hygiene practices, reviews on microbiological hazards in the food sector, flow sheets, etc…  After three-hours of work, the working groups prepared and gave an oral presentation in front of their classmates and professors. This raised comments and discussion that allowed students to adjust their conclusions before beginning the next step of their work. This second step consisted in the evaluation of the safety risk associated with the two major microbiological hazards of the product studied, using predictive microbiology. Students then attended a general lecture on the different tools of predictive microbiology and tutorials (6 hours that made them familiar with the modelling of bacterial growth or inactivation. They applied these tools (9 hours to predict the shelf-life of the studied product according to various scenarios of preservation (refrigeration, water activity, concentration of salt or acid, modified atmosphere, etc… and/or consumption procedures (cooking. The module was concluded by oral presentations of each working group and included student evaluation (3 hours.

  4. Poliomyelitis in Osun State, Nigeria: Two Confirmed Cases After 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Clinico-epidemological characteristics of two confirmed cases of poliomyelitis detected by Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Osun State of Nigeria after almost 6 years of the last confirmed case in the State was reported to provide information for formulating possible aetiological hypothesis and to adequately ...

  5. [Epidemiological investigation on confirmed cases of schistosomiasis in Hubei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Yan, Chen; Shun-Xiang, Cai; Guo, Li; Ying, Xiao; Xiao-Wei, Shan; Juan, Zhang; Jian-Bing, Liu

    2016-05-10

    To grasp the distribution and epidemiology of confirmed cases of schistosomiasis in Hubei Province, so as to provide the evidence for promoting the prevention and control work. The confirmed cases of schistosomiasis in Hubei Province from 2010 to 2014 were epidemiologically investigated, and the prevalence characteristics and main influencing factors were analyzed. A total of 10 102 confirmed cases from 2010 to 2014 were surveyed. There were 1 062 local infected patients, accounting for 10.51% and including 354 repeated infections and 17 newly infected. There were 290 foreigninfected patients, accounting for 2.87%, with 206 repeated infection cases and 84 newly infected. There were 8 750 historical patients, including 2 229 patients who leaked the former schistosomiasis investigations, accounting for 22.06%; 570 patients missed treatment, accounting for 5.64%; 3 640 patients were treated with non-standard therapy, accounting for 36.03%; 2 311 patients were treated with poor medication efficacy, accounting for 22.88%. The multivariate non-conditional Logistic regression, targeting at confirmed cases in 2014, showed that, for the leaking investigations, the potential risk factors included the age, educational level, and latrine renovation ( b >0, OR >1), the protective factors were the times of previous treatment, cattle feeding in villager team, and Oncomelania hupensis snails in surroundings ( b <0, OR <1); for the treatment-missing, the age, educational level, snails in the surroundings of residence were risk factors ( b <0, OR <1); for the substandard treatment, the risk factors included the occupation and snails in the surroundings of residence ( b >0, OR >1), and the educational level and snails in the own field were protective factors ( b <0, OR <1). The epidemiological investigation on the confirmed cases of schistosomiasis could grasp the epidemic factors so as to improve the management and carry out the scientific control.

  6. [First confirmed case of laryngeal diphtheria in Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, J L; Merle, C; Bimet, F; Kiredjian, M; Goullin, B; Teyssou, R

    2000-01-01

    The first bacteriologically confirmed case of laryngeal diphtheria in Djibouti was reported in 1998. It involved a three-year-old native-born infant who had been vaccinated during the first year of life with three doses of a combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, and pertussis. A rapid clinical improvement was observed under erythromycin treatment. Other cases of laryngeal diphtheria have been observed. It is important to reverse decreasing vaccinal coverage in Djibouti and to warn incoming travelers of the need to be adequate immunized against diphtheria. Enhanced epidemiologic surveillance of this disease is also needed.

  7. The first confirmed case of Diphyllobothrium latum in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLN Santos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Diphyllobothriasis is an infection of the small intestine by the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium sp. The associated symptomatology is nonspecific, but megaloblastic anemia is a well-described complication. Although the infection is common in temperate regions, descriptions in South America have so far been limited to Chile, Peru, and a few cases in Argentina. This paper presents the first confirmed Brazilian case of diphyllobothriasis. A 29-years-old woman living in Salvador (state of Bahia apparently acquired the infection from eating sushi. The diagnosis was based on fecal examination that revealed a large quantity of operculated eggs. A single dose of praziquantel (600 mg was sufficient to cure the infection.

  8. Histological and microbiological aspects of actinomycetoma cases in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available A ten year (1976-1986 review study of cases of Actinomycetoma in Venezuela was made through personal interview and clinical examinations, analysis of medical records of patients with actinomycetoma, histological studies of biopsy samples, as well as microbiological studies of isolates strain, also through out personal interviews with researchers and dermatologists who were sources of information on mycetoma cases. A total of 47 cases were recorded. As etiologic agent Actinomadura madurae was found in 20 cases - (42.5%, Nocardia brasiliensis in 13 cases (27.6%, Nocardia spp 7 cases (14.8%, Streptomyces somaliensis in 4 cases (8.5%, N. asteroides in 2 cases (4.2% and N. otitidis caviarum, (N. caviae in 1 case (2.1%. Most of the reported cases involved individuals living and working in rural areas, mostly males who outnumber females 4:1. The patients were 18 to 80 years old. A. madurae was reported as the most frequent etiologic agent. Most of the clinical cases were seen when the disease was well established. Twenty four of the forty seven cases reported were observed in Lara State, which represents a 51.0% of all the cases studied.

  9. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: Review of 408 biopsy-confirmed cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitong Zou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF has now been virtually eliminated by the discovery of its association with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs and the consequent reduced use of GBCA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in severe renal failure patients. This review of 408 biopsy-confirmed cases shows how to minimize NSF risk when performing GBCA-enhanced MRI or magnetic resonance angiography. The absence of any NSF cases in patients less than 8 years old or greater than 87 years old suggests that infants and elderly patients are already protected. Limiting GBCA dose to a maximum of 0.1 mMol/kg, dialyzing dialysis patients quickly following GBCA administration, delaying administration of GBCA in acute renal failure until after renal function returns or dialysis is initiated, and avoiding nonionic linear GBCA in renal failure patients, especially when there are pro-inflammatory conditions, appear to have reduced NSF risk to the point where safe GBCA-enhanced MRI is possible in most patients.

  10. Case Report: Hypertensive encephalopathy with CT confirmation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) is a clinical syndrome that occurs infrequently in children and is often underdiagnosed. We review four patients with HE and describe their clinical presentation and radiological findings on computed tomography (CT). Our cases demonstrate typical features on CT and correlate clinically ...

  11. The value of case-based teaching vignettes in clinical microbiology rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Jennifer O; Kraft, Colleen S; Burd, Eileen M; Armstrong, Wendy S; Guarner, Jeannette

    2014-03-01

    To describe the implementation and evaluation of a case-based microbiology curriculum during daily microbiology rounds. Vignettes consist of short cases with images and questions that facilitate discussion among microbiologists, pathologists, infectious disease physicians, and trainees (residents and fellows). We performed a survey to assess the value of these vignettes to trainees. Motivation to come to rounds on time increased from 60% to 100%. Trainees attending rounds after implementation of the vignettes perceived the value of microbiology rounds to be significantly higher compared with those who attended rounds before implementation (P = .04). Pathology residents found that vignettes were helpful for retaining knowledge (8.3 of 10 points). The vignettes have enhanced the value of microbiology rounds by serving as a formalized curriculum exposing trainees from multiple specialties to various microbiology topics. Emphasis on interdisciplinary interactions between clinical and laboratory personnel was highlighted with this case-based curriculum.

  12. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of urine culture-confirmed genitourinary tuberculosis at medical centers in Taiwan from 1995 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-L; Lai, C-C; Yu, M-C; Yu, F-L; Lee, J-C; Chou, C-H; Tan, C-K; Yang, P-C; Hsueh, P-R

    2011-03-01

    All patients with urine culture-confirmed genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) diagnosed between 1995 and 2007 at two medical centers in northern Taiwan were included in this retrospective study. Genotypes of 48 preserved Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from these patients were determined by spoligotyping and double repetitive element PCR (DRE-PCR) analysis. Among the 64 patients, 38 (59.4%) were male with a mean ±SD age of 60.3 ± 16.1 years old. The overall mortality rate was 26.2%. Poor prognostic factors included age over 65 years (HR = 4.03; 95%; CI: 1.27-12.76), cardiovascular disease (HR = 5.96; 95% CI: 1.98-17.92), receiving steroids (HR = 10.16; 95% CI: 2.27-45.47), not being treated (HR 4.81; 95% CI 1.12-20.67). Spoligotyping and DRE-PCR of the 48 MTB isolates revealed that 20 (41.7%) belonged to the Beijing family and 40 (83.3%) had a clustering pattern. Identification of a Beijing family isolate was not correlated with drug resistance or mortality. Clustering strains were likely to be resistant to isoniazid (OR = 4.71; 95% CI: 1.10 to 23.53). In this study of patients with urine culture-confirmed GUTB, age and coexisting diseases were independently associated with an unfavorable outcome. The Beijing family was the dominant genotype of GUTB isolates, but did not correlate with drug resistance or outcome.

  13. [Chronic bacterial prostatitis. Clinical and microbiological study of 332 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Cañas, Víctor; Gutiérrez-Soto, Blanca; Serrano-García, María Luisa; Vázquez-Alonso, Fernando; Navarro-Marí, José María; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José

    2016-08-19

    Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is characterized by long-lasting symptoms, frequently associated with psychosomatic disorders. The objective of the study was to study PCB in our environment clinically and microbiologically. Between January 2013 and December 2014 761 patients with suspected CBP were studied. Of these patients 332 (43.6%) underwent a complete microbiological study and the major clinical signs and symptoms were collected. Eighteen point four percent of patients were diagnosed microbiologically with CBP, Enterococcus faecalis being the main aetiologic agent (37.7%), followed by Escherichia coli (22.2%). Ninety-six point seven percent of the CBP had positive semen cultures, while only 22.9% had positive urine post-semen cultures. Data of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of semen were 96.7%, 95.9%, 84.3% and 99.3%, respectively and urine post-semen 22.9%, 99.3%, 87.5% and 85.1%, respectively. Testicular perineum pain (44.3%), ejaculatory discomfort (27.9%) and haemospermia (26.2%) were highlighted as the patients' main clinical manifestations. Fractionated culture for the microbiological diagnosis of CBP could be simplified by the culture of urine pre-semen and semen, without the need for the culture of urine post-semen. The main aetiologic agent of CBP in our media was Enterococcus faecalis, followed by Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Integration of DPC and clinical microbiological data in Japan reveals importance of confirming a negative follow-up blood culture in patients with MRSA bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naoki; Yahara, Koji; Horita, Rie; Yano, Tomomi; Tashiro, Naotaka; Morii, Daiichi; Tsutsui, Atsuko; Yaita, Kenichiro; Shibayama, Keigo; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is one of the commonest and most life-threatening of all infectious diseases. The morbidity and mortality rates associated with MRSA bacteremia are higher than those associated with bacteremia caused by other pathogens. A common guideline in MRSA bacteremia treatment is to confirm bacteremia clearance through additional blood cultures 2-4 days after initial positive cultures and as needed thereafter. However, no study has presented statistical evidence of how and to what extent confirming a negative follow-up blood culture impacts clinical outcome. We present this evidence for the first time, by combining clinical microbiological data of blood cultures and the DPC administrative claims database; both had been systematically accumulated through routine medical care in hospitals. We used electronic medical records to investigate the clinical background and infection source in detail. By analyzing data from a university hospital, we revealed how survival curves change when a negative follow-up blood culture is confirmed. We also demonstrated confirmation of a negative culture is significantly associated with clinical outcomes: there was a more than three-fold increase in mortality risk (after adjusting for clinical background) if a negative blood culture was not confirmed within 14 days of the initial positive blood culture. Although we used data from only one university hospital, our novel approach and results will be a basis for future studies in several hospitals in Japan to provide statistical evidence of the clinical importance of confirming a negative follow-up blood culture in bacteremia patients, including those with MRSA infections. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Case studies in food microbiology for food safety and quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Pawsey, Rosa K

    2002-01-01

    ... to engage in the learning process, and in so doing learn techniques for learning, and subsequently for applying knowledge. This has been more interesting for me, the teacher, and I think for the students too. This book has grown from my ten years teaching food microbiology and hygiene to post-graduate students in Food Safety and Control at South Bank University, London. It was the decade during which, in the UK, the national policies behind the management of food safety changed rapidly, and this me...

  16. Enhancing active learning in microbiology through case based learning: experiences from an Indian medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraj, A M; Vinod, P; Ramnarayan, K

    2010-01-01

    Case-based learning (CBL) is an interactive student-centered exploration of real life situations. This paper describes the use of CBL as an educational strategy for promoting active learning in microbiology. CBL was introduced in the microbiology curriculum for the second year medical students after an orientation program for faculty and students. After intervention, the average student scores in CBL topics were compared with scores obtained in lecture topics. An attempt was also made to find the effect of CBL on the academic performance. Student and faculty perception on CBL were also recorded. In a cross sectional survey conducted to assess the effectiveness of CBL, students responded that, apart from helping them acquire substantive knowledge in microbiology, CBL sessions enhanced their analytic, collaborative, and communication skills. The block examination scores in CBL topics were significantly higher than those obtained for lecture topics. Faculty rated the process to be highly effective in stimulating student interest and long term retention of microbiology knowledge. The student scores were significantly higher in the group that used CBL, compared to the group that had not used CBL as a learning strategy. Our experience indicated that CBL sessions enhanced active learning in microbiology. More frequent use of CBL sessions would not only help the student gain requisite knowledge in microbiology but also enhance their analytic and communication skills.

  17. A novel CYBB mutation with the first genetically confirmed case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of a child with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) presenting with recurrent mycobacterial infections and invasive Aspergillus fumigatus disease is described. Genetic analysis confirmed X-linked CGD with a novel mutation in exon 10 of the CYBB gene – the first South African report of genetically confirmed CGD.

  18. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of peri-implantitis cases: a retrospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampakis, G; Leonhardt, Å; Rabe, P; Dahlén, G

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to follow patient cases retrospectively in a longitudinal manner from the time of implant placement to the time they were diagnosed with peri-implant disease, and to identify associated clinical and microbiological features of peri-implant disease. A total of 281 patient cases were chosen from the archives of the Oral Microbiological Diagnostic Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden, based on bacterial samples taken from diseased implants. A form was designed and filled in separately for each case including data on patient, implant and disease profile. Most cases were severe peri-implantitis cases (91.4%). In 41.3% of the patients, peri-implantitis was developed early, already after having implants in function less than 4 years. The type of implant surface was significantly associated with the time in years implants were in function, before disease was developed (P < 0.05). The microbiological results by both culture and checkerboard analysis, although failed to fully correspond to the severity of the disease in terms of magnitude, proved to show that peri-implantitis is a polymicrobial anaerobic infection with increased number of AGNB (aerobic Gram-negative bacilli) in 18.6% of the patients. Peri-implantitis is a biological complication of implants in function that poses a threat to their long-term survival. It may develop earlier around implants with rough surfaces and it may represent a true infection. Microbiological sampling methods should be improved and uniformed so as to fully unveil the microbiological profile of the disease. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Case of pulmonary pneumocytoma: A probable cytological diagnosis with histopathological confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocytoma is a rare benign tumor of the lung that usually presents as a solitary pulmonary nodule. It is believed to arise from the primitive undifferentiated respiratory epithelium. We report a case of pulmonary pneumocytoma that was suspected on needle aspiration smears and confirmed histologically. This case describes the cytological features of pneumocytoma that are rarely described in textbooks.

  20. Evaluation of an interactive, case-based review session in teaching medical microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Earl L; Kisamore, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    Background Oklahoma State University-Center for Health Sciences (OSU-CHS) has replaced its microbiology wet laboratory with a variety of tutorials including a case-based interactive session called Microbial Jeopardy!. The question remains whether the time spent by students and faculty in the interactive case-based tutorial is worthwhile? This study was designed to address this question by analyzing both student performance data and assessing students' perceptions regarding the tutorial. Methods Both quantitative and qualitative data were used in the current study. Part One of the study involved assessing student performance using archival records of seven case-based exam questions used in the 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 OSU-CHS Medical Microbiology course. Two sample t-tests for proportions were used to test for significant differences related to tutorial usage. Part Two used both quantitative and qualitative means to assess student's perceptions of the Microbial Jeopardy! session. First, a retrospective survey was administered to students who were enrolled in Medical Microbiology in 2006 or 2007. Second, responses to open-ended items from the 2008 course evaluations were reviewed for comments regarding the Microbial Jeopardy! session. Results Both student performance and student perception data support continued use of the tutorials. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that students like and learn from the interactive, case-based session. Conclusion The case-based tutorial appears to improve student performance on case-based exam questions. Additionally, students perceived the tutorial as helpful in preparing for exam questions and reviewing the course material. The time commitment for use of the case-based tutorial appears to be justified. PMID:19712473

  1. Evaluation of an interactive, case-based review session in teaching medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Earl L; Kisamore, Jennifer L

    2009-08-27

    Oklahoma State University-Center for Health Sciences (OSU-CHS) has replaced its microbiology wet laboratory with a variety of tutorials including a case-based interactive session called Microbial Jeopardy!. The question remains whether the time spent by students and faculty in the interactive case-based tutorial is worthwhile? This study was designed to address this question by analyzing both student performance data and assessing students' perceptions regarding the tutorial. Both quantitative and qualitative data were used in the current study. Part One of the study involved assessing student performance using archival records of seven case-based exam questions used in the 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 OSU-CHS Medical Microbiology course. Two sample t-tests for proportions were used to test for significant differences related to tutorial usage. Part Two used both quantitative and qualitative means to assess student's perceptions of the Microbial Jeopardy! session. First, a retrospective survey was administered to students who were enrolled in Medical Microbiology in 2006 or 2007. Second, responses to open-ended items from the 2008 course evaluations were reviewed for comments regarding the Microbial Jeopardy! session. Both student performance and student perception data support continued use of the tutorials. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that students like and learn from the interactive, case-based session. The case-based tutorial appears to improve student performance on case-based exam questions. Additionally, students perceived the tutorial as helpful in preparing for exam questions and reviewing the course material. The time commitment for use of the case-based tutorial appears to be justified.

  2. Evaluation of an interactive, case-based review session in teaching medical microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisamore Jennifer L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oklahoma State University-Center for Health Sciences (OSU-CHS has replaced its microbiology wet laboratory with a variety of tutorials including a case-based interactive session called Microbial Jeopardy!. The question remains whether the time spent by students and faculty in the interactive case-based tutorial is worthwhile? This study was designed to address this question by analyzing both student performance data and assessing students' perceptions regarding the tutorial. Methods Both quantitative and qualitative data were used in the current study. Part One of the study involved assessing student performance using archival records of seven case-based exam questions used in the 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 OSU-CHS Medical Microbiology course. Two sample t-tests for proportions were used to test for significant differences related to tutorial usage. Part Two used both quantitative and qualitative means to assess student's perceptions of the Microbial Jeopardy! session. First, a retrospective survey was administered to students who were enrolled in Medical Microbiology in 2006 or 2007. Second, responses to open-ended items from the 2008 course evaluations were reviewed for comments regarding the Microbial Jeopardy! session. Results Both student performance and student perception data support continued use of the tutorials. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that students like and learn from the interactive, case-based session. Conclusion The case-based tutorial appears to improve student performance on case-based exam questions. Additionally, students perceived the tutorial as helpful in preparing for exam questions and reviewing the course material. The time commitment for use of the case-based tutorial appears to be justified.

  3. Surgical protocol for confirmed or suspected cases of Ebola and other highly transmissible diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Josep M; Rubio-Pérez, Inés; Arias Díaz, Javier; Guirao Garriga, Xavier; Serrablo, Alejandro; Jover Navalón, José M

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola can lead to imported cases in Europe and America. The eventuality of surgery in the setting of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is low, but the Spanish Association of Surgeons elaborated a surgical protocol for EVD. Elective surgical procedures are not indicated. Emergency cases can be considered in: persons under investigation, possible cases and early confirmed cases. In some conditions usually treated by surgery a medical treatment can be tested. All cases must be treated in high technology hospitals. These hospitals must be equipped with adequate means for healthcare provider's protection. All members of the healthcare team should practice thorough simulation prior to caring for a possible Ebola patient. This protocol is based on international guidelines on use of Personal Protective Equipment, protocols of other scientific societies, and specific recommendations for the operating room environment. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Completed suicide in an autopsy-confirmed case of early onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Jennifer Wiener; Geary, Richard; Gyure, Kymberly; Chivukula, Venkata Ravi; Haut, Marc W

    2018-04-01

    We report a case of a 57-year-old male with clinically diagnosed and autopsy-confirmed early onset Alzheimer's disease who completed suicide by gunshot wound to the chest. This case has several unique aspects that have not been discussed in previous case reports of completed suicide in Alzheimer's disease. In particular, our patient's death was highly planned with successful compensation for his cognitive deficits. After all firearms had been removed from the home as a safety precaution, he obtained a new weapon, hid it and left himself cues to find and use it. The case is discussed in the context of literature differentiating the neural circuitry propagating impulsive versus planned suicidal acts.

  5. Outbreak bias in illness reporting and case confirmation in ciguatera fish poisoning surveillance in south Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begier, Elizabeth M; Backer, Lorraine C; Weisman, Richard S; Hammond, Roberta M; Fleming, Lora E; Blythe, Donna

    2006-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by eating coral reef fish contaminated with ciguatoxins and is the most common marine poisoning. However, existing surveillance systems capture few cases. To improve regional ciguatera surveillance in South Florida, this study compared ciguatera illnesses in the Florida Poison Information Center-Miami (FPICM) call database to ciguatera cases in the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) disease surveillance systems. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of when FPICM reported ciguatera illnesses to FDOH and whether FDOH confirmed reported ciguatera cases. FPICM staff preferentially reported ciguatera illnesses that were of shorter duration (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.84 per additional illness day; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74, 0.97); outbreak-associated (AOR = 7.0; 95% CI 2.5, 19.5); and clinically more severe (AOR = 21.6; 95% CI 2.3, 198.5). Among ciguatera illnesses reported to FDOH, outbreak-associated illnesses were more likely than single, sporadic illnesses to become confirmed surveillance cases (crude OR = 11.1; 95% CI 2.0, 62.5). The over-representation of outbreak-associated ciguatera cases underestimates the true contribution of sporadic illnesses to ciguatera disease burden. This bias should be considered when evaluating surveillance systems that include both outbreak-associated and sporadic illness reports.

  6. Establishment of Risk based microbiological criteria in the Nordic countries: A case study on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    Microbiological criteria (MCs) offer a practical tool for food safety control and they are currently under discussion internationally. To meet the present scientific standards, there is an increasing demand for so- called “risk based” microbiological criteria that are based on risk assessment....... In this project we studied the potentials for setting risk based microbiological criteria on Campylobacter in chicken meat by studying the potential impact that specific microbiological criteria would have in different Nordic countries. This is done on the basis of different data sets that have been collected...... based microbiological criteria, the “case-by-case” risk assessment methodology is used (Christensen et al 2013) and its impact is analysed on the basis of the same data sets. In both approaches the same risk assessment model for Campylobacter in broiler meat is used. The difference between...

  7. Mortality Among Confirmed Lassa Fever Cases During the 2015-2016 Outbreak in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buba, Maryam Ibrahim; Dalhat, Mahmood Muazu; Nguku, Patrick Mboya; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Mohammad, Jibreel Omar; Bomoi, Idriss Mohammed; Onyiah, Amaka Pamela; Onwujei, Jude; Balogun, Muhammad Shakir; Bashorun, Adebobola Toluwalashe; Nsubuga, Peter; Nasidi, Abdulsalami

    2018-02-01

    To determine factors associated with mortality among confirmed Lassa fever cases. We reviewed line lists and clinical records of laboratory-confirmed cases of Lassa fever during the 2016 outbreak in Nigeria to determine factors associated with mortality. We activated an incident command system to coordinate response. We documented 47 cases, 28 of whom died (case fatality rate [CFR] = 59.6%; mean age 31.4 years; SD = ±18.4 years). The youngest and the oldest were the most likely to die, with 100% mortality in those aged 5 years or younger and those aged 55 years or older. Patients who commenced ribavirin were more likely to survive (odds ratio [OR] = 0.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03, 0.50). Fatality rates went from 100% (wave 1) through 69% (wave 2) to 31% (wave 3; χ 2 for linear trend: P command system activation were more likely to die (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 1.1, 17.6). The only pregnant patient in the study died postpartum. Effective, coordinated response reduces mortality from public health events. Attention to vulnerable groups during disasters is essential. Public Health Implications. Activating an incident command system improves the outcome of disasters in resource-constrained settings.

  8. IgG4-related hypophysitis is highly prevalent among cases of histologically confirmed hypophysitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernreuther, Christian; Illies, Christopher; Flitsch, Jörg; Buchfelder, Michael; Buslei, Rolf; Glatzel, Markus; Saeger, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    IgG4-related disease is an immune-mediated disease with manifestations in most organ systems among them the pituitary gland. To date, few cases of histologically confirmed cases of IgG-related hypophysitis have been reported. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the prevalence of IgG4-related hypophysitis among cases previously diagnosed as primary hypophysitis (lymphocytic hypophysitis, granulomatous hypophysitis and hypophysitis not otherwise specified). Histological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 12 of 29 cases (41.4%) previously diagnosed as primary hypophysitis fulfilled the criteria for IgG4-related disease and, thus, IgG4-related hypophysitis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of primary hypophysitis. All cases of IgG4-related hypophysitis showed a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with more than 10 IgG4-positive cells per high power field and a ratio of IgG4/IgG-positive cells of more than 40%, whereas storiform fibrosis was an inconsistent histological feature and was also seen in few cases of non-IgG-related hypophysitis, thus lacking sensitivity and specificity. Obliterative phlebitis was not seen in any case. Thus, histological criteria defined for IgG4-related disease in other organs should be modified for IgG4-related hypophysitis, accordingly. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  9. Case-based Learning in Microbiology: Observations from a North West Indian Medical College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anita

    2017-12-01

    Microbiology is usually taught by conventional lectures, and its retention and application is observed to be poor among medical graduates/practitioners. Introduction of case-based learning (CBL) in microbiology for second-year professional MBBS students. Students were divided into two groups of fifty each. Four clinical cases were used for CBL. One group had two CBL sessions whereas the other had didactic lectures (DLs) and then the groups were crossed over. Case scenario handouts were given to students a week before the session, and smaller groups were formed for discussions and presentations in CBL sessions. Posttest, in multiple choice questions format, was conducted in two phases: First, immediately after the completion of the four CBL and DL sessions, and second, 6 weeks after the first posttest. Student and faculty feedback was taken about CBL sessions. Hundred MBBS students of the fourth semester voluntarily participated in the CBL study. The CBL scores were significantly higher than DL session scores ( P = 0.015). This difference was more marked in scoring done after 6 weeks of session completion ( P < 0.001). Student reported satisfaction in being taught by CBL method in 5-point Likert scale feedback form. Faculty feedback was positive for CBL. CBL helped in retention of knowledge and its application better than DL in our observation. More sessions on commonly encountered case scenarios will be useful for students in recalling basic science knowledge in their later years as practitioners.

  10. Extrahepatic biliary atresia with choledochal cyst: Prenatal MRI predicted and post natally confirmed: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Nori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA is an uncommon cause of neonatal jaundice. Antenatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI diagnosis of EHBA has not been published to the best of our knowledge till date. EHBA with cystic component is likely to be mistaken for choledochal cyst. A case that was antenatally predicted and postnatally confirmed by surgery and histopathology is being reported. All imaging signs are analyzed herewith. Imaging helps in the prediction of EHBA and also helps in early postnatal surgical referral which in turn improves the results of Kasai′s portoenterostomy.

  11. Herpes simplex encephalitis: MRI findings in two cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.W.; Kim, I.O.; Kim, W.S.; Yeon, K.M. [Dept. of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Lee, H.-J.; Hwang, Y.S. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I causes a fulminant necrotising meningoencephalitis distinguished from other encephalitides by its focal and often haemorrhagic nature. Specific antiviral therapy with acyclovir can significantly improve the prognosis. We present MRI findings of two cases of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) confirmed by PCR analysis, focusing on the serial changes after acyclovir therapy: gyral swelling, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the subfrontal region, temporal lobe and insula in the initial stage, then regional extension with enhancement and haemorrhage despite appropriate acyclovir therapy, and finally encephalomalacia and brain atrophy. (orig.)

  12. Herpes simplex encephalitis: MRI findings in two cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Kim, I.O.; Kim, W.S.; Yeon, K.M.; Lee, H.-J.; Hwang, Y.S.

    2001-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I causes a fulminant necrotising meningoencephalitis distinguished from other encephalitides by its focal and often haemorrhagic nature. Specific antiviral therapy with acyclovir can significantly improve the prognosis. We present MRI findings of two cases of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) confirmed by PCR analysis, focusing on the serial changes after acyclovir therapy: gyral swelling, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the subfrontal region, temporal lobe and insula in the initial stage, then regional extension with enhancement and haemorrhage despite appropriate acyclovir therapy, and finally encephalomalacia and brain atrophy. (orig.)

  13. Psoriasis or not? Review of 51 clinically confirmed cases reveals an expanded histopathologic spectrum of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Thinh; Parsi, Kory K; Ogawa, Toru; Kiuru, Maija; Konia, Thomas; Li, Chin-Shang; Fung, Maxwell A

    2017-12-01

    Psoriasis is usually diagnosed clinically, so only non-classic or refractory cases tend to be biopsied. Diagnostic uncertainty persists when dermatopathologists encounter features regarded as non-classic for psoriasis. Define and document classic and non-classic histologic features in skin biopsies from patients with clinically confirmed psoriasis. Minimal clinical diagnostic criteria were informally validated and applied to a consecutive series of biopsies histologically consistent with psoriasis. Clinical confirmation required 2 of the following criteria: (1) classic morphology, (2) classic distribution, (3) nail pitting, and (4) family history, with #1 and/or #2 as 1 criterion in every case RESULTS: Fifty-one biopsies from 46 patients were examined. Classic features of psoriasis included hypogranulosis (96%), club-shaped rete ridges (96%), dermal papilla capillary ectasia (90%), Munro microabscess (78%), suprapapillary plate thinning (63%), spongiform pustules (53%), and regular acanthosis (14%). Non-classic features included irregular acanthosis (84%), junctional vacuolar alteration (76%), spongiosis (76%), dermal neutrophils (69%), necrotic keratinocytes (67%), hypergranulosis (65%), neutrophilic spongiosis (61%), dermal eosinophils (49%), compact orthokeratosis (37%), papillary dermal fibrosis (35%), lichenoid infiltrate (25%), plasma cells (16%), and eosinophilic spongiosis (8%). Psoriasis exhibits a broader histopathologic spectrum. The presence of some non-classic features does not necessarily exclude the possibility of psoriasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. First Report of Preoperative Imaging Diagnosis of a Surgically Confirmed Case of Valentino′s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Suresh Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perforation of a duodenal ulcer (DU into the retroperitoneal space presenting with clinical features of acute appendicitis is known as Valentino′s syndrome. Post duodenal perforation, the gastric and duodenal fluids tend to settle in the right paracolic gutter causing peritonitis and clinically mimicking acute appendicitis. Only three cases of Valentino′s syndrome have been reported till date in the published literature and there is only one previous report of its preoperative imaging diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of preoperative imaging diagnosis in a surgically confirmed case of Valentino′s syndrome. In most cases, patients with undiagnosed Valentino′s syndrome are operated for acute appendicitis, and on finding a normal appendix, search is made for the cause of peritonitis, which then leads to retroperitoneal perforation of duodenum. The diagnosis of Valentino′s syndrome by computed tomography (CT imaging is easy and can help in avoiding the surgery or directing the surgeon directly to the repair of the duodenal perforation. It is, therefore, essential for emergency physicians, surgeons, and radiologists to know about this entity and consider it in the differential diagnosis.

  15. Predictive Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw...... or pasteurised milk. This, in combination with the fact that cottage cheese support growth of Listeria monocytogenes, induces a documentation requirement on the food producer. In the EU regulatory framework, mathematical models are recognised as a suitable supplement to traditional microbiological methods....... The models can be used for documentation of compliance with microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes under reasonably foreseeable conditions. Cottage cheese is a fresh, fermented dairy product. It consists of a fermented cheese curd mixed with a fresh or cultured cream dressing. The product...

  16. Post-mortem diagnostics in cases of sepsis. Part 1. Aetiology, epidemiology and microbiological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rorat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice has an effective methodology of diagnostic procedures to be followed in cases of sepsis. However, there are as yet no corresponding standards of action in post-mortem diagnostics. The scope of examinations is limited to an autopsy and histopathological tests. This situation may lead to errors in medico-legal opinions on the cause of death and in the assessment of appropriateness of medical procedures. In cases of suspected sepsis, medico-legal investigations require obtaining detailed information about the circumstances of death (including symptoms and results of intravital examinations before autopsy is performed, as well as sterile collection of specimens for microbiological tests and interpretation of their results on the basis of knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical progression of sepsis.

  17. Endometriosis-associated hydrocele of the canal of Nuck with immunohistochemical confirmation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoshi, Kae; Mizumoto, Masaki; Kinoshita, Koichi

    2017-12-21

    The canal of Nuck is an embryological vestige of the processus vaginalis, and presents a potential site for endometriosis seeding. Hydroceles in this region are a rare cause of inguinal swelling in females. In addition, endometriosis localized to the canal of Nuck is exceedingly rare. A 44-year-old Japanese woman presented with a painful mass overlying her right pubis. She underwent surgery to completely excise the mass. During surgery, division of the external oblique aponeurosis revealed a cyst that occupied the inguinal canal and it adhered to the transverse fascia, inguinal ligament, and pubic bone. The cyst was dissected from the round ligament, and the defect in the internal inguinal ring was repaired and reinforced with mesh. On macroscopic examination, the cyst had a heterogeneous fibrous aspect with dark brown inclusions. Microscopic examination revealed that the cyst was tortuous, lined by mesothelial-like cells, and accompanied by partial subcapsular hemorrhage. Endometrium-like tissue was observed in the cystic wall. Immunohistochemical staining for podoplanin confirmed the mesothelial origin of the cyst-lining cells. The epithelial cells and stromal cells were positive for estrogen receptors. In this case of an endometriosis-associated hydrocele of the canal of Nuck, the mesothelial origin of the cyst-lining cells and endometriosis were confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining for podoplanin and estrogen receptors, respectively. We determined that hydrocele resection and reinforcement of the anterior inguinal canal wall (if necessary) are appropriate treatments for this condition.

  18. A primary intestinal lymphangiectasia patient diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and confirmed at surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, You-Hong; Zhang, Bing-Ling; Wu, Jia-Guo; Chen, Chun-Xiao

    2007-04-21

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilated lymphatic vessles in the intestinal wall and small bowel mesentery which induce loss of protein and lymphocytes into bowel lumen. Because it most often occurs in the intestine and cannot be detected by upper gastroendoscopy or colonoscopy, and the value of common image examinations such as X-ray and computerized tomography (CT) are limited, the diagnosis of IL is difficult, usually needing the help of surgery. Capsule endoscopy is useful in diagnosing intestinal diseases, such as IL. We here report a case of IL in a female patient who was admitted for the complaint of recurrent edema accompanied with diarrhea and abdominal pain over the last twenty years, and aggravated ten days ago. She was diagnosed by M2A capsule endoscopy as a primary IL and confirmed by surgical and pathological examination.

  19. Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: major radiologic findings in a series of 22 histopathologically confirmed cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcel Koenigkam, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto da Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP-USP), SP (Brazil); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg University (Germany); Barreto, Andre Rodrigues Facanha [Clinica Radius, Clinica Sao Carlos Imagem and Santa Casa de Misericordia de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Chagas Neto, Francisco Abaete [Program of Health Sciences Applied to the Locomotor System - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Elias Junior, Jorge [Division of Radiology, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRPUSP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Objective: To describe key imaging findings in a series of cases of primary neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (NTLs), with emphasis on computed tomography changes. Materials And Methods: Imaging studies of 22 patients (12 men, mean age 60 years) with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis, evaluated in the author's institution during the last five years were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists, with findings being consensually described focusing on changes observed at computed tomography. Results: The authors have described five typical carcinoids, three atypical carcinoids, three large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNCs), and 11 small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs). Only one typical carcinoid presented the characteristic appearance of central endobronchial nodule with distal pulmonary atelectasis, while the others were pulmonary nodules or masses. The atypical carcinoids corresponded to peripheral heterogeneous masses. One out of the three LCNCs was a peripheral homogeneous mass, while the others were ill-defined and heterogeneous. The 11 SCLCs corresponded to central, infiltrating and heterogeneous masses with secondary pleuropulmonary changes. Calcifications were absent both in LGNCs and SCLCs. Metastases were found initially and also at follow-up of all the cases of LCNCs and SCLCs. Conclusion: Although some imaging features may be similar, radiologic findings considered together with clinical information may play a relevant role in the differentiation of histological types of NTLs. (author)

  20. Evaluation of PDA Technical Report No 33. Statistical Testing Recommendations for a Rapid Microbiological Method Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas; Schwedock, Julie; Nguyen, Kham; Mills, Anna; Jones, David

    2015-01-01

    New recommendations for the validation of rapid microbiological methods have been included in the revised Technical Report 33 release from the PDA. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This case study applies those statistical methods to accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological methods system being evaluated for water bioburden testing. Results presented demonstrate that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report 33 chapter can all be successfully applied to the rapid microbiological method data sets and gave the same interpretation for equivalence to the standard method. The rapid microbiological method was in general able to pass the requirements of PDA Technical Report 33, though the study shows that there can be occasional outlying results and that caution should be used when applying statistical methods to low average colony-forming unit values. Prior to use in a quality-controlled environment, any new method or technology has to be shown to work as designed by the manufacturer for the purpose required. For new rapid microbiological methods that detect and enumerate contaminating microorganisms, additional recommendations have been provided in the revised PDA Technical Report No. 33. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This paper applies those statistical methods to analyze accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological method system being validated for water bioburden testing. The case study demonstrates that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report No. 33 chapter can be successfully applied to rapid microbiological method data sets and give the same comparability results for similarity or difference as the standard method. © PDA, Inc

  1. Development of a microbiological method (heat treatment method) to confirm the irradiation of food samples in a blind trial of collaborating laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekawa, T.; Koshikawa, T.; Miyahara, M.

    2009-01-01

    A practical screening method is needed so that any laboratory can easily and cheaply distinguish between non-irradiated and irradiated food. We carried out a study last year based on the findings that the sensitivity of bacteria to heat-treatment rose when bacteria was damaged by the irradiation, and the possibility that the irradiation could be detected in certain processing conditions. This method consists of a first assessment based on a general viable cell count and the second assessment based on the difference in the number of bacteria before and after the heat-treatment. A joint research study among a number of laboratories was conducted this year on the detection method by examining the effect of the heat-treatment on viable cells that adhered to spices. From the results, we found that there are two kinds of spices. For one type, both the first and second assessment need to be done, and for the other only the first assessment should be done. Therefore, the target spice should be classified into either the type only requiring the first assessment or the type for which the second assessment must also be carried out. In that case, we were able to obtain a high correct answer rate

  2. Radiologic diagnostic criteria of sphincter of oddi dysfunction: analysis of five cases confirmed by biliary manometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auh, Yong Ho; Kim, Myung Hwan; Lim, Hyun Chul; Baek, Seung Yeon; Lee, Moon Gyu; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Sung, Hyun Kyung

    1994-01-01

    Biliary dyskinesia was considered as a wastebasket of quasi-biliary disease which could not be clearly explained under the basis of morphologic pathology. This entity was a source of confusion because of misconception and poor understanding. Recent introduction of biliary manometric technique enlightened some of these disorders. We evaluated the cholangiographic morphology of these disorders to clarify and to characterize the some characteristic findings, subsequently in order to help the diagnosis. Five cases were confirmed by this technique as sphincter of Oddi dysfunction for last 13 months. All patients were female and age range was 53 to 75 years old. All patients were suffered from intermittent and recurrent biliary type pain. ERCP showed five common findings. The common bile duct was dilated over 12 mm in all patients. Different from recurrent pyogenic cholangiohepatitis, intrahepatic ducts were proportionally dilated as extrahepatic ducts, in four patients and they branched normally and ductal wall was smooth. Transient or persistent meniscus sign was observed in four patients. All patients showed delayed emptying of contrast media from the common bile duct into the duodenum. Following IV injection of cholecystokinin, persistent meniscus disappeared and contrast media inflowed into the duodenum. Identification of all or some characteristic cholangiographic findings may eliminate a cumbersome and painful biliary manometric test for the diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction

  3. Utilization of case presentations in medical microbiology to enhance relevance of basic science for medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neal R.; Stuart, Melissa K.; Singh, Vineet K.; Sargentini, Neil J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Small-group case presentation exercises (CPs) were created to increase course relevance for medical students taking Medical Microbiology (MM) and Infectious Diseases (ID) Methods Each student received a unique paper case and had 10 minutes to review patient history, physical exam data, and laboratory data. Students then had three minutes to orally present their case and defend why they ruled in or out each of the answer choices provided, followed by an additional three minutes to answer questions. Results Exam scores differed significantly between students who received the traditional lecture-laboratory curriculum (Group I) and students who participated in the CPs (Group II). In MM, median unit exam and final exam scores for Group I students were 84.4% and 77.8%, compared to 86.0% and 82.2% for Group II students (P<0.018; P<0.001; Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test). Median unit and final ID exam scores for Group I students were 84.0% and 80.0%, compared to 88.0% and 86.7% for Group II students (P<0.001; P<0.001). Conclusion Students felt that the CPs improved their critical thinking and presentation skills and helped to prepare them as future physicians. PMID:22435014

  4. Utilization of case presentations in medical microbiology to enhance relevance of basic science for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neal R; Stuart, Melissa K; Singh, Vineet K; Sargentini, Neil J

    2012-01-01

    Small-group case presentation exercises (CPs) were created to increase course relevance for medical students taking Medical Microbiology (MM) and Infectious Diseases (ID) METHODS: Each student received a unique paper case and had 10 minutes to review patient history, physical exam data, and laboratory data. Students then had three minutes to orally present their case and defend why they ruled in or out each of the answer choices provided, followed by an additional three minutes to answer questions. Exam scores differed significantly between students who received the traditional lecture-laboratory curriculum (Group I) and students who participated in the CPs (Group II). In MM, median unit exam and final exam scores for Group I students were 84.4% and 77.8%, compared to 86.0% and 82.2% for Group II students (P<0.018; P<0.001; Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test). Median unit and final ID exam scores for Group I students were 84.0% and 80.0%, compared to 88.0% and 86.7% for Group II students (P<0.001; P<0.001). Students felt that the CPs improved their critical thinking and presentation skills and helped to prepare them as future physicians.

  5. Utilization of case presentations in medical microbiology to enhance relevance of basic science for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal R. Chamberlain

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Small-group case presentation exercises (CPs were created to increase course relevance for medical students taking Medical Microbiology (MM and Infectious Diseases (ID Methods : Each student received a unique paper case and had 10 minutes to review patient history, physical exam data, and laboratory data. Students then had three minutes to orally present their case and defend why they ruled in or out each of the answer choices provided, followed by an additional three minutes to answer questions. Results : Exam scores differed significantly between students who received the traditional lecture-laboratory curriculum (Group I and students who participated in the CPs (Group II. In MM, median unit exam and final exam scores for Group I students were 84.4% and 77.8%, compared to 86.0% and 82.2% for Group II students (P < 0.018; P < 0.001; Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test. Median unit and final ID exam scores for Group I students were 84.0% and 80.0%, compared to 88.0% and 86.7% for Group II students (P < 0.001; P < 0.001. Conclusion : Students felt that the CPs improved their critical thinking and presentation skills and helped to prepare them as future physicians.

  6. Microbiology of destructive periodontal disease in adolescent patients with congenital neutropenia - A report of 3 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winkelhoff, AJ; Schouten-van Meeteren, AYN; Baart, JA; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, CMJE

    Background, aims: Congenital neutropenia is one condition that may predispose for destructive periodontal disease at a young age. In this report, we describe the microbiology of 3 adolescent patients with congenital neutropenia two of whom suffered from severe periodontitis. Method: Microbiological

  7. Oculodentodigital Dysplasia Presenting as Spastic Paraparesis: The First Genetically Confirmed Korean Case and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kye Won Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by mutations of the human gap junction alpha 1 gene, which encodes the protein Connexin-43. Patients with ODDD may present with neurological deficits with a typical pleiotropic combination of characteristic craniofacial, ophthalmological, phalangeal, and dental anomalies. In this report, we describe the first genetically confirmed Korean ODDD patient, who presented with spastic paraparesis. We will also review the neurological aspects of ODDD as reported in the literature.

  8. Case histories of microbiologically influenced corrosion of austenitic stainless steel weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borenstein, S.W.; Buchanan, R.A.; Dowling, N.J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is initiated or accelerated by microorganisms and is currently recognized as a serious problem affecting the construction and operation of many industrial facilities, including nuclear power plants. The purpose of this paper is to review how biofouling and MIC can occur and discuss current mechanistic theories. A case history of MIC attack in power plants is examined with emphasis on the role of welding and heat treatment variables using laboratory electrochemical analyses. Although MIC can occur on a variety of alloys, pitting corrosion failures of austenitic stainless steels are often associated with weldments. MIC occurs as the result of a consortium of microorganisms colonizing on the metal surface and their variety (fungi, bacteria, algae, mold, and slimes) enables them to form support systems for cross feeding to enhance survival. The metabolic processes influence corrosion behaviour of materials by destroying protective coatings, producing a localized acid environment, creating corrosive deposits, or altering anodic and cathodic reactions. On stainless steels, biofilms destroy the passive oxide film on the surface of the steels and subject them to localized forms of corrosion. Many of the MIC failures in industry result in pitting to austenitic stainless steel weldments. Pitting primarily occurs in the weld metal, heat affected zones, and adjacent to the weld in the base metal. Depending on the conditions of the concentration cell created by the biofilm, either phase of the two-phase duplex stainless steel, austenite or delta ferrite, may be selectively attacked. Theories have been proposed about the mechanism of MIC on austenitic stainless steel and and a general understanding is that some function associated with the biofilm formation directly affects the electrochemical process

  9. Melioidosis in Bangladesh: A Clinical and Epidemiological Analysis of Culture-Confirmed Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is known to occur in Bangladesh, but there are few reports about the condition in the published international literature. We set out to review all known cases of melioidosis in the country to date, using both retrospective and prospective data. A web-based literature search was conducted to identify all published case reports, original articles and conference abstracts. Cases were also included from a prospective study conducted in 2017. Fifty-one cases were identified between 1961 and 2017. Cases have been reported from sixteen out of the 64 districts of Bangladesh. The median age of the patients at presentation was 45 years (IQR 37–52, with a significant male (77% predominance. Many patients (14/39; 36% were farmers and 83% had diabetes mellitus. A skin/soft tissue abscess was the most common primary clinical presentation (13/49; 27%, followed by septic arthritis (10/49; 20%, pneumonia, and a deep-seated abscess/organ abscess (7/49; 14%. The major challenges to the diagnosis and treatment of melioidosis in Bangladesh are the lack of resources and the lack of awareness of melioidosis. Capacity development programs are urgently required to define the burden of disease and to tackle the mortality rates.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of modified kenneth jones scoring criteria (mkjsc) in confirmed cases of tuberculosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid, A.; Iqbal, S.M.J.; Hanif, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis is detection of Mycobacterium tubercle bacilli. However, clinical scoring systems are most widely used for the diagnosis of TB in children. Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of modified Kenneth Jones scoring criteria (MKJSC) in conformed cases of tuberculosis. Methodology: This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in the department of Paediatrics, King Edward Medical University / Mayo Hospital, Lahore from January to June 2007. One hundred children below 15 years of age were enrolled. They were diagnosed as suspected cases of TB on the basis of fever and cough for more than 15 days. MKJSC was applied and each child was subjected to confirmatory test for TB. Results: There was an overall male preponderance of 54%. The mean age of study population was 1.8 +- 0.7 years. Out of 100 children, 66% were diagnosed as TB cases (23 with confirmatory tests and 43 with MKJSC of 5 or more). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of MKJSC was 73.91%, 44.16%, 28.33%, and 85% respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of MKJSC was 51%. Conclusion: Present study does not support the hypothesis that MKJSC is a good alternative to confirmatory tests to diagnose tuberculosis in children. However, MKJSC is a simple tool, which can be applied to improve the case detection rate in the absence of sophisticated tests. (author)

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance and Antimicrobial Use Associated with Laboratory-Confirmed Cases of Campylobacter Infection in Two Health Units in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E Deckert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: A population-based study was conducted over a two-year period in the Perth District (PD and Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph (WDG health units in Ontario to document antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use associated with clinical cases of laboratory-confirmed campylobacteriosis.

  12. Two cases of pulmonary and pleural sparganosis confirmed by tissue biopsy and immunoserology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Wan Chung

    Full Text Available Sparganosis in humans is an incidental infection and is known to be associated with eating insufficiently cooked meat of frogs and snakes or drinking unboiled stream water. Although it can involve various internal organs, pulmonary and pleural involvement due to sparganum is rare. Because we recently experienced two cases involving lung parenchyma and pleura that were misdiagnosed as bacterial pneumonia and lung cancer, we herein intend to present them in detail.

  13. CT features of focal organizing pneumonia: An analysis of consecutive histopathologically confirmed 45 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Feng [Department of Radiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310016 (China); Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (China); Yan, Sen-Xiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 (China); Wang, Gao-Feng [Department of Radiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310016 (China); Wang, Jin [Department of Pathology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310016 (China); Lu, Pu-Xuan [Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Third People' s Hospital, Guangdong Medical College, Shenzhen, 518020 (China); Chen, Bin [Department of Radiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310016 (China); Yuan, Jing [Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (China); Zhang, Shi-Zheng, E-mail: shizhengzhang@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310016 (China); Wang, Yi-Xiang J., E-mail: yixiang_wang@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Third People' s Hospital, Guangdong Medical College, Shenzhen, 518020 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: To study the CT characteristics of solitary focal organizing pneumonia (FOP). Materials and methods: Chest CT of consecutive 45 patients (34 males and 11 females, median age: 56 years) with confirmed FOP were analyzed. The CT features between large FOP (>3 cm, n = 27) and small FOP (≤3 cm, n = 18) were compared. Results: FOP lesions predominately located in peripheral lungs (86.7%), with the right lower lobe being most common lobe (44.4%). No lesion mainly located in the inner 1/3 of lungs. All large lesions were polygon in shape and had an irregular margin, while small lesions were more likely to be round or oval with an irregular or smooth border. Air bronchogram or small bubble-like lucency was present in majority of the lesions. 42.2% of lesions had incompact internal structure with inhomogeneous density besides air component. Most lesions were associated with a contraction or convergence of surrounding vessels; while no pulmonary vessel was interrupted abruptly by a small FOP lesion. Majority of large lesions had broad contact with the pleura, while only one patient had mild pleural effusion. Mild mediastinal lymph nodes enlargement was present in about 1/5 of the patients. Conclusion: Compared with the known CT features of lung cancer, our results suggest differential diagnosis can often be made for large FOP, while small FOP may resemble lung cancer.

  14. Cervical spinal cord injury during cerebral angiography with MRI confirmation: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejjani, G.K.; Rizkallah, R.G.; Tzortidis, F. [Department of Neurosurgery, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Mark, A.S. [Department of Neuroradiology, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-01-01

    We report the first case of MRI-documented cervical spinal cord injury during cerebral angiography. A 54-year-old woman underwent an angiogram for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Her head was secured in a plastic head-holder. At the end of the procedure, she was found to have a left hemiparesis. MRI revealed high signal in the cervical spinal cord. The etiology may have been mechanical due to patient positioning, or toxic, from contrast medium injection in the vessels feeding the spinal cord, or a combination of both. (orig.) With 3 figs., 26 refs.

  15. A confirmed case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael A; Bisch, Steve; Arntfield, Shannon; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cups have been reported to be an acceptable substitute for tampons. These flexible cups have also been reported to provide a sustainable solution to menstrual management, with modest cost savings and no significant health risk. The present article documents the first case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup in a woman 37 years of age, using a menstrual cup for the first time. Toxic shock syndrome and the literature on menstrual cups is reviewed and a possible mechanism for the development of toxic shock syndrome in the patient is described.

  16. Congenital fibrosarcoma of the ileum: case report with molecular confirmation and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rizkalla, Hala

    2012-02-01

    Congenital fibrosarcoma is a rare, soft tissue malignancy of infancy, most commonly involving the distal extremities. We report a case of congenital fibrosarcoma of the ileum in a 5-day-old boy who presented with an acute abdomen due to ileal perforation. Partial ileal resection was carried out with successful anastomosis. Grossly, the resected small bowel showed focal luminal stenosis with a thickened, indurated wall. Histology showed a transmural primitive spindle cell proliferation with a morphology consistent with congenital fibrosarcoma. The associated hallmark chromosomal translocation t(12;15)(q13;q25) was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

  17. Genotype-Phenotype Characterization of Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome Confirmed by FISH: Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sheth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS is a multiple malformation and contiguous gene syndrome resulting from the deletion encompassing a 4p16.3 region. A microscopically visible terminal deletion on chromosome 4p (4p16→pter was detected in Case 1 with full blown features of WHS. The second case which had an interstitial microdeletion encompassing WHSC 1 and WHSC 2 genes at 4p16.3 presented with less striking clinical features of WHS and had an apparently “normal” karyotype. The severity of the clinical presentation was as a result of haploinsufficiency and interaction with surrounding genes as well as mutations in modifier genes located outside the WHSCR regions. The study emphasized that an individual with a strong clinical suspicion of chromosomal abnormality and a normal conventional cytogenetic study should be further investigated using molecular cytogenetic techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH or array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH.

  18. Do nurses really care? Confirming the stereotype with a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geraint; Dean, Phil; Williams, Elisabeth

    In their definition of modern nursing, the Royal College of Nursing emphasizes the importance of caring. However, there is little other than anecdotal evidence that female qualified staff nurses are more caring and compassionate than average individuals. A study was carried out to test, under scientific conditions with a case control study, the hypothesis that staff nurses are no more caring than average female individuals. Using the ten-item personality inventory (TIPI) questionnaire, a statistical comparison was made between 174 volunteer female staff nurses and data for 760 adult female controls extracted from the TIPI instrument's original validation study. The questionnaire measures each of the five major facets of personality: openness, extroversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and neuroticism. Agreeableness, which is a tendency to be compassionate, considerate and cooperative, was used as a proxy measure for 'caring'. Data were analysed using unpaired Student's t-tests. Female staff nurses recorded significantly higher scores than female controls concerning the personality traits extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and emotional stability (Pnurses are significantly more caring, conscientious and resilient individuals. The personality traits found in female staff nurses complement their profession and to some extent justify the caring, compassionate nurse stereotype. Whether career nursing self-selects these qualities or to what extent nursing staff develop aspects of their personality as a product of experience is a subject for debate.

  19. A Case of Renal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Confirmed by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Etani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is a member of the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT. We report a case of PNET in a 66-year-old male who presented with a large solid tumor within the parenchyma of the middle pole of the left kidney with metastases to the left adrenal gland and right ischium. A fine-needle biopsy was performed and showed a small round cell tumor. Results of immunohistochemical staining suggested this tumor belonged to ESFT. Preoperative VDC-IE (combined vincristine, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by another combination of ifosfamide and etoposide chemotherapy and left radical nephrectomy and adrenalectomy were performed. The histopathological findings of the resected tumor were similar to those in the biopsy specimen, but the results of AE1/AE3 were different. For the diagnosis, fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed. Split signals of the EWSR1 gene were detected, and transmission electron microscopy showed neuroendocrine granules and microtubules. The final diagnosis of this tumor was PNET of the kidney.

  20. Semiquantitative analysis of gaps in microbiological performance of fish processing sector implementing current food safety management systems: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onjong, Hillary Adawo; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

    2014-08-01

    Fish processing plants still face microbial food safety-related product rejections and the associated economic losses, although they implement legislation, with well-established quality assurance guidelines and standards. We assessed the microbial performance of core control and assurance activities of fish exporting processors to offer suggestions for improvement using a case study. A microbiological assessment scheme was used to systematically analyze microbial counts in six selected critical sampling locations (CSLs). Nine small-, medium- and large-sized companies implementing current food safety management systems (FSMS) were studied. Samples were collected three times on each occasion (n = 324). Microbial indicators representing food safety, plant and personnel hygiene, and overall microbiological performance were analyzed. Microbiological distribution and safety profile levels for the CSLs were calculated. Performance of core control and assurance activities of the FSMS was also diagnosed using an FSMS diagnostic instrument. Final fish products from 67% of the companies were within the legally accepted microbiological limits. Salmonella was absent in all CSLs. Hands or gloves of workers from the majority of companies were highly contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus at levels above the recommended limits. Large-sized companies performed better in Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and S. aureus than medium- and small-sized ones in a majority of the CSLs, including receipt of raw fish material, heading and gutting, and the condition of the fish processing tables and facilities before cleaning and sanitation. Fish products of 33% (3 of 9) of the companies and handling surfaces of 22% (2 of 9) of the companies showed high variability in Enterobacteriaceae counts. High variability in total viable counts and Enterobacteriaceae was noted on fish products and handling surfaces. Specific recommendations were made in core control and assurance activities

  1. The 12q14 microdeletion syndrome: six new cases confirming the role of HMGA2 in growth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Sally Ann

    2011-05-01

    We report six patients with array deletions encompassing 12q14. Out of a total of 2538 array investigations carried out on children with developmental delay and dysmorphism in three diagnostic testing centres, six positive cases yielded a frequency of 1 in 423 for this deletion syndrome. The deleted region in each of the six cases overlaps significantly with previously reported cases with microdeletions of this region. The chromosomal range of the deletions extends from 12q13.3q15. In the current study, we report overlapping deletions of variable extent and size but primarily comprising chromosomal bands 12q13.3q14.1. Four of the six deletions were confirmed as de novo events. Two cases had deletions that included HMGA2, and both children had significant short stature. Neither case had osteopoikilosis despite both being deleted for LEMD3. Four cases had deletions that ended proximal to HMGA2 and all of these had much better growth. Five cases had congenital heart defects, including two with atrial septal defects, one each with pulmonary stenosis, sub-aortic stenosis and a patent ductus. Four cases had moderate delay, two had severe developmental delay and a further two had a diagnosis of autism. All six cases had significant speech delay with subtle facial dysmorphism.

  2. Drivers of microbiological quality of household drinking water - a case study in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammed A; Gerber, Nicolas; Pangaribowo, Evita H

    2018-04-01

    This study aims at assessing the determinants of microbiological contamination of household drinking water under multiple-use water systems in rural areas of Ethiopia. For this analysis, a random sample of 454 households was surveyed between February and March 2014, and water samples from community sources and household storage containers were collected and tested for fecal contamination. The number of Escherichia coli (E. coli) colony-forming units per 100 mL water was used as an indicator of fecal contamination. The microbiological tests demonstrated that 58% of household stored water samples and 38% of protected community water sources were contaminated with E. coli. Moreover, most improved water sources often considered to provide safe water showed the presence of E. coli. The result shows that households' stored water collected from unprotected wells/springs had higher levels of E. coli than stored water from alternative sources. Distance to water sources and water collection containers are also strongly associated with stored water quality. To ensure the quality of stored water, the study suggests that there is a need to promote water safety from the point-of-source to point-of-use, with due considerations for the linkages between water and agriculture to advance the Sustainable Development Goal 6 of ensuring access to clean water for everyone.

  3. Precision evaluation of the treatment that used coordinates confirmation of couch in case of two forgets adjoined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Min; Jeong, Cheon Young; Park, Young Hwan; Song, Ki Won

    2003-01-01

    Confirming an error to be able to break out in a method to move couch manually while operator sees the skin marks on patient in case of curing head who got 2 targets adjoined, so we analyze coordinates price of couch, evaluate reproducibility and precision of change movements between targets. In radiotherapy, for confirming errors in manual movements by operators by exchanging between two targets to treat patient head, we read coordinates price(vertical, longitudinal, lateral three directions of couch) shown on a monitor of LINAC( CL 2100, Varian, USA) in order to evaluate accuracy about the length that moved in time for moving couch manually. After reading movement length of coordinates recorded in three directions of all treatment, we compared distance between targets recorded in RTP(Pinnacle, ADAC, USA) with reading coordinates price of couch, setting actually done the same patient for ten times, coordinates were recorded, treated for evaluating averages and degrees of errors and standard deviations. In method to confirm skin marks of patient by operators' view and to move couch manually, average standard deviations of movements between two targets are vertical 1.4 mm, longitudinal 0.9 mm, lateral 2.2 mm in each direction. As for the error in straight dimension, it is about 3.6 mm averages and 5.1 mm maximum. The average of errors in each directions was vertical 1mm, longitudinal 0.7 mm, lateral 2.7 mm. The greatest error broke out in lateral direction with 25% of all cases ; to exceed an error average. If operators moved manually couch for changing target points, errors about 3.6 mm average degrees occur. It is important that operators confirm the errors prices of actual couch coordinates for asking a correct movement between the targets adjoined each other ; in case of treatment demanding high precision like 3D conformal therapy or IMRT. Therefore, if we apply couch coordinates confirmation to reproducibility and to precision evaluation of treatment, it

  4. Risk factors for fatality among confirmed adult dengue inpatients in Singapore: a matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun-Linn Thein

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify demographic, clinical and laboratory risk factors for death due to dengue fever in adult patients in Singapore. METHODS: Multi-center retrospective study of hospitalized adult patients with confirmed dengue fever in Singapore between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2008. Non-fatal controls were selected by matching age and year of infection with fatal cases. World Health Organization 1997, 2009 criteria were applied to define dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, warning signs and severe dengue. Statistical significance was assessed by conditional logistic regression modeling. RESULTS: Significantly more fatal cases than matched controls had pre-existing co-morbid conditions, and presented with abdominal pain/tenderness. Median pulse rates were significantly higher while myalgia was significantly less frequent in cases. . Fatal cases also had higher leucocyte counts, platelet counts, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatine and bilirubin levels on admission compared to controls. There was no statistical significant difference between the prevalence of DHF and hematocrit level among cases and controls. Multivariate analysis showed myalgia and leucocyte count at presentation were independent predictors of fatality (adjusted odds ratios 0.09 and 2.94 respectively. None of the controls was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU or given blood transfusion, while 71.4% and 28.6% of fatal cases received ICU admission and blood transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Absence of myalgia and leucocytosis on admission were independently associated with fatality in our matched case-control study. Fatalities were also commonly associated with co-morbidities and clinicians should be alarmed if dengue patients fulfilled severe dengue case definition on admission.

  5. A case of leucism in the burrowing owl Athene cunicularia (Aves: Strigiformes with confirmation of species identity using cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise M Nogueira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Leucism is an inherited disorder, characterized by the lack of pigments in part or all of the body, normal coloration of the eyes and, in birds, in naked parts such as the bill and legs. This kind of disorder is sometimes erroneously designated as albinism or partial albinism. In this study, we present a case of leucism in a wild owl. The studied individual presented completely white plumage, light-yellow coloration of legs and bill and normal coloration of eyes. According to morphological features, this owl is a specimen of burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782. To confirm the species identity, we used cytogenetic analyses for karyotypic determination, comparing it to the previously described one in the literature. We also studied a captive female of A. cunicularia to complement the species karyotype, which was described in the literature based only on a single male. The karyotype of the leucistic owl individual was compatible with the previously published one for A. cunicularia, confirming the bird was a male specimen. Cytogenetic analysis of the captive female showed that the W sex chromosome is metacentric and comparable to the seventh pair in size. This is the first description of a case of leucism in A. cunicularia for South America. Long-term studies are needed in the Neotropical region to evaluate survival and breeding success in leucistic birds.

  6. Salty Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, Mark A.; Wedel, Adrianne N.; Pokorski, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    Using microbiology activities in the classroom is an effective way for teachers to address National Standards in the life sciences. However, common microbiology activities that involve swabbing doorknobs and hands are too risky due to the likelihood of culturing human pathogens. In addition, making sterile media and maintaining sterile conditions…

  7. Multiparametric comparison of chromogenic-based culture methods used to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water and the mFC method combined with a molecular confirmation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Andrée F; Dion-Dupont, Vanessa; Bisson, Marc-Antoine; Bouchard, Sébastien; Jubinville, Éric; Nkuranga, Martine; Rodrigue, Lynda; Bergeron, Michel G; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2015-03-01

    MI agar and Colilert(®), as well as mFC agar combined with an Escherichia coli-specific molecular assay (mFC + E. coli rtPCR), were compared in terms of their sensitivity, ease of use, time to result and affordability. The three methods yielded a positive E. coli signal for 11.5, 10.8, and 11.5% of the 968 well water samples tested, respectively. One hundred and thirty-six (136) samples gave blue colonies on mFC agar and required confirmation. E. coli-specific rtPCR showed false-positive results in 23.5% (32/136) of cases. In terms of ease of use, Colilert was the simplest method to use while the MI method provided ease of use comparable to all membrane filtration methods. However, the mFC + E. coli rtPCR assay required highly trained employees for confirmation purposes. In terms of affordability, and considering contamination rate of well water samples tested, the Colilert method and the mFC + E. coli rtPCR assay were at least five times more costly than the MI agar method. Overall, compared with the other two methods tested, the MI agar method offers the most advantages to assess drinking water quality.

  8. Risk factors, microbiological findings, and clinical outcomes in cases of microbial keratitis admitted to a tertiary referral center in ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saeed, Ayman

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To identify the risk factors for, and to report the microbiological findings and clinical outcomes of, severe microbial keratitis (MK). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all cases of presumed MK admitted to a tertiary referral center over a 2-year period (September 2001 to August 2003). Data recorded included demographic data, details relating to possible risk factors, results of microbiological studies, clinical findings at presentation, and clinical and visual outcomes. RESULTS: Ninety patients were admitted with a diagnosis of presumed MK during the study period. The mean age of patients was 45 +\\/- 32 years, and the male to female ratio was 47:43 (52.2%:47.7%). Predisposing risk factors for MK included contact lens wear (37; 41.1%), anterior segment disease (19; 21.1%), ocular trauma (13; 14.4%), systemic disease (5; 5.6%), and previous ocular surgery (1; 1.1%). Cultured organisms included gram-negative bacteria (17; 51.5%), gram-positive bacteria (11, 33.3%), acanthamoeba (2; 6.1%), and fungi (1; 3%). Visual acuity improved significantly after treatment [mean best-corrected visual acuity (+\\/-standard deviation) at presentation: 0.76 (+\\/-0.11); mean best-corrected visual acuity at last follow-up: 0.24 (+\\/-0.07); P < 0.001]. Secondary surgical procedures were required in 18 (20%) cases, and these included punctal cautery (1; 1.1%), tissue glue repair of corneal perforation (2; 2.2%), tarsorrhaphy (9; 9.9%), Botulinum toxin-induced ptosis (1; 1.1%), penetrating keratoplasty (3; 3.3%), and evisceration (2; 2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Contact lens wear remains a significant risk factor for severe MK. MK remains a threat to vision and to the eye, but the majority of cases respond to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

  9. Essure insert expulsion after 3-month hysterosalpingogram confirmation of bilateral tubal occlusion and bilateral correct placement: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Amy L; Lewis, Rae M; Sloan, Anita Lee

    2013-01-01

    Essure hysteroscopic sterilization is an effective permanent contraception option for women, with a 99.83% effectiveness rate. To date, more than 600,000 Essure procedures have been performed worldwide. This case report describes bilateral Essure insert placement, after which the left insert was subsequently expelled after hysterosalpingogram (HSG)-confirmed correct bilateral insert placement and bilateral tubal occlusion. Although insert expulsion has been reported before a 3-month post-procedure HSG, this is the first published report of expulsion after a confirmatory 3-month post-procedure HSG. Because there now exists documentation of Essure insert expulsion after a 3-month confirmatory HSG, physicians and patients should be informed of this rare occurrence. Further investigation into the causes of such an event is warranted. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Case Report: Molecular Confirmation of Lobomycosis in an Italian Traveler Acquired in the Amazon Region of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Anna; Danesi, Patrizia; Farina, Claudio; Orza, Pierantonio; Perandin, Francesca; Zanardello, Claudia; Rodari, Paola; Staffolani, Silvia; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2017-12-01

    Lobomycosis is a chronic skin mycosis endemic in Amazon regions characterized by chronic nodular or keloidal lesions caused by Lacazia loboi , an uncultivable fungus. Imported cases in nonendemic countries are rare and diagnosed after years. We describe a case of lobomycosis in a healthy 55-year-old Italian traveler who had acquired the infection during 5-day-honeymoon in the Amazon region of Venezuela in 1999. Several weeks after return, he recalled pruritus and papular skin lesions on the left lower limb, subsequently evolving to a plaque-like lesion. Blastomycosis and cryptococcosis were hypothesized based on microscopic morphology of yeast-like bodies found in three consecutive biopsies, although fungal cultures were always negative. In 2016, exfoliative cytology and a biopsy specimen examination showed round yeast-like organisms (6-12 μm), isolated or in a chain, connected by short tubular projections fulfilling the morphologic diagnostic criteria of Lacazia spp. The microscopic diagnosis was confirmed by molecular identification.

  11. Food microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Moss, M. O; Adams, M. R

    2008-01-01

    ... is directed primarily at students of Microbiology, Food Science and related subjects up to Master's level and assumes some knowledge of basic microbiology. We have chosen not to burden the text with references to the primary literature in order to preserve what we hope is a reasonable narrative flow. Some suggestions for further reading for each chapter are included in Chapter 12. These are largely review articles and monographs which develop the overview provided and can also give access to...

  12. Lessons learned about [F-18]-AV-1451 off-target binding from an autopsy-confirmed Parkinson's case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquié, Marta; Verwer, Eline E; Meltzer, Avery C; Kim, Sally Ji Who; Agüero, Cinthya; Gonzalez, Jose; Makaretz, Sara J; Siao Tick Chong, Michael; Ramanan, Prianca; Amaral, Ana C; Normandin, Marc D; Vanderburg, Charles R; Gomperts, Stephen N; Johnson, Keith A; Frosch, Matthew P; Gómez-Isla, Teresa

    2017-10-19

    [F-18]-AV-1451 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer with high affinity to neurofibrillary tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). PET studies have shown increased tracer retention in patients clinically diagnosed with dementia of AD type and mild cognitive impairment in regions that are known to contain tau lesions. In vivo uptake has also consistently been observed in midbrain, basal ganglia and choroid plexus in elderly individuals regardless of their clinical diagnosis, including clinically normal whose brains are not expected to harbor tau pathology in those areas. We and others have shown that [F-18]-AV-1451 exhibits off-target binding to neuromelanin, melanin and blood products on postmortem material; and this is important for the correct interpretation of PET images. In the present study, we further investigated [F-18]-AV-1451 off-target binding in the first autopsy-confirmed Parkinson's disease (PD) subject who underwent antemortem PET imaging. The PET scan showed elevated [F-18]-AV-1451 retention predominantly in inferior temporal cortex, basal ganglia, midbrain and choroid plexus. Neuropathologic examination confirmed the PD diagnosis. Phosphor screen and high resolution autoradiography failed to show detectable [F-18]-AV-1451 binding in multiple brain regions examined with the exception of neuromelanin-containing neurons in the substantia nigra, leptomeningeal melanocytes adjacent to ventricles and midbrain, and microhemorrhages in the occipital cortex (all reflecting off-target binding), in addition to incidental age-related neurofibrillary tangles in the entorhinal cortex. Additional legacy postmortem brain samples containing basal ganglia, choroid plexus, and parenchymal hemorrhages from 20 subjects with various neuropathologic diagnoses were also included in the autoradiography experiments to better understand what [F-18]-AV-1451 in vivo positivity in those regions means. No detectable [F-18]-AV-1451 autoradiographic binding was

  13. Environmental microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briški, Felicita; Vuković Domanovac, Marija

    2017-10-01

    For most people, microorganisms are out of sight and therefore out of mind but they are large, extremely diverse group of organisms, they are everywhere and are the dominant form of life on planet Earth. Almost every surface is colonized by microorganisms, including our skin; however most of them are harmless to humans. Some microorganisms can live in boiling hot springs, whereas others form microbial communities in frozen sea ice. Among their many roles, microorganisms are necessary for biogeochemical cycling, soil fertility, decomposition of dead plants and animals and biodegradation of many complex organic compounds present in the environment. Environmental microbiology is concerned with the study of microorganisms in the soil, water and air and their application in bioremediation to reduce environmental pollution through the biological degradation of pollutants into non-toxic or less toxic substances. Field of environmental microbiology also covers the topics such as microbially induced biocorrosion, biodeterioration of constructing materials and microbiological quality of outdoor and indoor air.

  14. Control of dangerous substances in discharges and microbiological abatement: European framework and a case study of an ozone disinfection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoich, M; Serena, F; Falletti, L; Fantoni, A

    2013-01-01

    Directive 2000/60/EC requires the achievement of a 'good chemical status' for surface water within pre-established dates. Disinfection is needed to achieve compulsory final microbial limit values (in Italy for wastewater discharges the parameter Escherichia coli - EC - is imposed by law with a maximum limit value of 5,000 cfu/100 mL). Liquid waste and disinfection by-products must be considered when designing appropriate monitoring of dangerous substances; the specific classes of substances must be investigated according to the typology of received wastewaters and liquid wastes (where applicable) and specific analytical techniques, with Limit of Detection (LOD) lower than the limit values, must be applied; the difficulties faced by national and regional environmental control Agencies is that these techniques have to be applied during ordinary activity and not only for research purposes. The study aims to present the control of dangerous substances, as a screening view, in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges in the province of Venice (Northern Italy) for the period 2007-2010 based on available data from institutional controls. In addition, the wastewater disinfection process with ozone applied to a medium size WWTP (45,000 Population Equivalents) is presented as a case study, with a view to assessing the microbiological abatement efficacy and the presence of dangerous substances. Discharge quality of the WWTPs in the province of Venice presented mean values that were higher than the LOD, but only for certain metals. For the Paese plant, zinc and chloroform were the only micro-pollutants detected with a higher level than the LOD. From microbiological data in the period 2006-2011 the disinfection abatement efficiency for Paese was, in most cases above 99% for EC, faecal coliform (FC), faecal streptococci (FS) while efficiency was slightly lower for total coliform (TC); however, the proposed criterion aimed at respecting 99.99% abatement was not completely

  15. Confirmed clinical case of chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes in agricultural communities in Central America: a case definition for surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ferreiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty. In response to a resolution approved by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO in 2013, PAHO, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH organized a consultation process in order to expand knowledge on the epidemic of CKDnT and to develop appropriate surveillance instruments. The Clinical Working Group from SLANH was put in charge of finding a consensus definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT. The resulting definition establishes mandatory criteria and exclusion criteria necessary for classifying a case of CKDnT. The definition includes a combination of universally accepted definitions of CKD and the main clinical manifestations of CKDnT. Based on the best available evidence, the Clinical Working Group also formulated general recommendations about clinical management that apply to any patient with CKDnT. Adhering to the definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT and implementing it appropriately is expected to be a powerful instrument for understanding the prevalence of the epidemic, evaluating the results of interventions, and promoting appropriate advocacy and planning efforts.

  16. Confirmed clinical case of chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes in agricultural communities in Central America: a case definition for surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Alejandro; Álvarez-Estévez, Guillermo; Cerdas-Calderón, Manuel; Cruz-Trujillo, Zulma; Mena, Elio; Reyes, Marina; Sandoval-Diaz, Mabel; Sánchez-Polo, Vicente; Valdés, Régulo; Ordúnez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty. In response to a resolution approved by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 2013, PAHO, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) organized a consultation process in order to expand knowledge on the epidemic of CKDnT and to develop appropriate surveillance instruments. The Clinical Working Group from SLANH was put in charge of finding a consensus definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT. The resulting definition establishes mandatory criteria and exclusion criteria necessary for classifying a case of CKDnT. The definition includes a combination of universally accepted definitions of CKD and the main clinical manifestations of CKDnT. Based on the best available evidence, the Clinical Working Group also formulated general recommendations about clinical management that apply to any patient with CKDnT. Adhering to the definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT and implementing it appropriately is expected to be a powerful instrument for understanding the prevalence of the epidemic, evaluating the results of interventions, and promoting appropriate advocacy and planning efforts.

  17. [Microbiological characterisation of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human cases in Andalusia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepe, José A; Torres, María José; Liró, Julia; Luque, Rafael; Aznar, Javier

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective study by genotyping 154 isolates from human listeriosis cases occurred in the region of Andalusia (southern Spain) in the period 2005-2009. Serotyping was performed for 1 and 4 somatic antigens using commercial Listeria antisera, and by multiplex-PCR serogrouping according to the method described by Doumith et al. (2004). The antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by Epsilon test and interpreted by CLSI criteria. PFGE was performed according to the PulseNet protocol with the ApaI enzyme. The similarity of PFGE profiles was evaluated using the Bionumerics software. The multiplex PCR protocol described by Chen and Knabel (2007) was used for the identification of isolates belonging to L. monocytogenes ECI, ECII, and ECIII epidemic clones. The 154 isolates were grouped into four serotypes: 4b [94 (61%)] strains, 1/2b [30 (19%)] strains, 1/2a [27 (18%)] strains, and 1/2c [3 (2%)] strains, with 100% of susceptibility to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. A further sixty-two ApaI distinct pulsotypes were recognized. Thirty-seven isolates (24%) showed unique ApaI pulsotypes, and the remaining 117 strains (76%) were assigned to 25 ApaI clusters (60% in clusters of more than two isolates). The EC markers were found in 62 (40.3%) of the L. monocytogenes isolates tested. The ECI marker was present in 43 (46.2%) 4b serotype isolates, ECII in 10 (10.7%) 4b serotype isolates, and ECIII in 9 (33,3%) 1/2a serotype isolates. A large proportion of the human listeriosis cases under investigation could be grouped into molecular subtype clusters, and our cases could be related to international food-borne outbreaks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Soil microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.C.; Legg, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The major areas of soil microbiological and biochemical research which have involved both stable and radioactive isotopes are summarized. These include microbial decomposition of naturally occurring materials, microbial biomass, interactions of plants and microbes, denitrification, mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen and biological nitrogen fixation. (U.K.)

  19. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of cefotaxime-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Taro; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2017-01-07

    Cefotaxime plays an important role in the treatment of patients with bacteremia due to Enterobacteriaceae, although cefotaxime resistance is reported to be increasing in association with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC). We conducted a case-control study in a Japanese university hospital between 2011 and 2012. We assessed the risk factors and clinical outcomes of bacteremia due to cefotaxime-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXNS-En) and analyzed the resistance mechanisms. Of 316 patients with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia, 37 patients with bacteremia caused by CTXNS-En were matched to 74 patients who had bacteremia caused by cefotaxime-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXS-En). The most common CTXNS-En was Escherichia coli (43%), followed by Enterobacter spp. (24%) and Klebsiella spp. (22%). Independent risk factors for CTXNS-En bacteremia included previous infection or colonization of CTXNS-En, cardiac disease, the presence of intravascular catheter and prior surgery within 30 days. Patients with CTXNS-En bacteremia were less likely to receive appropriate empirical therapy and to achieve a complete response at 72 h than patients with CTXS-En bacteremia. Mortality was comparable between CTXNS-En and CTXS-En patients (5 vs. 3%). CTXNS-En isolates exhibited multidrug resistance but remained highly susceptible to amikacin and meropenem. CTX-M-type ESBLs accounted for 76% of the β-lactamase genes responsible for CTXNS E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates, followed by plasmid-mediated AmpC (12%). Chromosomal AmpC was responsible for 89% of CTXNS Enterobacter spp. isolates. CTXNS-En isolates harboring ESBL and AmpC caused delays in appropriate therapy among bacteremic patients. Risk factors and antibiograms may improve the selection of appropriate therapy for CTXNS-En bacteremia. Prevalent mechanisms of resistance in CTXNS-En were ESBL and chromosomal AmpC.

  20. The ASM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Microbiology: A Case Study of the Advocacy Role of Societies in Reform Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Rachel E A; Merkel, Susan; Chang, Amy

    2015-05-01

    A number of national reports, including Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action, have called for drastic changes in how undergraduate biology is taught. To that end, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has developed new Curriculum Guidelines for undergraduate microbiology that outline a comprehensive curriculum for any undergraduate introductory microbiology course or program of study. Designed to foster enduring understanding of core microbiology concepts, the Guidelines work synergistically with backwards course design to focus teaching on student-centered goals and priorities. In order to qualitatively assess how the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are used by educators and learn more about the needs of microbiology educators, the ASM Education Board distributed two surveys to the ASM education community. In this report, we discuss the results of these surveys (353 responses). We found that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are being implemented in many different types of courses at all undergraduate levels. Educators indicated that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines were very helpful when planning courses and assessments. We discuss some specific ways in which the ASM Curriculum Guidelines have been used in undergraduate classrooms. The survey identified some barriers that microbiology educators faced when trying to adopt the ASM Curriculum Guidelines, including lack of time, lack of financial resources, and lack of supporting resources. Given the self-reported challenges to implementing the ASM Curriculum Guidelines in undergraduate classrooms, we identify here some activities related to the ASM Curriculum Guidelines that the ASM Education Board has initiated to assist educators in the implementation process.

  1. Confirmation of T1-Bright Vein of Galen Aneurysm Spontaneous Thrombosis by Subtraction Magnetic Resonance Venography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irfan, M.; Lohman, B.; McKinney, A.M. (Dept. of Radiology/Neuroradiology, Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States))

    2009-08-15

    Spontaneous thrombosis of a vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VOGM) is rare. We describe a 2-month-old patient with a patent VOGM and hydrocephalus, also confirmed patent at 6 months, but with subsequent lack of filling on pre-embolization catheter digital subtraction angiography (DSA) at 9 months' age. Due to the presence of T1- and T2-bright signal, noncontrast T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2-weighted images (T2WI), two-dimensional (2D) time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance venography (MRV), and postcontrast T1WI were ambiguous for patency. However, subtracting the pre- from the postcontrast MRV images confirmed closure compared to subtracted images at 6 months' age. The factors contributing to thrombosis were likely a combination of a disproportionately small straight sinus, ventriculostomy, and contrast medium from DSA.

  2. The ASM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Microbiology: A Case Study of the Advocacy Role of Societies in Reform Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E.A. Horak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of national reports, including Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action, have called for drastic changes in how undergraduate biology is taught. To that end, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM developed new Curriculum Guidelines for undergraduate microbiology that outline a comprehensive curriculum for any undergraduate introductory microbiology course or program of study. Designed to foster enduring understanding of core microbiology concepts, the Guidelines work synergistically with backwards course design to focus teaching on student-centered goals and priorities.  In order to qualitatively assess how the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are used by educators and learn more about the needs of microbiology educators, the ASM Education Board distributed two surveys to the ASM education community. In this report, we discuss results of these surveys (353 responses. We found that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are being implemented in many different types of courses at all undergraduate levels. Educators indicated that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines were very helpful when planning courses and assessments. We discuss some specific ways in which the ASM Curriculum Guidelines have been used in undergraduate classrooms. The survey identified some barriers that microbiology educators faced when trying to adopt the ASM Curriculum Guidelines, including lack of time, lack of financial resources, and lack of supporting resources. Given the self-reported challenges to implementing the ASM Curriculum Guidelines in undergraduate classrooms, we identify here some activities related to the ASM Curriculum Guidelines that the ASM Education Board has initiated to assist educators in the implementation process.

  3. Zika emergence in the French Territories of America and description of first confirmed cases of Zika virus infection on Martinique, November 2015 to February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudens-Vaysse, Elise; Ledrans, Martine; Gay, Noellie; Ardillon, Vanessa; Cassadou, Sylvie; Najioullah, Fatiha; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Rousset, Dominique; Herrmann, Cécile; Cesaire, Raymond; Maquart, Marianne; Flusin, Olivier; Matheus, Séverine; Huc-Anaïs, Patricia; Jaubert, Josiane; Criquet-Hayot, Anne; Hoen, Bruno; Djossou, Felix; Locatelli-Jouans, Corinne; Blateau, Alain; McKenzie, Anne-Marie; Melin, Mathilde; Saint-Martin, Patrick; Dorléans, Frédérique; Suivant, Claudine; Carvalho, Luisiane; Petit-Sinturel, Marion; Andrieu, Audrey; Noël, Harold; Septfons, Alexandra; Gallay, Anne; Paty, Marie-Claire; Filleul, Laurent; Cabié, André

    2016-07-14

    Following of the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015, an epidemiological surveillance system was quickly implemented in the French overseas Territories of America (FTA) according to previous experience with dengue and chikungunya and has detected first cases of Zika. General practitioners and medical microbiologists were invited to report all clinically suspected cases of Zika, laboratory investigations were systematically conducted (RT-PCR). On 18 December, the first autochthonous case of Zika virus infection was confirmed by RT-PCR on French Guiana and Martinique, indicating introduction of Zika virus in FTA. The viral circulation of Zika virus was then also confirmed on Guadeloupe and Saint-Martin. We report here early findings on 203 confirmed cases of Zika virus infection identified by RT-PCR or seroneutralisation on Martinique Island between 24 November 2015 and 20 January 2016. All cases were investigated. Common clinical signs were observed (maculopapular rash, arthralgia, fever, myalgia and conjunctival hyperaemia) among these patients, but the rash, the foundation of our case definition, may be absent in a significant proportion of patients (16%). These results are important for the implementation of a suspected case definition, the main tool for epidemiological surveillance, in territories that may be affected by ZIKV emergence, including Europe. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  4. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson′s disease: A case from India confirmed with polysomnographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder is a condition characterized by dream enactment. This condition may accompany neurodegenerative disorders. However, only a few reports from India are available, that too, without any polysomnographic evidence. We are reporting a case of REM sleep behavior disorder with polysomnographic evidence.

  5. Confirming and denying in co-construction processes: a case study of an adult with cerebral palsy and two familiar partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörmeyer, Ina; Renner, Gregor

    2013-09-01

    For individuals with complex communication needs, one of the most frequent communicative strategies is the co-construction of meaning with familiar partners. This preliminary single-case study gives insight into a special sequential pattern of co-construction processes - the search sequence - particularly in relation to the processes of confirming and denying meanings proposed by familiar interaction partners. Five different conversations between an adult with cerebral palsy and complex communication needs and two familiar co-participants were videotaped and analyzed using the methodology of conversation analysis (CA). The study revealed that confirmations and denials are not simply two alternative actions, but that several possibilities to realize confirmations and denials exist that differ in their frequency and that have different consequences for the sequential context. This study of confirmations and denials demonstrates that co-construction processes are more complex than have previously been documented.

  6. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, H; Ozturk-Engin, D; Elaldi, N

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to provide data on the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in this largest case series ever reported. The Haydarpasa-1 study involved patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM in Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia......, Syria and Turkey between 2000 and 2012. A positive culture, PCR or Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen staining (EZNs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was mandatory for inclusion of meningitis patients. A total of 506 TBM patients were included. The sensitivities of the tests were as follows: interferon-γ release.......05). Combination of L-J and ACS was superior to using these tests alone (p

  7. Case report: lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis-from rapid screening to molecular confirmation of a masked sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Grilnberger, Evelyn; Huber, Florian; Leibl, Gabriele; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Gartner, Manfred; Huber, Monika; Chott, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Stanek, Gerold

    2013-08-01

    Proctitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis L2b can manifest with very mild, nonspecific symptoms, and appropriate diagnostic evaluation is crucial. The case report demonstrates that rapid screening test, detection of specific antibodies in serum, and direct pathogen identification by PCR performed on tissue sample or rectal swab allow successful diagnosis of the still emerging sexually transmitted disease among homosexual patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preprinting Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Patrick D

    2017-05-23

    The field of microbiology has experienced significant growth due to transformative advances in technology and the influx of scientists driven by a curiosity to understand how microbes sustain myriad biochemical processes that maintain Earth. With this explosion in scientific output, a significant bottleneck has been the ability to rapidly disseminate new knowledge to peers and the public. Preprints have emerged as a tool that a growing number of microbiologists are using to overcome this bottleneck. Posting preprints can help to transparently recruit a more diverse pool of reviewers prior to submitting to a journal for formal peer review. Although the use of preprints is still limited in the biological sciences, early indications are that preprints are a robust tool that can complement and enhance peer-reviewed publications. As publishing moves to embrace advances in Internet technology, there are many opportunities for preprints and peer-reviewed journals to coexist in the same ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Schloss.

  9. Histology and synchrotron radiation-based microtomography of the inner ear in a molecularly confirmed case of CHARGE syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueckert, Rudolf; Rask-Andersen, Helge; Sergi, Consolato; Schmutzhard, Joachim; Mueller, Bert; Beckmann, Felix; Rittinger, Olaf; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Schrott-Fischer, Anneliese; Janecke, Andreas R

    2010-03-01

    CHARGE (Coloboma of the iris or retina, heart defects, atresia of the choanae, retardation of growth and/or development, genital anomalies, ear anomalies) syndrome (OMIM #214800) affects about 1 in 10,000 children and is most often caused by chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein-7 (CHD7) mutations. Inner ear defects and vestibular abnormalities are particularly common. Specifically, semicircular canal (SCC) hypoplasia/aplasia and the presence of a Mondini malformation can be considered pathognomonic in the context of congenital malformations of the CHARGE syndrome. We obtained a temporal bone (TB) of a patient with CHARGE syndrome who died from bacteremia at 3 months of age. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in the patient by direct DNA sequencing and the detection of a de novo, truncating CHD7 mutation, c.6169dup (p.R2057fs). We assessed changes of the TB and the degree of neural preservation, which may influence the potential benefit of cochlear implantation. The TB was analyzed using synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography, and by light microscopy. The vestibular partition consisted of a rudimentary vestibule with agenesis of the SCCs. The cochlea was hypoplastic with poor or deficient interscaling and shortened (Mondini dysplasia). The organ of Corti had near normal structure and innervation. Modiolus and Rosenthal's canal were hypoplastic with perikarya displaced along the axon bundles into the internal acoustic meatus, which may be explained by the arrest or limited migration and translocation of the cell nuclei into the cochlear tube during development. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Repository performance confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. This paper explores the myriad aspects of what has been labeled performance confirmation in U.S. programs, which involves monitoring as a collection of distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. This paper is divided into four parts: (1) A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives; (2) A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain; (3) A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and (4) An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. A fundamental consideration is the differentiation of confirmation monitoring from the many other testing and monitoring activities. Recently, the license application for Yucca Mountain provided a case study including a technical process for meeting regulatory requirements to confirm repository performance as well as considerations related to the preservation of retrievability. The performance confirmation plan developed as part of the

  11. Performance Confirmation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    As described, the purpose of the Performance Confirmation Plan is to specify monitoring, testing, and analysis activities for evaluating the accuracy and adequacy of the information used to determine that performance objectives for postclosure will be met. This plan defines a number of specific performance confirmation activities and associated test concepts in support of the MGR that will be implemented to fulfill this purpose. In doing so, the plan defines an approach to identify key factors and processes, predict performance, establish tolerances and test criteria, collect data (through monitoring, testing, and experiments), analyze these data, and recommend appropriate action. The process of defining which factors to address under performance confirmation incorporates input from several areas. In all cases, key performance confirmation factors are those factors which are: (1) important to safety, (2) measurable and predictable, and (3) relevant to the program (i.e., a factor that is affected by construction, emplacement, or is a time-dependent variable). For the present version of the plan, performance confirmation factors important to safety are identified using the principal factors from the RSS (CRWMS M and O 2000a) (which is derived from TSPA analyses) together with other available performance assessment analyses. With this basis, key performance confirmation factors have been identified, and test concepts and test descriptions have been developed in the plan. Other activities are also incorporated into the performance confirmation program outside of these key factors. Additional activities and tests have been incorporated when they are prescribed by requirements and regulations or are necessary to address data needs and model validation requirements relevant to postclosure safety. These other activities have been included with identified factors to construct the overall performance confirmation program

  12. Performance Confirmation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    As described, the purpose of the Performance Confirmation Plan is to specify monitoring, testing, and analysis activities for evaluating the accuracy and adequacy of the information used to determine that performance objectives for postclosure will be met. This plan defines a number of specific performance confirmation activities and associated test concepts in support of the MGR that will be implemented to fulfill this purpose. In doing so, the plan defines an approach to identify key factors and processes, predict performance, establish tolerances and test criteria, collect data (through monitoring, testing, and experiments), analyze these data, and recommend appropriate action. The process of defining which factors to address under performance confirmation incorporates input from several areas. In all cases, key performance confirmation factors are those factors which are: (1) important to safety, (2) measurable and predictable, and (3) relevant to the program (i.e., a factor that i s affected by construction, emplacement, or is a time-dependent variable). For the present version of the plan, performance confirmation factors important to safety are identified using the principal factors from the RSS (CRWMS M and O 2000a) (which is derived from TSPA analyses) together with other available performance assessment analyses. With this basis, key performance confirmation factors have been identified, and test concepts and test descriptions have been developed in the plan. Other activities are also incorporated into the performance confirmation program outside of these key factors. Additional activities and tests have been incorporated when they are prescribed by requirements and regulations or are necessary to address data needs and model validation requirements relevant to postclosure safety. These other activities have been included with identified factors to construct the overall performance confirmation program

  13. Confirming the timing of phase-based costing in oncology studies: a case example in advanced melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Michael; Coutinho, Anna D; Nunna, Sasikiran; Gupte-Singh, Komal; Eaddy, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of healthcare services and costs among patients with cancer is often estimated by the phase of care: initial, interim, or terminal. Although their durations are often set arbitrarily, we sought to establish data-driven phases of care using joinpoint regression in an advanced melanoma population as a case example. A retrospective claims database study was conducted to assess the costs of advanced melanoma from distant metastasis diagnosis to death during January 2010-September 2014. Joinpoint regression analysis was applied to identify the best-fitting points, where statistically significant changes in the trend of average monthly costs occurred. To identify the initial phase, average monthly costs were modeled from metastasis diagnosis to death; and were modeled backward from death to metastasis diagnosis for the terminal phase. Points of monthly cost trend inflection denoted ending and starting points. The months between represented the interim phase. A total of 1,671 patients with advanced melanoma who died met the eligibility criteria. Initial phase was identified as the 5-month period starting with diagnosis of metastasis, after which there was a sharp, significant decline in monthly cost trend (monthly percent change [MPC] = -13.0%; 95% CI = -16.9% to -8.8%). Terminal phase was defined as the 5-month period before death (MPC = -14.0%; 95% CI = -17.6% to -10.2%). The claims-based algorithm may under-estimate patients due to misclassifications, and may over-estimate terminal phase costs because hospital and emergency visits were used as a death proxy. Also, recently approved therapies were not included, which may under-estimate advanced melanoma costs. In this advanced melanoma population, optimal duration of the initial and terminal phases of care was 5 months immediately after diagnosis of metastasis and before death, respectively. Joinpoint regression can be used to provide data-supported phase of cancer care durations, but

  14. Laboratory Processes for Confirmation of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Infection During a 2015 Investigation of a Cluster of Cases in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersh, Ellen N; Pillay, Allan; de Voux, Alex; Chen, Cheng

    2017-11-01

    In September 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were notified of a suspected outbreak investigation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) cases by the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offered support with a laboratory-developed polymerase chain reaction test for LGV. This note describes the laboratory workflow and procedures used for the laboratory confirmation of LGV infection.

  15. Advances Afoot in Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Robin; Karon, Brad S.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to examine point-of-care (POC) microbiology testing and to evaluate its effects on clinical microbiology. Colloquium participants included representatives from clinical microbiology laboratories, industry, and the government, who together made recommendations regarding the implementation, oversight, and evaluation of POC microbiology testing. The colloquium report is timely and well written (V. Dolen et al., Changing Diagnost...

  16. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Advances Afoot in Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Robin; Karon, Brad S

    2017-07-01

    In 2016, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to examine point-of-care (POC) microbiology testing and to evaluate its effects on clinical microbiology. Colloquium participants included representatives from clinical microbiology laboratories, industry, and the government, who together made recommendations regarding the implementation, oversight, and evaluation of POC microbiology testing. The colloquium report is timely and well written (V. Dolen et al., Changing Diagnostic Paradigms for Microbiology , 2017, https://www.asm.org/index.php/colloquium-reports/item/6421-changing-diagnostic-paradigms-for-microbiology?utm_source=Commentary&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=diagnostics). Emerging POC microbiology tests, especially nucleic acid amplification tests, have the potential to advance medical care. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. t(6;11) renal cell carcinoma (RCC): expanded immunohistochemical profile emphasizing novel RCC markers and report of 10 new genetically confirmed cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathaniel E; Illei, Peter B; Allaf, Mohamed; Gonzalez, Nilda; Morris, Kerry; Hicks, Jessica; Demarzo, Angelo; Reuter, Victor E; Amin, Mahul B; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J; Argani, Pedram

    2014-05-01

    Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) harboring the t(6;11)(p21;q12) translocation were first described in 2001 and recently recognized by the 2013 International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia. Although these RCCs are known to label for melanocytic markers HMB45 and Melan A and the cysteine protease cathepsin K by immunohistochemistry (IHC), a comprehensive IHC profile has not been reported. We report 10 new t(6;11) RCCs, all confirmed by break-apart TFEB fluorescence in situ hybridization. A tissue microarray containing 6 of these cases and 7 other previously reported t(6;11) RCCs was constructed and immunolabeled for 21 different antigens. Additional whole sections of t(6;11) RCC were labeled with selected IHC markers. t(6;11) RCC labeled diffusely and consistently for cathepsin K and Melan A (13 of 13 cases) and almost always at least focally for HMB45 (12 of 13 cases). They labeled frequently for PAX8 (14 of 23 cases), CD117 (10 of 14 cases), and vimentin (9 of 13 cases). A majority of cases labeled at least focally for cytokeratin Cam5.2 (8 of 13 cases) and CD10 and RCC marker antigen (10 of 14 cases each). In contrast to a prior study's findings, only a minority of cases labeled for Ksp-cadherin (3 of 19 cases). The median H score (product of intensity score and percentage labeling) for phosphorylated S6, a marker of mTOR pathway activation, was 101, which is high relative to most other RCC subtypes. In summary, IHC labeling for PAX8, Cam5.2, CD10, and RCC marker antigen supports classification of the t(6;11) RCC as carcinomas despite frequent negativity for broad-spectrum cytokeratins and EMA. Labeling for PAX8 distinguishes the t(6;11) RCC from epithelioid angiomyolipoma, which otherwise shares a similar immunoprofile. CD117 labeling is more frequent in the t(6;11) RCC compared with the related Xp11 translocation RCC. Increased pS6 expression suggests a possible molecular target for the uncommon t(6;11) RCCs that

  19. t(6;11) Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) Expanded Immunohistochemical Profile Emphasizing Novel RCC Markers and Report of 10 New Genetically Confirmed Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathaniel E.; Illei, Peter B.; Allaf, Mohamed; Gonzalez, Nilda; Morris, Kerry; Hicks, Jessica; DeMarzo, Angelo; Reuter, Victor E.; Amin, Mahul B.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Netto, George J.; Argani, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) harboring the t(6;11)(p21;q12) translocation were first described in 2001 and recently recognized by the 2013 International Society of Uro-logical Pathology Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia. Although these RCCs are known to label for melanocytic markers HMB45 and Melan A and the cysteine protease cath-epsin K by immunohistochemistry (IHC), a comprehensive IHC profile has not been reported. We report 10 new t(6;11) RCCs, all confirmed by break-apart TFEB fluorescence in situ hybridization. A tissue microarray containing 6 of these cases and 7 other previously reported t(6;11) RCCs was constructed and immunolabeled for 21 different antigens. Additional whole sections of t(6;11) RCC were labeled with selected IHC markers. t(6;11) RCC labeled diffusely and consistently for cathepsin K and Melan A (13 of 13 cases) and almost always at least focally for HMB45 (12 of 13 cases). They labeled frequently for PAX8 (14 of 23 cases), CD117 (10 of 14 cases), and vimentin (9 of 13 cases). A majority of cases labeled at least focally for cytokeratin Cam5.2 (8 of 13 cases) and CD10 and RCC marker antigen (10 of 14 cases each). In contrast to a prior study's findings, only a minority of cases labeled for Ksp-cadherin (3 of 19 cases). The median H score (product of intensity score and percentage labeling) for phosphorylated S6, a marker of mTOR pathway activation, was 101, which is high relative to most other RCC subtypes. In summary, IHC labeling for PAX8, Cam5.2, CD10, and RCC marker antigen supports classification of the t(6;11) RCC as carcinomas despite frequent negativity for broad-spectrum cytokeratins and EMA. Labeling for PAX8 distinguishes the t(6;11) RCC from epithelioid angiomyolipoma, which otherwise shares a similar immunoprofile. CD117 labeling is more frequent in the t(6;11) RCC compared with the related Xp11 translocation RCC. Increased pS6 expression suggests a possible molecular target for the uncommon t(6;11) RCCs that

  20. Evaluation of Microbiological and Physicochemical Parameters of Alternative Source of Drinking Water: A Case Study of Nzhelele River, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edokpayi, Joshua N; Odiyo, John O; Popoola, Elizabeth O; Msagati, Titus A M

    2018-01-01

    Access to clean and safe drinking water is still a problem in developing countries and more pronounced in rural areas. Due to erratic supply of potable, rural dwellers often seek for an alternative source of water to meet their basic water needs. The objective of this study is to monitor the microbiological and physicochemical water quality parameters of Nzhelele River which is a major alternative source of drinking water to villages along its course in Limpopo province of South Africa. Membrane filtration method was employed in evaluating the levels of E. coli and Enterococci in the river water from January-June, 2014. Specialized multimeter was used to measure the pH, electrical conductivity and turbidity of the river water. Ion Chromatograph was used to measure major anions such as fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate in the water. High levels of E. coli (1 x 10 2 - 8 x 10 4 cfu/100 mL) and enterococci (1 x 10 2 - 5.7 x 10 3 cfu/100 mL) were found in the river water and exceeded their permissible limits of 0 cfu/100 mL for drinking water. Turbidity values ranged from 1.12-739.9 NTU. The pH, electrical conductivity, chloride, fluoride, nitrate and sulphate levels were below their permissible limits for drinking water. The river water is contaminated with faecal organisms and is unfit for drinking purposes. However, the levels of the major anions accessed were within the permissible limits of drinking water.

  1. Poor quality data challenges conclusion and decision making: timely analysis of measles confirmed and suspected cases line list in Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endriyas, Misganu; Solomon, Tarekegn; Belayhun, Bekele; Mekonnen, Emebet

    2018-02-12

    Measles is one of the leading causes of death among young children even though a safe and cost-effective vaccine is available. Timely analysis of measles surveillance data is crucial for epidemic control and can show disease control program status. Therefore, this study aimed to show vaccination status and delay in seeking health care using surveillance data. A retrospective study was carried out in Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Region (SNNPR), Ethiopia. We reviewed 2132 records from measles surveillance line list data from July 2013 to January 2014. Descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS 20 for Windows. From a total of 2132 confirmed and suspected measles cases, 1319 (61.9%), had at least one dose of measles containing vaccine; the rest 398 (18.7%) and 415 (19.5%) were unvaccinated and had unknown status respectively. About two fifth, 846 (39.7%), cases visited health facilities within 48 h of onset of clinical signs/symptoms with a median of 2.0 days, IQR (1.0, 3.0). Majority of the measles cases were vaccinated with at least one dose of measles containing vaccine and vaccination data or vaccine potency at lower level was unclear. Delay in seeking healthcare was noted as only about two fifth of cases visited health facilities within 48 h of clinical manifestation. Vaccination and surveillance data quality and factors associated with delay in seeking health care should be investigated.

  2. High-pressure microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michiels, Chris; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Aertsen, Abram

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Effects in the Biosphere: from Molecules to Microbiology * Filip Meersman and Karel Heremans . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Effects...

  3. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  4. Microbiological corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladislavlev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Problems is considered of development of the microbiological corrosion of the NPP equipment. The main attention is paid to the selective character of microbiological corrosion in zones of welded joints of austenitic steels. It is noted that the presence of technological defects promotes growth of corrosional damages. Methods for microbiological corrosion protection are discussed

  5. First histologically confirmed case of a classic chordoma arising in a precursor benign notochordal lesion: differential diagnosis of benign and malignant notochordal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takehiko; Yamato, Minoru; Saotome, Koichi

    2002-01-01

    The first histologically confirmed case of a classic chordoma arising in a precursor benign notochordal lesion is presented and the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant notochordal lesions is discussed. A 57-year-old man presented with a classic chordoma in the coccyx. The resected specimen demonstrated a small intraosseous benign notochordal lesion in the coccyx, which was adjacent to the classic chordoma. Also seen were two separate, similar benign lesions in the sacrum. The classic chordoma consisted of multiple lobules that were separated by thin fibrous septa and that showed cords or strands of atypical physaliphorous cells set within an abundant myxoid matrix. In contrast, the benign lesions consisted of intraosseous sheets of bland physaliphorous cells without any extracellular matrix. The affected bone trabeculae showed sclerotic reactions. It was concluded that benign and malignant notochordal lesions can be distinguished microscopically. (orig.)

  6. AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY WITH NEUROMYOTONIA (ARAN-NM: DESCRIPTION OF A CLINICAL CASE CONFIRMED BY A MUTATION IN THE HINT1 GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Klochkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive  peripheral neuropathy with neuromyotonia  (ARAN-NM  is a relatively newly described  disease associated  with mutations  in the HINT1 gene.  It accounts  for a significant  part of the poorly  differentiated  forms  of axonal polyneuropathies.  We present the first in Russia description of the genetically confirmed case of ARAN-NM in a boy aged 14 years and 11 months without the hereditary-tainted anamnesis. On presentation,  the patient experienced  progressive  distal muscular weakness, asymmetric foot deformity,  gait disorders  and minimal manifestations  of neuromyotonia  (stiffness  in the fingers.  During examination,  we detected an increase in the level of creatine phosphokinase up to 635 U/l, a disturbance of conduction of motor and, to a lesser extent, sensory fibers  of  the  peripheral  nerves  (according  to  the  stimulation  electromyography,  EMG,  denervation-reinnervation  changes,  single positive acute waves, fibrillation potentials, complex repeated discharge (according to the data of needle EMG. In the study of exome, a homozygous mutation c.110G>C, p.R37P was determined in exon 01 of the HINT1 gene, which confirmed the presence of ARAN-NM. A molecular-genetic  examination of the patient's immediate relatives was carried out. The described case is compared with literature data. An overview of currently available information on ARAN-NM is provided. Diagnostic criteria of the disease are presented.

  7. Assessing the Consistency and Microbiological Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Practices by Urban and Rural Populations Claiming to Treat Their Water at Home: A Case Study in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Huaylinos, Maria L.; Gil, Ana; Lanata, Claudio; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease if used correctly and consistently by vulnerable populations. Over 1.1 billion people report treating their water prior to drinking it. These estimates, however, are based on responses to household surveys that may exaggerate the consistency and microbiological performance of the practice—key factors for reducing pathogen exposure and achieving health benefits. The objective of this study was to examine how HWT practices are actually performed by households identified as HWT users, according to international monitoring standards. Methods and Findings We conducted a 6-month case study in urban (n = 117 households) and rural (n = 115 households) Peru, a country in which 82.8% of households report treating their water at home. We used direct observation, in-depth interviews, surveys, spot-checks, and water sampling to assess water treatment practices among households that claimed to treat their drinking water at home. While consistency of reported practices was high in both urban (94.8%) and rural (85.3%) settings, availability of treated water (based on self-report) at time of collection was low, with 67.1% and 23.0% of urban and rural households having treated water at all three sampling visits. Self-reported consumption of untreated water in the home among adults and children water of self-reported users was significantly better than source water in the urban setting and negligible but significantly better in the rural setting. However, only 46.3% and 31.6% of households had drinking water water quality. The lack of consistency and sub-optimal microbiological effectiveness also raises questions about the potential of HWT to prevent waterborne diseases. PMID:25522371

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome confirmed by comparative genomic hybridization array: report of two cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sifakis Stavros

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS is a well known genetic condition caused by a partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4. The great variability in the extent of the 4p deletion and the possible contribution of additional genetic rearrangements lead to a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. The majority of the reports of prenatally diagnosed WHS cases are associated with large 4p deletions identified by conventional chromosome analysis; however, the widespread clinical use of novel molecular techniques such as array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH has increased the detection rate of submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations associated with WHS phenotype. We provide a report of two fetuses with WHS presenting with intrauterine growth restriction as an isolated finding or combined with oligohydramnios and abnormal Doppler waveform in umbilical artery and uterine arteries. Standard karyotyping demonstrated a deletion on chromosome 4 in both cases [del(4(p15.33 and del(4(p15.31, respectively] and further application of a-CGH confirmed the diagnosis and offered a precise characterization of the genetic defect. A detailed review of the currently available literature on the prenatal diagnostic approach of WHS in terms of fetal sonographic assessment and molecular cytogenetic investigation is also provided.

  9. Management and control of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the oil and gas industry-Overview and a North Sea case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Eckert, Richard B; Rodrigues, Edgar

    2017-08-20

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is the terminology applied where the actions of microorganisms influence the corrosion process. In literature, terms such as microbial corrosion, biocorrosion, microbially influenced/induced corrosion, and biodegradation are often applied. MIC research in the oil and gas industry has seen a revolution over the past decade, with the introduction of molecular microbiological methods: (MMM) as well as new industry standards and procedures of sampling biofilm and corrosion products from the process system. This review aims to capture the most important trends the oil and gas industry has seen regarding MIC research over the past decade. The paper starts out with an overview of where in the process stream MIC occurs - from the oil reservoir to the consumer. Both biotic and abiotic corrosion mechanisms are explained in the context of managing MIC using a structured corrosion management (CM) approach. The corrosion management approach employs the elements of a management system to ensure that essential corrosion control activities are carried out in an effective, sustainable, well-planned and properly executed manner. The 3-phase corrosion management approach covering of both biotic and abiotic internal corrosion mechanisms consists of 1) corrosion assessment, 2) corrosion mitigation and 3) corrosion monitoring. Each of the three phases are described in detail with links to recent field cases, methods, industry standards and sampling protocols. In order to manage the corrosion threat, operators commonly use models to support decision making. The models use qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative measures to help assess the rate of degradation caused by MIC. The paper reviews four existing models for MIC Threat Assessment and describe a new model that links the threat of MIC in the oil processing system located on an offshore platform with a Risk Based Inspection (RBI) approach. A recent field case highlights and explains

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology of granulomatous mastitis with special emphasis on microbiologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemenqani, Dalal; Yaqoob, Nausheen; Hafiz, Momein

    2009-01-01

    To describe the cytomorphology of granulomatous mastitis (GM) and to evaluate the causative agents involved, proven on the basis of microbiologic culture results and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies. We retrospectively reviewed the inflammatory breast aspirates reported at King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital and Al Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from January 2000 until March 2008. The pathology reports, clinical information, slides, microbiologic culture results and tuberculosis (TB)/PCR were reviewed. Cases of inflammatory carcinoma or duct ectasia were excluded. A total of 49 cases of inflammatory breast aspirates were identified, of which 15 cases were GM. The microbiologic cultures of all 15 cases were available. Six of 15 cases had positive culture for Brucella melitenses, and 2 cases were positive for TB, which was further confirmed by TB/PCR. The fungal cultures were negative in all the cases. Seven of 15 cases were classified as idiopathic GM. Fine needle aspiration cytology was found to be a useful tool in the early diagnosis of GM and its classification if performed by a pathologist as the material can be submitted for culture. The definitive diagnosis can be established by a combination of the cytomorphologic features and microbiologic studies.

  11. Microbiological performance of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)-based food safety management systems: A case of Nile perch processing company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kussaga, J.B.; Luning, P.A.; Tiisekwa, B.P.M.; Jacxsens, L.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at giving insight into microbiological safety output of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)-based Food Safety Management System (FSMS) of a Nile perch exporting company by using a combined assessment, This study aimed at giving insight into microbiological safety output

  12. Salivary and microbiological parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto CORTELLI

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the differences in salivary parameters and microbial composition between diabetic and non-diabetic patients, however, specific differences are still not clear mainly due to the effects of confounder. Aim: The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the salivary and microbial parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and method: This case-control study included 60 chronic periodontitis subjects, 30 diabetics (case group and 30 non-diabetics (control group, paired according to periodontitis severity, gender and age. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from all volunteers to measure the salivary pH and the salivary flow rate. Bacterial samples were collected with paper points from periodontal sites showing the deepest periodontal pocket depth associated with the highest clinical attachment loss. The frequency of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and C. rectus was evaluated by PCR. Data was statistically analyzed by Student's t, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square (p<0.05. Result: Diabetic subjects showed higher salivary glucose levels and lower stimulated flow rates in comparison to non-diabetic controls. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were the most frequent pathogens (p<0.05. Bacterial frequency did not differ between case and control groups. Conclusion: Diabetes status influenced salivary glucose levels and flow rate. Within the same severity of chronic periodontitis, diabetic subjects did not show higher frequency of periodontal pathogens in comparison to their paired controls.

  13. First confirmed case of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in foals in Brazil Primeiro relato de diarreia associada à Clostridium difficile em potros no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the substantial role of Clostridium difficile in causing diarrhea and colitis in foals, there have been no confirmed diagnoses of disease caused by this bacteria in Brazil. In this paper, we describe confirmed cases of colitis caused by C. difficile in two foals in Brazil. Two five-month-old foals with a five-day history of diarrhea after antibiotic treatment for a respiratory disease were treated at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. C. difficile A/B toxins were detected, and toxigenic strains of C. difficile were isolated from the foals' feces. The treatment was based on fluid therapy and antibiotics (metronidazole and ceftiofur, and the animals experienced a gradual recovery. The association between the medical history, clinical signs, laboratory exam results and therapeutic success confirmed the diagnosis of C. difficile-associated diarrhea. The present report raises the possibility that C. difficile is also a pathogen in equines in Brazil and highlights the need for up to date routine laboratory protocols for the diagnosis of this disease.Apesar da importância de Clostridium difficile como agente causador de diarreia e colite em potros, inexistem relatos confirmados de tal doença no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever dois casos confirmados de diarreia causados por C. difficile em potros, ocorridos em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os animais, com cinco meses de idade, foram encaminhados ao Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG com histórico de cinco dias de diarreia após antibioticoterapia com penicilina para uma possível pneumonia. Ambos os animais foram positivos para detecção das toxinas A/B de C. difficile e isolados toxigênicas de C. difficile foram isoladas de amostras de fezes. Os animais apresentaram melhora gradual com o tratamento baseado em metronidazol e fluidoterapia e receberam alta após sete dias. A associação do quadro clínico, exames

  14. Microbiological aspects of safety in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Safonov, A.V.; Nazina, T.N.; Gorbunova, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    In long-term storage and/or disposal of radioactive waste, microbiological processes play an important, and in some cases a vital role. The article discusses the issues of microbiological processes in underground liquid LLW repositories and microbiological destruction of cemented radwaste. It is shown that biological additives to cement matrices can be used to effectively prevent the occurrence of microbiological processes, increasing reliability of engineering barriers that block release of radionuclides into the areas adjacent to the repositories [ru

  15. Further evidence for the case against neuropsychoanalysis: How Yovell, Solms, and Fotopoulou's response to our critique confirms the irrelevance and harmfulness to psychoanalysis of the contemporary neuroscientific trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B; Carmeli, Zvi

    2015-12-01

    In their paper "The case for neuropsychoanalysis" Yovell, Solms, and Fotopoulou (2015) respond to our critique of neuropsychoanalysis (Blass & Carmeli, 2007), setting forth evidence and arguments which, they claim, demonstrate why neuroscience is relevant and important for psychoanalysis and hence why dialogue between the fields is necessary. In the present paper we carefully examine their evidence and arguments and demonstrate how and why their claim is completely mistaken. In fact, Yovell, Solms, and Fotopoulou's paper only confirms our position on the irrelevance and harmfulness to psychoanalysis of the contemporary neuroscientific trend. We show how this trend perverts the essential nature of psychoanalysis and of how it is practiced. The clinical impact and its detrimental nature is highlighted by discussion of clinical material presented by Yovell et al (2015). In the light of this we argue that the debate over neuropsychoanalysis should be of interest to all psychoanalysts, not only those concerned with biology or interdisciplinary dialogue. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  16. Microbiological and Hydrogeochemical Controls on Anaerobic Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: Case Study from Fort McCoy, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Zwolinski, M. D.; Taglia, P. J.; Bahr, J. M.; Hickey, W. J.

    2001-05-01

    We are investigating the role of anaerobic processes that control field-scale BTEX loss using a variety of experimental and numerical techniques. Tracer tests, laboratory microcosms, and in situ microcosms (ISMs) were designed to examine BTEX biodegradation under intrinsic and enhanced anaerobic conditions in a BTEX plume at Fort McCoy, WI. In the tracer tests, addition of nitrate resulted in loss of toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p-xylenes but not benzene. Laboratory microcosm and ISM experiments confirmed that nitrate addition is not likely to enhance benzene biodegradation at the site. Excess nitrate losses were observed in both field and laboratory experiments, indicating that reliance on theoretical stoichiometric equations to estimate contaminant mass losses should be re-evaluated. To examine changes in microbial community during biodegradation of BTEX under enhanced nitrate-reducing conditions, DNA was extracted from laboratory microcosm sediment, the 16S-rRNA gene was amplified using eubacterial primers, and products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Banding patterns suggest that nitrate caused more of a community change than BTEX. These data suggest that nitrate plays an important role in microbial population selection. Numerical simulations were conducted to simulate the evolution of the BTEX plume and to quantify BTEX losses due to intrinsic and nitrate-enhanced biodegradation. Results suggest that the majority of intrinsic BTEX mass loss has occurred under aerobic and iron-reducing conditions. Due to depletion of solid-phase Fe(III) over time, however, future BTEX losses under iron-reducing conditions will decrease, and methanogenesis will play an increasingly important role in controlling biodegradation. The simulations also suggest that although nitrate addition will decrease TEX concentrations, source removal with intrinsic biodegradation is likely the most effective treatment method for the site.

  17. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  18. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  19. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  20. Risk-Based Approach for Microbiological Food Safety Management in the Dairy Industry: The Case of Listeria monocytogenes in Soft Cheese Made from Pasteurized Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Maffre, Alexandre; Sanaa, Moez

    2014-01-01

    According to Codex Alimentarius Commission recommendations, management options applied at the process production level should be based on good hygiene practices, HACCP system, and new risk management metrics such as the food safety objective. To follow this last recommendation, the use of quantitative microbiological risk assessment is an appealing approach to link new risk-based metrics to management options that may be applied by food operators. Through a specific case study, Listeria monocytogenes in soft cheese made from pasteurized milk, the objective of the present article is to practically show how quantitative risk assessment could be used to direct potential intervention strategies at different food processing steps. Based on many assumptions, the model developed estimates the risk of listeriosis at the moment of consumption taking into account the entire manufacturing process and potential sources of contamination. From pasteurization to consumption, the amplification of a primo-contamination event of the milk, the fresh cheese or the process environment is simulated, over time, space, and between products, accounting for the impact of management options, such as hygienic operations and sampling plans. A sensitivity analysis of the model will help orientating data to be collected prioritarily for the improvement and the validation of the model. What-if scenarios were simulated and allowed for the identification of major parameters contributing to the risk of listeriosis and the optimization of preventive and corrective measures. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Potential chemical and microbiological risks on human health from urban wastewater reuse in agriculture. Case study of wastewater effluents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ivan; Tomàs, Núria; Mas, Jordi; García-Reyes, Juan Fracisco; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-05-01

    Potential health risks derived from wastewater reuse in agriculture have been evaluated with Risk Assessment modelling techniques, in a case study involving the effluents of two Spanish wastewater treatment plants. One of the plants applies primary and secondary treatment, and the other one applies an additional tertiary treatment. Health risks were assessed on the basis of ingesting contaminated food, due to exposure to: (i) 22 chemical pollutants, namely pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and priority pollutants included in the European Framework Directive, and (ii) microorganisms, namely enterovirus. Chemical Risk Assessment has been carried out following the European Commission's technical guidelines, while risks from exposure to viruses have been evaluated by means of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, assuming a virus to coliform ratio of 1:10(5). The results of the chemical assessment show that there is a margin of safety above 100 for all substances, with the exception of gemfibrozil, for which the mean margin of safety (MOS) is above 100, but the lower bound of MOS with a 95 % confidence interval lies in the 3-4 range. A MOS under 100 was also found for 2,3,7,8-TCDD in one of the effluents. The assessment of risks from viruses shows a very low probability of infection. The overall results show that risks are lower for the plant applying tertiary treatment, especially concerning microbiological parameters.

  2. A case-study of a socio-scientific issues curricular and pedagogical intervention in an undergraduate microbiology course: A focus on informal reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Kelly A.

    The purpose of this investigation was to measure specific ways a student interest SSI-based curricular and pedagogical affects undergraduates' ability informally reason. The delimited components of informal reasoning measured were undergraduates' Nature of Science conceptualizations and ability to evaluate scientific information. The socio-scientific issues (SSI) theoretical framework used in this case-study has been advocated as a means for improving students' functional scientific literacy. This investigation focused on the laboratory component of an undergraduate microbiology course in spring 2008. There were 26 participants. The instruments used in this study included: (1) Individual and Group research projects, (2) journals, (3) laboratory write-ups, (4) a laboratory quiz, (5) anonymous evaluations, and (6) a pre/post article exercise. All instruments yielded qualitative data, which were coded using the qualitative software NVivo7. Data analyses were subjected to instrumental triangulation, inter-rater reliability, and member-checking. It was determined that undergraduates' epistemological knowledge of scientific discovery, processes, and justification matured in response to the intervention. Specifically, students realized: (1) differences between facts, theories, and opinions; (2) testable questions are not definitively proven; (3) there is no stepwise scientific process; and (4) lack of data weakens a claim. It was determined that this knowledge influenced participants' beliefs and ability to informally reason. For instance, students exhibited more critical evaluations of scientific information. It was also found that undergraduates' prior opinions had changed over the semester. Further, the student interest aspect of this framework engaged learners by offering participants several opportunities to influentially examine microbiology issues that affected their life. The investigation provided empirically based insights into the ways undergraduates' interest

  3. Clinical and laboratory features of cats with feline infectious peritonitis--a retrospective study of 231 confirmed cases (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Friederike; Kuehner, Kirsten A; Ritz, Susanne; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Hartmann, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to review signalment, clinical signs and laboratory features in a large number of naturally occurring cases of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), and to evaluate potential changes in diagnostic criteria for FIP and compare findings in cats with and without effusion. The medical records of 231 cats with confirmed FIP that presented to the Clinic of Small Animal Medicine of the Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Germany, were reviewed for signalment, history, and clinical and laboratory parameters. Age, sex and breed distribution of the cats were compared with the clinic population. Male sex and young age were significantly correlated with FIP. Neutering status was not associated with FIP. No breed predisposition was observed and the majority of cats presented were domestic shorthair and mixed breed. Microcytosis of peripheral erythrocytes was found in 35.1% of cats, of which 42.4% did not have concurrent anaemia. Band neutrophilia was documented in 44.3% (81/183), of which 35.8% did not have mature neutrophilia. Lymphopenia, observed significantly more often with effusion, was documented in only 26.8% of cats without effusion. Hyperbilirubinaemia also occurred significantly more often in cats with vs without effusion. While serum total protein was increased in only 17.5% of cats, hyperglobulinaemia was documented in 89.1%. Nearly 85.0% of cats had an albumin-to-globulin (A:G) ratio peritonitis. Globulins and A:G ratio were of higher diagnostic value than hyperproteinaemia. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  4. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  5. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  7. CERN confirms LHC schedule

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Council held its 125th session on 20 June. Highlights of the meeting included confirmation that the LHC is on schedule for a 2007 start-up, and the announcement of a new organizational structure in 2004.

  8. Clinical microbiology informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-10-01

    The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Diphtheria outbreak in Maranhão, Brazil: microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, L S; Sant'anna, L O; Ramos, J N; Ladeira, E M; Stavracakis-Peixoto, R; Borges, L L G; Santos, C S; Napoleão, F; Camello, T C F; Pereira, G A; Hirata, R; Vieira, V V; Cosme, L M S S; Sabbadini, P S; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L

    2015-03-01

    We describe microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of a diphtheria outbreak that occurred in Maranhão, Brazil. The majority of the 27 confirmed cases occurred in partially (n = 16) or completely (n = 10) immunized children (n = 26). Clinical signs and characteristic symptoms of diphtheria such as cervical lymphadenopathy and pseudomembrane formation were absent in 48% and 7% of the cases, respectively. Complications such as paralysis of lower limbs were observed. Three cases resulted in death, two of them in completely immunized children. Microbiological analysis identified the isolates as Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar intermedius with a predominant PFGE type. Most of them were toxigenic and some showed a decrease in penicillin G susceptibility. In conclusion, diphtheria remains endemic in Brazil. Health professionals need to be aware of the possibility of atypical cases of C. diphtheriae infection, including pharyngitis without pseudomembrane formation.

  10. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    species grow as multicel- lular filaments called hyphae forming a mycelium, some fungal species also grow as single cells. Sexual and asexual...reinforced fluorinated 18 MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION polyimide composites due to hyphae penetration into resin interiors. The

  11. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Simulation modelling and risk assessment as tools to identify the impact of climate change on microbiological food safety – The case study of fresh produce supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Devlieghere, F.; Leemans, R.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    The current quality assurance and control tools and methods to prevent and/or to control microbiological risks associated with fresh produce are challenged due to the following pressures upon the food supply chain, i.e. changing consumption patterns, globalization and climate change. It demonstrates

  13. Plutonian Moon confirmed

    Science.gov (United States)

    In late February, two separate observations confirmed the 1978 discovery by U.S. Naval Observatory scientist James W. Christy of a moon orbiting the planet Pluto. According to the U.S. Naval Observatory, these two observations were needed before the International Astronomical Society (IAS) would officially recognize the discovery.Two types of observations of the moon, which was named Charon after the ferryman in Greek mythology who carried the dead to Pluto's realm, were needed for confirmation: a transit, in which the moon passes in front of Pluto, and an occultation, in which the moon passes behind the planet. These two phenomena occur only during an 8-year period every 124 years that had been calculated to take place during 1984-1985. Both events were observed in late February.

  14. Consolidated clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Robert L; Thomson, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laboratories may be located hours from patient care settings, and transport conditions need to be such that organism viability can be maintained under a variety of transport conditions. Further, since the provision of rapid results has been shown to enhance patient care, effective and timely means for generating and then reporting the results of clinical microbiology analyses must be in place. In addition, today, increasing numbers of patients are found to have infection caused by pathogens that were either very uncommon in the past or even completely unrecognized. As a result, infectious disease specialists, in particular, are more dependent than ever on access to high-quality diagnostic information from clinical microbiology laboratories. In this point-counterpoint discussion, Robert Sautter, who directs a Charlotte, NC, clinical microbiology laboratory that provides services for a 40-hospital system spread over 3 states in the southeastern United States explains how an integrated clinical microbiology laboratory service has been established in a multihospital system. Richard (Tom) Thomson of the NorthShore University HealthSystem in Evanston, IL, discusses some of the problems and pitfalls associated with large-scale laboratory consolidation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Medical microbiology training needs and trainee experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Josephine; Elamin, Wael; Millar, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Training in microbiology is continuing to evolve. Standardisation of this process has, in part, been achieved through the development of a training curriculum by the Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath). A substantial proportion of microbiology training occurs through telephone consultations. To ascertain the content of these interactions and the extent to which the necessary skills outlined by the curriculum are attainable via these consultations. Records of telephone consultations made by microbiology registrars (SpR) on the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) over a 6 month period were analysed with regard to who initiated contact and the type of advice provided. An average of 426 SpR entries per month were made on the LIMS following telephone consultations. These consultations were predominantly initiated by fellow clinicians as opposed to the SpR. The majority (79%) of advice entailed guidance as to the use of antimicrobials which resulted in an alteration of the current regimen in 54% of cases. This study represents the first attempt to quantify the telephone consultations of microbiology trainees. It is concluded that although such interactions provide a means of attaining some of the competencies outlined by the RCPath curriculum, the bias towards antimicrobial advice reflects a discrepancy between the needs of the service users and the broad skill set advocated by the current microbiology training programme. Future modifications will need to take this into account to ensure both the training of SpRs and the microbiology service is fit for purpose.

  16. Diagnostic virology laboratory within a microbiology setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S J

    1984-01-01

    The virology section at St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Connecticut, is not a separate laboratory division but is a part of the microbiology division and is supervised by the same personnel who supervise bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and serology. Current volume is over 1,000 cultures yearly with 12 to 24 percent positive. Isolates are confirmed and typed by the Connecticut State Health Department Laboratory. Specimen distribution, percentage positive specimens, and distribution of viral isolates are similar to those reported from microbiology laboratories with separate virology laboratories directed by a full-time doctoral-level virologist. Our seven years' experience demonstrates that a microbiology laboratory without a full-time doctoral-level virologist can provide clinically useful virologic information.

  17. Microbiological performance of dairy processing plants is influenced by scale of production and the implemented food safety management system: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiyo, Beatrice Atieno; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

    2013-06-01

    The effects of existing food safety management systems and size of the production facility on microbiological quality in the dairy industry in Kenya were studied. A microbial assessment scheme was used to evaluate 14 dairies in Nairobi and its environs, and their performance was compared based on their size and on whether they were implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 22000 recommendations. Environmental samples from critical sampling locations, i.e., workers' hands and food contact surfaces, and from end products were analyzed for microbial quality, including hygiene indicators and pathogens. Microbial safety level profiles (MSLPs) were constructed from the microbiological data to obtain an overview of contamination. The maximum MSLP score for environmental samples was 18 (six microbiological parameters, each with a maximum MSLP score of 3) and that for end products was 15 (five microbiological parameters). Three dairies (two large scale and one medium scale; 21% of total) achieved the maximum MSLP scores of 18 for environmental samples and 15 for the end product. Escherichia coli was detected on food contact surfaces in three dairies, all of which were small scale dairies, and the microorganism was also present in end product samples from two of these dairies, an indication of cross-contamination. Microbial quality was poorest in small scale dairies. Most operations in these dairies were manual, with minimal system documentation. Noncompliance with hygienic practices such as hand washing and cleaning and disinfection procedures, which is common in small dairies, directly affects the microbial quality of the end products. Dairies implementing HACCP systems or ISO 22000 recommendations achieved maximum MSLP scores and hence produced safer products.

  18. Pathological and microbiological studies on pneumonic lungs from Danish calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Uttenthal, Åse; Friis, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    During 1 year, the association between microbiological and pathological findings in 72 lungs from calves submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory for diagnostic purposes was studied. All cases mere evaluated pathologically and bacteriologically, whereas only 68 cases were examined...

  19. Bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozere, I.; Sele, A.; Ozolina, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis in children and adults is a growing problem with important public health implications. In Latvia the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in children up to age 14 has increased from 7,1 per 100000 in 1992 to 28,8 per 100000 in 2003. The diagnosis of TB is confirmed by isolation and identification of M. tuberculosis (MT) from clinical specimen. Confirmation of the disease, however, is difficult in children due to poor bacilli excretion and even under the best circumstances only about 30-40% of pediatric TB cases are proved bacteriologically. Of the 370 pediatric TB cases diagnosed between January 1, 2001 and December 1, 2003 in Latvia, 53 (14,3%) were confirmed bacteriologically. The clinical, radiological, immunological and anamnestic features of confirmed TB can serve as cornerstones for diagnosing of TB, when culture is not available. Objective To evaluate the sensitivity of diagnostic criteria of TB, clinical and radiological manifestation of TB and drug susceptibility of MT isolated also. Methods All consecutive children (53 in total) up to age 14 diagnosed with bacteriologically confirmed TB during 01.01.2001. -01.12.2003. were prospectively evaluated for reasons mentioned above. Results Of the 53 children identified all but one had respiratory tract TB. 17(32,1 %) children were under 4 years of age, 9 (17%) children were 5-9 years old, but 27 (50,9%) patients were 10-14 years old. During evaluation data on TB source case were found in addition in 13 children and total TB contact history was positive in 37 (69,8%) patients. All clinical and radiographical forms of respiratory tract TB were diagnosed. The most common encountered forms were intrathoracic adenopathy in 10 (18,9%) cases and TB pneumonia in 6 (11,3%) cases in children aged 10-14 years. lnthrathoracic adenopathy associated with segmental parenchymal lesion was the most common form in children under 4 years of age -7 (13,2%) cases respectively. Conclusions 1. The clinical and radiological

  20. Microbiological soil regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, D.; Wiesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interdiciplinary Task Force ''Environmental Biotechnology - Soil'' of DECHEMA aims to pool the knowledge potential of the Dechema study committees on environmental biotechnology and soil protection with a view to the advancement of microbiological soil decontamination techniques. This conference volume on the 9th expert meeting of Dechema on environmental protection subjects entitled ''Microbiological Soil Regeneration'', held on February 27th and 28th, 1991, and the subsequent compilation of results give an intermediate account of the ongoing work of the Dechema Task Force. (orig.) [de

  1. Zika emergence in the French Territories of America and description of first confirmed cases of Zika virus infection on Martinique, November 2015 to February 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Daudens-Vaysse , Elise; Ledrans , Martine; Gay , Noellie; Ardillon , Vanessa; Cassadou , Sylvie; Najioullah , Fatiha; Leparc-Goffart , Isabelle; Rousset , Dominique; Herrmann , Cécile; Cesaire , Raymond; Maquart , Marianne; Flusin , Olivier; Matheus , Séverine; Huc-Anais , Patricia; Jaubert , Josiane

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Following of the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015, an epidemiological surveillance system was quickly implemented in the French overseas Territories of America (FTA) according to previous experience with dengue and chikungunya and has detected first cases of Zika. General practitioners and medical microbiologists were invited to report all clinically suspectedcases of Zika, laboratory investigations were systematically conducted (RT-PCR). On 18 December, the f...

  2. Risk Prediction for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in 11 United States–Based Case-Control Studies: Incorporation of Epidemiologic Risk Factors and 17 Confirmed Genetic Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Merlise A.; Palmieri Weber, Rachel; Iversen, Edwin S.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Goodman, Marc T.; Ness, Roberta B.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Terry, Kathryn L.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berchuck, Andrew; Carney, Michael E.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Lurie, Galina; McGuire, Valerie; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Olson, Sara H.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pike, Malcolm C.; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Sieh, Weiva; Stram, Daniel; Thompson, Pamela J.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wu, Anna H.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.

    2016-01-01

    Previously developed models for predicting absolute risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer have included a limited number of risk factors and have had low discriminatory power (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) < 0.60). Because of this, we developed and internally validated a relative risk prediction model that incorporates 17 established epidemiologic risk factors and 17 genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using data from 11 case-control studies in the United States (5,793 cases; 9,512 controls) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (data accrued from 1992 to 2010). We developed a hierarchical logistic regression model for predicting case-control status that included imputation of missing data. We randomly divided the data into an 80% training sample and used the remaining 20% for model evaluation. The AUC for the full model was 0.664. A reduced model without SNPs performed similarly (AUC = 0.649). Both models performed better than a baseline model that included age and study site only (AUC = 0.563). The best predictive power was obtained in the full model among women younger than 50 years of age (AUC = 0.714); however, the addition of SNPs increased the AUC the most for women older than 50 years of age (AUC = 0.638 vs. 0.616). Adapting this improved model to estimate absolute risk and evaluating it in prospective data sets is warranted. PMID:27698005

  3. CONFIRMATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR PHOSPHINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco (Spain); Decin, L. [Sterrenkundig Instituut Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 Amsterdam (Netherlands); Encrenaz, P. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Teyssier, D. [European Space Astronomy Centre, Urb. Villafranca del Castillo, P.O. Box 50727, E-28080 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Phosphine (PH{sub 3}) was tentatively identified a few years ago in the carbon star envelopes IRC +10216 and CRL 2688 from observations of an emission line at 266.9 GHz attributable to the J = 1-0 rotational transition. We report the detection of the J = 2-1 rotational transition of PH{sub 3} in IRC +10216 using the HIFI instrument on board Herschel, which definitively confirms the identification of PH{sub 3}. Radiative transfer calculations indicate that infrared pumping in excited vibrational states plays an important role in the excitation of PH{sub 3} in the envelope of IRC +10216, and that the observed lines are consistent with phosphine being formed anywhere between the star and 100 R {sub *} from the star, with an abundance of 10{sup –8} relative to H{sub 2}. The detection of PH{sub 3} challenges chemical models, none of which offer a satisfactory formation scenario. Although PH{sub 3} holds just 2% of the total available phosphorus in IRC +10216, it is, together with HCP, one of the major gas phase carriers of phosphorus in the inner circumstellar layers, suggesting that it could also be an important phosphorus species in other astronomical environments. This is the first unambiguous detection of PH{sub 3} outside the solar system, and is a further step toward a better understanding of the chemistry of phosphorus in space.

  4. Microbiological problems in radiosterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerniawski, E.

    1997-01-01

    Microbiological problems connected with radiosterilization of medical materials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics have been discussed in detail. Dose-response relationship for different bacteria has been shown. Recommended sterilization and postirradiation control procedures have been described. 24 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  5. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  6. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological... intended for medical purposes to cultivate microorganisms and aid in the diagnosis of disease. (b...

  7. Diagnosis and definition of an action plan related to the management system conformed to the ISO 17025; case of the laboratory of Microbiology - CNSTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeili, Abderrahmen

    2007-01-01

    The accreditations permit the laboratories of tests and analysis to prove the quality of their organization and to ensure the reliability of their results. This report - ratio approaches the various stages of the installation from a system of management quality, within a microbiological analysis laboratory with the CNSTN ( National center for nuclear sciences and technologies). The setting is begin with the staff training on the requirements from the standard ISO 17025. In continuation a plan of initial diagnosis to locate the laboratory compared to the requirements of the standard to succeed finally an action plan detailing the actions to be carried out to reach the accreditation. (Author). 7 refs

  8. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, P. J

    2011-01-01

    "Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...

  9. Opinion dynamics with confirmation bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen E Allahverdyan

    Full Text Available Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science.We formulate a (non-Bayesian model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency or the first opinion (primacy -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties.The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.

  10. The physical and microbiological quality of chicken meat in the different type of enterprise poultry slaughterhouse: a case study in Karanganyar District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertanto, B. S.; Nurmalasari, C. D. A.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Cahyadi, M.; Kartikasari, L. R.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical and microbiological quality of chicken meat produced by the different type of enterprise slaughterhouse in Karanganyar District. The number of 20 poultry slaughterhouses was determined by convenience sampling method. The samples of chicken meat were randomly collected from medium enterprise poultry slaughterhouses (n=12) and small enterprise poultry slaughterhouses (n=8). A survey was carried out among poultry slaughterhouses in Karanganyar District. All the samples were subjected to physical quality consisted of pH test, texture, and color, while microbiological quality consisted of total plate count, microbial detection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The data were analyzed using descriptive quantitative analysis. The study showed that chicken meat in 6 small enterprise slaughterhouses and 11 medium enterprise slaughterhouses had normal pH of 5.81 - 6.3. Color and texture of chicken meats had relatively normal in both small and medium enterprise slaughterhouses. The total plate count of chicken meat showed in both small and medium enterprise slaughterhouses was 1x101 CFU/gr, and Salmonella was detected in 1 medium enterprise slaughterhouse. The overall results of the study suggest that the potential risk of chicken meat contamination depends on the processing of chicken meat in poultry slaughterhouses.

  11. Diagnostic virology laboratory within a microbiology setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    The virology section at St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Connecticut, is not a separate laboratory division but is a part of the microbiology division and is supervised by the same personnel who supervise bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and serology. Current volume is over 1,000 cultures yearly with 12 to 24 percent positive. Isolates are confirmed and typed by the Connecticut State Health Department Laboratory. Specimen distribution, percentage positive specimens, and distr...

  12. Infection: microbiology and management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Jane; Gillespie, S. H; Bannister, Barbara A

    2006-01-01

    ..., management and control. The presentation, diagnosis and management of individual diseases are described in the systematic chapters. Each chapter introduces the range of diseases that can affect the relevant system, and lists the pathogens responsible for each presentation in approximate order of importance. For each individual pathogen, the epidemiology and microbiology, clinical presentations and diagnosis, and strategies for prevention and control are described. This textbook is designed to be used either as a...

  13. Proteomics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, P

    2000-04-01

    The techniques of proteomics (high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein characterisation) are widely used for microbiological research to analyse global protein synthesis as an indicator of gene expression. The rapid progress in microbial proteomics has been achieved through the wide availability of whole genome sequences for a number of bacterial groups. Beyond providing a basic understanding of microbial gene expression, proteomics has also played a role in medical areas of microbiology. Progress has been made in the use of the techniques for investigating the epidemiology and taxonomy of human microbial pathogens, the identification of novel pathogenic mechanisms and the analysis of drug resistance. In each of these areas, proteomics has provided new insights that complement genomic-based investigations. This review describes the current progress in these research fields and highlights some of the technical challenges existing for the application of proteomics in medical microbiology. The latter concern the analysis of genetically heterogeneous bacterial populations and the integration of the proteomic and genomic data for these bacteria. The characterisation of the proteomes of bacterial pathogens growing in their natural hosts remains a future challenge.

  14. Radioisotopic indicators in microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isamov, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    The book comprises data obtained by the laboratory of radiobiology (Uzbek Research Veterinary Institute) for 15 years and sums up data of domestic and foreign scientists; it discusses problems of the utilization of radioactive isotopes of sulphur, cadmium, phosphorus and other chemical elements by microorganisms; indicates the specificity of the utilization of radioisotopes in microbiology. The influence is considered of external factors on the inclusion of radioisotopes into microorganisms, methods are discussed of obtaining labelled microorganisms and their antigens, radioactivity of bacteria is considered as affected by the consistency and composition of the nutritive medium and other problems

  15. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  16. The Challenging Diagnosis of Non-Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Non-Mechanically Ventilated Subjects: Value of Microbiological Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messika, Jonathan; Stoclin, Annabelle; Bouvard, Eric; Fulgencio, Jean-Pierre; Ridel, Christophe; Muresan, Ioan-Paul; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Bachmeyer, Claude; Denis, Michel; Gounant, Valérie; Esteso, Adoracion; Loi, Valeria; Verdet, Charlotte; Prigent, Hélène; Parrot, Antoine; Fartoukh, Muriel

    2016-02-01

    Early recognition and an attempt at obtaining microbiological documentation are recommended in patients with non-community-acquired pneumonia (NCAP), whether hospital-acquired (HAP) or health care-associated (HCAP). We aimed to characterize the clinical features and microbial etiologies of NCAP to assess the impact of microbiological investigation on their management. This was a prospective 1-y study in a university hospital with 141 non-mechanically ventilated subjects suspected of having HAP (n = 110) or HCAP (n = 31). Clinical criteria alone poorly identified pneumonia (misdiagnosis in 50% of cases). Microbiological confirmation was achievable in 80 subjects (57%). Among 79 microorganisms isolated, 28 were multidrug-resistant aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and group III Enterobacteriaceae and 6 were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Multidrug-resistant aerobic Gram-negative bacilli accounted for one third of the microorganisms in early-onset HAP and for 50% in late-onset HAP. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was most often recovered from subjects with HCAP. Inappropriate empirical antibiotics were administered to 36% of subjects with confirmed pneumonia. Forty subjects were admitted to the ICU, 13 (33%) of whom died. Overall, 39 subjects (28%) died in the hospital. Integrating the microbiological investigation in the complex clinical diagnostic workup of patients suspected of having NCAP is mandatory. Respiratory tract specimens should be obtained whenever possible for appropriate management. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  17. Comparative epidemiology of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 and H5N1 viruses in China: a population-based study of laboratory-confirmed cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Benjamin J; Jin, Lianmei; Lau, Eric H Y; Liao, Qiaohong; Wu, Peng; Jiang, Hui; Tsang, Tim K; Zheng, Jiandong; Fang, Vicky J; Chang, Zhaorui; Ni, Michael Y; Zhang, Qian; Ip, Dennis K M; Yu, Jianxing; Li, Yu; Wang, Liping; Tu, Wenxiao; Meng, Ling; Wu, Joseph T; Luo, Huiming; Li, Qun; Shu, Yuelong; Li, Zhongjie; Feng, Zijian; Yang, Weizhong; Wang, Yu; Leung, Gabriel M; Yu, Hongjie

    2013-07-13

    The novel influenza A H7N9 virus emerged recently in mainland China, whereas the influenza A H5N1 virus has infected people in China since 2003. Both infections are thought to be mainly zoonotic. We aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics of the complete series of laboratory-confirmed cases of both viruses in mainland China so far. An integrated database was constructed with information about demographic, epidemiological, and clinical variables of laboratory-confirmed cases of H7N9 (130 patients) and H5N1 (43 patients) that were reported to the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention until May 24, 2013. We described disease occurrence by age, sex, and geography, and estimated key epidemiological variables. We used survival analysis techniques to estimate the following distributions: infection to onset, onset to admission, onset to laboratory confirmation, admission to death, and admission to discharge. The median age of the 130 individuals with confirmed infection with H7N9 was 62 years and of the 43 with H5N1 was 26 years. In urban areas, 74% of cases of both viruses were in men, whereas in rural areas the proportions of the viruses in men were 62% for H7N9 and 33% for H5N1. 75% of patients infected with H7N9 and 71% of those with H5N1 reported recent exposure to poultry. The mean incubation period of H7N9 was 3·1 days and of H5N1 was 3·3 days. On average, 21 contacts were traced for each case of H7N9 in urban areas and 18 in rural areas, compared with 90 and 63 for H5N1. The fatality risk on admission to hospital was 36% (95% CI 26-45) for H7N9 and 70% (56-83%) for H5N1. The sex ratios in urban compared with rural cases are consistent with exposure to poultry driving the risk of infection--a higher risk in men was only recorded in urban areas but not in rural areas, and the increased risk for men was of a similar magnitude for H7N9 and H5N1. However, the difference in susceptibility to serious illness with the two different viruses

  18. Microbiology Education in Nursing Practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Durrant, Robert J.; Doig, Alexa K.; Buxton, Rebecca L.; Fenn, JoAnn P.

    2017-01-01

    Nurses must have sufficient education and training in microbiology to perform many roles within clinical nursing practice (e.g., administering antibiotics, collecting specimens, preparing specimens for transport and delivery, educating patients and families, communicating results to the healthcare team, and developing care plans based on results of microbiology studies and patient immunological status). It is unclear whether the current microbiology courses required of nursing students in the...

  19. Equine deep stromal abscesses (51 cases - 2004-2009)--Part 1: the clinical aspects with attention to the duration of the corneal disease, treatment history, clinical appearance, and microbiology results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Linde Henriksen, Michala; Andersen, Pia H; Thomsen, Preben D; Plummer, Caryn E; Mangan, Brendan; Heegaard, Steffen; Toft, Nils; Brooks, Dennis E

    2014-07-01

    To study the equine deep stromal abscesses (DSA) with focus on the duration of the corneal disease, medical treatment, season of presentation, clinical appearance, and the degree of corneal vascularization. Equine DSA diagnosed, biopsied, and surgically treated at the University of Florida Veterinary Medical Center (UFVMC) from 2004 to 2009 were identified. The medical record, clinical photographic images, and microbiology results for each case were evaluated. Frequency and prevalence calculation as well as qualitative data analysis was performed for clinical and microbiological data. Fifty-one equine DSA were included in the study. Spring (March, April, May; 33.4%) and winter (December, January, February; 31.4%) were the most common seasons for DSA presentation. The 51 cases were divided into four categories of focal opacity from their clinical appearance: focal yellow (45.2%), focal white (23.5%), diffuse yellow/white (23.5%), and focal pink (7.8%). 5.9% of the DSA (n = 3) were culture positive for fungal growth, whereas 17.6% were positive for bacterial growth (n = 9). No association between short-/long-term systemically administered NSAID treatment and the corneal vascular response to the corneal lesion could be appreciated. Equine DSA most often present in the spring and winter in the subtropical environment of the state of Florida (USA). The clinical appearance may have a connection with the etiology and pathogenesis of the equine DSA. No connection between short- or long-term systemically administered NSAID and the degree of corneal vascularization of the DSA was noted. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. Microbiological and Chemical Findings of Water Used for Various Industrial Processes in Babol Car Factory, Iran, in 2013 A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Mahdavi Omran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: According to the reported problems in area of the inappropriateness of water quality which used for washing and staining of car apparatuses in a car factory, this research was carried out for identification of physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics of the consumed water in Babol car factory, Iran. Materials and Methods: Physical and chemical parameters of water such as total solids, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness (TH, cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, and anions (SO42−, Cl−, NO3− were analyzed based on standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. The samples were taken from five units and were precipitated and plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and blood agar and eosin methylene blue media. Results: TDS, turbidity, pH, TH and ammonium ion were 402 mg/L, 10 NTU, 7.8, 208 mg/L and 0.04 mg/L, respectively. Ten genera of fungal colonies were isolated from these units, which from them yeast Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most prevalent. Five genera of bacteria were isolated from these samples. Entrobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, and Bacillus were the most prevalent bacteria in water. Water quality in the activation and fixation units were the most contaminated with fungi and bacteria, respectively. Some of these units were without fungal and bacterial contaminations. Conclusion: The fungal and bacterial contaminations can be changed the quality of consumed water in the different processes such as color and turbidity. Thus, we need to use some water

  1. Microbiology of Bartholin's Gland Abscess in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kaori; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Ninomiya, Mochiyoshi; Tamaya, Teruhiko; Izumi, Koji; Ito, Kunihiko; Yamaoka, Kazukiyo; Watanabe, Kunitomo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the current epidemiology concerning the causative organisms for Bartholin's gland abscess in Japan. Microbiological examination of 224 cases showed positive results in 219 cases and negative results in 5 cases. Of all of the bacterial isolates, 307 and 118 were aerobes and anaerobes, respectively. The most frequently isolated bacterium was Escherichia coli. Of the anaerobes, the most frequently isolated organism was Bacteroides species, followed by Prevotella species. The organisms related to respiratory infectious diseases, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, including resistant bacteria, were sometimes involved between 2000 and 2004. PMID:16081994

  2. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  3. Spectrometric microbiological analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Meissner, Ken E.

    1996-04-01

    Currently, there are four general approaches to microbiological analysis, i.e., the detection, identification and quantification of micro-organisms: (1) Traditional culturing and staining procedures, metabolic fermentations and visual morphological characteristics; (2) Immunological approaches employing microbe-specific antibodies; (3) Biotechnical techniques employing DNA probes and related genetic engineering methods; and (4) Physical measurement techniques based on the biophysical properties of micro-organisms. This paper describes an instrumentation development in the fourth of the above categories, physical measurement, that uses a combination of fluorometric and light scatter spectra to detect and identify micro-organisms at the species level. A major advantage of this approach is the rapid turnaround possible in medical diagnostic or water testing applications. Fluorometric spectra serve to define the biochemical characteristics of the microbe, and light scatter spectra the size and shape morphology. Together, the two spectra define a 'fingerprint' for each species of microbe for detection, identification and quantification purposes. A prototype instrument has been developed and tested under NASA sponsorship based on fluorometric spectra alone. This instrument demonstrated identification and quantification capabilities at the species level. The paper reports on test results using this instrument, and the benefits of employing a combination of fluorometric and light scatter spectra.

  4. Microbiological metal extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torma, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Application of biotechnological principles in the mineral processing, especially in hydrometallurgy, has created new opportunities and challenges for these industries. During the 1950's and 60's, the mining wastes and unused complex mineral resources have been successfully treated in bacterial assisted heap and dump leaching processes for copper and uranium. The interest in bio-leaching processes is the consequence of economic advantages associated with these techniques. For example, copper can be produced from mining wastes for about 1/3 to 1/2 of the costs of copper production by the conventional smelting process from high-grade sulfide concentrates. The economic viability of bio leaching technology lead to its world wide acceptance by the extractive industries. During 1970's this technology grew into a more structured discipline called 'bio hydrometallurgy'. Currently, bio leaching techniques are ready to be used, in addition to copper and uranium, for the extraction of cobalt, nickel, zinc, precious metals and for the desulfurization of high-sulfur content pyritic coals. As a developing technology, the microbiological leaching of the less common and rare metals has yet to reach commercial maturity. However, the research in this area is very active. In addition, in a foreseeable future the biotechnological methods may be applied also for the treatment of high-grade ores and mineral concentrates using adapted native and/or genetically engineered microorganisms. (author)

  5. Microbiologically induced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Biological attack is a problem that can affect all metallic materials in a variety of environments and systems. In the power industry, corrosion studies have focused on condensers and service water systems where slime, barnacles, clams, and other macro-organisms are easily detected. Efforts have been made to eliminate the effect of these organisms through the use of chlorination, backflushing, organic coating, or thermal shock. The objective is to maintain component performance by eliminating biofouling and reducing metallic corrosion. Recently, corrosion of power plant components by micro-organisms (bacteria) has been identified even in very clean systems. A system's first exposure to microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) occurs during its first exposure to an aqueous environment, such as during hydrotest or wet layup. Corrosion of buried pipelines by sulfate-reducing bacteria has been studied by the petrochemical industry for years. This paper discusses various methods of diagnosing, monitoring, and controlling MIC in a variety of systems, as well as indicates areas where further study is needed

  6. Meta-analysis in microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Pabalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of meta-analysis in microbiology may facilitate decision-making that impacts public health policy. Directed at clinicians and researchers in microbiology, this review outlines the steps in performing this statistical technique, addresses its biases and describes its value in this discipline. The survey to estimate extent of the use of meta-analyses in microbiology shows the remarkable growth in the use of this research methodology, from a minimal Asian output to a level comparable with those of Europe and North America in the last 7 years.

  7. Case-based reported mortality associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection in the Netherlands: the 2009-2010 pandemic season versus the 2010-2011 influenza season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timen Aura

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to seasonal influenza epidemics, where the majority of deaths occur amongst elderly, a considerable part of the 2009 pandemic influenza related deaths concerned relatively young people. In the Netherlands, all deaths associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection had to be notified, both during the 2009-2010 pandemic season and the 2010-2011 influenza season. To assess whether and to what extent pandemic mortality patterns were reverting back to seasonal patterns, a retrospective analyses of all notified fatal cases associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection was performed. Methods The notification database, including detailed information about the clinical characteristics of all notified deaths, was used to perform a comprehensive analysis of all deceased patients with a laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection. Characteristics of the fatalities with respect to age and underlying medical conditions were analysed, comparing the 2009-2010 pandemic and the 2010-2011 influenza season. Results A total of 65 fatalities with a laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection were notified in 2009-2010 and 38 in 2010-2011. During the pandemic season, the population mortality rates peaked in persons aged 0-15 and 55-64 years. In the 2010-2011 influenza season, peaks in mortality were seen in persons aged 0-15 and 75-84 years. During the 2010-2011 influenza season, the height of first peak was lower compared to that during the pandemic season. Underlying immunological disorders were more common in the pandemic season compared to the 2010-2011 season (p = 0.02, and cardiovascular disorders were more common in the 2010-2011 season (p = 0.005. Conclusions The mortality pattern in the 2010-2011 influenza season still resembled the 2009-2010 pandemic season with a peak in relatively young age groups, but concurrently a clear shift toward

  8. Scrapping of student bursaries confirmed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Chris

    2016-07-27

    Student bursaries for nurses will be scrapped from next year, the government has confirmed. Undergraduate nursing and midwifery students in England will now face tuition fees and student loans from August 2017.

  9. Selective enrichment of volatiles confirmed

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pater, Imke

    2018-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide gas is detected above Uranus's main cloud deck, confirming the prevalence of H2S ice particles as the main cloud component and a strongly unbalanced nitrogen/sulfur ratio in the planet's deep atmosphere.

  10. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  11. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alita R. Burmeister

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives.

  12. Medical Microbiology: Deficits and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabridge, Michael G.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiology is a typical medical science in which basic information can have direct application. Yet, surveys and questionnaires of recent medical school graduates indicate a serious lack of retentiion in regard to basic biological science. (Author)

  13. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal welcomes papers focusing on microbiological and/or immunological studies from medical or pharmaceutical perspectives. Research pieces on bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, algae, spores, immunity, immune systems, health and pharmaceutical applications are highly relevant ...

  14. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  15. Recent advances in diagnostic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Procop, Gary W

    2009-07-01

    The past decade has seen a surge in the development of a variety of molecular diagnostics designed to rapidly identify or characterize medically important microorganisms. We briefly review important advances in molecular microbiology, and then discuss specific assays that have been implemented in clinical microbiology laboratories throughout the country. We also discuss emerging methods and technologies that will soon be more widely used for the prompt and accurate detection of the agents of infectious diseases.

  16. Microbiology and pathology of fibrinous pericarditis in Danish slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, J.; Friis, N.F.; Aalbaek, B.

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of fibrinous pericarditis detected at slaughter in Danish slaughter pigs is approximately 0.02 %. The microbiology and pathology of this disorder was studied through 46 field cases collected at slaughter from May 1994 to August 1995. Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M...... from the pericardium in three cases. The pericardium was sterile in three cases and contained a low grade mixed flora in two; the latter is believed to be a result of the slaughter procedure rather than an infection. No chlamydiae were found in connection with the microbiological examination...

  17. Microbiologically induced corrosion of carbon steel under continuous flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaru, Mariana; Dragomir, Maria; Voicu, Anca

    2008-01-01

    Microbiologically induced corrosion is the label generally applied to corrosion involving the action of bacteria on metal surfaces. While different combinations of bacterial species, materials and chemical constituents are interrelated factors, stagnant water is the factor most often mentioned in reported cases. This paper presents the results obtained regarding the testing of microbiologically induced corrosion of carbon steel under continuous flow conditions in the presence of iron-oxidizing bacteria. The tests were performed on coupons of SA106gr.B exposed both in stagnant conditions and in flow conditions. The surfaces of these coupons were studied by metallographic technique, while the developed biofilms were analysed using microbiological technique. The correlation of all the results which were obtained emphasized that the minimizing the occurrence of stagnant or low-flow conditions can prove effective in reducing the risk of microbiologically induced corrosion in plant cooling-water systems. (authors)

  18. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger Skinner

    1992-01-01

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential

  19. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Roger

    1992-07-01

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential.

  20. Microbiology of Olkiluoto Groundwater 2004 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    2008-02-01

    The microbiology of shallow and deep groundwater in Olkiluoto, Finland, was analysed for almost three years from 2004 to 2006. The extensive sampling and analysis programme produced a substantial database, including 60 analytical datasets on the microbiology of Olkiluoto groundwater, which is described and interpreted here. One part of this database comprises 39 complete analytical datasets on microbiology, chemistry, and dissolved gas composition assembled on four sampling campaigns from measurements from 16 shallow observation tubes and boreholes ranging in depth from 3.5 to 24.5 m. The second part of the database contains 21 datasets on microbiology and chemistry covering 13 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 35 to 450 m. In addition, the database contains 33 completed analyses of gas covering 14 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 40 to 742 m. Most of these analyses were completed before the onset of ONKALO construction, and the remaining samples were collected before ONKALO construction had extended below a depth of 100 m; therefore, this dataset captures the undisturbed conditions before the building of ONKALO. Shallow groundwater in Olkiluoto contained dissolved oxygen at approximately 10% or less of saturation. The presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, including methane-oxidizing bacteria, has been documented. The data confirm earlier suggested processes of oxygen reduction in the shallow part of the bedrock. These microbial processes reduce intruding oxygen in the shallow groundwater using dissolved organic carbon and methane as the main electron donors. Microbiological and geochemical data strongly suggest that the anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane (ANME) is active at a depth down to approximately 300 m in Olkiluoto, as has been suggested previously, based on interpretations of geochemical data. However, proof of the presence and activity of ANME microorganisms is needed before the existence of active ANME processes in Olkiluoto

  1. Contribution of microbiology in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in Castile and León (Spain): Findings of the GRUMICALE 2013 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Medrano, Ramiro; Nebreda-Mayoral, Teresa; Brezmes-Valdivieso, M Fé; García-de Cruz, Susana; Nogueira-González, Begoña; Sánchez-Arroyo, Rafael; Tinajas-Puertas, Almudena; Gutiérrez-Zufiaurre, Nieves; Labayru-Echeverría, Cristina; Hernando-Real, Susana; López-Urrutia, Luis; Rivero-Lezcano, Octavio; Ullivarri-Francia, Belén; Rodríguez-Tarazona, Raquel; Antolín-Ayala, Isabel

    2018-03-01

    A retrospective study was conducted by collecting microbiological tuberculosis (TB) data in Castile and León during the year 2013 in order to determine the incidence and distribution of TB, and resistance to the tuberculostatic drug, and compare them with the epidemiological data provided by the Department of Epidemiological Surveillance (SIVE). Microbiologists of the 14 hospitals of the Castile and León public health network (GRUMICALE) collected epidemiological, microbiological, and management data from the Microbiology laboratories in the community during the year 2013. A single isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) per patient was considered. The study included a total of 270 MTC isolates (an incidence rate of 11.63 cases/100,000 inhab./year). A total of 288 cases of TB (11.43 cases/100,000 inhab. year) were recovered using epidemiological data, which included 243 confirmed, 29 suspected, and 16 as probable cases. Pulmonary TB was predominant, followed a long way off by the pleural TB and the remaining locations. A total of 27,620 samples were processed for mycobacterial detection. Mycobacterial growth was observed in 3.46% of automated fluid cultures, and 50.37% were positive by direct staining of the smear. Resistance to one tuberculostatic drug, mostly to isoniazid, was observed in 16 (5.92%) isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT). The province with greater incidence and number of isolates was León (24.23 cases/100,000 inhab./year), with the highest being observed in El Bierzo health area (30.46 cases/100,000 inhab./year). An adequate collection of microbiological information is essential to determine the epidemiology of TB in our region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. [Safety in the Microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Alados, Juan Carlos; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez G; Leiva, José; Pérez, José L

    2015-01-01

    The normal activity in the laboratory of microbiology poses different risks - mainly biological - that can affect the health of their workers, visitors and the community. Routine health examinations (surveillance and prevention), individual awareness of self-protection, hazard identification and risk assessment of laboratory procedures, the adoption of appropriate containment measures, and the use of conscientious microbiological techniques allow laboratory to be a safe place, as records of laboratory-acquired infections and accidents show. Training and information are the cornerstones for designing a comprehensive safety plan for the laboratory. In this article, the basic concepts and the theoretical background on laboratory safety are reviewed, including the main legal regulations. Moreover, practical guidelines are presented for each laboratory to design its own safety plan according its own particular characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.W. Markman

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, Performance Confirmation Input Criteria (CRWMS M and O 1999c). (2) Identify and describe existing and potential new trends in data acquisition system software and hardware that would support the PC plan. The data acquisition software and hardware will support the field instruments and equipment that will be installed for the observation and perimeter drift borehole monitoring, and in-situ monitoring within the emplacement drifts. The exhaust air monitoring requirements will be supported by a data communication network interface with the ventilation monitoring system database. (3) Identify the concepts and features that a data acquisition system should have in order to support the PC process and its activities. (4) Based on PC monitoring needs and available technologies, further develop concepts of a potential data acquisition system network in support of the PC program and the Site Recommendation and License Application

  4. Model confirmation in climate economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Antony; McDermott, Thomas K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Benefit–cost integrated assessment models (BC-IAMs) inform climate policy debates by quantifying the trade-offs between alternative greenhouse gas abatement options. They achieve this by coupling simplified models of the climate system to models of the global economy and the costs and benefits of climate policy. Although these models have provided valuable qualitative insights into the sensitivity of policy trade-offs to different ethical and empirical assumptions, they are increasingly being used to inform the selection of policies in the real world. To the extent that BC-IAMs are used as inputs to policy selection, our confidence in their quantitative outputs must depend on the empirical validity of their modeling assumptions. We have a degree of confidence in climate models both because they have been tested on historical data in hindcasting experiments and because the physical principles they are based on have been empirically confirmed in closely related applications. By contrast, the economic components of BC-IAMs often rely on untestable scenarios, or on structural models that are comparatively untested on relevant time scales. Where possible, an approach to model confirmation similar to that used in climate science could help to build confidence in the economic components of BC-IAMs, or focus attention on which components might need refinement for policy applications. We illustrate the potential benefits of model confirmation exercises by performing a long-run hindcasting experiment with one of the leading BC-IAMs. We show that its model of long-run economic growth—one of its most important economic components—had questionable predictive power over the 20th century. PMID:27432964

  5. [The modern microbiology in the clinical managing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal Román, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The tuberculosis is one of the most important and mortal diseases of the world. The microbiological confirmatory diagnosis and the microbiological therapeutic orientation are fundamental nowadays in the tuberculosis in AIDS and in the Resistant tuberculosis. They are described throughout the time by the classic Microbiology: From 1882 to final 20th century (130 years). With the modern current Microbiology: In the beginning of the 21st century (20-30 years). And as will be done with the future Microbiology: From the years 2020-30. The important advances are outlined in the modern and future clinical microbiology, for the control of the Tuberculosis.

  6. Microbiology of Animal Bite Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans. PMID:21482724

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria,mesophilic aerobes bacteria and microscopic filamentous fungi were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremeš and Venčekcake. For microbiological tests 20 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 3.29 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobes bacteria ranged from 1.86 to 2.85 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0to 2.06CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 1.13 to 1.96CFU.g-1. The samples of cake prom private production showed better microbiological quality as samples from market production. All investigated samples of confectionary products were inaccordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

  8. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  9. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  10. Modern industrial microbiology and biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okafor, Nduka

    2007-01-01

    ... and cells, site-directed mutation and metabolic engineering. Simultaneously, microbiology has addressed itself to some current problems such as the fight against cancer by the production of anti-tumor antibiotics; it has changed the traditional practice in a number of areas: for example the deep sea has now joined the soil as the medium for the search for ...

  11. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bastian, F.; Jurado, V.; Nováková, Alena; Alabouvette, C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2010), s. 644-652 ISSN 1350-0872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lascaux Cave * microbiology * Paleolithic paintings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.957, year: 2010

  12. Microbiology as if Bird Watching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Microbiology as if Bird Watching. Milind G Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 78-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0078-0081. Author Affiliations.

  13. Development of a microbiological irradiation detection method for spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, T.; Takekawa, T.; Miyahara, M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to judge whether certain spices had been irradiated or not, we examined the possibility of developing a method based on the microbiological examination of spices. We used the total bacteria count in conjunction with the ratio of B. megaterium and B. cereus to the total bacteria count. The examination results of 6 kinds of spices with or without irradiation (black pepper, white pepper, coriander, paprika, ginger and turmeric), were as follows. Total bacteria counts over 10E5 CFU/g indicated that the samples were 'unirradiated'. When the total bacteria count was less than 10E5 CFU/g, and the ratio of B. megaterium and B. cereus to the total count was more than 30%, a history of irradiation of the samples was indicated. When ratios of B. megaterium and B. cereus were less than 30% and the total bacteria count was also less than 10E5 CFU/g, 'uncertainty' of irradiation was indicated. In this case, it would be possible to confirm whether spices were 'unirradiated' or 'irradiated' by using another detection method. This detection method was applicable to other spices except for paprika. The samples judged as 'irradiated' by using this detection method, surely proved to have a history of irradiation treatment

  14. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Preamble to marine microbiology: Facets and opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    The book titled 'Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities' is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...

  16. Microbiologic endodontic status of young traumatized tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumotte, Karla; Bombana, Antonio C; Cai, Silvana

    2011-12-01

    Traumatic dental injuries could expose the dentin and, even the pulp, to the oral environment, making possible their contamination. The presence of microorganisms causes pulpal disease and further a tecidual clutter in the periradicular region. The therapy of periradicular pathosis is the consequence of a correct diagnoses which depends on the knowledge of the nature and complexity of endodontic infections. As there is no information on the microbiology of primary endodontic infection in young teeth, the aim of the current study was to investigate the microbiologic status of root canals from permanent young teeth with primary endodontic infection. Twelve patients with the need for endodontic treatment participated in the study. The selected teeth were uniradicular and had an incomplete root formation. They had untreated necrotic pulp. After the access preparation, nineteen microbiologic samples were obtained from the root canals with sterile paper points. Afterwards, the paper points were pooled in a sterile tube containing 2 ml of prereduced transport fluid. The samples were diluted and spread onto plates with selective medium for Enterococcus spp. and for yeast species and onto plates with non-selective medium. A quantitative analysis was performed. The mean number of cultivable bacterial cells in the root canals was 5.7 × 10(6). In four samples (21.05%) black pigmented species were recovered and the mean number of cells was 6.5 × 10(5). One specimen (5.25%) showed the growth of Enterococcus species and the mean number of cells in this case was of 1.5 × 10(4) . The results showed a root canal microbiota with similar design as seen in completely formed teeth. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Development and Evaluation of Problem-Solving Skills in Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuytema, Eunice C.; And Others

    A problem solving, laboratory experience was devised in which first-year medical students were given a case description and then required to make judgments about what microbiology specimens should be collected and to analyze the results of laboratory tests in terms of implications for patient care. Over a four-year period revisions were made in…

  18. Building a Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, Maria; Oliveira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The integration of food data from research, microbiological monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance is crucial to manage foodborne risk. Consequently, INSA launched the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) in a partnership with GS1 Portugal to create national food chain expert networks and sustainable databases on food composition, consumption and chemical and microbiological contamination. Presently, the Food Microbiological Inform...

  19. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes of...

  20. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology...

  1. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Aims and scope. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology is the official Journal of African Society for Clinical Microbiology. It publishes original research papers in all aspects of Medical Microbiology, including Bacteriology, Virology Rickettsiology and Chlamydiology, Mycology, ...

  2. Performance confirmation data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAffee, D.A.; Raczka, N.T.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Viability Assessment (VA) work, this QAP-3-9 document presents and evaluates a comprehensive set of viable concepts for collecting Performance Confirmation (PC) related data. The concepts include: monitoring subsurface repository air temperatures, humidity levels and gaseous emissions via the subsurface ventilation systems, and monitoring the repository geo-technical parameters and rock mass from bore-holes located along the perimeter main drifts and throughout a series of human-rated Observation Drifts to be located in a plane 25 meters above the plane of the emplacement drifts. A key element of this document is the development and analysis of a purposed multi-purpose Remote Inspection Gantry that would provide direct, real-time visual, thermal, and radiological monitoring of conditions inside operational emplacement drifts and close-up observations of in-situ Waste Packages. Preliminary finite-element analyses are presented that indicate the technological feasibility of operating an inspection gantry inside the operational emplacement drifts for short inspection missions lasting 2--3 hours. Overall reliability, availability, and maintainability of the PC data collection concepts are discussed. Preliminary concepts for PC data collection network are also provided

  3. Performance confirmation data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAffee, D.A.; Raczka, N.T. [Yucca Mountain Project, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1997-12-31

    As part of the Viability Assessment (VA) work, this QAP-3-9 document presents and evaluates a comprehensive set of viable concepts for collecting Performance Confirmation (PC) related data. The concepts include: monitoring subsurface repository air temperatures, humidity levels and gaseous emissions via the subsurface ventilation systems, and monitoring the repository geo-technical parameters and rock mass from bore-holes located along the perimeter main drifts and throughout a series of human-rated Observation Drifts to be located in a plane 25 meters above the plane of the emplacement drifts. A key element of this document is the development and analysis of a purposed multi-purpose Remote Inspection Gantry that would provide direct, real-time visual, thermal, and radiological monitoring of conditions inside operational emplacement drifts and close-up observations of in-situ Waste Packages. Preliminary finite-element analyses are presented that indicate the technological feasibility of operating an inspection gantry inside the operational emplacement drifts for short inspection missions lasting 2--3 hours. Overall reliability, availability, and maintainability of the PC data collection concepts are discussed. Preliminary concepts for PC data collection network are also provided.

  4. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo, Almudena; Moreno, Antonio; Salas, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections are often seen in clinical practice, yet their microbiological diagnosis is among the most complex of laboratory tasks. The diagnosis of a skin and a soft tissue infection is generally based on clinical criteria and not microbiological results. A microbiological diagnosis is reserved for cases in which the etiology of infection is required, e.g., when the infection is particularly severe, when less common microorganisms are suspected as the causative agent (e.g. in immunocompromised patients), when response to antimicrobial treatment is poor, or when a longstanding wound does not heal within a reasonable period of time. We report the indications, sampling and processing techniques, and interpretation criteria for various culture types, including quantitative cultures from biopsy or tissue specimens and semiquantitative and qualitative cultures performed on all types of samples. For non-invasive samples taken from open wounds, application of the Q index to Gram stains is a cost-effective way to standardize sample quality assessment and interpretation of the pathogenic involvement of the different microorganisms isolated from cultures. All these issues are covered in the SEIMC microbiological procedure number 22: Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos (Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues) (2nd ed., 2006, www.seimc.org/protocolos/microbiologia).

  5. Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment

  6. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  7. Microbiological testing of Skylab foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Mcqueen, J. L.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers , E. M.; Bourland, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the unique food microbiology problems and problem-generating circumstances the Skylab manned space flight program involves. The situations these problems arise from include: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or change foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of food as an accurately controlled part in a set of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations produced the need for definite microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described along with the rationale for their selection. Reported test results show good compliance with the test limits.

  8. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA......Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...

  9. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  10. The importance of microbiological testing for establishing cause of death in 42 forensic autopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    postmortem. With this study we aim to review the use of microbiological procedures at our forensic institute. In a retrospective study including 42 autopsies performed at our Institute, where microbiological test had been applied, analyses were made with regard to: type of microbiological tests performed......Microorganisms have always been one of the great challenges of humankind, being responsible for both high morbidity and mortality throughout history. In a forensic setting microbiological information will always be difficult to interpret due to lack of antemortem information and changes in flora......, microorganisms found, histological findings, antemortem information, C-reactive protein measurement and cause of death. Fiftyone different microorganisms were found distributed among 37 cases, bacteria being the most abundant. Nineteen of the cases were classified as having a microbiological related cause...

  11. Encefalitis herpética confirmada por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real: reporte de caso Herpetic encephalitis confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz H. Aristizábal

    2006-04-01

    , migraine and alteration in the conscience level. Due to the commitment of the temporary lobe, the clinical manifestations can also include hallucinations, aphasia and changes of personality. The sequels in the treated patients are significant. Objective: to show the importance of early molecular diagnosis in patients with suspected herpetic encephalitis infection. Methods: the diagnosis of the herpetic encephalitis has changed in the last years thanks to the coming of the real time polymerase chain reaction for herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid, a fast strategy with high sensitivity and specificity that has allowed to replace the suspect diagnoses made by tomography axial computerized or electroencephalogram, or the low yields of the viral isolation in the cerebrospinal fluid. Results: A clinical case report of a patient attended in our hospital with image and neuropsychological studies compatible for herpetic encephalitis, and confirmed diagnosis by real time polymerase chain reaction is described. Conclusions: the results of laboratory and the early diagnosis are critical for the precocious treatment and the evolution of the patient.

  12. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  13. Valuation of Biochemical and Microbiological Indicators in Soil Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Peruzzi, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    This thesis research aimed at valuating the suitability of biochemical and microbiological indicators in soil quality and soil health assessment, applying an interdisciplinary approach by means of different methodologies. As the concept of soil quality encompasses both functionality and biological diversity, two cases of study are proposed and each of them aimed at the description of this two aspects. The first case study examined the degree of interference of high soil copper contamination w...

  14. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  15. Analytical performances of food microbiology laboratories - critical analysis of 7 years of proficiency testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Massih, M; Planchon, V; Polet, M; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2016-02-01

    Based on the results of 19 food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) schemes, this study aimed to assess the laboratory performances, to highlight the main sources of unsatisfactory analytical results and to suggest areas of improvement. The 2009-2015 results of REQUASUD and IPH PT, involving a total of 48 laboratories, were analysed. On average, the laboratories failed to detect or enumerate foodborne pathogens in 3·0% of the tests. Thanks to a close collaboration with the PT participants, the causes of outliers could be identified in 74% of the cases. The main causes of erroneous PT results were either pre-analytical (handling of the samples, timing of analysis), analytical (unsuitable methods, confusion of samples, errors in colony counting or confirmation) or postanalytical mistakes (calculation and encoding of results). PT schemes are a privileged observation post to highlight analytical problems, which would otherwise remain unnoticed. In this perspective, this comprehensive study of PT results provides insight into the sources of systematic errors encountered during the analyses. This study draws the attention of the laboratories to the main causes of analytical errors and suggests practical solutions to avoid them, in an educational purpose. The observations support the hypothesis that regular participation to PT, when followed by feed-back and appropriate corrective actions, can play a key role in quality improvement and provide more confidence in the laboratory testing results. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Clinical, Radiological, Microbiological, and Histopathological Aspects of Acquired Dacryocystoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selam Yekta Sendul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study is to investigate the etiology and the clinical, microbiological, histopathological, and radiological findings of acquired dacryocystoceles. Methods. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical records of 10 eyes of 8 patients with dacryocystoceles who underwent external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR surgery. Etiology, presenting symptoms and radiological findings as well as microbiological and histopathological assessment results and outcome were analyzed. Results. The records of 8 patients with dacryocystoceles were included in this study. In the histopathological evaluations of the samples collected from the lacrimal sac wall, chronic inflammation was found in all biopsied samples and fibrosis was observed in two histopathological evaluations. Computerized tomography (CT imaging showed fluid collection separated from adjacent tissues by a thin rim, corresponding to dacryocystoceles in the sac. In the microbiological culture examination of samples collected from the fluid within the cyst, no bacterial growth in 5 eyes, gram-negative bacillus growth in 3 eyes, and gram-positive cocci growth in 2 eyes were found. Conclusions. Acquired dacryocystoceles were observed extremely rarely and a definite pathogenic agent could not be identified in any of the cases, either microbiologically or histologically, whereas chronic inflammation was detected in all cases in our study.

  17. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman S. Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries. Keywords: Developing country, Molecular technique, Molecular microbiology laboratory

  18. Microbiological quality of Argentinian paprika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo González, María G; Romero, Stella M; Arjona, Mila; Larumbe, Ada G; Vaamonde, Graciela

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of paprika produced in Catamarca, Argentina. Microbiological analyses were carried out for the enumeration of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and molds, and the detection of Salmonella in samples obtained from different local producers during three consecutive years. The mycobiota was identified paying special attention to the mycotoxigenic molds. Standard plate counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 2.7×10 5 to 3.7×10 7 CFU/g. Coliform counts ranged from <10 to 8.1×10 4 CFU/g. Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples tested. Fungal counts (including yeasts and molds) ranged between 2×10 2 and 1.9×10 5 CFU/g. These results showed a high level of microbial contamination, exceeding in several samples the maximum limits set in international food regulations. The study of the mycobiota demonstrated that Aspergillus was the predominant genus and Aspergillus niger (potential producer of ochratoxin A) the most frequently isolated species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (potential producer of aflatoxins). Other species of potential toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus westerdijkiae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium expansum and Alternaria tenuissima species group were encountered as part of the mycobiota of the paprika samples indicating a risk of mycotoxin contamination. A. westerdijkiae was isolated for the first time in Argentina. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  20. Evaluation of microbiological diagnostics in urogenital infections in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Hunjak,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the percentage of infections in postmenopausal women with urinary symptoms which can be confirmed by microbiological analysis, the most common causative agents and whether the urethra and vagina in patients with cystitis are concurrently colonized by pathogenic microorganisms. Methods Laboratories of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health in Zagreb, in the period of two years, analyzed 245 samples taken from patients with urinary symptoms who had been postmenopausal at least for a year. Urine samples, as well as urethral and vaginal swabs were taken from each patient and tested for causative agents of urogenital infections, genital mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis.Results Cystitis was confirmed by microbiological analysis in 31.4% women, urethritis in 24.8%, and vaginitis in 15.1%. The most common causative agent of urethritis was Ureaplasma urealyticum, while Gardnerella vaginalis was the most common in vaginal infections. E. coli was concurrently isolated in urine, urethral and vaginal samples in 65.1% of patients with E. coli cystitis, while Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in urethral and vaginal samples in each patient with Streptococcus agalactiae cystitis.Conclusion Mucosal colonization of the urethra and vagina contributes to the incidence of cystitis in postmenopausal women. Microbiological diagnostics is necessary to distinguish between the symptoms of ageing of the urogenital system and infection, with a view to preventing unnecessary antibiotic therapy.

  1. A female Viking warrior confirmed by genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte; Kjellström, Anna; Zachrisson, Torun; Krzewińska, Maja; Sobrado, Veronica; Price, Neil; Günther, Torsten; Jakobsson, Mattias; Götherström, Anders; Storå, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study has been to confirm the sex and the affinity of an individual buried in a well-furnished warrior grave (Bj 581) in the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden. Previously, based on the material and historical records, the male sex has been associated with the gender of the warrior and such was the case with Bj 581. An earlier osteological classification of the individual as female was considered controversial in a historical and archaeological context. A genomic confirmation of the biological sex of the individual was considered necessary to solve the issue. Genome-wide sequence data was generated in order to confirm the biological sex, to support skeletal integrity, and to investigate the genetic relationship of the individual to ancient individuals as well as modern-day groups. Additionally, a strontium isotope analysis was conducted to highlight the mobility of the individual. The genomic results revealed the lack of a Y-chromosome and thus a female biological sex, and the mtDNA analyses support a single-individual origin of sampled elements. The genetic affinity is close to present-day North Europeans, and within Sweden to the southern and south-central region. Nevertheless, the Sr values are not conclusive as to whether she was of local or nonlocal origin. The identification of a female Viking warrior provides a unique insight into the Viking society, social constructions, and exceptions to the norm in the Viking time-period. The results call for caution against generalizations regarding social orders in past societies. © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Biogas Production: Microbiology and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnürer, Anna

    Biogas, containing energy-rich methane, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions. Under controlled conditions, this process can be used for the production of energy and a nutrient-rich residue suitable for use as a fertilising agent. The biogas can be used for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuel. Different substrates can be used in the process and, depending on substrate character, various reactor technologies are available. The microbiological process leading to methane production is complex and involves many different types of microorganisms, often operating in close relationships because of the limited amount of energy available for growth. The microbial community structure is shaped by the incoming material, but also by operating parameters such as process temperature. Factors leading to an imbalance in the microbial community can result in process instability or even complete process failure. To ensure stable operation, different key parameters, such as levels of degradation intermediates and gas quality, are often monitored. Despite the fact that the anaerobic digestion process has long been used for industrial production of biogas, many questions need still to be resolved to achieve optimal management and gas yields and to exploit the great energy and nutrient potential available in waste material. This chapter discusses the different aspects that need to be taken into consideration to achieve optimal degradation and gas production, with particular focus on operation management and microbiology.

  3. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-12-01

    In times of increasing relevance of alternative energy resources the utilization of geothermal energy and subsurface energy storage gains importance and arouses increasing interest of scientists. The research project “AquiScreen” investigates the operational reliability of geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Microbiological analyses based on fluid and solid phases of geothermal systems are conducted to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on these systems. The presentation focuses on first results obtained from microbiological monitoring of geothermal plants located in two different regions of Germany: the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin in the southern part characterized by different salinities and temperatures. Fluid and filter samples taken during regular plant operation were investigated using genetic fingerprinting based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to characterize the microbial biocenosis of the geothermal aquifer. Sequencing of dominant bands of the fingerprints and the subsequent comparison to 16S rRNA genes from public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes in the deep biosphere. The genetic profiles revealed significant differences in microbiological community structures of geothermal aquifers investigated. Phylogenetic analyses indicate broad metabolical diversity adapted to the specific conditions in the aquifers. Additionally a high amount of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected indicating very specific indigenous biocenosis. However, in all geothermal plants bacteria were detected despite of fluid temperatures from 45° to 120°C. The identified microorganisms are closely related to thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species detectable in hot wells and hot springs, like Thermus scotoductus and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, respectively. Halophilic species were detected in

  4. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of unusual manifestations of invasive pneumococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Adrian; Pérez-Rodríguez, Maria Teresa; Nodar, Andrés; Martínez-Lamas, Lucía; Vasallo, Francisco Jose; Álvarez-Fernández, Maximiliano; Crespo, Manuel

    2017-06-22

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) typically presents as bacterial pneumonia, meningitis or primary bacteraemia. However, Streptococcus pneumoniae can produce infection at any level of the body (endocarditis, arthritis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, etc.), which is also known as unusual IPD (uIPD). There are very limited data available about the clinical and microbiological profile of these uncommon manifestations of pneumococcal disease. Our aim was to analyse clinical forms, microbiological profile, epidemiology and prognosis of a cohort of patients with unusual invasive pneumococcal disease (uIPD). We present a retrospective study of 389 patients (all adult and paediatric patients diagnosed during the period) diagnosed with IPD at our hospital (Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo) between 1992 and 2014. We performed an analysis of clinical, microbiological and demographical characteristics of patients comparing the pre-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) period with the post-vaccination phase. IPD and uIPD were defined as follows; IPD: infection confirmed by the isolation of S. pneumoniae from a normally sterile site, which classically presented as bacterial pneumonia, meningitis or primary bacteraemia; uIPD: any case of IPD excluding pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media, rhinosinusitis or primary bacteraemia. A total of 22 patients (6%) met the criteria of uIPD. A Charlson index >2 was more prevalent in uIPD patients than IPD patients (45% vs 24%; p=0.08). The most common clinical presentation of uIPD was osteoarticular infection (8 patients, 36%), followed by gastrointestinal disease (4 patients, 18%). Infection with serotypes included in PCV-13 was significantly higher in IPD patients (65%) than in patients with uIPD, 35% (p=0.018). Conversely, infection with multidrug-resistant strains was higher among patient with uIPD (27% vs 9%; p=0.014). The all-cause mortality rate was 15%, 13% in the IPD group and 32% among patients with uIPD (p=0

  5. Microbiological diagnosis of human papilloma virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Lindemann, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Pérez-Gracia, Maria Teresa

    2017-11-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide. This virus generally causes benign lesions, such as genital warts, but persistent infection may lead to cervical cancer, anal cancer, vaginal cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer, although less frequently. Cervical cancer is a severe disease with a high mortality in some countries. Screening with cytology has been very successful in the last few years, but nowadays there are numerous studies that confirm that cytology should be replaced with the detection of HPV as a first line test in population based screening. There are several commercially available FDA approved tests for screening of cervical cancer. A new strategy, based on individual detection of the high risk genotypes HPV16 and HPV18, present in 70% of cervical cancer biopsies, has been proposed by some experts, and is going to be implemented in most countries in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic resonance tomography in confirmed multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Dickmann, E.; Beyer, H.K.; Gehlen, W.; Josef-Hospital, Bochum; Knappschafts-Krankenhaus Bochum

    1985-01-01

    The authors report on 21 cases of confirmed multiple sclerosis examined by both CT and magnetic resonance tomography. To safeguard the results, strict criteria were applied in accordance with the suggestions made by neurological work teams. Pathological lesons were seen in 20 patients; the MR image did not reveal anything abnormal in one case. On the average, 10.3 lesions were seen in the MR tomogram, whereas CT images showed on the average only 2.1 foci. The size and number of lesions in the MR tomogram were independent of the duration of the disease, the presented clinical symptoms, or the type of treatment at the time of examination. Evidently the sensitivity of MR tomography is very high in MS patients, but it has not yet been clarified to what extent this applies also to the specificity. Further research is mandatory. First experiences made by us show that lesions of a similar kind can also occur in diseases such as malignant lymphoma involving the brain, in vitamin B 12 deficiency syndrome, or encephalitis, and can become manifest in the MR tomogram. (orig.) [de

  7. Expert systems in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-07-01

    This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically.

  8. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed.

  9. Cytomorphology Versus Conventional Microbiological Tests in the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. A.; Jehan, S.; Shah, W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study:Department of Pathology, Khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital (KGNTH), Bannu, from September 2012 to March 2013. Methodology: FNAC of enlarged lymph nodes was performed in the Department of Pathology, KGNTH, Bannu. Smears of the aspirates were examined under light microscope after staining with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stains. In cases of chronic lymphadenitis, the smears were stained with Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB). If no AFB was visualized, the aspirate was subjected to culture on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium for yield of AFB. The results were analyzed by Microsoft Excel software. Results:Chronic granulomatous lymphadenitis was found in 110 (46.81 percentage) out of 235 cases. AFB were seen in aspirates of 43/110 (39.09 percentage) cases by direct microscopy. Among the remaining 67 aspirates subjected to LJ medium, only 07 (10.45 percentage) yielded growth of AFB. Smears of 4/15 (3.6 percentage), 13/47 (11.7 percentage) and 33/48 (29.7 percentage) cases with haemorrhagic, inflammatory and caseous background respectively, were confirmed by conventional microbiologic tests. Out of 125 nongranulomatous lymphadenitis cases only 05 were confirmed to be due to tuberculosis by direct microscopy while culture was not positive in any case. Thus accuracy of FNAC was 72.34 percentage. Conclusion: FNAC has a good accuracy in diagnosing tuberculous lymphadenopathy. (author)

  10. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology (JTMB) formerly Journal of Tropical Microbiology gives preeminence to the central role of modern biotechnology and microorganisms as tools and targets in current research, which is largely multidisciplinary. JTMB covers a broad range of topics, such as disease ...

  11. THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICAN DRIED SAUSAGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICAN DRIED SAUSAGE. W.H. Holzapfel and A.N. Hail. Receipt of MS s.3.76. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of hetoria and. Animol and Dairv Science Reseorch Institute, Irene. OPSOMMING: DIE MIKROBIOLOGIE VAN SUID.AFRIKAANSE DROiWORS.

  12. [Clinical microbiology laboratory and imported parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Cuadros, Juan; Cañavate, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Imported parasitosis represents an increasingly frequent diagnostic challenge for microbiology laboratories. A surge in immigration and international travel has led to a rise in the number of imported cases of parasitosis, and this trend is expected to continue in the future. The present article addresses this challenge by reviewing recommended diagnostic approaches and tests. Currently, microscopy is always recommended when analysing blood samples for parasites. If malaria is suspected, rapid antigen testing (including at least HRP2 antigen) should also be performed. The work-up for suspected leishmaniasis should include serology, culture, and in selected cases detection of antigen in urine. In suspected Chagas disease, two different serological tests should be performed. PCR for blood protozoa is highly sensitive, although it cannot be used to rule out Chagas disease, since this condition may be present without parasitemia. Accurate diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis usually requires PCR or antigen detection tests. In helminthiasis, traditional microscopy may need to be complemented with other tests, such as agar plate culture for strongyloidiasis, Og4C3 antigen detection for bancroftian filariasis, and antibody detection test for filariasis and schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  14. Laboratory-confirmed Congenital Rubella Syndrome at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Laboratory-confirmed Congenital Rubella Syndrome at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka,. Zambia-Case Reports. 1,2. 3. 3. 4 ... microcephaly. Rubella Immunoglobulin M (IgM) results were positive. The third case, a girl, was seen at twelve weeks and brought in for slow growth rate. On.

  15. Historical microbiology, is it relevant in the 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lesley A

    2015-05-01

    Facsimile microscopes have been used to examine the possibilities of van Leeuwenhoek microscopes with a range of magnifications, particularly to confirm that bacteria can be seen if the microscope is strong enough. The relevance of historical microbiology in education is also illustrated by adapting versions of van Leeuwenhoek's pepper water experiment and Beijerinck's use of bioluminescent bacteria as oxygen probes. These experiments can demonstrate fundamentals such as enrichment and isolation cultures, physiology and experimental planning as well as critical reading of published material. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Microbiological and chemical analysis of land snails commercialised in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cicero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study 160 samples of snails belonging to the species Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller were examined for chemical and microbiological analysis. Samples came from Greece and Poland. Results showed mean concentration of cadmium (0.35±0.036 mg/kg and lead (0.05±0.013 mg/kg much higher than the limit of detection. Mercury levels in both species were not detected. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in both examined species. E. coli and K. oxytoca were observed in Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. Furthermore, one case of fungi positivity in samples of Helix aspersa muller was found. The reported investigations highlight the need to create and adopt a reference legislation to protect the health of consumers.

  18. [Microbiological diagnosis of bacterial infection associated with delivery and postpartum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Ortega, Belén; Delgado-Palacio, Susana; García-Garrote, Fernando; Rodríguez-Gómez, Juan Miguel; Romero-Hernández, Beatriz

    2016-05-01

    The newborn may acquire infections during delivery due to maternal colonization of the birth canal, by microorganisms such as Streptococcus agalactiae that caused early neonatal infection, or acquisition through the placenta, amniotic fluid or birth products. After birth, the newborn that needs hospitalization can develop nosocomial infections during their care and exceptionally through lactation by infectious mastitis or incorrect handling of human milk, which does not require to stop breastfeeding in most cases. It is important and necessary to perform microbiological diagnosis for the correct treatment of perinatal infections, especially relevant in preterm infants with low or very low weight with high mortality rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. 104 evaluation of microbiological purity of some brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Microbiological purity, tetracycline, contaminants, bacterial load, fungal load, microbiological ... Just like food substances, pharmaceutical products .... Malaysia. Chlortetracycline a. Mar. 2005. Mar. 2008. Ghana b. Aug. 2005. Aug.

  20. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2350... consists primarily of liquid or solid biological materials intended for medical purposes to cultivate...

  1. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  3. 75 FR 59611 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2009-N-0344] Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Direct...

  4. Calibration and Confirmation in Geophysical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werndl, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    For policy decisions the best geophysical models are needed. To evaluate geophysical models, it is essential that the best available methods for confirmation are used. A hotly debated issue on confirmation in climate science (as well as in philosophy) is the requirement of use-novelty (i.e. that data can only confirm models if they have not already been used before. This talk investigates the issue of use-novelty and double-counting for geophysical models. We will see that the conclusions depend on the framework of confirmation and that it is not clear that use-novelty is a valid requirement and that double-counting is illegitimate.

  5. Microbiological Assessment of Commercially Available Quinine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Key words: Microbiological quality, quinine syrups, water for injection, pyrogen test. Received: 12 February ... pharmaceutical industry is indispensable, especially in ... Production of WFI or any other pharmaceutical products .... culture media.

  6. Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbins, Joanne J.

    2010-01-01

    Review of: Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition. Joanne M. Willey, Linda M. Sherwood, and Christopher J. Woolverton. 2011. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, NewYork, NY. 1070 pages. ISBN- 978-0-07-337526-7.

  7. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. ... of edible locally produced dry season leafy vegetables cultivated in south east Enugu, Nigeria ... Cross-seasonal analysis of bacteriological profile of water sources as a disease risk ...

  8. Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise the need for ultrabroad-spectrum combination therapy for treatment of nosocomial infections in a trauma intensive care unit: An audit of an evidence-based empiric antimicrobial policy.

  9. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 3 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Microbiology and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colasanti, R.; Coutts, D.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Rosevear, A.

    1990-03-01

    The present Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme on microbiology is based on experimental as well as theoretical work. It has concentrated on the study of how mixed, natural populations of microbes might survive and grow on the organic component of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) and PCM (Plutonium Contaminated Waste) in a cementitious waste repository. The present studies indicate that both carbon dioxide and methane will be produced by microbial action within the repository. Carbon dioxide will dissolve and react with the concrete to a limited extent so methane will be the principal component of the produced gas. The concentration of hydrogen, derived from corrosion, will be depressed by microbial action and that this will further elevate methane levels. Actual rates of production will be lower than that in a domestic landfill due to the more extreme pH. Microbial action will clearly affect the aqueous phase chemistry where organic material is present in the waste. The cellulosic fraction is the main determinant of cell growth and the appearance of soluble organics. The structure of the mathematical model which has been developed, predicts the general features which are intuitively expected in a developing microbial population. It illustrates that intermediate compounds will build up in the waste until growth of the next organism needed for sequential degradation is initiated. The soluble compounds in the pore water and the mixture of microbes present in the waste will vary with time and sustain biological activity over a prolonged period. Present estimates suggest that most microbial action in the repository will be complete after 400 years. There is scope for the model to deal with environmental factors such as temperature and pH and to introduce other energy sources such as hydrogen. (author)

  12. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  13. EXPLORATION WELL TEST CASE HISTORY CONFIRMS IMPORTANCE OF DST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Damjanić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drill stem testing of the exploration well consisted of two flow and two pressure build-up periods. Gas was obtained. Modified isochronal test was used during testing the well after completion. Except gas, small quantity of condensate and traces of oil and water were obtained. Both pressure build-up analyses showed that formation permeability is low. DST pressure build-up analysis showed that wellbore damage is present. This was proved later, when acid treatment was performed, by which skin was removed and production increased significantly. Data obtained by well testing are very important for future productivity prediction and determination of optimal well completion and surface facility construction (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. [Anthrax meningoencephalitis: a case following a cutaneous lesion in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadi, A; Hachimi, A; Soraa, N; Tassi, N; Nejmi, H; Elkhayari, M; Samkaoui, M A

    2014-05-01

    Anthrax meningoencephalitis is very rare especially following skin location. We report a case of meningoencephalitis secondary to skin lesion. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and confirmed by microbiological tests. Its evolution remains fatal despite aggressive resuscitation. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH AEROBIC VAGINITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermendjiev, T; Pehlivanov, B; Hadjieva, K; Stanev, S

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alterarion of the normal lactobacillic flora accompanied by signs of inflammation, presence of mainly aerobic microorganisms from intestinal commensals or other aerobic pathogens. Clinical symptoms may vary by type and intensity and are marked by a high tendency for recurrence and chronification. Inflammation and ulcerations in AV could increase the risk of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. The aim is to study some epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of the aerobic vaginitis in patients of the specialized Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In a retrospective research 4687 vaginal smears have been gathered in Microbiological laboratory at "St. George" Hospital - Plovdiv. We used clinical, microbiological and statistical methods. Information processing is performed by variation, alternative, correlation and graphical analysis using specialized package SPSS v13.0. The overall prevalence rate of AV in the studied population is 11.77%. The levels of prevalence of AV in pregnant and non-pregnant women are respectively 13.08% and 4.34%. The highest frequency of AV is in the age group 21-30 years (32.3%). The results show a marked association between Escherichia coli and the cases of AV (p vaginal symptoms in patients of specialized ambulatory outpatient. One in ten women with vaginal complaints suffers from AV Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli are most often isolated aerobic microorganisms.

  16. Microbiologic handbook for biogas plants; Mikrobiologisk handbok foer biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aasa; Schnuerer, Anna

    2009-05-15

    There is today great interest in the biogas process. The reason for interest is that this process offers an opportunity to stabilize and reduce various types of organic waste, while also generating clean renewable energy in the form of biogas. Purified biogas is a good alternative to gasoline and diesel as motor fuel and can also be used for heating and electricity production. Behind efficient biogas production lies a complex microbiological process. For biogas to be formed many different species of microorganisms have to be active. A disturbance of this teamwork leads to a reduction in biogas production or in the worst case that the process stops. In order to operate a biogas process in an efficient manner, it is necessary to have knowledge of the underlying microbiology and how microorganisms function. Today Swedish biogas plants have personnel with great technical knowledge, while the biological knowledge often is more limited. It has been difficult to find appropriate Swedish language literature in the field. This handbook aims to increase the microbiological expertise of staff at the biogas plants and thus to facilitate the stable operation and optimization of gas production

  17. Interpretation of Blood Microbiology Results - Function of the Clinical Microbiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristóf, Katalin; Pongrácz, Júlia

    2016-04-01

    The proper use and interpretation of blood microbiology results may be one of the most challenging and one of the most important functions of clinical microbiology laboratories. Effective implementation of this function requires careful consideration of specimen collection and processing, pathogen detection techniques, and prompt and precise reporting of identification and susceptibility results. The responsibility of the treating physician is proper formulation of the analytical request and to provide the laboratory with complete and precise patient information, which are inevitable prerequisites of a proper testing and interpretation. The clinical microbiologist can offer advice concerning the differential diagnosis, sampling techniques and detection methods to facilitate diagnosis. Rapid detection methods are essential, since the sooner a pathogen is detected, the better chance the patient has of getting cured. Besides the gold-standard blood culture technique, microbiologic methods that decrease the time in obtaining a relevant result are more and more utilized today. In the case of certain pathogens, the pathogen can be identified directly from the blood culture bottle after propagation with serological or automated/semi-automated systems or molecular methods or with MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry). Molecular biology methods are also suitable for the rapid detection and identification of pathogens from aseptically collected blood samples. Another important duty of the microbiology laboratory is to notify the treating physician immediately about all relevant information if a positive sample is detected. The clinical microbiologist may provide important guidance regarding the clinical significance of blood isolates, since one-third to one-half of blood culture isolates are contaminants or isolates of unknown clinical significance. To fully exploit the benefits of blood culture and other (non- culture

  18. Microbiological quality of water in a city with persistent and recurrent waterborne diseases under tropical sub-rural conditions: The case of Kikwit City, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienie, Alexis B; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Laffite, Amandine; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Matand, Alphonse; Mulaji, Crispin K; Biey, Emmanuel M; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2017-07-01

    The availability of safe drinking water in sub-Saharan countries remains a major challenge because poor sanitation has been the cause of various outbreaks of waterborne disease due to the poor microbiological quality of water used for domestic purposes. The faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) used in the present study included Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT). FIB and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were quantified during July 2015 (dry season) and November 2015 (rainy season) in order to assess the quality of drinking water from wells (n=3; P1-P3), and two rivers, the River Lukemi (RLK, n=3) and River Luini (RLN, n=2) in the city of Kikwit, which is located in the province of Kwilu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kikwit is well known for its outbreaks of persistent and recurrent waterborne diseases including Entamoeba, Shigella, typhoid fever, cholera, and Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Fever. Consequently, E. coli, ENT, and AMB were quantified in water samples according to the standard international methods for water quality determination using the membrane filtration method. The FIB characterization was performed for human-specific Bacteroides by PCR using specific primers. The results obtained revealed high FIB concentrations in river samples collected during both seasons. For example, E. coli respectively reached 4.3×10 4 and 9.2×10 4 CFU 100mL -1 in the dry season and the wet season. ENT reached 5.3×10 3 CFU 100mL -1 during the dry season and 9.8×10 3 CFU 100mL -1 in the wet season. The pollution was significantly worse in the wet season compared to the dry season. Surprisingly, no faecal contamination was observed in well water samples collected in the dry season while E. coli and ENT were detected in all wells in the wet season with values of 6, 7, and 11CFUmL -1 for E. coli in wells P1-P3, respectively and 3, 5, 9 CFU mL -1 for ENT in the same wells. Interestingly, the PCR assays for human-specific Bacteroides HF183/HF134 indicated

  19. Evaluation of oral microbiology lab curriculum reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Gao, Zhen Y; Wu, Xin Y; Jiang, Chen X; Du, Jia H

    2015-12-07

    According to the updated concept of oral microbiology, the School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, has carried out oral microbiology teaching reforms during the last 5 years. There was no lab curriculum before 2009 except for a theory course of oral microbiology. The school has implemented an innovative curriculum with oral medicine characteristics to strengthen understanding of knowledge, cultivate students' scientific interest and develop their potential, to cultivate the comprehensive ability of students. This study was designed to evaluate the oral microbiology lab curriculum by analyzing student performance and perceptions regarding the curriculum from 2009 to 2013. The lab curriculum adopted modalities for cooperative learning. Students collected dental plaque from each other and isolated the cariogenic bacteria with selective medium plates. Then they purified the enrichment culture medium and identified the cariogenic strains by Gram stain and biochemical tests. Both quantitative and qualitative data for 5 years were analysed in this study. Part One of the current study assessed student performance in the lab from 2009 to 2013. Part Two used qualitative means to assess students' perceptions by an open questionnaire. The 271 study students' grades on oral microbiology improved during the lab curriculum: "A" grades rose from 60.5 to 81.2 %, and "C" grades fell from 28.4 to 6.3 %. All students considered the lab curriculum to be interesting and helpful. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that the lab curriculum has strengthened students' grasp of important microbiology-related theory, cultivated their scientific interest, and developed their potential and comprehensive abilities. Our student performance and perception data support the continued use of the innovative teaching system. As an extension and complement of the theory course, the oral microbiology lab curriculum appears to improve the quality of oral medicine education and help to

  20. Confirmation of Essure placement using transvaginal ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veersema, Sebastiaan; Vleugels, Michel; Koks, Caroline; Thurkow, Andreas; van der Vaart, Huub; Brölmann, Hans

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the protocol for confirmation of satisfactory Essure placement using transvaginal ultrasound. Prospective multicenter cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Outpatient departments of 4 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Eleven hundred forty-five women who underwent

  1. escherichia coli serotypes confirmed in experimental mammary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    VARIATIONS IN VIRULENCE OF THREE (3) ESCHERICHIA COLI. SEROTYPES CONFIRMED IN ... ows are susceptible to E. coli infection because. E. coli exist in the .... Coli infections in mice: A laboratory animal model for research in.

  2. Microbiological characteristics of poultry meats - Results of inspections carried out in the province of Milano, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinations were conducted in terms of microbiological quality/quantity (TMC, Coliforms, E. coli, S. aureus, Sulphate-reducing Clostridia, B. cereus, Salmonella spp. and Lysteria spp. and Campylobacter spp. on 240 poultry meat samples (chicken, turkey and quail acquired pursuant to the standards set by the Regional Plan of programming and coordination in the field of operations concerning official inspections of Lombardia animal origin and by a few private companies for self-inspection. The TMC was consistently low and in line with reports in the literature, as was the case with coliforms, E. coli, S. aureus, sulphatereducing Clostrides and B. cereus. In the case of Salmonella spp., only 5 samples tested positive: one for S. typhimurium and one for S. enteritidis (chicken; only one sample from turkey tested positive for S. blokley, and two out of five samples analysed from quail tested positive result for S. typhimurium. About 3% of the samples analyzed tested positive for Listeria monocitogenes, but they were within the legal limits. Research on Campylobacter thermophiles has involved only 50 samples, of which only 5 have tested positive. These results confirm the high quality of hygiene and cleanliness of poultry meat, in accordance with that reported in the national literature and with respect to EU norms.

  3. Experience with confirmation measurement at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Wagner, R.P.; Hsue, F.

    1985-01-01

    Confirmation measurements are used at Los Alamos in support of incoming and outgoing shipment accountibility and for support of both at 235 U and Pu inventories. Statistical data are presented to show the consistency of measurements on items of identical composition and on items measured at two facilitis using similar instruments. A description of confirmation measurement techniques used in support of 235 U and Pu inventories and a discussion on the ability of the measurements to identify items with misstated SNM are given

  4. Experience with confirmation measurement at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Wagner, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Confirmation measurements are used at Los Alamos in support of incoming and outgoing shipment accountability and for support of both 235 U and Pu inventories. Statistical data are presented to show the consistency of measurements on items of identical composition and on items measured at two facilities using similar instruments. A description of confirmation measurement techniques used in support of 235 U and Pu inventories and a discussion on the ability of the measurements to identify items with misstated SNM are given

  5. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the

  6. Food safety assurance systems: Microbiological testing, sampling plans, and microbiological criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Ross, T.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological criteria give information about the quality or safety of foods. A key component of a microbiological criterion is the sampling plan. Considering: (1) the generally low level of pathogens that are deemed tolerable in foods, (2) large batch sizes, and (3) potentially substantial

  7. Giant tubercular brainstem abscess: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Chigurupati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubercular brain abscesses are uncommon and tubercular brainstem abscesses are rarely reported. Most of these cases occur in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of giant brainstem abscess in a 5-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative female child who presented with complaints of headache, diplopia and unsteadiness of gait since 6 months. Diagnosis was made by a magnetic resonance imaging scan of brain. The patient demonstrated a remarkable clinical recovery after microsurgery combined with a course of antituberculous therapy. Microbiological and histological findings confirmed the diagnosis of a tuberculous abscess.

  8. [Bacterial identification methods in the microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Germán; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; García, Celia; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio; Valdezate, Sylvia

    2011-10-01

    In order to identify the agent responsible of the infectious process and understanding the pathogenic/pathological implications, clinical course, and to implement an effective antimicrobial therapy, a mainstay in the practice of clinical microbiology is the allocation of species to a microbial isolation. In daily routine practice microbiology laboratory phenotypic techniques are applied to achieve this goal. However, they have some limitations that are seen more clearly for some kinds of microorganism. Molecular methods can circumvent some of these limitations, although its implementation is not universal. This is due to higher costs and the level of expertise required for thei implementation, so molecular methods are often centralized in reference laboratories and centers. Recently, proteomics-based methods made an important breakthrough in the field of diagnostic microbiology and will undoubtedly have a major impact on the future organization of the microbiology services. This paper is a short review of the most noteworthy aspects of the three bacterial identification methods described above used in microbiology laboratories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbiological food safety issues in Brazil: bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Bruna Carrer; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2013-03-01

    The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. In this sense, the assessment of epidemiological data of foodborne diseases in different countries has not only local impact, but it can also be of general interest, especially in the case of major global producers and exporters of several agricultural food products, such as Brazil. In this review, the most common agents of foodborne illnesses registered in Brazil will be presented, compiled mainly from official databases made available to the public. In addition, some representative examples of studies on foodborne bacterial pathogens commonly found in Brazilian foods are provided.

  10. Microbiological diagnosis and molecular typing of Legionella strains during an outbreak of legionellosis in Southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Andreas; von Baum, Heike; Gonser, Theodor; Haerter, Georg; Lück, Christian

    2016-02-01

    An explosive outbreak of Legionnaires' disease with 64 reported cases occurred in Ulm/Neu-Ulm in the South of Germany in December 2009/January 2010 caused by Legionella (L.) pneumophila serogroup 1, monoclonal (mAb) subtype Knoxville, sequence type (ST) 62. Here we present the clinical microbiological results from 51 patients who were diagnosed at the University hospital of Ulm, the results of the environmental investigations and of molecular typing of patients and environmental strains. All 50 patients from whom urine specimens were available were positive for L. pneumophila antigen when an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) was used following concentration of those urine samples that tested initially negative. The sensitivity of the BinaxNow rapid immunographic assay (ICA), after 15 min reading and after 60 min reading were 70% and 84%, respectively. Direct typing confirmed the monoclonal subtype Knoxville in 5 out of 8 concentrated urine samples. Real time PCR testing of respiratory tract specimens for L. pneumophila was positive in 15 out of 25 (60%) patients. Direct nested sequence based typing (nSBT) in some of these samples allowed partial confirmation of ST62. L. pneumophila serogroup 1, monoclonal subtype Knoxville ST62, defined as the epidemic strain was isolated from 8 out of 31 outbreak patients (26%) and from one cooling tower confirming it as the most likely source of the outbreak. While rapid detection of Legionella antigenuria was crucial for the recognition and management of the outbreak, culture and molecular typing of the strains from patients and environmental specimens was the clue for the rapid identification of the source of infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion

  12. Emerging Technologies for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Blake W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In this review we examine the literature related to emerging technologies that will help to reshape the clinical microbiology laboratory. These topics include nucleic acid amplification tests such as isothermal and point-of-care molecular diagnostics, multiplexed panels for syndromic diagnosis, digital PCR, next-generation sequencing, and automation of molecular tests. We also review matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry methods and their role in identification of microorganisms. Lastly, we review the shift to liquid-based microbiology and the integration of partial and full laboratory automation that are beginning to impact the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:25278575

  13. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic u...... utility of blood cultures and invasive biopsies in the microbiological diagnosis, (2) clinical features differentiating Staphylococcus aureus infections from those with other aetiologies, and (3) evaluation of the outcome of the antimicrobial therapy.......The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic...

  14. Transforming clinical microbiology with bacterial genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelot, Xavier; Bowden, Rory; Wilson, Daniel J; Peto, Tim E A; Crook, Derrick W

    2012-09-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of bacteria has recently emerged as a cost-effective and convenient approach for addressing many microbiological questions. Here, we review the current status of clinical microbiology and how it has already begun to be transformed by using next-generation sequencing. We focus on three essential tasks: identifying the species of an isolate, testing its properties, such as resistance to antibiotics and virulence, and monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial pathogens. We predict that the application of next-generation sequencing will soon be sufficiently fast, accurate and cheap to be used in routine clinical microbiology practice, where it could replace many complex current techniques with a single, more efficient workflow.

  15. Microbiological aspects of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranđelović, Gordana; Mladenović, Vesna; Ristić, Ljiljana; Otašević, Suzana; Branković, Sofija; Mladenović-Antić, Snežana; Bogdanović, Milena; Bogdanović, Dragan

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to establish the vaginal introitus microbial flora in girls with and without symptoms of vulvovaginitis, and to present the distribution of isolated microorganisms by age groups in girls with vulvovaginitis. We enrolled 500 girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms, aged 2-12 years, referred by their pediatricians for microbiological examination of the vaginal introitus swabs, and 30 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Similar microbial flora was isolated in both groups, but the symptomatic girls had significantly more common positive microbiological findings compared to controls (p vulvovaginitis symptoms. The microbial ecosystem in girls with clinical signs of vulvovaginitis is complex and variable, and the presence of a microorganism does not necessarily imply that it is the cause of infection. The diagnosis of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls requires a complex and comprehensive approach, and microbiological findings should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings.

  16. Microbiological findings of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbulienė, Žana; Venclavičiūtė, Karolina; Ramašauskaite, Diana; Arlauskiene, Audrone; Bumbul, Elžbieta; Drąsutiene, Gražina

    2014-01-01

    To compare vaginal culture results between prepubertal girls with and without vulvovaginitis, and obtain an overview of the most commonly encountered microbes. Prospective descriptive study. Outpatient clinic of Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos during September 2011-December 2012. 115 prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms and additionally 20 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Each girl had a vaginal smear carried out using a sterile swab from the introitus or lower third of the vagina. All samples were referred to the microbiology laboratory where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Positive microbiological findings were seen in all 115 (100%) symptomatic girls and in 12 (60%) control group girls (pvulvovaginitis and from 5 (25%) girls without vaginal inflammation (pvulvovaginitis. The main causative premenarchal vulvovaginitis agents are faecal in origin.

  17. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  18. A New Way to Confirm Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    What was the big deal behind the Kepler news conference yesterday? Its not just that the number of confirmed planets found by Kepler has more than doubled (though thats certainly exciting news!). Whats especially interesting is the way in which these new planets were confirmed.Number of planet discoveries by year since 1995, including previous non-Kepler discoveries (blue), previous Kepler discoveries (light blue) and the newly validated Kepler planets (orange). [NASA Ames/W. Stenzel; Princeton University/T. Morton]No Need for Follow-UpBefore Kepler, the way we confirmed planet candidates was with follow-up observations. The candidate could be validated either by directly imaging (which is rare) or obtaining a large number radial-velocity measurements of the wobble of the planets host star due to the planets orbit. But once Kepler started producing planet candidates, these approaches to validation became less feasible. A lot of Kepler candidates are small and orbit faint stars, making follow-up observations difficult or impossible.This problem is what inspired the development of whats known as probabilistic validation, an analysis technique that involves assessing the likelihood that the candidates signal is caused by various false-positive scenarios. Using this technique allows astronomers to estimate the likelihood of a candidate signal being a true planet detection; if that likelihood is high enough, the planet candidate can be confirmed without the need for follow-up observations.A breakdown of the catalog of Kepler Objects of Interest. Just over half had previously been identified as false positives or confirmed as candidates. 1284 are newly validated, and another 455 have FPP of1090%. [Morton et al. 2016]Probabilistic validation has been used in the past to confirm individual planet candidates in Kepler data, but now Timothy Morton (Princeton University) and collaborators have taken this to a new level: they developed the first code thats designed to do fully

  19. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009-2014: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee; Lee, Mee-Hwa

    2016-03-01

    To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded. Girls aged 4 to 6 years were at the highest risk of pediatric vulvovaginitis. Seasonal distribution indicated obvious peaks in summer and winter. Of the 120 subjects, specific pathogens were identified in the genital specimens in only 20 cases (16.7%). Streptococcus pyogenes (n=12, 60%) was the leading cause of specific vulvovaginitis. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in one patient. No cases presented with enteric pathogens, such as Shigella or Yersinia. A history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, swimming, and bubble bath use was reported in 37.5%, 15.8%, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Recent upper respiratory tract infection was not significantly correlated with the detection of respiratory pathogens in genital specimens (P>0.05). Of 104 patients who underwent perineal hygienic care, 80 (76.9%) showed improvement of symptoms without antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the efficacy of hygienic care was not significantly different between patients with or without specific pathogens (P>0.05). Specific pathogens were only found in 16.7% of pediatric vulvovaginitis cases. Our results indicate an excellent outcome with hygienic care, irrespective of the presence of specific pathogens.

  20. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded. Results Girls aged 4 to 6 years were at the highest risk of pediatric vulvovaginitis. Seasonal distribution indicated obvious peaks in summer and winter. Of the 120 subjects, specific pathogens were identified in the genital specimens in only 20 cases (16.7%). Streptococcus pyogenes (n=12, 60%) was the leading cause of specific vulvovaginitis. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in one patient. No cases presented with enteric pathogens, such as Shigella or Yersinia. A history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, swimming, and bubble bath use was reported in 37.5%, 15.8%, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Recent upper respiratory tract infection was not significantly correlated with the detection of respiratory pathogens in genital specimens (P>0.05). Of 104 patients who underwent perineal hygienic care, 80 (76.9%) showed improvement of symptoms without antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the efficacy of hygienic care was not significantly different between patients with or without specific pathogens (P>0.05). Conclusion Specific pathogens were only found in 16.7% of pediatric vulvovaginitis cases. Our results indicate an excellent outcome with hygienic care, irrespective of the presence of specific pathogens. PMID:27004204

  1. Applications of flow cytometry in food microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Valerin, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    A compilation of data about cytometry and its applications is performed to analyze the impact on food microbiology. The technique of flow cytometry is described and the use in various fields of microbiology is analyzed. Flow cytometry future could be implemented in many clinical laboratories and food, considering the cost / benefit test to be done, because at the moment it has a high cost. The existence of new fluorochromes and monoclonal antibodies enable that many intracellular and extracellular cell parameters are detected in the future. The technique can be developed in the country in few years considering that the technique has improved the sensitivity and specificity of many tests [es

  2. Manual de microbiología

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya Campuzano, Olga Inés

    1999-01-01

    Resumen: el manual de microbiología general fue elaborado con el objetivo de proporcionarle al estudiante de Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional, las técnicas básicas en microbiología, de interés para aquellos cursos que 10 requieren. El estudiante trabajara con los microorganismos (patógenos y no patógenos de importancia, en las áreas de asistencia técnica que le corresponde prestar como: calidad de agua, de alimentos, de Semen entre otras

  3. Sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM microbiological laboratory—Practical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Laura; Alexandru, Mioara; Constantin, Mihai; Ioniţă, Anca; Zorilă, Florina; Moise, Valentin

    2012-09-01

    EN ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of products. Each product needs distinct protocols for bioburden determination and sterility testing. The Microbiological Laboratory from Irradiation Processing Center (IRASM) deals with different types of products, mainly for the VDmax25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. A special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton packed in large quantities. The VDmax25 method cannot be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU/pack, irrespective of the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for the manufacturer when choosing other methods. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases of the bioburden and sterility testing. Details about choosing criteria are given.

  4. Using Daily Horoscopes To Demonstrate Expectancy Confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Geoffrey D.; Munro, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a classroom demonstration that uses daily horoscopes to show the effect that expectation can have on judgment. Addresses the preparation, procedure, and results of the demonstration, and student evaluations. States that the demonstration appears to be effective for teaching students about expectancy confirmation. (CMK)

  5. Nonintrusive irradiated fuel inventory confirmation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdy, E.J.; Nicholson, N.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Successful tests showing correlation between the intensity of the Cerenkov glow surrounding irradiated fuel assemblies in water-filled spent fuel storage ponds and the exposure and cooling times of assemblies have been concluded. Fieldable instruments used in subsequent tests confirmed that such measurements can be made easily and rapidly, without fuel assembly movement or the introduction of apparatus into the storage ponds

  6. Confirmation of Essure placement using transvaginal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veersema, Sebastiaan; Vleugels, Michel; Koks, Caroline; Thurkow, Andreas; van der Vaart, Huub; Brölmann, Hans

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the protocol for confirmation of satisfactory Essure placement using transvaginal ultrasound. Prospective multicenter cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Outpatient departments of 4 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Eleven hundred forty-five women who underwent hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure device between March 2005 and December 2007. Transvaginal ultrasound examination 12 weeks after uncomplicated successful bilateral placement or as indicated according to the transvaginal ultrasound protocol after 4 weeks, and hysterosalpingography (HSG) at 12 weeks to confirm correct placement of the device after 3 months. The rate of successful placement was 88.4% initially. In 164 women (15%), successful placement was confirmed at HSG according the protocol. In 9 patients (0.84%), incorrect position of the device was observed at HSG. The cumulative pregnancy rate after 18 months was 3.85 per thousand women. Transvaginal ultrasound should be the first diagnostic test used to confirm the adequacy of hysteroscopic Essure sterilization because it is minimally invasive, averts ionizing radiation, and does not decrease the effectiveness of the Essure procedure. Copyright © 2011 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  8. Microbiological diagnosis of postpartum endometritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Korobkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the uterus microflora in healthy women and in the patients with postpartum endometritis using the method of quantitative assessment of contamination of the material. Further examination revealed polymicrobial etiology of the postpartum endometritis. The leading role in the etiological structure belongs to opportunistic microorganisms: enterococci, enterobacteria (preferably Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis, and non-spore forming anaerobes (predominantly - Peptostreptococcus spp. аnd Bacteroides spp., located in the uterus, in most cases, a bulk quantity as aerobically-anaerobic associations.

  9. OpenStax: Microbiology Provides a Cost-Effective and Accessible Resource for Undergraduate Microbiology Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lyn Gunn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of Openstax: Microbiology, a textbook that has been put together by a collaborative effort between Openstax College and the American Society for Microbiology.  The text will be offered in a variety of formats including web-based, PDF, and hardcopy, and is set for publication Spring 2016. Review of: OpenStax: Microbiology. Nina Parker, Mark Schneegurt, and Anh-Hue Tu; (2016. OpenStax and ASM. 1100 pages. (Note: At time of journal printing, this book was not yet published. Certain publication details may change slightly.

  10. A microbiological and clinical review on Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Tauch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Corynebacterium represents a taxon of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G + C content in the genomic DNA. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii is an unusual member of this taxon as it lacks the characteristic mycolic acids in the cell envelope. Genome sequence analysis of the C. kroppenstedtii type strain has revealed a lipophilic (lipid-requiring lifestyle and a remarkable repertoire of carbohydrate uptake and utilization systems. Clinical isolates of C. kroppenstedtii have been obtained almost exclusively from female patients and mainly from breast abscesses and cases of granulomatous mastitis. However, the role of C. kroppenstedtii in breast pathologies remains unclear. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the taxonomy, microbiology, and microbiological identification of C. kroppenstedtii, including polyphasic phenotypic approaches, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A clinical review presents reported cases, various antimicrobial treatments, antibiotic susceptibility assays, and antibiotic resistance genes detected during genome sequencing. C. kroppenstedtii must be considered a potential opportunistic human pathogen and should be identified accurately in clinical laboratories.

  11. Assessing the health status of farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) through histological, microbiological and biomarker analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Ercolini, Carlo; Serracca, Laura; Battistini, Roberta; Rossini, Irene; Granato, Giulia; Quaglieri, Elisabetta; Perolo, Alberto; Finos, Livio; Arcangeli, Giuseppe; Bertotto, Daniela; Radaelli, Giuseppe; Chollet, Bruno; Arzul, Isabelle; Quaglio, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    confirmed by in situ hybridization. Cells morphologically similar to Perkinsus sp. trophozoites were observed in 0.7% of the mussels analysed; however, infection with Perkinsus spp. could neither be confirmed by ISH nor by PCR. Different pathological aspects, such as host defence responses and regressive/progressive changes were detected in the gills, digestive glands, gonads and mantle. Only one single case of disseminated neoplasia (0.2%) was observed. As for the biomarker evaluation, the MANOVA analysis revealed the statistically significant effect that the variable "sampling site" had on the biological parameter measured, thus suggesting that the multibiomarker approach was able to differentiate the rearing sites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL DATA IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Popova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an infectious disease concerning supporting tissues of the teeth. The primary etiological agent for disease development and progression is the subgingival biofilm, but recently it is known that host factors may modify the pathological process or may affect the severity and /or extent. The increasing levels of some specific pathogenic subgingival bacteria such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and others can result in periodontal destruction and possibly correlate with disease severity. Data from controlled studies show high prevalence of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and Tr. denticola which represent the red complex (coexistence of these three species in patients with moderate and severe chronic periodontitis. Parallel investigation of probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL with the microbiological testing may give a confirmation of relation between subgingival pathogenic bacteria and severity of periodontitis.

  13. A microbiological study of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, M; Kaur, H

    2006-01-01

    The microbiological quality of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana was examined, Twenty three brands were analyzed for presumptive coliform count by multiple tube tests, and E. coli count was confirmed by Eijkman test. Bacterial and fungal loads were tested by membrane filtration test. Out of 23 only one sample (4.4%) showed the presumptive coliform count to be 460 most probable number (MPN)l 1 00ml,and 1 was found to be positive when tested by Eijkman test for Ecoli. In the membrane filtration test three samples (13%) showed more than two types of bacteria. Different types of bacteria isolated included Bacillus sp (19/23). Pseudomonas spp (13123), Ecoli, Klebsiella sp and S.albus one each Fungi was isolated from five of twenty three. (22%) samples. Only one brand of mineral water was unfit for human consumption. The rest of the samples were contaminated with non pathogenic flora.

  14. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Italian salami ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the inclusion of different levels of pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense, Cambess) pulp in the processing of Italian salami made of lamb for the evaluation of their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. Six formulations of Italian salamis were processed: no pequi ...

  15. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion: Causative Organisms and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    enviromental composition as a potential method for reversing microbiologically influenced corrosion, Corrosion (NAC’E) International. Houston. Texas...International fellow and associate editor for Biofouling, The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research. J. Lee is a Materials and Corrosion Engineer

  16. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of linolenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... Microbiological analysis revealed that the crude extracted oilseeds were pathogenic bacteria free and the lipolytic bacteria counted belonged to ... excitable membranes such as the brain and nervous ..... plasma cholesterol (Khosala and Sundram, 1996; Hunter.

  17. Molecular, Serological And Microbiological Profiling Evidence Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All items that the boy had contact with including a laboratory coat, bunch of keys and shoes were swabbed. Finally samples of all the boy's food and drinks were taken. Microbiological, Serological and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Profiling Assays. l the samples were cultured on Sorbitol - MacConkey (SMAC) agar, ...

  18. Microbiological Quality Assessment and Physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two commercial poultry diets namely chick mash and grower mash were obtained from five (5) major poultry feed millers in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. A total of seventy – five (75) samples were collected and these diets were examined for their microbiological and physico-chemical qualities. Total bacterial counts in the chick ...

  19. Biotechnology from Microbiology Perspective | Mendie | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in DNA recombinant technology and genetic engineering have created novel cell forms with improved characteristics which have impacted positively on human lives. However, the applications of cloning to humans have been resented by many governments due to ethical issues involved. Other microbiological ...

  20. Basics of radiation microbiology for food protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The microbiological basics of food poisoning, food spoilage, and ionizing energy treatments are presented. Factors influencing the microbial resistance of ionizing radiation, including the use of physical agents for combination treatments, are briefly reviewed, and parameters involved in dose selection are considered

  1. Microbiological, physico-chemical and management parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor working conditions , frequent stock depletion of chemicals , lack of maintenance culture , lack of emergency preparedness and poor communication were also cited. The study has revealed that the microbiological quality of raw water was very poor but that water treatment was efficient in the majority of SWTPs studied ...

  2. Microbiological, physicochemical properties and biogenic amine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty three strained yoghurt samples were collected from local open markets in different provinces of Turkey (Afyon [AF], Aydın [AY], Burdur [B], Isparta [I] and Muğla [M]). Physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as biogenic amine content, were examined in each of the samples. The dry matter (17.90 to ...

  3. Developing virtual patients for medical microbiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerry J

    2013-12-01

    The landscape of medical education is changing as students embrace the accessibility and interactivity of e-learning. Virtual patients are e-learning resources that may be used to advance microbiology education. Although the development of virtual patients has been widely considered, here we aim to provide a coherent approach for clinical educators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictive microbiology in food packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology including growth, inactivation, surface transfer (or cross-contamination), and survival, plays important roles in understanding microbial food safety. Growth models may involve the growth potential of a specified pathogen under different stresses, e.g., temperature, pH, wate...

  5. Reasons for Suboptimal Learning in Medical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struwig, Magdalena C.; Beylefeld, Adriana A.; Joubert, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Medical microbiology presents a challenge to undergraduate students, mostly due to its extensive content and complexity of unfamiliar terminology. In addition to a narrative review of the literature, we report findings on students' motivation for and approach to learning in the Infections module of an undergraduate medical curriculum, and their…

  6. microbiological eva fermented african locust bea preservativ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    They are also important prote supplement (Omafuvbe, 2002). Shelf life is th period of time during which the food produc was remain safe , be certain to retain desire microbiology, physical, chemical and senso characteristics and comply the nutritional dat when stored under conditions (temperature o handling) Kolapo et al., ...

  7. Next generation of microbiological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den Heidy M.W.; Amézquita, Alejandro; Bover-Cid, Sara; Dagnas, Stéphane; Ellouze, Mariem; Guillou, Sandrine; Nychas, George; O'Mahony, Cian; Pérez-Rodriguez, Fernando; Membré, Jeanne Marie

    2017-01-01

    In food safety and public health risk evaluations, microbiological exposure assessment plays a central role as it provides an estimation of both the likelihood and the level of the microbial hazard in a specified consumer portion of food and takes microbial behaviour into account. While until now

  8. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a

  9. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion

  10. A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of water distributed from two water treatment plants in Rwanda. ... Thus, as recommendation to WASAC authority, there is a need for improvement in the water management strategy for better water quality especially along the distribution network.

  11. Applications for predictive microbiology to food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology has been used for several years in the food industry to predict microbial growth, inactivation and survival. Predictive models provide a useful tool in risk assessment, HACCP set-up and GMP for the food industry to enhance microbial food safety. This report introduces the c...

  12. Microbiological methods for assessing soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Hopkins, D.W.; Benedetti, A.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a selection of microbiological methods that are already applied in regional or national soil quality monitoring programs. It is split into two parts: part one gives an overview of approaches to monitoring, evaluating and managing soil quality. Part two provides a selection of

  13. Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas. (orig.)

  14. Physicochemical and microbiological meat quality, growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beatriz

    2015-05-15

    May 15, 2015 ... and microbiological quality of sheep and goat meat and compares the .... of Rio Verde, GO and supervised by the Municipal Inspection Service (Serviço de ... blood, skin, guts, internal organs, feet (severed at the level of the.

  15. Investigating the sourdough potential for enhance microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... survival of indicator microorganisms in finished-products were decreased. But intensity of crust roasty aroma did not have the same profile. Therefore, process requirements for optimum microbiological shelf life and roasty aroma were different, which should be taken into account in designing sourdough baking processes.

  16. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and su...

  17. Processing, screening and microbiological characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) obtained from the fresh stem of Laccosperma opacum (Rattan) found in coastal region of Niger Delta forest zones of West Africa was investigated to ascertain its microbiological standard for use as a potential pharmaceutical excipient. The product, coded LO-MCC, was prepared by treating ...

  18. Polar and Alpine Microbiology - Earth's Cryobiosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elster, Josef; Margesin, R.; Wagner, D.; Häggblom, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-4, č. článku fiw221. ISSN 0168-6496 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : diversity * Polar regions * Polar Microbiology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  19. Carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological assessment of stored cassava fufu from two cultivars of yellow cassava (TMS 01/1368 and TMS 01/1412) being multiplied for distribution in South-East and South-South Nigeria were investigated using standard techniques. There is scanty information on ...

  20. Tuberculosis 2: Pathophysiology and microbiology of pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-01

    Aug 1, 2005 ... February 2013 Downloaded from www.southsudanmedicaljournal.com. MaIN arTIClES. 10. Tuberculosis 2: Pathophysiology and microbiology of pulmonary tuberculosis. Robert L. Serafino Wania MBBS, MrCP, MSc (Trop Med). Pathophysiology. Inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to one of.

  1. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a urinary pathogen and the incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of 86 staphylococcal isolates made up of 50 clinical isolates from urine samples submitted to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory ...

  2. PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.T. Raczka

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring

  3. Heat Flux Inhibition by Whistlers: Experimental Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Heat flux in weakly magnetized collisionless plasma is, according to theoretical predictions, limited by whistler turbulence that is generated by heat flux instabilities near threshold. Observations of solar wind electrons by Gary and coworkers appear to confirm the limit on heat flux as being roughly the product of the magnetic energy density and the electron thermal velocity, in agreement with prediction (Pistinner and Eichler 1998)

  4. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  5. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices... microbiological specimen collection and transport device is a specimen collecting chamber intended for medical...

  6. Analysis of Microbiological and Physiochemical Properties of Top ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2Medical Laboratory, Lonia Clinic and Maternity Ovwian Delta State ... ABSTRACT: The effect of disposing municipal waste on soil was evaluated by analyzing the microbiological and enzyme ..... Analysis Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological.

  7. The microbiology of Ethiopian foods and beverages: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbiology of Ethiopian foods and beverages: A review. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The topic on milk and dairy products deals with the livestock resource of the country with respect to the microbiological ...

  8. [The opportunities, challenges and trends in the rejuvenation of microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Chen, Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    In history, the development of microbiology had undergone two golden ages and some depression time as well. In the last two decades, the application of many physiochemical technologies including genomics, structural biology, bioinformatics, PCR, and high-resolution microscopy has led to a series of breakthroughs in microbiology. Microbiology has now awakened and entered its third golden age for development. This review discusses our view of the opportunities, challenges, and trends in the current advancement of microbiology. The topics include: (1) The two golden ages for microbiology in history. (2) The opportunities and challenges in the rejuvenation of microbiology. (3) The characteristics and trends of the current development of microbiology. (4) Integral microbiology--the hallmark of the third golden age.

  9. Surgical infections: a microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Saini

    Full Text Available Surgical infections are mostly polymicrobial, involving both aerobes and anaerobes. One hundred seventeen cases comprised of abscesses (n=51, secondary peritonitis (n=25, necrotizing fascitis (n=22 and wounds with devitalized tissues (n=19 were studied. The number of microorganisms isolated per lesion was highest in secondary peritonitis (2.32. The aerobe/ anaerobe ratio was 0.81 in secondary peritonitis and 1.8 in necrotizing fascitis. Most secondary peritonitis (80%, necrotizing fascitis (75% and wounds with devitalized tissues (66.7% were polymicrobial. Common microorganisms isolated in our study were E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis and Peptostreptococcus spp. The most effective antibiotics for S. aureus were clindamycin (79.1% and cefuroxime (70.8%. For Gram-negatives (Klebsiella spp., E. coli and Proteus spp., the most effective antibiotics were cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was maximally sensitive to amikacin (35.2% and ciprofloxacin (35.2%. The greatest degree of multidrug resistance to all the drugs was found in P. aeruginosa (52.9%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (33.3%, Proteus spp. (33.3%, E. coli (22.2%, and S. aureus (12.5%. All the anaerobes that we isolated were 100% sensitive to metronidazole and chloramphenicol, followed by clindamycin (95% to 100%. Apart from antibiotic therapy, non-antimicrobial methods, such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy and debridement also play an important role in the treatment of surgical infections.

  10. Accuracy of a self-collection kit for the microbiological study of the vaginal content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Romero L. Passos

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of vaginal discharge is frequently performed in an empirical way, leading to inadequate treatment. This study tested the accuracy of a self-collection kit for microbiological study of the vaginal content. One hundred and forty-two women of Family Health Program units in Niterói and Piraí cities were enrolled in order to have their vaginal content studied. A brief explanation and a self-collection kit were provided in order to sample the vaginal content. The self-collection kit was composed of one empty plastic tube, two glass slides, a long handle cytobrush, an identification card and guideline notes. The vaginal sample was applied on the glass slides by the women and stained by Gram technique. A second sampling was done by the medical personnel. The microbiological diagnosis in a blinded analysis was made under optical microscopy. A validation diagnosis test was done taking the medical collection results as a gold standard. A total of 106 women had followed the protocol and were included in the study. Microbiological analysis was unsatisfactory in 12 cases (6 cases of self-collection material and 6 cases of medical collection. The microbiological analyses in the self-collection and in the medical collection material were respectively: bacterial vaginosis in 21.7% and 17.9%, non bacillar flora in 10.3% and 11.3%, vaginal trichomoniasis in 5.66% and 5.6%, candidiasis in 3.78% and 2.8% and a normal microbiota in 52.8% and 56.6%. The Kappa coefficient suggested a "very good correlation" of the microbiological results between the two methods of collection (K=0.7945. The self-collection kit provides samples for microbiological analysis of the vaginal microbiota as good as medical collection.

  11. Clinical and microbiological characterization of Clostridium difficile infection in a tertiary care hospital in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Danfeng; Peng, Yibing; Zhang, Lihua; Jiang, Cen; Wang, Xuefeng; Mao, Enqiang

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has emerged as a significant nosocomial infection, yet little has been reported from China. This study aimed to characterize the clinical and microbiological features of CDI from a hospital in Shanghai. Patients with CDI seen between December 2010 and March 2013 were included in this study, of which clinical data were retrospectively collected. The microbiological features of corresponding isolates were analyzed including genotype by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), antimicrobial susceptibility, toxin production, sporulation capacity, biofilm formation, and motility. Ninety-four cases of CDI were included during this study period, 12 of whom were severe cases. By reviewing the clinical data, all patients were treated empirically with proton pump inhibitor or antibiotics or both, and they were distributed widely across various wards, most frequently to the digestive ward (28/94, 29.79%). Comparing the severe with mild cases, no significant differences were found in the basic epidemiological data or the microbiological features. Among the 94 isolates, 31 were toxin A-negative toxin B-positive all genotyped as ST37. They generated fewer toxins and spores, as well as similar amounts of biofilm and motility percentages, but exhibited highest drug resistance to cephalosporins, quinolones, macrolide-lincosamide and streptogramin (MLSB), and tetracycline. No specific clinical genotype or microbiological features were found in severe cases; antimicrobial resistance could be the primary reason for epidemic strains leading to the dissemination and persistence of CDI.

  12. An overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusan, M; Klug, T E; Ovesen, T

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to provide an extensive overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation. All 2,028 cases of acute infections admitted between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2006 were reviewed to assess the use of pre-admission antibiotics, m...

  13. Skull base osteomyelitis: current microbiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, P M; Yu, R; Neeff, M

    2013-01-01

    Skull base osteomyelitis typically presents in an immunocompromised patient with severe otalgia and otorrhoea. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the commonest pathogenic micro-organism, and reports of resistance to fluoroquinolones are now emerging, complicating management. We reviewed our experience of this condition, and of the local pathogenic organisms. A retrospective review from 2004 to 2011 was performed. Patients were identified by their admission diagnostic code, and computerised records examined. Twenty patients were identified. A facial palsy was present in 12 patients (60 per cent). Blood cultures were uniformly negative, and culture of ear canal granulations was non-diagnostic in 71 per cent of cases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in only 10 (50 per cent) cases; one strain was resistant to ciprofloxacin but all were sensitive to ceftazidime. Two cases of fungal skull base osteomyelitis were identified. The mortality rate was 15 per cent. The patients' treatment algorithm is presented. Our treatment algorithm reflects the need for multidisciplinary input, early microbial culture of specimens, appropriate imaging, and prolonged and systemic antimicrobial treatment. Resolution of infection must be confirmed by close follow up and imaging.

  14. Guideline for phenotypic screening and confirmation of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen Stuart, J.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Voss, A.; et al.,

    2010-01-01

    Adequate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is crucial for infection control measures and appropriate choice of antimicrobial therapy. This guideline aims to improve the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the routine setting of clinical microbiology

  15. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rautemaa-Richardson, R.; van der Reijden, W.A.; Dahlen, G.; Smith, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC) processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB)

  16. Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises Specific to Food Spoilage Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail B.; Worobo, Randy W.; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Food spoilage has an enormous economic impact, and microbial food spoilage plays a significant role in food waste and loss; subsequently, an equally significant portion of undergraduate food microbiology instruction should be dedicated to spoilage microbiology. Here, we describe a set of undergraduate microbiology laboratory exercises that focus…

  17. Practical microbiology in schools: a survey of UK teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2013-11-01

    A survey of secondary school teachers investigated practical microbiology in the classroom. The results were heartening (practical microbiology was common), but concerns were expressed regarding equipment, time, cost, and expertise. Microbiologists should engage more with school education to support teachers and maintain the health of microbiology for future generations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance...

  19. 76 FR 67461 - Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...] Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting entitled ``Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues.'' The... cosmetic microbiological safety and to suggest areas for the possible development of FDA guidance documents...

  20. Troubleshooting Requests e-mail Confirmation

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2004-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to improve quality of the repair requests, a new e-mail confirmation automatic system will be implemented starting from the 21st October. All repair requests transmitted to the TCR (72201) or the FM Helpdesk (77777) will be confirmed in an e-mail to the requestor, provided that the latter has a valid e-mail address in the HR database. The e-mail will contain a reference number, a brief description of the problem, the location and a contact where more information can be obtained. A second e-mail will be sent when the processing of the repair request is finished. We hope that this initiative will improve the transparency and quality of our service. Helpdesk Troubleshooting Requests (reminder) We remind you that all the repair requests and other communication concerning the CERN machine buildings have to be transmitted to the TCR via 72201, whereas the ones concerning tertiary buildings are handled directly by the FM helpdesk under the phone number 77777, i.e. problems on systems and equ...

  1. Kepler Confirmation of Multi-Planet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, W. D.

    2011-10-01

    The NASA Kepler spacecraft has detected 170 candidate multi-planet systems in the first two quarters of data released in February 2011 by Borucki et al. (2011). These systems comprise 115 double candidate systems, 45 triple candidate sys- tems, and 10 systems with 4 or more candidate planets. The architecture and dynamics of these systems were discussed by Lissauer et al. (2011), and a comparison of candidates in single- and multi-planet systems was presented by Latham et al. (2011). Proceeding from "planetary candidate" systems to confirmed and validated multi-planet systems is a difficult process, as most of these systems orbit stars too faint to obtain extremely precise (1ms-1) radial velocity confimation. Here, we discuss in detail the use of transit timing vari- ations (cf. e.g. Holman et al., 2010) to confirm planets near a mean motion resonance. We also discuss extensions to the BLENDER validation (Torres et al., 2004, 2011; Fressin et al., 2011) to validate planets in multi-planet systems. Kepler was competitively selected as the tenth Discovery mission. Funding for the Kepler Mis- sion is provided by NASA's Science Mission Direc- torate. We are deeply grateful for the very hard work of the entire Kepler team.

  2. The diagnosis of chronic endometritis in infertile asymptomatic women: a comparative study of histology, microbial cultures, hysteroscopy, and molecular microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Cicinelli, Ettore; Garcia-Grau, Iolanda; Gonzalez-Monfort, Marta; Bau, Davide; Vilella, Felipe; De Ziegler, Dominique; Resta, Leonardo; Valbuena, Diana; Simon, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    , concordance was present in 37 samples (22 double positive and 15 double negative), a matching rate of 56.92%. When cases of potential contamination and/or noncultivable bacteria were considered, the accuracy increased to 66.15%. Of these 65 patients, only 27 patients had consistent histological + hysteroscopic diagnosis, revealing 58.64% of nonconcordant results. Only 13 of 65 patients (20%) had consistent histology + hysteroscopy + microbial culture results. In these cases, the molecular microbiology matched in 10 cases showing a diagnostic accuracy of 76.92%. Interestingly, the molecular microbiology confirmed over half of the isolated pathogens and provided additional detection of nonculturable microorganisms. These results were confirmed by the microbiome assessed by next-generation sequencing. In the endometrial samples with concordant histology + hysteroscopy + microbial culture results, the molecular microbiology diagnosis demonstrates 75% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive and 25% negative predictive values, and 0% false-positive and 25% false-negative rates. The molecular microbiology method describe herein is a fast and inexpensive diagnostic tool that allows for the identification of culturable and nonculturable endometrial pathogens associated with chronic endometritis. The results obtained were similar to all 3 classic diagnostic methods together with a degree of concordance of 76.92% providing an opportunity to improve the clinical management of infertile patients with a risk of experiencing this ghost endometrial pathology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusan, Maria; Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Ovesen, Therese

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to provide an extensive overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation. All 2,028 cases of acute infections admitted between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2006 were reviewed to assess the use of pre-admission antibiotics......, microbiological results, antibiotic and surgical management and length of hospitalisation. Infections of the oropharynx accounted for the vast majority of admissions, followed by ear infections, and cutaneous neck abscesses. Peritonsillar abscess was the most frequent diagnosis, accounting for over one third...... of admissions (39.8%, 808 out of 2,028). Complete microbiological data were available for 1,430 cultures, and were analysed for trends with respect to diagnosis, age, gender and use of pre-admission antibiotics. Forty-six percent (657 out of 1,430) of cultures yielded no growth or normal flora. This value...

  4. Microbiological and physicochemical profile of traditional Salsiccia toscana during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Preziuso

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution during refrigerated storage of the main microbiological and physicochemical parameters of a traditional Italian fresh sausage, salsiccia toscana. The following parameters were analyzed at Days 0, 6 and 9 of storage: total aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts, Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcaceae, yeasts and moulds, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes; pH, Aw, moisture, protein, total lipids, ash, fatty acid composition, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances, colour measurement. The results revealed a statistically significant increase in the main microbiological parameters between Days 0 and 9 of refrigerated storage, with total bacterial counts exceeding 107 CFU/g after nine days and Brochothrix thermosphacta representing the main spoilage microorganism. Among physicochemical parameters, discolouration was noted during the time of storage, with a significantly paler colour on the surface of sausages with casings after nine days of storage. Considering that the initial bacterial counts were higher than 105 CFU/g for Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonadaceae, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, and that the product is traditionally purchased loose without any packaging, it is fundamental to improve the good manufacturing practices, particularly measures to control processing temperatures.

  5. Clinical and microbiological profile of infectious keratitis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious keratitis is a sight-threatening condition for children. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical profile, risk factors and microbiological profile of infectious keratitis in children. Methods Retrospective review of clinical records of patients under 16 years of age with history of microbial keratitis seen at a tertiary referral center. Clinical characteristics, risk factors, visual and surgical outcomes as well as the microbiological profile are analyzed. Results Forty-one eyes of 41 patients. Mean age was 8.7 years. Time between the onset of symptoms and ophthalmological examination was 12.7 days. Predisposing factors were found in 78%; ocular trauma was the most common (25%). Visual acuity equal or worse than 20/200 at admission correlated positively with a poorer visual outcome, p=0.002. Positivity of cultures was 34%. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 78.5%; Staphylococcus epidermidis (28.6%) was the most common microorganism. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the importance of a prompt diagnosis and treatment of infectious corneal ulcers in children. Trauma and contact lenses were the main predisposing factors. Gram-positive organisms were isolated in the vast majority of cases and visual outcomes are usually poor. PMID:24131681

  6. Rapid Molecular Microbiologic Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazanave, Charles; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Hanssen, Arlen D.; Karau, Melissa J.; Schmidt, Suzannah M.; Gomez Urena, Eric O.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Osmon, Douglas R.; Lough, Lindsay E.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Steckelberg, James M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that culture of samples obtained by prosthesis vortexing and sonication was more sensitive than tissue culture for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis. Despite improved sensitivity, culture-negative cases remained; furthermore, culture has a long turnaround time. We designed a genus-/group-specific rapid PCR assay panel targeting PJI bacteria and applied it to samples obtained by vortexing and sonicating explanted hip and knee prostheses, and we compared the results to those with sonicate fluid and periprosthetic tissue culture obtained at revision or resection arthroplasty. We studied 434 subjects with knee (n = 272) or hip (n = 162) prostheses; using a standardized definition, 144 had PJI. Sensitivities of tissue culture, of sonicate fluid culture, and of PCR were 70.1, 72.9, and 77.1%, respectively. Specificities were 97.9, 98.3, and 97.9%, respectively. Sonicate fluid PCR was more sensitive than tissue culture (P = 0.04). PCR of prosthesis sonication samples is more sensitive than tissue culture for the microbiologic diagnosis of prosthetic hip and knee infection and provides same-day PJI diagnosis with definition of microbiology. The high assay specificity suggests that typical PJI bacteria may not cause aseptic implant failure. PMID:23658273

  7. The influence of Rickettsiologists on post-modern microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi eGeorgiades

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the definitions in microbiology are factually false. We have revised the great denominations of microbiology and attempted to free microorganisms from the theories of the 20th century. The presence of compartmentation and a nucleoid in Planctomycetes clearly calls into question the accuracy of the definitions of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Archaea are viewed as prokaryotes resembling bacteria. However, the name archaea, suggesting an archaic origin of lifestyle, is inconsistent with the actual history of this family. Viruses are defined as small, filterable infectious agents, but giant viruses challenge the size criteria used for the definition of a virus. Pathogenicity does not require the acquisition of virulence factors (except for toxins, and in many cases, gene loss seems to be implicated in the emergence of virulence. Species classification based on 16S rRNA is useless for taxonomic purposes of human pathogens, as a 2% divergence would classify all Rickettsiae within the same species and would not identify bacteria specialized for the infection of mammals. The use of metagenomics helps us to understand evolution and physiology by elucidating the structure, function and interactions of microbial communities, but it neglects the minority populations. Finally, the tree of life (TOL theory, as established by Darwin, no longer matches our current genomic knowledge because genomics has revealed the occurrence of de novo-created genes and the mosaic structure of genomes.

  8. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  9. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Madajczyk, D

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  10. Recent applications of hyperspectral imaging in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Aoife A; Feng, Yaoze; Gaston, Edurne; Valdramidis, Vasilis

    2015-05-01

    Hyperspectral chemical imaging (HSI) is a broad term encompassing spatially resolved spectral data obtained through a variety of modalities (e.g. Raman scattering, Fourier transform infrared microscopy, fluorescence and near-infrared chemical imaging). It goes beyond the capabilities of conventional imaging and spectroscopy by obtaining spatially resolved spectra from objects at spatial resolutions varying from the level of single cells up to macroscopic objects (e.g. foods). In tandem with recent developments in instrumentation and sampling protocols, applications of HSI in microbiology have increased rapidly. This article gives a brief overview of the fundamentals of HSI and a comprehensive review of applications of HSI in microbiology over the past 10 years. Technical challenges and future perspectives for these techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genomics and metagenomics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Roshan; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two decades, sequencing tools have evolved from laborious time-consuming methodologies to real-time detection and deciphering of genomic DNA. Genome sequencing, especially using next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the landscape of microbiology and infectious disease. This deluge of sequencing data has not only enabled advances in fundamental biology but also helped improve diagnosis, typing of pathogen, virulence and antibiotic resistance detection, and development of new vaccines and culture media. In addition, NGS also enabled efficient analysis of complex human micro-floras, both commensal, and pathological, through metagenomic methods, thus helping the comprehension and management of human diseases such as obesity. This review summarizes technological advances in genomics and metagenomics relevant to the field of medical microbiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-01-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency

  13. [Microbiological diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Estévez, Marta; Reina González, Gabriel; Aguilera Guirao, Antonio; Rodríguez Martín, Carmen; García García, Federico

    2015-10-01

    This document attempts to update the main tasks and roles of the Clinical Microbiology laboratory in HIV diagnosis and monitoring. The document is divided into three parts. The first deals with HIV diagnosis and how serological testing has changed in the last few years, aiming to improve diagnosis and to minimize missed opportunities for diagnosis. Technological improvements for HIV Viral Load are shown in the second part of the document, which also includes a detailed description of the clinical significance of low-level and very low-level viremia. Finally, the third part of the document deals with resistance to antiretroviral drugs, incorporating clinical indications for integrase and tropism testing, as well as the latest knowledge on minority variants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. S. Cabral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  15. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  16. Microbiological Quality Control of Probiotic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Astashkina, A.P.; Khudyakova, L.I.; Kolbysheva, Y.V.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological quality control of probiotic products such as Imunele, Dannon, Pomogayka showed that they contain living cultures of the Lactobacillus Bifidobacterium genus in the amount of 107 CFU/ml, which corresponds to the number indicated on the label of products. It is identified that the survival rate of test-strains cultured with pasteurized products does not exceed 10%. The cell concentration of target-microorganisms was reduced by 20-45% after the interaction with living probiotic b...

  17. Radiation microbiology relevant to radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallentire, A.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: typical background studies involving laboratory models (measurement of radiation responses of different organisms, alone or on or in products; isolation of radiation resistant organisms from products and product environments; measurement of levels of preirradiation microbial contamination ('bioburden')); supplementary studies involving naturally occurring microbial contaminants (unit medical products; microbiological quality assurance; products in bulk; animal diet study). (U.K.)

  18. Quality in the molecular microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul S; MacKay, William G

    2013-01-01

    In the clinical microbiology laboratory advances in nucleic acid detection, quantification, and sequence analysis have led to considerable improvements in the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of infectious diseases. Molecular diagnostic methods are routinely used to make clinical decisions based on when and how to treat a patient as well as monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic regime and identify any potential drug resistant strains that may impact on the long term patient treatment program. Therefore, confidence in the reliability of the result provided by the laboratory service to the clinician is essential for patient treatment. Hence, suitable quality assurance and quality control measures are important to ensure that the laboratory methods and service meet the necessary regulatory requirements both at the national and international level. In essence, the modern clinical microbiology laboratory ensures the appropriateness of its services through a quality management system that monitors all aspects of the laboratory service pre- and post-analytical-from patient sample receipt to reporting of results, from checking and upholding staff competency within the laboratory to identifying areas for quality improvements within the service offered. For most European based clinical microbiology laboratories this means following the common International Standard Organization (ISO9001) framework and ISO15189 which sets out the quality management requirements for the medical laboratory (BS EN ISO 15189 (2003) Medical laboratories-particular requirements for quality and competence. British Standards Institute, Bristol, UK). In the United States clinical laboratories performing human diagnostic tests are regulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) following the requirements within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments document 1988 (CLIA-88). This chapter focuses on the key quality assurance and quality control requirements within the

  19. Microbiological Efficacy Test Methods of Disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Şahiner, Aslı

    2015-01-01

    Disinfection process is required in every area where microbiological contamination and infection risk is present, especially in medical sector, food, veterinary and general common living areas hence many disinfectants and antiseptics are being produced for different purposes. Disinfectants are made up a large group of biocidal products. Depending on the chemical properties of active substances, targeted microorganisms may differ While some disinfectants are effective in a large spectrum, othe...

  20. Marine Microbiology: Challenges and Future Directions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    Microbiology: Challenges and Future Directions D. Chandramohan Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India Introduction The planet earth is believed to have formed about 4600 million years ago and life forms originated... and all-important tasks that include everything from pathogenesis to fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. An interesting question to be asked, therefore, is: has there been any realistic estimate of these bacteria on Earth? Now, for the first time, a...

  1. Confirmed and Potential Sources of Legionella Reviewed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijnsbergen, Eri; Schalk, Johanna A C; Euser, Sjoerd M; Brandsema, Petra S; den Boer, Jeroen W; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/139498281

    2015-01-01

    Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous in natural matrices and man-made systems. However, it is not always clear if these reservoirs can act as source of infection resulting in cases of Legionnaires' disease. This review provides an overview of reservoirs of Legionella reported in the literature, other

  2. [Mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordana-Lluch, Elena; Martró Català, Elisa; Ausina Ruiz, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Infectious diseases are still a cause of high mortality and morbidity rates. Current microbiological diagnostic methods are based on culture and phenotypic identification of isolated microorganisms, which can be obtained in about 24-48 h. Given that the microbiological identification is of major importance for patient management, new diagnostic methods are needed in order to detect and identify microorganisms in a timely and accurate manner. Over the last few years, several molecular techniques based on the amplification of microbial nucleic acids have been developed with the aim of reducing the time needed for the identification of the microorganisms involved in different infectious processes. On the other hand, mass spectrometry has emerged as a rapid and consistent alternative to conventional methods for microorganism identification. This review describes the most widely used mass spectrometry technologies -matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight (ESI-TOF)-, both for protein and nucleic acid analysis, as well as the commercial platforms available. Related publications of most interest in clinical microbiology are also reviewed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrochemical aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licina, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a topic that has gained considerable interest over the past decade, particularly in the oil production and nuclear power generation industries. Failures of stainless steels and copper-nickel alloys under conditions that would not be expected to be at all demanding such as during lay-up have been observed as a result of MIC. Failures in the time period between system construction and its operation are often associated with biological activity. Finally, MIC is generally associated with normally stagnant systems or systems which experience intermittent flow conditions. The diverse and redundant design philosophy of nuclear plants necessitates that a large number of systems are operated in this manner. Some of these systems are safety related while still others support safety related systems. As a result, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and all nuclear utilities have become increasingly concerned with MIC. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a review of the most current technology related to the fundamental aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion, its diagnosis, and its control. This paper reviews how microbes can influence the electrochemical processes that influence and often control corrosion; ways that these processes (hence, MIC) may be monitored; and electrochemical methods for their control. Examples of the influence of microbiological activity on anodic and cathodic reactions on steels, stainless steels, and copper based alloys in both aerated and dearated environments are provided since the electrochemical effects can be significantly different for each combination. 45 refs

  4. Factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is identify potential factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations. The forensic files of children under 12 years of age reporting sexual abuse at the Nina Rodrigues Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil between January 2008 and December 2009 were reviewed. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with finding evidence of sexual abuse in forensic examinations. The proportion of cases confirmed by the forensic physician based on material evidence was 10.4%. Adjusted analysis showed that the variables place of birth, type of abuse reported, family relationship between the child and the perpetrator, and the interval between the reported abuse and the forensic examination were not independently associated with finding forensic evidence of sexual abuse. A report of penetration was associated with a five-fold greater likelihood of confirmation, while the victim being 10-11 years of age was associated with a two-fold of abuse confirmation than younger children. These findings should be taken into consideration when drawing up guidelines for the multidisciplinary evaluation of children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse and in deciding whether to refer the child for forensic examination.

  5. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most important conclusions and lessons of the 2010 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2010 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests(1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Salmonella typhimurium infections associated with a community college microbiology laboratory--Maine, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    On May 2, 2013, a case of salmonellosis was reported to the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The patient reported symptoms of diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and nausea, after attending a community college microbiology laboratory class. A second case was reported on May 8. Epidemiologic interviews conducted with both patients indicated common exposure at a community college, including one patient specifically naming the other patient.

  7. A risk modelling approach for setting microbiological limits using enterococci as indicator for growth potential of Salmonella in pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Anne Mette; Nauta, Maarten; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2017-01-01

    Microbiological limits are widely used in food processing as an aid to reduce the exposure to hazardous microorganisms for the consumers. However, in pork, the prevalence and concentrations of Salmonella are generally low and microbiological limits are not considered an efficient tool to support...... for this purpose includes the dose-response relationship for Salmonella and a reduction factor to account for preparation of the fresh pork. By use of the risk model, it was estimated that the majority of salmonellosis cases, caused by the consumption of pork in Denmark, is caused by the small fraction of pork...... products that has enterococci concentrations above 5. log. CFU/g. This illustrates that our approach can be used to evaluate the potential effect of different microbiological limits and therefore, the perspective of this novel approach is that it can be used for definition of a risk-based microbiological...

  8. Hygienic-sanitary profile and microbiological dangers in public slaughterhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinaidy Suianny Rocha de Moura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Moura E.S.R., Abrantes M.R., Mendes C.G., Oliveira A.R.M, Souza E.S. & Silva J.B.A. [Hygienic-sanitary profile and microbiological dangers in public slaughterhouses.] Perfil higiênico-sanitário e perigos microbiológicos em abatedouros públicos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(3:203-208, 2015. Departamento de Ciência Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Avenida Francisco Mota, 572, Bairro Costa e Silva, Mossoró, RN 59625-900, Brasil. E-mail: jeanberg@ufersa.edu.br The aim of this study was to evaluate hygienic and sanitary conditions of municipal slaughterhouses in Rio Grande do Norte. Through a check list, hygienic conditions of establishments and handlers were observed and the percentage of compliance was rated excellent (≥ 80%, good (60 to 79.9%, regular (40 to 59.9% and poor (<40%, according to official standards established by Brazilian legislation. Ten water samples were collected to analyze total and thermotolerant coliforms; and 200 swab samples, including 150 from the utensils, equipment, handlers, and cattle carcasses were investigated for Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteria, and 50 from the environment for Listeria sp. research. It was noted, through the check list, the existence of various inadequate parameters when compared to those established, and required by law. According to the percentage of compliance found in abattoirs during the assessment visits, no slaughterhouse was rated as excellent, only one was considered good, one was classified as regular and three were considered poor. As for the microbiological analyzes, the presence of coliforms was confirmed in water from two slaughterhouses. High bacteria counts were found in swabs from tools, handlers, and cattle carcasses, and the presence of Listeria sp. was observed in three slaughterhouses. Therefore, the precarious sanitary conditions of the municipal slaughterhouses studied in Rio Grande do Norte represent a risk to

  9. Web-Based Honorarium Confirmation System Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisswani, N. W.; Catur Bawa, I. G. N. B.

    2018-01-01

    Improving services in academic environment can be applied by regulating salary payment process for all employees. As a form of control to maintain financial transparency, employees should have information concerning salary payment process. Currently, notification process of committee honorarium will be accepted by the employees in a manual manner. The salary will be received by the employee bank account and to know its details, they should go to the accounting unit to find out further information. Though there are some employees entering the accounting unit, they still find difficulty to obtain information about detailed honor information that they received in their accounts. This can be caused by many data collected and to be managed. Based on this issue, this research will design a prototype of web-based system for accounting unit system in order to provide detailed financial transaction confirmation to employee bank accounts that have been informed through mobile banking system. This prototype will be developed with Waterfall method through testing on final users after it is developed through PHP program with MySQL as DBMS

  10. Neonatal sepsis in rural India: timing, microbiology and antibiotic resistance in a population-based prospective study in the community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, P; Chandel, D S; Hansen, N I; Sharma, N; Kandefer, S; Parida, S; Satpathy, R; Pradhan, L; Mohapatra, A; Mohapatra, S S; Misra, P R; Banaji, N; Johnson, J A; Morris, J G; Gewolb, I H; Chaudhry, R

    2017-08-01

    To examine the timing and microbiology of neonatal sepsis in a population-based surveillance in the Indian community setting. All live born infants in 223 villages of Odisha state were followed at home for 60 days. Suspect sepsis cases were referred to study hospitals for further evaluation including blood culture. Of 12 622 births, 842 were admitted with suspected sepsis of whom 95% were 4 to 60 days old. Culture-confirmed incidence of sepsis was 6.7/1000 births with 51% Gram negatives (Klebsiella predominating) and 26% Gram positives (mostly Staphylococcus aureus). A very high level of resistance to penicillin and ampicillin, moderate resistance to cephalosporins and extremely low resistance to Gentamicin and Amikacin was observed. The bacterial burden of sepsis in the Indian community is not high. Judicious choice of empiric antibiotics, antibiotic stewardship and alternate modalities should be considered for the management or prevention of neonatal sepsis in India.

  11. [Microbiological characteristics of selected liquid soaps for hands washing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyski, Stefan; Bocian, Ewa; Zawistowska, Anna; Mrówka, Agnieszka; Kruszewska, Hanna; Grzybowska, Wanda; Zareba, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    protection was determined in accordance with the monograph FP No 5.1.3. "Efficacy of antimicrobial preservation". The study of antimicrobial activity was carried out in accordance with PN-EN 1040 "Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics - Quantitative suspension test for the evaluation of basic bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics - Test method and requirements (phase 1)". Finally, using the "time-kill" method the survival of microorganisms after different contact times of the products with bacteria and fungi were determined. All the examined products showed a very high microbiological purity. None of the formulations was characterized by a high acidity or alkalinity. All the analyzed products were slightly thicker than water, but such density of the preparation does not seem to be important parameter in the growth of microorganisms. The results of water activity estimation - the parameter indicating the presence of free, not chemically bound water stimulating microbes growth - do not show that low water content in the preparation may inhibit bacteria and fungi growth. Taking into consideration the antimicrobial protection of the products demonstrated in the tests carried out in accordance within FP monograph No 5.1.3. and PN-EN 1040, and analysing curves indicating killing rate of bacteria and fungi obtained by "time-kill" method, the microorganisms contaminating the products generally should not multiply in their environment, and gradually they die - what can take many hours or even days. The cases of bacterial infections connected with the usage of non-medical liguid soaps, applied in the health care units and described in the literature, should be considered as related rather to contamination of plastic packaging and dosage system, then to contamination of preparation itself inside the package. It was proved, that in all tested products amount of contaminating microbes diminishes in time. The dynamics of this process depends on the

  12. Implementation of the Bacillus cereus microbiological plate used for the screening of tetracyclines in raw milk samples with STAR protocol - the problem with false-negative results solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor Lainšček, P; Biasizzo, M; Henigman, U; Dolenc, J; Kirbiš, A

    2014-01-01

    In antibiotic residue analyses the first step of screening is just as important as the following steps. Screening methods need to be quick and inexpensive, but above all sensitive enough to detect the antibiotic residue at or below the maximum residue limit (MRL). In the case of a positive result, the next step is conducted and further methods are used for confirmation. MRLs stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010 for tetracyclines in raw milk are: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and no limit for doxycycline because it is prohibited for use in animals from which milk is produced for human consumption. The current five-plate microbiological screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in raw milk was found to be simple and inexpensive, but not specific, sensitive and reliable enough to detect tetracycline at MRL in routine raw milk screening procedures. Spiking samples with tetracycline at the MRL level and applying them on Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 microbiological plates often gave false-negative results, indicating that tetracyclines may have to be inactivated or masked. Tetracyclines seem to bind to a certain component in milk. Consequently, when applying samples to the B. cereus microbiological plate the antibiotic cannot inhibit the growth of B. cereus which disables the formation of inhibition zones on the test plate. After adding the appropriate amount of citric acid into the milk samples, we solved the problem of false-negative results. During the validation 79 samples of milk were spiked with tetracyclines at different concentrations: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 80 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and 30 µg kg(-1) for doxycycline. Concentrations used in the validation matched the requirements for MRLs (they were either at or below the MRLs) stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010. The sensitivity of the validation was 100%.

  13. Microbiological diagnosis in revision of infected knee arthroplasties in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Pitter, Frederik Taylor; Voldstedlund, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS: One hundred and two partial revisions (open debridement and exchange of tibial insert) and 213 two-stage procedures performed due to infection in 275 patients from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2013 were included and analysed by linkage to data from a nationwide registry on microbiological test results....... RESULTS: 78 (24.8%) revisions were culture negative, 192 (60.9%) showed monomicrobial growth and 43 (14.3%) polymicrobial growth. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent isolate in mono-culture in 70 (22.2%) revisions and in polymicrobial culture in 15 revisions with a total frequency of 27.0%. Only...... one case (1.4%) of methicillin-resistance was registered. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were frequent, sole pathogen in 65 revisions and in polymicrobial cultures in 28 revisions with a total frequency of 29.5%. A pre-operative knee aspiration was performed in 50% and preoperative blood...

  14. Medical microbiology: laboratory diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werno, Anja M; Murdoch, David R

    2008-03-15

    The laboratory diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) continues to rely on culture-based methods that have been used for many decades. The most significant recent developments have occurred with antigen detection assays, whereas the role of nucleic acid amplification tests has yet to be fully clarified. Despite developments in laboratory diagnostics, a microbiological diagnosis is still not made in most cases of IPD, particularly for pneumococcal pneumonia. The limitations of existing diagnostic tests impact the ability to obtain accurate IPD burden data and to assess the effectiveness of control measures, such as vaccination, in addition to the ability to diagnose IPD in individual patients. There is an urgent need for improved diagnostic tests for pneumococcal disease--especially tests that are suitable for use in underresourced countries.

  15. Electronic Nose for Microbiological Quality Control of Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falasconi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses (ENs have recently emerged as valuable candidates in various areas of food quality control and traceability, including microbial contamination diagnosis. In this paper, the EN technology for microbiological screening of food products is reviewed. Four paradigmatic and diverse case studies are presented: (a Alicyclobacillus spp. spoilage of fruit juices, (b early detection of microbial contamination in processed tomatoes, (c screening of fungal and fumonisin contamination of maize grains, and (d fungal contamination on green coffee beans. Despite many successful results, the high intrinsic variability of food samples together with persisting limits of the sensor technology still impairs ENs trustful applications at the industrial scale. Both advantages and drawbacks of sensor technology in food quality control are discussed. Finally, recent trends and future directions are illustrated.

  16. Practical aspects during sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM Microbiological Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trandafir, L.; Ene, M.; Alexandru, M.; Constantin, M.; Ionita, A.; Zorila, F.; Moise, I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The state of being free of living microorganisms is called sterility. The sterility state can be achieved by different means of sterilization. In practice the results of the process cannot be fully verified by tests, so the efficacy of the sterilization process must be validated. ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of product. Each product needs distinct protocol for bioburden determination and sterility testing. During time, the Microbiological Laboratories from Multipurpose Irradiation Center deals with different types of products, mainly for VD max 25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. Special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton, packed in large quantities. VD max 25 method can not be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU / pack, no matter which is the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for manufacturer, when choosing other method. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases the bioburden and sterility testing. These are time and money consuming. The costs can be reduced if taking into account some aspects. Reason for performing the bacteriostasis-fungistasis just for sterility testing will be given. The present study puts forward aspects during the validation studies for medical devices (cotton wool, cotton gauze, surgical sutures, dental screws), at IRASM Microbiological Laboratory.

  17. PCR identification of bacteria in blood culture does not fit the daily workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumaa, Santra; Kärpänoja, Pauliina; Sarkkinen, Hannu

    2012-03-01

    We have evaluated the GenoType blood culture assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) for the identification of bacteria in 233 positive blood cultures and assessed its suitability in the workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory. In 68/233 (29.2%) samples, the culture result could not be confirmed by the GenoType assay due to a lack of primers in the test, multiple organisms in the sample, or inconsistency with respect to the identification by culture. Although the GenoType blood culture assay gives satisfactory results for bacteria for which primers are available, there are difficulties in applying the test in the routine microbiology laboratory.

  18. Lung abscess: update on microbiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck, Moussa F; Dahdel, Maher; Kalra, Ankur; Browne, Alexander S; Pratter, Melvin R

    2014-01-01

    A lung abscess is a circumscribed collection of pus in the lung as a result of a microbial infection, which leads to cavity formation and often a radiographic finding of an air fluid level. Patients with lung abscesses commonly present to their primary care physician or to the emergency department with "nonresolving pneumonia." Although, the incidence of lung abscess has declined since the introduction of antibiotic treatment, it still carries a mortality of up to 10%-20%. This article discusses in detail the up-to-date microbiology and the management of lung abscesses.

  19. Microbiological risk assessment for personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S E; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; Pitt, T L

    2016-12-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding microbiological safety of cosmetics and personal care products are primarily hazard-based, where the presence of a potential pathogen determines decision-making. This contrasts with the Food industry where it is a commonplace to use a risk-based approach for ensuring microbiological safety. A risk-based approach allows consideration of the degree of exposure to assess unacceptable health risks. As there can be a number of advantages in using a risk-based approach to safety, this study explores the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) four-step Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) framework frequently used in the Food industry and examines how it can be applied to the safety assessment of personal care products. The hazard identification and hazard characterization steps (one and two) of the Codex MRA framework consider the main microorganisms of concern. These are addressed by reviewing the current industry guidelines for objectionable organisms and analysing reports of contaminated products notified by government agencies over a recent 5-year period, together with examples of reported outbreaks. Data related to estimation of exposure (step three) are discussed, and examples of possible calculations and references are included. The fourth step, performed by the risk assessor (risk characterization), is specific to each assessment and brings together the information from the first three steps to assess the risk. Although there are very few documented uses of the MRA approach for personal care products, this study illustrates that it is a practicable and sound approach for producing products that are safe by design. It can be helpful in the context of designing products and processes going to market and with setting of microbiological specifications. Additionally, it can be applied reactively to facilitate decision-making when contaminated products are released on to the marketplace. Currently, the knowledge available may only allow a

  20. Arrowsmith (1931 or Research in Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elías García Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This film is an adaptation of the novel by Sinclair Lewis, directed by John Ford. Despite the number of years passed since its debut (December 7, 1931, the movie continues to awaken interest. It shows an approximation of what was once the practice of medicine, microbiology and research in the first third of the 20th Century in the United States of America. In addition, it presents many aspects of what is research and who are the researchers; in respect to this, the film has clear educational values.

  1. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    1996-01-01

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  2. CYSTIC FIBROSIS: MICROBIOLOGY AND HOST RESPONSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemanick, Edith T.

    2016-01-01

    THE EARLIEST DESCRIPTIONS OF LUNG DISEASE IN PEOPLE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS (CF) DEMONSTRATED THE INVOLVEMENT OF THREE INTERACTING PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ELEMENTS IN CF AIRWAYS: MUCUS OBSTRUCTION, INFLAMMATION, AND INFECTION. OVER THE PAST 7 DECADES, OUR UNDERSTANDING OF CF RESPIRATORY MICROBIOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION HAS EVOLVED WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW TREATMENTS, WITH INCREASED LONGEVITY, AND WITH INCREASINGLY SOPHISTICATED LABORATORY TECHNIQUES. IN THIS CHAPTER, WE WILL REVIEW THE CURRENT STATE OF UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLES OF INFECTION AND INFLAMMATION AND THEIR ROLES IN DRIVING LUNG DISEASE. WE WILL ALSO DISCUSS HOW THIS CONSTANTLY EVOLVING INFORMATION IS USED TO INFORM CURRENT THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES, MEASURES AND PREDICTORS OF DISEASE SEVERITY, AND RESEARCH PRIORITIES. PMID:27469179

  3. Microbiology and Epidemiology of Legionnaire's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo, Almudena; Pedro-Botet, María Luisa; Bouza, Emilio

    2017-03-01

    Legionnaire's disease (LD) is the pneumonic form of legionellosis caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli of the genus Legionella. Individuals become infected when they inhale aerosolized water droplets contaminated with Legionella species. Forty years after the identification of Legionella pneumophila as the cause of the 1976 pneumonia outbreak in a hotel in Philadelphia, we have non-culture-based diagnostic tests, effective antibiotics, and preventive measures to handle LD. With a mortality rate still around 10%, underreporting, and sporadic outbreaks, there is still much work to be done. In this article, the authors review the microbiology, laboratory diagnosis, and epidemiology of LD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnostic molecular microbiology: a 2013 snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfax, Marilynn Ransom; Salimnia, Hossein

    2013-12-01

    Molecular testing has a large and increasing role in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. It has evolved significantly since the first probe tests were FDA approved in the early 1990s. This article highlights the uses of molecular techniques in diagnostic microbiology, including "older," as well as innovative, probe techniques, qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR, highly multiplexed PCR panels, some of which use sealed microfluidic test cartridges, MALDI TOF, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Tests are grouped together by technique and target. Tests with similar roles for similar analytes are compared with respect to benefits, drawbacks, and possible problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbiological analysis of water used in hydrotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Perestrelo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water used in hydrotherapy units of Nova Iguaçu and Nilópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was microbiologically analyzed. Thirty samples (5ml each were weekly collected from September 2001 to June 2002 before the beginning and after the end of activities in the units. For analysis, routine techniques were used, which showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp, Cephalosporium spp, Cladosporium spp, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton spp. Results indicated a need for improving hygienic conditions, suggesting that water might be a contamination source in the evaluated units.

  6. [Use of Digital Health Records and "WebMovil" corporate service in the communication management of critical results of Microbiology, in the context of a primary health care area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-González, A F; Navajas-Luque, F; de la Torre-Fernández, J

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to describe and evaluate a new communication protocol of reporting critical results applied to Microbiology in a health area of Andalusia. The size and type of the critical values of Microbiology are analyzed for primary care patients. A new computerized reporting system was analyzed, in real time, through Diraya Digital Health Records, which integrates the analytical test module (MPA). The protocol is complemented, in collaboration with the Information Technology (IT), with the Junta de Andalucía short message service (SMS) "WebMovil". The total number of notices of critical results by the new protocol in 2012 was 817. The number of critical values for primary care was 570, of which 90 were for Microbiology. The most frequent notice was by isolation in the stool culture (n = 51; 56.67%). The prevalence of the critical values of Microbiology in primary care was 0.45/100. The average time of notifications was 13 minutes. The success rate of notifications was 97.7% and 0% obtained in the number of withdrawals. In 99.93% of cases the contact with the patient was stated and in 98.55% the medical intervention was also confirmed. Communication by a computerized system linked to the SMS technology showed a reduction in the time of notification, and produced additional benefits, such as eliminating the risk of error when there is no repetition of information from the recipient received by the laboratory. Furthermore, the use of SMS messages ensures that doctors on duty always receive information immediately.

  7. Brucellosis - diagnostic dilemma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of a 20-year old student from Belgrade, who was admitted to the Institute of Infectious Diseases with fever, muscle and spine pains, strong headacke and malice. During the clinical examination bilateral sacroileitis was found. Serological analyses confirmed brucellosis. Epidemiological data showed that she lived in Kosovo and Metohia in 1997, where she consumed diary products from domestic animals this might be the reason of the acquired infection. With appropriate antibiotic therapy (aminoglycoside, doxicyclin, rifampicin, symptomatic therapy and rehabilitation the disease had favorable outcome; there was no recidive. The authors point out the importance of specific microbiological examinations of patients with fever of unknown origin, especially if the patient has the symptoms that are compatible with brucellosis. In our case it was sacroileitis, as a characteristic complication. As brucellosis is endemic in some parts of our country, there is always a possibility of brucellosis in general medical practice.

  8. Variability in microbiological degradation experiments, analysis and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    1997-01-01

    and describes analysis techniques for testing the reproducibility of a given experiment. The parameter estimation method employed for the experiments in this study is based on an iterative maximum likelihood method and the test statistic is an approximated likelihood ratio test. The estimations were carried out...

  9. Epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of culture-proven acute otitis media in Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Nan-Chang; Lin, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Lee, Kuo-Sheng; Chi, Hsin

    2012-10-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common diseases in children. Here, we describe the epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of AOM in Taiwanese children over a 10-year period. We retrospectively enrolled pediatric patients with culture-proven AOM who were treated at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei between 1999-2008. The data include demographic characteristics, clinical history, and microbiological characteristics. Six hundred and fourteen patients were included. The male:female ratio was 1.4 (p 5 years of age and was associated with spontaneous otorrhea (pculture-confirmed AOM in Taiwanese children. Although S. pyogenes is not as common, it usually causes AOM in children > 5 years of age and is associated with spontaneous otorrhea. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of carbon steel in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaru, M.; Velciu, L.; Mihalache, M.; Laurentiu, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are the most important organisms in microbiologically induced corrosion. In this context, the paper presents an assessment (by experimental tests) of the behaviour of carbon steel samples (SA106gr.B) in SRB media. Some of samples were immersed in microbial environment in order microbiological analysis of their surface and another part was used to perform accelerated electrochemical tests to determine electrochemical parameters for the system carbon steel / microbial medium (corrosion rate, the polarization resistance of the surface, susceptibility to pitting corrosion). The surfaces of the tested samples were analyzed using the optical and electronic microscope, and emphasized the role of bacteria in the development of biofilms under which appeared characteristics of corrosion attack. The correlation of all results confirmed that SRB accelerated the localized corrosion of the surfaces of SA 106gr.B carbon steel. (authors)

  11. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J [Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary); Zukal, E [Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  12. Microbiological and physicochemical quality of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chee Ling; Zalifah, M.K.; Norrakiah, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted on the water samples collected before and after filtration treatment was given. Five types of filtered drinking water (A1, B1, C1, D1 and E2) were chosen randomly from houses in Klang Valley for analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of filtered drinking water by looking into microbiological aspect and several physicochemical analyses such as turbidity, pH and total suspended solid (TSS). The microbiological analyses were performed to trace the presence of indicator organisms and pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the water did not comply with the regulations of Food Act as consisted of more than 10 3 -10 4 cfu/ mL for total plate count. However, the total coliforms and E. coli were detected lower than 4 cfu/ mL and not exceeding the maximum limit of Food Act. While the presence of S. faecalis and P. aeruginosa were negative in all samples. The pH value was slightly acidic (pH -4 - 2.2 x 10 -3 mg/ L) and the turbidity for all the samples were recorded below 1 Nephelometric Turbidity units (NTU) thus, complying with the regulations. All the water samples that undergo the filtration system were fit to be consumed. (author)

  13. Milk kefir: nutritional, microbiological and health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Damiana D; Dias, Manoela M S; Grześkowiak, Łukasz M; Reis, Sandra A; Conceição, Lisiane L; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G

    2017-06-01

    Kefir is fermented milk produced from grains that comprise a specific and complex mixture of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. The nutritional composition of kefir varies according to the milk composition, the microbiological composition of the grains used, the time/temperature of fermentation and storage conditions. Kefir originates from the Caucasus and Tibet. Recently, kefir has raised interest in the scientific community due to its numerous beneficial effects on health. Currently, several scientific studies have supported the health benefits of kefir, as reported historically as a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion, as well as being a safe and inexpensive food, easily produced at home. Regular consumption of kefir has been associated with improved digestion and tolerance to lactose, antibacterial effect, hypocholesterolaemic effect, control of plasma glucose, anti-hypertensive effect, anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, anti-allergenic activity and healing effects. A large proportion of the studies that support these findings were conducted in vitro or in animal models. However, there is a need for systematic clinical trials to better understand the effects of regular use of kefir as part of a diet, and for their effect on preventing diseases. Thus, the present review focuses on the nutritional and microbiological composition of kefir and presents relevant findings associated with the beneficial effects of kefir on human and animal health.

  14. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  15. Microbiology of middle meatus in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariante, Afonso Ravanello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nasosinusal microbiology of healthy individuals is not much documented. Its knowledge allows to determine the nasosinusal colonizing agents and to monitor the patterns of bacterial resistance. Objective: To evaluate the microbiology of the middle meatus in healthy individuals and to compare it with that of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Method: 61 healthy individuals were included. The samples were collected under endoscopic view and Gram stained with leucocytes count and aerobic, anaerobic and fungus cultures. 114 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis formed the control group. Results: In healthy individuals 58 microorganisms were isolated. The most frequent ones were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. Fungi were cultivated in 10%. There were rare or no white blood cells in all samples. There was penicillin resistance in 75% of the Staphylococcus aureus and 69% of the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. As for oxacillin, 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and 92% of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were sensitive. In the control group 158 microorganisms were cultivated. The most common ones were Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Gram-negatives represented 26% of the aerobics. 73% of the samples with positive cultures presented a few or many white blood cells. Conclusion: Rare or no white blood cell, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium were more frequent in healthy individuals and Streptococcus pneumoniae, anaerobics and oxacillin resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Gram-negative were more frequent in the control group.

  16. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  17. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Zukal, E.

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.) [de

  18. MICROBIOLOGICAL PATTERN AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC TRENDS OF FUNGAL KERATITIS IN NORTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Rizvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Spectrum of fungal keratitis continues to change with geographical location and season. Microbiological and epidemiological data provide guidelines to the treating physician facilitating chances of successful treatment. PURPOSE To report microbiologic and epidemiologic profile of 119 culture-positive cases of fungal keratitis treated at a tertiary centre in North India. SETTINGS AND DESIGN All cases reporting directly or referred to the OPD of Eye Department of Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital, Bareilly, India, diagnosed and treated as fungal keratitis during a 3-year period between March 2012 and Feb 2015. METHODS Retrospective analysis of clinical and microbiological data of 119 culture-positive cases of fungal keratitis. Demographic features, risk factors, clinical course and laboratory findings were reviewed. RESULTS All patients were residents of 11 adjoining districts of Northern India. Of the 119 patients, 76 (63.8% were males (male: female ratio 1.79:1. 81(68% patients were in young productive age group of 20-45 years. 87 (73% were rural based. Ocular trauma with vegetative material, especially sugarcane leaf or dust falling in eyes were the chief precipitating factors; n = 89 (74.7%. Microbiologically Fusarium was the predominant isolate, 64 cases (53.7%, followed by Aspergillus 34(28.6% and Candida 11(9.2%. 2 cases of Alternaria and Curvularia and solitary cases of Acremonium and Scedosporium were reported. 4 strains remained unidentified. Mode of injury had a causal relation with fungal aetiology. Majority of Fusarium infections were caused by vegetative injuries 39(61%. Of these, 15(23.4% were attributed to sugarcane leaves. Soil/dust fall in eye or Surma application were responsible for bulk of Aspergillus infections; 21(61.7%. Candida infections were sporadic with a higher presenting age (Mean av 51.2 years and a frequent association with topical steroid usage, (8 of 11 cases. Aspergillus infections were predominant

  19. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No 1 (2004) ... ASYMPTOMATIC SIGNIFICANT BACTERIURIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ... TO PARASITISM AND THE IMPLICATION ON TREATMENT APPROACH ...

  20. Enhancing Engineering Students’ Learning in an Environmental Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While environmental engineering students have gained some knowledge of biogeochemical cycles and sewage treatment, most of them haven’t learned microbiology previously and usually have difficulty in learning environmental microbiology because microbiology deals with invisible living microorganisms instead of visible built environment. Many teaching techniques can be used to enhance students’ learning in microbiology courses, such as lectures, animations, videos, small-group discussions, and active learning techniques. All of these techniques have been applied in the engineering class, but the results indicate that these techniques are often inadequate for students. Learning difficulties have to be identified to enhance students’ learning.

  1. The role of laboratory confirmations and molecular epidemiology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... Organization Regional Reference Polio Laboratory, World Health ... Statistics and Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, College of ... 5Molecular Biology Unit, National TB Lab, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), ... 7Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of ...

  2. Burkholderia pseudomallei: Challenges for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemarajata, Peera; Baghdadi, Jonathan D; Hoffman, Risa; Humphries, Romney M

    2016-12-01

    Melioidosis is a potentially fatal infection caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei Clinical diagnosis of melioidosis can be challenging since there is no pathognomonic clinical syndrome, and the organism is often misidentified by methods used routinely in clinical laboratories. Although the disease is more prevalent in Thailand and northern Australia, sporadic cases may be encountered in areas where it is not endemic, including the United States. Since the organism is considered a tier 1 select agent according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, clinical laboratories must be proficient at rapidly recognizing isolates suspicious for B. pseudomallei, be able to safely perform necessary rule-out tests, and to refer suspect isolates to Laboratory Response Network reference laboratories. In this minireview, we report a case of melioidosis encountered at our institution and discuss the laboratory challenges encountered when dealing with clinical isolates suspicious for B. pseudomallei or clinical specimens from suspected melioidosis cases. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Advances in the application of molecular microbiological methods in the oil and gas industry and links to microbiologically influenced corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert, Rickard; Skovhus, Torben Lund

    2018-01-01

    While the oil and gas industry has witnessed increased applications of molecular microbiological methods (MMMs) for diagnosing and managing microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the past decade, the process for establishing clear links between microbiological conditions and corrosion...... mechanisms is still emerging. Different MMMs provide various types of information about microbial diversity, abundance, activity and function, all of which are quite different from the culture-based results that are familiar to oil and gas industry corrosion professionals. In addition, a multidisciplinary...

  4. [Onsite microbiology services and outsourcing microbiology and offsite laboratories--advantage and disadvantage, thinking of effective utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Naoto

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.

  5. [Reliable microbiological diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykushev, R; Ouzounova-Raykova, V; Stoykova, V; Mitov, I

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is common infection among those affecting the vulva and vagina. Is caused by the perpesentatives from the genus Candida, in most cases C. albicans (85-90%). An increase in the percentage of the so-called non-albicans agents is seen and these pathgogens are often resistant to the most commonly used in the practice antifungals. Faulty diagnosis, incorrect use of azoles, and self-treatment lead to selection of resistant strains and recurrent infections. Identification of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis by conventional and PCR techniques. For six months a total number of 213 vaginal secretions were tested applying Gram stain and cultivation on ChromAgar. API Candida fermentation tests and API 20CAUX assimilation tests were performed for the identification of the bacteria. Extraction of DNA of all the smears with subsequent PCR detection of different Candida species were done. 80.7% materials showed presence of blastospores and/or hyphae. Positive culture results were detected in 60 (28.2%) samples. The species specific identification revealed presence of C. albicans in 51 (85%) smears, C. glabrata--in 8 (13.3%), C. krusei--in 2 (3.3%), and S. cervisie--in 1 (2.1%). The PCR technique confirmed the results of the conventional methods. It is worth to mention that 51 of the tested smears were positive for G. vaginalis using additional PCR. The correct diagnosis of the cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis helps in the correct choice of appropriate antifungal therapy and prevents development of recurrent infections and consequences. The PCR based method is rapid, specific and sensitive. It perfectly correlates with the results from the conventional diagnostic tests so it could be selected as a method of choice for the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  6. A review of microbiological studies. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofi, N.

    1991-03-01

    This report reviews the work carried out by countries, other than the UK, involved in nuclear waste disposal programmes, since 1978, concerning the role of microbial activity in nuclear waste isolation. In terms of research the UK and Switzerland appear to have been most active in fundamental site specific research and basic modelling. Overall, there is still a need to show unequivocally that microorganisms will be active in a real repository and it is recommended that any future studies work towards this area. Intermediate-level wastes (ILW) and low-level wastes (LLW) contain a high organic content which can, in addition to chemical and radiolytic attack, be degraded to radionuclide complexing agents creating problems of solubility and transport. If microbiological effects are significant, steps need to be taken to minimise these. At present there appears to be no evidence that microorganisms will have a long term effect on the stability of repositories for ILW and LLW. (Author)

  7. [Microbiology--laboratory examinations for bacterias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Renjun; Imafuku, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    As it has been required to identify pathogenic microbes in shorter times, simple and rapid methods have been developed and used. Here, we summarized the present situation of rapid diagnostic testing in clinical microbiology in Japan, and also presented our results on PBP2' detection. The rapid test kits available in Japan for E. coli, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus were described. Rapid examination methods are based mainly on immunologic reactions, which included slide agglutination using latex particle, immunochromatography and ELISA. Times required for the identification are 10 to 15 minutes. Moreover, rapid test kits employing PCR are also marketed. Further, we evaluated MRSA-LA "Seiken" which is a rapid detection kit for PBP2' produced by MRSA. The test was shown to be highly sensitive and specific. For the rapid identification of pathogenic microbes, simple and rapid test kits described here will be used more in clinical diagnosis.

  8. An expert system for microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, C.E.; Licina, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is a damage mechanism that can cause serious degradation of service water system components. MIC can be particularly insidious since damage can occur very quickly, even in environments otherwise resistant to corrosion. Plant operations or maintenance personnel or system engineers typically do not have sufficient expertise to predict when and where MIC may occur or what methods of treatment are effective. An expert system (MICPro) has been devised which provides a tool for utilities to predict where MIC will occur, which systems or components are most susceptible, how operating parameters may affect vulnerability, and how to implement corrective and preventative measures. The system is designed to be simple to use: required inputs are common system parameters and results are presented as numbers from 1 to 10 indicating the likelihood of damage due to the given input. In this paper the structure and operation of the system is described, and future refinements are discussed

  9. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  10. Microbiological survey of birds of prey pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Bossa, Luigi Maria De Luca; Pace, Antonino; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Caputo, Vincenzo; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    A microbiological survey of 73 pellets collected from different birds of prey species housed at the Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Napoli (southern Italy) was performed. Pellets were analyzed by culture and biochemical methods as well as by serotyping and polymerase chain reaction. We isolated a wide range of bacteria some of them also pathogens for humans (i.e. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli O serogroups). This study highlights the potential role of birds of prey as asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic bacteria which could be disseminated in the environment not only through the birds of prey feces but also through their pellets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optical and force nanoscopy in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2016-10-26

    Microbial cells have developed sophisticated multicomponent structures and machineries to govern basic cellular processes, such as chromosome segregation, gene expression, cell division, mechanosensing, cell adhesion and biofilm formation. Because of the small cell sizes, subcellular structures have long been difficult to visualize using diffraction-limited light microscopy. During the last three decades, optical and force nanoscopy techniques have been developed to probe intracellular and extracellular structures with unprecedented resolutions, enabling researchers to study their organization, dynamics and interactions in individual cells, at the single-molecule level, from the inside out, and all the way up to cell-cell interactions in microbial communities. In this Review, we discuss the principles, advantages and limitations of the main optical and force nanoscopy techniques available in microbiology, and we highlight some outstanding questions that these new tools may help to answer.

  12. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  13. Mass spectrometry: a revolution in clinical microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Espinal, Paula; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Messad, Nourredine; Pantel, Alix; Sotto, Albert

    2013-02-01

    Recently, different bacteriological laboratory interventions that decrease reporting time have been developed. These promising new broad-based techniques have merit, based on their ability to identify rapidly many bacteria, organisms difficult to grow or newly emerging strains, as well as their capacity to track disease transmission. The benefit of rapid reporting of identification and/or resistance of bacteria can greatly impact patient outcomes, with an improvement in the use of antibiotics, in the reduction of the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria and in mortality rates. Different techniques revolve around mass spectrometry (MS) technology: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), PCR combined with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESIMS), iPLEX MassArray system and other new evolutions combining different techniques. This report emphasizes the (r)evolution of these technologies in clinical microbiology.

  14. Microbiological and chemical transformations of argentatin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatooq, Galal T

    2003-01-01

    Argentatin B is a naturally occurring tetracyclic triterpene isolated from Parthenium argentatum x P. tomentosa. It was microbiologically transformed to 16, 24-epoxycycloartan-3alpha, 25-diol, (isoargentatin D), by Nocardia corallina var. taoka ATCC 31338, Mycobacterium species NRRL B3683 and Septomyxa affinis ATCC 6737. The later microbe also produced 16, 24-epoxycycloartan-3beta, 25-diol (argentatin D) and 1, 2-didehydroargentatin B, (isoargentatin D). Sodium hydroxide converted argentatin B to argentatin D and isoargentatin D. Hydrochloric acid treatment gave cycloartan-25-ol-3, 24-dione. Cerium sulfate/sulfuric acid/aqueous methanol induced scission of the isopropanol moiety and provided an isomeric mixture of 24-methoxy-25-27-trinorargentatin B. Oxidation of this isomeric mixture with pyridinium chlorochromate, selectively, attacked the isomer with the equatorial proton at position-24 to give the corresponding lactone, 24-oxo-25-27-trinorargentatin B. The produced compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods.

  15. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  16. Examination of reproducibility in microbiological degredation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Spliid, Henrik; Holst, Helle

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that certain microbiological degradation experiments have a limited reproducibility. Nine identical batch experiments were carried out on 3 different days to examine reproducibility. A pure culture, isolated from soil, grew with toluene as the only carbon and energy...... source. Toluene was degraded under aerobic conditions at a constant temperature of 28 degreesC. The experiments were modelled by a Monod model - extended to meet the air/liquid system, and the parameter values were estimated using a statistical nonlinear estimation procedure. Model reduction analysis...... resulted in a simpler model without the biomass decay term. In order to test for model reduction and reproducibility of parameter estimates, a likelihood ratio test was employed. The limited reproducibility for these experiments implied that all 9 batch experiments could not be described by the same set...

  17. Clinical microbiology during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Michael; Brown, Matthew; Palys, Thomas; Tyner, Stuart; Bowden, Robert

    2009-11-01

    During the period of 1965-1968, over two dozen Army microbiologists were deployed to various locations in Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Their role was to serve both a clinical laboratory mission/function at the mobile Army surgical hospital and mobile laboratory level as well as to perform research roles in all of the facilities. They were essential to the formulation of medical intelligence as well as to the practice of operational medicine in the deployed environment. The results of their laboratory investigations provided commanders and military physicians with critical medical information for patient care, outbreak investigation, and forensic analysis. As with many soldiers in support of the infantry and armor combat forces, most of the work occurs behind the scenes and their contributions are often left out of the historical literature. This article presents a brief overview of microbiology performed by Army microbiologists during the Vietnam War.

  18. Microbiological Corrosion in Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Medina–Custodio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism . The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical techniques for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days we restudied. Polarization resistance (Rp and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques we re applied to determine the corrosivity of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic system, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surfaces coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans – Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect.

  19. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  20. Microbiological decomposition of the organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhin, I.V.; Smelov, V.S.; Borsenkov, I.A.; Belyaev, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    This work will determine the applicability of a microbiological oxidation as a replacement process of spent extractant reprocessing. In current 10 days exponential growth of microorganisms is observed, thus of the substratum inhibition is not observed at increase of the extractant concentration up to 6%. In an outcome of experiments in a periodic mode without a cultural solution renewal the degree of destruction diluent varied within the limits of 86-100%, TBP - 28-94% depending on a mode. In view of accumulated biomass a drop of quantity of organic substance in a system in 6 - 10 times was reached. The a-activity decontamination coefficient of water solution after removal biosuspension has made 210. (author)

  1. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances.

  2. Review of national research programmes on the microbiology of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.

    1991-06-01

    Published results on the microbial effects of relevance to radioactive waste disposal are reviewed. The subjects covered by each of the various national programmes are considered in turn and the important themes that emerge from these are summarised. Finally the relevance of this microbiological research to the Nirex Safety case is discussed in brief. All references to research papers that deal with microbial aspects of radioactive waste disposal are listed and the key publications identified. (author)

  3. Effect of irradiation dose on sensory characteristics and microbiological contamination of chosen seasonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, E.; Wasowicz, E.; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R.; Czaczyk, K.; Trojanowska, K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (3, 5, 10 kGy) on sensory characteristics, volatiles constituents and microbiological contamination of several seasonings were studied. The dose of 3 kGy reduced microflora effectively, and did not cause evident changes in aroma. Complete sterilization, however, required 7 or 10 kGy particularly in the case of paprika. Such doses substantially changed the smell and taste of seasonings. Is some of them (paprika, mustard, coriander) the total volatiles content increased after radiation

  4. Microbiological surveillance in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gualdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Prevention, diagnosis and therapy in cystic fibrosis, lead to the necessary collaboration between clinical and laboratory to identify effective strategies and appropriate solutions to address the problems inherent isolation micro-organisms, antibiotic strategies, overcoming of bacterial resistance and other problems management of these patients. The task of the microbiology laboratory and research in quickly and accurately, the agents responsible for these infectious processes, in order to isolate them from material, identify and determine their sensitivity antibiotics. A microbiological surveillance on 34 patients (13 males and 21 females with CF and related to the “Support Services Provincial Trento for the treatment of cystic fibrosis “in the period July 2005 - August 2008, was carried out. 180 Gram positive and 278 of Gram negative bacteria as well as 235 fungi wre collected. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently organism found in patients with CF with an incidence of 23% on 156 strains isolated, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was collected 19% of all microorganisms isolated corresponding to 131 strains, Candida albicans is the yeast often isolated with a frequency 22% equal to 149 isolates, Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated at a rate of 8%. From the data we collected and processed has been noted that the local epidemiology of CF patients reflects as reported in the scientific literature and national international consulting, both as a type microorganisms that frequency also isolated compared to age groups. Considering the score of Bartlett as discriminating respiratory fitness of the material, it has been observed that only 32 samples over 327 total (10% would materials insignificant. It follows therefore that the time of sample collection, followed by personnel (physiotherapists dedicated to CF patients, represents a crucial step

  5. Microbiological changes associated with dental prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, J Max; Palys, Michael D; Carpino, Elizabeth; Regan, Elizabeth O; Sweeney, Michael; Socransky, Sigmund S

    2004-11-01

    Despite the common application of dental prophylaxis as part of patient therapy, there is little reported that describes the microbiological impact of this treatment. The authors gave 20 healthy college-aged subjects three dental prophylaxes with a fluoride-containing prophylaxis paste during a two-week period and instructed them in oral hygiene. They evaluated the microbiological composition of dental plaque samples collected before and after treatment using DNA probe analysis. They analyzed 40 representative bacterial species in seven bacterial complexes by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization assay techniques. After three dental prophylaxes, the patients' mean Gingival Index score decreased from 0.82 to 0.77, the mean Plaque Index score decreased from 0.72 to zero, and the total number of bacteria per tooth decreased to approximately one-third of the original number. The authors computed two different measures of bacterial presence. The reduction in bacterial numbers was statistically significant and occurred in many species. Bacterial proportion (DNA percentage or percentage of the bacteria per tooth) did not change significantly. Greater reductions in bacterial count occurred in species that showed high numbers before treatment. The total bacterial count decreased by approximately 72 percent of its original level before prophylaxis was initiated. Professional dental prophylaxis did not target any particular bacteria or bacterial groups but removed bacteria nonspecifically and in proportion to their initial numbers. Repeated dental prophylaxes effect a reduction in bacterial amount that is commensurate with the initial amount, but they do does not alter composition. This suggests that mild gingivitis may be a bacterially nonspecific effect of plaque accumulation and emphasizes the need for regular plaque removal to maintain optimal gingival health.

  6. Mentor-mentee relationship in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opota, O; Greub, G

    2017-07-01

    Clinical microbiology is a field in constant evolution, with increasing technological opportunities and a growing emphasis on human and social issues. Maintaining knowledge and skills and anticipating future changes is challenging both for laboratory managers and for all the co-workers. Training and succession preparation represents a unique opportunity to adapt/prepare future generations according to the evolutions of the field. The aim of this review is to provide to clinical microbiologists a reflection on ongoing technological and social changes in their field and a deepening of the central role of preparing future generations to these changes through a fruitful mentor-mentee relationship. This narrative review relies on selected publications addressing mentor-mentee interactions in various academic fields, on interview with our colleagues and pairs, as well as on our personal experience. From the qualities and aspects that emerged as necessary for a productive mentor-mentee interaction, we selected and discuss five of them for the mentor: the role and responsibility, the positioning, the vision, the scientific credibility, and the moral credibility, as well as five for the mentee: creativity, flexibility, energy, responsibility, and self evaluation. This review emphasizes the importance of both the scientific and the ethical credibility of the mentor and the mentee as well as the importance of human and social values such as solidarity, equality, equity, respectfulness, and empathy, and might support mentor and mentee in the field of clinical microbiology and also in the field of infectious disease in their intent for a fruitful interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. [Historical perspective of mass spectrometry in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, Jesús; Regueiro, Benito; Muñoz-Bellido, Juan Luis

    2016-06-01

    La espectrometría de masas (EM) es una técnica de análisis que permite caracterizar muestras midiendo las masas (estrictamente las razones masa-carga) de las moléculas componentes. Cuenta con más de un siglo de historia y evolución tecnológica y a lo largo de los años ha ampliado su alcance desde los isótopos a moléculas pequeñas, moléculas orgánicas más complejas y, en las últimas décadas, macromoléculas (ácidos nucleicos y proteínas). La EM MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) es una variante que permite el análisis de mezclas complejas de proteínas y que se ha aplicado recientemente a la identificación de microorganismos en cultivo, convirtiéndose en una herramienta rápida y eficaz para el diagnóstico microbiológico que ha conseguido entrar en poco tiempo en la rutina de muchos servicios de microbiología clínica. El gran impacto que ha tenido está impulsando el desarrollo de nuevas aplicaciones en el campo de la microbiología clínica. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  9. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes

    Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female

  10. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous national reports have addressed the need for changing how science courses in higher education are taught, so that students develop a deeper understanding of critical concepts and the analytical and cognitive skills needed to address future challenges. This review presents some evidence-based approaches to curriculum development and teaching. Results from discipline-based education research indicate that it is critically important for educators to formulate learning goals, provide frequent and authentic assessments and actively engage students in their learning. Professional societies can play a role in helping to put these changes into practice. To this end, the American Society for Microbiology has developed a number of educational programs and resources, which are described here to encourage the implementation of student-centered learning in microbiology education. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Microbiological Evaluation and Nutritional Quality of Ogi made from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological evaluation and nutritional quality of ogi made from sorghum substituted with millet was carried out in this research work. A standard method was used for the proximate composition analysis and characterization of isolates was carried out by standard microbiological techniques. Protein content was found to ...

  12. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology : present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    BACKGROUND: The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the

  13. Factors impacting on the microbiological quality and safety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... microbiological quality and safety of processed hake. Samples were collected along the processing line; the general microbiological quality (mesophylic and psychrotrophic aerobic plate counts), total. Vibrio species and common fish spoilage bacterial counts were performed. The results constantly showed ...

  14. Towards a Portuguese database of food microbiological occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, M.Ascenção; Oliveira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To expand the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) by building the Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network (RPIMA) including users, stakeholders, food microbiological data producers that will provide data and information from research, monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance. The integration of food data in a national database will improve foodborne risk management. Methods and results Potential members were identified and...

  15. Biomedical mass spectrometry in today's and tomorrow's clinical microbiology laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M. Welker (Martin); M. Erhard (Marcel); S. Chatellier (Sonia)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractClinical microbiology is a conservative laboratory exercise where base technologies introduced in the 19th century remained essentially unaltered. High-tech mass spectrometry (MS) has changed that. Within a few years following its adaptation to microbiological diagnostics, MS has been

  16. Microbiological and physico-chemical assessment of the quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The domestic raw water sources in Nkonkobe and Gogogo were characterised by using both microbiological and standard physical methods to investigate the quality of the water at the sampling sites. For microbiological analysis, indicator bacteria namely, heterotrophic bacteria, total and faecal coliforms and for physical ...

  17. Factors impacting on the microbiological quality and safety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems with the safety and shelf life of export hake have been raised by the Namibian fishing industry. This prompted an investigation into the factors that may have an impact on the microbiological quality and safety of processed hake. Samples were collected along the processing line; the general microbiological quality ...

  18. Critical notes on microbiological risk assessment of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Schothorst, van M.

    2000-01-01

    Although numerous papers on Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) of food products have been published, a number of issues related to it remain unresolved. This paper explains the role of Microbiological Risk Assessment in the context of Risk Analysis as outlined by Codex Alimentarius. It reviews

  19. External quality assessments for microbiologic diagnosis of diphtheria in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Leonard; Neal, Shona; De Zoysa, Aruni; Mann, Ginder; Czumbel, Ida; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2014-12-01

    The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (EDSN) ensures the reliable epidemiological and microbiologic assessment of disease prevalence in the European Union. Here, we describe a survey of current diagnostic techniques for diphtheria surveillance conducted across the European Union and report the results from three external quality assessment (EQA) schemes performed between 2010 and 2014. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal. Journal Home > New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  1. Common Problems Encountered in the Microbiological Analysis of Biocidal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Güven

    2015-01-01

    As many parameters that affect the success of a biocidal product, under laboratory conditions there are also factors affecting the reliability and accuracy of tests to determine the microbiological efficacy of these products. The assessment of the microbiological efficacy of the biocidal products and in order to ensure standardization between laboratories it is essential the use of internationally accepted methods.

  2. Challenges for molecular and serological ZIKV infection confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Zilton Farias Meira; Azevedo, Renata Campos; Thompson, Nathália; Gomes, Leonardo; Guida, Letícia; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2018-01-01

    Zika Virus (ZIKV), member of Flaviviridae family and Flavivirus genus, has recently emerged as international public health emergency after its association with neonatal microcephaly cases. Clinical diagnosis hindrance involves symptom similarities produced by other arbovirus infections, therefore laboratory confirmation is of paramount importance. The most reliable test available is based on ZIKV RNA detection from body fluid samples. However, short viremia window periods and asymptomatic infections diminish the success rate for RT-PCR positivity. Beyond molecular detection, all serology tests in areas where other Flavivirus circulates proved to be a difficult task due to the broad range of cross-reactivity, especially with dengue pre-exposed individuals. Altogether, lack of serological diagnostic tools brings limitations to any retrospective evaluation. Those studies are central in the context of congenital infection that could occur asymptomatically and mask prevalence and risk rates.

  3. Testing the performance of microbiological safety cabinets used in microbiology laboratories in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S H; Yi, T W; Cho, K H; Lee, I M; Yoon, C S

    2011-09-01

    To test a performance of the microbiological safety cabinets (MSCs) according to the type of MSCs in microbial laboratories. Tests were carried out to assess the performance of 31 MSCs in 14 different facilities, including six different biological test laboratories in six hospitals and eight different laboratories in three universities. The following tests were performed on the MSCs: the downflow test, intake velocity test, high-efficiency particulate air filter leak test and the airflow smoke pattern test. These performance tests were carried out in accordance with the standard procedures. Only 23% of Class II A1 (8), A2 (19) and unknown MSCs (4) passed these performance tests. The main reasons for the failure of MSCs were inappropriate intake velocity (65%), leakage in the HEPA filter sealing (50%), unbalanced airflow smoke pattern in the cabinets (39%) and inappropriate downflow (27%). This study showed that routine checks of MSCs are important to detect and strengthen the weak spots that frequently develop, as observed during the evaluation of the MSCs of various institutions. Routine evaluation and maintenance of MSCs are critical for optimizing performance. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. The French methodology for EBS confirmation and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas, F.; Voinis, S.; Mayer, S.

    2007-01-01

    The December 30, 1991 French Waste Act entrusted ANDRA, the French national agency for radioactive waste management, with the task of assessing the feasibility of deep geological disposal of high- and medium-level long-lived waste (HLW and ILW, respectively C-waste and B-waste types in French) plus spent fuel (CU in French). In that context, the 'Dossier 2005 Argile' submitted by ANDRA presents the feasibility assessment - with regard to the technical capacity to accommodate all wastes, to reversibility, and to safety - of a radioactive waste disposal in a clay formation studied at the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL. This report was built upon an iterative approach between site characterisation, design, modelling, phenomenological analysis and safety analysis, in which two principles always guided the elaboration of the safety case: the principle of robustness - repository components must maintain their functionality given reasonable solicitations, taking into account uncertainties on the nature and level of these solicitations; and the principle of demonstrability - safety must be verified without requiring complex demonstrations, and based on multiple lines of evidence/argument (numerical simulation, qualitative arguments such as use of natural analogues, experiments and technological demonstrators). In that respect, the EBS definition, demonstration and confirmation of design is a part of the overall safety case. The 'Dossier 2005 Argile' was submitted to three independent peer reviews. The aim. of this article is to present the methodology that ANDRA implemented in the context of 'Dossier 2005 Argile' for defining, demonstrating and confirming the EBS design as well as the future programme with respect with the new Act of 28 June 2006. (author)

  5. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. Methods The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational...... not adequately equipped to run up-to-date clinical microbiologic diagnostic tests. Conclusions and clinical importance ESGVM recommends the use of laboratories employing mass spectrometry for ID and broth micro-dilution for AST, and offering assistance by expert microbiologists on pre- and post-analytical issues......Background The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. Objectives The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including...

  6. A promising microbiological test for the diagnosis of drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, Arturo; Campobasso, Carlo P; Cirnelli, Antonello; Lorenzini, Giulio

    2008-11-20

    A number of biological and chemical tests have been developed over the years to determine whether a person was drowned. This study focuses on the potential of a microbiological test for detecting common bacterial markers of water faecal pollution such as faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS) as possible indicators of drowning. A promising previous study was carried out on central and peripheral blood samples of 42 drowned victims (20 cases in saltwater and 22 cases in freshwater) and 30 not-drowned bodies. To improve the accuracy of our previous results and also in order to investigate a possible cause of a false positive due to pulmonary passive diffusion and subsequently endogenous or exogenous bacterial invasion of the blood in the post-mortem interval (PMI), the FC and FS test was applied to bodies submerged in water but died from causes other than drowning. In the present study, blood samples collected from the left ventricle (LV), right ventricle (RV), femoral artery (FA) and, femoral vein (FV) of 10 drowned victims (5 cases in freshwater and 5 cases in seawater) and 3 not-drowned individuals with bodies submerged in water for a while after death have been analysed. Preliminary results are in agreement with other reports dealing with diatoms and marine bacteria that suggest to exclude the hypothesis of a passive penetration of sufficient quantities of drowning medium into circulation after death or during the agonal period. Based on our results there is also no evidence of a relevant dissemination of endogenous micro-flora from the gastrointestinal tract affecting the FS and FC test. There are still several other factors that could influence the applicability of post-mortem FS and FC cultures for the diagnosis of drowning and they need further investigations. The present article provides only a glimpse of the potential of the FS and FC test as bacteriological method for the diagnosis of drowning.

  7. Chemical and microbiological attributes of an oxisol treated with successive applications of sewage sludge¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Pires Bueno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on sewage sludge (SS have confirmed the possibilities of using this waste as fertilizer and/or soil conditioner in crop production areas. Despite restrictions with regard to the levels of potentially toxic elements (PTE and pathogens, it is believed that properly treated SS with low PTE levels, applied to soil at adequate rates, may improve the soil chemical and microbiological properties. This study consisted of a long-term field experiment conducted on a Typic Haplorthox (eutroferric Red Latosol treated with SS for seven successive years for maize production, to evaluate changes in the soil chemical and microbiological properties. The treatments consisted of two SS rates (single and double dose of the crop N requirement and a mineral fertilizer treatment. Soil was sampled in the 0-0.20 m layer and analyzed for chemical properties (organic C, pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, CEC, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Pb and microbiological properties (basal respiration, microbial biomass activity, microbial biomass C, metabolic quotient, microbial quotient, and protease and dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Successive SS applications to soil increased the macro- and micronutrient availability, but the highest SS dose reduced the soil pH significantly, indicating a need for periodic corrections. The SS treatments also affected soil microbial activity and biomass negatively. There were no significant differences among treatments for maize grain yield. After seven annual applications of the recommended sludge rate, the heavy metal levels in the soil had not reached toxic levels.

  8. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae invasive infection: The first reported case in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleb, A; Sebbar, E; Frikh, M; Boubker, S; Moussaoui, A; El Mekkaoui, A; Khannoussi, W; Kharrasse, G; Belefquih, B; Lemnouer, A; Ismaili, Z; Elouennass, M

    2017-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a cosmopolitan yeast, widely used in agro-alimentary and pharmaceutical industry. Its impact in human pathology is rare, but maybe still underestimated compared to the real situation. This yeast is currently considered as an emerging and opportunistic pathogen. Risk factors are immunosuppression and intravascular device carrying. Fungemias are the most frequent clinical forms. We report the first case of S. cerevisiae invasive infection described in Morocco, and to propose a review of the literature cases of S. cerevisiae infections described worldwide. A 77-year-old patient, with no notable medical history, who was hospitalized for a upper gastrointestinal stenosis secondary to impassable metastatic gastric tumor. Its history was marked by the onset of septic shock, with S. cerevisiae in his urine and in his blood, with arguments for confirmation of invasion: the presence of several risk factors in the patient, positive direct microbiological examination, abundant and exclusive culture of S. cerevisiae from clinical samples. Species identification was confirmed by the study of biochemical characteristics of the isolated yeast. Confirmation of S. cerevisiae infection requires a clinical suspicion in patients with risk factors, but also a correct microbiological diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 71982 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Multiplexed Microbiology Devices: Their clinical application and public health/clinical needs; inclusion of...] Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public... Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices'' that published in the Federal Register of August 8...

  10. “Pick-up Lines”: A Fun Way to Facilitate Learning Microbiological Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning microbiology can be made fun by writing funny lines related to microbiology. Students were tasked to create their own pick-up lines and explain these based on their understanding of the basic concepts in microbiology.

  11. An adult case of urinary tract infection with Kingella kingae: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana KV

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Kingella kingae, though part of the normal upper respiratory tract and genitourinary tract, is increasingly being recognized as an important human pathogen. During the past decade, it has emerged as a significant pathogen in the pediatric age group primarily causing bacteremia and osteoarticular infections. Adult infection usually occurs in individuals who are severely immunocompromised and most infections have taken the form of septicemia or septic arthritis. Bacteremia due to K. kingae has been reported as the immediate cause of death in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Case presentation We present a microbiologically confirmed urinary tract infection with K. kingae in an immunocompetent 45-year-old adult woman with post-menopausal bleeding and with a history of clots. Her urine was subjected to culture and sensitivity tests. The isolated colonies were identified as K. kingae because of their typical culture characteristics such as long incubation period required for growth, beta-hemolysis, positive oxidase and negative catalase, urease indole, nitrate and citrate tests. Penicillin G disc test was positive. They were sensitive to all conventional antibiotics. Conclusion K. kingae infection is a rare occurrence in immunocompetent adults. Very few cases of microbiologically confirmed infections have been reported so far. The isolation of K. kingae from urine sample has rarely been reported. K. kingae isolates are either missed or misinterpreted by clinical microbiologists. Therefore, K. kingae deserves recognition as a pathogen.

  12. Seasonal dynamics of microbiological indices of water in the Ingulets and Berezovka rivers under different antropogenic burden

    OpenAIRE

    N. B. Esipova; V. А. Zhezherya

    2007-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of microbiological indices of sanitary situation in Ingulets and Berezovka Rivers was analysed at spring-autumn period. The sanitary mapping of the rivers was done for the Alexandria area. In most cases maximal level of the rivers contamination by the lactose-positive E. coli index was found in August.

  13. Complex clinical and microbiological effects on Legionnaires' disease outcone; A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levcovich, Ariela; Lazarovitch, Tsilia; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Peretz, Chava; Yakunin, Eugenia; Valinsky, Lea; Weinberger, Miriam

    2016-02-10

    Legionnaires' disease (LD) is associated with high mortality rates and poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Use of the rapid urinary antigen test (UAT) has been linked to improved outcome. We examined the association between the method of diagnosis (UAT or culture) and various clinical and microbiological characteristics and outcome of LD. Consecutive patients with pneumonia and confirmation of Legionella infection by a positive UAT and/or a positive culture admitted between the years 2006-2012 to a university hospital were retrospectively studied. Isolated L. pneumophila strains were subject to serogrouping, immunological subtyping and sequence-based typing. Variables associated with 30-day all-cause mortality were analyzed using logistic regression as well as cox regression. Seventy-two patients were eligible for mortality analyses (LD study group), of whom 15.5 % have died. Diagnosis based on positive L. pneumophila UAT as compared to positive culture (OR = 0.18, 95 % CI 0.03-0.98, p = 0.05) and administration of appropriate antibiotic therapy within 2 hospitalization days as compared to delayed therapy (OR = 0.16, 95 % CI 0.03-0.90, p = 0.04) were independently associated with reduced mortality. When controlling for intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, the method of diagnosis became non-significant. Survival analyses showed a significantly increased death risk for patients admitted to ICU compared to others (HR 12.90, 95 % CI 2.78-59.86, p = 0.001) and reduced risk for patients receiving appropriate antibiotic therapy within the first two admissions days compared to delayed therapy (HR 0.13, 95 % CI 0.04-0.05, p = 0.001). Legionella cultures were positive in 35 patients (including 29 patients from the LD study group), of whom 65.7 % were intubated and 37.1 % have died. Sequence type (ST) ST1 accounted for 50.0 % of the typed cases and ST1, OLDA/Oxford was the leading phenon (53.8 %). Mortality rate among patients in the LD study group infected with ST

  14. Microbiological characterization of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, V.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Coulon, S.; Joulian, C.; Garrido, F.; Ollivier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Microbial life in deep sediments and Earth's crust is now acknowledged by the scientific world. The deep subsurface biosphere contributes significantly to fundamental biogeochemical processes. However, despite great advances in geo-microbiological studies, deep terrestrial ecosystems are microbiologically poorly understood, mainly due to their inaccessibility. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned the samples on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the four Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the cores by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analyzed. The microbial exploration can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for metabolic groups as methanogens, fermenters and sulphate reducing bacteria to stimulate their growth and to isolate microbial cells still viable. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. The limits are here the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. After comparison and optimization of several DNA extraction methods, the bacterial diversity present in rock cores was analyzed using DGGE (Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning. The detailed results of all these investigations will be presented: - Despite all 400 cultural conditions experimented (with various media, salinities, temperatures, conservation pressure, agitation), no viable and

  15. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2017-02-01

    The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational and regulatory issues impacting the predictive value of AST and the quality of the service offered by microbiology laboratories. The advent of mass spectrometry has significantly reduced the time required for ID of key pathogens such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. However, the turnaround time for validated AST methods has remained unchanged for many years. Beyond scientific and technological constraints, AST methods are not harmonized and clinical breakpoints for some antimicrobial drugs are either missing or inadequate. Small laboratories, including in-clinic laboratories, are usually not adequately equipped to run up-to-date clinical microbiologic diagnostic tests. ESGVM recommends the use of laboratories employing mass spectrometry for ID and broth micro-dilution for AST, and offering assistance by expert microbiologists on pre- and post-analytical issues. Setting general standards for veterinary clinical microbiology, promoting antimicrobial stewardship, and the development of new, validated and rapid diagnostic methods, especially for AST, are among the missions of ESGVM. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  16. Sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM microbiological laboratory—Practical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trandafir, Laura; Alexandru, Mioara; Constantin, Mihai; Ioniţă, Anca; Zorilă, Florina; Moise, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    EN ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of products. Each product needs distinct protocols for bioburden determination and sterility testing. The Microbiological Laboratory from Irradiation Processing Center (IRASM) deals with different types of products, mainly for the VD max 25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. A special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton packed in large quantities. The VD max 25 method cannot be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU/pack, irrespective of the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for the manufacturer when choosing other methods. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases of the bioburden and sterility testing. Details about choosing criteria are given. - Highlights: ► The paper presents aspects and results within the sterilization validation process. ► Critical aspects that can lead to the failure of the process were emphasized. ► Limitation methods were discussed.

  17. Clinical Microbiological Aspects of Epileptic Seizures in the Tropical Countries with Specific Focus on Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma Kanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder; however, in Nigeria and other tropical regions, the causes of epileptic seizures differ greatly in etiology. This paper is an attempt to highlight some possible microbiological aspects of epileptic seizures. A literature review was carried out to identify the extent to which microbial infections were involved in the elicitation of epileptic seizures. Data were collected from several clinics in the community and hospitals in Nigeria and correlated with the evidence from the literature review. It was found that different microbial agents including viral, bacterial, protozoa, and fungal agents were involved in several aspects of epileptic seizures. Malaria was found to cause more than 88% of childhood epileptic seizures and 12% of adult seizures. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in more than 40% of adult patients. Partial seizures were uncommon. Cases of epileptic seizures associated with bacteria (e.g., brucellosis, viral, fungal, and protozoa infections were frequently reported. Malaria, tapeworm, and cysticercosis were some of the common infectious causes of epilepsy; however, in some cases, the cause remained unknown. From these findings, it was evident that microbiological aspects of epilepsies are possible research areas that might be developed. It is believed that the unraveling of the various microbiological factors in epileptic seizures would have important implications for understanding the underlying neurobiology, evaluating treatment strategies, and perhaps planning health-care resources for the affected. It will also help to improve the prognostic factors in initial seizure symptomatic etiology and presence of any structural cerebral abnormalities.

  18. [Microbiological studies in poultry meat production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monov, G

    1981-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out in the production of poultry meat in a poultry dressing combine of the Stork system. Examined were a total of 125 washing samples taken at the 9th, 11th and 15th hour from the scalding vat, the cooling vat, the machine of eviscerating and the skin surface after plucking, eviscerating and shower washing and prior to packing the carcasses. It was found that the count of aerobic organisms continuously rose during the technologic processing of the slaughtered birds with regard to the surface of the carcasses, the peak values of the total counts and that of coliforms being reached during evisceration. It was further established that shower washing of the carcasses immediately following evisceration guaranteed a washing effect so far as the microflora on the surface was concerned, amounting to 77.60 per cent. So far as the coliform bacteria was concerned this effect was found to be equal to 89.78 per cent. The total count of aerobic microflora on the surface of carcasses prior to packing was found to vary within the range of 3000 to 72000, while the count of coliforms ranged from 100 to 1800/cm2.

  19. (Microbiological studies in poultry meat production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monov, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out in the production of poultry meat in a poultry dressing combine of the Stork system. Examined were a total of 125 washing samples taken at the 9th, 11th and 15th hour from the scalding vat, the cooling vat, the machine of eviscerating and the skin surface after plucking, eviscerating and shower washing and prior to packing the carcasses. It was found that the count of aerobic organisms continuously rose during the technologic processing of the slaughtered birds with regard to the surface of the carcasses, the peak values of the total counts and that of coliforms being reached during evisceration. It was further established that shower washing of the carcasses immediately following evisceration guaranteed a washing effect so far as the microflora on the surface was concerned, amounting to 77.60 per cent. So far as the coliform bacteria was concerned this effect was found to be equal to 89.78 per cent. The total count of aerobic microflora on the surface of carcasses prior to packing was found to vary within the range of 3000 to 72000, while the count of coliforms ranged from 100 to 1800/cm2.

  20. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-01-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms. (author)

  1. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533

  2. Environmental Systems Microbiology of Contaminated Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayler, Gary [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hazen, Terry C. [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Systems Microbiology is well positioned to move forward in dynamic complex system analysis probing new questions and developing new insight into the function, robustness and resilience in response to anthropogenic perturbations. Recent studies have demonstrated that natural bacterial communities can be used as quantitative biosensors in both groundwater and deep ocean water, predicting oil concentration from the Gulf of Mexico Deep Water Horizon spill and from groundwater at nuclear production waste sites (16, 17, 25). Since the first demonstration of catabolic gene expression in soil remediation (34) it has been clear that extension beyond organismal abundance to process and function of microbial communities as a whole using the whole suite of omic tools available to the post genomic era. Metatranscriptomics have been highlighted as a prime vehicle for understanding responses to environmental drivers (35) in complex systems and with rapidly developing metabolomics, full functional understanding of complex community biogeochemical cycling is an achievable goal. Perhaps more exciting is the dynamic nature of these systems and their complex adaptive strategies that may lead to new control paradigms and emergence of new states and function in the course of a changing environment.

  3. Synthetic biology: Novel approaches for microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Vaca, Felipe; Anaya-Velázquez, Fernando; Franco, Bernardo

    2015-06-01

    In the past twenty years, molecular genetics has created powerful tools for genetic manipulation of living organisms. Whole genome sequencing has provided necessary information to assess knowledge on gene function and protein networks. In addition, new tools permit to modify organisms to perform desired tasks. Gene function analysis is speed up by novel approaches that couple both high throughput data generation and mining. Synthetic biology is an emerging field that uses tools for generating novel gene networks, whole genome synthesis and engineering. New applications in biotechnological, pharmaceutical and biomedical research are envisioned for synthetic biology. In recent years these new strategies have opened up the possibilities to study gene and genome editing, creation of novel tools for functional studies in virus, parasites and pathogenic bacteria. There is also the possibility to re-design organisms to generate vaccine subunits or produce new pharmaceuticals to combat multi-drug resistant pathogens. In this review we provide our opinion on the applicability of synthetic biology strategies for functional studies of pathogenic organisms and some applications such as genome editing and gene network studies to further comprehend virulence factors and determinants in pathogenic organisms. We also discuss what we consider important ethical issues for this field of molecular biology, especially for potential misuse of the new technologies. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  4. Microbiological methane production at elevated pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.; Maerkl, H.

    1994-01-01

    Taking the fermentation of waste water from the production of baker's yest as an example, experimental and theoretical examinations of a qualitative and quantitative listing of the effects of pressure on the microbiological methane production are presented. As the waste water used for the experiments was very rich in sulphates, the influence of the hydrogen sulphide constituted from those played a particularly important role. Experiments showed that the essential influence of pressure is constituted by the increased solubility of the produced gases. The increased quantities of dissolved carbon dioxide in particular result in a lowering of the pH-value with increasing pressure. The gas composition changes at the same time. The higher the pressure the higher also the portion of methane contained in the biogas but the lower the portions of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Experimental findings could be represented comparatively well by a mathematical model. This points at the fact that the physical and chemical working mechanisms were grasped correctly by the model. The mathematical description helped much to increase the understanding of the physical and chemical working mechanisms in biogas reactors. This understanding makes it possible for the developer as well as for the operator of biogas installations to control the process by constructive measures and mearuses concerning operation technology. (orig.) [de

  5. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  6. Conclusions on measurement uncertainty in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Lynne I

    2009-01-01

    Since its first issue in 1999, testing laboratories wishing to comply with all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 have been collecting data for estimating uncertainty of measurement for quantitative determinations. In the microbiological field of testing, some debate has arisen as to whether uncertainty needs to be estimated for each method performed in the laboratory for each type of sample matrix tested. Queries also arise concerning the estimation of uncertainty when plate/membrane filter colony counts are below recommended method counting range limits. A selection of water samples (with low to high contamination) was tested in replicate with the associated uncertainty of measurement being estimated from the analytical results obtained. The analyses performed on the water samples included total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci by membrane filtration, and heterotrophic plate counts by the pour plate technique. For those samples where plate/membrane filter colony counts were > or =20, uncertainty estimates at a 95% confidence level were very similar for the methods, being estimated as 0.13, 0.14, 0.14, and 0.12, respectively. For those samples where plate/membrane filter colony counts were <20, estimated uncertainty values for each sample showed close agreement with published confidence limits established using a Poisson distribution approach.

  7. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories.

  8. The microbiology of apples and apple products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doores, S

    1983-01-01

    The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year-round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple is a reflection of the orchard, handling, harvesting, and storage practices. Yeasts predominate on orchard fruit, molds may become a storage problem, and bacteria cause spoilage, off flavors, and loss of quality in juice products. Despite the microbial problems inherent in producing of quality product, the apple industry is faced with the occurrence of patulin. Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, has been associated with damaged fruit. Decreased temperatures, coupled with CA storage; can deter mold growth and patulin production. Laboratory detection methods for derivations of patulin are able to detect microgram quantities. Means to eliminate patulin formed in apple products include addition of ascorbate and SO2, extending fermentation, or charcoal filtering. However, degradation products of patulin have not been evaluated toxicologically.

  9. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, D.R.; Stoner, D.L.; Dugan, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  10. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-11-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms.

  11. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  12. Utilization of whey with microbiological processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuber, M

    1981-08-01

    Besides biogas production, the following processes and technologies are available in practice for microbiological processing: 1) Lactic acid Using thermophilic lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus, the procedure is economically performed at 45-50/sup 0/C. Since the bacteria are sensitive to high lactate concentrations, buffering with CaCO/sub 3/ or lime-milk is necessary. 2) Ethanol Using lactose-fermenting yeasts, such as Kluyvermyces fragilis, alcohol production is easily performed at 25/sup 0/C and at pH-values between 4 and 6, the dry matter contents varying between 5 and 15% (concentrated whey or permeate). Addition of ammonium sulphate is necessary. 3) Single Cell Protein One-stage production of single cell protein (SCP) is possible using lactose-fermenting aerobic yeasts (K. fragilis, Candida utilis etc.). The yeast procuced and utilized in animal feeding (as Milke replacement in calf rearing) is currently offered in the Federal Republic of Germany at a price of approximately DM 1.40/kg. Two-stage fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae following lactic acid fermentation and addition of enzymatically hydrolyzed starch can be performed effluent-free.

  13. Forensic microbiology and bioterrorism risk (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nasso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of the causal agent, as so as epidemiologic investigation, but with higher-resolution characterization. The tools for a successful attribution include genetically based-assays to determine the exact strain of isolate, aiming the individualization of the source of the pathogen used in a biological weapon. Following the 2001 anthrax attacks, genotyping of B. anthracis was done on 8 variable number tandem repeats loci (VNTR polymorphisms, with multilocus variable number tandem repeats (MLVA method. In recent years some research groups have increased the VNTR markers number to 25 loci, while other groups have identified single nucleotide repeat (SNR polymorphisms, which display very high mutation rates. SNR marker system allows the distinguishing of isolates with extremely low levels of genetic diversity within the same MLVA genotype.

  14. Nutritional, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of alfajor prepared with dehydrated mixture of salmon and tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Setsuko Kimura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Current assay deals with the preparation of alfajores with different levels (0 to 15% of dehydrated fish mixture of salmon (10% and tilapia (90% to assess the sensorial characteristics and their centesimal composition and microbiological. Fish inclusion in alfajores did not affect the aroma, taste, texture, color and physical aspect, with scores ranging between 6.70 and 7.96 of a hedonic scale of 9 score. An average score of 4 in a 5-score purchasing intention scale was obtained, or rather, tasters would probably buy the product. In the case of centesimal composition, inclusion affected (p 0.05 in lipids and calorie rates in the alfajores. Results show that the inclusion of up to 15% of a dehydrated mixture of salmon (10% and tilapia (90% in alfajores was greatly accepted and improved their nutrition values. Further, the product was also within the microbiological standards required by Brazilian sanitary laws.

  15. Microbiological analyses of samples from the H-Area injection well test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Franck, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial populations in well water from monitoring wells at the test site were one to three orders of magnitude higher than well water from the Cretaceous aquifer (used as dilution water for the tests) or from a control well adjacent to the test site facility. Coupons samples placed in monitoring and control wells demonstrated progressive adhesion by microbes to materials used in well construction. Samples of material scraped from test well components during abandonment of the test site project revealed the presence of a variety of attached microbes including iron bacteria. Although the injection wells at the actual remediation facility for the F- and H-Area seepage basins remediation project are expected to be subjected to somewhat different conditions (e.g. considerably lower iron concentrations) than was the case at the test site, the potential for microbiologically mediated clogging and fouling within the process should be considered. A sampling program that includes microbiological testing is highly recommended

  16. [Quality assessment program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology. Analysis of results. 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Pérez, José L; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2006-10-01

    Quality assurance of the analytical processes performed at the clinical microbiology laboratory is mandatory and should be carried out by using external and internal quality control activities. External quality assessment programs allow intercomparison within laboratories, detection of errors, and evaluation of the suitability of some reagents or diagnostic kits for the purpose for which they were designed; these activities are also useful for continuous education. The program launched 15 years ago by the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology is based on sending typified materials along with a clinical and microbiological case related to these control materials. The spectrum of the samples is broad, including bacteriology (monthly and three-monthly), serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, and molecular microbiology. After receiving the results from the participants, the program organization delivers an individual certificate comparing the results with those of a reference laboratory. Additionally, a report is generated by analyzing all the results sent by the participants; laboratories are also sent review articles on the subject of each assessment as a tool for continuous education in clinical microbiology. In this article, the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2005 assessments are presented.

  17. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-09

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance of communicable diseases and microorganisms. The establishment and management of MiBa has been a collaborative process among stakeholders, and the present paper summarises lessons learned from this nationwide endeavour which may be relevant to similar projects in the rapidly changing landscape of health informatics.

  18. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  19. Introduction to Clinical Microbiology for the General Dentist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rams, Thomas E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2017-04-01

    Clinical oral microbiology may help dental professionals identify infecting pathogenic species and evaluate their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Saliva, dental plaque biofilms, mucosal smears, abscess aspirates, and soft tissue biopsies are sources of microorganisms for laboratory testing. Microbial-based treatment end points may help clinicians better identify patients in need of additional or altered dental therapies before the onset of clinical treatment failure, and help improve patient oral health outcomes. Microbiological testing appears particularly helpful in periodontal disease treatment planning. Further research and technological advances are likely to increase the availability and clinical utility of microbiological analysis in modern dental practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Colloquium and Report on Systems Microbiology: Beyond Microbial Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merry R. Buckley

    2004-12-13

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium June 4-6, 2004 to confer about the scientific promise of systems microbiology. Participants discussed the power of applying a systems approach to the study of biology and to microbiology in particular, specifics about current research efforts, technical bottlenecks, requirements for data acquisition and maintenance, educational needs, and communication issues surrounding the field. A number of recommendations were made for removing barriers to progress in systems microbiology and for improving opportunities in education and collaboration. Systems biology, as a concept, is not new, but the recent explosion of genomic sequences and related data has revived interest in the field. Systems microbiology, a subset of systems biology, represents a different approach to investigating biological systems. It attempts to examine the emergent properties of microorganisms that arise from the interplay of genes, proteins, other macromolecules, small molecules, organelles, and the environment. It is these interactions, often nonlinear, that lead to the emergent properties of biological systems that are generally not tractable by traditional approaches. As a complement to the long-standing trend toward reductionism, systems microbiology seeks to treat the organism or community as a whole, integrating fundamental biological knowledge with genomics, metabolomics, and other data to create an integrated picture of how a microbial cell or community operates. Systems microbiology promises not only to shed light on the activities of microbes, but will also provide biology the tools and approaches necessary for achieving a better understanding of life and ecosystems. Microorganisms are ideal candidates for systems biology research because they are relatively easy to manipulate and because they play critical roles in health, environment, agriculture, and energy production. Potential applications of systems microbiology research

  1. [Microbiological and pharmacokinetic studies on flomoxef in ophthalmologic field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooishi, M; Sakaue, F; Oomomo, A; Tazawa, H

    1989-05-01

    Microbiological and pharmacokinetic studies were carried out on flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S), a new oxacephem parenteral antibiotic, in the ophthalmologic field. The results obtained are summarized as follows. FMOX has a broad antimicrobial activity spectrum against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The MIC distribution against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical cases was less than or equal to 0.20 - greater than or equal to 100 micrograms/ml with the peak value of 0.39 micrograms/ml. Concentrations of FMOX in aqueous humor and ocular tissues were determined after intravenous injection of 50 mg/kg to rabbits. FMOX showed a peak level of 2.2 micrograms/ml in the aqueous humor at 1/2 hour after administration with the ratio to serum level of 3.4%. Levels of FMOX in external and internal ocular tissues were 12.7 - 76.5 micrograms/g, less than 0.8 - 34.4 micrograms/g (ml) at 1/2 hour after administration, respectively. From these results, we concluded that FMOX may be expected to be a useful and valuable agent against infections in the ophthalmologic field.

  2. Clostridium difficile in Crete, Greece: epidemiology, microbiology and clinical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonis, G; Vardakas, K Z; Tansarli, G S; Dimopoulou, D; Papadimitriou, G; Kofteridis, D P; Maraki, S; Karanika, M; Falagas, M E

    2016-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology and microbiology of Clostridium difficile and the characteristics of patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) in Crete in three groups of hospitalized patients with diarrhoea: group 1 [positive culture and positive toxin by enzyme immunoassay (EIA)]; group 2 (positive culture, negative toxin); group 3 (negative culture, negative toxin). Patients in group 1 were designated as those with definitive CDI (20 patients for whom data was available) and matched with cases in group 2 (40 patients) and group 3 (40 patients). C. difficile grew from 6% (263/4379) of stool specimens; 14·4% of these had positive EIA, of which 3% were resistant to metronidazole. Three isolates had decreased vancomycin susceptibility. Patients in groups 1 and 2 received more antibiotics (P = 0·03) and had more infectious episodes (P = 0·03) than patients in group 3 prior to diarrhoea. Antibiotic administration for C. difficile did not differ between groups 1 and 2. Mortality was similar in all three groups (10%, 12·5% and 5%, P = 0·49). CDI frequency was low in the University Hospital of Crete and isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin.

  3. Suitability of the charm HVS and a microbiological multiplate system for detection of residues in raw milk at EU maximum residue levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouws, J.F.M.; Egmond, van H.; Loeffen, G.; Schouten, J.; Keukens, H.; Smulders, I.; Stegeman, H.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we assessed the suitability of the Charm HVS and a newly developed microbiological multiplate system as post-screening tests to confirm the presence of residues in raw milk at or near the maximum permissible residue level (MRL). The multiplate system is composed of Bacillus

  4. Pediatric melioidosis in Sarawak, Malaysia: Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is a serious, and potentially fatal community-acquired infection endemic to northern Australia and Southeast Asia, including Sarawak, Malaysia. The disease, caused by the usually intrinsically aminoglycoside-resistant Burkholderia pseudomallei, most commonly affects adults with predisposing risk factors. There are limited data on pediatric melioidosis in Sarawak.A part prospective, part retrospective study of children aged <15 years with culture-confirmed melioidosis was conducted in the 3 major public hospitals in Central Sarawak between 2009 and 2014. We examined epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics.Forty-two patients were recruited during the 6-year study period. The overall annual incidence was estimated to be 4.1 per 100,000 children <15 years, with marked variation between districts. No children had pre-existing medical conditions. Twenty-three (55% had disseminated disease, 10 (43% of whom died. The commonest site of infection was the lungs, which occurred in 21 (50% children. Other important sites of infection included lymph nodes, spleen, joints and lacrimal glands. Seven (17% children had bacteremia with no overt focus of infection. Delays in diagnosis and in melioidosis-appropriate antibiotic treatment were observed in nearly 90% of children. Of the clinical isolates tested, 35/36 (97% were susceptible to gentamicin. Of these, all 11 isolates that were genotyped were of a single multi-locus sequence type, ST881, and possessed the putative B. pseudomallei virulence determinants bimABp, fhaB3, and the YLF gene cluster.Central Sarawak has a very high incidence of pediatric melioidosis, caused predominantly by gentamicin-susceptible B. pseudomallei strains. Children frequently presented with disseminated disease and had an alarmingly high death rate, despite the absence of any apparent predisposing risk factor.

  5. A Clinical Microbiological Study of Corneal Ulcer Patients at Western Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Dhanjibhai Patel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corneal ulcer is a major cause of blindness throughout the world. When the cornea is injured by foreign particles, there are chances of infection by the organism and development of ulcer. Bacterial infection in the cornea is invariably an alteration of the defense mechanism of the outer eye. It is essential to determine the local etiology within a given region when planning a corneal ulcer management strategy. Laboratory evaluation is necessary to establish the diagnosis and to guide the antibiotic therapy. One hundred corneal ulcer patients were studied by collecting their corneal scraping samples and processing at Clinical Microbiology department of Shree Meghaji Petharaj Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India during a period of 17 months. All clinical microbiology laboratory procedures followed standard protocols described in the literature. 40 (40% patients from the age group of 20-70 years had been confirmed as - any organism culture positive - within the corneal ulcer patient population. Fungi were isolated from 26 (26% corneal ulcer patients. The bacterial etiology was confirmed in 14 (14% corneal ulcer patients. The major risk factors for mycotic keratitis were vegetative injury (16, (62%, followed by conjunctivitis (4, (15%, and blunt trauma (3, (11%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated bacterium (6, (43%, followed by Proteus spp. (4, (29%. Corneal Infections due to bacteria and filamentous fungi are a frequent cause of corneal damage. Microbiological investigation is an essential tool in the diagnosis of these infections. The frequency of fungal keratitis has risen over the past 20 to 30 years. Prognosis of bacterial corneal infection has improved since the introduction of specific antibacterial therapy.

  6. A clinical microbiological study of corneal ulcer patients at western Gujarat, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Somabhai Katara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corneal ulcer is a major cause of blindness throughout the world. When the cornea is injured by foreign particles, there are chances of infection by the organism and development of ulcer. Bacterial infection in the cornea is invariably an alteration of the defense mechanism of the outer eye. It is essential to determine the local etiology within a given region when planning a corneal ulcer management strategy. Laboratory evaluation is necessary to establish the diagnosis and to guide the antibiotic therapy. One hundred corneal ulcer patients were studied by collecting their corneal scraping samples and processing at Clinical Microbiology department of Shree Meghaji Petharaj Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India during a period of 17 months. All clinical microbiology laboratory procedures followed standard protocols described in the literature. 40 (40% patients from the age group of 20-70 years had been confirmed as - any organism culture positive - within the corneal ulcer patient population. Fungi were isolated from 26 (26% corneal ulcer patients. The bacterial etiology was confirmed in 14 (14% corneal ulcer patients. The major risk factors for mycotic keratitis were vegetative injury (16, (62%, followed by conjunctivitis (4, (15%, and blunt trauma (3, (11%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated bacterium (6, (43%, followed by Proteus spp. (4, (29%. Corneal Infections due to bacteria and filamentous fungi are a frequent cause of corneal damage. Microbiological investigation is an essential tool in the diagnosis of these infections. The frequency of fungal keratitis has risen over the past 20 to 30 years. Prognosis of bacterial corneal infection has improved since the introduction of specific antibacterial therapy.

  7. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-11-19

    The main objective of the Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to present and discuss new, fundamental research findings on microorganisms, their activities in the environment, their ecosystem-level effects, and their environmental or commercial applications. To accomplish this goal, knowledge of microbial diversity, interactions and population dynamics was required. The genomic basis of microbial processes, the cycling of naturally occurring and hazardous substances, and methodologies to assess the functional relationships of microorganisms in their habitats were essential for understanding the ecological consequences of microbial activities and the formulation of generalizing principles. In the last decade, molecular technology has revealed that microbial diversity is far more extensive than the limited view obtained from culturing procedures. Great advances in environmental microbiology have resulted from the development and application of molecular approaches to ecology and molecular evolution. A further surprise resulting from the application of these new tools is the blurring of the distinction between pathogenic traits versus those considered non-pathogenic. This year's conference addressed the issues of biodiversity, its development, and the impact of stress on gene selection and expression. In addition microbial metabolic versatility with toxins such as heavy metals, antibiotics, and organic pollutants were discussed. The nine session topics were (1) biodiversity and the bacterial species, (2) mechanisms of biodiversification, (3) biofilms in health and environment, (4) a genomic view of microbial response to stress, (5) microbial use of toxic metals, (6) microbial mineral formation and dissolution, (7) power and limitations of antimicrobials, (8) biodegradation of organic pollutants, and (9) astrobiology. The Conference had an international profile: the Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Gerard Muyzer, was from The Nether

  8. Sensorial, chemical and microbiological quality of anchovy cake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... Key words: Anchovy cake, shelf-life, chemical, sensorial, microbiological, Engraulis encrasicolus. ... The ingredients shown in Table 1 except the fish were mixed with ... products which can satisfy consumers sensationally and.

  9. Introduction to Clinical Microbiology for the General Dentist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    Clinical oral microbiology may help dental professionals identify infecting pathogenic species and evaluate their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Saliva, dental plaque biofilms, mucosal smears, abscess aspirates, and soft tissue biopsies are sources of microorganisms for laboratory testing.

  10. Microbiological assessment of food crops irrigated with domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbiological safety of this practice needed to be examined to ensure that it would indeed help to uplift communities by the provision of ... according to standard methods. .... due to insufficient disinfection of the exterior surface before.

  11. A STUDY OF THE MICROBIOLOGY AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Microbiology, University of Benin, Benin. City. *Corresponding author email: ... United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) due to their toxic effect to ..... Manual of Determinative Bacteriology . 8th ed,. Williams and ...

  12. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No 3 (2004) ... In Peripheral Leukocyte And Body Fluids Of Onchocerciasis Patients Treated With ... A Study Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria In Pregnancy In Ile - Ife, Southwestern ...

  13. Microbiological Quality and Food Safety of Plants Grown on ISS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A challenge for growing fresh foods (vegetables) in space is demonstrating that they are safe for consumption according to NASA microbiological standards set for...

  14. Modelling microbial interactions and food structure in predictive microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakar, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: modelling, dynamic models, microbial interactions, diffusion, microgradients, colony growth, predictive microbiology.

    Growth response of microorganisms in foods is a complex process. Innovations in food production and preservation techniques have resulted in adoption of

  15. Microbiological cleanliness of the Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlin, L.; Barengoltz, J.; Chung, S.; Kirschner, L.; Koukol, R.; Morales, F.

    2002-01-01

    Planetary protection for Mars missions is described, and the approach being taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Project is discussed. Specific topics include alcohol wiping, dry heat microbial reduction, microbiological assays, and the Kennedy Space center's PHSF clean room.

  16. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Microbial Physiology, Biochemistry of micro-organisms, Microbial Genetics, Molecular Biology, Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, and Microbial Systematics. Both full length and short papers reporting original research making a significant contribution to microbiology and Biotechnology will be considered for publication.

  17. Microbiological research and development for the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taormina, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    .... A broad range of topics is covered including the basics of setting up a food microbiology laboratory, procedures for validating the efficacy of process and product food safety controls, practices...

  18. Microbiology of the phyllosphere: a playground for testing ecological concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, K.M.; Leveau, J.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Many concepts and theories in ecology are highly debated, because it is often difficult to design decisive tests with sufficient replicates. Examples include biodiversity theories, succession concepts, invasion theories, coexistence theories, and concepts of life history strategies. Microbiological

  19. THE ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN BAKERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess microbiological indoor air quality of selected bakeries located in the region of Podlasie. The microbiological studies were conducted in autumn in 2014 in three selected bakeries. Microbiological air counts were measured by impaction using an air sampler MAS-100 NT. The microbiological air studies, comprised the determination of the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, namely indicator bacteria such as: bacteria of the species Pseudomonas fluorescens, mannitol-positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococc, the total number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and fungi found in atmospheric air. The results of the study of indoor air polluted with the analyzed groups of microorganisms differed depending on the type of test air and the location of the manufacturing plant. In the plants, the concentration of mesophilic bacteria and mannitol–positive and mannitol-negative Staphylococcus exceeded the limit values of unpolluted air, according to the Polish Standard recommendations.

  20. Learning through Teaching: A Microbiology Service-Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginny Webb

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Service learning is defined as a strategy in which students apply what they have learned in the classroom to a community service project. Many educators would agree that students often learn best through teaching others. This premise was the motivation for a new service-learning project in which undergraduate microbiology students developed and taught hands-on microbiology lessons to local elementary school children. The lessons included teaching basic information about microbes, disease transmission, antibiotics, vaccines, and methods of disease prevention. This service-learning project benefitted the college students by enforcing their knowledge of microbiology and provided them an opportunity to reach out to children within their community. This project also benefitted the local schools by teaching the younger students about microbes, infections, and handwashing. In this paper, I discuss the development and implementation of this new microbiology service-learning project, as well as the observed impact it had on everyone involved.