WorldWideScience

Sample records for microbe payload flown

  1. Effect Of Spaceflight On Microbial Gene Expression And Virulence: Preliminary Results From Microbe Payload Flown On-Board STS-115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; HonerzuBentrup, K,; Schurr, M. J.; Buchanan, K.; Morici, L.; Hammond, T.; Allen, P.; Baker, C.; Ott, C. M.; Nelman-Gonzalez M.; Schurr, J. R.; Pierson, D. L.; Stodieck, L.; Hing, S.; Hammond, T.; Allen, P.; Baker, C.; Parra, M.; Dumars, P.; Stefanyshyn-Piper, H. M.; Nickerson, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    Human presence in space, whether permanent or temporary, is accompanied by the presence of microbes. However, the extent of microbial changes in response to spaceflight conditions and the corresponding changes to infectious disease risk is unclear. Previous studies have indicated that spaceflight weakens the immune system in humans and animals. In addition, preflight and in-flight monitoring of the International Space Station (ISS) and other spacecraft indicates the presence of opportunistic pathogens and the potential of obligate pathogens. Altered antibiotic resistance of microbes in flight has also been shown. As astronauts and cosmonauts live for longer periods in a closed environment, especially one using recycled water and air, there is an increased risk to crewmembers of infectious disease events occurring in-flight. Therefore, understanding how the space environment affects microorganisms and their disease potential is critically important for spaceflight missions and requires further study. The goal of this flight experiment, operationally called MICROBE, is to utilize three model microbial pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans to examine the global effects of spaceflight on microbial gene expression and virulence attributes. Specifically, the aims are (1) to perform microarray-mediated gene expression profiling of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans, in response to spaceflight in comparison to ground controls and (2) to determine the effect of spaceflight on the virulence potential of these microorganisms immediately following their return from spaceflight using murine models. The model microorganisms were selected as they have been isolated from preflight or in-flight monitoring, represent different degrees of pathogenic behavior, are well characterized, and have sequenced genomes with available microarrays. In particular, extensive studies of S. typhimurium by the Principal Investigator, Dr. Nickerson

  2. Outside users payload model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The outside users payload model which is a continuation of documents and replaces and supersedes the July 1984 edition is presented. The time period covered by this model is 1985 through 2000. The following sections are included: (1) definition of the scope of the model; (2) discussion of the methodology used; (3) overview of total demand; (4) summary of the estimated market segmentation by launch vehicle; (5) summary of the estimated market segmentation by user type; (6) details of the STS market forecast; (7) summary of transponder trends; (8) model overview by mission category; and (9) detailed mission models. All known non-NASA, non-DOD reimbursable payloads forecast to be flown by non-Soviet-block countries are included in this model with the exception of Spacelab payloads and small self contained payloads. Certain DOD-sponsored or cosponsored payloads are included if they are reimbursable launches.

  3. Drone Transport of Microbes in Blood and Sputum Laboratory Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Street, Jeff; Carroll, Karen; Miller, Heather; Zhang, Sean X

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) could potentially be used to transport microbiological specimens. To examine the impact of UAVs on microbiological specimens, blood and sputum culture specimens were seeded with usual pathogens and flown in a UAV for 30 ± 2 min. Times to recovery, colony counts, morphologies, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identifications of the flown and stationary specimens were similar for all microbes studied.

  4. ISS Payload Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  5. X-33 Simulation Flown by Steve Ishmael

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Steve Ishmael flies a simulation of the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This simulation was used to provide flight trajectory data while flight control laws were being designed and developed, as well as to provide aerodynamic design information to X-33 developer Lockheed Martin. The X-33 program was a government/industry effort to design, build and fly a half-scale prototype that was to have demonstrated in flight the new technologies needed for the proposed Lockheed Martin full-scale VentureStar Reusable Launch Vehicle. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company had hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to provide the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increased reliability and lowered the costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have created new opportunities for space access and significantly improved U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between

  6. General Aviation: Hours Flown and Avionics Purchase Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    cost and income on hours flown for the various hours flown categories will be considered in Section 2-4 of this chapter. 19 For the benefit of the...omitted because of irrelevance. 59 - 7it Results for the age related factors are as expected-- cider aircraft fly fewer and more recent vintage aircraft...based on the incremental benefits acquired by the "add-one," or simply a function of a larger number of owners having only one or the other type of

  7. Multiple Payload Ejector for Education, Science and Technology Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechworth, Gary

    2005-01-01

    The education research community no longer has a means of being manifested on Space Shuttle flights, and small orbital payload carriers must be flown as secondary payloads on ELV flights, as their launch schedule, secondary payload volume and mass permits. This has resulted in a backlog of small payloads, schedule and cost problems, and an inability for the small payloads community to achieve routine, low-cost access to orbit. This paper will discuss Goddard's Wallops Flight Facility funded effort to leverage its core competencies in small payloads, sounding rockets, balloons and range services to develop a low cost, multiple payload ejector (MPE) carrier for orbital experiments. The goal of the MPE is to provide a low-cost carrier intended primarily for educational flight research experiments. MPE can also be used by academia and industry for science, technology development and Exploration experiments. The MPE carrier will take advantage of the DARPAI NASA partnership to perform flight testing of DARPA s Falcon small, demonstration launch vehicle. The Falcon is similar to MPE fiom the standpoint of focusing on a low-cost, responsive system. Therefore, MPE and Falcon complement each other for the desired long-term goal of providing the small payloads community with a low-cost ride to orbit. The readiness dates of Falcon and MPE are complementary, also. MPE is being developed and readied for flight within 18 months by a small design team. Currently, MPE is preparing for Critical Design Review in fall 2005, payloads are being manifested on the first mission, and the carrier will be ready for flight on the first Falcon demonstration flight in summer, 2006. The MPE and attached experiments can weigh up to 900 lb. to be compatible with Falcon demonstration vehicle lift capabilities fiom Wallops, and will be delivered to the Falcon demonstration orbit - 100 nautical mile circular altitude.

  8. System Architecture of the BCU Payload on Tatiana-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Biau Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In conjunction with the international collaborative project of ESEMS (Experimental Scientific Education Micro Satellite whose goal is to develop an experimental scientific-education microsatellite with science payloads, a team consisting of professors and students from the National Central University (NCU has designed and fabricated a set of space flight instruments for space weather studies. The Block of Central University (BCU made payload has been flown successfully on board Tatiana-2. To our knowledge, the BCU payload is the very first successful satellite payload which has been developed from design and component selection to the completion of the flight module mainly by students and faculty on the NCU campus in Taiwan. This paper describes some details of the engineering effort in building the BCU payload, including sensing devices (ETP and MRM, data processing unit, and power supply. Samples of flight data acquired by BCU are also presented to show that all units of the BCU system and payload-spacecraft interfaces functioned well as expected. The flight data provides direct evidence that the NCU team is capable of developing spaceflight quality instruments for future satellite missions.

  9. System Architecture of the BCU Payload on Tatiana-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Biau Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In conjunction with the international collaborative project of ESEMS (Experimental Scientific Education Micro Satellite whose goal is to develop an experimental scientific-education microsatellite with science payloads, a team consisting of professors and students from the National Central University (NCU has designed and fabricated a set of space flight instruments for space weather studies. The Block of Central University (BCU made payload has been flown successfully on board Tatiana-2. To our knowledge, the BCU payload is the very first successful satellite payload which has been developed from design and component selection to the completion of the flight module mainly by students and faculty on the NCU campus in Taiwan. This paper describes some details of the engineering effort in building the BCU payload, including sensing devices (ETP and MRM, data processing unit, and power supply. Samples of flight data acquired by BCU are also presented to show that all units of the BCU system and payload-spacecraft interfaces functioned well as expected. The flight data provides direct evidence that the NCU team is capable of developing spaceflight quality instruments for future satellite missions.

  10. EXPRESS Pallet Payload Interface Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the EXPRESS Pallet Space Station payload interface requirements is shown. The topics include: 1) External Payload Sites; 2) EXPRESS Pallet with Six Payload Envelopes; 3) EXPRESS Pallet in Payload Bay Representative Layout; 4) EXPRESS Pallet Installation SSRMS positions pallet for PAS mating on S3 truss; 5) EXPRESS Pallet Major Components; 6) EXPRESS Pallet Adapter; 7) EXPRESS Pallet Center Location Payload Envelope; 8) Envelope Restriction for EXPRESS Pallet Corner Payload Locations; 9) EXPRESS Pallet-PAS Truss Configuration; and 10) EXPRESS Pallet Payload Services and Specifications.

  11. Microbes: mini iron factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kumar Batuk

    2014-12-01

    Microbes have flourished in extreme habitats since beginning of the Earth and have played an important role in geological processes like weathering, mineralization, diagenesis, mineral formation and destruction. Biotic mineralization is one of the most fascinating examples of how microbes have been influencing geological processes. Iron oxidizing and reducing bacteria are capable of precipitating wide varieties of iron oxides (magnetite), carbonates (siderite) and sulphides (greigite) via controlled or induced mineralization processes. Microbes have also been considered to play an important role in the history of evolution of sedimentary rocks on Earth from the formation of banded iron formations during the Archean to modern biotic bog iron and ochre deposits. Here, we discuss the role that microbes have been playing in precipitation of iron and the role and importance of interdisciplinary studies in the field of geology and biology in solving some of the major geological mysteries.

  12. Microbes: Mini Iron Factories

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Kumar Batuk

    2014-01-01

    Microbes have flourished in extreme habitats since beginning of the Earth and have played an important role in geological processes like weathering, mineralization, diagenesis, mineral formation and destruction. Biotic mineralization is one of the most fascinating examples of how microbes have been influencing geological processes. Iron oxidizing and reducing bacteria are capable of precipitating wide varieties of iron oxides (magnetite), carbonates (siderite) and sulphides (greigite) via con...

  13. Cell Science-02 Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sarah Diane

    2014-01-01

    The presentation provides an general overview of the Cell Science-02 science and payload operations to the NASA Payload Operations Integrated Working Group. The overview includes a description of the science objectives and specific aims, manifest status, and operations concept.

  14. Aerospace Payload Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    PFRR 4/7/83 A10.901-2 SPE PAIUTE TOMAHAWK PFRR 10/26/81 A13.277 TRACER TAURUR ORION WFF 6/29/82 A20.123-1 BIME SONDA III NRR 9/8/82 A20.123-2 BIME... SONDA III NRR 9/13/82 A31.200 SES ASTROBEE F WSMR 3/1/83 A11.074 STATE NIKE HYDAC PFRR 6/15/83 A20.327-1 IMS SONDA III WFF 11/14/83 A20.327-2 IMS SONDA ...rocket payload. The instrumented payload, ( Sonda III) with an ion mass spectrometer and pulsed plasma probes was targeted to penetrate the ionospheric

  15. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  16. Microorganisms (Microbes), Role of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms (microbes) are those life forms too small to be seen by the naked eye; that is, those that require a microscope or other form of magnification in order to be observed. The term microorganism is thus a functional description rather than a taxonomic one, and the grouping includes...

  17. Microorganisms (Microbes), Role of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms (microbes) are those life forms too small to be seen by the naked eye; that is, those that require a microscope or other form of magnification in order to be observed. The term microorganism is thus a functional description rather than a taxonomic one, and the grouping includes a w...

  18. Extremophilic microbes: Diversity and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Satyanarayana, T.; Raghukumar, C.; Shivaji, S.

    and grow in extreme en-vironments. The enzymes of these microbes, which function in extreme environments (extremozymes), have several biotechnological applications. Antibiotics, compatible solutes and other compounds obtainable from these microbes are also...

  19. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  20. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of space flown tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Almeida, Maria; Swandjaja, Leonita

    2016-11-01

    Several research showed that space flown treated seeds had a different characteristic with that of ground treated seed, which eventually produced a different characteristic of growth and productivity. Research was conducted to study the physical, chemical and biological properties, such as the rate of germination and the growth of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) space flown seeds compared with that of control one. Observations of physical properties using a SEM showed that there were pores on the surface of some tomato space flown seeds. Observations using a stereo and inverted microscope showed that the coat layer of space flown seeds was thinner than control seeds. The total mineral content in the control seeds (22.88%) was averagely higher than space flown seeds (18.66%), but the average carbohydrate content in control seed was lower (15.2 ± 2.79%) than the space flown seeds (9.02 ± 1.87%). The level of auxin (IAA) of control seeds (142 ± 6.88 ppm) was averagely lower than the space flown seeds (414 ± 78.84 ppm), whereas the level of cytokinins (zeatin) for the control seeds (381 ± 68.86 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (68 ± 9.53 ppm), and the level of gibberellin (GA3) for the control seeds (335 ± 10.7 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (184 ± 7.4 ppm). The results of this study showed that the physical and chemical properties of tomato space flown seeds were generally different compare with that to control seeds, so that it might also be resulted in different germination and growth characteristic. The germination test showed that space flown seeds had lower germination rate compare to control. The growth pattern indicated that planted space flown seeds generally grew better than control. However, those data were more homogenous in control seeds compare to that in space flown tomato seeds.

  1. US experiment flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1667

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, John W. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Two male young-adult rhesus monkeys were flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1667 for seven days from July 10-17, 1985. Both animals were instrumented to record neurophysiological parameters. One animal, Gordyy, was additionally instrumented to record cardiovascular changes. Space capsule and environmental parameters were very similar to those of previous missions. On Cosmos 1514, which flew for five days in 1983, one animal was fitted with a left carotid artery cuff to measure blood pressure and flow velocity. An additional feature of Cosmos 1667 was a postflight control study using the flight animal. Intermittent postural tilt tests were also conducted before and after spaceflight and synchronous control studies, to simulate the fluid shifts associated with spaceflight. The experiment results support the conclusion derived from Cosmos 1514 that significant cardiovascular changes occur with spaceflight. The changes most clearly seen were rapid initial decreases in heart rate and further decreases with continued exposure to microgravity. The triggering mechanism appeared to be a headward shift in blood and tissue fluid volume which, in turn, triggered adaptive cardiovascular changes. Adaptive changes took place rapidly and began to stabilize after the first two days of flight. However, these changes did not plateau in the animal by the last day of the mission.

  2. Biofuels: from microbes to molecules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    .... The production of different biofuel molecules including hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol, higher chain alcohols, isoprenoids and fatty acid derivatives, from genetically engineered microbes...

  3. Microbe-microbe interactions in mixed culture food fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, E.J.; Lacroix, C.

    2013-01-01

    Most known natural and industrial food fermentation processes are driven by either simple or complex communities of microorganisms. Obviously, these fermenting microbes will not only interact with the fermentable substrate but also with each other. These microbe–microbe interactions are complex but

  4. Balloon-borne CALET prototype payload (bCALET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Yoshitaka; Torii, Shoji; Kasahara, Katsuaki; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Akaike, Yosui; Nakai, Mikio; Aiba, Toshihide; Kai, Yuuichirou; Tamura, Tadahisa; Yoshida, Kenji; Katayose, Yusaku; Saito, Yoshitaka; Fuke, Hideyuki; Kawada, Jiro; Mizuta, Eiichi; Marrocchesi, Pier Simone; Kim, Meyoung; Bigongiari, Gabriele

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) payload will be installed in the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station (ISS). We have been developing a balloon borne payload to evaluate the performance of CALET by carring out precursor flights for the electron observation in 1-1000 GeV. The first flight of bCALET was done in 2006, and the enhanced version, bCALET-2, was successfully flown in 2009. In this paper, we describe the bCALET-3 payload which is composed of Imaging Calorimeter (IMC), Total Absorption Calorimeter (TASC) and Silicon pixel Array (SIA). IMC has an area of 320mm × 320mm, and is consisted 8 x-y layers of scintillating fiber belts inserted below tungsten plates for a fine imaging of shower particles. TASC is constructed by 6 layers of BGO scintillator blocks with an area of 300mm × 300mm, for measuring the total energy deposit of incoming shower particles. SIA owns to measure the charge number of incoming particle. Each component has very similar function with CALET with about half the area of CALET. We are planning to carry out the balloon experiment by bCALET-3 in November, 2010 for the test of the CALET capability of observing the electrons.

  5. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  6. Microbe Phobia and Kitchen Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert P.; Gillen, Alan L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present an exercise designed to help students overcome the misconception that most microbes make people sick. The activity helps students of all ages understand the important benefits of microbes such as in making bread, soy sauce, cheese, and wine. The role of microorganisms in processing cocoa and coffee and growing plants is also…

  7. Changing Safety Priorities from Payload Development to Onboard Payload Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, J.; Biemann, W.; Festa, F.

    2012-01-01

    Safety Analyses for Payload development phases are typically based o n well defined fixed configurations. From safety point of view the main focus during the development phase is on t he design features that will ensure inherent safe launch, on-board installation and usage of the payload in the planned configuration. The complete payload verification including the safety verification and the flight certification is based on that expected scenario. Once the payload is launched and installed on-orbit the focus moves to safe operations in constantly changing configurations over the life-time due t o upgrades, preventive, and corrective maintenance activities. A broader assessment and preparation for recovery procedures would help to streamline this aspect. It would also support the new extended ISS utilization scenario and the changes of the logistic fleet available to the ISS. The challenge to move the safety focus from payload development and design safety features to permanently modified configurations, different upload capabilities and extending life-cycles/time during the operations phase of the payloads can be supported by early definition of operational envelops and resulting safety approval of wider operational flexibility.

  8. Outgassing of Flown and Unflown MIR Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.; Wilson, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    A solar panel array with more than ten years space exposure was removed from the Mir core module in November 1997, and an eight panel section was returned to Earth in January 1998. Several solar cells were removed from panel eight of the returned array and placed in a high vacuum system with a residual gas analyzer (200 amu mass spectrometer) and a cold finger. Similar unflown solar cells of the same vintage were later obtained from Energia. Several of the unflown cells were also placed in the vacuum system and outgassed residues were collected on the LN2 cold finger. Almost 3 mg of outgassed residue was collected -from a string of three unflown solar cells over a period of 94 hours under vacuum. The collected residue was weighed with a microbalance, and then the residue was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy, and by gas chromatograph-mass spectroscopy. About 25 outgassed constituents were separated by the gas chromatograph, and a high-resolution mass spectrum was obtained of each constituent. Molecular identifications have been made for the constituents. The constituents are primarily cyclic siloxanes, and several of the constituents are isomers of the same molecule. Most of the outgassed constituents have a molecular mass of about 500 amu. Almost one mg of residue was extracted from one sq cm of coverglass/adhesive from a flown solar cell by soaking in isopropyl alcohol for 30 minutes. The gas chromatograph separated about 20 constituents. The constituents are mostly cyclic siloxanes with linear branches, hydrocarbons, and phthalates. The typical molecular mass is about 600 amu. These identifications of specific outgassing molecules have resulted in a more complete understanding of the SiO(x) contamination on the Mir solar cell coverglasses, and on the MEEP experiment trays and optical specimens during the Shuttle-Mir Phase One flight experiment program. Adjusted outgassing rates based on the data reported here, and/or measured outgassing rates and specific molecular

  9. Outgassing of Flown and Unflown MIR Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.; Wilson, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    A solar panel array with more than ten years space exposure was removed from the Mir core module in November 1997, and an eight panel section was returned to Earth in January 1998. Several solar cells were removed from panel eight of the returned array and placed in a high vacuum system with a residual gas analyzer (200 amu mass spectrometer) and a cold finger. Similar unflown solar cells of the same vintage were later obtained from Energia. Several of the unflown cells were also placed in the vacuum system and outgassed residues were collected on the LN2 cold finger. Almost 3 mg of outgassed residue was collected -from a string of three unflown solar cells over a period of 94 hours under vacuum. The collected residue was weighed with a microbalance, and then the residue was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy, and by gas chromatograph-mass spectroscopy. About 25 outgassed constituents were separated by the gas chromatograph, and a high-resolution mass spectrum was obtained of each constituent. Molecular identifications have been made for the constituents. The constituents are primarily cyclic siloxanes, and several of the constituents are isomers of the same molecule. Most of the outgassed constituents have a molecular mass of about 500 amu. Almost one mg of residue was extracted from one sq cm of coverglass/adhesive from a flown solar cell by soaking in isopropyl alcohol for 30 minutes. The gas chromatograph separated about 20 constituents. The constituents are mostly cyclic siloxanes with linear branches, hydrocarbons, and phthalates. The typical molecular mass is about 600 amu. These identifications of specific outgassing molecules have resulted in a more complete understanding of the SiO(x) contamination on the Mir solar cell coverglasses, and on the MEEP experiment trays and optical specimens during the Shuttle-Mir Phase One flight experiment program. Adjusted outgassing rates based on the data reported here, and/or measured outgassing rates and specific molecular

  10. Microbes central to human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Brigidi, Patrizia; Burton, Jeremy P; Contractor, Nikhat; Duncan, Sylvia; Fargier, Emilie; Hill, Colin; Lebeer, Sarah; Martín, Rocio; McBain, Andrew J; Mor, Gil; O'Neill, Catherine; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Swann, Jonathan; van Hemert, Saskia; Ansell, Juliett

    2015-01-01

    As studies uncover the breadth of microbes associated with human life, opportunities will emerge to manipulate and augment their functions in ways that improve health and longevity. From involvement in the complexities of reproduction and fetal/infant development, to delaying the onset of disease, and indeed countering many maladies, microbes offer hope for human well-being. Evidence is emerging to suggest that microbes may play a beneficial role in body sites traditionally viewed as being sterile. Although further evidence is required, we propose that much of medical dogma is about to change significantly through recognition and understanding of these hitherto unrecognized microbe-host interactions. A meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics held in Aberdeen, Scotland (June 2014), presented new views and challenged established concepts on the role of microbes in reproduction and health of the mother and infant. This article summarizes some of the main aspects of these discussions.

  11. Payload IVA training and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsees, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a training program for the intravehicular operation of space shuttle payloads is discussed. The priorities for the program are compliance with established training standards, and accommodating changes. Simulation devices are also reviewed.

  12. Education Payload Operation - Kit D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Kit D (EPO-Kit D) includes education items that will be used to support the live International Space Station (ISS) education downlinks and Education Payload Operation (EPO) demonstrations onboard the ISS. The main objective of EPO-Kit D supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goal of attracting students to study and seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  13. Biofuels from microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Dominik; Zverlov, Vladimir V; Schwarz, Wolfgang H

    2007-11-01

    Today, biomass covers about 10% of the world's primary energy demand. Against a backdrop of rising crude oil prices, depletion of resources, political instability in producing countries and environmental challenges, besides efficiency and intelligent use, only biomass has the potential to replace the supply of an energy hungry civilisation. Plant biomass is an abundant and renewable source of energy-rich carbohydrates which can be efficiently converted by microbes into biofuels, of which, only bioethanol is produced on an industrial scale today. Biomethane is produced on a large scale, but is not yet utilised for transportation. Biobutanol is on the agenda of several companies and may be used in the near future as a supplement for gasoline, diesel and kerosene, as well as contributing to the partially biological production of butyl-t-butylether, BTBE as does bioethanol today with ETBE. Biohydrogen, biomethanol and microbially made biodiesel still require further development. This paper reviews microbially made biofuels which have potential to replace our present day fuels, either alone, by blending, or by chemical conversion. It also summarises the history of biofuels and provides insight into the actual production in various countries, reviewing their policies and adaptivity to the energy challenges of foreseeable future.

  14. Enterococci: yin - yang microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Čanžek Majhenič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the duality of enterococci, which can be illustrated by their yin - yang behaviour. The rough nature of this specific group of lactic acid bacteria promotes their dissemination in various environments where they significantly influence the outcome of a certain process. In the technological meaning, enterococci are leading microbes in fermentation processes of traditional foods, where their detrimental spoilage activities are equally significant. As therapeutics, enterococci manifest the probiotic properties through their positive effects on maintaining of the normal intestinal microflora, on stimulation of the immune system, on improved nutritional value of food and with the production of antimicrobial compounds (bacteriocins. At the same time, enterococci present an emerging pool of opportunistic pathogens for humans as they cause disease, possess agents for antibiotic resistance and their transfer mechanisms, and are frequently armed with potential virulence factors. Despite the yin - yang characteristics of enterococci, the long history of safe use of certain strains of enterococci in food/feed, and reliable identification and classification of enterococci with phenotypic methods supported with modern genetic tools, enables selection of promising enterococci, which could be safely used as starter cultures or food/feed additives.

  15. 14 CFR 415.7 - Payload determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payload determination. 415.7 Section 415.7... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.7 Payload determination. A payload determination is... determination. Either a launch license applicant or a payload owner or operator may request a review of its...

  16. 14 CFR 415.57 - Payload review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payload review. 415.57 Section 415.57... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Payload Review and Determination § 415.57 Payload review. (a) Timing. A payload review may be conducted as part of a license application review or may be requested by a...

  17. Microbes as forensic indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, G; Sarah, J P

    2012-09-01

    The forensic potential of microorganisms is becoming increasingly apparent as a consequence of advances in molecular sciences and genomics. This review discusses instances in which microbes, and in particular bacteria, can impact upon forensic investigations. There is increasing evidence that humans have an extremely diverse 'microbiome' that may prove useful in determining ethnicity, country of origin, and even personal identity. The human microbiome differs between regions of the body and may prove useful for determining the nature of stains such as those caused by saliva and vaginal fluid: it may even be possible to link the stains to the person responsible for them. Similarly, the composition of the microbiome present in a soil sample may prove a useful indicator of geographic origin or as a means of linking people, animals, or objects together or to a specific location. Microorganisms are important in the decay process and also influence the presence and concentration of alcohol, drugs, and other chemicals of forensic relevance. There is also a possibility that the entry of microorganisms into the body during the agonal period may prove useful for the diagnosis of drowning. The transmission of infectious diseases, and in particular sexually-transmitted diseases, can provide evidence linking a victim and a suspect. Microorganisms that cause fatal infections are not always identified at the time of death and may lead to the death being considered 'suspicious'. If a fatal infection can be linked to a hospital or medical procedure it can lead to prosecutions and therefore it is important to determine when and where an infection was acquired. Similarly, naturally acquired infections need to be distinguished from those that result from malicious transmission. Microorganisms can therefore provide evidence in many different forensic scenarios but most of the work is still at the experimental stage and there are therefore many opportunities for further research.

  18. Chemiluminescence and bioluminescence microbe detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. E.; Chappelle, E.; Picciolo, G. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Thomas, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Automated biosensors for online use with NASA Water Monitoring System employs bioluminescence and chemiluminescence techniques to rapidly measure microbe contamination of water samples. System eliminates standard laboratory procedures requiring time duration of 24 hours or longer.

  19. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  20. Astronaut Returns Space-Flown Flag to NRAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    A NASA Astronaut who carried a flag bearing the logo of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) on last month's Shuttle flight returned that flag to the observatory on Friday, April 12, at a ceremony in Socorro. Dr. John M. Grunsfeld, payload commander of the STS-109 flight, also addressed students at the New Mexico State Science Fair on Saturday, April 13, on the campus of New Mexico Tech in Socorro. Dr. John M. Grunsfeld: Click on image for larger view Dr. John M. Grunsfeld Grunsfeld, an astronomer who observed with NRAO's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in 1991, carried the 3-by-5-foot NRAO flag aboard Columbia during the March 1-12 mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope. The NRAO flag, made by Socorro resident Dora Spargo, had been sent to the observatory's facilities in Socorro; Tucson, AZ; Green Bank, WV; and Charlottesville, VA, where NRAO employees signed it prior to the flight. "With our signatures on that flag, we all felt like we were riding along with John aboard the Shuttle," said NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout. "We are proud that NRAO was represented on a mission that was so important to astronomy," Vanden Bout added. During the flight, Grunsfeld performed three of the five spacewalks in which crew members successfully upgraded the Hubble Space Telescope. The astronauts left the space observatory with a new power unit, a new camera and new solar arrays. The upgrades, said Grunsfeld, leave the orbiting telescope with "its discovery potential significantly increased." STS-109 was Grunsfeld's fourth space flight and his second visit to Hubble. A research astronomer who received his bachelor's degree in physics from MIT and a Ph.D from the University of Chicago in 1988, Grunsfeld was selected to the astronaut corps in 1992. His first space flight, in 1995, featured astronomical observations using the Astro observatory, a three-telescope facility aboard the Shuttle Endeavour. In 1997, Grunsfeld rode Atlantis on a 10-day mission to the

  1. The first Spacelab mission. [payload management functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of Spacelab, an Orbiter-mounted NASA/ESA laboratory, is to include in the Space Transportation System (STS) a payload carrier with maximum flexibility to accommodate multidisciplinary scientific payloads. The major Spacelab configurations obtained by combination of two basic elements, the module and pallet, are described along with the anticipated program of experiments and payloads, and mission management general concept. The first Spacelab 7-day mission is scheduled for flight in the second half of 1980, with the primary objective being to verify system performance capabilities. Detailed attention is given to the payload mission management responsibilities for the first flight, including program control, science management, payload interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload integration, launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. The Spacelab configuration (including the long module and one pallet) and the overall schedule for this mission are presented.

  2. The first Spacelab mission. [payload management functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of Spacelab, an Orbiter-mounted NASA/ESA laboratory, is to include in the Space Transportation System (STS) a payload carrier with maximum flexibility to accommodate multidisciplinary scientific payloads. The major Spacelab configurations obtained by combination of two basic elements, the module and pallet, are described along with the anticipated program of experiments and payloads, and mission management general concept. The first Spacelab 7-day mission is scheduled for flight in the second half of 1980, with the primary objective being to verify system performance capabilities. Detailed attention is given to the payload mission management responsibilities for the first flight, including program control, science management, payload interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload integration, launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. The Spacelab configuration (including the long module and one pallet) and the overall schedule for this mission are presented.

  3. Design and Implementation of an experiment-specific Payload Orientation Platform for balloon-borne Experiment .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Anand; Rodi, Ashish; Ojha, Devendra

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the mesospheric dynamics and its coupling to the upper atmospheric regions above, a Balloon-borne optical Investigation of Regional-atmospheric Dynamics (BIRD) experiment was jointly conducted by Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad and Boston University, on 08 March 2010 from TIFR Balloon Facility, Hyderabad. Along with the BIRD payload, a nano payload of University of York, Canada was also flown for aerosol studies during sunset. The balloon carrying a 335kg BIRD payload was launched at 1052 hrs, reached a float altitude of 34.8km amsl at 1245 hrs and was allowed to float till 1825 hrs before it was parachuted down. To achieve the experimental objectives, it was essential that the payload Gandola, comprising of two optical spectrographs, is programmed to rotate azimuthally in 3 steps of 30 degrees each from East-West (E-W) to North-South (N-S) direction, stop at each step for 5 minutes for data acquisition, return to the original E-W position and keep repeating the sequence continuously with a provision to start or stop the orientation from Ground station through telecommand. To meet these unique requirements, we designed developed and implemented a Payload Orientation Platform (POP), using flux-gate magnetometer for direction-finding, which worked satisfactorily in the BIRD flight. This paper presents an overview of the POP implemented, focuses on the design considerations of the associated electronics and finally presents the results of the performance during the entire balloon flight.

  4. Expedite the Processing of Unpressurized Payloads to the International Space Station Using the ExPRESS Pallet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacskay, Allen S.; Gilbert, Paul A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Expedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station (ExPRESS) Pallet will be used as an experiment platform for external/unpressurized payloads to be flown aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of the ExPRESS Pallet is to provide an easy access to the ISS for Scientific Investigators that require an external platform for their experiment hardware. As the name of the ExPRESS Pallet implies, the objective of the ExPRESS program is to provide a simplified integration process in a short time period (24 months) for payloads to be flown on the ISS. The ExPRESS Pallet provides unique opportunities for research across many science disciplines, including earth observation, communications, solar and deep space viewing, and long-term exposure. The ExPRESS Pallet provides access to Ram, Wake, Nadir, Zenith and Earth Limb for viewing and exposure to the space environment. The ExPRESS Pallet will provide standard physical payload interfaces, and a standard integration template. The ExPS consists of the Pallet structure, payload Adapters, a subsystem assembly that includes data controller, power distribution and conversion, and Extra Vehicular Robotics compatibility. The ExPRESS Pallet provides the capability to changeout payloads on-orbit via the ExPRESS Pallet Adapter (ExPA). The following paragraphs will describe the Services and Accommodations available to the Payload developers by the ExPRESS Pallet and a brief description of the Integration process. More detailed information on the ExPRESS Pallet can be found in the ExPRESS Pallet Payload Accommodations Handbook, SSP 52000-PAH-EPP.

  5. Principles of Plant-Microbe Interactions - Microbes for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crops lack resistance to many soilborne pathogens and rely on antagonistic microbes recruited from the soil microbiome to protect their roots. Disease-suppressive soils, the best examples of microbial-based defense, are soils in which a pathogen does not establish or persist, establishes but causes ...

  6. Exploration Missions to Host Small Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtain, Jonathan; Pelfrey, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The next-generation heavy launch vehicle, the Space Launch System (SLS), will provide the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the exploration mission trajectory. We will describe the payload mission concept of operations, the payload capacity for the SLS, and the payload requirements. Exploration Mission 1, currently planned for launch in December 2017, will be the first mission to carry such payloads on the SLS.

  7. Microbes encapsulated within crosslinkable polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidambaram, Devicharan; Liu, Ying; Rafailovich, Miriam H

    2013-02-05

    The invention relates to porous films comprising crosslinked electrospun hydrogel fibers. Viable microbes are encapsulated within the crosslinked electrospun hydrogel fibers. The crosslinked electrospun hydrogel fibers are water insoluble and permeable. The invention also relates to methods of making and using such porous films.

  8. Communications payloads for geostationary platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Trends in communication satellites show increasing reuse of the frequency spectrum through multiple spot beams and orthogonal polarization, as well as consortia operation. Current reliance on orbital arc separation for frequency reuse may be inadequate for the projected traffic growth and the orbital slotting proposals before the ITU. This paper notes that cost advantages can accrue through common use of spacecraft subsystems and multiple users' platforms aboard a common geostationary platform. The rationale for such platforms is described and potential payloads are suggested.

  9. The CODEX sounding rocket payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, B.; Shipley, A.; Cash, W.; Rogers, T.; Schultz, T.; McEntaffer, R.; Kaiser, M.

    2011-05-01

    We present the CODEX sounding rocket payload, a soft x-ray (0.1-1.0 keV) spectrometer designed to observe diffuse high-surface brightness astronomical sources. The payload is composed of two modules, each with a 3.25° x 3.25° field of view defined by a stack of wire grids that block light not coming to a 3.0 m focus and admit only nearly-collimated light onto an array of 67 diffraction gratings in an off-plane mount. After a 2.0 m throw, the spectrum is detected by offset large-format gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. CODEX will target the Vela supernova remnant later this year to measure the temperature and abundances and to determine the contributions of various soft x-ray emission mechanisms to the remnant's energy budget; resulting spectra will have resolution (E/▵E) ranging from 50 to 100 across the band. CODEX is the third-generation of similar payloads from the University of Colorado, with an increased bandpass, higher throughput, and a more robust mechanical structure than its predecessors.

  10. Spaceflight Effects on Hemopoiesis of Lower Vertebrates Flown on Foton-M2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskaya, E. I.; Payushina, O. V.; Butorina, M. N.; Nikonova, T. M.; Grigorian, E. N.; Mitashov, V. I.; Tairbekov, M. G.; Almeida, E.; Khrushchov, N. G.

    2006-01-01

    Intact and operated newts Pleumdeles waltl flown on Foton-M2 for 16 days were used to study the effects of spaceflight as well as tail amputation and lensectomy on their hemopoiesis. The flight did not produce noticeable changes in the peripheral blood of nonoperated newts. However, in operated animals, the number of lymphocytes increased whereas that of neutrophils decreased. There were no morphological differences in hemopoietic organs (liver and spleen) between flown non-operated and operated animals or their controls. However, in both non-operated and operated newts the liver weight and the number of hemopoietic cells in it increased. In contrast to nonoperated newts, space-flown mammals typically showed significant changes in blood cell counts. Experiments with BrdU incorporation revealed labeled cells in the hemopoietic area of the liver as well as in blood and spleen. This observation gives evidence that the BrdU label can be used to study proliferation of hemopoietic cells.

  11. Spaceflight Effects on Hemopoiesis of Lower Vertebrates Flown on Foton-M2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskaya, E. I.; Payushina, O. V.; Butorina, M. N.; Nikonova, T. M.; Grigorian, E. N.; Mitashov, V. I.; Tairbekov, M. G.; Almeida, E.; Khrushchov, N. G.

    2006-01-01

    Intact and operated newts Pleumdeles waltl flown on Foton-M2 for 16 days were used to study the effects of spaceflight as well as tail amputation and lensectomy on their hemopoiesis. The flight did not produce noticeable changes in the peripheral blood of nonoperated newts. However, in operated animals, the number of lymphocytes increased whereas that of neutrophils decreased. There were no morphological differences in hemopoietic organs (liver and spleen) between flown non-operated and operated animals or their controls. However, in both non-operated and operated newts the liver weight and the number of hemopoietic cells in it increased. In contrast to nonoperated newts, space-flown mammals typically showed significant changes in blood cell counts. Experiments with BrdU incorporation revealed labeled cells in the hemopoietic area of the liver as well as in blood and spleen. This observation gives evidence that the BrdU label can be used to study proliferation of hemopoietic cells.

  12. Space Experiment Module: A new low-cost capability for education payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Theodore C.; Lewis, Ruthan

    1995-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) concept is one of a number of education initiatives being pursued by the NASA Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP) in an effort to increase educational access to space by means of Space Shuttle Small Payloads and associated activities. In the SEM concept, NASA will provide small containers ('modules') which can accommodate small zero-gravity experiments designed and constructed by students. A number, (nominally ten), of the modules will then be flown in an existing Get Away Special (GAS) carrier on the Shuttle for a flight of 5 to 10 days. In addition to the module container, the NASA carrier system will provide small amounts of electrical power and a computer system for controlling the operation of the experiments and recording experiment data. This paper describes the proposed SEM carrier system and program approach.

  13. Earth Viewing Applications Laboratory (EVAL). Dedicated payload, standard test rack payload, sensor modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary analysis of strawman earth-viewing shuttle sortie payloads begun with the partial spacelab payload was analyzed. The payloads analyzed represent the two extremes of shuttle sortie application payloads: a full shuttle sortie payload dedicated to earth-viewing applications, and a small structure payload which can fly on a space available basis with another primary shuttle payload such as a free flying satellite. The intent of the dedicated mission analysis was to configure an ambitious, but feasible, payload; which, while rich in scientific return, would also stress the system and reveal any deficiences or problem areas in mission planning, support equipment, and operations. Conversely, the intent of the small structure payload was to demonstrate the ease with which a small, simple, flexible payload can be accommodated on shuttle flights.

  14. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 1: Integrated payload and mission planning process evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, T. P.; Davin, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The integrated payload and mission planning process for STS payloads was defined, and discrete tasks which evaluate performance and support initial implementation of this process were conducted. The scope of activity was limited to NASA and NASA-related payload missions only. The integrated payload and mission planning process was defined in detail, including all related interfaces and scheduling requirements. Related to the payload mission planning process, a methodology for assessing early Spacelab mission manager assignment schedules was defined.

  15. Modular Countermine Payload for Small Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman Herman; Doug Few; Roelof Versteeg; Jean-Sebastien Valois; Jeff McMahill; Michael Licitra; Edward Henciak

    2010-04-01

    Payloads for small robotic platforms have historically been designed and implemented as platform and task specific solutions. A consequence of this approach is that payloads cannot be deployed on different robotic platforms without substantial re-engineering efforts. To address this issue, we developed a modular countermine payload that is designed from the ground-up to be platform agnostic. The payload consists of the multi-mission payload controller unit (PCU) coupled with the configurable mission specific threat detection, navigation and marking payloads. The multi-mission PCU has all the common electronics to control and interface to all the payloads. It also contains the embedded processor that can be used to run the navigational and control software. The PCU has a very flexible robot interface which can be configured to interface to various robot platforms. The threat detection payload consists of a two axis sweeping arm and the detector. The navigation payload consists of several perception sensors that are used for terrain mapping, obstacle detection and navigation. Finally, the marking payload consists of a dual-color paint marking system. Through the multi-mission PCU, all these payloads are packaged in a platform agnostic way to allow deployment on multiple robotic platforms, including Talon and Packbot.

  16. Modular countermine payload for small robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Herman; Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Valois, Jean-Sebastien; McMahill, Jeff; Licitra, Michael; Henciak, Edward

    2010-04-01

    Payloads for small robotic platforms have historically been designed and implemented as platform and task specific solutions. A consequence of this approach is that payloads cannot be deployed on different robotic platforms without substantial re-engineering efforts. To address this issue, we developed a modular countermine payload that is designed from the ground-up to be platform agnostic. The payload consists of the multi-mission payload controller unit (PCU) coupled with the configurable mission specific threat detection, navigation and marking payloads. The multi-mission PCU has all the common electronics to control and interface to all the payloads. It also contains the embedded processor that can be used to run the navigational and control software. The PCU has a very flexible robot interface which can be configured to interface to various robot platforms. The threat detection payload consists of a two axis sweeping arm and the detector. The navigation payload consists of several perception sensors that are used for terrain mapping, obstacle detection and navigation. Finally, the marking payload consists of a dual-color paint marking system. Through the multimission PCU, all these payloads are packaged in a platform agnostic way to allow deployment on multiple robotic platforms, including Talon and Packbot.

  17. Safety of novel microbes for human consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodmann, Theodor; Endo, Akihito; Gueimonde, Miguel; Vinderola, Gabriel; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Vos, de Willem M.; Salminen, Seppo; Gómez-Gallego, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to

  18. Can chatter between microbes prevent cholera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jessica A; Oliveira, Rita Almeida; Xavier, Karina B

    2014-12-01

    Tackling the global rise in antibiotic resistance requires new therapies against infectious microbes. A recent microbiome study identified commensal gut bacteria that reduce colonisation by the cholera pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. This antagonistic interaction might be mediated by quorum sensing, suggesting that these natural microbe-microbe interactions can help prevent infectious disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutrophils, from marrow to microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Niels

    2010-01-01

    . Neutrophils circulate in the blood as dormant cells. At sites of infection, endothelial cells capture bypassing neutrophils and guide them through the endothelial cell lining whereby the neutrophils are activated and tuned for the subsequent interaction with microbes. Once in tissues, neutrophils kill...... microorganisms by microbicidal agents liberated from granules or generated by metabolic activation. As a final act, neutrophils can extrude stands of DNA with bactericidal proteins attached that act as extracellular traps for microorganisms....

  20. Soil microbes and plant fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    With respect to the adverse effects of chemical fertilization on the environment and their related expenses, especially when overused, alternative methods of fertilization have been suggested and tested. For example, the combined use of chemical fertilization with organic fertilization and/or biological fertilization is among such methods. It has been indicated that the use of organic fertilization with chemical fertilization is a suitable method of providing crop plants with adequate amount of nutrients, while environmentally and economically appropriate. In this article, the importance of soil microbes to the ecosystem is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and endophytic bacteria in providing necessary nutrients for plant growth and yield production. Such microbes are beneficial to plant growth through colonizing plant roots and inducing mechanisms by which plant growth increases. Although there has been extensive research work regarding the use of microbes as a method of fertilizing plants, it is yet a question how the efficiency of such microbial fertilization to the plant can be determined and increased. In other words, how the right combination of chemical and biological fertilization can be determined. In this article, the most recent advances regarding the effects of microbial fertilization on plant growth and yield production in their combined use with chemical fertilization are reviewed. There are also some details related to the molecular mechanisms affecting the microbial performance and how the use of biological techniques may affect the efficiency of biological fertilization.

  1. Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) Payload Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, S.C.; Brock, B.C.; Bullington, D.M.; Byrd, D.A.; Claassen, P.J.; Decker, M.L.; Henson, T.D.; Kay, R.R.; Kidner, R.E.; Lanes, C.E.; Little, C.; Marbach, K.D.; Rackley, N.G.; Rienstra, J.L.; Smith, B.W.; Taplin, R.B.; Weber, P.G.

    1999-07-07

    MTI is a comprehensive research and development project that includes up-front modeling and analysis, satellite system design, fabrication, assembly and testing, on-orbit operations, and experimentation and data analysis. The satellite is designed to collect radiometrically calibrated, medium resolution imagery in 15 spectral bands ranging from 0.45 to 10.70 pm. The payload portion of the satellite includes the imaging system components, associated electronics boxes, and payload support structure. The imaging system includes a three-mirror anastigmatic off-axis telescope, a single cryogenically cooled focal plane assembly, a mechanical cooler, and an onboard calibration system. Payload electronic subsystems include image digitizers, real-time image compressors, a solid state recorder, calibration source drivers, and cooler temperature and vibration controllers. The payload support structure mechanically integrates all payload components and provides a simple four point interface to the spacecraft bus. All payload components have been fabricated and tested, and integrated.

  2. Reaction torque minimization techniques for articulated payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Kevin; Aleman, Roberto M.

    1988-01-01

    Articulated payloads on spacecraft, such as antenna telemetry systems and robotic elements, impart reaction torques back into the vehicle which can significantly affect the performance of other payloads. This paper discusses ways to minimize the reaction torques of articulated payloads through command-shaping algorithms and unique control implementations. The effects of reaction torques encountered on Landsat are presented and compared with simulated and measured data of prototype systems employing these improvements.

  3. Remote Advanced Payload Test Rig (RAPTR) Portable Payload Test System for the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John; Freas, George, II

    2017-01-01

    The RAPTR was developed to test ISS payloads for NASA. RAPTR is a simulation of the Command and Data Handling (C&DH) interfaces of the ISS (MIL-STD 1553B, Ethernet and TAXI) and is designed to facilitate rapid testing and deployment of payload experiments to the ISS. The ISS Program's goal is to reduce the amount of time it takes a payload developer to build, test and fly a payload, including payload software. The RAPTR meets this need with its user oriented, visually rich interface. Additionally, the Analog and Discrete (A&D) signals of the following payload types may be tested with RAPTR: (1) EXPRESS Sub Rack Payloads; (2) ELC payloads; (3) External Columbus payloads; (4) External Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) payloads. The automated payload configuration setup and payload data inspection infrastructure is found nowhere else in ISS payload test systems. Testing can be done with minimal human intervention and setup, as the RAPTR automatically monitors parameters in the data headers that are sent to, and come from the experiment under test.

  4. ISS External Payload Accommodations (EXPRESS pallet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Harvey L.

    1996-01-01

    The 'expedite the process of experiments to Space Station' (EXPRESS) pallet which is attached to the DS3 truss segment of the International Space Station (ISS) via the payload attach structure is illustrated. The EXPRESS pallet constitutes the primary ISS external payload carrier. Each pallet carries six robotically replaceable payload adapters which are capable of containing one or more payloads. The following aspects of the EXPRESS program and pallet are illustrated: the concept drivers; the physical integration; the installation and in-orbit replacement; and the experiments to be implemented. The program status is summarized.

  5. Live From Space Station Outreach Payload Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Live from Space Station? Outreach Payload (LFSSOP) is a technologically challenging, exciting opportunity for university students to conduct significant research...

  6. Advanced planning for ISS payload ground processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kimberly A.

    2000-01-01

    Ground processing at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the concluding phase of the payload/flight hardware development process and is the final opportunity to ensure safe and successful recognition of mission objectives. Planning for the ground processing of on-orbit flight hardware elements and payloads for the International Space Station is a responsibility taken seriously at KSC. Realizing that entering into this operational environment can be an enormous undertaking for a payload customer, KSC continually works to improve this process by instituting new/improved services for payload developer/owner, applying state-of-the-art technologies to the advanced planning process, and incorporating lessons learned for payload ground processing planning to ensure complete customer satisfaction. This paper will present an overview of the KSC advanced planning activities for ISS hardware/payload ground processing. It will focus on when and how KSC begins to interact with the payload developer/owner, how that interaction changes (and grows) throughout the planning process, and how KSC ensures that advanced planning is successfully implemented at the launch site. It will also briefly consider the type of advance planning conducted by the launch site that is transparent to the payload user but essential to the successful processing of the payload (i.e. resource allocation, executing documentation, etc.) .

  7. Hidden Worlds of Marine Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    Every drop of seawater contains fantastically diverse groups of microbes that control key biogeochemical processes in the ocean and determine the habitability of our planet. The challenge is to scale from this world of individual cells to ecosystem function and ultimately to ocean basin processes. Our work begins with microscopic marine diatoms because they are responsible for about twenty percent of the photosynthesis that occurs on Earth each year, they form the base of highly productive marine food webs, and they help regulate past and current fluxes of CO2 into the ocean. Diatoms evolved in a dilute environment where they are never free from the influences of other microbes. We explore the specifics of these interactions via model diatom/bacteria systems that can be manipulated in the laboratory - one includes an antagonistic bacterium that inhibits the growth of diatoms and a second includes a synergistic bacterium that enhances the growth of diatoms. We scale up from the cellular level to population-level interactions through use of our continuous flow cytometer, SeaFlow, which taps into a ship's seawater intake system to provide a continuous read-out of abundance, size and type of the smallest phytoplankton. We use this data to estimate division rates and mortality rates of these phytoplankton across thousands of kilometers of ocean basins. We tie these scales together with genomic approaches in both laboratory experiments and in open ocean field studies to document how interactions with the environment and between microbes drive specific adaptations. Our ultimate goal is to understand how microbial communities will respond to and will help shape future ocean conditions.

  8. Altered carbohydrate, lipid, and xenobiotic metabolism by liver from rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, A. H. Jr; Hoel, M.; Wang, E.; Mullins, R. E.; Hargrove, J. L.; Jones, D. P.; Popova, I. A.; Merrill AH, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possible biochemical effects of prolonged weightlessness on liver function, samples of liver from rats that had flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were analyzed for protein, glycogen, and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. Among the parameters measured, the major differences were elevations in the glycogen content and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activities for the rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and decreases in the amount of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and the activities of aniline hydroxylase and ethylmorphine N-demethylase, cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes. These results support the earlier finding of differences in these parameters and suggest that altered hepatic function could be important during spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period.

  9. Microorganisms in environmental management: microbes and environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satyanarayana, T; Johri, B. N; Prakash, Anil

    2012-01-01

    "This survey of recent scientific progress in usefully applying microbes to both environmental management and biotechnology is informed by acknowledgement of the polluting effects on the world around...

  10. Remote Advanced Payload Test Rig (RAPTR) Portable Payload Test System for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Melinda; Henderson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    The RAPTR was developed to test ISS payloads for NASA. RAPTR is a simulation of the Command and Data Handling (C&DH) interfaces of the ISS (MIL-STD1553B, Ethernet and TAXI) and is designed for rapid testing and deployment of payload experiments to the ISS. The ISS's goal is to reduce the amount of time it takes for a payload developer to build, test and fly a payload, including payload software. The RAPTR meets this need with its user oriented, visually rich interface.

  11. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  12. Neutrophils, from marrow to microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Niels

    2010-01-01

    . Neutrophils circulate in the blood as dormant cells. At sites of infection, endothelial cells capture bypassing neutrophils and guide them through the endothelial cell lining whereby the neutrophils are activated and tuned for the subsequent interaction with microbes. Once in tissues, neutrophils kill......Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow from stem cells that proliferate and differentiate to mature neutrophils fully equipped with an armory of granules. These contain proteins that enable the neutrophil to deliver lethal hits against microorganisms, but also to cause great tissue damage...... microorganisms by microbicidal agents liberated from granules or generated by metabolic activation. As a final act, neutrophils can extrude stands of DNA with bactericidal proteins attached that act as extracellular traps for microorganisms....

  13. Commonalities in Symbiotic Plant-Microbe Signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmer, R.; Rutten, L.J.J.; Kohlen, W.; Velzen, van R.; Geurts, R.

    2017-01-01

    Plants face the problem that they have to discriminate symbionts from a diverse pool of soil microbes, including pathogens. Studies on different symbiotic systems revealed commonalities in plant-microbe signalling. In this chapter we focus on four intimate symbiotic interactions: two mycorrhizal

  14. Modulation of host immunity by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In nature, plants abundantly form beneficial associations with soilborne microbes that are important for plant survival and, as such, affect plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Classical examples of symbiotic microbes are mycorrhizal fungi that aid in the uptake of water and minerals, and

  15. Modulation of host immunity by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In nature, plants abundantly form beneficial associations with soilborne microbes that are important for plant survival and, as such, affect plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Classical examples of symbiotic microbes are mycorrhizal fungi that aid in the uptake of water and minerals, and

  16. Space Station Freedom attached payloads and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furio, N.; Pyfer, B.; Smith, R. B., Jr.; Hunt, S. R.; Suddeth, D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Freedom (SSF) attaches external payloads to its main truss structure via Attached Payload Accommodation Equipment (APAE); this equipment also provides access to such SSF resources as electrical power, command/control, and data handling. In orbit, APAE payloads are installed and maintained by a teleoperated robot or by an astronaut in EVA. Commercialization of EPAE will be accomplished by private companies concerned with the development of materials processing, earth resources and ocean resources monitoring, telecommunications, and industrial services. Attention is given to APAE user-integration activity.

  17. Design and analysis of palletized ISS Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoudas, Magdalini Z.; Boyle, David R.

    2000-01-01

    For development of commercial payloads integrated onto EXPRESS Pallet adapters, a wide variety of analysis tools are needed to properly assess the payload's mechanical, structural, and thermal characteristics. The simple transfer of solid model geometries from one of these analysis tools to another, though desired for effective concurrent engineering, can only occasionally be accomplished. The CSCE uses Pro/Engineer to develop the master payload geometry model. In that environment, MSC/NASTRAN and Pro/Mechanica achieve comparable accuracy in the structural analysis of relatively simple geometries; however, use of MSC/NASTRAN requires an additional model development step. For more complex geometries, MSC/NASTRAN offers significantly faster run times. .

  18. Balloonborne lidar payloads for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Hurd, A. G.; Rappaport, S. A.; Reidy, W. P.; Rieder, R. J.; Bedo, D. E.; Swirbalus, R. A.

    1994-02-01

    A series of lidar experiments has been conducted using the Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment payload (ABLE). These experiments included the measurement of atmospheric Rayleigh and Mie backscatter from near space (approximately 30 km) and Raman backscatter measurements of atmospheric constituents as a function of altitude. The ABLE payload consisted of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser transmitter, a 50 cm receiver telescope, and filtered photodetectors in various focal plane configurations. The payload for lidar pointing, thermal control, data handling, and remote control of the lidar system. Comparison of ABLE performance with that of a space lidar shows significant performance advantages and cost effectiveness for balloonborne lidar systems.

  19. Analyses of plasma for metabolic and hormonal changes in rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Alfred H., Jr.; Wang, Elaine; Mullins, Richard E.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Popova, Irina A.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas samples from rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044 were analyzed for the levels of key metabolites, electrolytes, enzymes, and hormones. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in glucose, cholesterol, phosphate, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased levels of thyroxine. Most of these differences were not mimicked by tail suspension of ground-based rats; however, both flight and suspended rats exhibited inhibited testosterone secretion. Corticosterone, immunoreactive growth hormone, and prolactin showed inconsistent differences from the various control groups, suggesting that the levels of these hormones were not due to actual or simulated microgravity.

  20. Spaceflight payload design flight experience G-408

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgin, William W.; Looft, Fred J.; Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Thompson, Robert; Dixon, Anthony G.; Roberti, Dino; Labonte, Robert; Moschini, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Worcester Polytechnic Institute's first payload of spaceflight experiments flew aboard Columbia, STS-40, during June of 1991 and culminated eight years of work by students and faculty. The Get Away Special (GAS) payload was installed on the GAS bridge assembly at the aft end of the cargo bay behind the Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-1) laboratory. The Experiments were turned on by astronaut signal after reaching orbit and then functioned for 72 hours. Environmental and experimental measurements were recorded on three cassette tapes which, together with zeolite crystals grown on orbit, formed the basis of subsequent analyses. The experiments were developed over a number of years by undergraduate students meeting their project requirements for graduation. The experiments included zeolite crystal growth, fluid behavior, and microgravity acceleration measurement in addition to environmental data acquisition. Preparation also included structural design, thermal design, payload integration, and experiment control. All of the experiments functioned on orbit and the payload system performed within design estimates.

  1. Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS), which is part of the JPL Phaeton early career employee hands-on training program, aims to demonstrate optical...

  2. Inference of Environmental Factor-Microbe and Microbe-Microbe Associations from Metagenomic Data Using a Hierarchical Bayesian Statistical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuqing; Chen, Ning; Chen, Ting

    2017-01-25

    The inference of associations between environmental factors and microbes and among microbes is critical to interpreting metagenomic data, but compositional bias, indirect associations resulting from common factors, and variance within metagenomic sequencing data limit the discovery of associations. To account for these problems, we propose metagenomic Lognormal-Dirichlet-Multinomial (mLDM), a hierarchical Bayesian model with sparsity constraints, to estimate absolute microbial abundance and simultaneously infer both conditionally dependent associations among microbes and direct associations between microbes and environmental factors. We empirically show the effectiveness of the mLDM model using synthetic data, data from the TARA Oceans project, and a colorectal cancer dataset. Finally, we apply mLDM to 16S sequencing data from the western English Channel and report several associations. Our model can be used on both natural environmental and human metagenomic datasets, promoting the understanding of associations in the microbial community.

  3. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  4. A global census of marine microbes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amaral-Zettler, L.; Artigas, L.F.; Baross, J.; LokaBharathi, P.A; Boetius, A; Chandramohan, D.; Herndl, G.; Kogure, K.; Neal, P.; Pedros-Alio, C.; Ramette, A; Schouten, S.; Stal, L.; Thessen, A; De Leeuw, J.; Sogin, M.

    In this chapter we provide a brief history of what is known about marine microbial diversity, summarize our achievements in performing a global census of marine microbes, and reflect on the questions and priorities for the future of the marine...

  5. Zhongyuan Offers Drilling Service for Microbes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhiyu

    2001-01-01

    @@ No. 1 Drilling Company of Zhongyuan Petroleum Exploration Bureau and US-based Microbes Inc.signed a drilling engineering contract for six wells in Jilin Oil Field worth more than 11 million yuan in mid-October 2001.

  6. A Cubesat Payload for Exoplanet Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Iuzzolino

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for undiscovered planets outside the solar system is a scientific topic that is rapidly spreading into the astrophysical and engineering communities. In this framework, the design of an innovative payload to detect exoplanets from a nano-sized space platform, like a 3U cubesat, is presented. The selected detection method is photometric transit, and the payload aims to detect flux decrements down to ~0.01% with a precision of 12 ppm. The payload design is also aimed at false positive recognition. The solution consists of a four-facets pyramid on the top of the payload, to allow for measurement redundancy and low-resolution spectral dispersion of the star images. The innovative concept is the use of a small and cheap platform for a relevant astronomical mission. The faintest observable target star has V-magnitude equal to 3.38. Despite missions aimed at ultra-precise photometry from microsatellites (e.g., MOST, BRITE, the transit of exoplanets orbiting very bright stars has not yet been surveyed photometrically from space, since any observation from a small/medium sized (30 cm optical aperture telescope would saturate the detector. This cubesat mission can provide these missing measurements. This work is set up as a demonstrative project to verify the feasibility of the payload concept.

  7. A Cubesat Payload for Exoplanet Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuzzolino, Marcella; Accardo, Domenico; Rufino, Giancarlo; Oliva, Ernesto; Tozzi, Andrea; Schipani, Pietro

    2017-03-02

    The search for undiscovered planets outside the solar system is a scientific topic that is rapidly spreading into the astrophysical and engineering communities. In this framework, the design of an innovative payload to detect exoplanets from a nano-sized space platform, like a 3U cubesat, is presented. The selected detection method is photometric transit, and the payload aims to detect flux decrements down to ~0.01% with a precision of 12 ppm. The payload design is also aimed at false positive recognition. The solution consists of a four-facets pyramid on the top of the payload, to allow for measurement redundancy and low-resolution spectral dispersion of the star images. The innovative concept is the use of a small and cheap platform for a relevant astronomical mission. The faintest observable target star has V-magnitude equal to 3.38. Despite missions aimed at ultra-precise photometry from microsatellites (e.g., MOST, BRITE), the transit of exoplanets orbiting very bright stars has not yet been surveyed photometrically from space, since any observation from a small/medium sized (30 cm optical aperture) telescope would saturate the detector. This cubesat mission can provide these missing measurements. This work is set up as a demonstrative project to verify the feasibility of the payload concept.

  8. A Cubesat Payload for Exoplanet Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuzzolino, M.; Accardo, D.; Rufino, G.; Oliva, E.; Tozzi, A.; Schipani, P.

    2017-03-01

    The search for undiscovered planets outside the solar system is a scientific topic that is rapidly spreading into the astrophysical and engineering communities. In this framework, the design of an innovative payload to detect exoplanets from a nano-sized space platform, like a 3U cubesat, is presented. The selected detection method is photometric transit, and the payload aims to detect flux decrements down to 0.01% with a precision of 12 ppm. The payload design is also aimed at false positive recognition. The solution consists of a four-facets pyramid on the top of the payload, to allow for measurement redundancy and low-resolution spectral dispersion of the star images. The innovative concept is the use of a small and cheap platform for a relevant astronomical mission. The faintest observable target star has V-magnitude equal to 3.38. Despite missions aimed at ultra-precise photometry from microsatellites (e.g., MOST, BRITE), the transit of exoplanets orbiting very bright stars has not yet been surveyed photometrically from space, since any observation from a small/medium sized (30 cm optical aperture) telescope would saturate the detector. This cubesat mission can provide these missing measurements. This work is set up as a demonstrative project to verify the feasibility of the payload concept.

  9. Amine Swingbed Payload Testing on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Amy B.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA Johnson Space Center's test articles of the amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent system known as the CO2 And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed, or CAMRAS, was incorporated into a payload on the International Space Station (ISS). The intent of the payload is to demonstrate the spacecraft-environment viability of the core atmosphere revitalization technology baselined for the new Orion vehicle. In addition to the air blower, vacuum connection, and controls needed to run the CAMRAS, the payload incorporates a suite of sensors for scientific data gathering, a water save function, and an air save function. The water save function minimizes the atmospheric water vapor reaching the CAMRAS unit, thereby reducing ISS water losses that are otherwise acceptable, and even desirable, in the Orion environment. The air save function captures about half of the ullage air that would normally be vented overboard every time the cabin air-adsorbing and space vacuum-desorbing CAMRAS beds swap functions. The JSC team conducted 1000 hours of on-orbit Amine Swingbed Payload testing in 2013 and early 2014. This paper presents the basics of the payload's design and history, as well as a summary of the test results, including comparisons with prelaunch testing.

  10. The High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, Paul; Runco, Susan; Fontanot, Carlos; Getteau, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) payload enables long-term experimentation of four, commercial-of-the-shelf (COTS) high definition video, cameras mounted on the exterior of the International Space Station. The payload enables testing of cameras in the space environment. The HDEV cameras transmit imagery continuously to an encoder that then sends the video signal via Ethernet through the space station for downlink. The encoder, cameras, and other electronics are enclosed in a box pressurized to approximately one atmosphere, containing dry nitrogen, to provide a level of protection to the electronics from the space environment. The encoded video format supports streaming live video of Earth for viewing online. Camera sensor types include charge-coupled device and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor. Received imagery data is analyzed on the ground to evaluate camera sensor performance. Since payload deployment, minimal degradation to imagery quality has been observed. The HDEV payload continues to operate by live streaming and analyzing imagery. Results from the experiment reduce risk in the selection of cameras that could be considered for future use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. This paper discusses the payload development, end-to- end architecture, experiment operation, resulting image analysis, and future work.

  11. Differences in glycogen, lipids, and enzymes in livers from rats flown on COSMOS 2044.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, A H; Wang, E; LaRocque, R; Mullins, R E; Morgan, E T; Hargrove, J L; Bonkovsky, H L; Popova, I A

    1992-08-01

    Livers from rats flown aboard COSMOS 2044 were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate (glycogen), and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in microsomal protein, liver glycogen content, tyrosine aminotransferase, and tryptophan oxygenase and reductions in sphingolipids and the rate-limiting enzyme of heme biosynthesis, delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. These results provide further evidence that spaceflight has pronounced and diverse effects on liver function; however, some of the results with samples from COSMOS 2044 differed notably from those from previous spaceflights. This may be due to conditions of spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period for COSMOS 2044.

  12. Changes in pituitary growth hormone cells prepared from rats flown on Spacelab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R.; Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Fast, T.; Hayes, C.; Motter, K.; Patil, L.; Vasques, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of exposure to microgravity on pituitary gland was investigated by examining cells isolated from anterior pituitaries of rats flown on the 7-day Spacelab 3 mission and, subsequently, cultured for 6 days. Compared with ground controls, flight cells contained more intracellular growth hormone (GH); however, the flight cells released less GH over the 6-day culture period and after implantation into hypophysectomized rats than did the control cells. Compared with control rats, glands from large rats (400 g) contained more somatotrophs (44 percent compared with 37 percent in control rats); small rats (200 g) showed no difference. No major differences were found in the somatotroph ultrastructure (by TEM) or in the pattern of the immunoactive GH variants. However, high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of culture media indicated that flight cells released much less of a biologically active high-molecular weight GH variant, suggesting that space flight may lead to secretory dysfunction.

  13. NRL-ATM extreme ultraviolet solar image TV monitor flown on Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, W. R.; Purcell, J. D.; Schumacher, R. J.; Tousey, R.; Patterson, N. P.

    1977-01-01

    An instrument for recording extreme ultraviolet television images of the sun was flown in the Apollo Telescope Mount on Skylab. Solar radiation in the 171-630 A wavelength range, defined by the transmission band of three thin-film aluminum filters, was focused onto a p-quaterphenyl photon conversion layer by a platinum-coated mirror at normal incidence. The conversion layer was attached to the faceplate of a low light level SEC vidicon. An onboard video monitor enabled the Skylab crews to observe the images in real-time and to identify and follow the development of solar features. Images were also transmitted to the mission control center, where they were used in planning the ATM observing schedule.

  14. Differences in glycogen, lipids, and enzymes in livers from rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Alfred H., Jr.; Wang, Elaine; Laroque, Regina; Mullins, Richard E.; Morgan, Edward T.; Hargrove, James L.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Popova, Irina A.

    1992-01-01

    Livers from rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044 were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate (glycogen), and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in microsomal protein, liver glycogen content, tyrosine aminotransferase, and tryptophan oxygenase and reductions in sphingolipids and the rate-limiting enzyme of heme biosynthesis delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. These results provide further evidence that spaceflight has pronounced and diverse effects on liver function; however, some of the results with samples from Cosmos 2044 differed notably from those from previous spaceflights. This may be due to conditions of spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period for Cosmos 2044.

  15. Approach to Spacelab Payload mission management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. G.; Lester, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleus of the approach to Spacelab Payload mission management is the establishment of a single point of authority for the entire payload on a given mission. This single point mission manager will serve as a 'broker' between the individual experiments and the STS, negotiating agreements by two-part interaction. The payload mission manager, along with a small support team, will represent the users in negotiating use of STS accommodations. He will provide the support needed by each individual experimenter to meet the scientific, technological, and applications objectives of the mission with minimum cost and maximum efficiency. The investigator will assume complete responsibility for his experiment hardware definition and development and will take an active role in the integration and operation of his experiment.

  16. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  17. Ordinary Stoichiometry of Extraordinary Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, M.; Poret-Peterson, A. T.; Anbar, A. D.; Elser, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Life on Earth seems to be composed of the same chemical elements in relatively conserved stoichiometric proportions. However, this observation is largely based on observations of biota from habitats spanning a moderate range of temperature and chemical composition (e.g., temperate lakes, forests, grasslands, oceanic phytoplankton). Whether this stoichiometry is conserved in settings that differ radically from such "normal" planetary settings may provide insight into the habitability of environments with radically different stoichiometries, and into possible stoichiometries for putative life beyond Earth. Here we report the first measurements of elemental stoichiometries of microbial extremophiles from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP). These phototrophic and chemotrophic microbes were collected in locations spanning large ranges of temperature (ambient to boiling) and pH (1 to 9). Microbial biomass was carefully extracted from hot spring sediment substrata following a procedure adapted from [1], which conserves cellular elemental abundances [2]. Their C and N contents were determined by Elemental Analysis Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, and their P and trace element (Mg, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and non-biogenic Al and Ti) contents were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Residual mineral contamination was an issue in some samples with low measured C and N; we eliminated these from our results. Even in the remaining samples, contamination sometimes prevented accurate determinations of cellular Mg, Ca, Mn, and Fe abundances; however, the cellular Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mo contents were several-fold above contamination level. Although hot spring water and sediment elemental abundances varied by orders of magnitude, the data showed that the extremophiles have a major and trace element stoichiometry similar to those previously measured in "normal" microbial biomass [3-6]. For example, biomass C:N:P ratios resembled those

  18. Bioinstrumentation for evaluation of workload in payload specialists: results of ASSESS II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Hans M.; Herrmann, Reinhold; Winget, Charles M.

    1980-11-01

    ASSESS II‡Acronym for Airborne Science/Spacelab Experiments System Simulation. was a cooperative NASA-ESA project which consisted of a detailed simulation of Spacelab operations using the NASA Ames Research Center CV-990 aircraft laboratory. The Medical Experiment reported on in this paper was part of the complex payload consisting of 11 different experiments. Its general purpose was to develop a technology, possibly flown on board of Spacelab, and enabling the assessment of workload through evaluating changes of circadian rhythmicity, sleep disturbances and episodical or cumulative stress. As parameters the following variables were measured: Rectal temperature, ECG, sleep-EEG and -EOG, the urinary excretion of hormones and electrolytes. The results revealed evidence that a Spacelab environment, as simulated in ASSESS II, will lead to internal dissociation of circadian rhythms, to sleep disturbances and to highly stressful working conditions. Altogether these effects will impose considerable workload upon Payload Specialists. It is suggested that an intensive pre-mission system simulation will reduce these impairments to a reasonable degree. The bioinstrumentation applied in this experiment proved to be a practical and reliable tool in assessing the objectives of the study.

  19. Modulation of host immunity by beneficial microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamioudis, Christos; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2012-02-01

    In nature, plants abundantly form beneficial associations with soilborne microbes that are important for plant survival and, as such, affect plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Classical examples of symbiotic microbes are mycorrhizal fungi that aid in the uptake of water and minerals, and Rhizobium bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen for the plant. Several other types of beneficial soilborne microbes, such as plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and fungi with biological control activity, can stimulate plant growth by directly suppressing deleterious soilborne pathogens or by priming aboveground plant parts for enhanced defense against foliar pathogens or insect herbivores. The establishment of beneficial associations requires mutual recognition and substantial coordination of plant and microbial responses. A growing body of evidence suggests that beneficial microbes are initially recognized as potential invaders, after which an immune response is triggered, whereas, at later stages of the interaction, mutualists are able to short-circuit plant defense responses to enable successful colonization of host roots. Here, we review our current understanding of how symbiotic and nonsymbiotic beneficial soil microbes modulate the plant immune system and discuss the role of local and systemic defense responses in establishing the delicate balance between the two partners.

  20. Genitalia-associated microbes in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otti, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    In sexual reproduction different types of symbiotic relationships between insects and microbes have become established. For example, some bacteria have evolved almost exclusive vertical transmission and even define the compatibility of insect mating partners. Many strictly sexually transmitted diseases have also been described in insects. Apart from such rather specific relationships the role of opportunistic infections in the reproductive process has been widely neglected. Opportunistic microbes transmitted passively during mating might impose an energetic cost, as the immune system will need to be alert and will use resources to fight potential intruders. Through mating wounds and contaminated reproductive organs opportunistic microbes might be transferred to mating partners and even enter the body cavity. Females as the "receiving" sex are particularly likely to have evolved adaptations to avoid or reduce opportunistic infections. Males of several species show highly complex seminal fluids, which as well as containing components that influence a males' fertilization success, also possess antimicrobial substances. The role of antimicrobials in the reproductive process is not well understood. Some evidence hints at the protection of sperm against microbes, indicating a role for natural selection in shaping the evolution of reproductive traits. By highlighting the potential importance of microbes in sexual selection and their role in reproduction in general I will make a case for studies in sexual selection, especially the ones investigating postcopulatory processes, that should incorporate environmental, as well as genotypic variation, in reproductive traits.

  1. The Science Payload of the LOFT Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, Marco; den Herder, J.; van der Klis, M.;

    The scientific payload onboard the Large Observatory For x-ray Timing mission (LOFT, see presentation by P. Ray et al. at this meeting) is composed of two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD, 10 m2 effective area in the primary energy range 2-30 keV, 1-deg collimated field of view) and the ...

  2. Versatile architectures for onboard payload signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, Karel Hubertus Gerardus

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a hardware fused-multiply-add floating point unit, called Sabrewing, which has properties that satisfy the needs for payload processing units. Sabrewing is BSD licensed and made in Europe such that it bypasses the export regulations of the USA. It combines floating-point and fix

  3. 14 CFR 1214.119 - Spacelab payloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flight (Ref. § 1214.119(d)(5)). (5) Shared-element flight (Ref. § 1214.119(d)(6)). (b) Definitions—(1... of customer-furnished Spacelab hardware. (l) Computation of sharing and pricing parameters—(1...) Definitions used in computations. (i) Lc=Chargeable payload length, m. The total length in the cargo...

  4. Smart and intelligent sensor payload project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Engineers working on the smart and intelligent sensor payload project include (l to r): Ed Conley (NASA), Mark Mitchell (Jacobs Technology), Luke Richards (NASA), Robert Drackett (Jacobs Technology), Mark Turowski (Jacobs Technology) , Richard Franzl (seated, Jacobs Technology), Greg McVay (Jacobs Technology), Brianne Guillot (Jacobs Technology), Jon Morris (Jacobs Technology), Stephen Rawls (NASA), John Schmalzel (NASA) and Andrew Bracey (NASA).

  5. Alternative trailer configurations for maximizing payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason D. Thompson; Dana Mitchell; John Klepac

    2017-01-01

    In order for harvesting contractors to stay ahead of increasing costs, it is imperative that they employ all options to maximize productivity and efficiency. Transportation can account for half the cost to deliver wood to a mill. Contractors seek to maximize truck payload to increase productivity. The Forest Operations Research Unit, Southern Research Station, USDA...

  6. A survey of load methodologies for shuttle orbiter payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. C.; Garba, J. A.; Salama, M.; Trubert, M.

    1981-01-01

    Loads methods currently being used to design planetary spacecraft to be launched on the shuttle orbiter are summarized. Experiences gained from expendable launch vehicle payloads are used to develop methodologies for the space shuttle orbiter payloads. The objectives for the development of a new methodology for the shuttle payloads are to reduce the cost and schedule for the payload load analysis by decoupling the payload analysis from the launch vehicle to the maximum extent possible. Methods are described for payload member load estimation or obtaining upper bounds for dynamic loads, as well as load prediction or calculating actual transient member load time histories.

  7. MicrobeWorld Radio and Communications Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara Hyde

    2006-11-22

    MicrobeWorld is a 90-second feature broadcast daily on more than 90 public radio stations and available from several sources as a podcast, including www.microbeworld.org. The feature has a strong focus on the use and adapatbility of microbes as alternative sources of energy, in bioremediation, their role in climate, and especially the many benefits and scientific advances that have resulting from decoding microbial genomes. These audio features are permanantly archived on an educational outreach site, microbeworld.org, where they are linked to the National Science Education Standards. They are also being used by instructors at all levels to introduce students to the multiple roles and potential of microbes, including a pilot curriculum program for middle-school students in New York.

  8. Natural transfer of viable microbes in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileikowsky, C; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W; Gladman, B; Horneck, G; Lindegren, L; Melosh, J; Rickman, H; Valtonen, M; Zheng, J Q

    2000-06-01

    The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency.

  9. Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2010-03-01

    Microbes play key geoactive roles in the biosphere, particularly in the areas of element biotransformations and biogeochemical cycling, metal and mineral transformations, decomposition, bioweathering, and soil and sediment formation. All kinds of microbes, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their symbiotic associations with each other and 'higher organisms', can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals. Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides. Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants. Some biominerals or metallic elements deposited by microbes have catalytic and other properties in nanoparticle, crystalline or colloidal forms, and these are relevant to the development of novel biomaterials for technological and antimicrobial purposes. On the negative side, metal and mineral transformations by microbes may result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment, all with immense social

  10. Focal plane actuation to achieve ultra-high resolution on suborbital balloon payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Miller, Alex; Challa, Priya; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Chris; Mauskopf, Phil

    2014-07-01

    Over the past few years there has been remarkable success flying imaging telescope systems suspended from suborbital balloon payload systems. These imaging systems have covered optical, ultraviolet, sub-­-millimeter and infrared passbands (i.e. BLAST, STO, SBI, Fireball and others). In recognition of these advances NASA is now considering ambitious programs to promote planetary imaging from high altitude at a fraction of the cost of similar fully orbital systems. The challenge with imaging from a balloon payload is delivering the full diffraction-­-limited resolution of the system from a moving payload. Good progress has been made with damping mechanisms and oscillation control to remove most macroscopic movement in the departures of the imaging focal plane from a static configuration, however a jitter component remains that is difficult to remove using external corrections. This paper reports on work to demonstrate in the laboratory the utility and performance of actuating a detector focal plane (of whatever type) to remove the final jitter terms using an agile hexapod design. The input to this demonstration is the jitter signal generated by the pointing system of a previously flown balloon mission (the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory, STO). Our group has a mature jitter compensation system that thermally isolates the control head from the focal plane itself. This allows the hexapod to remain at ambient temperature in a vacuum environment with the focal plane cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Our lab design mounts the focal plane on the hexapod in a custom cryostat and delivers an active optical stimulus together with the corresponding jitter signal, using the actuation of the hexapod to correct for the departures from a static, stable configuration. We believe this demonstration will make the case for inclusion of this technological solution in future balloon-­-borne imaging systems requiring ultra-­-high resolution.

  11. Electrifying microbes for the production of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Zhang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Powering microbes with electrical energy to produce valuable chemicals such as biofuels has recently gained traction as a biosustainable strategy to reduce our dependence on oil. Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is one of the bioelectrochemical approaches developed in the last decade that could...... have critical impact on the current methods of chemical synthesis. MES is a process in which electroautotrophic microbes use electrical current as electron source to reduce CO2 to multicarbon organics. Electricity necessary for MES can be harvested from renewable resources such as solar energy, wind...

  12. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on COSMOS 2044.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L; Evans, J; Grindeland, R; Krasnov, I

    1992-08-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, we obtained pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on COSMOS 2044. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to stimulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27% (P less than 0.05) in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (micrograms hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33% (P less than 0.05) compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the COSMOS 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  13. Cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednieks, Maija I.; Popova, Irina A.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    The cellular compartmentalization of the cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart ventricular tissue obtained from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 is determined. Photoaffinity labeling of soluble and particular cell fractions with a (32P)-8-azido analog of cyclic AMP is followed by electrophoretic separation of the proteins and by autoradiographic identification of the labeled isoforms of cAPK R subunits. It is shown that RII in the particulate subcellular fraction was significantly decreased in heart cells from rats in the flight group when compared to controls. Protein banding patterns in both the cytoplasmic fraction and in a fraction enriched in chromatin-bound proteins exhibited some variability in tissues of individual animals, but showed no changes that could be directly attributed to flight conditions. No significant change was apparent in the distribution of RI or RII cyclic AMP binding in the soluble fractions. It is inferred that the cardiac cell integrity or its protein content is not compromised under flight conditions.

  14. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R.; Krasnov, I.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on Cosmos 2044 is obtained. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to simulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27 in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (microg hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33 percent compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  15. Ares V: Shifting the Payload Design Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, Phil; Creech, Steve; Cockrell, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is designing the Ares V heavy-lift cargo launch vehicle to send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than the 1960s-era Saturn V and to provide ongoing support for a permanent lunar outpost. This uncrewed cargo vehicle is designed to operate together with the Ares I crew vehicle (Figure 1). In addition to this role, however, its unmatched mass and volume capability represent a national asset for exploration, science, and commerce. The Ares V also enables or significantly enhances a large class of space missions not thought possible by scientists and engineers since the Saturn V program ended over 30 years ago. Compared to current systems, it will offer approximately five times the mass and volume to most orbits and locations. This should allow prospective mission planners to build robust payloads with margins that are three to five times the industry norm. The space inside the planned payload shroud has enough usable volume to launch the volumetric equivalent of approximately 10 Apollo Lunar Modules or approximately five equivalent Hubble Space Telescopes. This mass and volume capability to low-Earth orbit (LEO) enables a host of new scientific and observation platforms, such as telescopes, satellites, planetary and solar missions, as well as being able to provide the lift for future large in-space infrastructure missions, such as space based solar power and mining, Earth asteroid defense, propellant depots, etc. In addition, payload designers may also have the option of simplifying their designs or employing Ares V s payload as dumb mass to reduce technical and operational risk. The Ares V team is engaging the potential payload community now, two to three years before System Requirements Review (SRR), in order to better understand the additional requirements from the payload community that could be accommodated in the Ares V design in its conceptual phase. This paper will discuss the Ares V reference mission and capability, as well as its

  16. Payload isolation and stabilization by a Suspended Experiment Mount (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Wayne L.; Desanctis, Carmine E.; Nicaise, Placide D.; Schultz, David N.

    1992-01-01

    Many Space Shuttle and Space Station payloads can benefit from isolation from crew or attitude control system disturbances. Preliminary studies have been performed for a Suspended Experiment Mount (SEM) system that will provide isolation from accelerations and stabilize the viewing direction of a payload. The concept consists of a flexible suspension system and payload-mounted control moment gyros. The suspension system, which is rigidly locked for ascent and descent, isolates the payload from high frequency disturbances. The control moment gyros stabilize the payload orientation. The SEM will be useful for payloads that require a lower-g environment than a manned vehicle can provide, such as materials processing, and for payloads that require stabilization of pointing direction, but not large angle slewing, such as nadir-viewing earth observation or solar viewing payloads.

  17. ESPA Based Secondary Payload Orbit Maneuvering System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop/design an integrated propulsion, power, ACS, and separation module for secondary ESPA payloads. The standardized secondary payload...

  18. Gut Microbes Linked to Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of microorganisms that live in and on the human body. These microbes outnumber the body’s cells by 10 ... this is indeed the case.” — by Carol Torgan, Ph.D. Related Links Feeling Out of ... Autoimmune Diseases Rheumatoid Arthritis References: Expansion ...

  19. Plant immune responses triggered by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, A.C.M. van; Ent, S. van der; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Beneficial soil-borne microorganisms, such as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and mycorrhizal fungi,can improve plant performance by inducing systemic defense responses that confer broad-spectrum resistance to plant pathogens and even insect herbivores. Different beneficial microbe-associated m

  20. Natural products from microbes associated with insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Guo, Huijuan; Rischer, Maja;

    2016-01-01

    Here we review discoveries of secondary metabolites from microbes associated with insects. We mainly focus on natural products, where the ecological role has been at least partially elucidated, and/or the pharmaceutical properties evaluated, and on compounds with unique structural features. We...

  1. Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Zamioudis, Christos|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313964742; Berendsen, Roeland L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824151; Weller, David M.; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373; Bakker, Peter A H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of patho

  2. Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Zamioudis, C.; Berendsen, R.L.; Weller, D.M.; Van Wees, S.C.M.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth–promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of patho

  3. Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Zamioudis, C.; Berendsen, R.L.; Weller, D.M.; Van Wees, S.C.M.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth–promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of patho

  4. The Science Payload of the LOFT Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, Marco; den Herder, J.; van der Klis, M.

    The scientific payload onboard the Large Observatory For x-ray Timing mission (LOFT, see presentation by P. Ray et al. at this meeting) is composed of two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD, 10 m2 effective area in the primary energy range 2-30 keV, 1-deg collimated field of view) and the ......The scientific payload onboard the Large Observatory For x-ray Timing mission (LOFT, see presentation by P. Ray et al. at this meeting) is composed of two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD, 10 m2 effective area in the primary energy range 2-30 keV, 1-deg collimated field of view...

  5. Improved Paintball Design and Alternative Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    wavelengths depending on the size and composition of the quantum dots (Bruchez et al., 1998). Cadmium selenide and lead selenide nanoparticles of 2-9 nm...markers. A Canon EOS Rebel modified with an X-Nite filter that blocks wavelengths below 750 nm was used to capture photographs in the near IR...Obscurant Payloads Carbon black was dispersed fairly well into vegetable oil. However, the carbon black settles out of solution within a few minutes

  6. VentureStar(tm) Payload Processing Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Susan

    1998-01-01

    The philosophy and the operations concept of the VentureStar(tm) payload processing system is presented. The goal of VentureStar(tm) operations is to provide low cost access to space. This is to be achieved through the design of the vehicle, and operability of the ground system. Specifically, this is to be accomplished through rapid turnaround cycles, increased launch rate, high system reliability and availability and reduced required operations personnel. This is presented in viewgraph format.

  7. Multiscale simulation of microbe structure and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Harshad; Singharoy, Abhishek; Sereda, Yuriy V; Cheluvaraja, Srinath C; Ortoleva, Peter J

    2011-10-01

    A multiscale mathematical and computational approach is developed that captures the hierarchical organization of a microbe. It is found that a natural perspective for understanding a microbe is in terms of a hierarchy of variables at various levels of resolution. This hierarchy starts with the N -atom description and terminates with order parameters characterizing a whole microbe. This conceptual framework is used to guide the analysis of the Liouville equation for the probability density of the positions and momenta of the N atoms constituting the microbe and its environment. Using multiscale mathematical techniques, we derive equations for the co-evolution of the order parameters and the probability density of the N-atom state. This approach yields a rigorous way to transfer information between variables on different space-time scales. It elucidates the interplay between equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium processes underlying microbial behavior. It also provides framework for using coarse-grained nanocharacterization data to guide microbial simulation. It enables a methodical search for free-energy minimizing structures, many of which are typically supported by the set of macromolecules and membranes constituting a given microbe. This suite of capabilities provides a natural framework for arriving at a fundamental understanding of microbial behavior, the analysis of nanocharacterization data, and the computer-aided design of nanostructures for biotechnical and medical purposes. Selected features of the methodology are demonstrated using our multiscale bionanosystem simulator DeductiveMultiscaleSimulator. Systems used to demonstrate the approach are structural transitions in the cowpea chlorotic mosaic virus, RNA of satellite tobacco mosaic virus, virus-like particles related to human papillomavirus, and iron-binding protein lactoferrin.

  8. Detection of DNA damage by space radiation in human fibroblasts flown on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Gaza, Ramona; Stoffle, Nicholas; Wang, Huichen; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wu, Honglu

    2017-02-01

    Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board spacecraft since the discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation is challenging due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and due to the difficulty in distinguishing the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, are attributed primarily to their exposure to space radiation. In this study, cultured human fibroblasts were flown on the International Space Station (ISS). Cells were kept at 37°C in space for 14 days before being fixed for analysis of DNA damage with the γ-H2AX assay. The 3-dimensional γ-H2AX foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. Quantitative analysis revealed several foci that were larger and displayed a track pattern only in the Day 14 flight samples. To confirm that the foci data from the flight study was actually induced from space radiation exposure, cultured human fibroblasts were exposed to low dose rate γ rays at 37°C. Cells exposed to chronic γ rays showed similar foci size distribution in comparison to the non-exposed controls. The cells were also exposed to low- and high-LET protons, and high-LET Fe ions on the ground. Our results suggest that in G1 human fibroblasts under the normal culture condition, only a small fraction of large size foci can be attributed to high-LET radiation in space.

  9. Biological and metabolic response in STS-135 space-flown mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X W; Pecaut, M J; Stodieck, L S; Ferguson, V L; Bateman, T A; Bouxsein, M L; Gridley, D S

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that space flight condition-induced biological damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To explore possible mechanisms, changes in gene expression profiles implicated in oxidative stress and in ECM remodeling in mouse skin were examined after space flight. The metabolic effects of space flight in skin tissues were also characterized. Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) was launched at the Kennedy Space Center on a 13-day mission. Female C57BL/6 mice were flown in the STS-135 using animal enclosure modules (AEMs). Within 3-5 h after landing, the mice were euthanized and skin samples were harvested for gene array analysis and metabolic biochemical assays. Many genes responsible for regulating production and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly (p 1.5 compared to AEM control. For ECM profile, several genes encoding matrix and metalloproteinases involved in ECM remodeling were significantly up-/down-regulated following space flight. To characterize the metabolic effects of space flight, global biochemical profiles were evaluated. Of 332 named biochemicals, 19 differed significantly (p space flight skin samples and AEM ground controls, with 12 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated including altered amino acid, carbohydrate metabolism, cell signaling, and transmethylation pathways. Collectively, the data demonstrated that space flight condition leads to a shift in biological and metabolic homeostasis as the consequence of increased regulation in cellular antioxidants, ROS production, and tissue remodeling. This indicates that astronauts may be at increased risk for pathophysiologic damage or carcinogenesis in cutaneous tissue.

  10. Detection of DNA damage by space radiation in human fibroblasts flown on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Gaza, Ramona; Stoffle, Nicholas; Wang, Huichen; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wu, Honglu

    2017-02-01

    Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board spacecraft since the discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation is challenging due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and due to the difficulty in distinguishing the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, are attributed primarily to their exposure to space radiation. In this study, cultured human fibroblasts were flown on the International Space Station (ISS). Cells were kept at 37 °C in space for 14 days before being fixed for analysis of DNA damage with the γ-H2AX assay. The 3-dimensional γ-H2AX foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. Quantitative analysis revealed several foci that were larger and displayed a track pattern only in the Day 14 flight samples. To confirm that the foci data from the flight study was actually induced from space radiation exposure, cultured human fibroblasts were exposed to low dose rate γ rays at 37 °C. Cells exposed to chronic γ rays showed similar foci size distribution in comparison to the non-exposed controls. The cells were also exposed to low- and high-LET protons, and high-LET Fe ions on the ground. Our results suggest that in G1 human fibroblasts under the normal culture condition, only a small fraction of large size foci can be attributed to high-LET radiation in space.

  11. Atomic Oxygen and Space Environment Effects on Aerospace Materials Flown with EOIM-3 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialdone, John J.; Clatterbuck, Carroll H.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Park, Gloria; Kolos, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Polymer materials samples mounted on a passive carrier tray were flown aboard the STS-46 Atlantis shuttle as complement to the EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials) experiment to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen on the materials and to measure the gaseous shuttle bay environment. The morphological changes of the samples produced by the atomic oxygen fluence of 2.07 x 10(exp 20) atoms/cm(exp 2) are being reported. The changes have been verified using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), gravimetric measurement, microscopic observations and thermo-optical measurements. The samples, including Kapton, Delrin, epoxies, Beta Cloth, Chemglaze Z306, silver Teflon, silicone coatings, 3M tape and Uralane and Ultem, PEEK, Victrex (PES), Polyethersulfone and Polymethylpentene thermoplastic, have been characterized by their oxygen reaction efficiency on the basis of their erosion losses and the oxygen fluence. Those efficiencies have been compared to results from other experiments, when available. The efficiencies of the samples are all in the range of E-24 g/atom. The results indicate that the reaction efficiencies of the reported materials can be grouped in about three ranges of values. The least affected materials which have efficiencies varying from 1 to 10(exp 25) g/atom, include silicones, epoxies, Uralane and Teflon. A second group with efficiency from 10 to 45(exp 25) g/atom includes additional silicone coatings, the Chemglaze Z306 paint and Kapton. The third range from 50 to 75(exp 25) includes organic compound such as Pentene, Peek, Ultem, Sulfone and a 3M tape. A Delrin sample had the highest reaction efficiency of 179(exp 25) g/atom. Two samples, the aluminum Beta cloth X389-7 and the epoxy fiberglass G-11 nonflame retardant, showed a slight mass increase.

  12. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Bridgers, Kevin; Brown, Cecelia Wright

    1995-01-01

    The tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for nearly six years. During this time, the tomato seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation and solar wind. Upon the return of the LDEF to earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the long term effect of cosmic rays on living tissue. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray analysis of the control as well as Space-exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the Electron Microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the Space-exposed seeds than on the Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results show that the Space-exposed seeds germinate sooner than the Earth-Based seeds. Also, the Space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate). The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with Argon/Gold Palladium Plasma, they were ready to be viewed under the Electron Microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. The Space-exposed specimens displayed a high concentration of copper and calcium in the two specimens. There was a significantly high concentration of copper in the Earth-based specimens, whereas there was no copper in the Space-exposed specimens.

  13. Microbe inhibition by Tribolium flour beetles varies with beetle species, strain, sex, and microbe group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendeville, Holly R; Stevens, Lori

    2002-06-01

    Tribolium flour beetles produce defensive compounds, including quinones, putatively aimed at deterring predators and inhibiting microbes. Here we examine how effective the defensive secretions of Tribolium confusum and T. castaneum are at inhibiting growth of various microbes and how this varies with species, geographic strain, and sex of the beetles. We explore differences at both the kingdom and species level of common flour microbes in their susceptibility to defensive compounds. Beetle species and strains vary in their ability to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, microbes vary in their sensitivity to the beetles' defense compounds. The capability to suppress microbial growth is likely under stabilizing selection with optimum quinone production varying among populations and may be dependent on several environmental factors including temperature, humidity, and predators.

  14. PIMS-Universal Payload Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Ralph; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the overall manager and integrator of International Space Station (ISS) science payloads and experiments, the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) at Marshall Space Flight Center had a critical need to provide an information management system for exchange and management of ISS payload files as well as to coordinate ISS payload related operational changes. The POIC's information management system has a fundamental requirement to provide secure operational access not only to users physically located at the POIC, but also to provide collaborative access to remote experimenters and International Partners. The Payload Information Management System (PIMS) is a ground based electronic document configuration management and workflow system that was built to service that need. Functionally, PIMS provides the following document management related capabilities: 1. File access control, storage and retrieval from a central repository vault. 2. Collect supplemental data about files in the vault. 3. File exchange with a PMS GUI client, or any FTP connection. 4. Files placement into an FTP accessible dropbox for pickup by interfacing facilities, included files transmitted for spacecraft uplink. 5. Transmission of email messages to users notifying them of new version availability. 6. Polling of intermediate facility dropboxes for files that will automatically be processed by PIMS. 7. Provide an API that allows other POIC applications to access PIMS information. Functionally, PIMS provides the following Change Request processing capabilities: 1. Ability to create, view, manipulate, and query information about Operations Change Requests (OCRs). 2. Provides an adaptable workflow approval of OCRs with routing through developers, facility leads, POIC leads, reviewers, and implementers. Email messages can be sent to users either involving them in the workflow process or simply notifying them of OCR approval progress. All PIMS document management and OCR workflow controls are

  15. Diffuse symbioses: roles of plant-plant, plant-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions in structuring the soil microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Matthew G; Schlatter, Daniel C; Otto-Hanson, Lindsey; Kinkel, Linda L

    2014-03-01

    A conceptual model emphasizing direct host-microbe interactions has dominated work on host-associated microbiomes. To understand plant-microbiome associations, however, broader influences on microbiome composition and functioning must be incorporated, such as those arising from plant-plant and microbe-microbe interactions. We sampled soil microbiomes associated with target plant species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Lespedeza capitata, Lupinus perennis) grown in communities varying in plant richness (1-, 4-, 8- or 16-species). We assessed Streptomyces antagonistic activity and analysed bacterial and Streptomyces populations via 454 pyrosequencing. Host plant species and plant richness treatments altered networks of coassociation among bacterial taxa, suggesting the potential for host plant effects on the soil microbiome to include changes in microbial interaction dynamics and, consequently, co-evolution. Taxa that were coassociated in the rhizosphere of a given host plant species often showed consistent correlations between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) relative abundance and Streptomyces antagonistic activity, in the rhizosphere of that host. However, in the rhizosphere of a different host plant species, the same OTUs showed no consistency, or a different pattern of responsiveness to such biotic habitat characteristics. The diversity and richness of bacterial and Streptomyces communities exhibited distinct relationships with biotic and abiotic soil characteristics. The rhizosphere soil microbiome is influenced by a complex and nested array of factors at varying spatial scales, including plant community, plant host, soil edaphics and microbial taxon and community characteristics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Trajectory Generation Approach for Payload Directed Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Corey A.; Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu

    2009-01-01

    Presently, flight systems designed to perform payload-centric maneuvers require preconstructed procedures and special hand-tuned guidance modes. To enable intelligent maneuvering via strong coupling between the goals of payload-directed flight and the autopilot functions, there exists a need to rethink traditional autopilot design and function. Research into payload directed flight examines sensor and payload-centric autopilot modes, architectures, and algorithms that provide layers of intelligent guidance, navigation and control for flight vehicles to achieve mission goals related to the payload sensors, taking into account various constraints such as the performance limitations of the aircraft, target tracking and estimation, obstacle avoidance, and constraint satisfaction. Payload directed flight requires a methodology for accurate trajectory planning that lets the system anticipate expected return from a suite of onboard sensors. This paper presents an extension to the existing techniques used in the literature to quickly and accurately plan flight trajectories that predict and optimize the expected return of onboard payload sensors.

  17. Final Science Reports of the US Experiments Flown on the Russian Biosatellite Cosmos 2229

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor); Helwig, Denice A. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Cosmos 2229 was launched on December 29, 1992, containing a biological payload including two young male rhesus monkeys, insects, amphibians, and cell cultures. The biosatellite was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia for a mission duration of 11.5 days. The major research objectives were: (1) Study of adaptive response mechanisms of mammals during flight; and (2) Study of physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular, motor system and brain function in primates during early and later adaptation phases. American scientists and their Russian collaborators conducted 11 experiments on this mission which included extensive preflight and postflight studies with rhesus monkeys. Biosamples and data were subsequently transferred to the United States. The U.S. responsibilities for this flight included the development of experiment protocols, the fabrication of some flight instrumentation and experiment-specific ground-based hardware, the conducting of preflight and postflight testing and the analysis of biospecimens and data for the U.S. experiments. A description of the Cosmos 2229 mission is presented in this report including preflight, on-orbit and postflight activities. The flight and ground-based bioinstrumentation which was developed by the U.S. and Russia is also described, along with the associated preflight testing ot the U.S. hardware. Final Science Reports for the experiments are also included.

  18. Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Corné M J; Zamioudis, Christos; Berendsen, Roeland L; Weller, David M; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of pathogens and insect herbivores. A wide variety of root-associated mutualists, including Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Trichoderma, and mycorrhiza species sensitize the plant immune system for enhanced defense without directly activating costly defenses. This review focuses on molecular processes at the interface between plant roots and ISR-eliciting mutualists, and on the progress in our understanding of ISR signaling and systemic defense priming. The central role of the root-specific transcription factor MYB72 in the onset of ISR and the role of phytohormones and defense regulatory proteins in the expression of ISR in aboveground plant parts are highlighted. Finally, the ecological function of ISR-inducing microbes in the root microbiome is discussed.

  19. Electrifying microbes for the production of chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier-Luc eTremblay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Powering microbes with electrical energy to produce valuable chemicals such as biofuels has recently gained traction as a biosustainable strategy to reduce our dependence on oil. Microbial electrosynthesis (MES is one of the bioelectrochemical approaches developed in the last decade that could have critical impact on the current methods of chemical synthesis. MES is a process in which electroautotrophic microbes use electrical current as electron source to reduce CO2 to multicarbon organics. Electricity necessary for MES can be harvested from renewable resources such as solar energy, wind turbine or wastewater treatment processes. The net outcome is that renewable energy is stored in the covalent bonds of organic compounds synthesized from greenhouse gas. This review will discuss the future of MES and the challenges that lie ahead for its development into a mature technology.

  20. Darwin, microbes and evolution by natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxon, E Richard

    2011-01-01

    Born 200 years ago, Darwin's revolutionary ideas were derived largely from his observations on life forms that evolved relatively recently, including various flowering plants, worms, birds and domesticated animals. Yet, life appeared on planet earth close to 4 billion years ago in the form of unicellular organisms collectively called bacteria. It was only shortly after "On the Origin of Species" was published (1859) that the "germ theory" of infectious diseases was formulated. Microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi and microparasites) received scant mention in Darwin's writings, although pioneers of the Golden Age of Bacteriology, such as Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), were contemporaries. Today, microbes offer extraordinary testimony and powerful model systems of direct relevance to the essentials of Darwinian selection, such as understanding microbial-host interactions, the evolution of pathogens and the emergence of drug- or vaccine-related resistance.

  1. Ecological Interactions Between Metals and Microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopka, Allan E.

    2004-06-01

    Analyses of chromium resistant microbes. Culturable xylene-degrading and chromate-resistant microbes were obtained from chronically cocontaminated soil using a microcosm enrichment technique, and shown to correlate to dominant soil populations using culture independent techniques. The soil microbial community proved able to mount a respiratory response to addition of xylene in the presence of chromate. The majority of isolates belonged to the ubiquitous but poorly studied high %G+C Gram positive genus Arthrobacter, and exhibited considerable genotypic and phenotypic variability. Phenotypic assays uncovered a wide variation in the levels of chromate resistance, even between very closely related strains. Primers designed against conserved motifs in the known chrA chromate efflux gene failed to detect similar sequences among the chromate resistant Arthrobacter isolates obtained through enrichment.

  2. Dietary microbes modulate transgenerational cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutahidis, Theofilos; Varian, Bernard J; Levkovich, Tatiana; Lakritz, Jessica R; Mirabal, Sheyla; Kwok, Caitlin; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Kearney, Sean M; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Alm, Eric J; Erdman, Susan E

    2015-04-01

    Environmental factors are suspected in the increase of obesity and cancer in industrialized countries but are poorly understood. Here, we used animal models to test how future generations may be affected by Westernized diets. We discover long-term consequences of grandmothers' in utero dietary exposures, leading to high rates of obesity and frequent cancers of lung and liver in two subsequent generations of mice. Transgenerational effects were transplantable using diet-associated bacteria communities alone. Consequently, feeding of beneficial microbes was sufficient to lower transgenerational risk for cancer and obesity regardless of diet history. Targeting microbes may be a highly effective population-based approach to lower risk for cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. The Study of the Microbes Degraded Polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Long Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the observation that Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio could eat polystyrene (PS, we setup the platform to screen the gut microbes of these two worms. To take advantage of that Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio can eat and digest polystyrene as its diet, we analyzed these special microbes with PS plate and PS turbidity system with time courses. There were two strains TM1 and ZM1 which isolated from Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio, and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that TM1 and ZM1 were cocci-like and short rod shape Gram-negative bacteria under microscope. The PS plate and turbidity assay showed that TM1 and ZM1 could utilize polystyrene as their carbon sources. The further study of PS degraded enzyme and cloning warrants our attention that this platform will be an excellent tools to explore and solve this problem.

  4. Working with miraculous microbes against corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Ling

    2009-01-01

    @@ Microorganisms, despite of their simple structure and tiny size, are often vital to humans and the environment. You might know about their contributions to the Earth's carbon cycle and amazing ability to decompose waste products. But have you ever heard of microbes that eat away undersea metal, or those who protect iron from corrosion? Some may even wow you with the feat to generate electricity and clean up polluted water!

  5. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  6. The MicrOBS study around Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Lee, C.

    2007-12-01

    Since 2005, we have managed 16 MicrOBS, designed by the French IFREMER, to study the earthquake and crustal structute around Taiwan. The instrument itself is very light (20 kgs) and easy to operate. This OBS has a measuring period up to 2 weeks in the seafloor. We have conducted the works, aiming to get a better understanding of the ¡§marine¡¨ earthquakes, from the in situ small event to the big earthquake. For example, a study of the seismic gaps in the offshore region becomes workable as compare with the time when we only have the land seismological instruments. We have also used this instrument to obtain a detail study of the gas hydrate and free gas zone. Whenever a large seismic source is available, we then conduct the local and regional crustal studies, such as in the Philippine Sea and South China Sea. In the last 3 years, we have directed 285 deployments of MicrOBS around Taiwan. More than 80 per cent of the natural earthquakes in Taiwan (in an average of about 15,000 events of Mm greater than 2 events per year) were occurred in offshore area. Big earthquakes (i.e. Mm greater than 6) are more often happen in the offshore area than that in the onshore region. Therefore, the tools (MicrOBS and OBS) to measure these ¡§marine¡¨ earthquakes become essential to understand the character and origin of crustal dynamics, particularly in the seismogenic zone.

  7. Expert System Software Assistant for Payload Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark N.

    1997-01-01

    The broad objective of this expert system software based application was to demonstrate the enhancements and cost savings that can be achieved through expert system software utilization in a spacecraft ground control center. Spacelab provided a valuable proving ground for this advanced software technology; a technology that will be exploited and expanded for future ISS operations. Our specific focus was on demonstrating payload cadre command and control efficiency improvements through the use of "smart" software which monitors flight telemetry, provides enhanced schematic-based data visualization, and performs advanced engineering data analysis.

  8. Validation of automated payload experiment tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Gary A.; Provancha, Anna; Chattam, David

    1995-01-01

    The System Management and Production Laboratory, Research Institute, The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), was tasked by the Microgravity Experiment Projects (MEP) Office of the Payload projects Office (PPO) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to conduct research in the current methods of written documentation control and retrieval. The goals of this research were to determine the logical interrelationships within selected NASA documentation, and to expand on a previously developed prototype system to deliver a distributable, electronic knowledge-based system. This computer application would then be used to provide a 'paperless' interface between the appropriate parties for the required NASA documentation.

  9. Optical Payload for the STARE Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, L; Riot, V; De Vries, W; Olivier, S S; Pertica, A; Bauman, B J; Phillion, D; Nikolaev, S

    2011-03-13

    Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) is a nano-sat based mission designed to better determine the trajectory of satellites and space debris in orbit around earth. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the mission and its place in the larger context of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). We then describe the details of the central optical payload, touching on the optical design and characterization of the on-board image sensor used in our Cubesat based prototype. Finally, we discuss the on-board star and satellite track detection algorithm central to the success of the mission.

  10. Laser altimeter of CE-1 payloads system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The design and operation of the Laser Altimeter of CE-1 Payloads System are presented in this paper.The paper includes the design of the system and spacecraft-level laser,the description of the emitting-system and receiving system,and the testing of the laser altimeter.The CE-1 laser altimeter is the first Chinese deep-space probe using a laser.It has one beam and operates at 1 Hz,with a nominal accuracy of 5 m.The laser altimeter has operated successfully in lunar orbit since November 28,2007.It has obtained 9120 thousand data values about the lunar altitude.

  11. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The main idea behind the MetNet landing vehicles is to use a state-of-the-art inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized and more mass and volume resources are spared for the science payload. The vehicle decelerates its entry speed using the inflatable structure and final landing sequence includes a cone headed body penetrating the Martian soil. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: - Pressure device (MetBaro): mass 100g, measurement range 0..1015 hPa. - Humidity device (MetHumi): mass 15g, measurement range 0..100%RH. - Temperature sensors (MetTemp): mass 2g each, measurement range -110C..+30C. Optical devices: - Panoramic camera (PanCam): mass 100g, FOV 4 lenses mounted at 90 deg - Solar irradiance sensor (MetSIS) with optical wireless system (OWLS) for data transfer: mass 115g (MetSIS) and 7g (OWLS module), wavelength range 190..1100nm. MetSIS equipped with 28 optical detectors, two temperature sensors and two solar incidence angle detectors. - Dust sensor (DS): mass 42g, resolution: 10 particles / cm3. Composition and structure device: - Magnetometer (MOURA): mass 80g, measurement range: ±30uT. MetNet Mission payload instruments are specially designed to operate in very low power conditions. MNL flexible solar panels provides a total of

  12. Explosive vapor detection payload for small robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimac, Phil J.; Pettit, Michael; Wetzel, John P.; Haas, John W.

    2013-05-01

    Detection of explosive hazards is a critical component of enabling and improving operational mobility and protection of US Forces. The Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) developed by the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is addressing this challenge for dismounted soldiers. Under the AMDS program, ARA has developed a vapor sampling system that enhances the detection of explosive residues using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors. The Explosives Hazard Trace Detection (EHTD) payload is designed for plug-and-play installation and operation on small robotic platforms, addressing critical Army needs for more safely detecting concealed or exposed explosives in areas such as culverts, walls and vehicles. In this paper, we describe the development, robotic integration and performance of the explosive vapor sampling system, which consists of a sampling "head," a vapor transport tube and an extendable "boom." The sampling head and transport tube are integrated with the boom, allowing samples to be collected from targeted surfaces up to 7-ft away from the robotic platform. During sample collection, an IR lamp in the sampling head is used to heat a suspected object/surface and the vapors are drawn through the heated vapor transport tube to an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for detection. The EHTD payload is capable of quickly (less than 30 seconds) detecting explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX at nanogram levels on common surfaces (brick, concrete, wood, glass, etc.).

  13. Plant-driven selection of microbes in the rhizosphere and plant-microbe feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil ESSARIOUI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant impacts on soil microbial communities and plant-microbe feedbacks have become the focus of much research. Recent advances in plant-microbe interactions investigations show that plants are able to shape their rhizosphere microbiome through diverse mechanisms. In this review, we gather findings from across multiple studies on the role of plants in altering the structure and functions of microbes in the rhizosphere. In addition, we discuss the roles of diverse phytochemicals in mediating these effects. Finally, we highlight that selective enrichment of specific microorganisms in the rhizosphere has either negative feedbacks, with pathogen accumulation in the rhizosphere; or, perhaps most importantly, positive feedbacks as a result of the recruitment of a beneficial microflora. Insights into the mechanisms that underpin plant selection of microbial communities with positive feedbacks will provide new opportunities to increase crop production.

  14. Vibration and acoustic environments for payload/cargo integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R. E.; Coody, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Shuttle orbiter launch vibration and acoustic environments for cargo bay/payload interfaces are predicted. Data acquired during Shuttle flight tests are compared with the preflight estimates. Vibration response data for payload attachment locations are presented, along with acoustic data in the form of noise-level spectra measured at various locations in the cargo bay and space averages of the noise levels. It is shown that the payload-bay vibration and acoustic environments are generally less severe than predicted.

  15. Mission-Aware Payloads for Unmanned Platforms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sentix and Brigham Young University propose the research and development of embedded payload intelligence for inflight optimization of surveillance, reconnaissance,...

  16. Cryogenic performance of the space infrared optical payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Tan, Fanjiao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Mingdong; Wang, Haipeng

    2016-10-01

    A model as well as the methodology is proposed to analyze the cryogenic performance of space infrared optical payload. And the model is established from two aspects: imaging quality and background radiation. On the basis of finite element analysis, the deformation of optical surface in cryogenic environment is characterized by Zernike polynomials, and then, the varying pattern of MTF of space cryogenic optical payload could be concluded accordingly. Then from the theory of thermal radiative transfer, the temperature distribution and the deformation of the optical payload under the action of inertial load and thermal load are analyzed based on the finite element method, and the spontaneous radiation and scattering properties of the optical surface and shielding factors between the opto-mechanical structure are considered to establish the radiation calculation model. Furthermore, the cryogenic radiation characteristics of the space infrared optical payload are obtained by the radiation calculation model. Finally, experiments are conducted using an actual off-axis TMA space infrared optical payload. And the results indicate that the background radiation of the space infrared optical payload is decreased by 79% while 33% for MTF at the thermal control temperature of 240K. In this circumstance, the system background radiation is effectively suppressed and the detection sensitivity of the optical payload is improved as well, while the imaging quality is acceptable. The model proposed in this paper can be applied to the analyzing cryogenic properties of space infrared optical payload, and providing theoretical guidance for the design and application of the space cryogenic optical payload.

  17. Natural products from microbes associated with insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Beemelmanns

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Here we review discoveries of secondary metabolites from microbes associated with insects. We mainly focus on natural products, where the ecological role has been at least partially elucidated, and/or the pharmaceutical properties evaluated, and on compounds with unique structural features. We demonstrate that the exploration of specific microbial–host interactions, in combination with multidisciplinary dereplication processes, has emerged as a successful strategy to identify novel chemical entities and to shed light on the ecology and evolution of defensive associations.

  18. Overview of the New Horizons Science Payload

    CERN Document Server

    Weaver, H A; Tapley, M B; Young, L A; Stern, S A

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons mission was launched on 2006 January 19, and the spacecraft is heading for a flyby encounter with the Pluto system in the summer of 2015. The challenges associated with sending a spacecraft to Pluto in less than 10 years and performing an ambitious suite of scientific investigations at such large heliocentric distances (> 32 AU) are formidable and required the development of lightweight, low power, and highly sensitive instruments. This paper provides an overview of the New Horizons science payload, which is comprised of seven instruments. Alice provides spatially resolved ultraviolet spectroscopy. The Ralph instrument has two components: the Multicolor Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), which performs panchromatic and color imaging, and the Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA), which provides near-infrared spectroscopic mapping capabilities. The Radio Experiment (REX) is a component of the New Horizons telecommunications system that provides both occultation and radiometry capabilities. ...

  19. A highly integrated payload suite for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M.; Kraft, S.; Steiger, R.; Varlet, F.; Voigt, D.; Falkner, P.; Peacock, A.

    The four Galilean moons have always held a public and scientific fascination due to their diverse and dynamic nature. Amongst the moons, Europa holds a special place for its potential liquid water ocean, beneath its icy crust. This prospect of water places Europa on a par with Mars in terms of its viability for harbouring life. The first hints of Europa's icy surface came from early telescopic observations, which noted an unusually high albedo. Ground based spectroscopy then demonstrated absorption features of relatively pure water ice. Imagery from Pioneer, Voyager, and more recently Galileo confirm this, with the kilometre scale resolution of Galileo showing what appear to be ice flows. The lack of cratering, pointing to a geologically recent surface, furthermore suggests that liquid water could well exist today. The Galileo Europa Mission (GEM) provided much more extensive data during its 8 close orbits, including limited areas of extremely high resolution imaging (6 m), and radio science that confirmed the differentiated nature of Europa. However, many fundamental questions remain that can best be answered by a dedicated orbiter. For example: - Does a liquid water ocean exist? What it its extent vertically and laterally? - What is the composition of the crust? - What are the geological processes operating? The importance of these most basic questions have inspired mission proposals from all of the major space agencies. In Europe, ESA have performed a study into a mission called the "Jupiter Minisat Explorer" in order to identify the key technologies that would have to be developed [1]. The key technological challenges are caused by the harsh Jovian radiation environment, the lack of solar energy available and the thermal problems of such a cold environment. Last, but not least, a payload must be designed that satisfies these requirements and is both low power and low mass. All of these factors dictate the use of a Highly Integrated Payload Suite (HIPS). Such a

  20. Radio imaging of launch vehicles and payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Harrison E.

    1988-01-01

    The detection and tracing of rockets and payloads by microwave or millimeter-wave passive radio temperature measurements is analytically studied using radio astronomical techniques. Radio image reconstruction is performed by spatial filtering of multiple, simultaneous, equally-spaced radio brightness measurements. Both Wiener filtering for complex images and matched filtering for separated, point targets are considered. Output SNR is found to improve as receiver integration time increases, but blurring due to image motion places a limit on receiver integration time with fixed spatial filters. Little difference is found between an antenna with tapered illumination and low sidelobes and a maximum gain antenna with high sidelobes for interpolation. Several numerical examples are presented in order to give a preliminary indication of the magnitudes of system parameters.

  1. Exploring Mars: The Ares Payload Service (APS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

    1999-08-01

    In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the

  2. Electronic timer for sounding rocket payload use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. P.

    1986-01-01

    An electronic timer has been developed for sounding rocket use. The timer uses CMOS technology for low power consumption and has a battery back-up to keep the timing circuit active in case of a dropout on the payload power bus. Time-event decoding is done by programming EPROM's which enable a +28 volt dc sourcing output. There are 32 discrete outputs which can provide +28 volt dc into a minimum load impedance of 150 ohms. Inputs are designed to operate on standard CMOS voltage levels, but they can withstand +28 volts dc without damage. The timer can be started by either 'G' or lift-off switch closure or umbilical release at lift-off.

  3. ESA'S Biomass Mission System And Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcioni, M.; Bensi, P.; Fois, F.; Gabriele, A.; Heliere, F.; Lin, C. C.; Massotti, L.; Scipal, K.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Explorers are the backbone of the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, providing an important contribution to the understanding of the Earth system. Following the User Consultation Meeting held in Graz, Austria on 5-6 March 2013, the Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) has recommended implementing Biomass as the 7th Earth Explorer Mission within the frame of the ESA Earth Observation Envelope Programme. This paper will give an overview of the satellite system and its payload. The system technical description presented here is based on the results of the work performed during parallel Phase A system studies by two industrial consortia led by EADS Astrium Ltd. and Thales Alenia Space Italy. Two implementation concepts (respectively A and B) are described and provide viable options capable of meeting the mission requirements.

  4. The EJSM Jupiter Europa Orbiter: Planning Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Clark, K.; Greeley, R.; Hendrix, A. R.; Boldt, J.; Tan-Wang, G.; Lock, R.; van Houten, T.; Ludwinski, J.

    2008-09-01

    In the decade since the first return of Europa data by the Galileo spacecraft, the scientific understanding of Europa has greatly matured leading to the formulation of sophisticated new science objectives to be addressed through the acquisition of new data. The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) is one component of the proposed multi-spacecraft Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) designed to obtain data in support of these new science objectives. The JEO planning payload, while notional, is used to quantify engineering aspects of the mission and spacecraft design, and operational scenarios required to obtain the data necessary to meet the science objectives. The instruments were defined to understand the viability of an approach to meet the measurement objectives, perform in the radiation environment and meet the planetary protection requirements. The actual instrument suite would ultimately be the result of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) selection process carried out by NASA.

  5. ISS Microgravity Research Payload Training Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald; Geveden, Rex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Research Discipline has multiple categories of science payloads that are being planned and currently under development to operate on various ISS on-orbit increments. The current program includes six subdisciplines; Materials Science, Fluids Physics, Combustion Science, Fundamental Physics, Cellular Biology and Macromolecular Biotechnology. All of these experiment payloads will require the astronaut various degrees of crew interaction and science observation. With the current programs planning to build various facility class science racks, the crew will need to be trained on basic core operations as well as science background. In addition, many disciplines will use the Express Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) to utilize the accommodations provided by these facilities for smaller and less complex type hardware. The Microgravity disciplines will be responsible to have a training program designed to maximize the experiment and hardware throughput as well as being prepared for various contingencies both with anomalies as well as unexpected experiment observations. The crewmembers will need various levels of training from simple tasks as power on and activate to extensive training on hardware mode change out to observing the cell growth of various types of tissue cultures. Sample replacement will be required for furnaces and combustion type modules. The Fundamental Physics program will need crew EVA support to provide module change out of experiment. Training will take place various research centers and hardware development locations. It is expected that onboard training through various methods and video/digital technology as well as limited telecommunication interaction. Since hardware will be designed to operate from a few weeks to multiple research increments, flexibility must be planned in the training approach and procedure skills to optimize the output as well as the equipment maintainability. Early increment lessons learned

  6. Nonprofit, payload process improvement through lean management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Melissa

    Organizations that are successful and competitive long-term have learned to efficiently utilize their resources, such as money, people, facilities, and time. Over the last half-century, there have been a variety of theories and techniques put forth on how to do this. One recent theory applied in the aerospace industry is Lean Management (LM), which emphasizes a customer focus and a rigorous elimination of activities that do not add value from the customer's perspective. LM has not, until now, been evaluated for small, nonprofit, one-off production organizations (NOPOs). Previous research on LM focused on for-profit companies and large-scale production organizations, producing relatively similar products repetitively (e.g. automobiles, commercial satellites, aircraft, and launch vehicles). One-off production organizations typically create one-of-a-kind products. The purpose of this research is to examine the applicability of LM to a NOPO. LM will improve resource utilization and thereby competitiveness, as well as exploring a new area of knowledge and research. The research methodology consists of conducting case studies, formal and informal interviews, observation and analysis in order to assess whether and how LM may be beneficial. The research focuses on one particular NOPO, BioServe Space Technologies (BST): a nonprofit, payload development organization. Additional NOPOs were interviewed in order to draw more generalized conclusions about LM benefits. The research demonstrates that LM is applicable to NOPOs, thus providing a tool to improve efficiency and competitiveness. Results from this research are guidelines for payload development organizations to implement LM, and highlighting potential LM weaknesses. A major conclusion is that LM needs some minor modifications to be applicable and useful to NOPOs, particularly in terms of value stream mapping. The LM implementation roadmap developed for NOPOs introduces customized metrics, as well as including standard

  7. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER): A Sounding Rocket Payload to Study the near Infrared Extragalactic Background Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemcov, M.; Arai, T.; Battle, J.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Keating, B.; Kim, M. G.; Lee, D. H.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U. W.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Suzuki, K.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.

    2013-08-01

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  8. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Suzuki, K., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  9. Regulation of eIF2α phosphorylation in hindlimb-unloaded and STS-135 space-flown mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Tanjung, Nancy; Swarnkar, Gaurav; Ledet, Eric; Yokota, Hiroki

    2012-09-01

    Various environmental stresses elevate the phosphorylation level of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) and induce transcriptional activation of a set of stress responsive genes such as activating transcription factors 3 and 6 (ATF3 and ATF6), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and Xbp1 (X-box binding protein 1). These stress sources include radiation, oxidation, and stress to the endoplasmic reticulum, and it is recently reported that unloading by hindlimb unloading is such a stress source. No studies, however, have examined the phosphorylation level of eIF2α (eIF2α-p) using skeletal samples that have experienced microgravity in space. In this study we addressed a question: Does a mouse tibia flown in space show altered levels of eIF2α-p? To address this question, we obtained STS-135 flown samples that were harvested 4-7 h after landing. The tibia and femur isolated from hindlimb unloaded mice were employed as non-flight controls. The effects of loading were also investigated in non- flight controls. Results indicate that the level of eIF2α-p of the non-flight controls was elevated during hindlimb unloading and reduced after being released from unloading. Second, the eIF2α-p level of space-flown samples was decreased, and mechanical loading to the tibia caused the reduction of the eIF2α-p level. Third, the mRNA levels of ATF3, ATF6, and CHOP were lowered in space-flown samples as well as in the non-flight samples 4-7 h after being released from unloading. Collectively, the results herein indicated that a release from hindlimb unloading and a return to normal weight environment from space provided a suppressive effect to eIF2α-linked stress responses and that a period of 2-4 h is sufficient to induce this suppressive outcome.

  10. Will ocean acidification affect marine microbes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint, Ian; Doney, Scott C; Karl, David M

    2011-01-01

    The pH of the surface ocean is changing as a result of increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and there are concerns about potential impacts of lower pH and associated alterations in seawater carbonate chemistry on the biogeochemical processes in the ocean. However, it is important to place these changes within the context of pH in the present-day ocean, which is not constant; it varies systematically with season, depth and along productivity gradients. Yet this natural variability in pH has rarely been considered in assessments of the effect of ocean acidification on marine microbes. Surface pH can change as a consequence of microbial utilization and production of carbon dioxide, and to a lesser extent other microbially mediated processes such as nitrification. Useful comparisons can be made with microbes in other aquatic environments that readily accommodate very large and rapid pH change. For example, in many freshwater lakes, pH changes that are orders of magnitude greater than those projected for the twenty second century oceans can occur over periods of hours. Marine and freshwater assemblages have always experienced variable pH conditions. Therefore, an appropriate null hypothesis may be, until evidence is obtained to the contrary, that major biogeochemical processes in the oceans other than calcification will not be fundamentally different under future higher CO(2)/lower pH conditions.

  11. Collective decision-making in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Gillespie, Adin; Kümmerli, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Microbes are intensely social organisms that routinely cooperate and coordinate their activities to express elaborate population level phenotypes. Such coordination requires a process of collective decision-making, in which individuals detect and collate information not only from their physical environment, but also from their social environment, in order to arrive at an appropriately calibrated response. Here, we present a conceptual overview of collective decision-making as it applies to all group-living organisms; we introduce key concepts and principles developed in the context of animal and human group decisions; and we discuss, with appropriate examples, the applicability of each of these concepts in microbial contexts. In particular, we discuss the roles of information pooling, control skew, speed vs. accuracy trade-offs, local feedbacks, quorum thresholds, conflicts of interest, and the reliability of social information. We conclude that collective decision-making in microbes shares many features with collective decision-making in higher taxa, and we call for greater integration between this fledgling field and other allied areas of research, including in the humanities and the physical sciences. PMID:24624121

  12. Diversity of microbes in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiulio, Daniel B

    2012-02-01

    Recent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based studies estimate the prevalence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) to be ≥30-50% higher than that detected by cultivation-based methods. Some species that have been long implicated in causing MIAC remain among the common invaders (e.g. Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma spp., Fusobacterium spp. Streptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp.). Yet we now know from studies based on PCR of the 16S ribosomal DNA that cultivation-resistant anaerobes belonging to the family Fusobacteriaceae (particularly Sneathia sanguinegens, and Leptotrichia spp.) are also commonly found in amniotic fluid. Other diverse microbes detected by PCR of amniotic fluid include as-yet uncultivated and uncharacterized species. The presence of some microbial taxa is associated with specific host factors (e.g. Candida spp. and an indwelling intrauterine device). It appears that MIAC is polymicrobial in 24-67% of cases, but the potential role of pathogen synergy is poorly understood. A causal relationship between diverse microbes, as detected by PCR, and preterm birth is supported by types of association (e.g. space, time and dose) proposed as alternatives to Koch's postulates for inferring causality from molecular findings. The microbial census of the amniotic cavity remains unfinished. A more complete understanding may inform future research directions leading to improved strategies for preventing, diagnosing and treating MIAC.

  13. Collective decision-making in microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Gillespie, Adin; Kümmerli, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Microbes are intensely social organisms that routinely cooperate and coordinate their activities to express elaborate population level phenotypes. Such coordination requires a process of collective decision-making, in which individuals detect and collate information not only from their physical environment, but also from their social environment, in order to arrive at an appropriately calibrated response. Here, we present a conceptual overview of collective decision-making as it applies to all group-living organisms; we introduce key concepts and principles developed in the context of animal and human group decisions; and we discuss, with appropriate examples, the applicability of each of these concepts in microbial contexts. In particular, we discuss the roles of information pooling, control skew, speed vs. accuracy trade-offs, local feedbacks, quorum thresholds, conflicts of interest, and the reliability of social information. We conclude that collective decision-making in microbes shares many features with collective decision-making in higher taxa, and we call for greater integration between this fledgling field and other allied areas of research, including in the humanities and the physical sciences.

  14. Biological Function of REE in Plants & Microbes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) and their compounds are widely applied in agronomic and medical fields for many years. The bioinorganic chemical research of REE during the past few years indicates that REE play important roles in the promotion of photosynthetic rate as well as root absorption, regulation of hormone and nitrogen metabolism, and suppression of microbes, etc. The metallic or non-metallic targets of key biomolecule in various physiological processes can be chosen by REE for the chelation or replacement, which enables REE to regulate the biological functions or behaviors of those biomolecule and consequently leads to significant embodiment of biological function of REE in plants and microbes.Overdose of REE, however, shows an inhibitory effect on living organisms. Therefore, this paper proposes two suggestions that will be available in the extension of full use of REE's biological function. One is to obey the dose law of REE and control REE concentrations within a safe range. The other is to further test the bioaccumulation and long-period influence of REE on organisms.

  15. Soil plant microbe interactions in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, R; Kulakow, P A

    2003-01-01

    Use of vegetation in remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with organic materials is a promising, cost-effective alternative to the more established treatment methods used at hazardous waste sites. Plants can transpire groundwater and lower the concentrations of organic contaminants in soils and groundwater. The evapotranspirational activity of vegetation acts as a natural pump-and-treatment system. Plants have shown the capacity to absorb, uptake, and convert organic contaminants to less toxic metabolites in laboratory and field studies. Vegetation also plays a significant role in bioremediation. This is because plants stimulate the degradation of organic compounds in the rhizosphere by the release of root exudates and enzymes. Success of any plant-based remediation system depends on the interaction of plants with the surrounding soil medium and the contaminant. Knowing the fate of an organic contaminant in the soil can help determine the persistence of the contaminant in the terrestrial environment and ultimately the success of any remediation method. Also, an understanding is needed of soil-plant-microbe interactions that determine the fate of organic contaminants in the soil-plant ecosystem. This paper presents an overview of the subsurface environment and fate and transport processes of organic contaminants as affected by soil-plant-microbe interactions.

  16. Degradation of Microbes for the Crude Oil Contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Production and storage-transportation of crude oil can not only give rise to soil pollution but also destroy ecological environment. Degradation of microbes for oily soil was studied with the instnunent, Geofina Hydrocarbon Meter (GHM), by experimental analysis qualitatively and quantitatively in the paper. Analytical result showed that the crude oil could be considerably degraded by eating-oil microbes in oily soil and the number of eating-oil microbes increased while the working hours of oil-well risi...

  17. Rhizosphere interactions: root exudates, microbes and microbial communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Xing-Feng; Chaparro, Jacqueline M; Reardon, Kenneth F; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2014-01-01

    .... In this review, we summarize recent progress made in unraveling the interactions between plants and rhizosphere microbes through plant root exudates, focusing on how root exudate compounds mediate...

  18. ESA payloads and experiments on the Foton-12 mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, P; Demets, R; Verga, A

    2000-02-01

    The international Foton-12 mission in September 1999 was a milestone in terms of payload mass, complexity and scientific diversity. ESA's contribution amounted to an unprecedented 240 kg--almost half of Foton's total payload. The Agency's 11 experiments covered fluid physics, biology, radiation dosimetry, materials science and meteoritics. This article describes the mission from an ESA perspective and highlights the initial results.

  19. Preliminary results for an aeromagnetic survey flown over Italy using the HALO (High Altitude and LOng range) research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesur, V.; Gebler, A.; Schachtschneider, R.

    2012-12-01

    In June 2012 the GEOHALO mission was flown over Italy using the high altitude and long-range German research aircraft HALO (Gulfstream jet - G550). One goal of the mission was to demonstrate the feasibility of using geodetic and geophysical instrumentation on such fast flying aircraft. Several types of data were acquired including gravity, GNSS signals (reflectometry, spectrometry and occultation), laser altimetry and magnetic data. The magnetic data were collected through two independent acquisition chains placed inside under-wing containers. Each chain included a total intensity cesium magnetometer, a three-component fluxgate magnetometer, several temperature censors and a digitizer. Magnetic and temperature data were collected at a 10 Hz sampling rate. Seven parallel profiles, each around 1000 km long, were flown over the Apennine peninsula from north-west to south-east. The flight altitude was about 3500 m and the survey line spacing around 40 km. These long profiles were complemented by four crossing profiles, and a repeated flight line at a higher altitude (approx. 10500 m). The ground speed during the flight was generally around 125 m/s (450 km/h). The output from the first steps of the magnetic data processing will be shown. The measured magnetic data appear to be consistent with the expected signal.

  20. The External Payload Carrier - A Suborbital Research Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallhorn, Paul; Tatro, Charles; Kutter, Bernard; Szatkowski, Gerald; Stopnitzky, Benny; Bulk, Tim; Pitchford, Brian

    2011-01-01

    High altitude, suborbital research payloads are typically restricted to small packages (in terms of both volume and mass) due to the delivery platform employed. Sounding rockets that normally provide these services have payload capacities which severely limit the size and scope of the research to be performed. A new research platform is currently in the early development phase for large (both volume and mass) payload microgravity suborbital payloads seeking access to these regimes. The EXternal Payload Carrier (XPC) utilizes an open solid rocket motor position on the Atlas V vehicle and aerodynamically mimics the outer contour of a solid rocket motor. This presentation will detail the current state of the design and capability of XPC for potential future users.

  1. Shuttle performance enhancements using an OMS payload bay kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Kevin C.; Mallini, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    The study focuses on the use of an orbital maneuvering system (OMS) payload bay kit (PBK) designed to utilize OMS tanks identical to those currently employed in the Orbiter OMS pods. Emphasis is placed on payload deployment capability and payload servicing/reboost capability augmentation from the point of view of payload mass, maximum deployment altitudes, and initial retrieval and final deployment altitudes. The deployment, servicing, and reboost requirements of the Hubble Space Telescope and Advanced X-ray and Astrophysics Facility are analyzed in order to show the benefits an OMS PBK can provide for these missions. It is shown that OMS PBKs can provide the required capability enhancement necessary to support deployment, reboost, and servicing of payloads requiring altitudes greater than 325 nautical miles.

  2. The Athena Mars Rover Science Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyes, S. W.; Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Carr, M.; Christensen, P.; DesMarais, D.; Economou, T.; Gorevan, S.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Haskin, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor missions that will be launched in April of 2001 will include a highly capable rover that is a successor to the Mars Pathfinder mission's Sojourner rover. The design goals for this rover are a total traverse distance of at least 10 km and a total lifetime of at least one Earth year. The rover's job will be to explore a site in Mars' ancient terrain, searching for materials likely to preserve a record of ancient martian water, climate, and possibly biology. The rover will collect rock and soil samples, and will store them for return to Earth by a subsequent Mars Surveyor mission in 2005. The Athena Mars rover science payload is the suite of scientific instruments and sample collection tools that will be used to perform this job. The specific science objectives that NASA has identified for the '01 rover payload are to: (1) Provide color stereo imaging of martian surface environments, and remotely-sensed point discrimination of mineralogical composition. (2) Determine the elemental and mineralogical composition of martian surface materials. (3) Determine the fine-scale textural properties of these materials. (4) Collect and store samples. The Athena payload has been designed to meet these objectives. The focus of the design is on field operations: making sure the rover can locate, characterize, and collect scientifically important samples in a dusty, dirty, real-world environment. The topography, morphology, and mineralogy of the scene around the rover will be revealed by Pancam/Mini-TES, an integrated imager and IR spectrometer. Pancam views the surface around the rover in stereo and color. It uses two high-resolution cameras that are identical in most respects to the rover's navigation cameras. The detectors are low-power, low-mass active pixel sensors with on-chip 12-bit analog-to-digital conversion. Filters provide 8-12 color spectral bandpasses over the spectral region from 0.4 to 1.1 micron Narrow-angle optics provide an angular resolution of 0

  3. The Athena Mars Rover Science Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyes, S. W.; Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Carr, M.; Christensen, P.; DesMarais, D.; Economou, T.; Gorevan, S.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Haskin, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor missions that will be launched in April of 2001 will include a highly capable rover that is a successor to the Mars Pathfinder mission's Sojourner rover. The design goals for this rover are a total traverse distance of at least 10 km and a total lifetime of at least one Earth year. The rover's job will be to explore a site in Mars' ancient terrain, searching for materials likely to preserve a record of ancient martian water, climate, and possibly biology. The rover will collect rock and soil samples, and will store them for return to Earth by a subsequent Mars Surveyor mission in 2005. The Athena Mars rover science payload is the suite of scientific instruments and sample collection tools that will be used to perform this job. The specific science objectives that NASA has identified for the '01 rover payload are to: (1) Provide color stereo imaging of martian surface environments, and remotely-sensed point discrimination of mineralogical composition. (2) Determine the elemental and mineralogical composition of martian surface materials. (3) Determine the fine-scale textural properties of these materials. (4) Collect and store samples. The Athena payload has been designed to meet these objectives. The focus of the design is on field operations: making sure the rover can locate, characterize, and collect scientifically important samples in a dusty, dirty, real-world environment. The topography, morphology, and mineralogy of the scene around the rover will be revealed by Pancam/Mini-TES, an integrated imager and IR spectrometer. Pancam views the surface around the rover in stereo and color. It uses two high-resolution cameras that are identical in most respects to the rover's navigation cameras. The detectors are low-power, low-mass active pixel sensors with on-chip 12-bit analog-to-digital conversion. Filters provide 8-12 color spectral bandpasses over the spectral region from 0.4 to 1.1 micron Narrow-angle optics provide an angular resolution of 0

  4. Arsenic transport in prokaryotes and eukaryotic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Barry P; Tamás, Markus J

    2010-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) and aquaglyceroporins facilitate transport of a broad spectrum of substrates such as water, glycerol and other small uncharged solutes. More recently, AQPs ave also been shown to facilitate diffusion of metalloids such as arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb). At neutral pH, the trivalent forms of these metalloids are structurally similar to glycerol and hence they can enter cells through AQPs. As- and Sb-containing compounds are toxic to cells, yet both metalloids are used as chemotherapeutic agents for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia and diseases caused by protozoan parasites. In this chapter, we will review the role of AQPs and other proteins in metalloid transport in prokaryotes and eukaryotic microbes.

  5. Gut ecosystem: how microbes help us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, R; Miquel, S; Ulmer, J; Langella, P; Bermúdez-Humarán, L G

    2014-09-01

    The human gut houses one of the most complex and abundant ecosystems composed of up to 1013-1014 microorganisms. Although the anthropocentric concept of life has concealed the function of microorganisms inside us, the important role of gut bacterial community in human health is well recognised today. Moreover, different microorganims, which are commonly present in a large diversity of food products, transit through our gut every day adding in some cases a beneficial effect to our health (probiotics). This crosstalk is concentrated mainly in the intestinal epithelium, where microbes provide the host with essential nutrients and modulation of the immune system. Furthermore, microorganisms also display antimicrobial activities maintaining a gut ecosystem stable. This review summarises some of the recent findings on the interaction of both commensal and probiotic bacteria with each other and with the host. The aim is to highlight the cooperative status found in healthy individuals as well as the importance of this crosstalk in the maintenance of human homeostasis.

  6. Engineering microbes with synthetic biology frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Effendi; Nielsen, David; Solomon, Kevin; Prather, Kristala Jones

    2008-12-01

    Typically, the outcome of biologically engineered unit operations cannot be controlled a priori due to the incorporation of ad hoc design into complex natural systems. To mitigate this problem, synthetic biology presents a systematic approach to standardizing biological components for the purpose of increasing their programmability and robustness when assembled with the aim to achieve novel biological functions. A complex engineered biological system using only standardized biological components is yet to exist. Nevertheless, current attempts to create and to implement modular, standardized biological components pave the way for the future creation of highly predictable artificial biological systems. Although synthetic biology frameworks can be applied to any biological engineering endeavor, this article will focus on providing a brief overview of advances in the field and its recent utilization for the engineering of microbes.

  7. Inactivation of microbes using ultrasound: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyasena, P; Mohareb, E; McKellar, R C

    2003-11-01

    Alternative methods for pasteurization and sterilization are gaining importance, due to increased consumer demand for new methods of food processing that have a reduced impact on nutritional content and overall food quality. Ultrasound processing or sonication is one of the alternative technologies that has shown promise in the food industry. Sonication alone is not very effective in killing bacteria in food; however, the use of ultrasound coupled with pressure and/or heat is promising. Thermosonic (heat plus sonication), manosonic (pressure plus sonication), and manothermosonic (heat and pressure plus sonication) treatments are likely the best methods to inactivate microbes, as they are more energy-efficient and effective in killing microorganisms. Ultrasonic processing is still in its infancy and requires a great deal of future research in order to develop the technology on an industrial scale, and to more fully elucidate the effect of ultrasound on the properties of foods.

  8. The Plot Thickens: Diet Microbe Interactions May Modulate Thrombosis Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Del Campo, Ana; Romano, Kymberleigh A; Rey, Federico E; Balskus, Emily P

    2016-04-12

    Thrombosis plays an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Platelet activation is an essential step in the genesis and propagation of atherothrombotic complications. In a recent publication, Zhu and colleagues report that gut microbe-derived TMAO enhances platelet responsiveness and thrombosis, providing a novel mechanistic connection between microbes and CVD (Zhu et al., 2016).

  9. Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, C.R.; Watkins, C.S.; Bruhn, D.F.; Roberto, F.F.; Tsang, M.N.; Pinhero, P.J. [INEEL (US); Brey, R.F. [ISU (US); Wright, R.N.; Windes, W.F.

    1999-09-03

    Microbes have been isolated and identified from spent nuclear fuel storage pools at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Included among these are Corynebacterium aquaticum, Pseudomonas putida, Comamonas acidovorans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Micrococcus diversus, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, and two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We examined the sensitivity of these microbes to a variety of total exposures of radiation generated by a 6-MeV linear accelerator (LINAC). The advantage of using a LINAC is that it provides a relatively quick screen of radiation tolerance. In the first set of experiments, we exposed each of the aforementioned microbes along with four additional microbes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Escherchia coli, and Deinococcus radiodurans to exposures of 5 x 10{sup 3} and 6 x 10{sup 4} rad. All microbial specimens withstood the lower exposure with little or no reduction in cell population. Upon exposing the microbes to the larger dose of 6 x 10{sup 4} rad, we observed two distinct groupings: microbes that demonstrate resistance to radiation, and microbes that display intolerance through a dramatic reduction from their initial population. Microbes in the radiation tolerant grouping were exposed to 1.1 x 10{sup 5} rad to examine the extent of their resistance. We observe a correlation between radiation resistance and gram stain. The gram-positive species we examined seem to demonstrate a greater radiation resistance.

  10. Payload Operations Center (POC) for the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Center (POC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is the world's primary science command post for the International Space Station (ISS), the most ambitious space research facility in human history. The Payload Operations team is responsible for managing all science research experiments aboard the Station. The center is also home for coordination of the mission-plarning work of variety of international sources, all science payload deliveries and retrieval, and payload training and safety programs for the Station crew and all ground personnel. Within the POC, critical payload information from the ISS is displayed on a dedicated workstation, reading both S-band (low data rate) and Ku-band (high data rate) signals from a variety of experiments and procedures operated by the ISS crew and their colleagues on Earth. The POC is the focal point for incorporating research and experiment requirements from all international partners into an integrated ISS payload mission plan. This photograph is an overall view of the MSFC Payload Operations Center displaying the flags of the countries participating the ISS. The flags at the left portray The United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, Brazil, and Sweden. The flags at the right portray The Russian Federation, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway.

  11. Payload Operations Center (POC) for the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Center (POC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is the world's primary science command post for the International Space Station (ISS), the most ambitious space research facility in human history. The Payload Operations team is responsible for managing all science research experiments aboard the Station. The center is also home for coordination of the mission-plarning work of variety of international sources, all science payload deliveries and retrieval, and payload training and safety programs for the Station crew and all ground personnel. Within the POC, critical payload information from the ISS is displayed on a dedicated workstation, reading both S-band (low data rate) and Ku-band (high data rate) signals from a variety of experiments and procedures operated by the ISS crew and their colleagues on Earth. The POC is the focal point for incorporating research and experiment requirements from all international partners into an integrated ISS payload mission plan. This photograph is an overall view of the MSFC Payload Operations Center displaying the flags of the countries participating the ISS. The flags at the left portray The United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, Brazil, and Sweden. The flags at the right portray The Russian Federation, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway.

  12. INSTALLATION OF SPACELAB 1 MODULE AND EXPERIMENT PALLET INTO THE ORBITER COLUMBIA'S PAYLOAD BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    INSTALLATION OF SPACELAB 1 MODULE AND EXPERIMENT PALLET INTO THE ORBITER COLUMBIA'S PAYLOAD BAY KSC-383C-2862.09 P-16229,ARCHIVE-03950 Payload canister rolling into OPF, removal and installed into the Orbiter 102 payload bay.

  13. Preliminary results of a meteorological payload being developed by IITM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernekar, K. G.; Mohan, B.; Srivastava, S.

    A meteorological rocket payload developed at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) using thermistor as a temperature sensor was flight tested on RH-200 rocket at Thumba (08° 32'N, 76° 52'E), India, during February/April 1982 on four occasions. The corrected data obtained with this payload are compared with Russian rocket, M-100, data. The temperature profile obtained with IITM payload is warmer above 45-km, as compared with M-100 temperature profile, on all occasions. Meridional and zonal winds also agree up to 45-km level. Temperature records show a wave pattern varying in amplitude and frequency in the 20 to 45-km range.

  14. Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility Payload for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Don; Pensinger, John

    2003-01-01

    The LTMPF Payload is a 182-liter superfluid-helium dewar that will be attached to the JEM-EF facility of the International Space Station after launch in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The LTMPF Payload will provide a major low-temperature research laboratory for Fundamental Physics experiments on the International Space Station. The LTMPF payload will provide instrument temperatures below superfluid helium temperatures and the ISS will provide microgravity to allow the experiments to study condensed matter and gravitational physics. Each flight will be allocated to one condensed matter instrument and one gravitation instrument.

  15. Thermal Design Validation of the Mars Scout Phoenix Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Lee, Chern-Jiin

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the validation of the thermal design for the Mars Scout Phoenix Payload. It includes a description of the Phoenix Mission, the science objectives, the timeline, and the flight system and payloads that were on the lander. The initial responsibility for the development and validation the thermal design was with the developers. This process lacked overall system engineering, there was a difference of thermal expertise, and the number of institutions involved complicated the interactions. The revised approach for payload thermal design validation is described.

  16. The EarthCARE satellite payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Kotska; Perez-Albinana, Abelardo; Lemanczyk, Jerzy; Heliere, Arnaud; Wehr, Tobias; Eisinger, Michael; Lefebvre, Alain; Nakatsuka, Hirotaka; Tomita, Eiichi

    2014-10-01

    EarthCARE is ESA's third Earth Explorer Core Mission, with JAXA providing one instrument. The mission facilitates unique data product synergies, to improve understanding of atmospheric cloud-aerosol interactions and Earth radiative balance, towards enhancing climate and numerical weather prediction models. This paper will describe the payload, consisting of two active instruments: an ATmospheric LIDar (ATLID) and a Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), and two passive instruments: a Multi Spectral Imager (MSI) and a Broad Band Radiometer (BBR). ATLID is a UV lidar providing atmospheric echoes, with a vertical resolution of 100 m, up to 40 km altitude. Using very high spectral resolution filtering the relative contributions of particle (aerosols) and Rayleigh (molecular) back scattering will be resolved, allowing cloud and aerosol optical depth to be deduced. Particle scatter co- and cross-polarisation measurements will provide information about the cloud and aerosol particles' physical characteristics. JAXA's 94.05 GHz Cloud Profiling Radar operates with a pulse width of 3.3 μm and repetition frequency 6100 to 7500 Hz. The 2.5 m aperture radar will retrieve data on clouds and precipitation. Doppler shift measurements in the backscatter signal will furthermore allow inference of the vertical motion of particles to an accuracy of about 1 m/s. MSI's 500 m pixel data will provide cloud and aerosol information and give context to the active instrument measurements for 3-D scene construction. Four solar channels and three thermal infrared channels cover 35 km on one side to 115 km on the other side of the other instrument's observations. BBR measures reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the scene. To reduce uncertainty in the radiance to flux conversion, three independent view angles are observed for each scene. The combined data allows more accurate flux calculations, which can be further improved using MSI data.

  17. Detection of DNA damage by space radiation in human fibroblast cells flown on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honglu; Feiveson, Alan; Karouia, Fathi; Stodieck, Louis; Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board the spacecraft since the early discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation has been difficult due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and the difficulty in separating the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, attributed primarily to the exposure to space radiation. In a recent experiment, human fibroblast cells were flown on the International Space Station (ISS). Cells were kept at 370C in space and fixed on Days 3 and 14 after reaching orbit. After returning to the ground, the fixed cells were analyzed for phosphorylation of a histone protein H2AX by immunofluorescent staining of cells, which is a widely used biomarker for DNA double strand breaks. The 3-dimensional γg-H2AX foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. Quantitative analysis revealed a small fraction of foci that were larger and displayed a track pattern in the flight samples in comparison to the ground controls. To confirm that the foci data from the flight study was actually induced from space radiation exposure, human fibroblast cells were exposed to low- and high-LET protons and high-LET Fe ions on the ground. High-LET protons and Fe ions were found to induce foci of the pattern that were observed in the flown cells.

  18. A logic-gated nanorobot for targeted transport of molecular payloads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Shawn M; Bachelet, Ido; Church, George M

    2012-01-01

    We describe an autonomous DNA nanorobot capable of transporting molecular payloads to cells, sensing cell surface inputs for conditional, triggered activation, and reconfiguring its structure for payload delivery...

  19. View of Spacelab 2 pallet in the open payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    View of the Spacelab 2 pallet in the open payload bay. The solar telescope on the Instrument Pointing System (IPS) is fully deployed. The Solar UV high resolution Telescope and Spectrograph are also visible.

  20. Low Cost Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Balloon Payload Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While continuously increasing in complexity, the payloads of terrestrial high altitude balloons need a thermal management system to reject their waste heat and to...

  1. The NASA STORMS Sub-Payload electric field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J.; Swenson, C. M.; Barjatya, A.; Sanderson, W.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA STORMS sounding rocket, 36.218, was launched at 00:10 LT on October 30, 2007 into a mid- latitude spread-F condition over Wallops Island. The rocket deployed instrumented main and sub-payloads. The sub payload instrument complement included a plasma impedance probe for measuring plasma density, a Langmuir probe for relative plasma density and temperature measurements and the daughter electric field experiment. Unfortunately the sub-payload coned badly upon deployment complicating the data reduction. Within this paper we present a description of our data reduction techniques which are based upon an all magnetic attitude solution for the sub-payload's complex motion. The attitude solution is used to present preliminary density and electric field observations within this mid-latitude spread-F event.

  2. Response Analysis Of Payload Fairing Due To Acoustic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annu Cherian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During flight missions launch vehicles are subjected to a severe dynamic pressure loading aero-acoustic and structure-borne excitations of various circumstances which can endanger the survivability of the payload and the vehicles electronic equipment and consequently the success of the mission. The purpose of the fairing is to protect the satellite from damage during launch until deployment in space. Both the structural and acoustic loads are significant during the first few minutes of a launch and have the potential to damage the payload. This paper describes the analysis of mechanical structure and the inner acoustic cavity of the payload fairing subjected to acoustic field. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of the fairing is analyzed using Statistical Energy Analysis SEA Model. The software VA One is used for the statistical energy analysis of launch vehicle payload fairing due to acoustic excitation.

  3. ESPA Based Secondary Payload Orbit Maneuvering System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop an integrated propulsion, power, ACS, (ProPACS) system for micro-spacecraft deployed from the ESPA ring secondary payload ports. The...

  4. Plastic Melt Waste Compactor Flight Demonstrator Payload (PFDP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PMWC Flight Demonstrator Payload is a trash dewatering and volume reduction system that uses heat melt compaction to remove nearly 100% of water from trash while...

  5. Amphibian skin may select for rare environmental microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walke, Jenifer B; Becker, Matthew H; Loftus, Stephen C; House, Leanna L; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick V; Belden, Lisa K

    2014-11-01

    Host-microbe symbioses rely on the successful transmission or acquisition of symbionts in each new generation. Amphibians host a diverse cutaneous microbiota, and many of these symbionts appear to be mutualistic and may limit infection by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which has caused global amphibian population declines and extinctions in recent decades. Using bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we addressed the question of symbiont transmission by examining variation in amphibian skin microbiota across species and sites and in direct relation to environmental microbes. Although acquisition of environmental microbes occurs in some host-symbiont systems, this has not been extensively examined in free-living vertebrate-microbe symbioses. Juvenile bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), adult red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), pond water and pond substrate were sampled at a single pond to examine host-specificity and potential environmental transmission of microbiota. To assess population level variation in skin microbiota, adult newts from two additional sites were also sampled. Cohabiting bullfrogs and newts had distinct microbial communities, as did newts across the three sites. The microbial communities of amphibians and the environment were distinct; there was very little overlap in the amphibians' core microbes and the most abundant environmental microbes, and the relative abundances of OTUs that were shared by amphibians and the environment were inversely related. These results suggest that, in a host species-specific manner, amphibian skin may select for microbes that are generally in low abundance in the environment.

  6. Belowground microbes mitigate plant-plant competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Márcia Bacelar; Dias, Teresa; Carolino, Maria Manuela; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; Cruz, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Cerrado endemic Fabaceae tree, is threatened by land-use changes. The few remaining individuals occur in areas dominated by alien grasses like Urochloa decumbens. We tested the impact of nitrogen (N) availability and symbionts' presence on mitigating the effects of competition from U. decumbens. Dimorphandra wilsonii seedlings were 50-week pot-cultivated under limiting (3mM) or non-limiting (10mM) N, with or without U. decumbens, and inoculated or not with a N-fixer (Bradyrhizobium sp.) and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF - Glomus etunicatum), both forming symbioses in the field. Since D. wilsonii seedlings grew more and 'lost' fewer nutrients under the symbionts' presence, symbionts mitigated plant-plant competition. Under limiting N, inoculated D. wilsonii seedlings grew more (despite no nodulation), but N fixation was only suggested when inoculated D. wilsonii seedlings competed with U. decumbens. D. wilsonii(13)C, and substrate's carbon and respiration suggest that only the microbes performing key functions received plant carbon. Under non-limiting N, inoculated D. wilsonii seedlings became enriched in (13)C, substrate accumulated carbon and microbial respiration increased, suggesting a more generalist microbial community. Data suggest inoculating D. wilsonii seeds/seedlings with AMF and N-fixers as a conservation measure. However, long-term field-studies need to confirm these conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbes are trophic analogs of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffan, Shawn A; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Currie, Cameron R; Horn, Heidi; Gaines-Day, Hannah R; Pauli, Jonathan N; Zalapa, Juan E; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2015-12-01

    In most ecosystems, microbes are the dominant consumers, commandeering much of the heterotrophic biomass circulating through food webs. Characterizing functional diversity within the microbiome, therefore, is critical to understanding ecosystem functioning, particularly in an era of global biodiversity loss. Using isotopic fingerprinting, we investigated the trophic positions of a broad diversity of heterotrophic organisms. Specifically, we examined the naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen ((15)N:(14)N) within amino acids extracted from proteobacteria, actinomycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes, as well as from vertebrate and invertebrate macrofauna (crustaceans, fish, insects, and mammals). Here, we report that patterns of intertrophic (15)N-discrimination were remarkably similar among bacteria, fungi, and animals, which permitted unambiguous measurement of consumer trophic position, independent of phylogeny or ecosystem type. The observed similarities among bacterial, fungal, and animal consumers suggest that within a trophic hierarchy, microbiota are equivalent to, and can be interdigitated with, macrobiota. To further test the universality of this finding, we examined Neotropical fungus gardens, communities in which bacteria, fungi, and animals are entwined in an ancient, quadripartite symbiosis. We reveal that this symbiosis is a discrete four-level food chain, wherein bacteria function as the apex carnivores, animals and fungi are meso-consumers, and the sole herbivores are fungi. Together, our findings demonstrate that bacteria, fungi, and animals can be integrated within a food chain, effectively uniting the macro- and microbiome in food web ecology and facilitating greater inclusion of the microbiome in studies of functional diversity.

  8. The SAPHO syndrome--are microbes involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, G; Simon, P

    2011-06-01

    The syndrome of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) includes a rare group of chronic, relapsing, inflammatory osteoarticular disorders that is conventionally associated with manifestations in the skin. Diagnostic dilemmas can arise due to incomplete manifestations or confusion generated through mimicking of other conditions, such as osteomyelitis. The aetiology of this syndrome remains unclear, but probably involves genetic, immunological and infectious mechanisms. The possible pathogenetic role of infectious agents in genetically predisposed individuals, resulting in a 'reactive osteitis', has been suggested because microbes such as Propionibacterium acnes have been recovered from bone biopsy samples. However, this hypothesis has not been demonstrated as yet. Current knowledge with regard to treatment of this syndrome is based on results reported from small case studies and, thus, is still empiric. The use of antibiotics, instituted based on the isolation of Propionibacterium acnes, has been reported to show conflicting results. Promising results for potential future application have recently been reported for treatment of SAPHO with bisphosphonates and antagonists of tumour necrosis factor-α. This review aims to evaluate the existing knowledge on the SAPHO syndrome and to provide information on symptoms, diagnosis and treatment options for this disease.

  9. Lyophobic heterogeneous system (LHS) application to payload comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Michelin-Jamois, Millán

    2014-01-01

    Competition in aerospace industry forces to follow a constant evolution of technologies linked to launching costs decreasing and reliability increasing. An improvement of payload protection systems is a way to achieve these conditions. The main issue of this PhD thesis is to verify the applicability of lyophobic heterogeneous systems (association of a nanoporous material and a non- wetting liquid) in vibrations damping for payload comfort. Intrusion of liquid in LH S requires a high mechanica...

  10. Unity Module in the Payload Bay for STS-88

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity module inside the shuttle payload bay of Space Shuttle Endeavour. Endeavour is scheduled to fly on mission STS-88, the first Space Shuttle flight for the assembly of the International Space Station, on December 3, 1998. The primary payload on the mission is the Unity connecting module, which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya Control Module already in orbit at that time.

  11. Sequential release of nanoparticle payloads from ultrasonically burstable capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephen; Hu, Jennifer; Kearney, Cathal; Skaat, Hadas; Gu, Luo; Gentili, Marco; Vandenburgh, Herman; Mooney, David

    2016-01-01

    In many biomedical contexts ranging from chemotherapy to tissue engineering, it is beneficial to sequentially present bioactive payloads. Explicit control over the timing and dose of these presentations is highly desirable. Here, we present a capsule-based delivery system capable of rapidly releasing multiple payloads in response to ultrasonic signals. In vitro, these alginate capsules exhibited excellent payload retention for up to 1 week when unstimulated and delivered their entire payloads when ultrasonically stimulated for 10-100 s. Shorter exposures (10 s) were required to trigger delivery from capsules embedded in hydrogels placed in a tissue model and did not result in tissue heating or death of encapsulated cells. Different types of capsules were tuned to rupture in response to different ultrasonic stimuli, thus permitting the sequential, on-demand delivery of nanoparticle payloads. As a proof of concept, gold nanoparticles were decorated with bone morphogenetic protein-2 to demonstrate the potential bioactivity of nanoparticle payloads. These nanoparticles were not cytotoxic and induced an osteogenic response in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. This system may enable researchers and physicians to remotely regulate the timing, dose, and sequence of drug delivery on-demand, with a wide range of clinical applications ranging from tissue engineering to cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Hotel Payload, plans for the period 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gudmund; Mikalsen, Per-Arne

    2003-08-01

    The cost and complexity of scientific experiments, carried by traditional sounding rocket payloads, are increasing. At the same time the scientific environment faces declining funding for this basic research. In order to meet the invitation from the science community, Andøya Rocket Range runs a programme for developing a sounding rocket payload, in order to achieve an inexpensive and cost-effective tool for atmosphere research and educational training. The Hotel Payload is a new technological payload concept in the sounding rocket family. By means of standardized mechanical structures and electronics, flexibility in data collection and transmission, roomy vehicles are affordable to most of the scientific research environments as well as for educational training. A complete vehicle - ready for installation of scientific experiments - is offered to the scientists to a fixed price. The fixed price service also includes launch services. This paper describes the Hotel Payload concept and its technology. In addition the three year plan for the development project is discussed. The opportunity of using the Hotel Payload as a platform for a collaborative triangle between research, education and industry is also discussed.

  13. Sequential release of nanoparticle payloads from ultrasonically burstable capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephen; Hu, Jennifer; Kearney, Cathal; Skaat, Hadas; Gu, Luo; Gentili, Marco; Vandenburgh, Herman; Mooney, David

    2015-01-01

    In many biomedical contexts ranging from chemotherapy to tissue engineering, it is beneficial to sequentially present bioactive payloads. Explicit control over the timing and dose of these presentations is highly desirable. Here, we present a capsule-based delivery system capable of rapidly releasing multiple payloads in response to ultrasonic signals. In vitro, these alginate capsules exhibited excellent payload retention for up to 1 week when unstimulated and delivered their entire payloads when ultrasonically stimulated for 10 to 100 s. Shorter exposures (10 s) were required to trigger delivery from capsules embedded in hydrogels placed in a tissue model and did not result in tissue heating or death of encapsulated cells. Different types of capsules were tuned to rupture in response to different ultrasonic stimuli, thus permitting the sequential, on-demand delivery of nanoparticle payloads. As a proof of concept, gold nanoparticles were decorated with bone morphogenetic protein-2 to demonstrate the potential bioactivity of nanoparticle payloads. These nanoparticles were not cytotoxic and induced an osteogenic response in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. This system may enable researchers and physicians to remotely regulate the timing, dose, and sequence of drug delivery on-demand, with a wide range of clinical applications ranging from tissue engineering to cancer treatment. PMID:26496382

  14. Analytical trade study of the STS payload environment. [design analysis and cost estimates for noise reduction devices for space shuttle orbiter payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, W. P.; Barrett, S.; Raratono, J.; Payne, K. R.

    1976-01-01

    The current predicted acoustic environment for the shuttle orbiter payload bay will produce random vibration environments for payload components and subsystems which potentially will result in design, weight and cost penalties if means of protecting the payloads are not developed. Results are presented of a study to develop, through design and cost effectiveness trade studies, conceptual noise suppression device designs for space shuttle payloads. The impact of noise suppression on environmental levels and associated test costs, and on test philosophy for the various payload classes is considered with the ultimate goal of reducing payload test costs. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  15. Dielectrophoretic analysis of microbes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, W B; Brown, A P

    1998-12-01

    Traditional microbiological methods are still used extensively for analysis of micro-organisms in water. However, they are inefficient due to a high labour input requirement, a low sample capacity, and often a long time lag before results are available. Analytical stages involving incubation and growth (enrichments and colony isolation) contribute the greatest delay in reporting, although subsequent identification can also be protracted. The use of electrometric growth analysers (measuring impedance, conductance or capacitance changes) is now more common in water microbiology. Although these instruments can provide more rapid results and provide increased handling capacity, the bacterial generation times required to provide detectable changes cause delays and suitable selective media are not fully developed for all microbes of interest. Most other recent methods have equally disappointing drawbacks and thus extensive research continues in order to realise the ambition of 'real-time' analytical microbiology. Several research groups have demonstrated the potential of dielectrophoresis in providing microbial concentration, separation and identification systems which are not limited by bacterial growth and are therefore extremely rapid. Dielectrophoresis occurs when cells are placed in non-uniform electric fields. The cells move towards the electrodes (regardless of the direction of the applied field) as determined by their dielectric properties (conductivity and permittivity) rather than by their charge as occurs in electrophoresis. Also, the polarisability of the cells, and therefore the polarity and magnitude of the dielectrophoretic force, varies as a function of the electric field frequency. Because the dielectric properties of a particular cell type have characteristic frequency-dependent components, if cell collection at electrodes is observed across a frequency range, the collection spectrum produced is distinctive for the cell type under investigation. This

  16. Environmental restoration using plant-microbe bioaugmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingsley, M.T.; Metting, F.B.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Seidler, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Land farming, for the purpose of bioremediation, refers traditionally to the spreading of contaminated soil, sediments, or other material over land; mechanically mixing it; incorporating various amendments, such as fertilizer or mulch; and sometimes inoculating with degradative microorganisms. Populations of bacteria added to soils often decline rapidly and become metabolically inactive. To efficiently degrade contaminants, microorganisms must be metabolically active. Thus, a significant obstacle to the successful use of microorganisms for environmental applications is their long-term survival and the expression of their degradative genes in situ. Rhizosphere microorganisms are known to be more metabolically active than those in bulk soil, because they obtain carbon and energy from root exudates and decaying root matter. Rhizosphere populations are also more abundant, often containing 10[sup 8] or more culturable bacteria per gram of soil, and bacterial populations on the rhizoplane can exceed 10[sup 9]/g root. Many of the critical parameters that influence the competitive ability of rhizosphere bacteria have not been identified, but microorganisms have frequently been introduced into soil (bioaugmentation) as part of routine or novel agronomic practices. However, the use of rhizosphere bacteria and their in situ stimulation by plant roots for degrading organic contaminants has received little attention. Published studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas putida) for the rapid removal of chlorinated pesticides from contaminated soil, and to promote germination of radish seeds in the presence of otherwise phytotoxic levels of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and phenoxyacetic acid (PAA). The present investigation was undertaken to determine if these strains (Pseudomonas putida PP0301/pRO101 and PP0301/pRO103) could be used to bioremediate 2,4-D-amended soil via plant-microbe bioaugmentation.

  17. Environmental restoration using plant-microbe bioaugmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingsley, M.T.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Metting, F.B.; Seidler, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Land farming, for the purpose of bioremediation, refers traditionally to the spreading of contaminated soil, sediments, or other material over land; mechanically mixing it; incorporating various amendments, such as fertilizer or mulch; and sometimes inoculating with degradative microorganisms. Populations of bacteria added to soils often decline rapidly and become metabolically inactive. To efficiently degrade contaminants, microorganisms must be metabolically active. Thus, a significant obstacle to the successful use of microorganisms for environmental applications is their long-term survival and the expression of their degradative genes in situ. Rhizosphere microorganisms are known to be more metabolically active than those in bulk soil, because they obtain carbon and energy from root exudates and decaying root matter. Rhizosphere populations are also more abundant, often containing 10{sup 8} or more culturable bacteria per gram of soil, and bacterial populations on the rhizoplane can exceed 10{sup 9}/g root. Many of the critical parameters that influence the competitive ability of rhizosphere bacteria have not been identified, but microorganisms have frequently been introduced into soil (bioaugmentation) as part of routine or novel agronomic practices. However, the use of rhizosphere bacteria and their in situ stimulation by plant roots for degrading organic contaminants has received little attention. Published studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas putida) for the rapid removal of chlorinated pesticides from contaminated soil, and to promote germination of radish seeds in the presence of otherwise phytotoxic levels of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and phenoxyacetic acid (PAA). The present investigation was undertaken to determine if these strains (Pseudomonas putida PPO301/pRO101 and PPO301/pRO103) could be used to bioremediate 2,4-D-amended soil via plant-microbe bioaugmentation.

  18. Perchlorate reduction by microbes inhabiting oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebensteiner, Martin; Stams, Alfons; Lomans, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Microbial perchlorate and chlorate reduction is a unique type of anaerobic respiration as during reduction of (per)chlorate chlorite is formed, which is then split into chloride and molecular oxygen. In recent years it was demonstrated that (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria may employ oxygenase-dependent pathways for the degradation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. These findings suggested that (per)chlorate may be used as oxygen-releasing compound in anoxic environments that contain hydrocarbons, such as polluted soil sites and oil reservoirs. We started to study perchlorate reduction by microbes possibly inhabiting oil reservoirs. One of the organisms studied was Archaeoglobus fulgidus. This extremely thermophilic archaeon is known as a major contributor to souring in hot oil reservoirs. A. fulgidus turned out to be able to use perchlorate as terminal electron acceptor for growth with lactate (Liebensteiner et al 2013). Genome based physiological experiments indicated that A. fulgidus possesses a novel perchlorate reduction pathway. Perchlorate is first reduced to chlorite, but chlorite is not split into chloride and molecular oxygen as occurs in bacteria. Rather, chlorite reacts chemically with sulfide, forming oxidized sulfur compounds, which are reduced to sulfide in the electron transport chain by the archaeon. The dependence of perchlorate reduction on sulfur compounds could be shown. The implications of our findings as novel strategy for microbiological enhanced oil recovery and for souring mitigation are discussed. Liebensteiner MG, Pinkse MWH, Schaap PJ, Stams AJM and Lomans BP (2013) Archaeal (per)chlorate reduction at high temperature, a matter of abiotic-biotic reactions. Science 340: 85-87

  19. Collective unconscious: how gut microbes shape human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Stilling, Roman M; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F

    2015-04-01

    The human gut harbors a dynamic and complex microbial ecosystem, consisting of approximately 1 kg of bacteria in the average adult, approximately the weight of the human brain. The evolutionary formation of a complex gut microbiota in mammals has played an important role in enabling brain development and perhaps sophisticated social interaction. Genes within the human gut microbiota, termed the microbiome, significantly outnumber human genes in the body, and are capable of producing a myriad of neuroactive compounds. Gut microbes are part of the unconscious system regulating behavior. Recent investigations indicate that these microbes majorly impact on cognitive function and fundamental behavior patterns, such as social interaction and stress management. In the absence of microbes, underlying neurochemistry is profoundly altered. Studies of gut microbes may play an important role in advancing understanding of disorders of cognitive functioning and social interaction, such as autism.

  20. The importance of engineering physiological functionality into microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Li, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Good physiological performance of industrial microbes is crucial for successful bioprocesses. Conventional metabolism-oriented engineering strategies often fail to obtain expected phenotypes owing to focusing narrowly on targeted metabolic capabilities while neglecting microbial physiological respon

  1. Host-microbe interactions in the developing zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanther, Michelle; Rawls, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary of recent advances The amenability of the zebrafish to in vivo imaging and genetic analysis has fueled expanded use of this vertebrate model to investigate the molecular and cellular foundations of host-microbe relationships. Study of microbial encounters in zebrafish hosts has concentrated on developing embryonic and larval stages, when the advantages of the zebrafish model are maximized. A comprehensive understanding of these host-microbe interactions requires appreciation of the developmental context into which a microbe is introduced, as well as the effects of that microbial challenge on host ontogeny. In this review, we discuss how in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish has advanced our knowledge of host-microbe interactions in the context of a developing vertebrate host. We focus on recent insights into immune cell ontogeny and function, commensal microbial relationships in the intestine, and microbial pathogenesis in zebrafish hosts. PMID:20153622

  2. Study of Host–Microbe Interactions in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan-Myhre, Kathryn; Charette, Jeremy R.; Phennicie, Ryan T.; Stephens, W. Zac; Rawls, John F.; Guillemin, Karen; Kim, Carol H.

    2015-01-01

    All animals are ecosystems, home to diverse microbial populations. Animal-associated microbes play important roles in the normal development and physiology of their hosts, but can also be agents of infectious disease. Traditionally, mice have been used to study pathogenic and beneficial associations between microbes and vertebrate animals. The zebrafish is emerging as a valuable new model system for host-microbe interaction studies, affording researchers with the opportunity to survey large populations of hosts and to visualize microbe-host associations at a cellular level in living animals. This chapter provides detailed protocols for the analysis of zebrafish-associated microbial communities, the derivation and husbandry of germ-free zebrafish, and the modeling of infectious disease in different stages of zebrafish development via different routes of inoculation. These protocols offer a starting point for researchers to address a multitude of questions about animals’ coexistence with microorganisms. PMID:21951527

  3. Feasibilities of consolidated bioprocessing microbes: from pretreatment to biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisutham, Vinuselvi; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Sung Kuk

    2014-06-01

    Lignocelluloses are rich sugar treasures, which can be converted to useful commodities such as biofuel with the help of efficient combination of enzymes and microbes. Although several bioprocessing approaches have been proposed, biofuel production from lignocelluloses is limited because of economically infeasible technologies for pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation. Use of consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microbes is the most promising method for the cost-effective production of biofuels. However, lignocelluloses are obtained from highly diverse environment and hence are heterogeneous in nature. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and integrate tailor-designed pretreatment processes and efficient microbes that can thrive on many different kinds of biomass. In this review, the progress towards the construction of consolidated bioprocessing microbes, which can efficiently convert heterogeneous lignocellulosic biomass to bioenergy, has been discussed; in addition, the potential and constraints of current bioprocessing technologies for cellulosic biofuel production have been discussed.

  4. Microbes Online: an integrated portal for comparative functional genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Arkin, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003, MicrobesOnline (http://www.microbesonline.org) has been providing a community resource for comparative and functional genome analysis. The portal includes over 1000 complete genomes of bacteria, archaea and fungi, as well as 1000s of viruses and plasmids. In addition to standard comparative genomic analysis, including gene prediction, sequence homology, domain identification, gene family assignments and functional annotations from E.C. and GO, MicrobesOnline integrates data from ...

  5. Plant Microbe Interactions in Post Genomic Era: Perspectives and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Jahangir; Singh, Puneet K.; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering plant–microbe interactions is a promising aspect to understand the benefits and the pathogenic effect of microbes and crop improvement. The advancement in sequencing technologies and various ‘omics’ tool has impressively accelerated the research in biological sciences in this area. The recent and ongoing developments provide a unique approach to describing these intricate interactions and test hypotheses. In the present review, we discuss the role of plant-pathogen interaction in ...

  6. New sonic shockwave multi-element sensors mounted on a small airfoil flown on F-15B testbed aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    An experimental device to pinpoint the location of a shockwave that develops in an aircraft flying at transonic and supersonic speeds was recently flight-tested at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The shock location sensor, developed by TAO Systems, Hampton, Va., utilizes a multi-element hot-film sensor array along with a constant-voltage anemometer and special diagnostic software to pinpoint the exact location of the shockwave and its characteristics as it develops on an aircraft surface. For this experiment, the 45-element sensor was mounted on the small Dryden-designed airfoil shown in this illustration. The airfoil was attached to the Flight Test Fixture mounted underneath the fuselage of Dryden's F-15B testbed aircraft. Tests were flown at transonic speeds of Mach 0.7 to 0.9, and the device isolated the location of the shock wave to within a half-inch. Application of this technology could assist designers of future supersonic aircraft in improving the efficiency of engine air inlets by controlling the shockwave, with a related improvement in aircraft performance and fuel economy.

  7. Redesign of a Variable-Gain Output Feedback Longitudinal Controller Flown on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a redesigned longitudinal controller that flew on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) during calendar years (CY) 1995 and 1996. Linear models are developed for both the modified controller and a baseline controller that was flown in CY 1994. The modified controller was developed with three gain sets for flight evaluation, and several linear analysis results are shown comparing the gain sets. A Neal-Smith flying qualities analysis shows that performance for the low- and medium-gain sets is near the level 1 boundary, depending upon the bandwidth assumed, whereas the high-gain set indicates a sensitivity problem. A newly developed high-alpha Bode envelope criterion indicates that the control system gains may be slightly high, even for the low-gain set. A large motion-base simulator in the United Kingdom was used to evaluate the various controllers. Desired performance, which appeared to be satisfactory for flight, was generally met with both the low- and medium-gain sets. Both the high-gain set and the baseline controller were very sensitive, and it was easy to generate pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) in some of the target-tracking maneuvers. Flight target-tracking results varied from level 1 to level 3 and from no sensitivity to PIO. These results were related to pilot technique and whether actuator rate saturation was encountered.

  8. Use of lightweight composites for GAS payload structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mark B.

    1987-01-01

    A key element in the design of a small self-contained payload is the supporting structure. This structure must support the experiments and other components while using as little space and weight as possible. Hence, the structure material must have characteristics of being both strong and light. Aluminum was used for the structure on the first Purdue University payload, but consumed a relatively large percentage of the total payload weight. The current payload has a larger power supply requirement than did the previous payload. To allow additional weight for the batteries, a composite material has been chosen for the structure which has the required strength while being considerably lighter than aluminum. A radial fin design has been chosen for ease of composite material lay-up and its overall strength of design. A composite plate will connect the free ends of the fins and add strength and reduce vibration. The physical characteristics of the composite material and the method of open lay-up construction is described. Also discussed are the testing, modifications, and problems encountered during assembly of the experiments to the structure.

  9. Space Launch System Trans Lunar Payload Delivery Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, A. L.; Smith, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) of the heavy lift Space Launch System (SLS) and is working towards first flight of the vehicle in 2018. SLS will begin flying crewed missions with an Orion to a lunar vicinity every year after the first 2 flights starting in the early 2020's. So as early as 2021 these Orion flights will deliver ancillary payload, termed "Co-Manifested Payload", with a mass of at least 5.5 metric tons and volume up to 280 cubic meters to a cis-lunar destination. Later SLS flights have a goal of delivering as much as 10 metric tons to a cis-lunar destination. This presentation will describe the ground and flight accommodations, interfaces, and resources planned to be made available to Co-Manifested Payload providers as part of the SLS system. An additional intention is to promote a two-way dialogue between vehicle developers and potential payload users in order to most efficiently evolve required SLS capabilities to meet diverse payload requirements.

  10. ISS and Shuttle Payload Research Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Kyle A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's ISS and Spacecraft Processing Directorate (UB) is charged with the performance of payload development for research originating through NASA, ISS international partners, and the National Laboratory. The Payload Development sector of the Directorate takes biological research approved for on orbit experimentation from its infancy stage and finds a way to integrate and implement that research into a payload on either a Shuttle sortie or Space Station increment. From solicitation and selection, to definition, to verification, to integration and finally to operations and analysis, Payload Development is there every step of the way. My specific work as an intern this summer has consisted of investigating data received by separate flight and ground control Advanced Biological Research Systems (ABRS) units for Advanced Plant Experiments (APEX) and Cambium research. By correlation and analysis of this data and specific logbook information I have been working to explain changes in environmental conditions on both the flight and ground control unit. I have then, compiled all of that information into a form that can be presentable to the Principal Investigator (PI). This compilation allows that PI scientist to support their findings and add merit to their research. It also allows us, as the Payload Developers, to further inspect the ABRS unit and its performance

  11. Optimizing communication satellites payload configuration with exact approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathakis, Apostolos; Danoy, Grégoire; Bouvry, Pascal; Talbi, El-Ghazali; Morelli, Gianluigi

    2015-12-01

    The satellite communications market is competitive and rapidly evolving. The payload, which is in charge of applying frequency conversion and amplification to the signals received from Earth before their retransmission, is made of various components. These include reconfigurable switches that permit the re-routing of signals based on market demand or because of some hardware failure. In order to meet modern requirements, the size and the complexity of current communication payloads are increasing significantly. Consequently, the optimal payload configuration, which was previously done manually by the engineers with the use of computerized schematics, is now becoming a difficult and time consuming task. Efficient optimization techniques are therefore required to find the optimal set(s) of switch positions to optimize some operational objective(s). In order to tackle this challenging problem for the satellite industry, this work proposes two Integer Linear Programming (ILP) models. The first one is single-objective and focuses on the minimization of the length of the longest channel path, while the second one is bi-objective and additionally aims at minimizing the number of switch changes in the payload switch matrix. Experiments are conducted on a large set of instances of realistic payload sizes using the CPLEX® solver and two well-known exact multi-objective algorithms. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and limitations of the ILP approach on this real-world problem.

  12. A Low Cost Weather Balloon Borne Solar Cell Calibration Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David B.; Wolford, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Calibration of standard sets of solar cell sub-cells is an important step to laboratory verification of on-orbit performance of new solar cell technologies. This paper, looks at the potential capabilities of a lightweight weather balloon payload for solar cell calibration. A 1500 gr latex weather balloon can lift a 2.7 kg payload to over 100,000 ft altitude, above 99% of the atmosphere. Data taken between atmospheric pressures of about 30 to 15 mbar may be extrapolated via the Langley Plot method to 0 mbar, i.e. AMO. This extrapolation, in principle, can have better than 0.1 % error. The launch costs of such a payload arc significantly less than the much larger, higher altitude balloons, or the manned flight facility. The low cost enables a risk tolerant approach to payload development. Demonstration of 1% standard deviation flight-to-flight variation is the goal of this project. This paper describes the initial concept of solar cell calibration payload, and reports initial test flight results. .

  13. Can Terrestrial Microbes Grow on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    conditions. We are constructing newly engineered genetic parts for different valuable host organisms, designed to increased long-term survival and functional retention. These methods should be applied for DNA and strain storage and transportation. In parallel, we seek inspiration from natural organisms that have developed means for survival in extreme environmental conditions. We are utilizing novel techniques for analysis of lipid biomarkers in the Antarctic Dry Valleys in order to identify resident microbes in the Antarctic soil and permafrost, as well as biomarker fossils of organisms that survived in the valleys in ages past. Through the identification of these life forms, we hope to understand and draw on new biological tools and strategies for synthetic biological applications on Mars.

  14. Convergent evolution of filamentous microbes towards evasion of glycan-triggered immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovenich, Hanna; Zuccaro, Alga; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References Summary: All filamentous microbes produce and release a wide range of glycans, which are essential determinants of microbe-microbe and microbe-host interactions. Major cell wall constituents, such as chitin and β-glucans, are elicitors of host immune responses.

  15. Computer Aided Safety Assessment(CASA) Tool for ISS Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Jason; Festa, Fabrizio

    2010-09-01

    In an effort to streamline the processes established by the partners of the International Space Station(ISS) to certify the safety of hardware and experiments destined for the Station, the European Space Agency’s(ESA) ISS System Safety Team is developing the Computer Aided Safety Assessment(CASA) tool suite. These software tools guide payload developers through the creation process of two types of standard payload hazard reports via a series of questions following a predetermined logic. The responses provided by the user are used by the CASA system to complete the majority of each hazard report requisite for payload flight safety reviews, employing consistent, approved descriptions of most hazards, hazard causes, controls and verification methods. Though some manual inputs will still be required to complete these reports, working with CASA will considerably reduce the amount of time necessary to review the documentation by agency safety authorities.

  16. The development of STS payload environmental engineering standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    The presently reported effort to provide a single set of standards for the design, analysis and testing of Space Transportation System (STS) payloads throughout the NASA organization must be viewed as essentially experimental, since the concept of incorporating the diverse opinions and experiences of several separate field research centers may in retrospect be judged too ambitious or perhaps even naive. While each STS payload may have unique characteristics, and the project should formulate its own criteria for environmental design, testing and evaluation, a reference source document providing coordinated standards is expected to minimize the duplication of effort and limit random divergence of practices among the various NASA payload programs. These standards would provide useful information to all potential STS users, and offer a degree of standardization to STS users outside the NASA organization.

  17. Perspectives of plant-associated microbes in heavy metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, M; Sandhya, S; Prasad, M N V; Freitas, H

    2012-01-01

    "Phytoremediation" know-how to do-how is rapidly expanding and is being commercialized by harnessing the phyto-microbial diversity. This technology employs biodiversity to remove/contain pollutants from the air, soil and water. In recent years, there has been a considerable knowledge explosion in understanding plant-microbes-heavy metals interactions. Novel applications of plant-associated microbes have opened up promising areas of research in the field of phytoremediation technology. Various metabolites (e.g., 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, organic acids, etc.) produced by plant-associated microbes (e.g., plant growth promoting bacteria, mycorrhizae) have been proposed to be involved in many biogeochemical processes operating in the rhizosphere. The salient functions include nutrient acquisition, cell elongation, metal detoxification and alleviation of biotic/abiotic stress in plants. Rhizosphere microbes accelerate metal mobility, or immobilization. Plants and associated microbes release inorganic and organic compounds possessing acidifying, chelating and/or reductive power. These functions are implicated to play an essential role in plant metal uptake. Overall the plant-associated beneficial microbes enhance the efficiency of phytoremediation process directly by altering the metal accumulation in plant tissues and indirectly by promoting the shoot and root biomass production. The present work aims to provide a comprehensive review of some of the promising processes mediated by plant-associated microbes and to illustrate how such processes influence heavy metal uptake through various biogeochemical processes including translocation, transformation, chelation, immobilization, solubilization, precipitation, volatilization and complexation of heavy metals ultimately facilitating phytoremediation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. California Student Get Away Special Payload GAS-450

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Glen; Burke, Edmund; Waldman, Marty

    1993-01-01

    The California Student Get Away Special Payload GAS-450, recently went into orbit on the STS-57 Mission, Space Shuttle, Endeavour, 21 June 1993, 6:14 AM and landed on the 29 June 1993 at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Fifty students from 13 California Central Coast Schools and one in San Francisco designed and built 13 active experiments (6 modules) for this mission. Preliminary analysis of our completely reusable payload bus system indicated that the structure, power system, microprocessor, and sensor systems in each experiment module worked flawlessly. The experiments themselves performed exceptionally well with a 60 percent success ratio. The students are thoroughly documenting their own experiments and results via a standard research paper guideline generated by the GAS-450 technical staff. Lessons learned (program management and technical) are documented at the end of the paper. If any other organization needs payload/experiment development or NASA documentation assistance, then please contact us. We can help make your idea a space tested reality. Three years of intense effort culminated on 3 February 1993, the GSFC field operations team at Kennedy Space Center performed the final pressure decay and electrical tests upon the fully integrated GAS-450 flight canister. Subsequently, the payload was integrated with its parent GAS Bridge Assembly in mid-February and the bridge was transferred to the KSC orbiter team in late February 1993. The STS-57 mission originally scheduled to launch on the 29 April 1993 slipped until 21 June 1993. Our Payload shared the cargo bay with ten other GAS Canisters, the EUREKA experiment, the SHOOT experiment, and the SPACEHAB-1 module. The SIL technical staff retrieved the GAS-450 payload after flight from the NASA Spin Test Facility at KSC and shipped it back to California on the 22 July 1993 for student analysis at Allan Hancock College this summer.

  19. Design decisions from the history of the EUVE science payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, W.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the design issues that arose during the development of the EUVE science payload and solutions to the problems involved are examined. In particular, attention is given to the use of parallel and serial busses, the selection of the the ROM approach for software storage and execution, implementation of memory error detection and correction, and the selection of command structures. The early design decisions paid off in the timely delivery of the scientific payload and in the successful completion of the survey phase of the EUVE science mission.

  20. The first Spacelab payload - A joint NASA/ESA venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R.; Pace, R.; Collet, J.; Sanfourche, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Planning for the 1980 qualification flight of Spacelab, which will involve a long module and one pallet, is discussed. The mission will employ two payload specialists, one sponsored by NASA and the other by ESA. Management of the Spacelab mission functions, including definition and execution of the on-board experiments, development of the experimental hardware and training of the payload specialists, is considered; studies proposed in the areas of atmospheric physics, space plasma physics, solar physics, earth observations, astronomy, astrophysics, life sciences and material sciences are reviewed. Analyses of the Spacelab environment and the Spacelab-to-orbiter and Spacelab-to-experiment interactions are also planned.

  1. Collection of Stratospheric Samples using Balloon-Borne Payload System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sreejith, A. G.; Kumble, Sheshashayi; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Kj, Nirmal; Suresh, Ambily; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere at stratospheric altitudes contains dust particles from soil lifted by weather, volcanic dust, man-made aerosols, IDP (Interplanetary Dust Particles) - remnants of comets and asteroids, and even interstellar dust. Satellite observations suggest that approximately 100--300 tons of cosmic dust enter Earth's atmosphere every day. However, very little is known about the microbial life in the upper atmosphere, where conditions are very much similar to that on Mars and possibly on some exoplanets. Stratosphere provides a good opportunity to study the existence or survival of biological life in these conditions. Despite the importance of this topic to astrobiology, stratospheric microbial diversity/survival remains largely unexplored, probably due to significant difficulties in the access and ensuring the absence of contamination of the samples. To conduct a detailed study into this, we are developing the balloon-borne payload system SAMPLE (Stratospheric Altitude Microbiology Probe for Life Existence) to collect dust samples from stratosphere and bring them in an hygienic and uncontaminated manner to a suitable laboratory environment, where further study will be conducted to establish the possibility of microbial life in the upper atmosphere. This balloon-borne payload system will rise through the atmosphere till it reaches an altitude of about 25-30 km above sea level. The payload consists of detachable pre-sterilized sampling chambers designed to collect and contain the dust samples and get them back to the surface without contamination during the flight, a microprocessor and a controller which will determine the altitude of the payload system to actively monitor the opening and closing of the sample collection chambers. For contamination control, we will have two extra chambers, one of which will fly but not open, and one will remain closed on the ground. Other onboard devices include environmental sensors, GPS tracking devices, cameras to monitor

  2. Band-monitoring Payload for a CubeSat Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vagner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During changing sun activity, the ionosphere is responding accordingly and therefore it is interesting to observe the propagation behavior of shortwave bands. For the above mentioned purpose we have designed a band-monitoring payload for an experimental CubeSat satellite. The payload consists of a receiver, which is able to receive SSB modulated narrowband signals in 28 MHz uplink band, and a transmitter with FM modulation in UHF downlink band. The receiver frequency is selected to be at the center of radio amateur activity with low data rate digital modulations.

  3. The Unity connecting module moves into payload bay of Endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module is moved toward the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88 . The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  4. The Unity connecting module is moved to payload canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the Unity connecting module to the payload canister for transfer to the launch pad. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  5. The Unity connecting module is moved to payload canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers attach the overhead crane that will lift the Unity connecting module from its workstand to move the module to the payload canister. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  6. Explorative analysis of microbes, colloids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. In this report, part of the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and Univ. researchers with expertise in geochemistry, hydrochemistry, hydrogeochemistry, microbiology, geomicrobiology, analytical chemistry etc. The resulting site descriptive model version, mainly based on 2.2 data and complementary 2.3 data, was carried out during September 2006 to December 2007. This report focuses on microbiology, colloids and gases: - Microbes (Chapter 1): Several methods must be used to characterize active microbial communities in groundwater. Microbial parameters of interest are the total number of cells (TNC) and the presence of various metabolic groups of microorganisms. Different microbial groups influence the environment in different ways, depending on what metabolic group is dominant. Typically, the following redox couples are utilized by bacteria in granitic groundwater: H{sub 2}O/O{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}-/N{sub 2}, Mn2+/Mn(IV), Fe2+/Fe(III), S2-/SO{sub 4}2-, CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}COOH/CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}/H+. The data will indicate the activity of specific microbial populations at particular sites and how they may affect the geochemistry. - Colloids (Chapter 2): Particles in the size range from 1 to 1x10-3 mum are regarded as colloids. Their small size prohibits them from settling, which gives them the

  7. Methods for reducing ghost rays on the Wolter-I focusing figures of the FOXSI rocket payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Glesener, Lindsay; Christe, Steven; Ramsey, Brian; Elsner, Ronald; Courtade, Sasha; Vievering, Juliana; Subramania, Athiray; Krucker, Sam; Bale, Stuart

    2017-08-01

    In high energy solar astrophysics, imaging hard X-rays by direct focusing offers higher dynamic range and greater sensitivity compared to past techniques that used indirect imaging. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is a sounding rocket payload which uses seven sets of nested Wolter-I figured mirrors that, together with seven high-sensitive semiconductor detectors, observes the Sun in hard X-rays by direct focusing. The FOXSI rocket has successfully flown twice and is funded to fly a third time in summer 2018.The Wolter-I geometry consists of two consecutive mirrors, one paraboloid, and one hyperboloid, that reflect photons at grazing angles. Correctly focused X-rays reflect twice, once per mirror segment. For extended sources, like the Sun, off-axis photons at certain incident angles can reflect on only one mirror and still reach the focal plane, generating a pattern of single-bounce photons, or ‘ghost rays’ that can limit the sensitivity of the observation of focused X-rays. Understanding and cutting down the ghost rays on the FOXSI optics will maximize the instrument’s sensitivity of the solar faintest sources for future flights. We present an analysis of the FOXSI ghost rays based on ray-tracing simulations, as well as the effectiveness of different physical strategies to reduce them.

  8. A molecular study of microbe transfer between distant environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D Hooper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environments and their organic content are generally not static and isolated, but in a constant state of exchange and interaction with each other. Through physical or biological processes, organisms, especially microbes, may be transferred between environments whose characteristics may be quite different. The transferred microbes may not survive in their new environment, but their DNA will be deposited. In this study, we compare two environmental sequencing projects to find molecular evidence of transfer of microbes over vast geographical distances. METHODOLOGY: By studying synonymous nucleotide composition, oligomer frequency and orthology between predicted genes in metagenomics data from two environments, terrestrial and aquatic, and by correlating with phylogenetic mappings, we find that both environments are likely to contain trace amounts of microbes which have been far removed from their original habitat. We also suggest a bias in direction from soil to sea, which is consistent with the cycles of planetary wind and water. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the Baas-Becking hypothesis formulated in 1934, which states that due to dispersion and population sizes, microbes are likely to be found in widely disparate environments. Furthermore, the availability of genetic material from distant environments is a possible font of novel gene functions for lateral gene transfer.

  9. MAMP (Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern triggered immunity in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Anne eNewman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms that are under constant attack from microbes. They rely on both preformed defenses, and their innate immune system to ward of the microbial pathogens. Preformed defences include for example the cell wall and cuticle, which act as physical barriers to microbial colonization. The plant immune system is composed of surveillance systems that perceive several general microbe elicitors, which allow plants to switch from growth and development into a defense mode, rejecting most potentially harmful microbes. The elicitors are essential structures for pathogen survival and are conserved among pathogens. The conserved microbe-specific molecules, referred to as microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or PAMPs, are recognized by the plant innate immune systems pattern recognition receptors (PRRs. General elicitors like flagellin (Flg, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu, peptidoglycan (PGN, lipopolysaccharides (LPS, Ax21 (Activator of XA21-mediated immunity in rice, fungal chitin and β-glucans from oomycetes are recognized by plant surface localized PRRs. Several of the MAMPs and their corresponding PRRs have, in recent years, been identified. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding important MAMPs from bacteria, fungi and oomycetes, their structure, the plant PRRs that recognizes them, and how they induce MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI in plants.

  10. Microfabricated microbial fuel cell arrays reveal electrochemically active microbes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Hou

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are remarkable "green energy" devices that exploit microbes to generate electricity from organic compounds. MFC devices currently being used and studied do not generate sufficient power to support widespread and cost-effective applications. Hence, research has focused on strategies to enhance the power output of the MFC devices, including exploring more electrochemically active microbes to expand the few already known electricigen families. However, most of the MFC devices are not compatible with high throughput screening for finding microbes with higher electricity generation capabilities. Here, we describe the development of a microfabricated MFC array, a compact and user-friendly platform for the identification and characterization of electrochemically active microbes. The MFC array consists of 24 integrated anode and cathode chambers, which function as 24 independent miniature MFCs and support direct and parallel comparisons of microbial electrochemical activities. The electricity generation profiles of spatially distinct MFC chambers on the array loaded with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 differed by less than 8%. A screen of environmental microbes using the array identified an isolate that was related to Shewanella putrefaciens IR-1 and Shewanella sp. MR-7, and displayed 2.3-fold higher power output than the S. oneidensis MR-1 reference strain. Therefore, the utility of the MFC array was demonstrated.

  11. The microbes we eat: abundance and taxonomy of microbes consumed in a day's worth of meals for three diet types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jenna M; Eisen, Jonathan A; Zivkovic, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Far more attention has been paid to the microbes in our feces than the microbes in our food. Research efforts dedicated to the microbes that we eat have historically been focused on a fairly narrow range of species, namely those which cause disease and those which are thought to confer some "probiotic" health benefit. Little is known about the effects of ingested microbial communities that are present in typical American diets, and even the basic questions of which microbes, how many of them, and how much they vary from diet to diet and meal to meal, have not been answered. We characterized the microbiota of three different dietary patterns in order to estimate: the average total amount of daily microbes ingested via food and beverages, and their composition in three daily meal plans representing three different dietary patterns. The three dietary patterns analyzed were: (1) the Average American (AMERICAN): focused on convenience foods, (2) USDA recommended (USDA): emphasizing fruits and vegetables, lean meat, dairy, and whole grains, and (3) Vegan (VEGAN): excluding all animal products. Meals were prepared in a home kitchen or purchased at restaurants and blended, followed by microbial analysis including aerobic, anaerobic, yeast and mold plate counts as well as 16S rRNA PCR survey analysis. Based on plate counts, the USDA meal plan had the highest total amount of microbes at 1.3 × 10(9) CFU per day, followed by the VEGAN meal plan and the AMERICAN meal plan at 6 × 10(6) and 1.4 × 10(6) CFU per day respectively. There was no significant difference in diversity among the three dietary patterns. Individual meals clustered based on taxonomic composition independent of dietary pattern. For example, meals that were abundant in Lactic Acid Bacteria were from all three dietary patterns. Some taxonomic groups were correlated with the nutritional content of the meals. Predictive metagenome analysis using PICRUSt indicated differences in some functional KEGG categories

  12. Reinventing the International Space Station Payload Integration Processes and Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rod; Price, Carmen; Copeland, Scott; Geiger, Wade; Geiger, Wade; Rice, Amanda; Lauchner, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental ISS payload integration philosophy, processes and capabilities were established in the context of how NASA science programs were conducted and executed in the early 1990 s. Today, with the designation of the United States (US) portion of ISS as a National Lab, the ISS payload customer base is growing to include other government agencies, private and commercial research. The fields of research are becoming more diverse expanding from the NASA centric physical, materials and human research sciences to test beds for exploration and technology demonstration, biology and biotechnology, and as an Earth and Space science platform. This new customer base has a broader more diverse set of expectations and requirements for payload design, verification, integration, test, training, and operations. One size fits all processes are not responsive to this broader customer base. To maintain an organization s effectiveness it must listen to its customers, understand their needs, learn from its mistakes, and foster an environment of continual process improvement. The ISS Payloads office is evolving to meet these new customer expectations.

  13. Integrated Payload Data Handling Systems Using Software Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alun; Hann, Mark; Wishart, Alex

    2015-09-01

    An integrated Payload Data Handling System (I-PDHS) is one in which multiple instruments share a central payload processor for their on-board data processing tasks. This offers a number of advantages over the conventional decentralised architecture. Savings in payload mass and power can be realised because the total processing resource is matched to the requirements, as opposed to the decentralised architecture here the processing resource is in effect the sum of all the applications. Overall development cost can be reduced using a common processor. At individual instrument level the potential benefits include a standardised application development environment, and the opportunity to run the instrument data handling application on a fully redundant and more powerful processing platform [1]. This paper describes a joint program by SCISYS UK Limited, Airbus Defence and Space, Imperial College London and RAL Space to implement a realistic demonstration of an I-PDHS using engineering models of flight instruments (a magnetometer and camera) and a laboratory demonstrator of a central payload processor which is functionally representative of a flight design. The objective is to raise the Technology Readiness Level of the centralised data processing technique by address the key areas of task partitioning to prevent fault propagation and the use of a common development process for the instrument applications. The project is supported by a UK Space Agency grant awarded under the National Space Technology Program SpaceCITI scheme. [1].

  14. Expert System for Building TRU Waste Payloads - 13554

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Heather; Slater, Bryant [Information Systems Laboratories, 2235 East 25th Street, Suite 100, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The process for grouping TRU waste drums into payloads for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal is a very complex process. Transportation and regulatory requirements must be met, along with striving for the goals of shipment efficiency: maximize the number of waste drums in a shipment and minimize the use of empty drums which take up precious underground storage space. The restrictions on payloads range from weight restrictions, to limitations on flammable gas in the headspace, to minimum TRU alpha activity concentration requirements. The Overpack and Payload Assistant Tool (OPAT) has been developed as a mixed-initiative intelligent system within the WIPP Waste Data System (WDS) to guide the construction of multiple acceptable payloads. OPAT saves the user time while at the same time maximizes the efficiency of shipments for the given drum population. The tool provides the user with the flexibility to tune critical factors that guide OPAT's operation based on real-time feedback concerning the results of the execution. This feedback complements the user's external knowledge of the drum population (such as location of drums, known challenges, internal shipment goals). This work demonstrates how software can be utilized to complement the unique domain knowledge of the users. The mixed-initiative approach combines the insight and intuition of the human expert with the proficiency of automated computational algorithms. The result is the ability to thoroughly and efficiently explore the search space of possible solutions and derive the best waste management decision. (authors)

  15. A semi-automatic Parachute Separation System for Balloon Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, M. E.; Barsic, J. E.

    When operating stratospheric balloons with scientific payloads at the National Scientific Balloon Facility, the current practice for separating the payload from the parachute after descent requires the sending of manual commands over a UHF channel from the chase aircraft or the ground control site. While this procedure generally works well, there have been occasions when, due to shadowing of the receive antenna, unfavorable aircraft attitude or even lack of a chase aircraft, the command has not been received and the parachute has failed to separate. In these circumstances, the payload may be dragged, with the consequent danger of damage to expensive and sometimes irreplaceable scientific instrumentation. The NSBF has developed a system designed to automatically separate the parachute without the necessity for commanding after touchdown. The most important criterion for such a design is that it should be fail-safe; a free-fall of the payload would of course be a disaster. This design incorporates many safety features and underwent extensive evaluation and testing for several years before it was adopted operationally. It is currently used as a backup to the commanded release, activated only when a chase aircraft is not available, at night or in exceptionally poor visibility conditions. This paper describes the design, development, testing and operation of the system, which is known as the Semi-Automatic Parachute Release (SAPR).

  16. Autonomous mine detection system (AMDS) neutralization payload module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, M.; Vanaman, R.; Wright, N.

    2010-04-01

    The Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) program is developing a landmine and explosive hazards standoff detection, marking, and neutralization system for dismounted soldiers. The AMDS Capabilities Development Document (CDD) has identified the requirement to deploy three payload modules for small robotic platforms: mine detection and marking, explosives detection and marking, and neutralization. This paper addresses the neutralization payload module. There are a number of challenges that must be overcome for the neutralization payload module to be successfully integrated into AMDS. The neutralizer must meet stringent size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements to be compatible with a small robot. The neutralizer must be effective against a broad threat, to include metal and plastic-cased Anti-Personnel (AP) and Anti-Tank (AT) landmines, explosive devices, and Unexploded Explosive Ordnance (UXO.) It must adapt to a variety of threat concealments, overburdens, and emplacement methods, to include soil, gravel, asphalt, and concrete. A unique neutralization technology is being investigated for adaptation to the AMDS Neutralization Module. This paper will describe review this technology and how the other two payload modules influence its design for minimizing SWaP. Recent modeling and experimental efforts will be included.

  17. The photons payload, G-494: A learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, F. R.; Gattinger, R. L.; Creutzberg, F.; Llewellyn, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    PHOTONS (Photometric Thermospheric Oxygen Nightglow Study) is an optical remote sensing payload developed for Get Away Special (GAS) flight by the National Research Council of Canada. The device is extremely sensitive and is suitable for making measurements of low intensity, aeronomically generated atmospheric emissions in the nadir and the limb and of Shuttle ram glow. The unit uses a sealed canister and UV transmitting viewing ports. During the flight of STS 61-C, PHOTONS received one hour of operation and aeronomic observations were made. Good diagnostic data were obtained and the science part of the experiment malfunctioned. Post flight inspection revealed that the payload was in perfect working order except for total failure of the photomultiplier detectors. The experiment and the payload are described and the flight results are discussed along with the cause of the malfunctions. It is shown that enough was learned from the flight diagnostic data and about the cause of the malfunction to conclude that the engineering flight was successful and that subsequent flight of the PHOTONS payload will be productive.

  18. The payload/shuttle-data-communication-link handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Communication links between the Orbiter, payloads, and ground are described: end-to-end, hardline, S-band, Ku-band, TDRSS relay, waveforms, premodulation, subcarrier modulation, carrier modulation, transmitter power, antennas, the RF channel, system noise, received signal-to-noise spectral density, carrier-tracking loop, carrier demodulation, subcarrier demodulation, digital data detection, digital data decoding, and tandem link considerations.

  19. Smart Payload Development for High Data Rate Instrument Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Norton, Charles D.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of smart payloads instruments systems with high data rates. On-board computation has become a bottleneck for advanced science instrument and engineering capabilities. In order to improve the computation capability on board, smart payloads have been proposed. A smart payload is a Localized instrument, that can offload the flight processor of extensive computing cycles, simplify the interfaces, and minimize the dependency of the instrument on the flight system. This has been proposed for the Mars mission, Mars Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (MATMOS). The design of this system is discussed; the features of the Virtex-4, are discussed, and the technical approach is reviewed. The proposed Hybrid Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology has been shown to deliver breakthrough performance by tightly coupling hardware and software. Smart Payload designs for instruments such as MATMOS can meet science data return requirements with more competitive use of available on-board resources and can provide algorithm acceleration in hardware leading to implementation of better (more advanced) algorithms in on-board systems for improved science data return

  20. RTP payload format for H.264/SVC scalable video coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENGER Stephan; WANG Ye-kui; HANNUKSELA Miska M.

    2006-01-01

    The scalable extension of H.264/AVC, known as scalable video coding or SVC, is currently the main focus of the Joint Video Team's work. In its present working draft, the higher level syntax of SVC follows the design principles of H.264/AVC.Self-contained network abstraction layer units (NAL units) form natural entities for packetization. The SVC specification is by no means finalized yet, but nevertheless the work towards an optimized RTP payload format has already started. RFC 3984, the RTP payload specification for H.264/AVC has been taken as a starting point, but it became quickly clear that the scalable features of SVC require adaptation in at least the areas of capability/operation point signaling and documentation of the extended NAL unit header. This paper first gives an overview of the history of scalable video coding, and then reviews the video coding layer (VCL)and NAL of the latest SVC draft specification. Finally, it discusses different aspects of the draft SVC RTP payload format, including the design criteria, use cases, signaling and payload structure.

  1. View of OMS burn from the payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    View of Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) burn from the payload bay. The closed cradles which held the communication satellites Columbia deployed are visible in the center of the frame. Parts of the spacecraft's wings can be seen on both the port and starboard sides can be seen. The vertical stabilizer is flanked by the twin OMS pods.

  2. Near Miss Warhead Technology With Multiple Effects Against Submunition Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    concepts are only required to expand with high spray density clouds of deployed mass. A new class of warhead technologies coined " near miss warheads...34 has been analyzed at Raytheon to investigate near miss warhead lethality against payloads carrying submunitions. These warheads utilize most of their

  3. Microbes Should Be Central to Ecological Education and Outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Barberán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our planet is changing rapidly, and responding to the ensuing environmental challenges will require an informed citizenry that can understand the inherent complexity of ecological systems. However, microorganisms are usually neglected in the narratives that we use to understand nature. Here, we advocate for the inclusion of microbial ecology across education levels and delineate the often neglected benefits of incorporating microbes into ecology curricula. We provide examples across education levels, from secondary school (by considering one’s self as a microbial ecosystem, to higher education (by incorporating our knowledge of the global ecological role and medical application of microbes, to the general public (by engagement through citizen-science projects. The greater inclusion of microbes in ecological education and outreach will not only help us appreciate the natural world we are part of, but will ultimately aid in building a citizenry better prepared to make informed decisions on health and environmental policies.

  4. Microbes can help explain the evolution of host altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin-Epstein, Ohad; Aharonov, Ranit; Hadany, Lilach

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of altruistic behaviour, which is costly to the donor but beneficial for the recipient, is among the most intriguing questions in evolutionary biology. Several theories have been proposed to explain it, including kin selection, group selection and reciprocity. Here we propose that microbes that manipulate their hosts to act altruistically could be favoured by selection, and may play a role in the widespread occurrence of altruism. Using computational models, we find that microbe-induced altruism can explain the evolution of host altruistic behaviour under wider conditions than host-centred theories, including in a fully mixed host population, without repeating interactions or individual recognition. Our results suggest that factors such as antibiotics that kill microbes might negatively affect cooperation in a wide range of organisms. PMID:28079112

  5. Gut microbes of mammalian herbivores facilitate intake of plant toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Kevin D; Weiss, Robert B; Cox, James; Dale, Colin; Dearing, M Denise

    2014-10-01

    The foraging ecology of mammalian herbivores is strongly shaped by plant secondary compounds (PSCs) that defend plants against herbivory. Conventional wisdom holds that gut microbes facilitate the ingestion of toxic plants; however, this notion lacks empirical evidence. We investigated the gut microbiota of desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida), some populations of which specialise on highly toxic creosote bush (Larrea tridentata). Here, we demonstrate that gut microbes are crucial in allowing herbivores to consume toxic plants. Creosote toxins altered the population structure of the gut microbiome to facilitate an increase in abundance of genes that metabolise toxic compounds. In addition, woodrats were unable to consume creosote toxins after the microbiota was disrupted with antibiotics. Last, ingestion of toxins by naïve hosts was increased through microbial transplants from experienced donors. These results demonstrate that microbes can enhance the ability of hosts to consume PSCs and therefore expand the dietary niche breadth of mammalian herbivores.

  6. Emerging Sponge Models of Animal-Microbe Symbioses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Lucia; Fraune, Sebastian; Hentschel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Sponges have a significant impact on marine benthic communities, they are of biotechnological interest owing to their production of bioactive natural compounds, and they promise to provide insights into conserved mechanisms of host–microbe interactions in basal metazoans. The natural variability of sponge-microbe associations across species and environments provides a meaningful ecological and evolutionary framework to investigate animal-microbial symbiosis through experimentation in the field and also in aquaria. In addition, next-generation sequencing technologies have shed light on the genomic repertoire of the sponge host and revealed metabolic capacities and symbiotic lifestyle features of their microbiota. However, our understanding of symbiotic mechanisms is still in its infancy. Here, we discuss the potential and limitations of the sponge-microbe symbiosis as emerging models for animal-associated microbiota. PMID:28066403

  7. Theory of microbe motion in a poisoned environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    The motility of a microorganism which tries to avoid a poisoned environment by chemotaxis is studied within a simple model which couples its velocity to the concentration field of the poison. The latter is time independent but inhomogeneous in space. The presence of the poison is assumed to irreversibly reduce the propulsion speed. The model is solved analytically for different couplings of the total poison dose experienced by the microbe to the propulsion mechanism. In a stationary poison field resulting from a constant emission of a fixed point source, we find a power law for the distance traveled by the microbe as a function of time with a nonuniversal exponent which depends on the coupling in the model. With an inverted sign in the couplings, the acceleration of microbe motion induced by a food field can also be described.

  8. Microbes bind complement inhibitor factor H via a common site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Meri

    Full Text Available To cause infections microbes need to evade host defense systems, one of these being the evolutionarily old and important arm of innate immunity, the alternative pathway of complement. It can attack all kinds of targets and is tightly controlled in plasma and on host cells by plasma complement regulator factor H (FH. FH binds simultaneously to host cell surface structures such as heparin or glycosaminoglycans via domain 20 and to the main complement opsonin C3b via domain 19. Many pathogenic microbes protect themselves from complement by recruiting host FH. We analyzed how and why different microbes bind FH via domains 19-20 (FH19-20. We used a selection of FH19-20 point mutants to reveal the binding sites of several microbial proteins and whole microbes (Haemophilus influenzae, Bordetella pertussis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, Candida albicans, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Borrelia hermsii. We show that all studied microbes use the same binding region located on one side of domain 20. Binding of FH to the microbial proteins was inhibited with heparin showing that the common microbial binding site overlaps with the heparin site needed for efficient binding of FH to host cells. Surprisingly, the microbial proteins enhanced binding of FH19-20 to C3b and down-regulation of complement activation. We show that this is caused by formation of a tripartite complex between the microbial protein, FH, and C3b. In this study we reveal that seven microbes representing different phyla utilize a common binding site on the domain 20 of FH for complement evasion. Binding via this site not only mimics the glycosaminoglycans of the host cells, but also enhances function of FH on the microbial surfaces via the novel mechanism of tripartite complex formation. This is a unique example of convergent evolution resulting in enhanced immune evasion of important pathogens via utilization of a "superevasion site."

  9. The microbe-free plant: fact or artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partida-Martínez, Laila P; Heil, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Plant-microbe interactions are ubiquitous. Plants are threatened by pathogens, but they are even more commonly engaged in neutral or mutualistic interactions with microbes: belowground microbial plant associates are mycorrhizal fungi, Rhizobia, and plant-growth promoting rhizosphere bacteria, aboveground plant parts are colonized by internally living bacteria and fungi (endophytes) and by microbes in the phyllosphere (epiphytes). We emphasize here that a completely microbe-free plant is an exotic exception rather than the biologically relevant rule. The complex interplay of such microbial communities with the host-plant affects multiple vital parameters such as plant nutrition, growth rate, resistance to biotic and abiotic stressors, and plant survival and distribution. The mechanisms involved reach from direct ones such as nutrient acquisition, the production of plant hormones, or direct antibiosis, to indirect ones that are mediated by effects on host resistance genes or via interactions at higher trophic levels. Plant-associated microbes are heterotrophic and cause costs to their host plant, whereas the benefits depend on the current environment. Thus, the outcome of the interaction for the plant host is highly context dependent. We argue that considering the microbe-free plant as the "normal" or control stage significantly impairs research into important phenomena such as (1) phenotypic and epigenetic plasticity, (2) the "normal" ecological outcome of a given interaction, and (3) the evolution of plants. For the future, we suggest cultivation-independent screening methods using direct PCR from plant tissue of more than one fungal and bacterial gene to collect data on the true microbial diversity in wild plants. The patterns found could be correlated to host species and environmental conditions, in order to formulate testable hypotheses on the biological roles of plant endophytes in nature. Experimental approaches should compare different host

  10. The microbe-free plant: fact or artefact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila P. Pamela Partida-Martinez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant-microbe interactions are ubiquitous. Plants are often colonized by pathogens but even more commonly engaged in neutral or mutualistic interactions with microbes: below-ground microbial plant associates are mycorrhizal fungi, Rhizobia and rhizosphere bacteria, above-ground plant parts are colonized by bacterial and fungal endophytes and by microbes in the phyllosphere. We emphasize here that a completely microbe-free plant is an exotic exception rather than the biologically relevant rule. The complex interplay of such microbial communities with the host plant affects plant nutrition, growth rate, resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and plant survival and distribution. The mechanisms involved reach from nutrient acquisition, the production of plant hormones or direct antibiosis to effects on host resistance genes or interactions at higher trophic levels. Plant-associated microbes are heterotrophic and cause costs to their host plant, whereas the benefits depend on the environment. Thus, the outcome of the interaction is highly context-dependent. Considering the microbe-free plant as the ‘normal’ or control stage significantly impairs research into important phenomena such as (1 phenotypic and epigenetic plasticity, (2 the ‘normal’ ecological outcome of a given interaction and (3 the evolution of plants. For the future, we suggest cultivation-independent screening methods using direct PCR from plant tissue of more than one fungal and bacterial gene to collect data on the true microbial diversity in wild plants. The patterns found could be correlated to host species and environmental conditions, in order to formulate testable hypotheses on the biological roles of plant endophytes in nature. Experimental approaches should compare different host-endophyte combinations under various environmental conditions and study at the genetic, transcriptional and physiological level the parameters that shift the interaction along the mutualism

  11. UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL INTERACTIONS OF MICROBES USING TRANSCRIPTOMICS : A CODICIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Saran Tirumalai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sociobiology of microbes is an emerging branch of science that has delivered interesting and intriguing research findings over the last few years. The revelations are such that the research perspective of microbes is gradually drifting from pure culture analysis to community analysis. We review to substantiate the need for microbial socio-bio studies and codicil the decade long research pursuit and their findings using advanced technologies of Microarrays and Next Generation Sequencing, prompting for more lunge in transcriptomic and metatranscriptomic studies.

  12. Metagenomic search strategies for interactions among plants and multiple microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Karl Melcher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants harbor multiple microbes. Metagenomics can facilitate understanding of the significance, for the plant, of the microbes and of the interactions among them. However, current approaches to metagenomic analysis of plants are computationally time-consuming. Efforts to speed the discovery process include improvement of computational speed, condensing the sequencing reads into smaller datasets before BLAST searches, simplifying the target database of BLAST searches, and flipping the roles of metagenomic and reference datasets. The latter is exemplified by the E-probe diagnostic nucleic acid analysis (EDNA approach originally devised for improving analysis during plant quarantine.

  13. Dorsal raphe nucleus of brain in the rats flown in space inflight and postflight alteration of structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, I.

    The structure of brain dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) was studied in the rats flown in space aboard Space Shuttle "Columbia" (STS-58, SLS-2 program) and dissected on day 13 of the mission ("inflight" rats) and in 5-6 hours after finishing 14-day flight ("postflight" rats). The brain of "inflight" rats were excised after decapitation, sectioned sagitally halves of brain were fixed by immersion in 2,5 % glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer pH 7.3 at 4°C and kept in the flight at 4°C. After landing the brain frontal 0.5 mm sections from DRN area were osmificated and embedded in araldite at NASA ARC. The brains of "postflight": and control rats were underwent to the same procedure. Electronmicroscopical analysis, computer morphometry and glial cell count were performed at Moscow. In DRN neuropil of "inflight" rats the most part of axo-dendritic synapses were surrounded by glia cell processes and had decreased electron density of pre- and postsynaptic membrane and pronounced diminution of synaptic vesicle amount while dendrites were characterized by decrease in matrix electron density and microtubule quantity that in total indicates the decline of afferent flow reaching DRN neurons in microgravity. In DRN neurons of "inflight" rats all mitochondria were characterized by evenly increased dimensions, decreased matrix electron density, small amount of short and far- between located cristae and enlarged intermembrane and intercristae spaces, that in total points out low level of coupling of oxidation to phosphorilation, decrease in energy supply of neuron. Amount of ribosome in cytoplasm was significantly decreased indicating lower lever of biosynthetic processes. The last is supported by diminished dimensions of neuronal body, nucleus and nucleolus (place of r RNA synthesis), cross section area of that were reduced in DRN neurons of "inflight" rats by 18.8 % (p < 0.01), 11.1 % and 26.6 % (p <0,005) correspondingly. Ultrastructure and dimensions of intracellular

  14. Changes in miRNA expression profile of space-flown Caenorhabditis elegans during Shenzhou-8 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Gao, Ying; Huang, Lei; Sun, Yeqing

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in the field of molecular biology have demonstrated that small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have a broad effect on gene expression networks and play a key role in biological responses to environmental stressors. However, little is known about how space radiation exposure and altered gravity affect miRNA expression. The "International Space Biological Experiments" project was carried out in November 2011 by an international collaboration between China and Germany during the Shenzhou-8 (SZ-8) mission. To study the effects of spaceflight on Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), we explored the expression profile miRNA changes in space-flown C. elegans. Dauer C. elegans larvae were taken by SZ-8 spacecraft and experienced the 16.5-day shuttle spaceflight. We performed miRNA microarray analysis, and the results showed that 23 miRNAs were altered in a complex space environment and different expression patterns were observed in the space synthetic and radiation environments. Most putative target genes of the altered miRNAs in the space synthetic environment were predicted to be involved in developmental processes instead of in the regulation of transcription, and the enrichment of these genes was due to space radiation. Furthermore, integration analysis of the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles confirmed that twelve genes were differently regulated by seven miRNAs. These genes may be involved in embryonic development, reproduction, transcription factor activity, oviposition in a space synthetic environment, positive regulation of growth and body morphogenesis in a space radiation environment. Specifically, we found that cel-miR-52, -55, and -56 of the miR-51 family were sensitive to space environmental stressors and could regulate biological behavioural responses and neprilysin activity through the different isoforms of T01C4.1 and F18A12.8. These findings suggest that C. elegans responded to spaceflight by altering the expression of miRNAs and some target

  15. Experiment K-6-13. Morphological and biochemical examination of heart tissue. Part 1: Effects of microgravity on the myocardial fine structure of rats flown on Cosmos 1887. Ultrastructure studies. Part 2: Cellular distribution of cyclic ampdependent protein kinase regulatory subunits in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, D. E.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, Jaime; Mednieks, M. I.; Sapp, W.; Popova, I. A.; Serova, L. V.

    1990-01-01

    The left ventricle of hearts from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days was compared to the same tissue of synchronous and vivarium control animals maintained in a ground based laboratory. The volume density of the mitochondria in the myocardium of the space-flown animals was statistically less (p equal less than 0.01) than that of the synchronous or vivarium control rats. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a certain degree of myocardial degeneration manifested in mitochondrial changes and accumulation of myeloid bodies. Generalized myofibrillar edema was also observed.

  16. Terrestrial microbes in martian and chondritic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airieau, S.; Picenco, Y.; Andersen, G.

    2007-08-01

    Bank sequences using the BLAST program. The closest matches were in the genus Microbacterium. Soil and plant isolates were close relatives by sequence comparison. Los Angeles. After 11 months of incubation in a fridge, a yellow colony grew at the center of a culture plate of Los Angeles dust grains (1:1000 R2A). There was no cell activity in the other agars. A DNA extraction yielded no usable results [7]. Sequencing was not performed because the culture plate became contaminated with outside organisms that overtook the colony of interest. Conclusions: The sequences for EET 87770 and Leoville were of a good quality and the sequence reads were long, so the data are clear that these are typical soil and/or plant-related bacteria commonly found in Earth habitats. Microbial species present in a dozen chondritic samples from isolates are not yet identified, and the contaminant in Los Angeles needs to be recovered. In addition, isotopic analyses of samples with various amounts of microbial contamination could help quantified isotopic impact of microbes on protoplanetary chemistry in these rocks. References : [1] Gounelle, M. and Zolensky M. LPS, (2001) LPS XXXII, Abstract #999. [2] Fries, M. et al. (2005) Meteoritical Society Meeting 68, Abstract # 5201. [3] Burckle, L. H. and Delaney, J. S (1999) Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 32, 475-478. [4] Whitby, C. et al. (2000) ) LPS XXXI, Abstract #1732. [5] Airieau, S. A. et al (2005) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69, 4166-4171. [6] Unpublished data, with H. J. Cleaves, A. Aubrey, J. Bada (Scripps Institution of Oceanography), M. Thiemens (UC San Diego) and M. Fogel (Carnegie Institution of Washington). [7] Unpublished data, with A. Steele (CIW), and N. Wainwright (Marine Biological Laboratory). Acknowledgements: Lisa Welleberger for access to SNC samples at USNM; Ralph Harvey for organizing ANSMET; Denise C. Thiry and Andrew Steele for long term storage of samples, NormWainwright for LAL measurements. A small portion of this work was funded with a

  17. The high life: Transport of microbes in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Jaffe, Daniel A.

    2011-07-01

    Microbes (bacteria, fungi, algae, and viruses) are the most successful types of life on Earth because of their ability to adapt to new environments, reproduce quickly, and disperse globally. Dispersal occurs through a number of vectors, such as migrating animals or the hydrological cycle, but transport by wind may be the most common way microbes spread. General awareness of airborne microbes predates the science of microbiology. People took advantage of wild airborne yeasts to cultivate lighter, more desirable bread as far back as ancient Egypt by simply leaving a mixture of grain and liquids near an open window. In 1862, Louis Pasteur's quest to disprove spontaneous generation resulted in the discovery that microbes were actually single-celled, living creatures, prevalent in the environment and easily killed with heat (pasteurization). His rudimentary experiments determined that any nutrient medium left open to the air would eventually teem with microbial life because of free-floating, colonizing cells. The same can happen in a kitchen: Opportunistic fungal and bacterial cells cause food items exposed to the air to eventually spoil.

  18. Phenolic Acids in Plant-Soil-Microbe System: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic acids are very common compounds in pedosphere. The objective of this review was to summarize the current knowledge of the behaviors of phenolic acids in plant-soil-microbe system. When phenolic acids originated from leaching, decomposition and exudation of living and dead plant tissues enter soils, they can react physicochemically with soil particle surfaces and/or incorporate into humic matter. Phenolic acids desorbed from soil particle surfaces and remained in solution phase can be utilized by microbe as carbon sources and absorbed by plants. The degradation products of phenolic acids by microbe include some organic and/or inorganic compounds such as new phenolic acids. In addition, phenolic acids in soils can stimulate population and activity of microbe. Phenolic acids can inhibit plants growth by affecting ion leakage, phytohormone activity, membrane permeability, hydraulic conductivity, net nutrient uptake, and enzyme activity. Behaviors of phenolic acids in soils are influenced by other organic compounds (phenolic acids, methionine, glucose, etc.) and/or inorganic ions. The role of phenolic acids as allelopathic agents should not be neglected only based on their low specific concentrations in natural soils, because numbers and interactions of phenolic acids will increase their allelopathic activities.

  19. Microbes from raw milk for fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, J.T.M.; Ayad, E.H.E.; Hugenholtz, J.; Smit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Milk has a high nutritive value, not only For the new-born mammal and for the human consumer, but also for microbes. Raw milk kept at roam temperature will be liable to microbial spoilage. After some days, the milk will spontaneously become sour. This is generally due to the activity of lactic acid

  20. Seeing is believing: what experiments with microbes reveal about evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ditmarsch, Dave; Xavier, Joao B

    2014-01-01

    Darwin's theory of natural selection is among the most powerful ideas in science, yet evolutionary ideas remain challenged to this day. This is in part because evolution often cannot be directly observed. Simple experiments with microbes can change that by enabling direct observation of evolutionary processes.

  1. Photoheterotrophic microbes in the Arctic Ocean in summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

    2009-08-01

    Photoheterotrophic microbes, which are capable of utilizing dissolved organic materials and harvesting light energy, include coccoid cyanobacteria (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, and proteorhodopsin (PR)-containing bacteria. Our knowledge of photoheterotrophic microbes is largely incomplete, especially for high-latitude waters such as the Arctic Ocean, where photoheterotrophs may have special ecological relationships and distinct biogeochemical impacts due to extremes in day length and seasonal ice cover. These microbes were examined by epifluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays for PR and a gene diagnostic of AAP bacteria (pufM). The abundance of AAP bacteria and PR-containing bacteria decreased from summer to winter, in parallel with a threefold decrease in the total prokaryotic community. In contrast, the abundance of Synechococcus organisms did not decrease in winter, suggesting that their growth was supported by organic substrates. Results from QPCR assays revealed no substantial shifts in the community structure of AAP bacteria and PR-containing bacteria. However, Arctic PR genes were different from those found at lower latitudes, and surprisingly, they were not similar to those in Antarctic coastal waters. Photoheterotrophic microbes appear to compete successfully with strict heterotrophs during winter darkness below the ice, but AAP bacteria and PR-containing bacteria do not behave as superior competitors during the summer.

  2. The high life: Transport of microbes in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Jaffe, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Microbes (bacteria, fungi, algae, and viruses) are the most successful types of life on Earth because of their ability to adapt to new environments, reproduce quickly, and disperse globally. Dispersal occurs through a number of vectors, such as migrating animals or the hydrological cycle, but transport by wind may be the most common way microbes spread. General awareness of airborne microbes predates the science of microbiology. People took advantage of wild airborne yeasts to cultivate lighter, more desirable bread as far back as ancient Egypt by simply leaving a mixture of grain and liquids near an open window. In 1862, Louis Pasteur's quest to disprove spontaneous generation resulted in the discovery that microbes were actually single-celled, living creatures, prevalent in the environment and easily killed with heat (pasteurization). His rudimentary experiments determined that any nutrient medium left open to the air would eventually teem with microbial life because of free-floating, colonizing cells. The same can happen in a kitchen: Opportunistic fungal and bacterial cells cause food items exposed to the air to eventually spoil.

  3. Cooperation and conflict in host-microbe relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Elling

    2009-05-01

    Hosts and microbes associate in a variety of relations along a continuum ranging from symbiotic to pathogenic. Defence mechanisms have been evolutionarily selected in both hosts and microbes to protect the organism's integrity. Such defences have to be utilized with caution. They must be adapted to the tasks at hand; otherwise any symbiotic relation would be impossible. To explain this cautionary use of defences we need to understand how life on Earth evolved into cooperative and competing entities at various levels of organization. The purpose of this article is to review theory and selected mechanisms relating to the evolution and development of host-microbe interactions, with special emphasis on host responses. The rationale is that without theory, extrapolations from misleading observations can dominate and distort, for a significant time, the course of a scientific field. The argument is set forth that social evolution theory provides a conceptual framework for addressing questions relating to interaction between hosts and microbes. The article is a partial summary of arguments presented in my book Defending life - the nature of host-parasite relations.

  4. A Study of Covert Communications in Space Platforms Hosting Government Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA A STUDY OF COVERT COMMUNICATIONS IN SPACE PLATFORMS HOSTING GOVERNMENT PAYLOADS by Thuy D...COVERED (From-To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A STUDY OF COVERT COMMUNICATIONS IN SPACE PLATFORMS HOSTING GOVERNMENT PAYLOADS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...access to space by hosting government-supplied payloads on commercial space platforms. These commercially hosted payloads require stringent

  5. The use of artificial intelligence techniques to improve the multiple payload integration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, Dannie E.; Widgren, Brian K.

    1992-01-01

    A maximum return of science and products with a minimum expenditure of time and resources is a major goal of mission payload integration. A critical component then, in successful mission payload integration is the acquisition and analysis of experiment requirements from the principal investigator and payload element developer teams. One effort to use artificial intelligence techniques to improve the acquisition and analysis of experiment requirements within the payload integration process is described.

  6. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  7. Development of baseline random vibration criteria for STS pallet payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical evaluation of measured random vibration response data obtained from the Office of Space Science-1 (OSS-1) pallet payload. The data were measured during the acoustic test simulation (September 1980) and the ascent phase of the flight of STS-3, Orbiter 102 (launched from the Kennedy Space Center on March 22, 1982). Acoustic test efficiency factors are evaluated based on the Dynamic, Acoustic and Thermal Environments (DATE) instrumentation as the source of the measured vibration data. Test efficiency correction to test data is applied in the extrapolation of non-DATE acoustic test data to increase sample population size for improved statistical evaluation. For baseline criteria evaluation and development, data are grouped in accordance with the payload 'zone' in which the component is mounted.

  8. CANSAT: Design of a Small Autonomous Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Joshua; Duda, Michael; Garnand-Royo, Jeff; Jones, Alexa; Pickering, Todd; Tutko, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    CanSat is an international student design-build-launch competition organized by the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The competition is also sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), AGI, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Praxis Incorporated, and SolidWorks. Specifically, the 2009 Virginia Tech CanSat Team is funded by BAE Systems, Incorporated of Manassas, Virginia. The objective of the 2009 CanSat competition is to complete remote sensing missions by designing a small autonomous sounding rocket payload. The payload designed will follow and perform to a specific set of mission requirements for the 2009 competition. The competition encompasses a complete life-cycle of one year which includes all phases of design, integration, testing, reviews, and launch.

  9. Offshore Wind Payload Transfer Using Flexible Mobile Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus B. Kjelland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an offshore-simulated loading and unloading of a payload from a floating platform to a fixed structure. The experiments are performed in a dry-lab, where a Stewart platform is used to simulate the motion of the vessel. A hydraulically actuated vehicle loader crane is used to perform the tasks of payload transfer. The crane includes a hydraulic winch where the wire force is measured by a load cell. A mathematical model of the winch is derived and is experimentally verified. The control strategies include a heave compensation and a constant tension mode. A motion reference unit is used to generate the reference motion of the moving platform. Experimental results show the wire force while performing the load cases. This paper shows the advantage of using a reference motion as a feed forward control reference, instead of only relying on the constant tension.

  10. Scheduling Algorithm for Mission Planning and Logistics Evaluation (SAMPLE). Volume 2: Mission payloads subsystem description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupnick, E.; Wiggins, D.

    1980-01-01

    The scheduling algorithm for mission planning and logistics evaluation (SAMPLE) is presented. Two major subsystems are included: The mission payloads program; and the set covering program. Formats and parameter definitions for the payload data set (payload model), feasible combination file, and traffic model are documented.

  11. The Payload Data Handling and Telemetry Systems of Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    Portell, J; García-Berro, E; Geijo, E M; Portell, Jordi; Luri, Xavier; Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Geijo, Enrique M.

    2005-01-01

    The Payload Data Handling System (PDHS) of Gaia is a technological challenge, since it will have to process a huge amount of data with limited resources. Its main tasks include the optimal codification of science data, its packetisation and its compression, before being stored on-board ready to be transmitted. Here we describe a set of proposals for its design, as well as some simulators developed to optimise and test these proposals.

  12. External Payload Carrier (XPC) - A Novel Platform for Suborbital Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallhorn, Paul; Groves, Curtis; Tatro, Charles; Kutter, Bernard; Szatkowski, Gerald; Bulk, Tim; Pitchford, Brian

    2010-01-01

    ULA, SAS, and NASA LSP are examining a new platform for suborbital research utilizing the Atlas V Launch Vehicle. The new platform, XPC, fills a new niche within the suborbital realm Large Heavy Lift (approximately 1200 cubic feet, 5000 lb payload). It will not compete with the commercial suborbital launch sector. The XPC will utilize excess performance on Atlas V missions. The Preliminary Design phase is recently underway. The XPC team is soliciting input from potential users.

  13. An evaluation of low-cost payload carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, V. H.

    1980-01-01

    Payload carrier designed for space vehicles is essentially cargo carrier that supports, positions, and protects various equipment and materials used in conducting experiments in weightless space environment. Proposed carrier entitled Materials Experiment Assembly II (MEA-II) is considered superior to previously developed models in size, weight, and cost to user. Structure is lightweight with insulated exterior and can be custom sized to meet user needs.

  14. MicroPattern: a web-based tool for microbe set enrichment analysis and disease similarity calculation based on a list of microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Huang, Chuanbo; Zhou, Yuan; Li, Jianwei; Cui, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    The microbiota colonized on human body is renowned as “a forgotten organ” due to its big impacts on human health and disease. Recently, microbiome studies have identified a large number of microbes differentially regulated in a variety of conditions, such as disease and diet. However, methods for discovering biological patterns in the differentially regulated microbes are still limited. For this purpose, here, we developed a web-based tool named MicroPattern to discover biological patterns for a list of microbes. In addition, MicroPattern implemented and integrated an algorithm we previously presented for the calculation of disease similarity based on disease-microbe association data. MicroPattern first grouped microbes into different sets based on the associated diseases and the colonized positions. Then, for a given list of microbes, MicroPattern performed enrichment analysis of the given microbes on all of the microbe sets. Moreover, using MicroPattern, we can also calculate disease similarity based on the shared microbe associations. Finally, we confirmed the accuracy and usefulness of MicroPattern by applying it to the changed microbes under the animal-based diet condition. MicroPattern is freely available at http://www.cuilab.cn/micropattern. PMID:28071710

  15. Exploring Earth's Atmospheric Biology using a Platform-Extensible Sampling Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Rothschild, L.

    2012-12-01

    The interactions between Earth's atmosphere and its biosphere, or aerobiology, remain a significant unknown. What few studies have been done conclusively show that Earth's atmosphere has a rich and dynamic microbial presence[Bowers et al., 2010]; that microbes suspended in air survive over long times (1-2 weeks)[Smith et al., 2010] and travel great distances (>5000 km)[Kellogg and Griffin, 2006]; that some airborne bacteria actively nucleate ice crystals, affecting meteorology[Delort et al., 2010]; and that the presence of microbes in the atmosphere has other planetary-scale effects[Delort et al., 2010]. Basic questions, however, such as the number of microbes present, their activity level and state, the different species present and their variance over time and space, remain largely unquantified. Compounding the significant physical and environmental challenges of reliable aerobiological sampling, collection and analysis of biological samples at altitudes above ~10-20 km has traditionally used ad hoc instrumentation and techniques, yielding primarily qualitative analytical results that lack a common basis for comparison[Bowers et al., 2010]. There is a strong need for broad-basis, repeatable, reliably comparable data about aerobiological basics. We describe here a high-altitude environmental and biological sampling project designed specifically to address these issues. The goal is a robust, reliable, re-usable sampling system, with open reproducibility and adaptability for multiple low-cost flight platforms (including ground-tethered systems, high-altitude balloons, and suborbital sounding rockets); by establishing a common modular payload structure for high-altitude sampling with appeal to a broad user base, we hope to encourage widespread collection of comparable aerobiological data. We are on our third prototype iteration, with demonstrated function of two sample capture modules, a support backbone (tracking, data logging, event response, etc.), a simple ground

  16. Parachute-Payload System Flight Dynamics and Trajectory Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Guglieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work traces a general procedure for the design of a flight simulation tool still representative of the major flight physics of a parachute-payload system along decelerated trajectories. An example of limited complexity simulation models for a payload decelerated by one or more parachutes is given, including details and implementation features usually omitted as the focus of the research in this field is typically on the investigation of mission design issues, rather than addressing general implementation guidelines for the development of a reconfigurable simulation tool. The dynamics of the system are modeled through a simple multibody model that represents the expected behavior of an entry vehicle during the terminal deceleration phase. The simulators are designed according to a comprehensive vision that enforces the simplification of the coupling mechanism between the payload and the parachute, with an adequate level of physical insight still available. The results presented for a realistic case study define the sensitivity of the simulation outputs to the functional complexity of the mathematical model. Far from being an absolute address for the software designer, this paper tries to contribute to the area of interest with some technical considerations and clarifications.

  17. Architecture for Payload Planning System (PPS) Software Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Eric; Hagopian, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    The complex and diverse nature of the pay load operations to be performed on the Space Station requires a robust and flexible planning approach, and the proper software tools which tools to support that approach. To date, the planning software for most manned operations in space has been utilized in a centralized planning environment. Centralized planning is characterized by the following: performed by a small team of people, performed at a single location, and performed using single-user planning systems. This approach, while valid for short duration flights, is not conducive to the long duration and highly distributed payload operations environment of the Space Station. The Payload Planning System (PPS) is being designed specifically to support the planning needs of the large number of geographically distributed users of the Space Station. This paper problem provides a general description of the distributed planning architecture that PPS must support and describes the concepts proposed for making PPS available to the Space Station payload user community.

  18. Neural network payload estimation for adaptive robot control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, M R; Johnson, M A; Rogers, S K

    1991-01-01

    A concept is proposed for utilizing artificial neural networks to enhance the high-speed tracking accuracy of robotic manipulators. Tracking accuracy is a function of the controller's ability to compensate for disturbances produced by dynamical interactions between the links. A model-based control algorithm uses a nominal model of those dynamical interactions to reduce the disturbances. The problem is how to provide accurate dynamics information to the controller in the presence of payload uncertainty and modeling error. Neural network payload estimation uses a series of artificial neural networks to recognize the payload variation associated with a degradation in tracking performance. The network outputs are combined with a knowledge of nominal dynamics to produce a computationally efficient direct form of adaptive control. The concept is validated through experimentation and analysis on the first three links of a PUMA-560 manipulator. A multilayer perceptron architecture with two hidden layers is used. Integration of the principles of neural network pattern recognition and model-based control produces a tracking algorithm with enhanced robustness to incomplete dynamic information. Tracking efficacy and applicability to robust control algorithms are discussed.

  19. New evidence of microbe origin for ferromanganese nodules from the East Pacific deep sea floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using a fluorescence microscope and EPMA,abundant microbe "bodies" and clear microbic fluorescent microstructure are determined in the ferromanganese nodules recently collected from the East Pacific deep sea floor.The microbic fluorescent structure shows a close relation to the formation of the ferromanganese nodules.According to their morphological features,the microbes are classified into two types:one is named clumpy microbe,which takes a bar-shaped manganese mineral as a pillar and grows like fasciculate coral,resulting in irregular cauliflorate nodules with rough surfaces; the other is called filamentous microbe,which grows in very thin arcuate and/or concentric circular laminae composed of a microbe layer and a metal (manganese and iron)-rich layer,leading to potato-shaped nodules with relatively smooth surfaces.It also can be seen that the two types of microbes are intergrown together,resulting in nodules complicated in compositions and shapes.

  20. New evidence of microbe origin for ferromanganese nodules from the East Pacific deep sea floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文宣; 周怀阳; 顾连兴; 张文兰; 陆现彩; 符琦; 潘建明; 张海生

    2000-01-01

    Using a fluorescence microscope and EPMA, abundant microbe "bodies" and clear mi-crobic fluorescent microstructure are determined in the ferromanganese nodules recently collected from the East Pacific deep sea floor. The microbic fluorescent structure shows a close relation to the formation of the ferromanganese nodules. According to their morphological features, the microbes are classified into two types: one is named clumpy microbe, which takes a bar-shaped manganese mineral as a pillar and grows like fasciculate coral, resulting in irregular cauliflorate nodules with rough surfaces; the other is called filamentous microbe, which grows in very thin arcuate and/or concentric circular laminae composed of a microbe layer and a metal (manganese and iron)-rich layer, leading to potato-shaped nodules with relatively smooth surfaces. It also can be seen that the two types of microbes are intergrown together, resulting in nodules complicated in compositions and shapes.

  1. Metagenomic analysis of Atriplex microbiomes: Investigating Plant-microbe interactions that enhance adaptation to extreme habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptic symbiotic microbes influence host adaptation by improving nutrient uptake or stress tolerance. Current technologies for increasing plant productivity, whether for food and fuel production or for restoration and remediation, often utilize approaches that bypass, rather than leverage, microb...

  2. A systems biology approach to studying the role of microbes in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Ines; Heinken, Almut; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2013-02-01

    Host-microbe interactions play a crucial role in human health and disease. Of the various systems biology approaches, reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks combined with constraint-based modeling has been particularly successful at in silico predicting the phenotypic characteristics of single organisms. Here, we summarize recent studies, which have applied this approach to investigate microbe-microbe and host-microbe metabolic interactions. This approach can be also expanded to investigate the properties of an entire microbial community, as well as single organisms within the community. We illustrate that the constraint-based modeling approach is suitable to model host-microbe interactions at molecular resolution and will enable systematic investigation of metabolic links between the human host and its microbes. Such host-microbe models, combined with experimental data, will ultimately further our understanding of how microbes influence human health.

  3. Evolutionary adaptation in three-way interactions between plants, microbes and arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biere, A.; Tack, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary adaptations in interactions between plants, microbes and arthropods are generally studied in interactions that involve only two of these groups, that is, plants and microbes, plants and arthropods or arthropods and microbes. We review the accumulating evidence from a wide variety of

  4. Intracellular plant microbe associations: secretory pathways and the formation of perimicrobial compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, S.E.; Fedorova, E.; Bisseling, T.

    2010-01-01

    Plants can establish intracellular interactions with symbiotic as well as pathogenic microbes. Such intracellular accommodation of microbes always involves the formation of a host membrane compartment - the interface between the cytoplasm of the host and the microbe. These are the so-called perimicr

  5. Approaches to environmental verification of STS free-flier and pallet payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the environmental verification programs followed on an STS-launched free-flier payload, using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) as an example, and a pallet payload, using the Office of Space Sciences-1 (OSS-1) as an example. Differences are assessed and rationale given as to why the differing programs were used on the two example payloads. It is concluded that the differences between the programs are due to inherent differences in the payload configuration, their respective mission performance objectives and their operational scenarios rather than to any generic distinctions that differentiate between a free-flier and a pallet payload.

  6. STS-47 crew and backups at MSFC's Payload Crew Training Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Spacelab Japan (SLJ) crewmembers and backup payload specialists stand outside SLJ module mockup at the Payload Crew Training Complex at Marshall SpaceFlight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. From left to right are Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, backup Payload Specialist Chiaki Naito-Mukai, Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, MS N. Jan Davis, backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak, and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee. The MSFC-managed mission is a joint venture in space-based research between the United States and Japan. Mohri, Doi, and Mukai represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). View provided with alternate number 92P-142.

  7. Endophytic and Epiphytic Microbes as Sources of Bioactive Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Newman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the report by Stierle and Strobel in 1993 on taxol(R production by an endophytic fungus 1, it is possible that a number of the agents now used as leads to treatments of diseases in man, are not produced by the plant or invertebrate host from which they were first isolated and identified.They are probably the product of a microbe in, on or around the macroorganism. At times there is an intricate dance between a precursor produced by a microbe, and interactions within the macroorganism, or in certain cases, a fungus, that ends up with the production of a novel agent that has potential as a treatment for a human disease. This report will give examples from insects, plants and marine invertebrates.

  8. Endophytic and Epiphytic Microbes as ``Sources'' of Bioactive Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, David; Cragg, Gordon

    2015-05-01

    Beginning with the report by Stierle and Strobel in 1993 on taxol(R) production by an endophytic fungus 1, it is possible that a number of the agents now used as leads to treatments of diseases in man, are not produced by the plant or invertebrate host from which they were first isolated and identified.They are probably the product of a microbe in, on or around the macroorganism. At times there is an intricate “dance” between a precursor produced by a microbe, and interactions within the macroorganism, or in certain cases, a fungus, that ends up with the production of a novel agent that has potential as a treatment for a human disease. This report will give examples from insects, plants and marine invertebrates.

  9. Accumulator-Based Deep-Sea Microbe Gastight Sampling Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhong-hua; LIU Shao-jun; JIN Bo

    2006-01-01

    The accumulator is used as a pressure compensation device to realize deep-sea microbe gastight sampling. Four key states of the accumulator are proposed to describe the pressure compensation process and a corresponding mathematical model is established to investigate the relationship between the results of pressure compensation and the parameters of the accumulator. Simulation results show that during the falling process of the sampler, the accumulator's real opening pressure is greater than its precharge pressure; when the sampling depth is 6000 m and the accumulator's precharge pressure is less than 30 MPa, to increase the accumulator's precharge pressure can improve pressure compensation results obviously. Laboratory experiments at 60 MPa show that the accumulator is an effective and reliable pressure compensation device for deep-sea microbe samplers. The success in sea trial at a depth of 2000 m in the South China Sea shows that the mathematical model and laboratory experiment results are reliable.

  10. Nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by eukaryotic microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils;

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly...... and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate...... storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described...

  11. Genetic mechanisms of prebiotic oligosaccharide metabolism in probiotic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2015-01-01

    Recent insights into the relationship between the human gut and its resident microbiota have revolutionized our appreciation of this symbiosis and its impact on health and disease development. Accumulating evidence on probiotic and prebiotic interventions has demonstrated promising effects on promoting gastrointestinal health by modulating the microbiota toward the enrichment of beneficial microorganisms. However, the precise mechanisms of how prebiotic nondigestible oligosaccharides are metabolized by these beneficial microbes in vivo remain largely unknown. Genome sequencing of probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has revealed versatile carbohydrate metabolic gene repertoires dedicated to the catabolism of various oligosaccharides. In this review, we highlight recent findings on the genetic mechanisms involved in the utilization of prebiotic fructooligosaccharides, β-galactooligosaccharides, human milk oligosaccharides, and other prebiotic candidates by these probiotic microbes.

  12. Microbes Drive Evolution of Animals and Plants: the Hologenome Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Rosenberg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The hologenome concept of evolution postulates that the holobiont (host plus symbionts with its hologenome (host genome plus microbiome is a level of selection in evolution. Multicellular organisms can no longer be considered individuals by the classical definitions of the term. Every natural animal and plant is a holobiont consisting of the host and diverse symbiotic microbes and viruses. Microbial symbionts can be transmitted from parent to offspring by a variety of methods, including via cytoplasmic inheritance, coprophagy, direct contact during and after birth, and the environment. A large number of studies have demonstrated that these symbionts contribute to the anatomy, physiology, development, innate and adaptive immunity, and behavior and finally also to genetic variation and to the origin and evolution of species. Acquisition of microbes and microbial genes is a powerful mechanism for driving the evolution of complexity. Evolution proceeds both via cooperation and competition, working in parallel.

  13. Predominately Uncultured Microbes as Sources of Bioactive Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I am discussing the relatively recent awareness of the role of symbionts in plant, marine-invertebrates and fungal areas. It is now quite obvious that in marine-invertebrates, a majority of compounds found are from either as yet unculturable or poorly culturable microbes, and techniques involving “state of the art” genomic analyses and subsequent computerized analyses are required to investigate these interactions. In the plant kingdom evidence is amassing that endophytes (mainly fungal in nature) are heavily involved in secondary metabolite production and that mimicking the microbial interactions of fermentable microbes leads to involvement of previously unrecognized gene clusters (cryptic clusters is one name used), that when activated, produce previously unknown bioactive molecules. PMID:27917159

  14. Microbes Drive Evolution of Animals and Plants: the Hologenome Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Eugene; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana

    2016-03-31

    The hologenome concept of evolution postulates that the holobiont (host plus symbionts) with its hologenome (host genome plus microbiome) is a level of selection in evolution. Multicellular organisms can no longer be considered individuals by the classical definitions of the term. Every natural animal and plant is a holobiont consisting of the host and diverse symbiotic microbes and viruses. Microbial symbionts can be transmitted from parent to offspring by a variety of methods, including via cytoplasmic inheritance, coprophagy, direct contact during and after birth, and the environment. A large number of studies have demonstrated that these symbionts contribute to the anatomy, physiology, development, innate and adaptive immunity, and behavior and finally also to genetic variation and to the origin and evolution of species. Acquisition of microbes and microbial genes is a powerful mechanism for driving the evolution of complexity. Evolution proceeds both via cooperation and competition, working in parallel. Copyright © 2016 Rosenberg and Zilber-Rosenberg.

  15. Exploring laser-guided metal deposition through a microbe metabolite

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to describe exploring laser-guided metal deposition through a microbe metabolite.Design/methodology/approach: A maskless micro-fabrication of laser-guided deposition process through the metabolite of Acidophilic bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (T.f.) is explored.Findings: The authors have conducted an analysis of the metal deposition process using the point thermal-source of the Nd:YAG laser through the metabolite of Acidophilic bacteria Thiobacillus. A...

  16. MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative functional genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Joachimiak, Marcin P.

    2014-01-01

    The Virtual Institute for Microbial Stress and Survival (VIMSS, http://vimss.lbl.gov/) funded by the Dept. of Energy's Genomics:GTL Program, is dedicated to using integrated environmental, functional genomic, and comparative sequence and phylogeny data to understand mechanisms by which microbes and microbial communities survive in uncertain environments while carrying out processes of interest for bioremediation and energy generation. To support this work, VIMSS has developed a Web portal, al...

  17. Microbial electrosynthesis: understanding and strengthening microbe-electrode interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Höglund, Daniel; Ammam, Fariza;

    2014-01-01

    Powering microbes with electrical energy to produce valuable chemicals such as biofuels has recently gained traction as a biosustainable production strategy for the reduction of our dependence to oil. Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is one of the few bioelectrochemical approaches developed......, and a general lack of knowledge about electron transfer mechanisms have been the main obstacles to MES commercialization todate. Developing genetic systems for known electroautotrophs, screening for better MES chassis organisms and superior electrochemical hardware, establishing alternative MES processes...

  18. Stimulated Growth of Aerobic Microbes Using Calcium Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shejiang; LI Mujin; JIANG Bin; LI Xingang

    2006-01-01

    With continuous and slow oxygen-release characteristic,calcium peroxide (CaO2) has been a new source of supplying oxygen for aerobic microbes in bioremediation of contaminated groundwater.Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the oxygen-release rate of CaO2 reacting with water,the regulation of high pH,as well as the growth of mixed aerobic microbes in the medium containing CaO2.The results show that the oxygen-release process of CaO2 comprises three phases.In the first phase,dissolved oxygen levels of water increased sharply,and average oxygen-release rates increased as the adding weight of CaO2 increased.However,the rates almost ly.As the necessary components of medium,potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) and ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) at a certain ratio could regulate pH caused by CaO2 from 12.1 to the range of 6.5-8.5,which is helpful for microbial growth.In addition,diauxic growth curve observed in the medium containing CaO2 suggested that the growth of mixed aerobic microbes could be stimulated by the addition of CaO2.

  19. Single microbe trap and release in sub-microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-08

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have substantially impacted the way life-sciences are explored; life on earth, however, comprises mostly of microbes, which due to their sub-micron dimensions and high mobility are more challenging to dynamically manipulate on-a-chip. To address this challenge, we developed a high resolution microfluidic system (submicrofluidics) fabricated by direct electron beam lithography that is capable of trapping single microbes and releasing them upon demand. The fabrication method enabled the integration of sub-micron indentations (400 nm) with millimetre-scale fluidic channels rapidly in a single processing step. The larger channels deliver the cell suspension and reagents, while the sub-micron indentations immobilize the cells by locally increasing the hydrodynamic resistance. By volume exclusion, single cell trapping was possible in this system without any surface treatment. By increasing the flow rate, the microbes overcome the trap barrier and pass through the narrow indentation without undergoing lysis with kinetics that depend on their size. The fabrication method and its performance are described, along with microbial characterisations using E. coli.

  20. Fossil genes and microbes in the oldest ice on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidle, Kay D; Lee, Sanghoon; Marchant, David R; Falkowski, Paul G

    2007-08-14

    Although the vast majority of ice that formed on the Antarctic continent over the past 34 million years has been lost to the oceans, pockets of ancient ice persist in the Dry Valleys of the Transantarctic Mountains. Here we report on the potential metabolic activity of microbes and the state of community DNA in ice derived from Mullins and upper Beacon Valleys. The minimum age of the former is 100 ka, whereas that of the latter is approximately 8 Ma, making it the oldest known ice on Earth. In both samples, radiolabeled substrates were incorporated into macromolecules, and microbes grew in nutrient-enriched meltwaters, but metabolic activity and cell viability were critically compromised with age. Although a 16S rDNA-based community reconstruction suggested relatively low bacterial sequence diversity in both ice samples, metagenomic analyses of community DNA revealed many diverse orthologs to extant metabolic genes. Analyses of five ice samples, spanning the last 8 million years in this region, demonstrated an exponential decline in the average community DNA size with a half-life of approximately 1.1 million years, thereby constraining the geological preservation of microbes in icy environments and the possible exchange of genetic material to the oceans.

  1. Plant microbe interactions in post genomic era: perspectives and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Imam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering plant-microbe interactions is a promising aspect to understand the benefits and the pathogenic effect of microbes and crop improvement. The advancement in sequencing technologies and various ‘omics’ tool has impressively accelerated the research in biological sciences in this area. The recent and ongoing developments provide a unique approach to describing these intricate interactions and test hypotheses. In the present review, we discuss the role of plant-pathogen interaction in crop improvement. The plant innate immunity has always been an important aspect of research and leads to some interesting information like the adaptation of unique immune mechanisms of plants against pathogens. The development of new techniques in the post - genomic era has greatly enhanced our understanding of the regulation of plant defense mechanisms against pathogens. The present review also provides an overview of beneficial plant-microbe interactions with special reference to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-plant interactions where plant derived signal molecules and plant immune responses are important in pathogenicity and transformation efficiency. The construction of various Genome-scale metabolic models of microorganisms and plants presented a better understanding of all metabolic interactions activated during the interactions. This review also lists the emerging repertoire of phytopathogens and its impact on plant disease resistance. Outline of different aspects of plant-pathogen interactions is presented in this review to bridge the gap between plant microbial ecology and their immune responses.

  2. Plant Microbe Interactions in Post Genomic Era: Perspectives and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Jahangir; Singh, Puneet K; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering plant-microbe interactions is a promising aspect to understand the benefits and the pathogenic effect of microbes and crop improvement. The advancement in sequencing technologies and various 'omics' tool has impressively accelerated the research in biological sciences in this area. The recent and ongoing developments provide a unique approach to describing these intricate interactions and test hypotheses. In the present review, we discuss the role of plant-pathogen interaction in crop improvement. The plant innate immunity has always been an important aspect of research and leads to some interesting information like the adaptation of unique immune mechanisms of plants against pathogens. The development of new techniques in the post - genomic era has greatly enhanced our understanding of the regulation of plant defense mechanisms against pathogens. The present review also provides an overview of beneficial plant-microbe interactions with special reference to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-plant interactions where plant derived signal molecules and plant immune responses are important in pathogenicity and transformation efficiency. The construction of various Genome-scale metabolic models of microorganisms and plants presented a better understanding of all metabolic interactions activated during the interactions. This review also lists the emerging repertoire of phytopathogens and its impact on plant disease resistance. Outline of different aspects of plant-pathogen interactions is presented in this review to bridge the gap between plant microbial ecology and their immune responses.

  3. Insights into the Roles of Gut Microbes in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Sanz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health issue as it enhances the risk of suffering several chronic diseases of increasing prevalence. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation. Gut microbes are considered to contribute to body weight regulation and related disorders by influencing metabolic and immune host functions. The gut microbiota as a whole improves the host's ability to extract and store energy from the diet leading to body weight gain, while specific commensal microbes seem to exert beneficial effects on bile salt, lipoprotein, and cholesterol metabolism. The gut microbiota and some probiotics also regulate immune functions, protecting the host form infections and chronic inflammation. In contrast, dysbiosis and endotoxaemia may be inflammatory factors responsible for developing insulin resistance and body weight gain. In the light of the link between the gut microbiota, metabolism, and immunity, the use of dietary strategies to modulate microbiota composition is likely to be effective in controlling metabolic disorders. Although so far only a few preclinical and clinical trials have demonstrated the effects of specific gut microbes and prebiotics on biological markers of these disorders, the findings indicate that advances in this field could be of value in the struggle against obesity and its associated-metabolic disorders.

  4. Amino acids in the rhizosphere: from plants to microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Luke A

    2013-09-01

    Often referred to as the "building blocks of proteins", the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids are ubiquitous in biological systems as the functional units in proteins. Sometimes overlooked are their varying additional roles that include serving as metabolic intermediaries, playing structural roles in bioactive natural products, acting as cosubstrates in enzymatic transformations, and as key regulators of cellular physiology. Amino acids can also serve as biological sources of both carbon and nitrogen and are found in the rhizosphere as a result of lysis or cellular efflux from plants and microbes and proteolysis of existing peptides. While both plants and microbes apparently prefer to take up nitrogen in its inorganic form, their ability to take up and use amino acids may confer a selective advantage in certain environments where organic nitrogen is abundant. Further, certain amino acids (e.g., glutamate and proline) and their betaines (e.g., glycine betaine) serve as compatible solutes necessary for osmoregulation in plants and microbes and can undergo rapid cellular flux. This ability is of particular importance in an ecological niche such as the rhizosphere, which is prone to significant variations in solute concentrations. Amino acids are also shown to alter key phenotypes related to plant root growth and microbial colonization, symbiotic interactions, and pathogenesis in the rhizosphere. This review will focus on the sources, transport mechanisms, and potential roles of the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids in the rhizosphere.

  5. Plant root-microbe communication in shaping root microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareen, Andrew; Burton, Frances; Schäfer, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of research is highlighting the impacts root-associated microbial communities can have on plant health and development. These impacts can include changes in yield quantity and quality, timing of key developmental stages and tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. With such a range of effects it is clear that understanding the factors that contribute to a plant-beneficial root microbiome may prove advantageous. Increasing demands for food by a growing human population increases the importance and urgency of understanding how microbiomes may be exploited to increase crop yields and reduce losses caused by disease. In addition, climate change effects may require novel approaches to overcoming abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity as well as new emerging diseases. This review discusses current knowledge on the formation and maintenance of root-associated microbial communities and plant-microbe interactions with a particular emphasis on the effect of microbe-microbe interactions on the shape of microbial communities at the root surface. Further, we discuss the potential for root microbiome modification to benefit agriculture and food production.

  6. Microbes as targets and mediators of allelopathy in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M; Barto, E Kathryn

    2012-06-01

    Studies of allelopathy in terrestrial systems have experienced tremendous growth as interest has risen in describing biochemical mechanisms responsible for structuring plant communities, determining agricultural and forest productivity, and explaining invasive behaviors in introduced organisms. While early criticisms of allelopathy involved issues with allelochemical production, stability, and degradation in soils, an understanding of the chemical ecology of soils and its microbial inhabitants has been increasingly incorporated in studies of allelopathy, and recognized as an essential predictor of the outcome of allelopathic interactions between plants. Microbes can mediate interactions in a number of ways with both positive and negative outcomes for surrounding plants and plant communities. In this review, we examine cases where soil microbes are the target of allelopathic plants leading to indirect effects on competing plants, provide examples where microbes play either a protective effect on plants against allelopathic competitors or enhance allelopathic effects, and we provide examples where soil microbial communities have changed through time in response to allelopathic plants with known or potential effects on plant communities. We focus primarily on interactions involving wild plants in natural systems, using case studies of some of the world's most notorious invasive plants, but we also provide selected examples from agriculturally managed systems. Allelopathic interactions between plants cannot be fully understood without considering microbial participants, and we conclude with suggestions for future research.

  7. Index Grids, Index grid fot the dataset entitled "AZ 1-meter Digital Orthophotos" flown between June 2005 and March 2006. Originally created by the USGS., Published in 2007, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Index Grids dataset as of 2007. It is described as 'Index grid fot the dataset entitled "AZ 1-meter Digital Orthophotos" flown between June 2005 and March 2006....

  8. Exo-C: Mission and Science Payload Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekens, Frank G.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Warfield, Keith; Unwin, Stephen C.; Exo-C Science; Technology Definition Team, Exo-C JPL Study Design Team

    2015-01-01

    We present NASA's Exoplanet Coronagraph (Exo-C) mission design and science payload completed as part of a probe-class concept study under consideration for launch following JWST. The payload consists of an unobscured Cassegrain telescope with a 1.4-m clear aperture, a barrel assembly, and an internal coronagraph instrument. The mission has a 3 year lifetime and is in a highly stable Earth-trailing orbit. The coronagraph instrument is mounted laterally on the anti-Sun side of the telescope, obviating the need for high incidence reflections and better isolating it from spacecraft disturbances. The instrument has both an Imaging Camera and an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). The former obtains filter imaging with 1e-9 raw contrast from 2 - 20 λ/D in radius, while the IFS delivers the same contrast with spectral resolution of R = 70 from 450 to 1000 nm, but with a reduced outer working angle.The Exo-C science performance requirements are achieved with a specialized observatory design enabled by several new technologies. The telescope is designed for precision pointing and high stability to maintain a slowly evolving speckle pattern. Vibration isolation is achieved with two stages between the reaction wheels and the science payload. The solar arrays and high gain antenna are body-fixed, and a stiff barrel assembly is used as the telescope metering structure. Telescope pointing is updated at a high rate by monitoring the bright science target star with a low order wavefront sensor and driving a fine steering mirror for compensation. Active thermal control is used to minimize thermal drifts of the telescope, instrument, and barrel assemblies. Stability analyses via modeling of the structural, thermal, and optical performance of this configuration show that the proposed mission configuration would enable unprecedented exoplanet and circumstellar disk science with direct imaging.

  9. Pointing System for the Balloon-Borne Astronomical Payloads

    CERN Document Server

    Nirmal, K; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Suresh, Ambily; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of a light-weight, fully autonomous 2-axis pointing and stabilization system designed for balloon-borne astronomical payloads. The system is developed using off-the-shelf components such as Arduino Uno controller, HMC 5883L magnetometer, MPU-9150 Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and iWave GPS receiver unit. It is a compact and rugged system which can also be used to take images/video in a moving vehicle, or in areal photography. The system performance is evaluated from the ground, as well as in conditions simulated to imitate the actual flight by using a tethered launch.

  10. Software engineering and data management for automated payload experiment tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Gary A.; Provancha, Anna; Chattam, David

    1994-01-01

    The Microgravity Projects Office identified a need to develop a software package that will lead experiment developers through the development planning process, obtain necessary information, establish an electronic data exchange avenue, and allow easier manipulation/reformatting of the collected information. An MS-DOS compatible software package called the Automated Payload Experiment Tool (APET) has been developed and delivered. The objective of this task is to expand on the results of the APET work previously performed by University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) and provide versions of the software in a Macintosh and Windows compatible format. Appendix 1 science requirements document (SRD) Users Manual is attached.

  11. The JWST science instrument payload: mission context and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. It is a cryogenic infrared space observatory with a 25 m2 aperture (6 m class) telescope that will achieve diffraction limited angular resolution at a wavelength of 2 um. The science instrument payload includes four passively cooled near-infrared instruments providing broad- and narrow-band imagery, coronography, as well as multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy over the 0.6 Construction, integration and verification testing is underway in all areas of the program. The JWST is on schedule for launch during 2018.

  12. Pointing system for the balloon-borne astronomical payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, Kaipacheri; Sreejith, Aickara Gopinathan; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Ambily, Suresh; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-10-01

    We describe the development and implementation of a light-weight, fully autonomous 2-axis pointing and stabilization system designed for balloon-borne astronomical payloads. The system is developed using off-the-shelf components such as Arduino Uno controller, HMC 5883L magnetometer, MPU-9150 inertial measurement unit, and iWave GPS receiver unit. It is a compact and rugged system which can also be used to take images/video in a moving vehicle or in real photography. The system performance is evaluated from the ground, as well as in conditions simulated to imitate the actual flight by using a tethered launch.

  13. Deployable radiators for waste heat dissipation from Shuttle payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R. L.; Dietz, J. B.; Leach, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    Prototypes of two types of modularized, deployable radiator systems with a high degree of configuration and component commonality to minimize design, development and fabrication costs are currently under development for Shuttle payloads with high waste heat: a rigid radiator system which utilizes aluminum honeycomb panels that are deployed by a scissors mechanism; and two 'flexible' radiator systems which use panels constructed from flexible metal/dielectric composite materials that are deployed by 'unrolling' or 'extending' in orbit. Detail descriptions of these deployable radiator systems along with design and performance features are presented.

  14. A metasystem of framework model organisms to study emergence of new host-microbe adaptations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Gopalan

    Full Text Available An unintended consequence of global industrialization and associated societal rearrangements is new interactions of microbes and potential hosts (especially mammals and plants, providing an opportunity for the rapid emergence of host-microbe adaptation and eventual establishment of new microbe-related diseases. We describe a new model system comprising the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and several microbes, each representing different modes of interaction, to study such "maladaptations". The model microbes include human and agricultural pathogens and microbes that are commonly considered innocuous. The system has a large knowledge base corresponding to each component organism and is amenable to high-throughput automation assisted perturbation screens for identifying components that modulate host-pathogen interactions. This would aid in the study of emergence and progression of host-microbe maladaptations in a controlled environment.

  15. Uncharted Microbial World: Microbes and Their Activities in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, Caroline; Buckley, Merry.

    2007-12-31

    Microbes are the foundation for all of life. From the air we breathe to the soil we rely on for farming to the water we drink, everything humans need to survive is intimately coupled with the activities of microbes. Major advances have been made in the understanding of disease and the use of microorganisms in the industrial production of drugs, food products and wastewater treatment. However, our understanding of many complicated microbial environments (the gut and teeth), soil fertility, and biogeochemical cycles of the elements is lagging behind due to their enormous complexity. Inadequate technology and limited resources have stymied many lines of investigation. Today, most environmental microorganisms have yet to be isolated and identified, let alone rigorously studied. The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium in Seattle, Washington, in February 2007, to deliberate the way forward in the study of microorganisms and microbial activities in the environment. Researchers in microbiology, marine science, pathobiology, evolutionary biology, medicine, engineering, and other fields discussed ways to build on and extend recent successes in microbiology. The participants made specific recommendations for targeting future research, improving methodologies and techniques, and enhancing training and collaboration in the field. Microbiology has made a great deal of progress in the past 100 years, and the useful applications for these new discoveries are numerous. Microorganisms and microbial products are now used in industrial capacities ranging from bioremediation of toxic chemicals to probiotic therapies for humans and livestock. On the medical front, studies of microbial communities have revealed, among other things, new ways for controlling human pathogens. The immediate future for research in this field is extremely promising. In order to optimize the effectiveness of community research efforts in the future, scientists should include manageable

  16. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  17. Data payload optimality: a key issue for video watermarking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrea, M.; Duta, S.; Prêteux, F.; Vlad, A.

    2006-08-01

    Watermarking aims at enforcing property right for digital video: a mark is imperceptibly - transparently - embedded into original data. The true owner is identified by detecting this mark. The robust watermarking techniques allow the mark detection even when the protected video is attacked. Transparency and robustness constraints restrict the mark size: the better transparency and robustness, the smaller the data payload. The paper presents a method to evaluate the maximum quantity of information which can be theoretically inserted into the 2D-DCT coefficient hierarchy, for prescribed transparency and robustness. This approach relies on the noisy channel model for watermarking. Within this mathematical framework, the maximal data payload is expressed by the channel capacity. As any capacity evaluation procedure requires an intimate knowledge of the noise sources, the paper first describes the developed statistical approach enabling: (1) to properly handle the inner dependency existing among successive frames in a video sequence, and (2) to accurately check out the Gaussian behaviour for each noise source. The experiments were carried out in partnership with the SFR mobile service provider in France (Vodafone group).

  18. UDP Large-Payload Capability Detection for DNSSEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikitake, Kenji; Nakao, Koji; Shimojo, Shinji; Nogawa, Hiroki

    Domain Name System (DNS) is a major target for the network security attacks due to the weak authentication. A security extension DNSSEC has been proposed to introduce the public-key authentication, but it is still on the deployment phase. DNSSEC assumes IP fragmentation allowance for exchange of its messages over UDP large payloads. IP fragments are often blocked on network packet filters for administrative reasons, and the blockage may prevent fast exchange of DNSSEC messages. In this paper, we propose a scheme to detect the UDP large-payload transfer capability between two DNSSEC hosts. The proposed detection scheme does not require new protocol elements of DNS and DNSSEC, so it is applicable by solely modifying the application software and configuration. The scheme allows faster capability detection to probe the end-to-end communication capability between two DNS hosts by transferring a large UDP DNS message. The DNS software can choose the maximum trans-mission unit (MTU) on the application level using the probed detection results. Implementation test results show that the proposed scheme shortens the detection and transition time on fragment-blocked transports.

  19. The Motion Planning of Overhead Crane Based on Suppressing Payload Residual Swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hua-sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the overhead crane system is subject to under actuation system due to that overhead crane and payload are connected by flexibility wire rope. The payload generates residual swing when the overhead crane is accelerating/ decelerating the motions. This may cause trouble for the payload precise positioning and motion planning. Hence, an optimization input shaping control method is presented to reduce the under actuated overhead crane’s payload swing caused via the inertia force. The dynamic model of the overhead crane is proposed according to the physics structure of the crane. The input shaper based on the motion planning of the crane is used as the feed forward input to suppress payload residual swing. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the ZV input shaper and ZVD input shaper can reduce the payload swing of the overhead crane.

  20. [Plant-microbe symbioses as an evolutionary continuum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provorov, N A

    2009-01-01

    In spite of enormous taxonomic, structural and functional diversity of plant-microbe interactions, they are characterized by a historical succession which allows us to consider different forms of symbioses as the components of an evolutionary continuum. Their ancestral form is represented by arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) which originated at the outset of terrestrial flora evolution and constituted a key factor for the land colonization by plants. In the course of AM evolution the plant acquired a basal set of genes for regulating the performance of microbes which colonize the root tissues. Later, these genes were repeatedly reorganized to meet the involvement of novel mutualistic symbionts (N2-fixing bacteria, ectomycorrhizal fungi, endophytes and epiphytes) and pathogens into the symbiotic interactions. Form the microbial side, the evolutionary succession of mutualism and antagonism is restricted to the defensive symbioses formed by plants with the ergot fungi, Clavibacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas bacteria. Involvement of the similar systems for symbiotic interactions may be related to convergent evolution in the distant microorganisms (adaptation to the conservative host defense/regulatory factors), to molecular mimicry (imitation of the mechanisms of interaction used by the more ancient symbionts) or to the horizontal gene transfer. The hypotheses of the successive substitution of symbionts is suggested to address the relationships between AM and N2-fixing nodular symbioses in dicotyledons plants. AM formation is considered as a source of preadaptations responsible for the substitution of glomalean fungi which occupied the plant symbiotic compartments by the actinomycetes Frankia (in Rosid I plants) which were exchanged for the more competitive root nodule bacteria (in legumes). The development of nutritional symbioses with microbes is considered as an ancestral function of plant roots which were later supplemented or substituted with the function of assimilating

  1. Gut microbes may facilitate insect herbivory of chemically defended plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Bowers, M Deane

    2015-09-01

    The majority of insect species consume plants, many of which produce chemical toxins that defend their tissues from attack. How then are herbivorous insects able to develop on a potentially poisonous diet? While numerous studies have focused on the biochemical counter-adaptations to plant toxins rooted in the insect genome, a separate body of research has recently emphasized the role of microbial symbionts, particularly those inhabiting the gut, in plant-insect interactions. Here we outline the "gut microbial facilitation hypothesis," which proposes that variation among herbivores in their ability to consume chemically defended plants can be due, in part, to variation in their associated microbial communities. More specifically, different microbes may be differentially able to detoxify compounds toxic to the insect, or be differentially resistant to the potential antimicrobial effects of some compounds. Studies directly addressing this hypothesis are relatively few, but microbe-plant allelochemical interactions have been frequently documented from non-insect systems-such as soil and the human gut-and thus illustrate their potential importance for insect herbivory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for insect diversification and coevolution with plants; for example, evolutionary transitions to host plant groups with novel allelochemicals could be initiated by heritable changes to the insect microbiome. Furthermore, the ecological implications extend beyond the plant and insect herbivore to higher trophic levels. Although the hidden nature of microbes and plant allelochemicals make their interactions difficult to detect, recent molecular and experimental techniques should enable research on this neglected, but likely important, aspect of insect-plant biology.

  2. The ``Adopt A Microbe'' project: Web-based interactive education connected with scientific ocean drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Bowman, D.; Turner, A.; Inderbitzen, K. E.; Fisher, A. T.; Peart, L. W.; Iodp Expedition 327 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    We launched the "Adopt a Microbe" project as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 327 in Summer 2010. This eight-week-long education and outreach effort was run by shipboard scientists and educators from the research vessel JOIDES Resolution, using a web site (https://sites.google.com/site/adoptamicrobe) to engage students of all ages in an exploration of the deep biosphere inhabiting the upper ocean crust. Participants were initially introduced to a cast of microbes (residing within an ‘Adoption Center’ on the project website) that live in the dark ocean and asked to select and virtually ‘adopt’ a microbe. A new educational activity was offered each week to encourage learning about microbiology, using the adopted microbe as a focal point. Activities included reading information and asking questions about the adopted microbes (with subsequent responses from shipboard scientists), writing haiku about the adopted microbes, making balloon and fabric models of the adopted microbes, answering math questions related to the study of microbes in the ocean, growing cultures of microbes, and examining the gases produced by microbes. In addition, the website featured regular text, photo and video updates about the science of the expedition using a toy microbe as narrator, as well as stories written by shipboard scientists from the perspective of deep ocean microbes accompanied by watercolor illustrations prepared by a shipboard artist. Assessment methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the Adopt a Microbe project included participant feedback via email and online surveys, website traffic monitoring, and online video viewing rates. Quantitative metrics suggest that the “Adope A Microbe” project was successful in reaching target audiences and helping to encourage and maintain interest in topics related to IODP Expedition 327. The “Adopt A Microbe” project mdel can be adapted for future oceanographic expeditions to help connect the

  3. Adaptation of a Fault-Tolerant Fpga-Based Launch Sequencer as a Cubesat Payload Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    FAULT–TOLERANT FPGA –BASED LAUNCH SEQUENCER AS A CUBESAT PAYLOAD PROCESSOR by Jordan K. Goff June 2014 Thesis Co-Advisors: Herschel H...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ADAPTATION OF A FAULT–TOLERANT FPGA –BASED LAUNCH SEQUENCER AS A CUBESAT PAYLOAD...set. This processor is implemented on a field programmable gate array ( FPGA ) and will be used as the foundation for a payload processor on a cube

  4. Beneficial microbes affect endogenous mechanisms controlling root development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbon, Eline H.; Liberman, Louisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have incredible developmental plasticity, enabling them to respond to a wide range of environmental conditions. Among these conditions is the presence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the soil. Recent studies show that PGPR affect root growth and development within Arabidopsis thaliana root. These effects lead to dramatic changes in root system architecture, that significantly impact aboveground plant growth. Thus, PGPR may promote shoot growth via their effect on root developmental programs. This review focuses on contextualizing root developmental changes elicited by PGPR in light of our understanding of plant-microbe interactions and root developmental biology. PMID:26875056

  5. Role of microbes in the ecology of marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    area of the seabed of the Indian Ocean are most promising for the extraction of strategic metals from them. The next article gives a realistic account of researches on coral reefs in the country. It is really unfortunate that coral research which... in the country who has developed interest on corals and coral reefs is the author of the present article Dr. M.V.M. Wafar. His article is followed by an account on microbes which play a very important ecological role in the marine environment, including...

  6. Metabolic engineering of microbes for oligosaccharide and polysaccharide synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rachel

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic engineering has recently been embraced as an effective tool for developing whole-cell biocatalysts for oligosaccharide and polysaccharide synthesis. Microbial catalysts now provide a practical means to derive many valuable oligosaccharides, previously inaccessible through other methods, in sufficient quantities to support research and clinical applications. The synthesis process based upon these microbes is scalable as it avoids expensive starting materials. Most impressive is the high product concentrations (up to 188 g/L achieved through microbe-catalyzed synthesis. The overall cost for selected molecules has been brought to a reasonable range (estimated $ 30–50/g. Microbial synthesis of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides is a carbon-intensive and energy-intensive process, presenting some unique challenges in metabolic engineering. Unlike nicotinamide cofactors, the required sugar nucleotides are products of multiple interacting pathways, adding significant complexity to the metabolic engineering effort. Besides the challenge of providing the necessary mammalian-originated glycosyltransferases in active form, an adequate uptake of sugar acceptors can be an issue when another sugar is necessary as a carbon and energy source. These challenges are analyzed, and various strategies used to overcome these difficulties are reviewed in this article. Despite the impressive success of the microbial coupling strategy, there is a need to develop a single strain that can achieve at least the same efficiency. Host selection and the manner with which the synthesis interacts with the central metabolism are two important factors in the design of microbial catalysts. Additionally, unlike in vitro enzymatic synthesis, product degradation and byproduct formation are challenges of whole-cell systems that require additional engineering. A systematic approach that accounts for various and often conflicting requirements of the synthesis holds

  7. Fossil genes and microbes in the oldest ice on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Bidle, Kay D.; Lee, Sanghoon; Marchant, David R.; Falkowski, Paul G

    2007-01-01

    Although the vast majority of ice that formed on the Antarctic continent over the past 34 million years has been lost to the oceans, pockets of ancient ice persist in the Dry Valleys of the Transantarctic Mountains. Here we report on the potential metabolic activity of microbes and the state of community DNA in ice derived from Mullins and upper Beacon Valleys. The minimum age of the former is 100 ka, whereas that of the latter is ≈8 Ma, making it the oldest known ice on Earth. In both sample...

  8. Applications of Carboxylic Acid Reductases in Oleaginous Microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resch, Michael G.; Linger, Jeffrey; McGeehan, John; Tyo, Keith; Beckham, Gregg

    2016-04-24

    Carboxylic acid reductases (CARs) are recently emerging reductive enzymes for the direct production of aldehydes from biologically-produced carboxylic acids. Recent work has demonstrated that these powerful enzymes are able to reduce a very broad range of volatile- to long-chain fatty acids as well as aromatic acids. Here, we express four CAR enzymes from different fungal origins to test their activity against fatty acids commonly produced in oleaginous microbes. These in vitro results will inform metabolic engineering strategies to conduct mild biological reduction of carboxylic acids in situ, which is conventionally done via hydrotreating catalysis at high temperatures and hydrogen pressures.

  9. Biodegradation of DTP and PET Fiber by Microbe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健飞; 王晓春; 巩继贤; 顾振亚

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of diethylene glycol terephthalate (DTP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber by microbe was studied.The degree of DTP degradation was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to be more than 90%.The products after degradation of DTP and PET fiber were various.The degradation of DTP can be described by the first-order reaction model.The degradation of PET fiber was found to be little,but surface erosion of PET fiber could be clearly seen from the SEM photographs indicating there occurred some traces of biodegradation on the PET fiber surface.

  10. Recovery of sounding rocket payloads by center-of-gravity position control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgarvey, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    A computerized procedure has been developed to predict dynamic pressure at parachute deployment altitude. Inputs to the program are payload geometry, center-of-gravity position, velocity, and altitude at start of reentry. Payload is assumed to be trimmed, and potential and cross-flow drag theory is used to compute trim angle-of-attack and trim drag coefficient as a function of free-stream Mach number. The computations involve only simple geometric quantities and closed-form equations. Payload flight path is assumed to be vertical, and equations of motion of the payload are integrated from start of reentry to chute deployment altitude.

  11. STS-45 payload specialists with crew escape system (CES) mockup at JSC's MAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-45 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Payload Specialist Dirk D. Frimout (European Space Agency (ESA) Belgian crewmember) (left), backup Payload Specialist Charles R. Chappell (center), and Payload Specialist Byron K. Lichtenberg (right) listen to technician explain the operation of the crew escape system (CES) pole. Frimout is engaging the handle which extends the CES pole out the side hatch. The payload specialists along with the other STS-45 crewmembers are participating in side hatch emergency egress exercises in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  12. Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates Inc. Biomedical Experiments Payload (CIBX-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis; Edmundson, Allen; Robinson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Experiments to find solutions for a range of biomedical issues are being hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates Inc. (ITA) Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. This research encompasses more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments and hands-on student experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Protein crystal growth experiments will address the structure of urokinase - a protein that has been identified as a key enzyme in the spread of brain, lung, colon, prostate and breast cancers. Crystals of Bence Jones, a protein associated with bone cancer, will also be grown. Understanding their structures may help scientists develop treatments. In a related area, the Microencapsulation of Drugs (MEPS) is an anti-cancer drug delivery system, based on a 10-year partnership with NASA's Johnson Space Center. On this mission, the co-encapsulation of antibodies and immune stimulants will be made in submicron microcapsules to target pulmonary and bacterial infections.

  13. Basic Electronic Design for Proposed NMSU Hitchhiker Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    This document presents the bas'c hardware design developed by the EE 499 class during the spring semester of the 1999-2000 academic year. This design covers the electrical components to supply power to the experiments, the computer software and interfaces to control the experiments, and the ground data processing to provide an operator interface. This document is a follow-on to the Payload Mission description document and the System Requirements document developed during the EE 498 class during the fall semester. The design activities are broken down by functional area within the structure. For each area, we give the requirements that need to be met and the design to meet the requirements. For each of these areas, a prototype selection of hardware and/or software was done by the class and the components assembled as part of the class to verify that they worked as intended.

  14. TSP-Based Generic Payload On-Board Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arberet, P.; Metge, J.-J.; Gras, O.; Crespo, A.

    2009-05-01

    The paper address the contect and rationale for deciding to develop a TSP-based solution for payload on-board software, highly generic and reusable, project named LVCUGEN. Then it describes the key design issues and the associated architectual achievements obtained at the end of development phase of LVCUGEN. It provides some inputs on the way to instantiate the developed framework in the scope of deployment of the solution on a target-project. Last, the paper presents the status of the project and the forthcoming activities, also open issues, still to be performed. Some perspectives are provided in particular the selection of the first space program targeted for deployment of the solution.

  15. Large payload quantum steganography based on cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Tian-Yu; Jiang Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    A large payload quantum steganography protocol based on cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) is presented in this paper,which effectively uses the evolutionary law of atoms in cavity QED.The protocol builds up a hidden channel to transmit secret messages using entanglement swapping between one GHZ state and one Bell state in cavity QED together with the Hadamard operation.The quantum steganography protocol is insensitive to cavity decay and the thermal field.The capacity,imperceptibility and security against eavesdropping are analyzed in detail in the protocol.It turns out that the protocol not only has good imperceptibility but also possesses good security against eavesdropping.In addition,its capacity for a hidden channel achieves five bits,larger than most of the previous quantum steganography protocols.

  16. Results of preliminary Microwave Multi-Applications Payload (MMAP) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the microwave multi-applications payload (MMAP) system for the Spacelab has been carried out. The initial objectives of this study have been to determine the minimum equipment requirements of the MMAP and the feasibility of placing the numerous large aperture antennas in the Spacelab. The study was begun by reviewing the experimental objectives and techniques and determining areas of commonality. Emphasis was given to the determination of common RF equipment requirements. These requirementers were considered after agreement among the experiments had been reached on limiting the number of frequencies to be used in the system. This was done so that the number of antennas, transmitters, and receivers could be minimized. The electronics system block diagram and the antenna configurations were considered in some details. It was concluded that the MMAP is feasible and can be an economical method of achieving a large number of experimental goals.

  17. Vibration Isolation Design for the Micro-X Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danowski, M. E.; Heine, S. N. T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Goldfinger, D.; Wikus, P.; McCammon, D.; Oakley, P.

    2016-08-01

    Micro-X is a NASA-funded sounding rocket-borne X-ray imaging spectrometer designed to enable high precision measurements of extended astrophysical systems. To perform high energy resolution measurements and capture unprecedented spectra of supernova remnants and galaxy clusters, Micro-X must maintain tight temperature control. One of the biggest challenges in payload design is to prevent heating of the detectors due to the vibrational loads on the rocket skin during launch. Several stages of vibration damping systems are implemented to prevent energy transmission from the rocket skin to the detector stage, each stage more rigid than the last. We describe recent redesign efforts to improve this vibration isolation by tuning the resonant frequencies of the various stages to minimize heating prior to the projected launch in 2016.

  18. Mir Environmental Effects Payload and Returned Mir Solar Panel Cleanliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Humes, Donald H.; Kinard, William H.

    2000-01-01

    The MIR Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP) was attached to the Docking Module of the MIR space station for 18 months during calendar years 1996 and 1997 (March 1996, STS 76 to October 1997, STS 86). A solar panel array with more than 10 years space exposure was removed from the MIR core module in November 1997, and returned to Earth in January, 1998, STS 89. MEEP and the returned solar array are part of the International Space Station (ISS) Risk Mitigation Program. This space flight hardware has been inspected and studied by teams of space environmental effects (SEE) investigators for micrometeoroid and space debris effects, space exposure effects on materials, and electrical performance. This paper reports changes in cleanliness of parts of MEEP and the solar array due to the space exposures. Special attention is given to the extensive water soluble residues deposited on some of the flight hardware surfaces. Directionality of deposition and chemistry of these residues are discussed.

  19. The EJSM Jupiter-Europa Orbiter: Planning Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan-Wang, G.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Boldt, J.; Clark, K.; Greeley, R.; Hendrix, A. R.; Lock, R. E.; van Houten, T.; Ludwinski, J.

    2008-12-01

    In the decade since the first return of Europa data by the Galileo spacecraft, the scientific understanding of Europa has greatly matured leading to the formulation of sophisticated new science objectives to be addressed through the acquisition of new data. The Jupiter-Europa Orbiter (JEO) is one component of the proposed multi-spacecraft Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) designed to obtain data in support of these new science objectives. The JEO planning payload, while notional, is used to quantify engineering aspects of the mission and spacecraft design, and operational scenarios required to obtain the data necessary to meet the science objectives. The instruments were defined to demonstrate the viability of meeting the measurement objectives, performing while in the background radiation environment, and the ability to meet stringent planetary protection requirements. The actual instrument suite would ultimately be the result of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) selection process carried out by NASA. The JEO planning payload consists of a notional set of remote sensing instruments, fields-and-plasma instruments, and both X-band and Ka band telecommunications systems which provide Doppler and range data for accurate orbit reconstruction. For JEO, the sensor portions of the instruments are located on the nadir facing deck of the spacecraft while a shared chassis houses the electronics portion of the instruments making optimal use of radiation shielding mass. A spacecraft supplied 10 meter boom is deployed for use by the JEO Magnetometer. All instruments are co-aligned and nominally nadir pointing for simplification of spacecraft operations. Instrument articulation required for target motion compensation, limb viewing or other purposes will be implemented within the instrument. Spacecraft telemetry and telecommand interfaces are nominally Spacewire for high-bandwidth instruments and Mil-Std-1553 for low-bandwidth instruments. Instrument power is provided by a

  20. STS-103 crew look over payload inside Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Members of the STS-103 crew, with representatives from Goddard Space Flight Center, look over the Hubble servicing cargo in the payload bay of Space Shuttle Discovery at Launch Pad 39B. From left are Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland; Steve Pataki and Dave Southwick, with Goddard; and Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. Inspecting the payload is part of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), which also provides the crew with emergency egress training and a simulated countdown exercise. Other crew members taking part in the TCDT are Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Jean- Fran'''ois Clervoy of France. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  1. Uncharted Microbial World: Microbes and Their Activities in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, Caroline; Buckley, Merry

    2007-12-31

    Microbes are the foundation for all of life. From the air we breathe to the soil we rely on for farming to the water we drink, everything humans need to survive is intimately coupled with the activities of microbes. Major advances have been made in the understanding of disease and the use of microorganisms in the industrial production of drugs, food products and wastewater treatment. However, our understanding of many complicated microbial environments (the gut and teeth), soil fertility, and biogeochemical cycles of the elements is lagging behind due to their enormous complexity. Inadequate technology and limited resources have stymied many lines of investigation. Today, most environmental microorganisms have yet to be isolated and identified, let alone rigorously studied. The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium in Seattle, Washington, in February 2007, to deliberate the way forward in the study of microorganisms and microbial activities in the environment. Researchers in microbiology, marine science, pathobiology, evolutionary biology, medicine, engineering, and other fields discussed ways to build on and extend recent successes in microbiology. The participants made specific recommendations for targeting future research, improving methodologies and techniques, and enhancing training and collaboration in the field. Microbiology has made a great deal of progress in the past 100 years, and the useful applications for these new discoveries are numerous. Microorganisms and microbial products are now used in industrial capacities ranging from bioremediation of toxic chemicals to probiotic therapies for humans and livestock. On the medical front, studies of microbial communities have revealed, among other things, new ways for controlling human pathogens. The immediate future for research in this field is extremely promising. In order to optimize the effectiveness of community research efforts in the future, scientists should include manageable

  2. Environmental bacteriophages : viruses of microbes in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Télesphore eSIME - NGANDO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery 2-3 decades ago that viruses of microbes are abundant in marine ecosystems, viral ecology has grown increasingly to reach the status of a full scientific discipline in environmental sciences. A dedicated ISVM society, the International Society for Viruses of Microorganisms (http://www.isvm.org/, was recently launched. Increasing studies in viral ecology are sources of novel knowledge related to the biodiversity of living things, the functioning of ecosystems, and the evolution of the cellular world. This is because viruses are perhaps the most diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous biological entities in the biosphere, although local environmental conditions enrich for certain viral types through selective pressure. They exhibit various lifestyles that intimately depend on the deep-cellular mechanisms, and are ultimately replicated by members of all three domains of cellular life (Bacteria, Eukarya, Archaea, as well as by giant viruses of some eukaryotic cells. This establishes viral parasites as microbial killers but also as cell partners or metabolic manipulators in microbial ecology. The present chapter sought to review the literature on the diversity and functional roles of viruses of microbes in environmental microbiology, focusing primarily on prokaryotic viruses (i.e. phages in aquatic ecosystems, which form the bulk of our knowledge in modern environmental viral ecology.

  3. Study of microbes having potentiality for biodegradation of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Swapan Kumar; Pal, Sujoy; Ray, Sumanta

    2013-07-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to the different types of organic polymers having high molecular weight and is commonly derived from different petrochemicals. Plastics are generally not biodegradable or few are degradable but in a very slow rate. Day by day, the global demand of these polymers is sharply increasing; however, considering their abundance and potentiality in causing different environmental hazards, there is a great concern in the possible methods of degradation of plastics. Recently, there have been some debates at the world stage about the potential degradation procedures of these synthetic polymers and microbial degradation has emerged as one of the potential alternative ways of degradation of plastics. Alternatively, some scientists have also reported many adverse effects of these polymers in human health, and thus, there is an immediate need of a potential screening of some potential microbes to degrade these synthetic polymers. In this review, we have taken an attempt to accumulate all information regarding the chemical nature along with some potential microbes and their enzymatic nature of biodegradation of plastics along with some key factors that affect their biodegradability.

  4. Mg isotope fractionation during microbe-mineral interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Insu; Ryu, Jong-sik; Lee, Kwang-sik; Lee, Dongho

    2014-05-01

    Magnesium is involved in various biogeochemical processes important to the global climate change over geological time-scale. Mg isotopes allow us to directly trace the Mg cycle in the Earth's surface but the factors controlling Mg isotopic compositions have not fully understood yet. Here, we conducted a batch experiment using two bacterial species (Shewanella putrefaciens and Burkholderia fungorum) and three major Mg-bearing minerals (biotite, dolomite and hornblende). All elemental concentrations increased by 336 h and then reached to steady-state values, of which Mg concentrations varied depending on minerals and bacterial species. This result indicates that the mineral dissolution is affect by the presence of microbes, which either provide organic acids or attach onto mineral surface. The Mg isotopic compositions of initial minerals biotite, dolomite and hornblende are -0.35o of biotite, -0.99o of dolomite, and -0.24o of hornblende, in δ26Mg. Similarly, δ26Mg values increased by 336 h and reached to steady-state values, which also varied with minerals and microbes. During dissolution of three minerals, the light isotope of Mg is preferentially incorporated into the dissolved phases and then the dissolved δ26Mg values become consistent with those of minerals with the time.

  5. Plant - microbe interactions under Global Change: the microbial perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    There is ample evidence that both microorganisms and plants will respond to Global Changes, such as enhanced temperatures, increased nitrogen deposition and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, or biodiversity loss. Plant and microbial activities are linked, amongst other factors, by belowground carbon allocation and aboveground nutrient allocation, which may be altered under Global Changes to different extents. The effect of Global Changes on the interaction of plants and microbes is therefore often difficult to predict. In my talk, I will look at plant-microbe interactions from a microbial perspective. I will ask the question what the direct and indirect (plant-mediated) effects of Global Changes are on microbial activities in soil and what this in turn means for plants and for ecosystem-scale fluxes. I will present results from an in-situ drought experiment, from a long-term soil warming experiment and from a plant diversity experiment, where we investigated microbial growth and turnover, carbon and nutrient use efficiency and gross nutrient transformation rates.

  6. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-05-02

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed.

  7. Fluorogenic Cell-Based Biosensors for Monitoring Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Theresa; Salazar, Noe; Tabb, Joel; Chase, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Fluorogenic cell-based sensor systems for detecting microbes (especially pathogenic ones) and some toxins and allergens are undergoing development. These systems harness the natural signaltransduction and amplification cascades that occur in mast cells upon activation with antigens. These systems include (1) fluidic biochips for automated containment of samples, reagents, and wastes and (2) sensitive, compact fluorometers for monitoring the fluorescent responses of mast cells engineered to contain fluorescent dyes. It should be possible to observe responses within minutes of adding immune complexes. The systems have been shown to work when utilizing either immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies or traditionally generated rat antibodies - a promising result in that it indicates that the systems could be developed to detect many target microbes. Chimeric IgE antibodies and rat immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies could be genetically engineered for recognizing biological and chemical warfare agents and airborne and food-borne allergens. Genetic engineering efforts thus far have yielded (1) CD14 chimeric antibodies that recognize both Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria and bind to the surfaces of mast cells, eliciting a degranulation response and (2) rat IgG2a antibodies that act similarly in response to low levels of canine parvovirus.

  8. Phytophagous insect-microbe mutualisms and adaptive evolutionary diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Eric M; Stireman, John O; Singer, Michael S; Abbot, Patrick

    2008-05-01

    Adaptive diversification is a process intrinsically tied to species interactions. Yet, the influence of most types of interspecific interactions on adaptive evolutionary diversification remains poorly understood. In particular, the role of mutualistic interactions in shaping adaptive radiations has been largely unexplored, despite the ubiquity of mutualisms and increasing evidence of their ecological and evolutionary importance. Our aim here is to encourage empirical inquiry into the relationship between mutualism and evolutionary diversification, using herbivorous insects and their microbial mutualists as exemplars. Phytophagous insects have long been used to test theories of evolutionary diversification; moreover, the diversification of a number of phytophagous insect lineages has been linked to mutualisms with microbes. In this perspective, we examine microbial mutualist mediation of ecological opportunity and ecologically based divergent natural selection for their insect hosts. We also explore the conditions and mechanisms by which microbial mutualists may either facilitate or impede adaptive evolutionary diversification. These include effects on the availability of novel host plants or adaptive zones, modifying host-associated fitness trade-offs during host shifts, creating or reducing enemy-free space, and, overall, shaping the evolution of ecological (host plant) specialization. Although the conceptual framework presented here is built on phytophagous insect-microbe mutualisms, many of the processes and predictions are broadly applicable to other mutualisms in which host ecology is altered by mutualistic interactions.

  9. Environmental bacteriophages: viruses of microbes in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery 2-3 decades ago that viruses of microbes are abundant in marine ecosystems, viral ecology has grown increasingly to reach the status of a full scientific discipline in environmental sciences. A dedicated ISVM society, the International Society for Viruses of Microorganisms, (http://www.isvm.org/) was recently launched. Increasing studies in viral ecology are sources of novel knowledge related to the biodiversity of living things, the functioning of ecosystems, and the evolution of the cellular world. This is because viruses are perhaps the most diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous biological entities in the biosphere, although local environmental conditions enrich for certain viral types through selective pressure. They exhibit various lifestyles that intimately depend on the deep-cellular mechanisms, and are ultimately replicated by members of all three domains of cellular life (Bacteria, Eukarya, Archaea), as well as by giant viruses of some eukaryotic cells. This establishes viral parasites as microbial killers but also as cell partners or metabolic manipulators in microbial ecology. The present chapter sought to review the literature on the diversity and functional roles of viruses of microbes in environmental microbiology, focusing primarily on prokaryotic viruses (i.e., phages) in aquatic ecosystems, which form the bulk of our knowledge in modern environmental viral ecology.

  10. Microbes produce nanobacteria-like structures, avoiding cell entombment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Vasconcelos, Crisógono; Warthmann, Rolf J.; Dupraz, Christophe; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; McKenzie, Judith A.

    2008-08-01

    Microsedimentary structures referred to as nanobacteria-likeparticles were described from modern carbonate environments,where they form in close spatial association with sulfate-reducingbacteria (SRB). However, the exact mechanism of their formation,as well as their paleontological significance, remains controversial.Here we report on an investigation of microbe-mineral interactionsin experimentally produced carbonate globules. The experimentswere carried out under anoxic conditions at 30 °C with Desulfovibriobrasiliensis, a SRB known to mediate dolomite formation. Weobserved that extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secretedby the microbial community play a key role in the mineralizationprocess. Nanobacteria-like particles represent the early stageof carbonate nucleation within the EPS, which progressivelyevolve to larger globules displaying a grainy texture. We excludedthe possibilities that these structures are fossils of nanobacteria,dissolution surfaces, or artifacts created during sample preparation.D. brasiliensis cells are predominantly located outside of theEPS aggregates where mineral growth takes place. As a result,they remain mobile and are rarely entombed within the mineral.This self-preservation behavior may not be limited to D. brasiliensis.Other microbes may produce, or may have produced during thegeological past, biogenic minerals through a similar process.Mineralization within EPS explains why microbial relics arenot necessarily present in biogenic carbonates.

  11. Next-Generation Beneficial Microbes: The Case of Akkermansia muciniphila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice D. Cani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders associated with obesity and cardiometabolic disorders are worldwide epidemic. Among the different environmental factors, the gut microbiota is now considered as a key player interfering with energy metabolism and host susceptibility to several non-communicable diseases. Among the next-generation beneficial microbes that have been identified, Akkermansia muciniphila is a promising candidate. Indeed, A. muciniphila is inversely associated with obesity, diabetes, cardiometabolic diseases and low-grade inflammation. Besides the numerous correlations observed, a large body of evidence has demonstrated the causal beneficial impact of this bacterium in a variety of preclinical models. Translating these exciting observations to human would be the next logic step and it now appears that several obstacles that would prevent the use of A. muciniphila administration in humans have been overcome. Moreover, several lines of evidence indicate that pasteurization of A. muciniphila not only increases its stability but more importantly increases its efficacy. This strongly positions A. muciniphila in the forefront of next-generation candidates for developing novel food or pharma supplements with beneficial effects. Finally, a specific protein present on the outer membrane of A. muciniphila, termed Amuc_1100, could be strong candidate for future drug development. In conclusion, as plants and its related knowledge, known as pharmacognosy, have been the source for designing drugs over the last century, we propose that microbes and microbiomegnosy, or knowledge of our gut microbiome, can become a novel source of future therapies.

  12. Microbes of deep marine sediments as viewed by metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ten years after the first deep marine sediment metagenome was produced, questions still exist about the nucleic acid sequences we have retrieved. Current data sets, including the Peru Margin, Costa Rica Margin and Iberian Margin show that consistently, data forms larger assemblies at depth due to the reduced complexity of the microbial community. But are these organisms active or preserved? At SMTZs, a change in the assembly statistics is noted, as well as an increase in cell counts, suggesting that cells are truly active. As depth increases, genome sizes are consistently large, suggesting that much like soil microbes, sedimentary microbes may maintain a larger reportorie of genomic potential. Functional changes are seen with depth, but at many sites are not correlated to specific geochemistries. Individual genomes show changes with depth, which raises interesting questions on how the subsurface is settled and maintained. The subsurface does have a distinct genomic signature, including unusual microbial groups, which we are now able to analyze for total genomic content.

  13. Utilizing thermophilic microbe in lignocelluloses based bioethanol production: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharti, Agustina, Wawan; Ratnawati, Lia; Rahman, Taufik; Salim, Takiyah

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of thermophilic microbe has attracted many parties, particularly in producing an alternative fuel like ethanol. Bioethanol is one of the alternative energy sources substituting for earth oil in the future. The advantage of using bioethanol is that it can reduce pollution levels and global warming because the result of bioethanol burning doesn't bring in a net addition of CO2 into environment. Moreover, decrease in the reserves of earth oil globally has also contributed to the notion on searching renewable energy resources such as bioethanol. Indonesia has a high biomass potential and can be used as raw material for bioethanol. The utilization of these raw materials will reduce fears of competition foodstuffs for energy production. The enzymes that play a role in degrading lignocelluloses are cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, and lignolytic in nature. The main enzyme with an important role in bioethanol production is a complex enzyme capable of degrading lignocelluloses. The enzyme can be produced by the thermophilik microbes of the groups of bacteria and fungi such as Trichoderma viride, Clostridium thermocellum, Bacillus sp. Bioethanol production is heavily affected by raw material composition, microorganism type, and the condition of fermentation used.

  14. Investigations of the effects of cosmic rays on Artemia cysts and tobacco seeds: results of Exobloc II experiment, flown aboard Biocosmos 1887

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaubin, Y.; Pianezzi, B.; Gasset, G.; Planel, H. (Laboratoire de Biologie Medicale, Faculte de Medecine, Toulouse (France)); Delpoux, M. (Laboratoire de Biogeographie, Faculte des Sciences, Toulouse (France)); Heilmann, C. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires)

    1990-01-01

    Artemia (Brine shrimp) cysts and tobacco seeds, dormant biological material devoid of metabolic activity, were flown aboard the Soviet Biocosmos 1887 in order to investigate the effects of cosmic rays. Artemia cysts and tobacco seeds were used in bulk or in monolayers sandwiched with track detectors. Biological and physical units were located outside and inside the spacecraft. Stacks included lead shielding in order to expose the objects to different doses of radiation. Total dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent detectors. In spite of low levels of doses, the space flight resulted in a decrease in developmental capacity of Artemia cysts, and in a higher mutation rate in tobacco seeds. The more obvious responses occurred, in both cases, in biological objects exposed to the highest doses. These results are compared to those of previous space experiments. (author).

  15. [Ultrastructure of the blood vessels and muscle fibers in the skeletal muscle of rats flown on the Kosmos-605 and Kosmos-782 biosatellites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savik, Z F; Rokhlenko, K D

    1981-01-01

    Electron microscopy was used to study ultrastructures of the wall of blood vessels and muscle fibers of the red (soleus) and mixed (gastrocnemius) muscles of rats flown on Cosmos-605 for 22.5 days and on Cosmos-782 for 19,5 days and sacrificed 4-6 hours, 48 hours and 25-27 days postflight. It was demonstrated that the orbital flight did not induce significant changes in the ultrastructure of blood vessels of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles but caused atrophy of muscle fibers and reduction of the number of functioning capillaries. Readaptation of the soleus vascular system to 1 g led to degradation of permeability of capillary and venular walls and development of edema of the perivascular connective tissue. This may be one of the factors responsible for dystrophic changes in muscle fibers.

  16. The structure and dynamics of complex microbe-host interaction networks

    OpenAIRE

    Björk, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Microbes form intricate and intimate relationships with most animals and plants, many of which are crucial for host development, health and functioning. Microbe--host symbiotic associations are poorly explored in comparison with other species interaction networks. The current paradigm on symbiosis research stems from species-poor systems where pairwise and reciprocally specialised interactions between a single microbe and host that coevolve are the norm. These symbioses involving just a few s...

  17. Plant traits related to nitrogen uptake influence plant-microbe competition

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Delphine; Pivato, Barbara; Bru, David; Busset, Hugues; Deau, Florence; Faivre, Céline; Matejicek, Annick; Strbik, Florence; Mougel, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Plant species are important drivers of soil microbial communities. However, how plant functional traits are shaping these communities has received less attention though linking plant and microbial traits is crucial for better understanding plant-microbe interactions. Our objective was to determine how plant-microbe interactions were affected by plant traits. Specifically we analyzed how interactions between plant species and microbes involved in nitrogen cycling were affected by plant traits ...

  18. The MICROBE Project, A Report from the Interagency Working Group on Microbial Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    and microalgae ) comprise most of the earth’s biomass, maintain its environments, and hold the key to understanding the history of life on Earth...human pathogens and microbes of relevance to energy production and energy-related bioremediation , reflecting the larger and longer- term investments...algae, difficult-to- culture microbes, and unique protozoa. • microbes involved with bioremediation for improving the environment and bioindicator species

  19. How do natural, uncultivated microbes interact with organic matter? Insights from single cell genomics and metagenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, Karen; Bird, Jordan; Schreiber, Lars

    Abstract Since most of the microbes in marine sediments remain uncultured, little is known about the mechanisms by which these natural communities degrade organic matter (OM). Likewise, little is known about the make-up of labile OM in marine sediments beyond general functional classes such as pr...... such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, measured as monomers. However, microbes have complex interactions with specific polymers within these functional classes, which can be indicated by a microbe's enzymatic toolkit. We ...

  20. Enabling Science and Deep Space Exploration through Space Launch System (LSL) Secondary Payload Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jody; Pelfrey, Joseph; Norris, George

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in almost 40 years, a NASA human-rated launch vehicle has completed its Critical Design Review (CDR). By reaching this milestone, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion spacecraft are on the path to launch a new era of deep space exploration. NASA is making investments to expand science and exploration capability of the SLS by developing the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the mission trajectory. Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1), currently planned for launch no earlier than July 2018, will be the first mission to carry such payloads on the SLS. The EM-1 launch will include thirteen 6U Cubesat small satellites that will be deployed beyond low earth orbit. By providing an earth-escape trajectory, opportunities are created for advancement of small satellite subsystems, including deep space communications and in-space propulsion. This SLS capability also creates low-cost options for addressing existing Agency strategic knowledge gaps and affordable science missions. A new approach to payload integration and mission assurance is needed to ensure safety of the vehicle, while also maintaining reasonable costs for the small payload developer teams. SLS EM-1 will provide the framework and serve as a test flight, not only for vehicle systems, but also payload accommodations, ground processing, and on-orbit operations. Through developing the requirements and integration processes for EM-1, NASA is outlining the framework for the evolved configuration of secondary payloads on SLS Block upgrades. The lessons learned from the EM-1 mission will be applied to processes and products developed for future block upgrades. In the heavy-lift configuration of SLS, payload accommodations will increase for secondary opportunities including small satellites larger than the traditional Cubesat class payload. The payload mission concept of operations, proposed payload capacity of SLS, and the payload requirements for launch and

  1. Military Payloads Hosted on Commercial Satellites: How Can the Space and Missile Systems Center Increase the Number of Commercially Hosted Military Payload Contract Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    payloads: “A hosted payload allows users , such as the government, to add transponders or other equipment to a commercial satellite already scheduled for...decision, those cases are typically closed within a week.29 The empowerment of the commercial owner-operator’s program managers and embedding his or her...determine how to get the data to the end user .”65 This structure allows the commercial owner-operator to select the most efficient solution to meet the CHMP

  2. Simulation of Neurocomputing Based on Photophobic Reactions of Euglena: Toward Microbe-Based Neural Network Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Aono, Masashi; Maeda, Mizuo; Hara, Masahiko

    In order to develop an adaptive computing system, we investigate microscopic optical feedback to a group of microbes (Euglena gracilis in this study) with a neural network algorithm, expecting that the unique characteristics of microbes, especially their strategies to survive/adapt against unfavorable environmental stimuli, will explicitly determine the temporal evolution of the microbe-based feedback system. The photophobic reactions of Euglena are extracted from experiments, and built in the Monte-Carlo simulation of a microbe-based neurocomputing. The simulation revealed a good performance of Euglena-based neurocomputing. Dynamic transition among the solutions is discussed from the viewpoint of feedback instability.

  3. The rhizosphere priming effect explained by microscale interactions among enzyme producing microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Dieckmann, Ulf; Franklin, Oskar

    2017-04-01

    Addition of small amounts of labile carbon (C), for example by root exudations, have been found to accelerate soil organic matter decomposition ('Priming Effect'). Possible explanations that have been suggested so far are that this C increases microbial turnover or - by increasing nitrogen (N) limitation of microbes - triggers increased mining of microbes for nutrients. Individual-based modeling of microbes at the microscale offer a new and alternative explanation for the emergence of the priming effect: Enzyme producing microbes benefit from proximity to other enzyme producing microbes since this increases their return of investment for each enzyme produced. The benefit grows the more microbes are close to each other, such that growth of a patch of microbes becomes a self-enhancing process. Our results show that there is a 'tipping point' - a critical size of such a patch, or number of spatially related microbes, which is necessary to start this process. In a model setting where soil microbes are C limited and thus only grow slowly, the addition of a small amount of labile C in a certain area is sufficient to trigger the emergence of such a growing microbial patch which consequently increases long-term decomposition rates of soil organic matter far beyond the initial labile C input in the model.

  4. The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) Payload Facility on the ISS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibaldi, Giuseppe; Nasca, Rosario; Neubert, Torsten

    ASIM is a payload facility to be mounted on a Columbus external platform on the International Space Station (ISS). ASIM will study the coupling of thunderstorm processes to the upper atmosphere, ionosphere and radiation belts. ASIM is the most complex Earth Observation payload facility planned...

  5. Measurements on an autonomous wireless payload at 635 km distance using a sensitive radio telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Mark J.; Leijtens, Johan; Verhoeven, Chris; Marel, van der Hans

    2011-01-01

    The Delfi-C3 spacecraft carries the first autonomous wireless payload in space. This payload is a wireless sun sensor developed by TNO in the Netherlands. The data captured by the sensor is wirelessly transported to the central computer system inside the spacecraft. Since no additional power supply

  6. Compact Scalable Multifunction RF Payload for UAVs with FMCW Radar and ESM Functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van; Dijk, R. van; Maas, A.P.M.; Houwen, E.H. van der; Bolt, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a concept for a scalable RF sensor payload for small UAVs that can perform multiple RF functions such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR), ground-moving target indication (GMTI) and ESM. Essential to the scalable multifunction RF payload concept is the digitization of the antenna

  7. STS-47 MS Davis trains at Payload Crew Training Complex at Marshall SFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis, wearing the Autogenic Feedback Training System 2 suit and lightweight headset, reviews a Payload Systems Handbook in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) mockup during training at the Payload Crew Training Complex at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. View provided with alternate number 92P-137.

  8. SPACELAB 1 MODULE AND ITS ATTACHED PALLET ARE HOISTED OUT OF PAYLOAD CANISTER TRANSPORT VEHICLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    SPACELAB 1 MODULE AND ITS ATTACHED PALLET ARE HOISTED OUT OF PAYLOAD CANISTER TRANSPORT VEHICLE KSC-383C-2860.05 P-16287,ARCHIVE-03945 Spacelab 1 module and its attached pallet are hoisted out of the payload canister, over the work stands and into the cargo bay of the Columbia.

  9. 76 FR 52694 - National Environmental Policy Act: Launch of NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act: Launch of NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable... availability and request for comments on the draft environmental assessment (``Draft EA'') for launch of NASA routine payloads on expendable launch vehicles. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy...

  10. Force balancing of variable payload by active force-balanced reconfiguration of the mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Herder, Justus Laurens; Dai, J.S.; Zoppi, M.; Kong, X.

    2009-01-01

    When dynamically balanced mechanisms and robots are used for pick and place motion, the payload influences the dynamic balance. The payload can be a cause of serious vibrations which for instance can reduce the accuracy of the mechanism considerably. In such a case reconfiguration of the mechanism d

  11. The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) Payload Facility on the ISS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibaldi, Giuseppe; Nasca, Rosario; Neubert, Torsten

    ASIM is a payload facility to be mounted on a Columbus external platform on the International Space Station (ISS). ASIM will study the coupling of thunderstorm processes to the upper atmosphere, ionosphere and radiation belts. ASIM is the most complex Earth Observation payload facility planned...

  12. The biology of habitat dominance; can microbes behave as weeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Jonathan A; Bell, Andrew N W; Bhaganna, Prashanth; Mswaka, Allen Y; Timson, David J; Hallsworth, John E

    2013-09-01

    Competition between microbial species is a product of, yet can lead to a reduction in, the microbial diversity of specific habitats. Microbial habitats can resemble ecological battlefields where microbial cells struggle to dominate and/or annihilate each other and we explore the hypothesis that (like plant weeds) some microbes are genetically hard-wired to behave in a vigorous and ecologically aggressive manner. These 'microbial weeds' are able to dominate the communities that develop in fertile but uncolonized--or at least partially vacant--habitats via traits enabling them to out-grow competitors; robust tolerances to habitat-relevant stress parameters and highly efficient energy-generation systems; avoidance of or resistance to viral infection, predation and grazers; potent antimicrobial systems; and exceptional abilities to sequester and store resources. In addition, those associated with nutritionally complex habitats are extraordinarily versatile in their utilization of diverse substrates. Weed species typically deploy multiple types of antimicrobial including toxins; volatile organic compounds that act as either hydrophobic or highly chaotropic stressors; biosurfactants; organic acids; and moderately chaotropic solutes that are produced in bulk quantities (e.g. acetone, ethanol). Whereas ability to dominate communities is habitat-specific we suggest that some microbial species are archetypal weeds including generalists such as: Pichia anomala, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas putida; specialists such as Dunaliella salina, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus spp. and other lactic acid bacteria; freshwater autotrophs Gonyostomum semen and Microcystis aeruginosa; obligate anaerobes such as Clostridium acetobutylicum; facultative pathogens such as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and other extremotolerant and extremophilic microbes such as Aspergillus spp., Salinibacter ruber and Haloquadratum walsbyi. Some microbes

  13. Study on Payload Effects on the Joint Motion Accuracy of Serial Mechanical Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Robotic manipulators have been widely used in many arenas, when the robotic arm performs positioning, a traditional controller (e.g., a proportional-integral-derivative, PID controller has the problem of not being able to compensate the payload variations. When the end-effector of the robotic arm grasps different payload masses as most applications require, the output of joint motion will vary under different payload masses, which will decrease the end-effector positioning accuracy of the robotic arm system. Based on the model reference adaptive control technique, the payload variation effect can be solved, therefore improving the positioning accuracy. This paper studies payload effects on the joint motion accuracy of serial mechanical mechanisms.

  14. A Strategy for Multiple Cooperative Spacecraft to Control the Translational Velocity of a Shared Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, David H.

    The scale of payloads that can be moved in space is effectively dictated by the propellant storage, maximum thrust, and thrust efficiency of the upper-stages on modern launch vehicles. These vehicles must control the payload at a single attachment point which leads to restrictive mass and symmetry constraints for the payload design. The research presented here examines an alternative strategy for performing velocity control on large payloads, such as future orbital construction projects and captured asteroids. Starting from a robotic manipulator perspective, an approach is developed to grasp, orient, and translate the payload with multiple cooperative spacecraft that are already in orbit. The approach makes use of a new combinatorial optimization algorithm, path planning with a three-dimensional visibility graph road-map method, and constrained model predictive control. All elements of the strategy are tested in multiple MATLAB simulations.

  15. Communication Satellite Payload Special Check out Equipment (SCOE) for Satellite Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, Noman

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents Payload Special Check out Equipment (SCOE) for the test and measurement of communication satellite Payload at subsystem and system level. The main emphasis of this paper is to demonstrate the principle test equipment, instruments and the payload test matrix for an automatic test control. Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE)/ Special Check out Equipment (SCOE) requirements, functions and architecture for C-band and Ku-band payloads are presented in details along with their interface with satellite during different phases of satellite testing. It provides test setup, in a single rack cabinet that can easily be moved from payload assembly and integration environment to thermal vacuum chamber all the way to launch site (for pre-launch test and verification).

  16. Detection of circular polarization in light scattered from photosynthetic microbes

    CERN Document Server

    Sparks, William B; Germer, Thomas A; Chen, Feng; DasSarma, Shiladitya; DasSarma, Priya; Robb, Frank T; Manset, Nadine; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Reid, Neill; Macchetto, F Duccio; Martin, William; 10.1073/pnas.0810215106

    2009-01-01

    The identification of a universal biosignature that could be sensed remotely is critical to the prospects for success in the search for life elsewhere in the universe. A candidate universal biosignature is homochirality, which is likely to be a generic property of all biochemical life. Due to the optical activity of chiral molecules, it has been hypothesized that this unique characteristic may provide a suitable remote sensing probe using circular polarization spectroscopy. Here, we report the detection of circular polarization in light scattered by photosynthetic microbes. We show that the circular polarization appears to arise from circular dichroism of the strong electronic transitions of photosynthetic absorption bands. We conclude that circular polarization spectroscopy could provide a powerful remote sensing technique for generic life searches.

  17. How auxin and cytokinin phytohormones modulate root microbe interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Boivin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A large range of microorganisms can associate with plants, resulting in neutral, friendly or hostile interactions. The ability of plants to recognize compatible and incompatible microorganisms and to limit or promote their colonization is therefore crucial for their survival. Elaborated communication networks determine the degree of association between the host plant and the invading microorganism. Central to these regulations of plant microbe interactions, phytohormones modulate microorganism plant associations and coordinate cellular and metabolic responses associated to the progression of microorganisms across different plant tissues. We review here hormonal regulations, focusing on auxin and cytokinin phytohormones, involved in the interactions between plant roots and soil microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi associations, either beneficial (symbiotic or detrimental (pathogenic. The aim is to highlight similarities and differences in cytokinin/auxin functions amongst various compatible versus incompatible associations.

  18. Microarray tools to unveil viral-microbe interactions in nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eSantos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between viruses and their microbial hosts play a central role in the control of microbial communities in nature. However, the study of such interactions within the uncultured majority is technically very challenging. Here, we review how microarray tools can be used to analyze the interactions between viruses and their microbial hosts in nature, away from laboratory pure culture-based models. We show examples of how DNA arrays have been used to study the expression of viral assemblages in natural samples, and to assign viruses to hosts within uncultured communities. Finally, we briefly discuss the possibilities of protein and glycan arrays to gain insight into the ways microbes interact with their viruses.

  19. Receptor kinase signaling pathways in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Ried, Martina K; Binder, Andreas; Parniske, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) function in diverse signaling pathways, including the responses to microbial signals in symbiosis and defense. This versatility is achieved with a common overall structure: an extracytoplasmic domain (ectodomain) and an intracellular protein kinase domain involved in downstream signal transduction. Various surfaces of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) ectodomain superstructure are utilized for interaction with the cognate ligand in both plant and animal receptors. RLKs with lysin-motif (LysM) ectodomains confer recognitional specificity toward N-acetylglucosamine-containing signaling molecules, such as chitin, peptidoglycan (PGN), and rhizobial nodulation factor (NF), that induce immune or symbiotic responses. Signaling downstream of RLKs does not follow a single pattern; instead, the detailed analysis of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, innate immunity, and symbiosis revealed at least three largely nonoverlapping pathways. In this review, we focus on RLKs involved in plant-microbe interactions and contrast the signaling pathways leading to symbiosis and defense.

  20. Integrated studies of uncultured microbes in the global ocean (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, C.; Rusch, D.; Martiny, A.; Lasken, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) initiative at the J. Craig Venter Institute represents the most extensive metagenomic study of a single environment. Early findings highlighted the potential of shotgun metagenomics to expand our knowledge of marine microbial biodiversity and physiology. However, it also became clear that many of the abundant marine microbes remain uncultured, hindering a direct connection between phylogeny and ecophysiology. In two recent studies, a combination of single cell genomics and aggressive assembly of binned metagenomic data have resulted in the acquisition of multiple genomes for two uncultured but globally relevant organisms. Metabolic reconstructions of the whole genomes revealed unique physiological adaptations in marine Prochlorococcus to high nutrient, low Fe regions of the global ocean and illuminated the potential ecological role of the gamma-proteobacterial 16S clade SAR86. The internal reference genomes also facilitate fragment recruitment based biogeographical studies, both at the whole genome level and the protein level.

  1. Harnessing plant-microbe interactions for enhancing farm productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Catriona; Singh, Brajesh

    2014-01-01

    Declining soil fertility and farm productivity is a major global concern in order to achieve food security for a burgeoning world population. It is reported that improving soil health alone can increase productivity by 10-15% and in combination with efficient plant traits, farm productivity can be increased up to 50-60%. In this article we explore the emerging microbial and bioengineering technologies, which can be employed to achieve the transformational increase in farm productivity and can simultaneously enhance environmental outcomes i.e., low green house gas (GHG) emissions. We argue that metagenomics, meta-transcriptomics and metabolomics have potential to provide fundamental knowledge on plant-microbes interactions necessary for new innovations to increase farm productivity. Further, these approaches provide tools to identify and select novel microbial/gene resources which can be harnessed in transgenic and designer plant technologies for enhanced resource use efficiencies.

  2. Arsenic-Microbe-Mineral Interactions in Mining-Affected Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Hudson-Edwards

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The toxic element arsenic (As occurs widely in solid and liquid mine wastes. Aqueous forms of arsenic are taken up in As-bearing sulfides, arsenides, sulfosalts, oxides, oxyhydroxides, Fe-oxides, -hydroxides, -oxyhydroxides and -sulfates, and Fe-, Ca-Fe- and other arsenates. Although a considerable body of research has demonstrated that microbes play a significant role in the precipitation and dissolution of these As-bearing minerals, and in the alteration of the redox state of As, in natural and simulated mining environments, the molecular-scale mechanisms of these interactions are still not well understood. Further research is required using traditional and novel mineralogical, spectroscopic and microbiological techniques to further advance this field, and to help design remediation schemes.

  3. Functional metagenomics to decipher food-microbe-host crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraufie, Pierre; de Wouters, Tomas; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle; Blottière, Hervé M; Doré, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate mechanisms of crosstalk, especially between bacteria and human cells. Cloning of large genome fragments, either from complex intestinal communities or from selected bacteria, allows the screening of these biological resources for bioactivity towards complex plant polymers or functional food such as prebiotics. This permitted identification of novel carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in dietary fibre and host glycan breakdown, and highlighted unsuspected bacterial players at the top of the intestinal microbial food chain. Similarly, exposure of fractions from genomic and metagenomic clones onto human cells engineered with reporter systems to track modulation of immune response, cell proliferation or cell metabolism has allowed the identification of bioactive clones modulating key cell signalling pathways or the induction of specific genes. This opens the possibility to decipher mechanisms by which commensal bacteria or candidate probiotics can modulate the activity of cells in the intestinal epithelium or even in distal organs such as the liver, adipose tissue or the brain. Hence, in spite of our inability to culture many of the dominant microbes of the human intestine, functional metagenomics open a new window for the exploration of food-microbe-host crosstalk.

  4. Microfluidic Experiments Studying Pore Scale Interactions of Microbes and Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how physical phenomena, chemical reactions, and microbial behavior interact at the pore-scale is crucial to understanding larger scale trends in groundwater chemistry. Recent studies illustrate the utility of microfluidic devices for illuminating pore-scale physical-biogeochemical processes and their control(s) on the cycling of iron, uranium, and other important elements 1-3. These experimental systems are ideal for examining geochemical reactions mediated by microbes, which include processes governed by complex biological phenomenon (e.g. biofilm formation, etc.)4. We present results of microfluidic experiments using a model metal reducing bacteria and varying pore geometries, exploring the limitations of the microorganisms' ability to access tight pore spaces, and examining coupled biogeochemical-physical controls on the cycling of redox sensitive metals. Experimental results will provide an enhanced understanding of coupled physical-biogeochemical processes transpiring at the pore-scale, and will constrain and compliment continuum models used to predict and describe the subsurface cycling of redox-sensitive elements5. 1. Vrionis, H. A. et al. Microbiological and geochemical heterogeneity in an in situ uranium bioremediation field site. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 6308-6318 (2005). 2. Pearce, C. I. et al. Pore-scale characterization of biogeochemical controls on iron and uranium speciation under flow conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 7992-8000 (2012). 3. Zhang, C., Liu, C. & Shi, Z. Micromodel investigation of transport effect on the kinetics of reductive dissolution of hematite. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 4131-4139 (2013). 4. Ginn, T. R. et al. Processes in microbial transport in the natural subsurface. Adv. Water Resour. 25, 1017-1042 (2002). 5. Scheibe, T. D. et al. Coupling a genome-scale metabolic model with a reactive transport model to describe in situ uranium bioremediation. Microb. Biotechnol. 2, 274-286 (2009).

  5. New CRISPR–Cas systems from uncultivated microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, David; Harrington, Lucas B.; Strutt, Steven C.; Probst, Alexander J.; Anantharaman, Karthik; Thomas, Brian C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2016-12-01

    CRISPR–Cas systems provide microbes with adaptive immunity by employing short DNA sequences, termed spacers, that guide Cas proteins to cleave foreign DNA. Class 2 CRISPR–Cas systems are streamlined versions, in which a single RNA-bound Cas protein recognizes and cleaves target sequences. The programmable nature of these minimal systems has enabled researchers to repurpose them into a versatile technology that is broadly revolutionizing biological and clinical research. However, current CRISPR–Cas technologies are based solely on systems from isolated bacteria, leaving the vast majority of enzymes from organisms that have not been cultured untapped. Metagenomics, the sequencing of DNA extracted directly from natural microbial communities, provides access to the genetic material of a huge array of uncultivated organisms. Here, using genome-resolved metagenomics, we identify a number of CRISPR–Cas systems, including the first reported Cas9 in the archaeal domain of life, to our knowledge. This divergent Cas9 protein was found in little-studied nanoarchaea as part of an active CRISPR–Cas system. In bacteria, we discovered two previously unknown systems, CRISPR–CasX and CRISPR–CasY, which are among the most compact systems yet discovered. Notably, all required functional components were identified by metagenomics, enabling validation of robust in vivo RNA-guided DNA interference activity in Escherichia coli. Interrogation of environmental microbial communities combined with in vivo experiments allows us to access an unprecedented diversity of genomes, the content of which will expand the repertoire of microbe-based biotechnologies.

  6. Effect of Mineral and Microbe Interactions on Biomass Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, S. A.; Block, K. A.; Katz, A.; Gottlieb, P.

    2016-12-01

    The ecological feedback of microbes (bacteria and viruses) in association with minerals is virtually unexplored in the context of characterizing how carbon cycles in the terrestrial ecosystem. These interactions include the ability for bacteriophage to control bacteria populations, the ability of minerals to provide a substrate for bacteria growth, and the effect of minerals on bacteriophage viability. We investigate bacteriophage aggregation with minerals in the clay size fraction (virus experiments, bacteriophage Φ6 was suspended with the minerals smectite, illite, kaolinite, and goethite at low divalent cation concentrations so aggregation was in the reaction limited colloidal aggregation (RLCA) regime, at neutral pH and room temperature conditions. Virus remained viable at a 1:1 virus-clay ratio for clays, and at an approximate 100:1 ratio for goethite. However, the number of plaque forming units was reduced by 99%. Electron micrographs show viable as well as partially disassembled virus, similar to the results found by Block et al. 2014. We found that inactivation of a 4 x 1011 cm-3 concentration of bacteriophage Φ6 by smectite, illite, kaolinite, and goethite, required a minimum sediment concentration of 1.5 x 1011 cm-3, 1.4 x 1011 cm-3, 2.5 x 1011 cm-3, and 1.1 x 109 cm-3, respectively. Mineral biofilms were generated by suspension of tropical soil clays with gram-positive and gram-negative microbes and characterized by x-ray diffraction and imaged by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Mineral biomass produced by gram negative organisms were subjected to virus infection to determine influence of minerals on community resilience. Lastly, we report biomass yield in each instance to quantify the influence of mineral composition on total biomass production.

  7. Modeling physiological responses of soil microbes to drought (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Schimel, J.

    2013-12-01

    Biogeochemical models predict soil carbon (C) under varying environmental conditions, aiming to disentangle the effects of predicted changes in temperature and moisture regimes on C storage. While much work focuses on temperature sensitivity of decomposition, relatively less is known about decomposer responses to changes in soil moisture. Heterotrophic respiration is known to decline as soils become drier, but the underlying physiological mechanisms are not clear and rarely accounted for in models. In particular, we ask: what are the effects of different drought response strategies on C storage potential and the shape of the respiration-moisture relation? We have developed a process-based model to address these questions, including the main physiological responses thought to play a role under varying moisture conditions: i) dormancy, ii) patterns of extra-cellular enzyme production, and iii) osmoregulation. We show that these different drought response strategies play a major role in the long-term partitioning of soil C among stable and labile pools. In very dry conditions, microbes shifting to dormant state tend to favor long-term (steady state) accumulation of stable C at the expenses of microbial biomass, while increasing investment in enzymes leads to accumulation of dissolved organic C, which in turn may partly overcome the diffusion limitations imposed by dry soils. In contrast, entering a dormant state early during a dry down allows microbes to save C by respiring less (due to lowered active biomass), avoid C starvation when substrate diffusion breaks down, and use available C for growth and maintenance rather than osmoregulation. Hence, this strategy explains why little osmolytes are found in microbial biomass subjected to experimental drought. We conclude by highlighting how our results can be implemented in Earth System Models without excessively increasing their complexity.

  8. Climate change driven plant-metal-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Mani; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Swaminathan, Sandhya; Freitas, Helena

    2013-03-01

    Various biotic and abiotic stress factors affect the growth and productivity of crop plants. Particularly, the climatic and/or heavy metal stress influence various processes including growth, physiology, biochemistry, and yield of crops. Climatic changes particularly the elevated atmospheric CO₂ enhance the biomass production and metal accumulation in plants and help plants to support greater microbial populations and/or protect the microorganisms against the impacts of heavy metals. Besides, the indirect effects of climatic change (e.g., changes in the function and structure of plant roots and diversity and activity of rhizosphere microbes) would lead to altered metal bioavailability in soils and concomitantly affect plant growth. However, the effects of warming, drought or combined climatic stress on plant growth and metal accumulation vary substantially across physico-chemico-biological properties of the environment (e.g., soil pH, heavy metal type and its bio-available concentrations, microbial diversity, and interactive effects of climatic factors) and plant used. Overall, direct and/or indirect effects of climate change on heavy metal mobility in soils may further hinder the ability of plants to adapt and make them more susceptible to stress. Here, we review and discuss how the climatic parameters including atmospheric CO₂, temperature and drought influence the plant-metal interaction in polluted soils. Other aspects including the effects of climate change and heavy metals on plant-microbe interaction, heavy metal phytoremediation and safety of food and feed are also discussed. This review shows that predicting how plant-metal interaction responds to altering climatic change is critical to select suitable crop plants that would be able to produce more yields and tolerate multi-stress conditions without accumulating toxic heavy metals for future food security.

  9. Potential for mercury reduction by microbes in the high arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Alexandre J; Ní Chadhain, Sinéad M; Ariya, Parisa A; Amyot, Marc; Garcia, Edenise; Campbell, Peter G C; Zylstra, Gerben J; Barkay, Tamar

    2007-04-01

    The contamination of polar regions due to the global distribution of anthropogenic pollutants is of great concern because it leads to the bioaccumulation of toxic substances, methylmercury among them, in Arctic food chains. Here we present the first evidence that microbes in the high Arctic possess and express diverse merA genes, which specify the reduction of ionic mercury [Hg(II)] to the volatile elemental form [Hg(0)]. The sampled microbial biomass, collected from microbial mats in a coastal lagoon and from the surface of marine macroalgae, was comprised of bacteria that were most closely related to psychrophiles that had previously been described in polar environments. We used a kinetic redox model, taking into consideration photoredox reactions as well as mer-mediated reduction, to assess if the potential for Hg(II) reduction by Arctic microbes can affect the toxicity and environmental mobility of mercury in the high Arctic. Results suggested that mer-mediated Hg(II) reduction could account for most of the Hg(0) that is produced in high Arctic waters. At the surface, with only 5% metabolically active cells, up to 68% of the mercury pool was resolved by the model as biogenic Hg(0). At a greater depth, because of incident light attenuation, the significance of photoredox transformations declined and merA-mediated activity could account for up to 90% of Hg(0) production. These findings highlight the importance of microbial redox transformations in the biogeochemical cycling, and thus the toxicity and mobility, of mercury in polar regions.

  10. New CRISPR-Cas systems from uncultivated microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, David; Harrington, Lucas B.; Strutt, Steven C.; Probst, Alexander J.; Anantharaman, Karthik; Thomas, Brian C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2017-02-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems provide microbes with adaptive immunity by employing short DNA sequences, termed spacers, that guide Cas proteins to cleave foreign DNA. Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are streamlined versions, in which a single RNA-bound Cas protein recognizes and cleaves target sequences. The programmable nature of these minimal systems has enabled researchers to repurpose them into a versatile technology that is broadly revolutionizing biological and clinical research. However, current CRISPR-Cas technologies are based solely on systems from isolated bacteria, leaving the vast majority of enzymes from organisms that have not been cultured untapped. Metagenomics, the sequencing of DNA extracted directly from natural microbial communities, provides access to the genetic material of a huge array of uncultivated organisms. Here, using genome-resolved metagenomics, we identify a number of CRISPR-Cas systems, including the first reported Cas9 in the archaeal domain of life, to our knowledge. This divergent Cas9 protein was found in little-studied nanoarchaea as part of an active CRISPR-Cas system. In bacteria, we discovered two previously unknown systems, CRISPR-CasX and CRISPR-CasY, which are among the most compact systems yet discovered. Notably, all required functional components were identified by metagenomics, enabling validation of robust in vivo RNA-guided DNA interference activity in Escherichia coli. Interrogation of environmental microbial communities combined with in vivo experiments allows us to access an unprecedented diversity of genomes, the content of which will expand the repertoire of microbe-based biotechnologies.

  11. Microbes, Immunity, and Behavior: Psychoneuroimmunology Meets the Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-01-01

    There is now a large volume of evidence to support the view that the immune system is a key communication pathway between the gut and brain, which plays an important role in stress-related psychopathologies and thus provides a potentially fruitful target for psychotropic intervention. The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem with a diverse range of organisms and a sophisticated genomic structure. Bacteria within the gut are estimated to weigh in excess of 1 kg in the adult human and the microbes within not only produce antimicrobial peptides, short chain fatty acids, and vitamins, but also most of the common neurotransmitters found in the human brain. That the microbial content of the gut plays a key role in immune development is now beyond doubt. Early disruption of the host-microbe interplay can have lifelong consequences, not just in terms of intestinal function but in distal organs including the brain. It is clear that the immune system and nervous system are in continuous communication in order to maintain a state of homeostasis. Significant gaps in knowledge remain about the effect of the gut microbiota in coordinating the immune-nervous systems dialogue. However, studies using germ-free animals, infective models, prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics have increased our understanding of the interplay. Early life stress can have a lifelong impact on the microbial content of the intestine and permanently alter immune functioning. That early life stress can also impact adult psychopathology has long been appreciated in psychiatry. The challenge now is to fully decipher the molecular mechanisms that link the gut microbiota, immune, and central nervous systems in a network of communication that impacts behavior patterns and psychopathology, to eventually translate these findings to the human situation both in health and disease. Even at this juncture, there is evidence to pinpoint key sites of communication where gut microbial interventions either with drugs

  12. Phytochemicals that modulate amino acid and peptide catabolism by caprine rumen microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Microbe-derived ionophores and macrolide antibiotics are often added to ruminant diets, and growth promotion and feed efficiency are among the benefits. One mechanism is inhibition of microbes that catabolize amino acids or peptides and produce ammonia. Plants also produce antimicrobial ...

  13. Expression of defensin paralogs across house fly life history: insights into fly-microbe interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies have a life-long association with microbe-rich environments. Larvae directly ingest bacteria in decaying substrates utilizing them for nutritional purposes. Adult house flies ephemerally associate with microbes, ingesting them either by direct feeding or indirectly during grooming. The h...

  14. Biogeographical diversity of plant associated microbes in arcto-alpine plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Manoj Gopala Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial plants and microbes have co-evolved since the emergence of the former on Earth. Associations with microorganisms can be either beneficial or detrimental for plants. Microbes can be found in the soil surrounding the plant roots, but also in all plant tissues, including seeds. In arcto-alp

  15. Update History of This Database - MicrobeDB.jp | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us MicrobeDB.jp Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2017/06/29 Archive V2 is r...ion Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - MicrobeDB.jp | LSDB Archive ...

  16. Experimental evolution as an underutilized tool for studying beneficial animal-microbe interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Loan Hoang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms play a significant role in the evolution and functioning of the eukaryotes with which they interact. Much of our understanding of beneficial host-microbe interactions stems from studying already established associations; we often infer the genotypic and environmental conditions that led to the existing host-microbe relationships. However, several outstanding questions remain, including understanding how host and microbial (internal traits, and ecological and evolutionary (external processes, influence the origin of beneficial host-microbe associations. Experimental evolution has helped address a range of evolutionary and ecological questions across different model systems; however, it has been greatly underutilized as a tool to study beneficial host-microbe associations. In this review, we suggest ways in which experimental evolution can further our understanding of the proximate and ultimate mechanisms shaping mutualistic interactions between eukaryotic hosts and microbes. By tracking beneficial interactions under defined conditions or evolving novel associations among hosts and microbes with little prior evolutionary interaction, we can link specific genotypes to phenotypes that can be directly measured. Moreover, this approach will help address existing puzzles in beneficial symbiosis research: how symbioses evolve, how symbioses are maintained, and how both host and microbe influence their partner’s evolutionary trajectories. By bridging theoretical predictions and empirical tests, experimental evolution provides us with another approach to test hypotheses regarding the evolution of beneficial host-microbe associations.

  17. Microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) signatures, synergy, size and charge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslam, Shazia N.; Erbs, Gitte; Morrissey, Kate L.

    2009-01-01

    Triggering of defences by microbes has mainly been investigated using single elicitors or microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), but MAMPs are released in planta as complex mixtures together with endogenous oligogalacturonan (OGA) elicitor. We investigated the early responses in Arabidopsis...

  18. Plant-microbe and plant-insect interactions meet common grounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, P.; McGrath, K.C.; Lorito, M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Plant–microbe and plant–insect interactions are of global importance for agriculture and of high interest to many plant scientists, microbiologists and entomologists. Traditionally, plant–microbe and plant–insect interactions have been looked at as two separate issues, but in recent years it has bec

  19. Plant-microbe and plant-insect interactions meet common grounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, P.; McGrath, K.C.; Lorito, M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Plant–microbe and plant–insect interactions are of global importance for agriculture and of high interest to many plant scientists, microbiologists and entomologists. Traditionally, plant–microbe and plant–insect interactions have been looked at as two separate issues, but in recent years it has

  20. Biofilms for Babies: Introducing Microbes and Biofilms to Preschool-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian M. Couto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are beneficial to life on our planet as they facilitate natural processes such as global nutrient cycling in our environment. This article details a 30-minute activity to introduce pre-school children ranging from 3 to 5 years of age to microbes and biofilms in the natural environment.

  1. Navigation and geo-tracking system of UAV EO payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhen, Kang; Xue, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiajiang; Li, Yingjuan; Tang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    A multi-function system based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) is introduced, which can fulfill navigation, attitude measurement of LOS in payload, platform stabilization and tracking control. The IMU is integrated with electro-optical sensors and a laser range finder on gimbals, which performs attitude calculation and navigation by constructing navigation coordinates in a mathematic platform, and the platform navigation information is obtained by transformation matrix between platform and gimbal coordinates. The platform comprising of gyros, electro-optical sensors and servo mechanism is capable of stabilizing line of sight and could be used to geo-tracking in the relevant field of view (FOV).The system can determine geography coordinates of the host platform and target only with navigation information and laser ranging data. The geo-tracking system always locked the target image at the center of FOV by calculating spatial geometry and adjusting LOS attitude. This tracking is different from TV tracking and geographical reference image tracking, which may be influenced by fog and obscurant. When the UAV is flying over urban or mountain areas for rescue missions, it can avoid the loss of targets due to strong maneuver or LOS obscuration, and reduce the operation load and improve rescue efficiency.

  2. MS Noriega and Tanner check out STS-97 payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, STS-97 Mission Specialists Carlos Noriega (left) and Joe Tanner check out the mission payload, the P6 integrated truss segment. Mission STS-97 is the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. The P6 comprises Solar Array Wing-3 and the Integrated Electronic Assembly, to be installed on the International Space Station. The Station's electrical power system will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays, each 112 feet long by 39 feet wide, to convert sunlight to electricity. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station. The mission includes two spacewalks by Noriega and Tanner to complete the solar array connections. STS-97 is scheduled to launch Nov. 30 at about 10:06 p.m. EST.

  3. Way Forward for High Performance Payload Processing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaert, Olivier; Franklin, John; Lefftz, Vincent; Moreno, Jose; Patte, Mathieu; Syed, Mohsin; Wagner, Arnaud

    2012-08-01

    Payload processing is facing technological challenges due to the large increase of performance requirements of future scientific, observation and telecom missions as well as the future instruments technologies capturing much larger amount of data. For several years, with the perspective of higher performance together with the planned obsolescence of solutions covering the current needs, ESA and the European space industry has been developing several technology solutions. Silicon technologies, radiation mitigation techniques and innovative functional architectures are developed with the goal of designing future space qualified processing devices with a much higher level of performance than today. The fast growing commercial market application have developed very attractive technologies but which are not fully suitable with respect to their tolerance to space environment. Without the financial capacity to explore and develop all possible technology paths, a specific and global approach is required to cover the future mission needs and their necessary performance targets with effectiveness.The next sections describe main issues and priorities and provides further detailed relevant for this approach covering the high performance processing technology.

  4. E-sail test payload of ESTCube-1 nanosatellite

    CERN Document Server

    Envall, Jouni; Toivanen, Petri; Pajusalu, Mihkel; Ilbis, Erik; Kalde, Jaanus; Averin, Matis; Kuuste, Henri; Laizans, Kaspars; Allik, Viljo; Rauhala, Timo; Seppänen, Henri; Kiprich, Sergiy; Ukkonen, Jukka; Haeggström, Edward; Kalvas, Taneli; Tarvainen, Olli; Kauppinen, Janne; Nuottajärvi, Antti; Koivisto, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    The scientific mission of ESTCube-1, launched in May 2013, is to measure the Electric solar wind sail (E-sail) force in orbit. The experiment is planned to push forward the development of E-sail, a propulsion method recently invented at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. E-sail is based on extracting momentum from the solar wind plasma flow by using long thin electrically charged tethers. ESTCube-1 is equipped with one such tether, together with hardware capable of deploying and charging it. At the orbital altitude of ESTCube-1 (660--680~km) there is no solar wind present. Instead, ESTCube-1 shall observe the interaction between the charged tether and the ionospheric plasma. The ESTCube-1 payload uses a 10-meter, partly two-filament E-sail tether and a motorized reel on which it is stored. The tether shall be deployed from a spinning satellite with the help of centrifugal force. An additional mass is added at the tip of the tether to assist with the deployment. During E-sail experiment the tether shall be ...

  5. Autonomous Payload Operations Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Deitsch, David K.; Cruzen, Craig A.; Haddock, Angie T.

    2007-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves many complex crew tended, ground operated and combined systems. Over the life of the ISS program, it has become evident that by having automated and autonomous systems on board, more can be accomplished and at the same time reduce the workload of the crew and ground operators. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville Alabama, working in collaboration with The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory have developed an autonomous software system that uses the Timeliner User Interface Language and expert logic to continuously monitor ISS payload systems, issue commands and signal ground operators as required. This paper describes the development history of the system, its concept of operation and components. The paper also discusses the testing process as well as the facilities used to develop the system. The paper concludes with a description of future enhancement plans for use on the ISS as well as potential applications to Lunar and Mars exploration systems.

  6. Benefits of hosted payload architectures for improved GEO SSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallado, D.; Lowe, J.; Anderson, J.

    2011-09-01

    Maintaining a precise catalog of objects in and near the GEO belt is difficult for a variety of reasons. Optical Hosted Payloads (HP) on commercial satellites have been suggested as a solution to provide accurate, persistent catalog updates to augment existing data or even relieve schedule burden on traditional tracking systems. However, significant questions remain about what architecture requirements are necessary for stable orbit determination solutions, accuracy improvements over traditional tracking systems, and optimal catalog coverage. System trades are performed using COTS software to determine the influence of number, frequency, and accuracy of observations on orbit solution stability and uncertainty. System configurations are also evaluated against catalog coverage metrics such as number and percent of objects observed, number of tracks per day, and revisit times. Initial results show that some assumed configurations can produce stable, accurate orbit solutions for most of the catalog in and near GEO. Fusing observations from HP sensors with traditional ground data may yield dramatic improvements in positional uncertainty of one to two orders of magnitude, often with multiple observations each day.

  7. Attenuation of cryocooler induced vibration in spaceborne infrared payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Twitto, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancement of operational responsive space programs calls for a development of compact, reliable, low power and vibration free cryogenic cooling for sophisticated infrared payloads. The refrigeration in a typical closed cycle split Stirling linear cryocooler is achieved by a cyclic compression and expansion of a gaseous working agent due to a synchronized reciprocation of electro-dynamically and pneumatically actuated compressor and expander pistons. Attenuation of the cryocooler induced vibration usually relies on the concept of actively assisted momentum cancellation. In a typical dual-piston compressor this objective is achieved by actively synchronizing the motion of oppositely moving piston assemblies; a typical single-piston expander may be counterbalanced by a motorized counter-balancer. The above approach produces complexity, weight, size, high incurred costs and affects reliability. The authors analyze the case of passive attenuation the vibration export induced by the split Stirling linear cryocooler comprised of inline mounted single-piston compressor and expander. Placement of all the moving components onto a common axis results in a single axis consolidation of vibration export and enables use of single tuned dynamic absorber and low frequency vibration mount. From theoretical analysis and full-scale testing, the performance of such vibration protection arrangement is similar to known systems of active vibration cancellation.

  8. Microbes and animal olfactory communication: Where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Williams, Allison E

    2014-09-01

    We know that microbes contribute to the production of odors that some animals use to communicate, but how common is this phenomenon? Recent studies capitalizing on new molecular technologies are uncovering fascinating associations between microbes and odors of wild animals, but causality is difficult to ascertain. Fundamental questions about the nature of these unique host-microbe interactions also remain unanswered. For instance, do microbes benefit from signaling associations with hosts? How does microbial community structure influence signal production? How do hosts regulate microbes in order to generate appropriate signals? Here, we review the current state of knowledge on microbially produced signals in animals and discuss key research foci that can advance our understanding of microbial-based signaling in the animal world. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparative evaluation of Space Transportation System (STS)-3 flight and acoustic test random vibration response of the OSS-1 payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the Space Transportation System (STS)-3 flight and acoustic test random vibration response of the Office of Space Science-1 (OSS-1) payload is presented. The results provide insight into the characteristics of vibroacoustic response of pallet payload components in the payload bay during STS flights.

  10. Microbes versus microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Kieran; Dalmasso, Marion; Zentek, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Foodborne illness continues as a considerable threat to public health. Despite improved hygiene management systems and increased regulation, pathogenic bacteria still contaminate food, causing sporadic cases of illness and disease outbreaks worldwide. For many centuries, microbial antagonism has...... been used in food processing to improve food safety. An understanding of the mode of action of this microbial antagonism has been gained in recent years and potential applications in food and feed safety are now being explored. This review focuses on the potential opportunities presented...

  11. Design of the Scientific Payload Complex for the International University Satellite 'Condor'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekhov, Oleg; Tse-Liang, Yeh; Jiang, Shyh-Biau; Zhdanov, Pavel

    2016-08-01

    Some features of the development of payload complex for the international university small satellite "Condor" are presented in the paper. First the composition of the payload complex and its main components are presented shortly. It is followed by the information about amount of payload and housekeeping data to be transmitted to the ground control station. The rest of the paper describes in more detail the onboard computer (its structure and main components) and onboard software. The process of the integration testing of the onboard computer and NCU-SWIP, its results and further work are described at the end of the paper.

  12. Analytical formulation of orbiter-payload models coupled by trunnion joints with Coulomb friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Frank C.

    1987-01-01

    An orbiter and its payload substructure are linked together by five trunnion joints which have thirty degrees-of-freedom. Geometric compatibility conditions require fourteen of the interface physical coordinates of the orbiter and payload to be equal to each other and the remaining sixteen are free to have relative motions under Coulomb friction. The component modes synthesis method using fourteen inertia relief attachment modes for the formulation of the coupled system is presented. The exact nonlinear friction function is derived based on the characteristics of the joints. Formulation is applicable to an orbiter that carries any number of payload substructures.

  13. Analytical formulation of orbiter-payload coupled by trunnion joints with Coulomb friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Frank C.

    1986-01-01

    An orbiter and its payload substructure are linked together by five trunnion joints which have thirty degrees-of-freedom. Geometric compatibility conditions require fourteen of the interface physical coordinates of the orbiter and payload to be equal to each other and the remaining sixteen are free to have relative motions under Coulomb friction. The component modes synthesis method using fourteen inertia relief attachment modes for the formulation of the coupled system is presented. The exact nonlinear friction function is derived based on the characteristics of the joints. Formulation is applicable to an orbiter that carries any number of payload substructures.

  14. Adaptive digital beamforming for a CDMA mobile communications payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Garcia, Samuel G.; Ruiz, Javier Benedicto

    1993-01-01

    reference signal highly correlated with the desired user signal and uncorrelated with the interferences. CDMA lends itself very easily to the generation of such a reference signal, thanks to the a priori knowledge of the user's signature sequence. First, the integration of an adaptive antenna in an asynchronous CDMA system is analyzed. The adaptive antenna system can provide increased interference rejection - much higher than that afforded by the code alone - and, since CDMA is mainly interference limited, any reduction in interference converts directly and linearly into an increase in capacity. Analyses and computer simulations are presented that show how an asynchronous CDMA system incorporating adaptive beamforming can provide at least as much capacity as a synchronous system. More importantly, the proposed concept allows the near-far effect to be mitigated without requiring a tight coordination of the users in terms of transmitted power control or network synchronization. The system is extremely robust to the near-far effect because the signals reaching the satellite from directions other than that of the desired user - which are likely to have different power levels - are adaptively canceled by the antenna. Finally, a payload architecture is presented that illustrates the practical implementation of this concept. This digital payload architecture demonstrates that with the advent of high performance CMOS digital processing, the on-board implementation of complex DSP techniques - in particular Digital Beamforming - has become possible, being most attractive for Mobile Satellite Communications.

  15. ACT Payload Shroud Structural Concept Analysis and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Bart B.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2010-01-01

    Aerospace structural applications demand a weight efficient design to perform in a cost effective manner. This is particularly true for launch vehicle structures, where weight is the dominant design driver. The design process typically requires many iterations to ensure that a satisfactory minimum weight has been obtained. Although metallic structures can be weight efficient, composite structures can provide additional weight savings due to their lower density and additional design flexibility. This work presents structural analysis and weight optimization of a composite payload shroud for NASA s Ares V heavy lift vehicle. Two concepts, which were previously determined to be efficient for such a structure are evaluated: a hat stiffened/corrugated panel and a fiber reinforced foam sandwich panel. A composite structural optimization code, HyperSizer, is used to optimize the panel geometry, composite material ply orientations, and sandwich core material. HyperSizer enables an efficient evaluation of thousands of potential designs versus multiple strength and stability-based failure criteria across multiple load cases. HyperSizer sizing process uses a global finite element model to obtain element forces, which are statistically processed to arrive at panel-level design-to loads. These loads are then used to analyze each candidate panel design. A near optimum design is selected as the one with the lowest weight that also provides all positive margins of safety. The stiffness of each newly sized panel or beam component is taken into account in the subsequent finite element analysis. Iteration of analysis/optimization is performed to ensure a converged design. Sizing results for the hat stiffened panel concept and the fiber reinforced foam sandwich concept are presented.

  16. The microbes we eat: abundance and taxonomy of microbes consumed in a day’s worth of meals for three diet types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M. Lang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Far more attention has been paid to the microbes in our feces than the microbes in our food. Research efforts dedicated to the microbes that we eat have historically been focused on a fairly narrow range of species, namely those which cause disease and those which are thought to confer some “probiotic” health benefit. Little is known about the effects of ingested microbial communities that are present in typical American diets, and even the basic questions of which microbes, how many of them, and how much they vary from diet to diet and meal to meal, have not been answered.We characterized the microbiota of three different dietary patterns in order to estimate: the average total amount of daily microbes ingested via food and beverages, and their composition in three daily meal plans representing three different dietary patterns. The three dietary patterns analyzed were: (1 the Average American (AMERICAN: focused on convenience foods, (2 USDA recommended (USDA: emphasizing fruits and vegetables, lean meat, dairy, and whole grains, and (3 Vegan (VEGAN: excluding all animal products. Meals were prepared in a home kitchen or purchased at restaurants and blended, followed by microbial analysis including aerobic, anaerobic, yeast and mold plate counts as well as 16S rRNA PCR survey analysis.Based on plate counts, the USDA meal plan had the highest total amount of microbes at 1.3 × 109 CFU per day, followed by the VEGAN meal plan and the AMERICAN meal plan at 6 × 106 and 1.4 × 106 CFU per day respectively. There was no significant difference in diversity among the three dietary patterns. Individual meals clustered based on taxonomic composition independent of dietary pattern. For example, meals that were abundant in Lactic Acid Bacteria were from all three dietary patterns. Some taxonomic groups were correlated with the nutritional content of the meals. Predictive metagenome analysis using PICRUSt indicated differences in some functional KEGG

  17. Identification of Soil Microbes Capable of Utilizing Cellobiosan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieni Lian

    Full Text Available Approximately 100 million tons of anhydrosugars, such as levoglucosan and cellobiosan, are produced through biomass burning every year. These sugars are also produced through fast pyrolysis, the controlled thermal depolymerization of biomass. While the microbial pathways associated with levoglucosan utilization have been characterized, there is little known about cellobiosan utilization. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of six cellobiosan-utilizing microbes from soil samples. Each of these organisms is capable of using both cellobiosan and levoglucosan as sole carbon source, though both minimal and rich media cellobiosan supported significantly higher biomass production than levoglucosan. Ribosomal sequencing was used to identify the closest reported match for these organisms: Sphingobacterium multivorum, Acinetobacter oleivorans JC3-1, Enterobacter sp SJZ-6, and Microbacterium sps FXJ8.207 and 203 and a fungal species Cryptococcus sp. The commercially-acquired Enterobacter cloacae DSM 16657 showed growth on levoglucosan and cellobiosan, supporting our isolate identification. Analysis of an existing database of 16S rRNA amplicons from Iowa soil samples confirmed the representation of our five bacterial isolates and four previously-reported levoglucosan-utilizing bacterial isolates in other soil samples and provided insight into their population distributions. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA of strains previously reported to utilize levoglucosan and our newfound isolates showed that the organisms isolated in this study are distinct from previously described anhydrosugar-utilizing microbial species.

  18. Economical evolution: microbes reduce the synthetic cost of extracellular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel R; Chapman, Matthew R

    2010-08-24

    Protein evolution is not simply a race toward improved function. Because organisms compete for limited resources, fitness is also affected by the relative economy of an organism's proteome. Indeed, many abundant proteins contain relatively high percentages of amino acids that are metabolically less taxing for the cell to make, thus reducing cellular cost. However, not all abundant proteins are economical, and many economical proteins are not particularly abundant. Here we examined protein composition and found that the relative synthetic cost of amino acids constrains the composition of microbial extracellular proteins. In Escherichia coli, extracellular proteins contain, on average, fewer energetically expensive amino acids independent of their abundance, length, function, or structure. Economic pressures have strategically shaped the amino acid composition of multicomponent surface appendages, such as flagella, curli, and type I pili, and extracellular enzymes, including type III effector proteins and secreted serine proteases. Furthermore, in silico analysis of Pseudomonas syringae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and over 25 other microbes spanning a wide range of GC content revealed a broad bias toward more economical amino acids in extracellular proteins. The synthesis of any protein, especially those rich in expensive aromatic amino acids, represents a significant investment. Because extracellular proteins are lost to the environment and not recycled like other cellular proteins, they present a greater burden on the cell, as their amino acids cannot be reutilized during translation. We hypothesize that evolution has optimized extracellular proteins to reduce their synthetic burden on the cell.

  19. The Indirect Effect of UV: Some Good News for Microbes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Purcell, Diane; Rogoff, Dana; Wilson, Cindy; Brass, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is of great concern because its biological effects are predominantly harmful. UV damage may be direct or indirect, the latter mediated through the photochemical production of reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide. We measured the effect of H2O2 on various microbes both in the lab and in nature. At our study site in Yellowstone National Park, there is a UV-induced diurnal fluctuation of H2O2 extending up to one micron. Levels of DNA synthesis resulting from exposure to H2O2 were measured in several algal mats. Within naturally-occurring concentrations of H2O2, DNA synthesis increased. Laboratory studies showed that similar concentrations of H2O2 induce mitosis. We hypothesize that the low levels of H2O2 encountered in nature are inducing mitotic division. At higher levels of H2O2 a second peak in DNA synthesis was found which we interpret to represent DNA damage repair. These experiments suggest that in nature, the low levels of H2O2 produced may have a mitogenic rather than damaging effect. Assuming early levels of UV radiation were substantially higher at the time protists evolved, differential mitogenic effects could have influenced protistan evolution. With H2O2 likely to be present on such bodies as Mars and Europa, the response of organisms will be concentration-dependent and not linear.

  20. Marine Drugs from Sponge-Microbe Association—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresa Remya A. Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this review is the biodiversity of marine sponges and associated microbes which have been reported to produce therapeutically important compounds, along with the contextual information on their geographic distribution. Class Demospongiae and the orders Halichondrida, Poecilosclerida and Dictyoceratida are the richest sources of these compounds. Among the microbial associates, members of the bacterial phylum Actinobacteria and fungal division Ascomycota have been identified to be the dominant producers of therapeutics. Though the number of bacterial associates outnumber the fungal associates, the documented potential of fungi to produce clinically active compounds is currently more important than that of bacteria. Interestingly, production of a few identical compounds by entirely different host-microbial associations has been detected in both terrestrial and marine environments. In the Demospongiae, microbial association is highly specific and so to the production of compounds. Besides, persistent production of bioactive compounds has also been encountered in highly specific host-symbiont associations. Though spatial and temporal variations are known to have a marked effect on the quality and quantity of bioactive compounds, only a few studies have covered these dimensions. The need to augment production of these compounds through tissue culture and mariculture has also been stressed. The reviewed database of these compounds is available at www.niobioinformatics.in/drug.php.

  1. The battle for chitin recognition in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Mesters, Jeroen R; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2015-03-01

    Fungal cell walls play dynamic functions in interaction of fungi with their surroundings. In pathogenic fungi, the cell wall is the first structure to make physical contact with host cells. An important structural component of fungal cell walls is chitin, a well-known elicitor of immune responses in plants. Research into chitin perception has sparked since the chitin receptor from rice was cloned nearly a decade ago. Considering the widespread nature of chitin perception in plants, pathogens evidently evolved strategies to overcome detection, including alterations in the composition of cell walls, modification of their carbohydrate chains and secretion of effectors to provide cell wall protection or target host immune responses. Also non-pathogenic fungi contain chitin in their cell walls and are recipients of immune responses. Intriguingly, various mutualists employ chitin-derived signaling molecules to prepare their hosts for the mutualistic relationship. Research on the various types of interactions has revealed different molecular components that play crucial roles and, moreover, that various chitin-binding proteins contain dissimilar chitin-binding domains across species that differ in affinity and specificity. Considering the various strategies from microbes and hosts focused on chitin recognition, it is evident that this carbohydrate plays a central role in plant-fungus interactions.

  2. Engineering plant-microbe symbiosis for rhizoremediation of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cindy H; Wood, Thomas K; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2006-02-01

    The use of plants for rehabilitation of heavy-metal-contaminated environments is an emerging area of interest because it provides an ecologically sound and safe method for restoration and remediation. Although a number of plant species are capable of hyperaccumulation of heavy metals, the technology is not applicable for remediating sites with multiple contaminants. A clever solution is to combine the advantages of microbe-plant symbiosis within the plant rhizosphere into an effective cleanup technology. We demonstrated that expression of a metal-binding peptide (EC20) in a rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida 06909, not only improved cadmium binding but also alleviated the cellular toxicity of cadmium. More importantly, inoculation of sunflower roots with the engineered rhizobacterium resulted in a marked decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a 40% increase in cadmium accumulation in the plant root. Owing to the significantly improved growth characteristics of both the rhizobacterium and plant, the use of EC20-expressing P. putida endowed with organic-degrading capabilities may be a promising strategy to remediate mixed organic-metal-contaminated sites.

  3. Exploring laser-guided metal deposition through a microbe metabolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hocheng

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to describe exploring laser-guided metal deposition through a microbe metabolite.Design/methodology/approach: A maskless micro-fabrication of laser-guided deposition process through the metabolite of Acidophilic bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (T.f. is explored.Findings: The authors have conducted an analysis of the metal deposition process using the point thermal-source of the Nd:YAG laser through the metabolite of Acidophilic bacteria Thiobacillus. An analytical model adopting the moving point heat source on the substrate and heat transfer conditions is presented. The thermal field generated by the laser input energy is investigated.Practical implications: Though the mechanism of the laser-assisted deposition process is not fully revealed by biologist yet, the current model provides a means of control of the line deposition of metals.Originality/value: Based on the fundamental knowledge of how the line width varies with laser power and scanning speed, more investigation of the mini-scale heat convection and the threshold temperature of chemical reaction is expected in the future for further understanding of this novel metal deposition method triggered and written by laser.

  4. Linking plant nutritional status to plant-microbe interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia C Carvalhais

    Full Text Available Plants have developed a wide-range of adaptations to overcome nutrient limitation, including changes to the quantity and composition of carbon-containing compounds released by roots. Root-associated bacteria are largely influenced by these compounds which can be perceived as signals or substrates. Here, we evaluate the effect of root exudates collected from maize plants grown under nitrogen (N, phosphate (P, iron (Fe and potassium (K deficiencies on the transcriptome of the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. The largest shifts in gene expression patterns were observed in cells exposed to exudates from N-, followed by P-deficient plants. Exudates from N-deprived maize triggered a general stress response in FZB42 in the exponential growth phase, which was evidenced by the suppression of numerous genes involved in protein synthesis. Exudates from P-deficient plants induced bacterial genes involved in chemotaxis and motility whilst exudates released by Fe and K deficient plants did not cause dramatic changes in the bacterial transcriptome during exponential growth phase. Global transcriptional changes in bacteria elicited by nutrient deficient maize exudates were significantly correlated with concentrations of the amino acids aspartate, valine and glutamate in root exudates suggesting that transcriptional profiling of FZB42 associated with metabolomics of N, P, Fe and K-deficient maize root exudates is a powerful approach to better understand plant-microbe interactions under conditions of nutritional stress.

  5. The role of lipids in host microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Roland; Mattner, Jochen

    2017-06-01

    Lipids are one of the major subcellular constituents and serve as signal molecules, energy sources, metabolic precursors and structural membrane components in various organisms. The function of lipids can be modified by multiple biochemical processes such as (de-)phosphorylation or (de-)glycosylation, and the organization of fatty acids into distinct cellular pools and subcellular compartments plays a pivotal role for the morphology and function of various cell populations. Thus, lipids regulate, for example, phagosome formation and maturation within host cells and thus, are critical for the elimination of microbial pathogens. Vice versa, microbial pathogens can manipulate the lipid composition of phagosomal membranes in host cells, and thus avoid their delivery to phagolysosomes. Lipids of microbial origin belong also to the strongest and most versatile inducers of mammalian immune responses upon engagement of distinct receptors on myeloid and lymphoid cells. Furthermore, microbial lipid toxins can induce membrane injuries and cell death. Thus, we will review here selected examples for mutual host-microbe interactions within the broad and divergent universe of lipids in microbial defense, tissue injury and immune evasion.

  6. The symbiont side of symbiosis: do microbes really benefit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Rebecca Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial associations are integral to all eukaryotes. Mutualism, the interaction of two species for the benefit of both, is an important aspect of microbial associations, with evidence that multicellular organisms in particular benefit from microbes. However, the microbe’s perspective has largely been ignored, and it is unknown whether most microbial symbionts benefit from their associations with hosts. It has been presumed that microbial symbionts receive host-derived nutrients or a competition-free environment with reduced predation, but there have been few empirical tests, or even critical assessments, of these assumptions. We evaluate these hypotheses based on available evidence, which indicate reduced competition and predation are not universal benefits for symbionts. Some symbionts do receive nutrients from their host, but this has not always been linked to a corresponding increase in symbiont fitness. We recommend experiments to test symbiont fitness using current experimental systems of symbiosis and detail considerations for other systems. Incorporating symbiont fitness into symbiosis research will provide insight into the evolution of mutualistic interactions and cooperation in general.

  7. Diet, genes, and microbes: complexities of colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Diane F; Phillips, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and generally, as countries climb the economic ladder, their rates of colon cancer increase. Colon cancer was an early disease where key genetic mutations were identified as important in disease progression, and there is considerable interest in determining whether specific mutations sensitize the colon to cancer prevention strategies. Epidemiological studies have revealed that fiber- and vegetable-rich diets and physical activity are associated with reduced rates of colon cancer, while consumption of red and processed meat, or alcoholic beverages, and overconsumption as reflected in obesity are associated with increased rates. Animal studies have probed these effects and suggested directions for further refinement of diet in colon cancer prevention. Recently a central role for the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract in colon cancer development is being probed, and it is hypothesized that the microbes may integrate diet and host genetics in the etiology of the disease. This review provides background on dietary, genetic, and microbial impacts on colon cancer and describes an ongoing project using rodent models to assess the ability of digestion-resistant starch in the integration of these factors with the goal of furthering colon cancer prevention.

  8. Microbe-surface interactions in biofouling and biocorrosion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Iwona B; Sunner, Jan A; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2005-09-01

    The presence of microorganisms on material surfaces can have a profound effect on materials performance. Surface-associated microbial growth, i.e. a biofilm, is known to instigate biofouling. The presence of biofilms may promote interfacial physico-chemical reactions that are not favored under abiotic conditions. In the case of metallic materials, undesirable changes in material properties due to a biofilm (or a biofouling layer) are referred to as biocorrosion or microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). Biofouling and biocorrosion occur in aquatic and terrestrial habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, pressure and pH. Interfacial chemistry in such systems reflects a wide variety of physiological activities carried out by diverse microbial populations thriving within biofilms. Biocorrosion can be viewed as a consequence of coupled biological and abiotic electron-transfer reactions, i.e. redox reactions of metals, enabled by microbial ecology. Microbially produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which comprise different macromolecules, mediate initial cell adhesion to the material surface and constitute a biofilm matrix. Despite their unquestionable importance in biofilm development, the extent to which EPS contribute to biocorrosion is not well-understood. This review offers a current perspective on material/microbe interactions pertinent to biocorrosion and biofouling, with EPS as a focal point, while emphasizing the role atomic force spectroscopy and mass spectrometry techniques can play in elucidating such interactions.

  9. Magnetothermal release of payload from iron oxide/silica drug delivery agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, T. T.; Knoppe, S.; Bloemen, M.; Brullot, W.; Strobbe, R.; Locquet, J.-P.; Verbiest, T.

    2016-10-01

    The release of covalently bound Rhodamine B from iron oxide/mesoporous silica core/shell nanoparticles under magnetically induced heating was studied. The system acts as a model to study drug delivery and payload release under magnetothermal heating.

  10. Payload influences on technology development and utilization of the Space Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, J. W.; Kraly, E. F.

    1976-01-01

    Historical EVA approaches are examined. The considered data emphasize the overall importance of EVA for Shuttle payload operations. Twenty requirement categories related to crew protection, crew performance, and payload protection are listed in a table. Attention is given to a preliminary assessment of payload related requirements, an evaluation of the natural thermal environment in the case of the Shuttle orbiter bay, and the ability of the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) to protect the crewman from induced or natural radiation as found in the Van Allen radiation belt South Atlantic anomaly. On the basis of the evaluation it appears very likely that design improvements alone can make the EMU meet payload requirements without requiring significant technology advances.

  11. Optimal design and experimental analyses of a new micro-vibration control payload-platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqing; Yang, Bintang; Zhao, Long; Sun, Xiaofen

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a new payload-platform, for precision devices, which possesses the capability of isolating the complex space micro-vibration in low frequency range below 5 Hz. The novel payload-platform equipped with smart material actuators is investigated and designed through optimization strategy based on the minimum energy loss rate, for the aim of achieving high drive efficiency and reducing the effect of the magnetic circuit nonlinearity. Then, the dynamic model of the driving element is established by using the Lagrange method and the performance of the designed payload-platform is further discussed through the combination of the controlled auto regressive moving average (CARMA) model with modified generalized prediction control (MGPC) algorithm. Finally, an experimental prototype is developed and tested. The experimental results demonstrate that the payload-platform has an impressive potential of micro-vibration isolation.

  12. Space transportation system flight 2 OSTA-1 scientific payload data management plan: Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Flight events for the OSTA-1 scientific payload on the second flight of the Space Shuttle, STS-2 are described. Data acquisition is summarized. A discussion of problems encountered and a preliminary evaluation of data quality is also provided.

  13. International Space Station-Based Electromagnetic Launcher for Space Science Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed of lowering the cost of planetary exploration missions by using an electromagnetic propulsion/launcher, rather than a chemical-fueled rocket for propulsion. An electromagnetic launcher (EML) based at the International Space Station (ISS) would be used to launch small science payloads to the Moon and near Earth asteroids (NEAs) for the science and exploration missions. An ISS-based electromagnetic launcher could also inject science payloads into orbits around the Earth and perhaps to Mars. The EML would replace rocket technology for certain missions. The EML is a high-energy system that uses electricity rather than propellant to accelerate payloads to high velocities. The most common type of EML is the rail gun. Other types are possible, e.g., a coil gun, also known as a Gauss gun or mass driver. The EML could also "drop" science payloads into the Earth's upper

  14. Characterization of the room temperature payload prototype for the cryogenic interferometric gravitational wave detector KAGRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Arellano, Fabián Erasmo; Sekiguchi, Takanori; Fujii, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Barton, Mark; Hirata, Naoatsu; Shoda, Ayaka; van Heijningen, Joris; Flaminio, Raffaele; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Okutumi, Koki; Akutsu, Tomotada; Aso, Yoichi; Ishizaki, Hideharu; Ohishi, Naoko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyakawa, Osamu; Kamiizumi, Masahiro; Takamori, Akiteru; Majorana, Ettore; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Hennes, Eric; van den Brand, Jo; Bertolini, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    KAGRA is a cryogenic interferometric gravitational wave detector currently under construction in the Kamioka mine in Japan. Besides the cryogenic test masses, KAGRA will also rely on room temperature optics which will hang at the bottom of vibration isolation chains. The payload of each chain comprises an optic, a system to align it, and an active feedback system to damp the resonant motion of the suspension itself. This article describes the performance of a payload prototype that was assembled and tested in vacuum at the TAMA300 site at the NAOJ in Mitaka, Tokyo. We describe the mechanical components of the payload prototype and their functionality. A description of the active components of the feedback system and their capabilities is also given. The performance of the active system is illustrated by measuring the quality factors of some of the resonances of the suspension. Finally, the alignment capabilities offered by the payload are reported.

  15. Enhancement Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on the Bioactivity of Hydrogen-producing Microbe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guangzhen; MA Zhanfang; SHEN Jianquan

    2006-01-01

    In order to increase the yield of hydrogen production for hydrogen-producing microbe, the enhancement effect of nanometer- sized gold particles on the activity of hydrogen-producing microbe was studied. The yields of hydrogen production in the system added by gold nanoparticles of 6 nm and 12 nm in diameter were obviously increased by about 17% and 9% in contrast to that in blank system. The experimental results indicate that gold nanoparticles could significantly enhance the bioactivity of hydrogen-producing microbe.

  16. Helping plants to deal with insects: the role of beneficial soil-borne microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Ana; Zheng, Si-Jun; van Loon, Joop J A; Pieterse, Corné M J; Dicke, Marcel

    2010-09-01

    Several soil-borne microbes such as mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria can help plants to deal with biotic and abiotic stresses via plant growth promotion and induced resistance. Such beneficial belowground microbes interact in a bidirectional way via the plant with aboveground insects such as herbivores, their natural enemies and pollinators. The role of these interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems is receiving increased attention, and the molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in these interactions should be the focus of more attention. Here, we review the recent discoveries on plant-mediated interactions between beneficial belowground microbes and aboveground insects.

  17. Final Design and Performance Parameters of the Payloads PYREX, PHLUX and RESPECT on EXPERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Sebastian; Steinbeck, Andreas; Preci, Arianit; Fertig, Markus; Herdrich, Georg; Röser, Hans-Peter; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika

    An overview of the IRS payload development for ESA's EXPERT mission is given. The final design and performance parameters of the payloads PYREX, PHLUX and RESPECT are described. PYREX is a sensor system measuring the thermal protection system (TPS) rear side temperature. PHLUX is a catalysis based experiment to determine the dissociation degree of the boundary layer. RESPECT applies optical emission spectroscopy to measure spectrally resolved the radiation onto a TPS surface.

  18. STS-46 Payload Specialist Malerba at aft flight deck controls in JSC mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba, wearing flight suit, operates controls on the aft flight deck of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9. During the training session, Malerba adjusts a control on the A3 panel closed circuit television (CCTV). Onorbit station panels appear in front of Malerba and payload station controls behind him.

  19. Labeling of 40 Gbit/s DPSK payload using in-band subcarrier multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flarup, Thomas; Peucheret, Christophe; Olmos, J. J. Vegas

    2005-01-01

    The transmission feasibility of a 40 Gbit/s DPSK payload with in-band SCM (subcarrier multiplexing) labeling at 3 GHz subcarrier frequency is experimentally verified over 80 km NZDSF (nonzero dispersion shifted fiber).......The transmission feasibility of a 40 Gbit/s DPSK payload with in-band SCM (subcarrier multiplexing) labeling at 3 GHz subcarrier frequency is experimentally verified over 80 km NZDSF (nonzero dispersion shifted fiber)....

  20. Test of the Hipparcos payload in the Liege vacuum facility focal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamar, C.; Cucchiard, A.; Jamar, J.; Macau-Hercot, D.; Camus, J. P.; Dubet, D.; Macau, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    The Liege thermal vacuum optical bench (FOCAL) was used to control the mechanical stability of the structure of the European Space Agency's HIPPARCOS astrometry payload. The payload is designed to measure angles of .001 arcsec between stars during 2.5 years and this accuracy can only be reached with the extreme stability of the device. The structure of the payload is made of carbon fiber; it is thermally stabilized with an accuracy of .01 degrees C. During the test, the payload is enclosed in a shell made of shrouds having a geometry close to the shading structure of the spacecraft. The shroud temperatures are defined by the conditions in orbit, e.g., the spacecraft is spinning in front of the Sun with a period of two hours and the temperature of the shrouds is cycled around the payload with a 2 hour period. In order to avoid disturbances by vibrations, the payload is put on an adapter interfaced with the optical bench and the seismic block; the shrouds are supported by a carrier with no direct interface with the table. This method avoids perturbances brought about by the cooling fluid of the shrouds.

  1. Universal ligation-detection-reaction microarray applied for compost microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romantschuk Martin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Composting is one of the methods utilised in recycling organic communal waste. The composting process is dependent on aerobic microbial activity and proceeds through a succession of different phases each dominated by certain microorganisms. In this study, a ligation-detection-reaction (LDR based microarray method was adapted for species-level detection of compost microbes characteristic of each stage of the composting process. LDR utilises the specificity of the ligase enzyme to covalently join two adjacently hybridised probes. A zip-oligo is attached to the 3'-end of one probe and fluorescent label to the 5'-end of the other probe. Upon ligation, the probes are combined in the same molecule and can be detected in a specific location on a universal microarray with complementary zip-oligos enabling equivalent hybridisation conditions for all probes. The method was applied to samples from Nordic composting facilities after testing and optimisation with fungal pure cultures and environmental clones. Results Probes targeted for fungi were able to detect 0.1 fmol of target ribosomal PCR product in an artificial reaction mixture containing 100 ng competing fungal ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS area or herring sperm DNA. The detection level was therefore approximately 0.04% of total DNA. Clone libraries were constructed from eight compost samples. The LDR microarray results were in concordance with the clone library sequencing results. In addition a control probe was used to monitor the per-spot hybridisation efficiency on the array. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the LDR microarray method is capable of sensitive and accurate species-level detection from a complex microbial community. The method can detect key species from compost samples, making it a basis for a tool for compost process monitoring in industrial facilities.

  2. Insight and analysis problem solving in microbes to machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2015-11-01

    A key feature for obtaining solutions to difficult problems, insight is oftentimes vaguely regarded as a special discontinuous intellectual process and/or a cognitive restructuring of problem representation or goal approach. However, this nearly century-old state of art devised by the Gestalt tradition to explain the non-analytical or non-trial-and-error, goal-seeking aptitude of primate mentality tends to neglect problem-solving capabilities of lower animal phyla, Kingdoms other than Animalia, and advancing smart computational technologies built from biological, artificial, and composite media. Attempting to provide an inclusive, precise definition of insight, two major criteria of insight, discontinuous processing and problem restructuring, are here reframed using terminology and statistical mechanical properties of computational complexity classes. Discontinuous processing becomes abrupt state transitions in algorithmic/heuristic outcomes or in types of algorithms/heuristics executed by agents using classical and/or quantum computational models. And problem restructuring becomes combinatorial reorganization of resources, problem-type substitution, and/or exchange of computational models. With insight bounded by computational complexity, humans, ciliated protozoa, and complex technological networks, for example, show insight when restructuring time requirements, combinatorial complexity, and problem type to solve polynomial and nondeterministic polynomial decision problems. Similar effects are expected from other problem types, supporting the idea that insight might be an epiphenomenon of analytical problem solving and consequently a larger information processing framework. Thus, this computational complexity definition of insight improves the power, external and internal validity, and reliability of operational parameters with which to classify, investigate, and produce the phenomenon for computational agents ranging from microbes to man-made devices.

  3. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens.

  4. Scaling Soil Microbe-Water Interactions from Pores to Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Katul, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial scales relevant to soil microbial activity are much finer than scales relevant to whole-ecosystem function and biogeochemical cycling. On the one hand, how to link such different scales and develop scale-aware biogeochemical and ecohydrological models remains a major challenge. On the other hand, resolving these linkages is becoming necessary for testing ecological hypotheses and resolving data-theory inconsistencies. Here, the relation between microbial respiration and soil moisture expressed in water potential is explored. Such relation mediates the water availability effects on ecosystem-level heterotrophic respiration and is of paramount importance for understanding CO2 emissions under increasingly variable rainfall regimes. Respiration has been shown to decline as the soil dries in a remarkably consistent way across climates and soil types (open triangles in Figure). Empirical models based on these respiration-moisture relations are routinely used in Earth System Models to predict moisture effects on ecosystem respiration. It has been hypothesized that this consistency in microbial respiration decline is due to breakage of water film continuity causing in turn solute diffusion limitations in dry conditions. However, this hypothesis appears to be at odds with what is known about soil hydraulic properties. Water film continuity estimated from soil water retention (SWR) measurements at the 'Darcy' scale breaks at far less negative water potential (tools from percolation theory, it is demonstrated that hydrological measurements can be spatially downscaled at a micro-level relevant to microbial activity. Such downscaling resolves the inconsistency between respiration thresholds and hydrological thresholds. This result, together with observations of residual microbial activity well below -15 MPa (dashed back curve in Figure), lends support to the hypothesis that soil microbes are substrate-limited in dry conditions.

  5. Centrality of host cell death in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Martin B; Fluhr, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for proper growth, development, and cellular homeostasis in all eukaryotes. The regulation of PCD is of central importance in plant-microbe interactions; notably, PCD and features associated with PCD are observed in many host resistance responses. Conversely, pathogen induction of inappropriate cell death in the host results in a susceptible phenotype and disease. Thus, the party in control of PCD has a distinct advantage in these battles. PCD processes appear to be of ancient origin, as indicated by the fact that many features of cell death strategy are conserved between animals and plants; however, some of the details of death execution differ. Mammalian core PCD genes, such as caspases, are not present in plant genomes. Similarly, pro- and antiapoptotic mammalian regulatory elements are absent in plants, but, remarkably, when expressed in plants, successfully impact plant PCD. Thus, subtle structural similarities independent of sequence homology appear to sustain operational equivalence. The vacuole is emerging as a key organelle in the modulation of plant PCD. Under different signals for cell death, the vacuole either fuses with the plasmalemma membrane or disintegrates. Moreover, the vacuole appears to play a key role in autophagy; evidence suggests a prosurvival function for autophagy, but other studies propose a prodeath phenotype. Here, we describe and discuss what we know and what we do not know about various PCD pathways and how the host integrates signals to activate salicylic acid and reactive oxygen pathways that orchestrate cell death. We suggest that it is not cell death as such but rather the processes leading to cell death that contribute to the outcome of a given plant-pathogen interaction.

  6. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens. PMID:28360923

  7. Cr isotope fractionation in metal-mineral-microbe interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Porcelli, Don; Thompson, Ian; Amor, Ken; Galer, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Microbes interact with metals and minerals in the environments, altering their physical and chemical state whilst in turn the metals and minerals affect microbial growth, activity and survival. The interactions between Cr, Fe minerals and bacteria were investigated in this study. Cr(VI) reduction experiments by two iron-reducing bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300 and Shewanella oneidensis MR 1, in the presence of two iron oxide minerals, goethite and hematite, were conducted. Both minerals were found to inhibit the Cr(VI) reduction rate by Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300 but accelerated Shewanella oneidensis MR 1. The Cr isotopic fractionation factor generated by both bacteria was mostly independent of the presence of the minerals, except for hematite with Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300, where the ɛ was much higher. Aqueous Fe(III) in the solution did not have any detectable impact on either bacterial Cr reduction rates or the isotopic fractionation factors, indicating that the reduction of Cr(VI) occurred prior to that of Fe(III). The presence of aqueous Fe(II) induced a very fast abiotic reduction of Cr, but had little impact on the bacterial Cr reduction rates or its isotope fractionations. The evidence suggests that the different impact that Fe minerals had on the bacteria were related to the way they attached to the minerals and the difference in the reduction mechanism. SEM images confirmed that the attachment of Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300 on the mineral surfaces were much more tightly packed than that of Shewanella oneidensis MR 1, so reducing mineral-metal interactions.

  8. Nutrient subsidies to belowground microbes impact aboveground food web interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jes; Megonigal, J Patrick; Denno, Robert F

    2006-06-01

    Historically, terrestrial food web theory has been compartmentalized into interactions among aboveground or belowground communities. In this study we took a more synthetic approach to understanding food web interactions by simultaneously examining four trophic levels and investigating how nutrient (nitrogen and carbon) and detrital subsidies impact the ability of the belowground microbial community to alter the abundance of aboveground arthropods (herbivores and predators) associated with the intertidal cord grass Spartina alterniflora. We manipulated carbon, nitrogen, and detrital resources in a field experiment and measured decomposition rate, soil nitrogen pools, plant biomass and quality, herbivore density, and arthropod predator abundance. Because carbon subsidies impact plant growth only indirectly (microbial pathways), whereas nitrogen additions both directly (plant uptake) and indirectly (microbial pathways) impact plant primary productivity, we were able to assess the effect of both belowground soil microbes and nutrient availability on aboveground herbivores and their predators. Herbivore density in the field was suppressed by carbon supplements. Carbon addition altered soil microbial dynamics (net potential ammonification, litter decomposition rate, DON [dissolved organic N] concentration), which limited inorganic soil nitrogen availability and reduced plant size as well as predator abundance. Nitrogen addition enhanced herbivore density by increasing plant size and quality directly by increasing inorganic soil nitrogen pools, and indirectly by enhancing microbial nitrification. Detritus adversely affected aboveground herbivores mainly by promoting predator aggregation. To date, the effects of carbon and nitrogen subsidies on salt marshes have been examined as isolated effects on either the aboveground or the belowground community. Our results emphasize the importance of directly addressing the soil microbial community as a factor that influences

  9. No vacancy: how beneficial microbes cooperate with immunity to provide colonization resistance to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassone-Corsi, Martina; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2015-05-01

    The mammalian intestine harbors a community of trillions of microbes, collectively known as the gut microbiota, which coevolved with the host in a mutually beneficial relationship. Among the numerous gut microbial species, certain commensal bacteria are known to provide health benefits to the host when administered in adequate amounts and, as such, are labeled "probiotics." We review some of the mechanisms by which probiotics and other beneficial commensals provide colonization resistance to pathogens. The battle for similar nutrients and the bacterial secretion of antimicrobials provide a direct means of competition between beneficial and harmful microbes. Beneficial microbes can also indirectly diminish pathogen colonization by stimulating the development of innate and adaptive immunity, as well as the function of the mucosal barrier. Altogether, we gather and present evidence that beneficial microbes cooperate with host immunity in an effort to shut out pathogens.

  10. 2010 MARINE MICROBES GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE (JULY 4-9, 2010 - TILTON SCHOOL, TILTON NH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Kirchman

    2010-04-09

    Marine microbes include representatives from all three kingdoms of life and collectively carry out virtually all forms of metabolisms found on the planet. Because of this metabolic and genetic diversity, these microbes mediate many of the reactions making up global biogeochemical cycles which govern the flow of energy and material in the biosphere. The goal of this conference is to bring together approaches and concepts from studies of microbial evolution, genomics, ecology, and oceanography in order to gain new insights into marine microbes and their biogeochemical functions. The integration of scales, from genes to global cycles, will result in a better understanding of marine microbes and of their contribution to the carbon cycle and other biogeochemical processes.

  11. The Antarctic cryptoendolithic microbial ecosystem as a model for studying microbes in shale and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestal, J.R. (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1991-04-01

    In Antarctica, there exists a complete microbial ecosystem that lives hidden within the pore spaces of sandstone (cryptoendolithic). Studying microbes within this solid matrix has presented certain technical problems which have been overcome. This has allowed studies to be conducted that have shown the effects of the physical and chemical environment on growth and metabolism of the microbes in these rocks. Similar microbial communities have recently been discovered that can exist within the solid matrix of shale and coal. Even though the community and environment are different from the Antarctic microbes, many of the methods and hypotheses regarding their existence are the same. Answers to questions relating how and why these microbes exist in shale and coal may have important implications for coal desulfurization, or degradation of the shale matrix to release hydrocarbons. 40 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Secondary Payload Opportunities on NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Enable Science and Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jody; Pelfrey, Joseph; Norris, George

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in almost 40 years, a NASA human-rated launch vehicle has completed its Critical Design Review (CDR). With this milestone, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion spacecraft are on the path to launch a new era of deep space exploration. This first launch of SLS and the Orion Spacecraft is planned no later than November 2018 and will fly along a trans-lunar trajectory, testing the performance of the SLS and Orion systems for future missions. NASA is making investments to expand the science and exploration capability of the SLS by developing the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the mission trajectory. Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will include thirteen 6U Cubesat small satellites to be deployed beyond low earth orbit. By providing an earth-escape trajectory, opportunities are created for the advancement of small satellite subsystems, including deep space communications and in-space propulsion. This SLS capability also creates low-cost options for addressing existing Agency strategic knowledge gaps and affordable science missions. A new approach to payload integration and mission assurance is needed to ensure safety of the vehicle, while also maintaining reasonable costs for the small payload developer teams. SLS EM-1 will provide the framework and serve as a test flight, not only for vehicle systems, but also payload accommodations, ground processing, and on-orbit operations. Through developing the requirements and integration processes for EM-1, NASA is outlining the framework for the evolved configuration of secondary payloads on SLS Block upgrades. The lessons learned from the EM-1 mission will be applied to processes and products developed for future block upgrades. In the heavy-lift configuration of SLS, payload accommodations will increase for secondary opportunities including small satellites larger than the traditional Cubesat class payload. The payload mission concept of operations, proposed payload

  13. Study on Microbes and Their Effects on Rare Earth Extraction in Weathering Crust of Granite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炳辉; 毋福海; 刘琥琥

    2001-01-01

    Microbes were cultured from the samples at various depths in a weathering profile of RE-bearing granite in Gonghe RE mine, Guangdong Province. The cultured microbes, existing at a depth of 0.2~12 m and being more plentiful within 3 m in the profile,include bacteria (Bacillus,Enterobacter, Escherichia, Alkaligenes, Neisseria, Staphylococcus and anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridium), fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium, Mucor and Saccharomycete) and actinomyces. Experiments were made under room temperature by using solutions of the cultured microbes and their metabolites, compared with distilled water and the culture solution without microbes, to leach RE from the sample of the weathering crust. The results are shown by the experiments: (1) The mixed microbes cultured from the profile and their metabolites increase the quantity of RE leached from the sample and reduce the pH of the solutions. (2) The ability to leach RE from the sample varies with various microbes, decreasing in a sequence of fungi (Mucor, saccharomycete, Aspegillus and Penicillium), zymotic bacilli (Enterobacter, Escherichia etc.), Staphylococcus, zymotic Bacillus, actinomyces and Alkaligenes. (3) The RE leached with bacteria is mainly related to the pH value of the solutions influenced by the metabolites of the bacteria; whereas that leached with fungi is mainly related to the adsorption and imbibition of RE by the fungi and the complexing of RE with their metabolites. (4) Compared with that leached with ammonium sulfate, the fractionation of the RE leached with microbes is characterized by higher δCe, lower δEu and lower ratios of NLa/Sm and NGd/Yb. The result of the fractionation of RE accords with the distribution of RE in the various layers of a profile of weathering crust of granite in South China. The experimental results indicate that microbes and their metabolites should play a positive role in the mobilization, migration and fractionation of RE in the

  14. Recent Developments in Systems Biology and Metabolic Engineering of Plant–Microbe Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Kumar; Mehak Baweja; Puneet Kumar Singh; Pratyoosh Shukla

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms play a crucial role in the sustainability of the various ecosystems. The characterization of various interactions between microorganisms and other biotic factors is a necessary footstep to understand the association and functions of microbial communities. Among the different microbial interactions in an ecosystem, plant–microbe interaction plays an important role to balance the ecosystem. The present review explores plant–microbe interactions using gene editing and system biolo...

  15. Engineering of bio-hybrid materials by electrospinning polymer-microbe fibers

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Ying; Rafailovich, Miriam H.; Malal, Ram; Cohn, Daniel; Chidambaram, Dev

    2009-01-01

    Although microbes have been used in industrial and niche applications for several decades, successful immobilization of microbes while maintaining their usefulness for any desired application has been elusive. Such a functionally bioactive system has distinct advantages over conventional batch and continuous-flow microbial reactor systems that are used in various biotechnological processes. This article describes the use of polyethylene oxide99-polypropylene oxide67-polyethylene oxide99 tribl...

  16. The impact of beneficial plant-associated microbes on plant phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chooi-Hua; Veliz Vallejos, Debora F; Nicotra, Adrienne B; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2013-07-01

    Plants show phenotypic plasticity in response to changing or extreme abiotic environments; but over millions of years they also have co-evolved to respond to the presence of soil microbes. Studies on phenotypic plasticity in plants have focused mainly on the effects of the changing environments on plants' growth and survival. Evidence is now accumulating that the presence of microbes can alter plant phenotypic plasticity in a broad range of traits in response to a changing environment. In this review, we discuss the effects of microbes on plant phenotypic plasticity in response to changing environmental conditions, and how this may affect plant fitness. By using a range of specific plant-microbe interactions as examples, we demonstrate that one way that microbes can alleviate the effect of environmental stress on plants and thus increase plant fitness is to remove the stress, e.g., nutrient limitation, directly. Furthermore, microbes indirectly affect plant phenotypic plasticity and fitness through modulation of plant development and defense responses. In doing so, microbes affect fitness by both increasing or decreasing the degree of phenotypic plasticity, depending on the phenotype and the environmental stress studied, with no clear difference between the effect of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in general. Additionally, plants have the ability to modulate microbial behaviors, suggesting that they manipulate bacteria, enhancing interactions that help them cope with stressful environments. Future challenges remain in the identification of the many microbial signals that modulate phenotypic plasticity, the characterization of plant genes, e.g. receptors, that mediate the microbial effects on plasticity, and the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that link phenotypic plasticity with fitness. The characterization of plant and microbial mutants defective in signal synthesis or perception, together with carefully designed glasshouse or field experiments that

  17. Effects of Earthworm and Microbe on Soil Nutrients and Heavy Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wei-bao; YANG Hong-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Earthworm and microbe are very important soil organisms. They play an important role in the stability of ecosystem and the bioavailability of nutrients and heavy metals in soils. This article reviewed the function of earthworm and microbes in improving soil structure and controlling soil nutrients as well as their effects on the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil through bioabsorption, enrichment, precipitation, dissolution, and oxidation-reduction. The aim is to provide a certain theoretical basis for modern agricultural production.

  18. LISA Experience from GRACE-FO Optical Payload (LEGOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kirk

    We propose to develop in-flight tests of high-risk elements of laser interferometry for gravitational wave astronomy missions, such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, for deployment on the GRACE-FO mission. The proposed set of experiments, LISA Experience from GRACE-FO Optical Payload (LEGOP), exploits the similarities between the LISA and GRACE-FO optical links to use GRACE-FO as a "mission of opportunity" for demonstration of high-risk and innovative technologies for the LISA mission. We will develop FPGA algorithms for the tests and perform laboratory experiments and hardware-in-the-loop simulations to verify them. Specifically, we will target the following aspects of LISA inter-spacecraft interferometry: 1. Absolute optical-ranging and Time Delay Interferometry (TDI). TDI is the process used on LISA to combine one-way inter-spacecraft measurements to form synthesized interferometers, such as the Michelson interferometer, that are free of laser frequency noise, but retain the gravitational wave signal. The one-way measurements must be combined with precise delays, proportional to the light travel time between spacecraft (the range) and difference of on board clocks. The proposed in-flight experiment would see a LISA like optical ranging system deployed to provide the required delays for a TDI experiment on GRACE-FO. We will develop the FPGA code required for this experiment and perform validation of this optical-ranging system for GRACE-FO through a TDI experiment on the JPL LISA interferometer testbed. 2. Arm-locking: A technique for transferring the stability of the spacecraft separation to the laser frequency. Because arm-locking uses the LISA arms, the best frequency reference available, it offers unparalleled stability and requires no additional flight hardware. It cannot be demonstrated experimentally in a LISA-like environment on Earth. An in-flight demonstration of arm-locking would validate the operation of arm- locking, enabling

  19. Microstructured block copolymer surfaces for control of microbe capture and aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ryan R [ORNL; Shubert, Katherine R [ORNL; Morrell, Jennifer L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The capture and arrangement of surface-associated microbes is influenced by biochemical and physical properties of the substrate. In this report, we develop lectin-functionalized substrates containing patterned, three-dimensional polymeric structures of varied shapes and densities and use these to investigate the effects of topology and spatial confinement on lectin-mediated microbe capture. Films of poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA) were patterned on silicon surfaces into line or square grid patterns with 5 m wide features and varied edge spacing. The patterned films had three-dimensional geometries with 900 nm film thickness. After surface functionalization with wheat germ agglutinin, the size of Pseudomonas fluorescens aggregates captured was dependent on the pattern dimensions. Line patterns with edge spacing of 5 m or less led to the capture of individual microbes with minimal formation of aggregates, while grid patterns with the same spacing also captured individual microbes with further reduction in aggregation. Both geometries allowed for increases in aggregate size distribution with increased in edge spacing. These engineered surfaces combine spatial confinement with affinity-based microbe capture based on exopolysaccharide content to control the degree of microbe aggregation, and can also be used as a platform to investigate intercellular interactions and biofilm formation in microbial populations of controlled sizes.

  20. Role of viruses and other microbes in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashova, Anita; Hyöty, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is caused by an immune-mediated destruction of insulin producing beta-cells in the pancreas. The risk of the disease is determined by interactions between more than 40 different susceptibility genes and yet unidentified environmental factors. The rapidly increasing incidence indicates that these environmental agents have a significant role in the pathogenesis. Microbes have associated with both increased and decreased risk reflecting their possible role as risk or protective factors. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain these effects: the hygiene hypothesis suggests that microbial exposures in early childhood stimulate immunoregulatory mechanisms which control autoimmune reactions (analogy with allergy), while the triggering hypothesis suggests that specific microbes damage insulin producing cells. Certain viruses, particularly enteroviruses, are currently the main candidates for such risk microbes. Enteroviruses cause diabetes in animals and have associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes in epidemiological studies. They have also been detected in the pancreas of diabetic patients. Possible protective effect of microbes has been studied in animal models and in epidemiological studies, where certain enteral microbes (e.g. hepatitis A virus and Helicobacter pylori) and patterns of gut microbiome have associated with low risk of type 1 diabetes. In conclusion, these microbial effects offer attractive possibilities for the development of preventive interventions for type 1 diabetes based on the elimination of triggering agents (e.g. enterovirus vaccines) or use of protective microbes as probiotics.

  1. MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehal, Paramvir; Joachimiak, Marcin; Price, Morgan; Bates, John; Baumohl, Jason; Chivian, Dylan; Friedland, Greg; Huang, Kathleen; Keller, Keith; Novichkov, Pavel; Dubchak, Inna; Alm, Eric; Arkin, Adam

    2011-07-14

    Since 2003, MicrobesOnline (http://www.microbesonline.org) has been providing a community resource for comparative and functional genome analysis. The portal includes over 1000 complete genomes of bacteria, archaea and fungi and thousands of expression microarrays from diverse organisms ranging from model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to environmental microbes such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Shewanella oneidensis. To assist in annotating genes and in reconstructing their evolutionary history, MicrobesOnline includes a comparative genome browser based on phylogenetic trees for every gene family as well as a species tree. To identify co-regulated genes, MicrobesOnline can search for genes based on their expression profile, and provides tools for identifying regulatory motifs and seeing if they are conserved. MicrobesOnline also includes fast phylogenetic profile searches, comparative views of metabolic pathways, operon predictions, a workbench for sequence analysis and integration with RegTransBase and other microbial genome resources. The next update of MicrobesOnline will contain significant new functionality, including comparative analysis of metagenomic sequence data. Programmatic access to the database, along with source code and documentation, is available at http://microbesonline.org/programmers.html.

  2. Combined ESTs from plant-microbe interactions: using GC counting to determine the species of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitema, Edgar; Torto, Trudy A; Styer, Allison; Kamoun, Sophien

    2003-01-01

    A diversity of microorganisms establishes intimate associations with plants. Whether pathogenic or symbiotic, such interactions are the result of complex recognition events between plants and microbes, leading to signaling cascades and regulation of countless genes involved in the interaction. A key step in unraveling the mysteries of plant-microbe interactions lies in defining the transcriptional changes that occur in both the host and the microbe during their association. The sum of the transcripts, from both host and microbe, which are produced during their association, has been defined as the interaction transcriptome. One approach to analyze interaction transcriptomes is to perform large-scale sequencing of cDNAs (expressed sequence tags or ESTs) obtained from infected plant tissue and representing a mixture of host and microbe sequences. In some cases, the two organisms have markedly different GC content, allowing most ESTs to be easily distinguished on this basis. In this chapter, we describe a GC counting method to determine the species of origin of ESTs obtained from interactions between plants and oomycetes or other high GC content microbes.

  3. Engineering of bio-hybrid materials by electrospinning polymer-microbe fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Rafailovich, Miriam H.; Malal, Ram; Cohn, Daniel; Chidambaram, Dev

    2009-01-01

    Although microbes have been used in industrial and niche applications for several decades, successful immobilization of microbes while maintaining their usefulness for any desired application has been elusive. Such a functionally bioactive system has distinct advantages over conventional batch and continuous-flow microbial reactor systems that are used in various biotechnological processes. This article describes the use of polyethylene oxide99-polypropylene oxide67-polyethylene oxide99 triblock polymer fibers, created via electrospinning, to encapsulate microbes of 3 industrially relevant genera, namely, Pseudomonas, Zymomonas, and Escherichia. The presence of bacteria inside the fibers was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. Although the electrospinning process typically uses harsh organic solvents and extreme conditions that generally are harmful to bacteria, we describe techniques that overcome these limitations. The encapsulated microbes were viable for several months, and their metabolic activity was not affected by immobilization; thus they could be used in various applications. Furthermore, we have engineered a microbe-encapsulated cross-linked fibrous polymeric material that is insoluble. Also, the microbe-encapsulated active matrix permits efficient exchange of nutrients and metabolic products between the microorganism and the environment. The present results demonstrate the potential of the electrospinning technique for the encapsulation and immobilization of bacteria in the form of a synthetic biofilm, while retaining their metabolic activity. This study has wide-ranging implications in the engineering and use of novel bio-hybrid materials or biological thin-film catalysts. PMID:19667172

  4. MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehal, Paramvir S.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; Price, Morgan N.; Bates, John T.; Baumohl, Jason K.; Chivian, Dylan; Friedland, Greg D.; Huang, Katherine H.; Keller, Keith; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Dubchak, Inna L.; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2009-09-17

    Since 2003, MicrobesOnline (http://www.microbesonline.org) has been providing a community resource for comparative and functional genome analysis. The portal includes over 1000 complete genomes of bacteria, archaea and fungi and thousands of expression microarrays from diverse organisms ranging from model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to environmental microbes such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Shewanella oneidensis. To assist in annotating genes and in reconstructing their evolutionary history, MicrobesOnline includes a comparative genome browser based on phylogenetic trees for every gene family as well as a species tree. To identify co-regulated genes, MicrobesOnline can search for genes based on their expression profile, and provides tools for identifying regulatory motifs and seeing if they are conserved. MicrobesOnline also includes fast phylogenetic profile searches, comparative views of metabolic pathways, operon predictions, a workbench for sequence analysis and integration with RegTransBase and other microbial genome resources. The next update of MicrobesOnline will contain significant new functionality, including comparative analysis of metagenomic sequence data. Programmatic access to the database, along with source code and documentation, is available at http://microbesonline.org/programmers.html.

  5. Altered Carbohydrates Allocation by Associated Bacteria-fungi Interactions in a Bark Beetle-microbe Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fangyuan; Lou, Qiaozhe; Wang, Bo; Xu, Letian; Cheng, Chihang; Lu, Min; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-02-03

    Insect-microbe interaction is a key area of research in multiplayer symbiosis, yet little is known about the role of microbe-microbe interactions in insect-microbe symbioses. The red turpentine beetle (RTB) has destroyed millions of healthy pines in China and forms context-dependent relationships with associated fungi. The adult-associated fungus Leptographium procerum have played key roles in RTB colonization. However, common fungal associates (L. procerum and Ophiostoma minus) with RTB larvae compete for carbohydrates. Here, we report that dominant bacteria associated with RTB larvae buffer the competition by inhibiting the growth and D-glucose consumption of O. minus. However, they didn't inhibit the growth of L. procerum and forced this fungus to consume D-pinitol before consuming D-glucose, even though D-glucose was available and a better carbon source not only for L. procerum but also for RTB larvae and associated bacteria. This suggests the most frequently isolated bacteria associated with RTB larvae could affect fungal growth and the sequence of carbohydrate consumption. Thus, this regulates carbohydrate allocation in the RTB larva-microbe community, which may in turn benefit RTB larvae development. We also discuss the mechanism of carbohydrate allocation in the RTB larva-microbe community, and its potential contribution to the maintenance of a symbiotic community.

  6. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  7. Innovative approach for low-cost quick-access small payload missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Jan W., Jr.

    2000-11-01

    A significant part of the burgeoning commercial space industry is placing an unprecedented number of satellites into low earth orbit for a variety of new applications and services. By some estimates the commercial space industry now exceeds that of government space activities. Yet the two markets remain largely separate, with each deploying dedicated satellites and infrastructure for their respective missions. One commercial space firm, Final Analysis, has created a new program wherein either government, scientific or new technology payloads can be integrated on a commercial spacecraft on commercial satellites for a variety of mission scenarios at a fraction of the cost of a dedicated mission. NASA has recognized the advantage of this approach, and has awarded the Quick Ride program to provide frequent, low cost flight opportunities for small independent payloads aboard the Final Analysis constellation, and investigators are rapidly developing science programs that conform to the proposed payload accommodations envelope. Missions that were not feasible using dedicated launches are now receiving approval under the lower cost Quick Ride approach. Final Analysis has dedicated ten out of its thirty-eight satellites in support of the Quick Ride efforts. The benefit of this type of space access extend beyond NASA science programs. Commercial space firms can now gain valuable flight heritage for new technology and satellite product offerings. Further, emerging international space programs can now place a payload in orbit enabling the country to allocate its resources against the payload and mission requirements rather htan increased launch costs of a dedicated spacecraft. Finally, the low cost nature provides University-based research educational opportunities previously out of the reach of most space-related budgets. This paper will describe the motivation, benefits, technical features, and program costs of the Final Analysis secondary payload program. Payloads can be

  8. Estimating payload internal temperatures and radiator size for multimegawatt space platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.

    1987-08-01

    A conceptual space platform consists of a payload, a power conditioning unit (PCU), and two radiators: the main radiator and a secondary radiator. A computer program was written to determine the required size of the two radiators and the temperatures of the PCU and payload for a given platform power level. An iterative approach is necessary because the required size of the main radiator depends on the size of the secondary radiator and vice versa. Also, the temperatures of the payload and PCU depend on the size of the radiators. The program user can subdivide the two radiators into any number of nodes to increase the accuracy of the radiant heat transfer solution. The use of more nodes also allows better prediction of the nonlinear temperature drop that occurs across the radiators as the working fluid deposits the platform's waste heat in the radiator. View factor expressions are automatically calculated for different choices of the number of nodes. The user can also select different separation distances between the various platform structures. A model is included to couple the radiant and conduction heat transfer that occurs between the payload and its meteoroid shell and between the PCU and its shell. Also, the program allows the use of a refrigerator to cool the payload. If a refrigerator is used, the program determines the amount of additional thermal power needed to run the refrigerator. The results of parametric calculations are included to demonstrate the use of the program.

  9. Real-time RMS active damping augmentation: Heavy and very light payload evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeo, Martha E.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Lepanto, Janet A.; Flueckiger, Karl W.; Bains, Elizabeth M.; Jensen, Mary C.

    1994-01-01

    Controls-Structures Integration Technology has been applied to the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to improve on-orbit performance. The objective was to actively damp undesired oscillatory motions of the RMS following routine payload maneuvering and Shuttle attitude control thruster firings. Simulation of active damping was conducted in the real-time, man-in-the-loop Systems Engineering Simulator at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The simulator was used to obtain qualitative and quantitative data on active damping performance from astronaut operators. Using a simulated three-axis accelerometer mounted on the RMS, 'sensed' vibration motions were used to generate joint motor commands that reduced the unwanted oscillations. Active damping of the RMS with heavy and light attached payloads was demonstrated in this study. Five astronaut operators examined the performance of active damping following operator commanded RMS maneuvers and Shuttle thruster firings. Noticeable improvements in the damping response of the RMS with the heavy, Hubble Space Telescope payload and the very light, astronaut in Manipulator Foot Restraint payload were observed. The potential of active damping to aid in precisely maneuvering payloads was deemed significant.

  10. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  11. Error tracking control for underactuated overhead cranes against arbitrary initial payload swing angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Menghua; Ma, Xin; Rong, Xuewen; Tian, Xincheng; Li, Yibin

    2017-02-01

    This paper exploits an error tracking control method for overhead crane systems for which the error trajectories for the trolley and the payload swing can be pre-specified. The proposed method does not require that the initial payload swing angle remains zero, whereas this requirement is usually assumed in conventional methods. The significant feature of the proposed method is its superior control performance as well as its strong robustness over different or uncertain rope lengths, payload masses, desired positions, initial payload swing angles, and external disturbances. Owing to the same attenuation behavior, the desired error trajectory for the trolley for each traveling distance is not needed to be reset, which is easy to implement in practical applications. By converting the error tracking overhead crane dynamics to the objective system, we obtain the error tracking control law for arbitrary initial payload swing angles. Lyapunov techniques and LaSalle's invariance theorem are utilized to prove the convergence and stability of the closed-loop system. Simulation and experimental results are illustrated to validate the superior performance of the proposed error tracking control method.

  12. An integrated Ka/Ku-band payload for personal, mobile and private business communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Edward J.; Keelty, J. Malcolm

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Department of Communications has been studying options for a government-sponsored demonstration payload to be launched before the end of the century. A summary of the proposed system concepts and network architectures for providing an advanced private business network service at Ku-band and personal and mobile communications at Ka-band is presented. The system aspects addressed include coverage patterns, traffic capacity, and grade of service, multiple access options as well as special problems, such as Doppler in mobile applications. Earth terminal types and the advanced payload concept proposed in a feasibility study for the demonstration mission are described. This concept is a combined Ka-band/Ku-band payload which incorporates a number of advanced satellite technologies including a group demodulator to convert single-channel-per-carrier frequency division multiple access uplink signals to a time division multiplex downlink, on-board signal regeneration, and baseband switching to support packet switched data operation. The on-board processing capability of the payload provides a hubless VSAT architecture which permits single-hop full mesh interconnectivity. The Ka-band and Ku-band portions of the payload are fully integrated through an on-board switch, thereby providing the capability for fully integrated services, such as using the Ku-band VSAT terminals as gateway stations for the Ka-band personal and mobile communications services.

  13. A Versatile Lifting Device for Lunar Surface Payload Handling, Inspection & Regolith Transport Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William; Dorsey, John; Collins, Tim; King, Bruce; Mikulas, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Devices for lifting and transporting payloads and material are critical for efficient Earth-based construction operations. Devices with similar functionality will be needed to support lunar-outpost construction, servicing, inspection, regolith excavation, grading and payload placement. Past studies have proposed that only a few carefully selected devices are required for a lunar outpost. One particular set of operations involves lifting and manipulating payloads in the 100 kg to 3,000 kg range, which are too large or massive to be handled by unassisted astronauts. This paper will review historical devices used for payload handling in space and on earth to derive a set of desirable features for a device that can be used on planetary surfaces. Next, an innovative concept for a lifting device is introduced, which includes many of the desirable features. The versatility of the device is discussed, including its application to lander unloading, servicing, inspection, regolith excavation and site preparation. Approximate rules, which can be used to size the device for specific payload mass and reach requirements, are provided. Finally, details of a test-bed implementation of the innovative concept, which will be used to validate the structural design and develop operational procedures, is provided.

  14. Three-dimensional visualization and control of electronic warfare (EW) payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Patricia; Tremper, David; Cortesi, Roger

    2008-04-01

    The proliferation of unmanned vehicles carrying tactical payloads in the battle-space has accelerated the need for user-friendly visualization with graphical interfaces to provide remote command and control. Often these platforms and payloads receive their control functions from command centers located half a world away via satellite communications. Operators require situational awareness tools capable of graphically presenting the remote battlefield asset positions and collected sensor data. Often these systems use 2D software mapping tools in conjunction with video for real time situational awareness. The Special Projects Group (SPG) in the Tactical Electronic Warfare Division of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has been developing an operator control interface called the Jammer Control Station (JCS) to provide 3D battle-space visualization with built-in, remote EW payload command and control (C2) capabilities. The JCS interface presents the operator with graphic depictions of both the platforms' states and the RF environment. Text based messaging between the JCS and the EW payload reduces the impact of the system on the available bandwidth. This paper will discuss the use of the SIMDIS 3-D visualization tool as a real-time command and control interface for electronic warfare (EW) payloads.

  15. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload Development and Performance in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Shirley, Mark; Colaprete, Anthony; Osetinsky, Leonid

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was to confirm the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed region (PSR) at a lunar pole. LCROSS was classified as a NASA Class D mission. Its payload, the subject of this article, was designed, built, tested and operated to support a condensed schedule, risk tolerant mission approach, a new paradigm for NASA science missions. All nine science instruments, most of them ruggedized commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), successfully collected data during all in-flight calibration campaigns, and most importantly, during the final descent to the lunar surface on October 9, 2009, after 112 days in space. LCROSS demonstrated that COTS instruments and designs with simple interfaces, can provide high-quality science at low-cost and in short development time frames. Building upfront into the payload design, flexibility, redundancy where possible even with the science measurement approach, and large margins, played important roles for this new type of payload. The environmental and calibration approach adopted by the LCROSS team, compared to existing standard programs, is discussed. The description, capabilities, calibration and in-flight performance of each instrument are summarized. Finally, this paper goes into depth about specific areas where the instruments worked differently than expected and how the flexibility of the payload team, the knowledge of instrument priority and science trades, and proactive margin maintenance, led to a successful science measurement by the LCROSS payload's instrument complement.

  16. Secondary charging effects due to icy dust particle impacts on rocket payloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kassa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of dust currents obtained with a small probe and a larger probe during the flight of the ECOMA-4 rocket through the summer polar mesosphere. The payload included two small dust probes behind a larger dust probe located centrally at the front. For certain phases of the payload rotation, the current registered by one of the small dust probes was up to 2 times the current measured with the larger probe, even though the effective collection area of the larger probe was 4 times that of the small one. We analyze the phase dependence of the currents and their difference with a model based on the assumption that the small probe was hit by charged dust fragments produced in collisions of mesospheric dust with the payload body. Our results confirm earlier findings that secondary charge production in the collision of a noctilucent cloud/Polar Summer Mesospheric Echo (NLC/PMSE dust particle with the payload body must be several orders of magnitude larger than might be expected from laboratory studies of collisions of pure ice particles with a variety of clean surfaces. An important consequence is that for some payload configurations, one should not assume that the current measured with a detector used to study mesospheric dust is simply proportional to the number density of ambient dust particles. The higher secondary charge production may be due to the NLC/PMSE particles containing multiple meteoric smoke particles.

  17. Secondary charging effects due to icy dust particle impacts on rocket payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, M.; Rapp, M.; Hartquist, T. W.; Havnes, O.

    2012-03-01

    We report measurements of dust currents obtained with a small probe and a larger probe during the flight of the ECOMA-4 rocket through the summer polar mesosphere. The payload included two small dust probes behind a larger dust probe located centrally at the front. For certain phases of the payload rotation, the current registered by one of the small dust probes was up to 2 times the current measured with the larger probe, even though the effective collection area of the larger probe was 4 times that of the small one. We analyze the phase dependence of the currents and their difference with a model based on the assumption that the small probe was hit by charged dust fragments produced in collisions of mesospheric dust with the payload body. Our results confirm earlier findings that secondary charge production in the collision of a noctilucent cloud/Polar Summer Mesospheric Echo (NLC/PMSE) dust particle with the payload body must be several orders of magnitude larger than might be expected from laboratory studies of collisions of pure ice particles with a variety of clean surfaces. An important consequence is that for some payload configurations, one should not assume that the current measured with a detector used to study mesospheric dust is simply proportional to the number density of ambient dust particles. The higher secondary charge production may be due to the NLC/PMSE particles containing multiple meteoric smoke particles.

  18. Two-way plant mediated interactions between root-associated microbes and insects: from ecology to mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmi ePangesti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants are members of complex communities and function as a link between above- and below-ground organisms. Associations between plants and soil-borne microbes commonly occur and have often been found beneficial for plant fitness. Root-associated microbes may trigger physiological changes in the host plant that influence interactions between plants and aboveground insects at several trophic levels. Aboveground, plants are under continuous attack by insect herbivores and mount multiple responses that also have systemic effects on belowground microbes. Until recently, both ecological and mechanistic studies have mostly focused on exploring these below- and above-ground interactions using simplified systems involving both single microbe and herbivore species, which is far from the naturally occurring interactions. Increasing the complexity of the systems studied is required to increase our understanding of microbe - plant - insect interactions and to gain more benefit from the use of non-pathogenic microbes in agriculture. In this review, we explore how colonization by either single non-pathogenic microbe species or a community of such microbes belowground affects plant growth and defense and how this affects the interactions of plants with aboveground insects at different trophic levels. Moreover, we review how plant responses to foliar herbivory by insects belonging to different feeding guilds affect interactions of plants with non-pathogenic soil-borne microbes. The role of phytohormones in coordinating plant growth, plant defenses against foliar herbivores while simultaneously establishing associations with non-pathogenic soil microbes is discussed.

  19. STS-39 AFP-675 and STP-1 MPESS in OV-103's payload bay (PLB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    An overview of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, aft payload bay (PLB) documents a variety of STS-39's payloads. In the foreground is the Space Test Payload 1 (STP-1) multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) with the Spacecraft Kinetic Infrared Test (SKIRT) (left), ascent particle monitor (APM) (center), and advanced liquid feed experiment (ALFE) (two canisters) visible. Behind the STP-1 is the Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675) experiment support structure (ESS) with ESS tape recorders (left), Uniformly Redundant Array (URA) (front),and Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle 1A (CIRRIS-1A) (center back) visible. The ESS pallet power distribution system thermal covering (gold-colored) is visible at the bottom. AFP-675 is a Department of Defense (DOD)-sponsored collection of experiments whose objective is to gather data on the Earth's atmosphere (aurora, Earth limb, and airglow), celestial objects, and the environment in and around the PLB. In the backgroun

  20. Mathematical modelling of translational motion of rail-guided cart with suspended payload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper modelling of the translational motion of transportation rail-guided cart with rope suspended payload is considered. The linearly moving cart, driven by a travel mechanism, is modelled as a discrete six degrees of freedom (DOF) dynamic system. The hoisting mechanism for lowering and lifting the payload is considered and is included in the dynamic model as one DOF system. Differential equations of motion of the cart elements are derived using Lagrangian dynamics and are solved for a set of real-life constant parameters of the cart. A two-sided interaction was observed between the swinging payload and the travel mechanism. Results for kinematical and force parameters of the system are obtained. A verification of the proposed model was conducted.