WorldWideScience

Sample records for microbe payload flown

  1. Effect Of Spaceflight On Microbial Gene Expression And Virulence: Preliminary Results From Microbe Payload Flown On-Board STS-115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; HonerzuBentrup, K,; Schurr, M. J.; Buchanan, K.; Morici, L.; Hammond, T.; Allen, P.; Baker, C.; Ott, C. M.; Nelman-Gonzalez M.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Human presence in space, whether permanent or temporary, is accompanied by the presence of microbes. However, the extent of microbial changes in response to spaceflight conditions and the corresponding changes to infectious disease risk is unclear. Previous studies have indicated that spaceflight weakens the immune system in humans and animals. In addition, preflight and in-flight monitoring of the International Space Station (ISS) and other spacecraft indicates the presence of opportunistic pathogens and the potential of obligate pathogens. Altered antibiotic resistance of microbes in flight has also been shown. As astronauts and cosmonauts live for longer periods in a closed environment, especially one using recycled water and air, there is an increased risk to crewmembers of infectious disease events occurring in-flight. Therefore, understanding how the space environment affects microorganisms and their disease potential is critically important for spaceflight missions and requires further study. The goal of this flight experiment, operationally called MICROBE, is to utilize three model microbial pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans to examine the global effects of spaceflight on microbial gene expression and virulence attributes. Specifically, the aims are (1) to perform microarray-mediated gene expression profiling of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans, in response to spaceflight in comparison to ground controls and (2) to determine the effect of spaceflight on the virulence potential of these microorganisms immediately following their return from spaceflight using murine models. The model microorganisms were selected as they have been isolated from preflight or in-flight monitoring, represent different degrees of pathogenic behavior, are well characterized, and have sequenced genomes with available microarrays. In particular, extensive studies of S. typhimurium by the Principal Investigator, Dr. Nickerson

  2. A monograph of the National Space Transportation System Office (NSTSO) integration activities conducted at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for the EASE/ACCESS payload flown on STS 61-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassay, Charles

    1987-01-01

    The integration process of activities conducted at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) for the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular activity (EASE)/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) payload is provided as a subset to the standard payload integration process used by the NASA Space Transportation System (STS) to fly payloads on the Space Shuttle. The EASE/ACCESS payload integration activities are chronologically reviewed beginning with the initiation of the flight manifesting and integration process. The development and documentation of the EASE/ACCESS integration requirements are also discussed along with the implementation of the mission integration activities and the engineering assessments supporting the flight integration process. In addition, the STS management support organizations, the payload safety process leading to the STS 61-B flight certification, and the overall EASE/ACCESS integration schedule are presented.

  3. Flown The Nest

    OpenAIRE

    Sebbane, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Lorsque le quotidien régional, The Champion, commence à publier Flown The Nest en 1972 sous forme d’épisodes, Bird’s Nest Soup est déjà en vente, et la troisième partie de l’autobiographie d’Hanna, Housekeeper At Large, est sous presse. L’édition de 2009 contient Flown The Nest et Housekeeper at Large. Dans Bird’s Nest Soup, Hanna Greally racontait les dix-huit années de sa vie passées au sein d’un hôpital psychiatrique. Les raisons pour lesquelles elle y avait été enfermée, à la demande de s...

  4. Quo Vadis Payload Safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodroci, Michael P.; Schwartz, MaryBeth

    2008-01-01

    As we complete the preparations for the fourth Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission, we note an anniversary approaching: it was 30 years ago in July that the first HST payload safety review panel meeting was held. This, in turn, was just over a year after the very first payload safety review, a Phase 0 review for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite and its Inertial Upper Stage, held in June of 1977. In adapting a process that had been used in the review and certification of earlier Skylab payloads, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineers sought to preserve the lessons learned in the development of technical payload safety requirements, while creating a new process that would serve the very different needs of the new space shuttle program. Their success in this undertaking is substantiated by the fact that this process and these requirements have proven to be remarkably robust, flexible, and adaptable. Furthermore, the payload safety process has, to date, served us well in the critical mission of safeguarding our astronauts, cosmonauts, and spaceflight participants. Both the technical requirements and their interpretation, as well as the associated process requirements have grown, evolved, been streamlined, and have been adapted to fit multiple programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) program, the Shuttle/Mir program, and most recently the United States Constellation program. From its earliest days, it was anticipated that the payload safety process would be international in scope, and so it has been. European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), German Space Agency (DLR), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Russian Space Agency (RSA), and many additional countries have flown payloads on both the space shuttle and on the ISS. Our close cooperation and long-term working relationships have culminated in the franchising of the payload safety review process itself to our partners in ESA, which in

  5. Drone Transport of Microbes in Blood and Sputum Laboratory Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Street, Jeff; Carroll, Karen; Miller, Heather; Zhang, Sean X

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) could potentially be used to transport microbiological specimens. To examine the impact of UAVs on microbiological specimens, blood and sputum culture specimens were seeded with usual pathogens and flown in a UAV for 30 ± 2 min. Times to recovery, colony counts, morphologies, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identifications of the flown and stationary specimens were similar for all microbes studied. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. EELV Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Scott A.; Weis, Steven C.; Doggrell, Leslie J.; Sciulli, Dino; Meink, Troy E.; Ganley, Jeff T.; Maly, Joseph R.; Jurisson, Karl

    2000-11-01

    Despite growing international interest in small satellites, high dedicated expendable launch vehicle costs and the lack of secondary launch opportunities continue to hinder the full exploitation of small satellite technology. In the United States, the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, other government agencies, commercial companies, and many universities use small satellites to perform space experiments, demonstrate new technology, and test operational prototype hardware. In addition, the DoD continues to study the role of small satellites in fulfilling operational mission requirements. However, the US lacks sufficient small satellite launch capacity. Furthermore, US government agencies are restricted to the use of US launch vehicles, which eliminates many affordable launch opportunities. In an effort to increase the number of space experiments that can be flown with a small, fixed budget, the DoD Space Test Program (STP) has teamed with the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/VS) to develop a low-cost solution for the small satellite launch program. Our solution, which can be implemented on both Boeing and Lockheed-Martin Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle-Medium (EELV-M) boosters, is called the EELV Secondary Payload Adaptor (ESPA). ESPA will increase the number of launch opportunities for 180kg-class (or smaller) satellites at prices highly competitive with other secondary launch services worldwide.

  7. 'Secret' Shuttle payloads revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joel W.

    1993-05-01

    A secret military payload carried by the orbiter Discovery launched on January 24 1985 is discussed. Secondary payloads on the military Shuttle flights are briefly reviewed. Most of the military middeck experiments were sponsored by the Space Test Program established at the Pentagon to oversee all Defense Department space research projects.

  8. Payload Launch Lock Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A payload launch lock mechanism includes a base, a preload clamp, a fastener, and a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator. The preload clamp is configured to releasibly restrain a payload. The fastener extends, along an axis, through the preload clamp and into the base, and supplies a force to the preload clamp sufficient to restrain the payload. The SMA actuator is disposed between the base and the clamp. The SMA actuator is adapted to receive electrical current and is configured, upon receipt of the electrical current, to supply a force that causes the fastener to elongate without fracturing. The preload clamp, in response to the fastener elongation, either rotates or pivots to thereby release the payload.

  9. The Athena Science Payload for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Carr, M.; Christensen, P.; DesMarais, D.; Economou, T.; Gorevan, S.; Haskin, L.; Herkenhoff, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Athena Mars rover payload is a suite of scientific instruments and tools for geologic exploration of the martian surface. It is designed to: (1) Provide color stereo imaging of martian surface environments, and remotely-sensed point discrimination of mineralogical composition. (2) Determine the elemental and mineralogical composition of martian surface materials, including soils, rock surfaces, and rock interiors. (3) Determine the fine-scale textural properties of these materials. Two identical copies of the Athena payload will be flown in 2003 on the two Mars Exploration Rovers. The payload is at a high state of maturity, and first copies of several of the instruments have already been built and tested for flight.

  10. Multiple Payload Ejector for Education, Science and Technology Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechworth, Gary

    2005-01-01

    The education research community no longer has a means of being manifested on Space Shuttle flights, and small orbital payload carriers must be flown as secondary payloads on ELV flights, as their launch schedule, secondary payload volume and mass permits. This has resulted in a backlog of small payloads, schedule and cost problems, and an inability for the small payloads community to achieve routine, low-cost access to orbit. This paper will discuss Goddard's Wallops Flight Facility funded effort to leverage its core competencies in small payloads, sounding rockets, balloons and range services to develop a low cost, multiple payload ejector (MPE) carrier for orbital experiments. The goal of the MPE is to provide a low-cost carrier intended primarily for educational flight research experiments. MPE can also be used by academia and industry for science, technology development and Exploration experiments. The MPE carrier will take advantage of the DARPAI NASA partnership to perform flight testing of DARPA s Falcon small, demonstration launch vehicle. The Falcon is similar to MPE fiom the standpoint of focusing on a low-cost, responsive system. Therefore, MPE and Falcon complement each other for the desired long-term goal of providing the small payloads community with a low-cost ride to orbit. The readiness dates of Falcon and MPE are complementary, also. MPE is being developed and readied for flight within 18 months by a small design team. Currently, MPE is preparing for Critical Design Review in fall 2005, payloads are being manifested on the first mission, and the carrier will be ready for flight on the first Falcon demonstration flight in summer, 2006. The MPE and attached experiments can weigh up to 900 lb. to be compatible with Falcon demonstration vehicle lift capabilities fiom Wallops, and will be delivered to the Falcon demonstration orbit - 100 nautical mile circular altitude.

  11. Universal Payload Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Ralph B.

    2003-01-01

    As the overall manager and integrator of International Space Station (ISS) science payloads, the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) at Marshall Space Flight Center has a critical need to provide an information management system for exchange and control of ISS payload files as well as to coordinate ISS payload related operational changes. The POIC's information management system has a fundamental requirement to provide secure operational access not only to users physically located at the POIC, but also to remote experimenters and International Partners physically located in different parts of the world. The Payload Information Management System (PIMS) is a ground-based electronic document configuration management and collaborative workflow system that was built to service the POIC's information management needs. This paper discusses the application components that comprise the PIMS system, the challenges that influenced its design and architecture, and the selected technologies it employs. This paper will also touch on the advantages of the architecture, details of the user interface, and lessons learned along the way to a successful deployment. With PIMS, a sophisticated software solution has been built that is not only universally accessible for POIC customer s information management needs, but also universally adaptable in implementation and application as a generalized information management system.

  12. MEMS and the microbe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingham, C.J.; Vlieg, J.E.T.V.H.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, relatively simple MEMS fabrications have helped accelerate our knowledge of the microbial cell. Current progress and challenges in the application of lab-on-a-chip devices to the viable microbe are reviewed. Furthermore, the degree to which microbiologists are becoming the engineers

  13. Meet the Microbes through the Microbe World Activities with Microbe the Magnificent and Mighty Microbe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Kathy, Ed.; Ryan, Karen, Ed.

    The activities presented in this book are the product of the Community Outreach Initiative of the Microbial Literacy Collaborative (MLC). This activity book presents a balanced view of microbes, their benefits, and the diseases they cause. Each activity starts with an interesting introductory statement and includes goals, activity time, time to…

  14. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  15. Genetic and Proteomics Analyses of Space Flown Mice Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Takahashi, Rika; Yamada, Shin; Masaya, Seki; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    Many astronauts stay in the International Space Station (ISS) for a long period of time. Therefore, the development of astronaut health care technologies is very important. Especially, an understanding of the effects of the space environment, such as microgravity and radiation, on protein, gene, and mineral metabolism is important for developing countermeasures against the adverse effects experienced by astronauts who are in space for long periods of time. Since December 2009, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples from ISS crew members who have been in space (experiment nicknamed “HAIR”). As animal control experiments, we could have an opportunity to analyze rodents samples by participating the tissue sharing program of space-flown mice organized by Italian Space Agency (AGI) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It will reasonably complement human hair experiment because we able to conduct more detailed skin analysis which is enable in human experiment. The purpose of this flown-mice experiment is to study the effects of long-term exposure to space environment. In this experiment, we analyzed mice skin contained hair roots. The samples were taken from space-flown (3-month and 2-week) and 3-month hindlimb suspensioned and 3-month 2G exposed mice, and ground-control mice. For the skin contained hair roots, the extracted and amplified RNA was used to DNA microarray analysis, and was further analyzed with expression on the interesting genes by real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. And the extracted protein was used to Mass Spectrometer analysis. Data analysis on the specimen are in progress.

  16. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  17. The LEAN Payload Integration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Lee P.; Young, Yancy; Rice, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    It is recognized that payload development and integration with the International Space Station (ISS) can be complex. This streamlined integration approach is a first step toward simplifying payload integration; making it easier to fly payloads on ISS, thereby increasing feasibility and interest for more research and commercial organizations to sponsor ISS payloads and take advantage of the ISS as a National Laboratory asset. The streamlined integration approach was addressed from the perspective of highly likely initial payload types to evolve from the National Lab Pathfinder program. Payloads to be accommodated by the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) Racks and Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) pressurized facilities have been addressed. It is hoped that the streamlined principles applied to these types of payloads will be analyzed and implemented in the future for other host facilities as well as unpressurized payloads to be accommodated by the EXPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC). Further, a payload does not have to be classified as a National Lab payload in order to be processed according to the lean payload integration process; any payload that meets certain criteria can follow the lean payload integration process.

  18. Static Computer Memory Integrity Testing (SCMIT): An experiment flown on STS-40 as part of GAS payload G-616

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    This experiment investigated the integrity of static computer memory (floppy disk media) when exposed to the environment of low earth orbit. The experiment attempted to record soft-event upsets (bit-flips) in static computer memory. Typical conditions that exist in low earth orbit that may cause soft-event upsets include: cosmic rays, low level background radiation, charged fields, static charges, and the earth's magnetic field. Over the years several spacecraft have been affected by soft-event upsets (bit-flips), and these events have caused a loss of data or affected spacecraft guidance and control. This paper describes a commercial spin-off that is being developed from the experiment.

  19. Textiles and Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freney, Jean; Renaud, François N. R.

    Microbes can be carried by and even multiply on textiles. The first real, premeditated, microbiological warfare happened in 1763, during the Anglo-French wars in North America, when Native American emissaries were given blankets or handkerchiefs contaminated with smallpox. Thus, a small epidemic started and spread rapidly, causing considerable damage to the rank and file of the Native Americans. Nowadays, it could be said that textiles could be vectors of infections in hospitals or communities. The making of antimicrobial textiles could prevent them from becoming a reservoir of microbes in the transmission of infections and in cases of voluntary contamination in a terrorist threat for example. However, methods have to show that textiles are really active and do not attack the cutaneous flora they are in contact with. In this chapter, the role of textiles in the transmission of infections is summarized and the main characteristics of antimicrobial textiles are described.

  20. Guidelines for Hosted Payload Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-06

    reduces risk. Need to consider mass simulator to protect host launch window. Average Payload Power Both BOL and EOL . Host must consider orbit...acceptance testing. Peak Payload Power Both BOL and EOL . Host must consider orbit constraints. Typically driven by Payload operations but must...post-retirement failure might cause damage to the Spacecraft Host or its payloads. Safe conditions at EOL should consider thermal and radiation

  1. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  2. Hematological measurements in rats flown on Spacelab shuttle SL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, R.D.; Andrews, R.B.; Gibson, L.A.; Congdon, C.C.; Wright, P.; Dunn, C.D.R.; Jones, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a decrease in red cell mass occurs in astronauts, and some studies indicate a leukocytosis occurs. A life science module housing young and mature rats was flown on shuttle mission Spacelab 3 (SL-3), and the results of hematology studies of flight and control rats are presented. Statistically significant increases in the hematocrit, red blood cell counts, and hemoglobin determinations, together with a mild neutrophilia and lymphopenia, were found in flight animals. No significant changes were found in bone marrow and spleen cell differentials or erythropoietin determinations. Clonal assays demonstrated an increased erythroid colony formation of flight animal bone marrow cells at erythropoietin doses of 0.02 and 1.0 U/ml but not 0.20 U/ml. These results agree with some but vary from other previously published studies. Erythropoietin assays performed by radioimmunoassay and clonal studies were performed for the first time

  3. Ecological suicide in microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzke, Christoph; Denk, Jonas; Gore, Jeff

    2018-05-01

    The growth and survival of organisms often depend on interactions between them. In many cases, these interactions are positive and caused by a cooperative modification of the environment. Examples are the cooperative breakdown of complex nutrients in microbes or the construction of elaborate architectures in social insects, in which the individual profits from the collective actions of her peers. However, organisms can similarly display negative interactions by changing the environment in ways that are detrimental for them, for example by resource depletion or the production of toxic byproducts. Here we find an extreme type of negative interactions, in which Paenibacillus sp. bacteria modify the environmental pH to such a degree that it leads to a rapid extinction of the whole population, a phenomenon that we call ecological suicide. Modification of the pH is more pronounced at higher population densities, and thus ecological suicide is more likely to occur with increasing bacterial density. Correspondingly, promoting bacterial growth can drive populations extinct whereas inhibiting bacterial growth by the addition of harmful substances-such as antibiotics-can rescue them. Moreover, ecological suicide can cause oscillatory dynamics, even in single-species populations. We found ecological suicide in a wide variety of microbes, suggesting that it could have an important role in microbial ecology and evolution.

  4. A technician monitors the CHeX, a USMP-4 experiment which will be flown on STS-87, in the SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    United States Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4) experiments are prepared to be flown on Space Shuttle mission STS-87 in the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Here, a technician is monitoring the Confined Helium Experiment, or CHeX, that will use microgravity to study one of the basic influences on the behavior and properties of materials by using liquid helium confined between silicon disks. CHeX and several other experiments are scheduled for launch aboard STS-87 on Nov. 19 from KSC.

  5. Biofuels: from microbes to molecules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    .... The production of different biofuel molecules including hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol, higher chain alcohols, isoprenoids and fatty acid derivatives, from genetically engineered microbes...

  6. Microbe-microbe interactions in mixed culture food fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, E.J.; Lacroix, C.

    2013-01-01

    Most known natural and industrial food fermentation processes are driven by either simple or complex communities of microorganisms. Obviously, these fermenting microbes will not only interact with the fermentable substrate but also with each other. These microbe–microbe interactions are complex but

  7. Simultaneous observations of E- and B-ULF waves aboard a sounding rocket payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloecker, N.; Luehr, H.; Grabowski, R.

    1980-01-01

    Magnetic and electric field variations in the frequency range of 0.5 to 4 Hz were made on a payload flown within the IMS sounding rocket campaign 'Substormphenomena'. The payload was launched into an auroral break-up. The waves show amplitudes up to 100 nT in B and 100 mV/m in E. Mutual correlation of B and E as well as correlation with electron precipitation are observed. The energy flux of the waves and the particles are equally directed and of the same order of magnitude. (Auth.)

  8. Mining with microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings., D.E.; Silver, S.

    1995-01-01

    Microbes are playing increasingly important roles in commercial mining operations, where they are being used in the open-quotes bioleachingclose quotes of copper, uranium, and gold ores. Direct leaching is when microbial metabolism changes the redox state of the metal being harvested, rendering it more soluble. Indirect leaching includes redox chemistry of other metal cations that are then coupled in chemical oxidation or reduction of the harvested metal ion and microbial attack upon and solubilization of the mineral matrix in which the metal is physically embedded. In addition, bacterial cells are used to detoxify the waste cyanide solution from gold-mining operations and as open-quotes absorbantsclose quotes of the mineral cations. Bacterial cells may replace activated carbon or alternative biomass. With an increasing understanding of microbial physiology, biochemistry and molecular genetics, rational approaches to improving these microbial activities become possible. 40 refs., 3 figs

  9. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  10. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  11. Microbe Phobia and Kitchen Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert P.; Gillen, Alan L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present an exercise designed to help students overcome the misconception that most microbes make people sick. The activity helps students of all ages understand the important benefits of microbes such as in making bread, soy sauce, cheese, and wine. The role of microorganisms in processing cocoa and coffee and growing plants is also…

  12. Payload specialist Ronald Parise checks on ASTRO-2 payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Payload specialist Ronald A. Parise, a senior scientist in the Space Observatories Department of Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC), checks on the ASTRO-2 payload (out of frame in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour). Parise is on the aft flight deck of the Earth orbiting Endeavour during STS-67.

  13. The Microbe Directory: An annotated, searchable inventory of microbes' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Heba; Westfall, David A; Mohammad, Rawhi; Danko, David; Bezdan, Daniela; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Segata, Nicola; Mason, Christopher E

    2018-01-05

    The Microbe Directory is a collective research effort to profile and annotate more than 7,500 unique microbial species from the MetaPhlAn2 database that includes bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. By collecting and summarizing data on various microbes' characteristics, the project comprises a database that can be used downstream of large-scale metagenomic taxonomic analyses, allowing one to interpret and explore their taxonomic classifications to have a deeper understanding of the microbial ecosystem they are studying. Such characteristics include, but are not limited to: optimal pH, optimal temperature, Gram stain, biofilm-formation, spore-formation, antimicrobial resistance, and COGEM class risk rating. The database has been manually curated by trained student-researchers from Weill Cornell Medicine and CUNY-Hunter College, and its analysis remains an ongoing effort with open-source capabilities so others can contribute. Available in SQL, JSON, and CSV (i.e. Excel) formats, the Microbe Directory can be queried for the aforementioned parameters by a microorganism's taxonomy. In addition to the raw database, The Microbe Directory has an online counterpart ( https://microbe.directory/) that provides a user-friendly interface for storage, retrieval, and analysis into which other microbial database projects could be incorporated. The Microbe Directory was primarily designed to serve as a resource for researchers conducting metagenomic analyses, but its online web interface should also prove useful to any individual who wishes to learn more about any particular microbe.

  14. Biofuels from microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Inst. of Resource and Energy Technology; Zverlov, V.V.; Schwarz, W.H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Dept. of Microbiology

    2007-11-15

    Today, biomass covers about 10% of the world's primary energy demand. Against a backdrop of rising crude oil prices, depletion of resources, political instability in producing countries and environmental challenges, besides efficiency and intelligent use, only biomass has the potential to replace the supply of an energy hungry civilisation. Plant biomass is an abundant and renewable source of energy-rich carbohydrates which can be efficiently converted by microbes into biofuels, of which, only bioethanol is produced on an industrial scale today. Biomethane is produced on a large scale, but is not yet utilised for transportation. Biobutanol is on the agenda of several companies and may be used in the near future as a supplement for gasoline, diesel and kerosene, as well as contributing to the partially biological production of butyl-t-butylether, BTBE as does bioethanol today with ETBE. Biohydrogen, biomethanol and microbially made biodiesel still require further development. This paper reviews microbially made biofuels which have potential to replace our present day fuels, either alone, by blending, or by chemical conversion. It also summarises the history of biofuels and provides insight into the actual production in various countries, reviewing their policies and adaptivity to the energy challenges of foreseeable future. (orig.)

  15. 14 CFR 415.57 - Payload review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payload review. 415.57 Section 415.57... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Payload Review and Determination § 415.57 Payload review. (a) Timing. A payload review may be conducted as part of a license application review or may be requested by a payload...

  16. Outgassing of Flown and Unflown MIR Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.; Wilson, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    A solar panel array with more than ten years space exposure was removed from the Mir core module in November 1997, and an eight panel section was returned to Earth in January 1998. Several solar cells were removed from panel eight of the returned array and placed in a high vacuum system with a residual gas analyzer (200 amu mass spectrometer) and a cold finger. Similar unflown solar cells of the same vintage were later obtained from Energia. Several of the unflown cells were also placed in the vacuum system and outgassed residues were collected on the LN2 cold finger. Almost 3 mg of outgassed residue was collected -from a string of three unflown solar cells over a period of 94 hours under vacuum. The collected residue was weighed with a microbalance, and then the residue was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy, and by gas chromatograph-mass spectroscopy. About 25 outgassed constituents were separated by the gas chromatograph, and a high-resolution mass spectrum was obtained of each constituent. Molecular identifications have been made for the constituents. The constituents are primarily cyclic siloxanes, and several of the constituents are isomers of the same molecule. Most of the outgassed constituents have a molecular mass of about 500 amu. Almost one mg of residue was extracted from one sq cm of coverglass/adhesive from a flown solar cell by soaking in isopropyl alcohol for 30 minutes. The gas chromatograph separated about 20 constituents. The constituents are mostly cyclic siloxanes with linear branches, hydrocarbons, and phthalates. The typical molecular mass is about 600 amu. These identifications of specific outgassing molecules have resulted in a more complete understanding of the SiO(x) contamination on the Mir solar cell coverglasses, and on the MEEP experiment trays and optical specimens during the Shuttle-Mir Phase One flight experiment program. Adjusted outgassing rates based on the data reported here, and/or measured outgassing rates and specific molecular

  17. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System H-Strap is shown at the left side of the U.S. Laboratory hatch and behind Astronaut James D. Weatherbee, mission specialist. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate.

  18. Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) project, which is part of the JPL Phaeton early career employee hands-on training program, aims to demonstrate...

  19. Education Payload Operation - Kit D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Kit D (EPO-Kit D) includes education items that will be used to support the live International Space Station (ISS) education downlinks and Education Payload Operation (EPO) demonstrations onboard the ISS. The main objective of EPO-Kit D supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goal of attracting students to study and seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  20. 14 CFR 415.7 - Payload determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payload determination. 415.7 Section 415.7... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE General § 415.7 Payload determination. A payload determination is... determination. Either a launch license applicant or a payload owner or operator may request a review of its...

  1. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  2. Principles of Plant-Microbe Interactions - Microbes for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crops lack resistance to many soilborne pathogens and rely on antagonistic microbes recruited from the soil microbiome to protect their roots. Disease-suppressive soils, the best examples of microbial-based defense, are soils in which a pathogen does not establish or persist, establishes but causes ...

  3. Aerospace Payloads Leak Test Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvovsky, Oleg; Grayson, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Pressurized and sealed aerospace payloads can leak on orbit. When dealing with toxic or hazardous materials, requirements for fluid and gas leakage rates have to be properly established, and most importantly, reliably verified using the best Nondestructive Test (NDT) method available. Such verification can be implemented through application of various leak test methods that will be the subject of this paper, with a purpose to show what approach to payload leakage rate requirement verification is taken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The scope of this paper will be mostly a detailed description of 14 leak test methods recommended.

  4. High resolution metric imaging payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  5. Hosting the first EDRS payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, D.; Glynn, S.; Heine, F.

    2017-11-01

    The European Data Relay System (EDRS) will provide optical and microwave data relay services between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites at altitudes up to 2000 km and the ground through geostationary (GEO) satellite nodes. Currently, two such nodes have been procured as part of a Public Private Partnership (PPP) between Astrium (now Airbus Defence and Space) and ESA. The first node (EDRS-A) is a hosted payload embarked upon the Eutelsat 9B satellite and scheduled for launch in early 2015.

  6. Exomars 2018 Rover Pasteur Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, Andre; Bacher, M.; Ball, A.; Barcos, O.; Bethge, B.; Gaubert, F.; Haldemann, A.; Lindner, R.; Pacros, A.; Trautner, R.; Vag, J.

    ars programme is a joint ESA-NASA program having exobiology as one of the key science objectives. It is divided into 2 missions: the first mission is ESA-led with an ESA orbiter and an ESA Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) demonstrator, launched in 2016 by NASA, and the second mission is NASA-led, launched in 2018 by NASA carrying an ESA rover and a NASA rover both deployed by a single NASA EDL system. For ESA, the ExoMars programme will demonstrate key flight and in situ enabling technologies in support of the European ambitions for future exploration missions, as outlined in the Aurora Declaration. While the ExoMars 2016 mission will accomplish a technological objective (Entry, Descent and Landing of a payload on the surface) and a Scientific objective (investigation of Martian atmospheric trace gases and their sources, focussing particularly on methane), the ExoMars 2018 ESA Rover will carry a comprehensive and coherent suite of analytical instruments dedicated to exobiology and geology research: the Pasteur Payload (PPL). This payload includes a selection of complementary instruments, having the following goals: to search for signs of past and present life on Mars and to investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface. The ExoMars Rover includes a drill for accessing underground materials, and a Sample Preparation and Distribution System. The Rover will travel several kilometres looking for sites warranting further investigation, where it will collect and analyse samples from within outcrops and from the subsurface for traces of complex organic molecules. In addition to further details on this Exomars 2018 rover mission, this presentation will focus on the scientific objectives and the instruments needed to achieve them, including details of how the Pasteur Payload as a whole addresses Mars research objectives.

  7. 14 CFR 1214.119 - Spacelab payloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occurs less than 18 months before launch, the fees will be computed by linear interpolation using the...) Providing payload-unique software for use during ground processing, on orbit or in POCC operations. (vi...) Payload electrical power. (8) Payload environmental control. (9) On-board data acquisition and processing...

  8. The Engineering of LISA Pathfinder – the quietest Laboratory ever flown in Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenkel, Christian; Wealthy, Dave; Dunbar, Neil; Warren, Carl; Schleicher, Alexander; Ziegler, Tobias; Brandt, Nico; Gerndt, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    We review the engineering approach adopted to ensure the required gravitational, magnetic, thermal and residual acceleration stability on-board LISA Pathfinder, and present the in-flight results that have been achieved. Arguably, this stability makes LISA Pathfinder the quietest laboratory ever flown in space. The implications for LISA are also discussed. (paper)

  9. NetCooperate: a network-based tool for inferring host-microbe and microbe-microbe cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Roie; Carr, Rogan; Kreimer, Anat; Freilich, Shiri; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2015-01-01

    Background Host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions are often governed by the complex exchange of metabolites. Such interactions play a key role in determining the way pathogenic and commensal species impact their host and in the assembly of complex microbial communities. Recently, several studies have demonstrated how such interactions are reflected in the organization of the metabolic networks of the interacting species, and introduced various graph theory-based methods to predict host...

  10. NetCooperate: a network-based tool for inferring host-microbe and microbe-microbe cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roie; Carr, Rogan; Kreimer, Anat; Freilich, Shiri; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2015-05-17

    Host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions are often governed by the complex exchange of metabolites. Such interactions play a key role in determining the way pathogenic and commensal species impact their host and in the assembly of complex microbial communities. Recently, several studies have demonstrated how such interactions are reflected in the organization of the metabolic networks of the interacting species, and introduced various graph theory-based methods to predict host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions directly from network topology. Using these methods, such studies have revealed evolutionary and ecological processes that shape species interactions and community assembly, highlighting the potential of this reverse-ecology research paradigm. NetCooperate is a web-based tool and a software package for determining host-microbe and microbe-microbe cooperative potential. It specifically calculates two previously developed and validated metrics for species interaction: the Biosynthetic Support Score which quantifies the ability of a host species to supply the nutritional requirements of a parasitic or a commensal species, and the Metabolic Complementarity Index which quantifies the complementarity of a pair of microbial organisms' niches. NetCooperate takes as input a pair of metabolic networks, and returns the pairwise metrics as well as a list of potential syntrophic metabolic compounds. The Biosynthetic Support Score and Metabolic Complementarity Index provide insight into host-microbe and microbe-microbe metabolic interactions. NetCooperate determines these interaction indices from metabolic network topology, and can be used for small- or large-scale analyses. NetCooperate is provided as both a web-based tool and an open-source Python module; both are freely available online at http://elbo.gs.washington.edu/software_netcooperate.html.

  11. Host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions in the evolution of obligate plant parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemen, Ariane C; Agler, Matthew T; Kemen, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Research on obligate biotrophic plant parasites, which reproduce only on living hosts, has revealed a broad diversity of filamentous microbes that have independently acquired complex morphological structures, such as haustoria. Genome studies have also demonstrated a concerted loss of genes for metabolism and lytic enzymes, and gain of diversity of genes coding for effectors involved in host defense suppression. So far, these traits converge in all known obligate biotrophic parasites, but unexpected genome plasticity remains. This plasticity is manifested as transposable element (TE)-driven increases in genome size, observed to be associated with the diversification of virulence genes under selection pressure. Genome expansion could result from the governing of the pathogen response to ecological selection pressures, such as host or nutrient availability, or to microbial interactions, such as competition, hyperparasitism and beneficial cooperations. Expansion is balanced by alternating sexual and asexual cycles, as well as selfing and outcrossing, which operate to control transposon activity in populations. In turn, the prevalence of these balancing mechanisms seems to be correlated with external biotic factors, suggesting a complex, interconnected evolutionary network in host-pathogen-microbe interactions. Therefore, the next phase of obligate biotrophic pathogen research will need to uncover how this network, including multitrophic interactions, shapes the evolution and diversity of pathogens. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  13. Altered carbohydrate, lipid, and xenobiotic metabolism by liver from rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, A. H. Jr; Hoel, M.; Wang, E.; Mullins, R. E.; Hargrove, J. L.; Jones, D. P.; Popova, I. A.; Merrill AH, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possible biochemical effects of prolonged weightlessness on liver function, samples of liver from rats that had flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were analyzed for protein, glycogen, and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. Among the parameters measured, the major differences were elevations in the glycogen content and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activities for the rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and decreases in the amount of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and the activities of aniline hydroxylase and ethylmorphine N-demethylase, cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes. These results support the earlier finding of differences in these parameters and suggest that altered hepatic function could be important during spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period.

  14. Payload Configurations for Efficient Image Acquisition - Indian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudraiah, D. R. M.; Saxena, M.; Paul, S.; Narayanababu, P.; Kuriakose, S.; Kiran Kumar, A. S.

    2014-11-01

    The world is increasingly depending on remotely sensed data. The data is regularly used for monitoring the earth resources and also for solving problems of the world like disasters, climate degradation, etc. Remotely sensed data has changed our perspective of understanding of other planets. With innovative approaches in data utilization, the demands of remote sensing data are ever increasing. More and more research and developments are taken up for data utilization. The satellite resources are scarce and each launch costs heavily. Each launch is also associated with large effort for developing the hardware prior to launch. It is also associated with large number of software elements and mathematical algorithms post-launch. The proliferation of low-earth and geostationary satellites has led to increased scarcity in the available orbital slots for the newer satellites. Indian Space Research Organization has always tried to maximize the utility of satellites. Multiple sensors are flown on each satellite. In each of the satellites, sensors are designed to cater to various spectral bands/frequencies, spatial and temporal resolutions. Bhaskara-1, the first experimental satellite started with 2 bands in electro-optical spectrum and 3 bands in microwave spectrum. The recent Resourcesat-2 incorporates very efficient image acquisition approach with multi-resolution (3 types of spatial resolution) multi-band (4 spectral bands) electro-optical sensors (LISS-4, LISS-3* and AWiFS). The system has been designed to provide data globally with various data reception stations and onboard data storage capabilities. Oceansat-2 satellite has unique sensor combination with 8 band electro-optical high sensitive ocean colour monitor (catering to ocean and land) along with Ku band scatterometer to acquire information on ocean winds. INSAT- 3D launched recently provides high resolution 6 band image data in visible, short-wave, mid-wave and long-wave infrared spectrum. It also has 19 band

  15. Mutations in cauliflower and sprout broccoli grown from seeds flown in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Huang, Congli; Zhang, Keping; Sun, Yeqing

    2010-11-01

    Cauliflower and sprout broccoli are widely planted vegetables particularly in Fujian Province, China. To study the mutation in these two types of vegetables induced from spaceflight, we flew the seeds on the 20th Chinese recoverable satellite which orbited the Earth for 18 days. After returning to the Earth, the cauliflower seeds were planted for two generations and the sprout broccoli seeds for one generation at the Xiamen Agriculture Research Institute. Of the 12 cauliflowers planted for the first generation, two showed significant phenotypical changes in both the size of the plant and the weight of the flower head. In addition, most of the space flown plants were found to be resistant to the black rot attack in the field. Cauliflowers planted for the second generation from the seeds in one of the two plants that displayed phenotypical changes in the first generation showed similar mutations. For the first generation of sprout broccoli, the rate of emergence from the flown seeds was lower than that of the control by 30%. No significant changes in the phenotype between the sprout broccolis planted from the flown seeds and the control were observed except one of the mutated sprout broccolis showed a change in the appearance in the lesser bud of the chief flower head. Results of the study demonstrated that DNA damages in some of the genes may have occurred in the seeds flown in space, and some of the changes in the genes may have inherited from the first to the second generation. The improved resistance to the black rot attack and increased size of the flower head are apparently beneficial.

  16. Results from the high efficiency solar panel experiment flown on CRRES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, K.P.; Mullen, E.G.; Trumble, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents results from the High Efficiency Solar Panel Experiment (HESP) flown on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). The on-orbit solar cell degradation is correlated with the proton and electron environments. Comparisons between gallium arsenide germanium (GaAs/Ge) and silicon (Si) solar cells are presented, and results from three different annealing methods of like GaAs solar cells are compared

  17. Calculating Payload for a Tethered Balloon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles D. Tangren

    1980-01-01

    A graph method to calculate payload for a tethered balloon system, with the supporting helium lift and payload equations. is described. The balloon system is designed to collect emissions data during the convective-lift and no-convective-lift phases of a forest fire. A description of the balloon system and a list of factors affecting balloon selection are included....

  18. Structural Optimisation Of Payload Fairings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santschi, Y.; Eaton, N.; Verheyden, S.; Michaud, V.

    2012-07-01

    RUAG Space are developing materials and processing technologies for manufacture of the Next Generation Launcher (NGL) payload fairing, together with the Laboratory of Polymer and Composite Technology at the EPFL, in a project running under the ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Program (FLPP). In this paper the general aims and scope of the project are described, details of the results obtained shall be presented at a later stage. RUAG Space design, develop and manufacture fairings for the European launch vehicles Ariane 5 and VEGA using well proven composite materials and production methods which provide adequate cost/performance ratio for these applications. However, the NGL shall make full use of innovations in materials and process technologies to achieve a gain in performance at a much reduced overall manufacturing cost. NGL is scheduled to become operational in 2025, with actual development beginning in 2014. In this current project the basic technology is being developed and validated, in readiness for application in the NGL. For this new application, an entirely new approach to the fairing manufacture is evaluated.

  19. Payload characterization for CubeSat demonstration of MEMS deformable mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinan, Anne; Cahoy, Kerri; Webber, Matthew; Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Coronagraphic space telescopes require wavefront control systems for high-contrast imaging applications such as exoplanet direct imaging. High-actuator-count MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) are a key element of these wavefront control systems yet have not been flown in space long enough to characterize their on-orbit performance. The MEMS Deformable Mirror CubeSat Testbed is a conceptual nanosatellite demonstration of MEMS DM and wavefront sensing technology. The testbed platform is a 3U CubeSat bus. Of the 10 x 10 x 34.05 cm (3U) available volume, a 10 x 10 x 15 cm space is reserved for the optical payload. The main purpose of the payload is to characterize and calibrate the onorbit performance of a MEMS deformable mirror over an extended period of time (months). Its design incorporates both a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (internal laser illumination), and a focal plane sensor (used with an external aperture to image bright stars). We baseline a 32-actuator Boston Micromachines Mini deformable mirror for this mission, though the design is flexible and can be applied to mirrors from other vendors. We present the mission design and payload architecture and discuss experiment design, requirements, and performance simulations.

  20. Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination and scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  1. Effects of microbes on the immune system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fujinami, Robert S; Cunningham, Madeleine W

    2000-01-01

    .... The book synthesizes recent discoveries on the various mechanisms by which microbes subvert the immune response and on the role of these immunologic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases...

  2. A global census of marine microbes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amaral-Zettler, L.; Artigas, L.F.; Baross, J.; LokaBharathi, P.A; Boetius, A; Chandramohan, D.; Herndl, G.; Kogure, K.; Neal, P.; Pedros-Alio, C.; Ramette, A; Schouten, S.; Stal, L.; Thessen, A; De Leeuw, J.; Sogin, M.

    In this chapter we provide a brief history of what is known about marine microbial diversity, summarize our achievements in performing a global census of marine microbes, and reflect on the questions and priorities for the future of the marine...

  3. Microbes safely, effectively bioremediate oil field pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.; Block, C.S.; Mills, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Natural and augmented bioremediation provides a safe, environmental, fast, and effective solution for removing hydrocarbon stains from soil. In 1992, Amoco sponsored a study with six bioremediation companies, which evaluated 14 different techniques. From this study, Amoco continued using Environmental Protection Co.'s (EPC) microbes for bioremediating more than 145 sites near Farmington, NM. EPC's microbes proved effective on various types of hydrocarbon molecules found in petroleum stained soils from heavy crude and paraffin to volatiles such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) compounds. Controlled laboratory tests have shown that these microbes can digest the hydrocarbon molecules with or without free oxygen present. It is believed that this adaptation gives these microbes their resilience. The paper describes the bioremediation process, environmental advantages, in situ and ex situ bioremediation, goals of bioremediation, temperature effects, time, cost, and example sites that were treated

  4. Novel Payload Architectures for LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Ulrich A.; Gath, Peter F.; Holota, Wolfgang; Schulte, Hans Reiner; Weise, Dennis

    2006-11-01

    As part of the current LISA Mission Formulation Study, and based on prior internal investigations, Astrium Germany has defined and preliminary assessed novel payload architectures, potentially reducing overall complexity and improving budgets and costs. A promising concept is characterized by a single active inertial sensor attached to a single optical bench and serving both adjacent interferometer arms via two rigidly connected off-axis telescopes. The in-plane triangular constellation ``breathing angle'' compensation is accomplished by common telescope in-field of view pointing actuation of the transmit/received beams line of sight. A dedicated actuation mechanism located on the optical bench is required in addition to the on bench actuators for differential pointing of the transmit and receive direction perpendicular to the constellation plane. Both actuators operate in a sinusoidal yearly period. A technical challenge is the actuation mechanism pointing jitter and the monitoring and calibration of the laser phase walk which occurs while changing the optical path inside the optical assembly during re-pointing. Calibration or monitoring of instrument internal phase effects e.g. by a laser metrology truss derived from the existing interferometry is required. The architecture exploits in full the two-step interferometry (strap down) concept, separating functionally inter spacecraft and intra-spacecraft interferometry (reference mass laser metrology degrees of freedom sensing). The single test mass is maintained as cubic, but in free-fall in the lateral degrees of freedom within the constellation plane. Also the option of a completely free spherical test mass with full laser interferometer readout has been conceptually investigated. The spherical test mass would rotate slowly, and would be allowed to tumble. Imperfections in roundness and density would be calibrated from differential wave front sensing in a tetrahedral arrangement, supported by added attitude

  5. Balloonborne lidar payloads for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Hurd, A. G.; Rappaport, S. A.; Reidy, W. P.; Rieder, R. J.; Bedo, D. E.; Swirbalus, R. A.

    1994-02-01

    A series of lidar experiments has been conducted using the Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment payload (ABLE). These experiments included the measurement of atmospheric Rayleigh and Mie backscatter from near space (approximately 30 km) and Raman backscatter measurements of atmospheric constituents as a function of altitude. The ABLE payload consisted of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser transmitter, a 50 cm receiver telescope, and filtered photodetectors in various focal plane configurations. The payload for lidar pointing, thermal control, data handling, and remote control of the lidar system. Comparison of ABLE performance with that of a space lidar shows significant performance advantages and cost effectiveness for balloonborne lidar systems.

  6. Towards telecommunication payloads with photonic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vono, S.; Di Paolo, G.; Piccinni, M.; Pisano, A.; Sotom, M.; Aveline, M.; Ginestet, P.

    2017-11-01

    In the last decade, Thales Alenia Space has put a lot of its research effort on Photonic Technologies for Space Application with the aim to offer the market satellite telecommunication systems better performance and lower costs. This research effort has been concentrated on several activities, some of them sponsored by ESA. Most promising applications refer to Payload Systems. In particular, photonic payload applications have been investigated through the following two ESA studies: Artes-1 "Next Generation Telecommunication Payloads based on Photonic Technologies" and Artes-5 "OWR - Optical Wideband Receiver" activities.

  7. On locating steganographic payload using residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Tu-Thach

    2011-02-01

    Locating steganographic payload usingWeighted Stego-image (WS) residuals has been proven successful provided a large number of stego images are available. In this paper, we revisit this topic with two goals. First, we argue that it is a promising approach to locate payload by showing that in the ideal scenario where the cover images are available, the expected number of stego images needed to perfectly locate all load-carrying pixels is the logarithm of the payload size. Second, we generalize cover estimation to a maximum likelihood decoding problem and demonstrate that a second-order statistical cover model can be used to compute residuals to locate payload embedded by both LSB replacement and LSB matching steganography.

  8. The unrealized potential for heavy balloon payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, J. A.

    1993-02-01

    Knowing that properties of new polyethylene films are superior to previous types, one would believe that heavier payloads can now be safely carried. Some experimentation has already been done to verify that assumption. Future expectations are discussed. We believe that with present-day materials, and with only limited changes in design philosophies, maximum payload weights can be increased by 50 to 75% from presently accepted maxima.

  9. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  10. Changes in pituitary growth hormone cells prepared from rats flown on Spacelab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R.; Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Fast, T.; Hayes, C.; Motter, K.; Patil, L.; Vasques, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of exposure to microgravity on pituitary gland was investigated by examining cells isolated from anterior pituitaries of rats flown on the 7-day Spacelab 3 mission and, subsequently, cultured for 6 days. Compared with ground controls, flight cells contained more intracellular growth hormone (GH); however, the flight cells released less GH over the 6-day culture period and after implantation into hypophysectomized rats than did the control cells. Compared with control rats, glands from large rats (400 g) contained more somatotrophs (44 percent compared with 37 percent in control rats); small rats (200 g) showed no difference. No major differences were found in the somatotroph ultrastructure (by TEM) or in the pattern of the immunoactive GH variants. However, high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of culture media indicated that flight cells released much less of a biologically active high-molecular weight GH variant, suggesting that space flight may lead to secretory dysfunction.

  11. 14 CFR 1214.305 - Payload specialist responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payload specialist responsibilities. 1214... Payload Specialists for Space Transportation System (STS) Missions § 1214.305 Payload specialist... commander has ultimate responsibility and authority for all assigned crew duties. The payload specialist is...

  12. MicrobeWorld Radio and Communications Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara Hyde

    2006-11-22

    MicrobeWorld is a 90-second feature broadcast daily on more than 90 public radio stations and available from several sources as a podcast, including www.microbeworld.org. The feature has a strong focus on the use and adapatbility of microbes as alternative sources of energy, in bioremediation, their role in climate, and especially the many benefits and scientific advances that have resulting from decoding microbial genomes. These audio features are permanantly archived on an educational outreach site, microbeworld.org, where they are linked to the National Science Education Standards. They are also being used by instructors at all levels to introduce students to the multiple roles and potential of microbes, including a pilot curriculum program for middle-school students in New York.

  13. The Potential for Hosted Payloads at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraschko, Mark; Antol, Jeffrey; Baize, Rosemary; Horan, Stephen; Neil, Doreen; Rinsland, Pamela; Zaiceva, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 National Space Policy encourages federal agencies to actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including...hosting government capabilities on commercial spacecraft. NASA's Science Mission Directorate has taken an important step towards this goal by adding an option for hosted payload responses to its recent Announcement of Opportunity (AO) for Earth Venture-2 missions. Since NASA selects a significant portion of its science missions through a competitive process, it is useful to understand the implications that this process has on the feasibility of successfully proposing a commercially hosted payload mission. This paper describes some of the impediments associated with proposing a hosted payload mission to NASA, and offers suggestions on how these impediments might be addressed. Commercially hosted payloads provide a novel way to serve the needs of the science and technology demonstration communities at a fraction of the cost of a traditional Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) mission. The commercial communications industry launches over 20 satellites to GEO each year. By exercising this repeatable commercial paradigm of privately financed access to space with proven vendors, NASA can achieve science goals at a significantly lower cost than the current dedicated spacecraft and launch vehicle approach affords. Commercial hosting could open up a new realm of opportunities for NASA science missions to make measurements from GEO. This paper also briefly describes two GEO missions recommended by the National Academies of Science Earth Science Decadal Survey, the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission and the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission. Hosted payload missions recently selected for implementation by the Office of the Chief Technologist are also discussed. Finally, there are

  14. Burnup credit effect on proposed cask payloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, I.K.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Cask Systems Development Program (CSDP) is to develop a variety of cask systems which will allow safe and economical movement of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste from the generator to the Federal repository or Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. Program schedule objectives for the initial phase of the CSDP include the development of certified spent fuel cask systems by 1995 to support Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management shipments from the utilities beginning in the late 1990s. Forty-nine proposals for developing a family of spent fuel casks were received and comparisons made. General conclusions that can be drawn from the comparisons are that (1) the new generation of casks will have substantially increased payloads in comparison to current casks, and (2) an even greater payload increase may be achievable with burnup credit. The ranges in the payload estimates do not allow a precise separation of the payload increase attributable to the proposed allowance of fuel burnup credit, as compared wilt the no-burnup-credit case. The beneficial effects of cask payload increases on overall costs and risks of transporting spent fuel are significant; therefore further work aimed toward taking advantage of burnup credit is warranted

  15. A Cubesat Payload for Exoplanet Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Iuzzolino

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for undiscovered planets outside the solar system is a scientific topic that is rapidly spreading into the astrophysical and engineering communities. In this framework, the design of an innovative payload to detect exoplanets from a nano-sized space platform, like a 3U cubesat, is presented. The selected detection method is photometric transit, and the payload aims to detect flux decrements down to ~0.01% with a precision of 12 ppm. The payload design is also aimed at false positive recognition. The solution consists of a four-facets pyramid on the top of the payload, to allow for measurement redundancy and low-resolution spectral dispersion of the star images. The innovative concept is the use of a small and cheap platform for a relevant astronomical mission. The faintest observable target star has V-magnitude equal to 3.38. Despite missions aimed at ultra-precise photometry from microsatellites (e.g., MOST, BRITE, the transit of exoplanets orbiting very bright stars has not yet been surveyed photometrically from space, since any observation from a small/medium sized (30 cm optical aperture telescope would saturate the detector. This cubesat mission can provide these missing measurements. This work is set up as a demonstrative project to verify the feasibility of the payload concept.

  16. Experience of Data Handling with IPPM Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Walter; Tosi, Pietro; Ilstad, Jorgen; Jameux, David; Viviani, Riccardo; Collantoni, Daniele

    2010-08-01

    A simplified On-Board Data Handling system has been developed by CAEN AURELIA SPACE and ABSTRAQT as PUS-over-SpaceWire demonstration platform for the Onboard Payload Data Processing laboratory at ESTEC. The system is composed of three Leon2-based IPPM (Integrated Payload Processing Module) computers that play the roles of Instrument, Payload Data Handling Unit and Satellite Management Unit. Two PCs complete the test set-up simulating an external Memory Management Unit and the Ground Control Unit. Communication among units take place primarily through SpaceWire links; RMAP[2] protocol is used for configuration and housekeeping. A limited implementation of ECSS-E-70-41B Packet Utilisation Standard (PUS)[1] over CANbus and MIL-STD-1553B has been also realized. The Open Source RTEMS is running on the IPPM AT697E CPU as real-time operating system.

  17. IMAX films Destiny in Atlantis's payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In the Payload Changeout Room at Launch Pad 39A, a film crew from IMAX prepares its 3-D movie camera to film the payload bay door closure on Atlantis. Behind them is the payload, the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, which will fly on mission STS-98, the seventh construction flight to the ISS. Destiny, a key element in the construction of the International Space Station, is 28 feet long and weighs 16 tons. This research and command-and-control center is the most sophisticated and versatile space laboratory ever built. It will ultimately house a total of 23 experiment racks for crew support and scientific research. Launch of Atlantis is Feb. 7 at 6:11 p.m. EST.

  18. Approach to Spacelab Payload mission management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. G.; Lester, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleus of the approach to Spacelab Payload mission management is the establishment of a single point of authority for the entire payload on a given mission. This single point mission manager will serve as a 'broker' between the individual experiments and the STS, negotiating agreements by two-part interaction. The payload mission manager, along with a small support team, will represent the users in negotiating use of STS accommodations. He will provide the support needed by each individual experimenter to meet the scientific, technological, and applications objectives of the mission with minimum cost and maximum efficiency. The investigator will assume complete responsibility for his experiment hardware definition and development and will take an active role in the integration and operation of his experiment.

  19. Ares V: New Opportunities for Scientific Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Steve

    2009-01-01

    What if scientists and payload planners had access to three to five times the volume and five to nine times the mass provided by today's launch vehicles? This simple question can lead to numerous exciting possibilities, all involving NASA's new Ares V cargo launch vehicle now on the drawing board. Multiple scientific fields and payload designers have that opportunity with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, being developed at NASA as the heavy-lift component of the U.S. Space Exploration Policy. When the Ares V begins flying late next decade, its capabilities will significantly exceed the 1960s-era Saturn V or the current Space Shuttle, while it benefits from their engineering, manufacturing, and infrastructure heritage. It will send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than Apollo and provide ongoing support to a permanent lunar outpost. Moreover, it will restore a strategic heavy-lift U.S. asset, which can support human and robotic exploration and scientific ventures for decades to come. Assessment of astronomy payload requirements since Spring 2008 has indicated that Ares V has the potential to support a range of payloads and missions. Some of these missions were impossible in the absence of Ares V's capabilities. Collaborative design/architecture inputs, exchanges, and analyses have already begun between scientists and payload developers. A 2008 study by a National Research Council (NRC) panel, as well as analyses presented by astronomers and planetary scientists at two weekend conferences in 2008, support the position that Ares V has benefit to a broad range of planetary and astronomy missions. This early dialogue with Ares V engineers is permitting the greatest opportunity for payload/transportation/mission synergy and the least financial impact to Ares V development. In addition, independent analyses suggest that Ares V has the opportunity to enable more cost-effective mission design.

  20. STS-98 Destiny in Atlantis's payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The U.S. Laboratory Destiny rests once again in Atlantis'''s payload bay, at Launch Pad 39A. Closing of the payload bay doors is imminent. Destiny, a key element in the construction of the International Space Station, is 28 feet long and weighs 16 tons. This research and command-and-control center is the most sophisticated and versatile space laboratory ever built. It will ultimately house a total of 23 experiment racks for crew support and scientific research. Destiny will be launched Feb. 7 on STS-98, the seventh construction flight to the ISS.

  1. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  2. Natural products from microbes associated with insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Guo, Huijuan; Rischer, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Here we review discoveries of secondary metabolites from microbes associated with insects. We mainly focus on natural products, where the ecological role has been at least partially elucidated, and/or the pharmaceutical properties evaluated, and on compounds with unique structural features. We...

  3. MVP: a microbe-phage interaction database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Na L; Zhang, Chengwei; Zhang, Zhanbing; Hu, Songnian; Lercher, Martin J; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Bork, Peer; Liu, Zhi; Chen, Wei-Hua

    2018-01-04

    Phages invade microbes, accomplish host lysis and are of vital importance in shaping the community structure of environmental microbiota. More importantly, most phages have very specific hosts; they are thus ideal tools to manipulate environmental microbiota at species-resolution. The main purpose of MVP (Microbe Versus Phage) is to provide a comprehensive catalog of phage-microbe interactions and assist users to select phage(s) that can target (and potentially to manipulate) specific microbes of interest. We first collected 50 782 viral sequences from various sources and clustered them into 33 097 unique viral clusters based on sequence similarity. We then identified 26 572 interactions between 18 608 viral clusters and 9245 prokaryotes (i.e. bacteria and archaea); we established these interactions based on 30 321 evidence entries that we collected from published datasets, public databases and re-analysis of genomic and metagenomic sequences. Based on these interactions, we calculated the host range for each of the phage clusters and accordingly grouped them into subgroups such as 'species-', 'genus-' and 'family-' specific phage clusters. MVP is equipped with a modern, responsive and intuitive interface, and is freely available at: http://mvp.medgenius.info. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. The mucosal firewalls against commensal intestinal microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Andrew J; Slack, Emma; Geuking, Markus B; McCoy, Kathy D

    2009-07-01

    Mammals coexist with an extremely dense microbiota in the lower intestine. Despite the constant challenge of small numbers of microbes penetrating the intestinal surface epithelium, it is very unusual for these organisms to cause disease. In this review article, we present the different mucosal firewalls that contain and allow mutualism with the intestinal microbiota.

  5. Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph; McWilliams, Brett; Altstatt, Richard; Koontz, Steven

    2006-01-01

    A conservative design approach was adopted by the International Space Station Program for specifying total ionizing radiation dose requirements for use in selecting and qualifying materials for construction of the International Space Station. The total ionizing dose design environment included in SSP 30512 Space Station Ionizing Radiation Design Environment is based on trapped proton and electron fluence derived from the solar maximum versions of the AE-8 and AP-8 models, respectively, specified for a circular orbit at 500 km altitude and 51.7 degree inclination. Since launch, the range of altitudes utilized for Space Station operations vary from a minimum of approximately 330 km to a maximum of approximately 405 km with a mean operational altitude less than 400 km. The design environment, therefore, overestimates the radiation environment because the particle flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly is the primary contributor to radiation dose in low Earth orbit and flux within the Anomaly is altitude dependent. In addition, a 2X multiplier is often applied to the design environment to cover effects from the contributions of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particle events, geomagnetic storms, and uncertainties in the trapped radiation models which are not explicitly included in the design environment. Application of this environment may give radiation dose overestimates on the order of 1OX to 30X for materials exposed to the space environment, suggesting that materials originally qualified for ten year exposures on orbit may be used for longer periods without replacement. In this paper we evaluate the "as flown" radiation environments derived from historical records of the ISS flight trajectory since launch and compare the results with the SSP 30512 design environment to document the magnitude of the radiation dose overestimate provided by the design environment. "As flown" environments are obtained from application of the AE-8/AP-8 trapped particle models along

  6. Regenerative Payload for GSAT-3 & Advanced Communication ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Regenerative Payload for GSAT-3 & Advanced Communication Series Satellite. GSAT-4. 8 Ka -Band Spot Beams; 8 Narrow Band (64Kbps) Channels/ Beam; 1 Wide Band (2Mbps) Channel/ Beam;; 64 Kbps Signaling Channel; On-Board Switch Matrix; 8 Channel ...

  7. Smart and intelligent sensor payload project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Engineers working on the smart and intelligent sensor payload project include (l to r): Ed Conley (NASA), Mark Mitchell (Jacobs Technology), Luke Richards (NASA), Robert Drackett (Jacobs Technology), Mark Turowski (Jacobs Technology) , Richard Franzl (seated, Jacobs Technology), Greg McVay (Jacobs Technology), Brianne Guillot (Jacobs Technology), Jon Morris (Jacobs Technology), Stephen Rawls (NASA), John Schmalzel (NASA) and Andrew Bracey (NASA).

  8. Payload specialist Ronald Parise using SAREX

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    ASTRO-2 payload specialist Ronald A. Parise reminisces on his inspace amateur radio experience of five years ago in the ASTRO-1 mission. Using the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX), Parise talks to students on Earth from the flight deck of the Earth orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  9. The Science Payload of the LOFT Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, Marco; den Herder, J.; van der Klis, M.

    The scientific payload onboard the Large Observatory For x-ray Timing mission (LOFT, see presentation by P. Ray et al. at this meeting) is composed of two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD, 10 m2 effective area in the primary energy range 2-30 keV, 1-deg collimated field of view) and the ...

  10. Cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednieks, Maija I.; Popova, Irina A.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    The cellular compartmentalization of the cyclic AMP-receptor proteins in heart ventricular tissue obtained from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 is determined. Photoaffinity labeling of soluble and particular cell fractions with a (32P)-8-azido analog of cyclic AMP is followed by electrophoretic separation of the proteins and by autoradiographic identification of the labeled isoforms of cAPK R subunits. It is shown that RII in the particulate subcellular fraction was significantly decreased in heart cells from rats in the flight group when compared to controls. Protein banding patterns in both the cytoplasmic fraction and in a fraction enriched in chromatin-bound proteins exhibited some variability in tissues of individual animals, but showed no changes that could be directly attributed to flight conditions. No significant change was apparent in the distribution of RI or RII cyclic AMP binding in the soluble fractions. It is inferred that the cardiac cell integrity or its protein content is not compromised under flight conditions.

  11. The Case for GEO Hosted SSA Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, C.; Armand, B.; Repp, M.; Robinson, A.

    2014-09-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) in the geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) belt presents unique challenges, and given the national importance and high value of GEO satellites, is increasingly critical as space becomes more congested and contested. Space situational awareness capabilities can serve as an effective deterrent against potential adversaries if they provide accurate, timely, and persistent information and are resilient to the threat environment. This paper will demonstrate how simple optical SSA payloads hosted on GEO commercial and government satellites can complement the SSA mission and data provided by Space-Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) and the Geosynchronous Space Situational Awareness Program (GSSAP). GSSAP is built by Orbital Sciences Corporation and launched on July 28, 2014. Analysis performed for this paper will show how GEO hosted SSA payloads, working in combination with SBSS and GSSAP, can increase persistence and timely coverage of high value assets in the GEO belt. The potential to further increase GEO object identification and tracking accuracy by integrating SSA data from multiple sources across different viewing angles including GEO hosted SSA sources will be addressed. Hosting SSA payloads on GEO platforms also increases SSA mission architecture resiliency as the sensors are by distributed across multiple platforms including commercial platforms. This distributed architecture presents a challenging target for an adversary to attempt to degrade or disable. We will present a viable concept of operations to show how data from hosted SSA sensors could be integrated with SBSS and GSSAP data to present a comprehensive and more accurate data set to users. Lastly, we will present an acquisition approach using commercial practices and building on lessons learned from the Commercially Hosted Infra Red Payload CHIRP to demonstrate the affordability of GEO hosted SSA payloads.

  12. Payload crew activity planning integration. Task 2: Inflight operations and training for payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz, F. R.

    1976-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Payload Crew Activity Planning Integration task were to: (1) Determine feasible, cost-effective payload crew activity planning integration methods. (2) Develop an implementation plan and guidelines for payload crew activity plan (CAP) integration between the JSC Orbiter planners and the Payload Centers. Subtask objectives and study activities were defined as: (1) Determine Crew Activity Planning Interfaces. (2) Determine Crew Activity Plan Type and Content. (3) Evaluate Automated Scheduling Tools. (4) Develop a draft Implementation Plan for Crew Activity Planning Integration. The basic guidelines were to develop a plan applicable to the Shuttle operations timeframe, utilize existing center resources and expertise as much as possible, and minimize unnecessary data exchange not directly productive in the development of the end-product timelines.

  13. Honey Bee Health: The Potential Role of Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbes, are a diverse group of unicellular organisms that include bacteria, fungi, archaea, protists, and sometimes viruses. Bees carry a diverse assemblage of microbes (mostly bacteria and fungi). Very few are pathogenic; most microbes are likely commensal or even beneficial to the colony. Mic...

  14. The Study of the Microbes Degraded Polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Long Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the observation that Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio could eat polystyrene (PS, we setup the platform to screen the gut microbes of these two worms. To take advantage of that Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio can eat and digest polystyrene as its diet, we analyzed these special microbes with PS plate and PS turbidity system with time courses. There were two strains TM1 and ZM1 which isolated from Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio, and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that TM1 and ZM1 were cocci-like and short rod shape Gram-negative bacteria under microscope. The PS plate and turbidity assay showed that TM1 and ZM1 could utilize polystyrene as their carbon sources. The further study of PS degraded enzyme and cloning warrants our attention that this platform will be an excellent tools to explore and solve this problem.

  15. Engineering tailored nanoparticles with microbes: quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ram; Pandey, Rishikesh; Barman, Ishan

    2016-01-01

    In the quest for less toxic and cleaner methods of nanomaterials production, recent developments in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles have underscored the important role of microorganisms. Their intrinsic ability to withstand variable extremes of temperature, pressure, and pH coupled with the minimal downstream processing requirements provide an attractive route for diverse applications. Yet, controlling the dispersity and facile tuning of the morphology of the nanoparticles of desired chemical compositions remains an ongoing challenge. In this Focus Review, we critically review the advances in nanoparticle synthesis using microbes, ranging from bacteria and fungi to viruses, and discuss new insights into the cellular mechanisms of such formation that may, in the near future, allow complete control over particle morphology and functionalization. In addition to serving as paradigms for cost-effective, biocompatible, and eco-friendly synthesis, microbes hold the promise for a unique template for synthesis of tailored nanoparticles targeted at therapeutic and diagnostic platform technologies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Electrifying microbes for the production of chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier-Luc eTremblay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Powering microbes with electrical energy to produce valuable chemicals such as biofuels has recently gained traction as a biosustainable strategy to reduce our dependence on oil. Microbial electrosynthesis (MES is one of the bioelectrochemical approaches developed in the last decade that could have critical impact on the current methods of chemical synthesis. MES is a process in which electroautotrophic microbes use electrical current as electron source to reduce CO2 to multicarbon organics. Electricity necessary for MES can be harvested from renewable resources such as solar energy, wind turbine or wastewater treatment processes. The net outcome is that renewable energy is stored in the covalent bonds of organic compounds synthesized from greenhouse gas. This review will discuss the future of MES and the challenges that lie ahead for its development into a mature technology.

  17. Electrifying microbes for the production of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Zhang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    have critical impact on the current methods of chemical synthesis. MES is a process in which electroautotrophic microbes use electrical current as electron source to reduce CO2 to multicarbon organics. Electricity necessary for MES can be harvested from renewable resources such as solar energy, wind......Powering microbes with electrical energy to produce valuable chemicals such as biofuels has recently gained traction as a biosustainable strategy to reduce our dependence on oil. Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is one of the bioelectrochemical approaches developed in the last decade that could...... turbine, or wastewater treatment processes. The net outcome is that renewable energy is stored in the covalent bonds of organic compounds synthesized from greenhouse gas. This review will discuss the future of MES and the challenges that lie ahead for its development into a mature technology....

  18. Visualizing conserved gene location across microbe genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Chris D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces an analysis-based zoomable visualization technique for displaying the location of genes across many related species of microbes. The purpose of this visualizatiuon is to enable a biologist to examine the layout of genes in the organism of interest with respect to the gene organization of related organisms. During the genomic annotation process, the ability to observe gene organization in common with previously annotated genomes can help a biologist better confirm the structure and function of newly analyzed microbe DNA sequences. We have developed a visualization and analysis tool that enables the biologist to observe and examine gene organization among genomes, in the context of the primary sequence of interest. This paper describes the visualization and analysis steps, and presents a case study using a number of Rickettsia genomes.

  19. Ares V: Shifting the Payload Design Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, Phil; Creech, Steve; Cockrell, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is designing the Ares V heavy-lift cargo launch vehicle to send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than the 1960s-era Saturn V and to provide ongoing support for a permanent lunar outpost. This uncrewed cargo vehicle is designed to operate together with the Ares I crew vehicle (Figure 1). In addition to this role, however, its unmatched mass and volume capability represent a national asset for exploration, science, and commerce. The Ares V also enables or significantly enhances a large class of space missions not thought possible by scientists and engineers since the Saturn V program ended over 30 years ago. Compared to current systems, it will offer approximately five times the mass and volume to most orbits and locations. This should allow prospective mission planners to build robust payloads with margins that are three to five times the industry norm. The space inside the planned payload shroud has enough usable volume to launch the volumetric equivalent of approximately 10 Apollo Lunar Modules or approximately five equivalent Hubble Space Telescopes. This mass and volume capability to low-Earth orbit (LEO) enables a host of new scientific and observation platforms, such as telescopes, satellites, planetary and solar missions, as well as being able to provide the lift for future large in-space infrastructure missions, such as space based solar power and mining, Earth asteroid defense, propellant depots, etc. In addition, payload designers may also have the option of simplifying their designs or employing Ares V s payload as dumb mass to reduce technical and operational risk. The Ares V team is engaging the potential payload community now, two to three years before System Requirements Review (SRR), in order to better understand the additional requirements from the payload community that could be accommodated in the Ares V design in its conceptual phase. This paper will discuss the Ares V reference mission and capability, as well as its

  20. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  1. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Bridgers, Kevin; Brown, Cecelia Wright

    1995-01-01

    The tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for nearly six years. During this time, the tomato seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation and solar wind. Upon the return of the LDEF to earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the long term effect of cosmic rays on living tissue. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray analysis of the control as well as Space-exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the Electron Microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the Space-exposed seeds than on the Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results show that the Space-exposed seeds germinate sooner than the Earth-Based seeds. Also, the Space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate). The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with Argon/Gold Palladium Plasma, they were ready to be viewed under the Electron Microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. The Space-exposed specimens displayed a high concentration of copper and calcium in the two specimens. There was a significantly high concentration of copper in the Earth-based specimens, whereas there was no copper in the Space-exposed specimens.

  2. Design of Smart Multi-Functional Integrated Aviation Photoelectric Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2018-04-01

    To coordinate with the small UAV at reconnaissance mission, we've developed a smart multi-functional integrated aviation photoelectric payload. The payload weighs only 1kg, and has a two-axis stabilized platform with visible task payload, infrared task payload, laser pointers and video tracker. The photoelectric payload could complete the reconnaissance tasks above the target area (including visible and infrared). Because of its light weight, small size, full-featured, high integrated, the constraints of the UAV platform carrying the payload will be reduced a lot, which helps the payload suit for more extensive using occasions. So all users of this type of smart multi-functional integrated aviation photoelectric payload will do better works on completion of the ground to better pinpoint targets, artillery calibration, assessment of observe strike damage, customs officials and other tasks.

  3. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  4. ESPA Based Secondary Payload Orbit Maneuvering System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop/design an integrated propulsion, power, ACS, and separation module for secondary ESPA payloads. The standardized secondary payload...

  5. Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Tai, Mitchell; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2018-01-09

    Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis, for example, a combination of a step generating metabolites, acetyl-CoA, ATP or NADPH for lipid synthesis (a push step), and a step sequestering a product or an intermediate of a lipid synthesis pathway that mediates feedback inhibition of lipid synthesis (a pull step). Such push-and-pull engineered microbes exhibit greatly enhanced conversion yields and TAG synthesis and storage properties.

  6. Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Tai, Mitchell; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2015-02-10

    Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis, for example, a combination of a step generating metabolites, acetyl-CoA, ATP or NADPH for lipid synthesis (a push step), and a step sequestering a product or an intermediate of a lipid synthesis pathway that mediates feedback inhibition of lipid synthesis (a pull step). Such push-and-pull engineered microbes exhibit greatly enhanced conversion yields and TAG synthesis and storage properties.

  7. Robotic-Movement Payload Lifter and Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William R. (Inventor); King, Bruce D. (Inventor); Collins, Timothy J. (Inventor); Dorsey, John T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A payload lifter/manipulator module includes a rotatable joint supporting spreader arms angularly spaced with respect to one another. A rigid arm is fixedly coupled to the joint and extends out therefrom to a tip. A tension arm has a first end and a second end with the first end being fixedly coupled to the tip of the rigid arm. The tension arm incorporates pivots along the length thereof. Each pivot can be engaged by or disengaged from the outboard end of a spreader arm based on a position of the spreader arm. A hoist, positioned remotely with respect to the module and coupled to the second end of the tension arm, controls the position of the spreader arms to thereby control the position of the rigid arm's tip. Payload lifter/manipulator assemblies can be constructed with one or more of the modules.

  8. Android Malware Clustering through Malicious Payload Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuping; Jang, Jiyong; Hu, Xin; Ou, Xinming

    2017-01-01

    Clustering has been well studied for desktop malware analysis as an effective triage method. Conventional similarity-based clustering techniques, however, cannot be immediately applied to Android malware analysis due to the excessive use of third-party libraries in Android application development and the widespread use of repackaging in malware development. We design and implement an Android malware clustering system through iterative mining of malicious payload and checking whether malware s...

  9. PIMS-Universal Payload Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Ralph; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the overall manager and integrator of International Space Station (ISS) science payloads and experiments, the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) at Marshall Space Flight Center had a critical need to provide an information management system for exchange and management of ISS payload files as well as to coordinate ISS payload related operational changes. The POIC's information management system has a fundamental requirement to provide secure operational access not only to users physically located at the POIC, but also to provide collaborative access to remote experimenters and International Partners. The Payload Information Management System (PIMS) is a ground based electronic document configuration management and workflow system that was built to service that need. Functionally, PIMS provides the following document management related capabilities: 1. File access control, storage and retrieval from a central repository vault. 2. Collect supplemental data about files in the vault. 3. File exchange with a PMS GUI client, or any FTP connection. 4. Files placement into an FTP accessible dropbox for pickup by interfacing facilities, included files transmitted for spacecraft uplink. 5. Transmission of email messages to users notifying them of new version availability. 6. Polling of intermediate facility dropboxes for files that will automatically be processed by PIMS. 7. Provide an API that allows other POIC applications to access PIMS information. Functionally, PIMS provides the following Change Request processing capabilities: 1. Ability to create, view, manipulate, and query information about Operations Change Requests (OCRs). 2. Provides an adaptable workflow approval of OCRs with routing through developers, facility leads, POIC leads, reviewers, and implementers. Email messages can be sent to users either involving them in the workflow process or simply notifying them of OCR approval progress. All PIMS document management and OCR workflow controls are

  10. Roles and Importance of Microbes in the Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Roh, Yeol

    2009-01-01

    Recently the importance and interest for the microbes has been increased because several important results for the effects of microbes on the radioactive waste disposal have been published continuously. In this study, research status and major results on the various roles and effects of microbes in the radioactive waste disposal have been investigated. We investigated and summarized the roles and major results of microbes in a multi-barrier system consisting of an engineered barrier and a natural barrier which is considered in radioactive waste disposal systems. For the engineered barrier, we discussed about the effects of microbes on the corrosion of a waste container and investigated the survival possibility and roles of microbes in a compacted bentonite buffer. For the natural barrier, the roles of microbes present in groundwaters and rocks were discussed and summarized with major results from natural analogue studies. Furthermore, we investigated and summarized the roles and various interactions processes of microbes and their effects on the radionuclide migration and retardation including recent research status. Therefore, it is expected that the effects and roles of microbes on the radioactive waste disposal can be rigorously evaluated if further researches are carried out for a long-term behavior of the disposal system in the deep geological environments and for the effects of microbes on the radionuclide migration through geological media.

  11. A Trajectory Generation Approach for Payload Directed Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Corey A.; Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu

    2009-01-01

    Presently, flight systems designed to perform payload-centric maneuvers require preconstructed procedures and special hand-tuned guidance modes. To enable intelligent maneuvering via strong coupling between the goals of payload-directed flight and the autopilot functions, there exists a need to rethink traditional autopilot design and function. Research into payload directed flight examines sensor and payload-centric autopilot modes, architectures, and algorithms that provide layers of intelligent guidance, navigation and control for flight vehicles to achieve mission goals related to the payload sensors, taking into account various constraints such as the performance limitations of the aircraft, target tracking and estimation, obstacle avoidance, and constraint satisfaction. Payload directed flight requires a methodology for accurate trajectory planning that lets the system anticipate expected return from a suite of onboard sensors. This paper presents an extension to the existing techniques used in the literature to quickly and accurately plan flight trajectories that predict and optimize the expected return of onboard payload sensors.

  12. The microbe capture experiment in space: Fluorescence microscopic detection of microbes captured by aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Tomohiro; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yang, Yinjie; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Okudaira, Kyoko; Tabata, Makoto; Kawai, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Sunao; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    Microbes have been collected at the altitude up to about 70 km in the sampling experiment done by several groups[1]. We have also collected high altitude microbes, by using an airplane and balloons[2][3][4][5]. We collected new deinococcal strain (Deinococcus aetherius and Deinococ-cus aerius) and several strains of spore-forming bacilli from stratosphere[2][4][5]. However, microbe sampling in space has never been reported. On the other hand, "Panspermia" hy-pothesis, where terrestrial life is originated from outside of Earth, has been proposed[6][7][8][9]. Recent report suggesting existence of the possible microbe fossils in the meteorite of Mars origin opened the serious debate on the possibility of migration of life embedded in meteorites (and cosmic dusts)[10][11]. If we were able to find terrestrial microbes in space, it would suggest that the terrestrial life can travel between astronomical bodies. We proposed a mission "Tanpopo: Astrobiology Exposure and Micrometeoroid Capture Experiments" to examine possible inter-planetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module of the International Space Station (ISS)[12]. Two of six sub themes in this mission are directly related to interplanetary migration of microbes. One is the direct capturing experi-ment of microbes (probably within the particles such as clay) in space by the exposed ultra-low density aerogel. Another is the exposure experiment to examine survivability of the microbes in harsh space environment. They will tell us the possibility of interplanetary migration of microbes (life) from Earth to outside of Earth (or vise versa). In this report, we will report whether aerogel that have been used for the collection of space debris and cosmic dusts can be used for microbe sampling in space. We will discuss how captured particles by aerogel can be detected with DNA-specific fluorescent dye, and how to distinguish microbes from other mate-rials (i.e. aerogel and

  13. Expert System Software Assistant for Payload Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark N.

    1997-01-01

    The broad objective of this expert system software based application was to demonstrate the enhancements and cost savings that can be achieved through expert system software utilization in a spacecraft ground control center. Spacelab provided a valuable proving ground for this advanced software technology; a technology that will be exploited and expanded for future ISS operations. Our specific focus was on demonstrating payload cadre command and control efficiency improvements through the use of "smart" software which monitors flight telemetry, provides enhanced schematic-based data visualization, and performs advanced engineering data analysis.

  14. An advanced material science payload for GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensson, R.; Wallin, S.; Loeth, K.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to study solidification of different compositions of lead-tin. The weight of the material is quite high: 8 kilograms. Nearly 10% of the payload is sample weight. The dendritic growth and the effect of the absence of natural convection are of particular interest. The results from the flight processed samples will be compared with results from Earth processed samples in order to investigate the influence of the natural convection on the solidification process. The power systems, heat storage and rejection, and mechanical support are discussed in relationship to the scientific requirements.

  15. Where the Wild Microbes Are: Education and Outreach on Sub-Seafloor Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S. K.; Kurtz, K.; Orcutt, B.; Strong, L.; Collins, J.; Feagan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-seafloor microbiology has the power to spark the imaginations of children, students and the general public with its mysterious nature, cutting-edge research, and connections to the search for extraterrestrial life. These factors have been utilized to create a number of educational and outreach products to bring subsurface microbes to non-scientist audiences in creative and innovative ways. The Adopt a Microbe curriculum for middle school students provides hands-on activities and investigations for students to learn about microbes and the on-going research about them, and provides opportunities to connect with active expeditions. A new series of videos engages non-scientists with stories about research expeditions and the scientists themselves. A poster and associated activities explore the nature of science using a microbiologist and her research as examples. A new e-book for young children will engage them with age-appropriate text and illustrations. These projects are multidisciplinary, involve science and engineering practices, are available to all audiences and provide examples of high level and meaningful partnerships between scientists and educators and the kinds of products that can result. Subseafloor microbiology projects such as these, aimed at K-12 students and the general public, have the potential to entice the interest of the next generation of microbe scientists and increase general awareness of this important science.

  16. Endogenous System Microbes as Treatment Process ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the efficacy of treatment strategies to remove pathogens in decentralized systems remains a challenge. Evaluating log reduction targets by measuring pathogen levels is hampered by their sporadic and low occurrence rates. Fecal indicator bacteria are used in centralized systems to indicate the presence of fecal pathogens, but are ineffective decentralized treatment process indicators as they generally occur at levels too low to assess log reduction targets. System challenge testing by spiking with high loads of fecal indicator organisms, like MS2 coliphage, has limitations, especially for large systems. Microbes that are endogenous to the decentralized system, occur in high abundances and mimic removal rates of bacterial, viral and/or parasitic protozoan pathogens during treatment could serve as alternative treatment process indicators to verify log reduction targets. To identify abundant microbes in wastewater, the bacterial and viral communities were examined using deep sequencing. Building infrastructure-associated bacteria, like Zoogloea, were observed as dominant members of the bacterial community in graywater. In blackwater, bacteriophage of the order Caudovirales constituted the majority of contiguous sequences from the viral community. This study identifies candidate treatment process indicators in decentralized systems that could be used to verify log removal during treatment. The association of the presence of treatment process indic

  17. Trans Atlantic Infrasound Payload (TAIP) Operation Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lees, Jonathan M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Carolina Infrasound package, added as a piggyback to the 2016 ULDB ight, recorded unique acoustic signals such as the ocean microbarom and a large meteor. These data both yielded unique insights into the acoustic energy transfer from the lower to the upper atmosphere as well as highlighted the vast array of signals whose origins remain unknown. Now, the opportunity to y a payload across the north Atlantic offers an opportunity to sample one of the most active ocean microbarom sources on Earth. Improvements in payload capabilities should result in characterization of the higher frequency range of the stratospheric infrasound spectrum as well. Finally, numerous large mining and munitions disposal explosions in the region may provide \\ground truth" events for assessing the detection capability of infrasound microphones in the stratosphere. The flight will include three different types of infrasound sensors. One type is a pair of polarity reversed InfraBSU microphones (standard for high altitude flights since 2016), another is a highly sensitive Chaparral 60 modified for a very low corner period, and the final sensor is a lightweight, low power Gem infrasound package. By evaluating these configurations against each other on the same flight, we will be able to optimize future campaigns with different sensitivity and mass constraints.

  18. Expanding the Allowable TRUPACT-II Payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Michel, W.; Lott, S.

    2002-01-01

    The partnership between the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the TRU and Mixed Waste Focus Area (TMFA) was rewarded when several long-term projects came to fruition. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) removed some of the conservatism in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) with their approval of Revision 19. The SARP strictly limits the payload constituents to ensure that hydrogen gas and other flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) don't build up to flammable/explosive levels while the transuranic (TRU) waste is sealed in the container during shipment. The CBFO/TMFA development program was based on laboratory experiments with surrogate waste materials, real waste experiments, and theoretical modeling that were used to justify payload expansion. Future work to expand the shipping envelope of the TRUPACT-II focuses on increasing the throughput through the waste certification process and reducing the waste operations costs by removing the need for a repack aging and/or treatment capability or reducing the size of the needed repackaging/treatment capability

  19. Growth Rates of Microbes in the Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchman, David L

    2016-01-01

    A microbe's growth rate helps to set its ecological success and its contribution to food web dynamics and biogeochemical processes. Growth rates at the community level are constrained by biomass and trophic interactions among bacteria, phytoplankton, and their grazers. Phytoplankton growth rates are approximately 1 d(-1), whereas most heterotrophic bacteria grow slowly, close to 0.1 d(-1); only a few taxa can grow ten times as fast. Data from 16S rRNA and other approaches are used to speculate about the growth rate and the life history strategy of SAR11, the most abundant clade of heterotrophic bacteria in the oceans. These strategies are also explored using genomic data. Although the methods and data are imperfect, the available data can be used to set limits on growth rates and thus on the timescale for changes in the composition and structure of microbial communities.

  20. Life Redefined: Microbes Built with Arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Sam (SLAC and Felisa Wolfe-Simon, NASA and U.S. Geological Survey)

    2011-03-22

    Life can survive in many harsh environments, from extreme heat to the presence of deadly chemicals. However, life as we know it has always been based on the same six elements -- carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur and phosphorus. Now it appears that even this rule has an exception. In the saline and poisonous environment of Mono Lake, researchers have found a bacterium that can grow by incorporating arsenic into its structure in place of phosphorus. X-ray images taken at SLAC's synchrotron light source reveal that this microbe may even use arsenic as a building block for DNA. Please join us as we describe this discovery, which rewrites the textbook description of how living cells work.

  1. Indoor Air '93. Particles, microbes, radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliokoski, P.; Jantunen, M.; Seppaenen, O.

    1993-01-01

    The conference was held in Helsinki, Finland, July 4-8, 1993. The proceedings of the conference were published in 6 volumes. The main topics of the volume 5 are: (1) particles, fibers and dust - their concentrations and sources in buildings, (2) Health effects of particles, (3) Need of asbestos replacement and encapsulation, (4) Seasonal and temporal variation of fungal and bacterial concentration, (5) The evaluation of microbial contamination of buildings, (6) New methods and comparison of different methods for microbial sampling and evaluation, (7) Microbes in building materials and HVAC-systems, (8) Prevention of microbial contamination in buildings, (9) Dealing with house dust mites, (10) Radon measurements and surveys in different countries, (11) The identification of homes with high radon levels, (12) The measurement methods and prediction of radon levels in buildings, and (13) Prevention of radon penetration from the soil

  2. Payload Crew Training Complex (PCTC) utilization and training plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The physical facilities that comprise the payload crew training complex (PCTC) are described including the host simulator; experiment simulators; Spacelab aft flight deck, experiment pallet, and experiment rack mockups; the simulation director's console; payload operations control center; classrooms; and supporting soft- and hardware. The parameters of a training philosophy for payload crew training at the PCTC are established. Finally the development of the training plan is addressed including discussions of preassessment, and evaluation options.

  3. Live From Space Station Outreach Payload, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Live from Space Station? Outreach Payload (LFSSOP) is a technologically challenging, exciting opportunity for university students to conduct significant research...

  4. Mission-Aware Payloads for Unmanned Platforms, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sentix and Brigham Young University propose the research and development of embedded payload intelligence for inflight optimization of surveillance, reconnaissance,...

  5. Exploring Mars: The Ares Payload Service (APS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

    1999-08-01

    In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the

  6. Exploring Mars: the Ares Payload Service (APS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Justin; Lusignan, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    In last year's Mars Society convention we introduced the results of five years of studies of space launch capability for the second millennium. We concluded that Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) vehicles such as the Delta Clipper X33, and X34 cannot make it to orbit from the Earth's surface. Whether taking off vertically or horizontally or landing vertically or horizontally, the rocket equations, the performance of available fuels, and the realities of the weight and strength of materials leave no margin for payload. The promised savings from SSTO systems are illusory. However, a configuration that is able to deliver useful payload to orbit is the Single step to Orbit, SsTO, a rocket plane that is released fully fueled, from 35,000 to 40,000 feet altitude. Three approaches have been proposed. The Hot'l and Molnya Corporation designs carry the fueled rocket plane to altitude on the back of a carrier aircraft. In this design the carrier aircraft is Russia's Antonov 225 the world's largest cargo plane. The rocket plane is a modified version of the Buran, Russia's own space shuttle. Another configuration is Kelly Aviation's concept in which the fully fueled rocket plane is towed to altitude by the cargo plane and then released. A third approach is based on the early "X" planes, which were dropped from the belly of the carrier plane. While the rocket equations indicate that these three concepts can deliver useful payloads, the Stanford review found significant advantages to the approach of Pioneer Rocket, in which the rocket plane flies up to the carrier plane with conventional jet engines, docks, and then loads on the oxidizer for the flight to orbit. This architecture has more reasonable abort modes in case of system failure in either aircraft and can deliver a larger final payload to orbit for a given sized carrier. The Stanford recommendation is that the carrier aircraft be the Antonov 225. A design based on this was presented in a report last year. Refinements to the

  7. ISS Microgravity Research Payload Training Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald; Geveden, Rex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Research Discipline has multiple categories of science payloads that are being planned and currently under development to operate on various ISS on-orbit increments. The current program includes six subdisciplines; Materials Science, Fluids Physics, Combustion Science, Fundamental Physics, Cellular Biology and Macromolecular Biotechnology. All of these experiment payloads will require the astronaut various degrees of crew interaction and science observation. With the current programs planning to build various facility class science racks, the crew will need to be trained on basic core operations as well as science background. In addition, many disciplines will use the Express Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) to utilize the accommodations provided by these facilities for smaller and less complex type hardware. The Microgravity disciplines will be responsible to have a training program designed to maximize the experiment and hardware throughput as well as being prepared for various contingencies both with anomalies as well as unexpected experiment observations. The crewmembers will need various levels of training from simple tasks as power on and activate to extensive training on hardware mode change out to observing the cell growth of various types of tissue cultures. Sample replacement will be required for furnaces and combustion type modules. The Fundamental Physics program will need crew EVA support to provide module change out of experiment. Training will take place various research centers and hardware development locations. It is expected that onboard training through various methods and video/digital technology as well as limited telecommunication interaction. Since hardware will be designed to operate from a few weeks to multiple research increments, flexibility must be planned in the training approach and procedure skills to optimize the output as well as the equipment maintainability. Early increment lessons learned

  8. Exomars 2018 Rover Pasteur Payload Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, Andre; Bacher, M.; Ball, A.; Barcos, O.; Bethge, B.; Gaubert, F.; Haldemann, A.; Kminek, G.; Lindner, R.; Pacros, A.; Rohr, T.; Trautner, R.; Vago, J.

    The ExoMars programme is a joint ESA-NASA program having exobiology as one of the key science objectives. It is divided into 2 missions: the first mission is ESA-led with an ESA orbiter and an ESA Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) demonstrator, launched in 2016 by NASA, and the second mission is NASA-led, launched in 2018 by NASA including an ESA rover and a NASA rover both deployed by a single NASA EDL system. For ESA, the ExoMars programme will demonstrate key flight and in situ enabling technologies in support of the European ambitions for future exploration missions, as outlined in the Aurora Declaration. The ExoMars 2018 ESA Rover will carry a comprehensive and coherent suite of analytical instruments dedicated to exobiology and geology research: the Pasteur Payload (PPL). This payload includes a selection of complementary instruments, having the following goals: to search for signs of past and present life on Mars and to investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface. The ExoMars Rover will travel several kilometres searching for sites warranting further investigation. The Rover includes a drill and a Sample Preparation and Distribution System which will be used to collect and analyse samples from within outcrops and from the subsurface. The Rover systems and instruments, in particular those located inside the Analytical Laboratory Drawer must meet many stringent requirements to be compatible with exobiologic investigations: the samples must be maintained in a cold and uncontaminated environment, requiring sterile and ultraclean preparation of the instruments, to preserve volatile materials and to avoid false positive results. The value of the coordinated observations suggests that a significant return on investment is to be expected from this complex development. We will present the challenges facing the ExoMars PPL, and the plans for sending a robust exobiology laboratory to Mars in 2018.

  9. Nonprofit, payload process improvement through lean management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Melissa

    Organizations that are successful and competitive long-term have learned to efficiently utilize their resources, such as money, people, facilities, and time. Over the last half-century, there have been a variety of theories and techniques put forth on how to do this. One recent theory applied in the aerospace industry is Lean Management (LM), which emphasizes a customer focus and a rigorous elimination of activities that do not add value from the customer's perspective. LM has not, until now, been evaluated for small, nonprofit, one-off production organizations (NOPOs). Previous research on LM focused on for-profit companies and large-scale production organizations, producing relatively similar products repetitively (e.g. automobiles, commercial satellites, aircraft, and launch vehicles). One-off production organizations typically create one-of-a-kind products. The purpose of this research is to examine the applicability of LM to a NOPO. LM will improve resource utilization and thereby competitiveness, as well as exploring a new area of knowledge and research. The research methodology consists of conducting case studies, formal and informal interviews, observation and analysis in order to assess whether and how LM may be beneficial. The research focuses on one particular NOPO, BioServe Space Technologies (BST): a nonprofit, payload development organization. Additional NOPOs were interviewed in order to draw more generalized conclusions about LM benefits. The research demonstrates that LM is applicable to NOPOs, thus providing a tool to improve efficiency and competitiveness. Results from this research are guidelines for payload development organizations to implement LM, and highlighting potential LM weaknesses. A major conclusion is that LM needs some minor modifications to be applicable and useful to NOPOs, particularly in terms of value stream mapping. The LM implementation roadmap developed for NOPOs introduces customized metrics, as well as including standard

  10. Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenridge, C.R.; Watkins, C.S.; Bruhn, D.F.; Roberto, F.F.; Tsang, M.N.; Pinhero, P.J.; Brey, R.F.; Wright, R.N.; Windes, W.F.

    1999-01-01

    Microbes have been isolated and identified from spent nuclear fuel storage pools at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Included among these are Corynebacterium aquaticum, Pseudomonas putida, Comamonas acidovorans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Micrococcus diversus, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, and two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We examined the sensitivity of these microbes to a variety of total exposures of radiation generated by a 6-MeV linear accelerator (LINAC). The advantage of using a LINAC is that it provides a relatively quick screen of radiation tolerance. In the first set of experiments, we exposed each of the aforementioned microbes along with four additional microbes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Escherchia coli, and Deinococcus radiodurans to exposures of 5 x 10 3 and 6 x 10 4 rad. All microbial specimens withstood the lower exposure with little or no reduction in cell population. Upon exposing the microbes to the larger dose of 6 x 10 4 rad, we observed two distinct groupings: microbes that demonstrate resistance to radiation, and microbes that display intolerance through a dramatic reduction from their initial population. Microbes in the radiation tolerant grouping were exposed to 1.1 x 10 5 rad to examine the extent of their resistance. We observe a correlation between radiation resistance and gram stain. The gram-positive species we examined seem to demonstrate a greater radiation resistance

  11. Why microbes will rule the world – and our industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Anne Wärme; Palsson, Bernhard; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Microbes have ruled the world for approximately 4 billion years. But the future actually depends on their dominance, some would argue. Why? Because microbes, as well as mammalian cells, can be engineered into producing high-value chemicals and medicine. Therefore, scientists at The Novo Nordisk...... Foundation Center for Biosustainability are hard at work developing cell factories to benefit us all....

  12. Microbes as interesting source of novel insecticides: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... strains with good insecticidal properties can be identified, evaluated and utilized for pest control. This paper reviews the insecticidal properties of microbes and their potential utility in pest management. Keywords: Microbes, insecticides, metabolites, pest management. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(26) 2582- ...

  13. Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, C.R.; Watkins, C.S.; Bruhn, D.F.; Roberto, F.F.; Tsang, M.N.; Pinhero, P.J. [INEEL (US); Brey, R.F. [ISU (US); Wright, R.N.; Windes, W.F.

    1999-09-03

    Microbes have been isolated and identified from spent nuclear fuel storage pools at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Included among these are Corynebacterium aquaticum, Pseudomonas putida, Comamonas acidovorans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Micrococcus diversus, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, and two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We examined the sensitivity of these microbes to a variety of total exposures of radiation generated by a 6-MeV linear accelerator (LINAC). The advantage of using a LINAC is that it provides a relatively quick screen of radiation tolerance. In the first set of experiments, we exposed each of the aforementioned microbes along with four additional microbes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Escherchia coli, and Deinococcus radiodurans to exposures of 5 x 10{sup 3} and 6 x 10{sup 4} rad. All microbial specimens withstood the lower exposure with little or no reduction in cell population. Upon exposing the microbes to the larger dose of 6 x 10{sup 4} rad, we observed two distinct groupings: microbes that demonstrate resistance to radiation, and microbes that display intolerance through a dramatic reduction from their initial population. Microbes in the radiation tolerant grouping were exposed to 1.1 x 10{sup 5} rad to examine the extent of their resistance. We observe a correlation between radiation resistance and gram stain. The gram-positive species we examined seem to demonstrate a greater radiation resistance.

  14. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P. [Department of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T. [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Battle, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cooray, A. [Center for Cosmology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, B.; Renbarger, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kim, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Sullivan, I. [Department of Physics, The University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Suzuki, K., E-mail: zemcov@caltech.edu [Instrument Development Group of Technical Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  15. Planning and Scheduling of Payloads of ASTROSAT during Initial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    41

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... tools, encompassing spacecraft sub-systems, on-orbit, domain and environmental ... in 10-100 keV, (3) A Soft X-ray Imaging Telescope (SXT) using X-ray ... Recorder (SSR) and there is no real time data capability available for payload ..... operating the five payloads in Astrosat efficiently is the Command.

  16. STS-9 payload specialists and backup in training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Two Spacelab 1 payload specialists and a backup for that flight prepare for a training session in the JSC mockup and integration laboratory. Fully decked out in the Shuttle constant wear garments (foreground) are Ulf Merbold, left, and Byron K. Licktenberg, prime crewmembers on the STS-9 team. In civilian clothes is payload specialist backup Michael L. Lampton.

  17. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 3: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Detail design information concerning payloads for biomedical research projects conducted during space missions is presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) equipment modules and equipment item lists, (2) weight and volume breakdown by payload and equipment units, (3) longitudinal floor arrangement configuration, and (4) nonbaseline second generation layouts.

  18. Space vehicle with customizable payload and docking station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; McCabe, Kevin; Seitz, Daniel

    2018-01-30

    A "black box" space vehicle solution may allow a payload developer to define the mission space and provide mission hardware within a predetermined volume and with predetermined connectivity. Components such as the power module, radios and boards, attitude determination and control system (ADCS), command and data handling (C&DH), etc. may all be provided as part of a "stock" (i.e., core) space vehicle. The payload provided by the payload developer may be plugged into the space vehicle payload section, tested, and launched without custom development of core space vehicle components by the payload developer. A docking station may facilitate convenient development and testing of the space vehicle while reducing handling thereof.

  19. Shuttle performance enhancements using an OMS payload bay kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Kevin C.; Mallini, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    The study focuses on the use of an orbital maneuvering system (OMS) payload bay kit (PBK) designed to utilize OMS tanks identical to those currently employed in the Orbiter OMS pods. Emphasis is placed on payload deployment capability and payload servicing/reboost capability augmentation from the point of view of payload mass, maximum deployment altitudes, and initial retrieval and final deployment altitudes. The deployment, servicing, and reboost requirements of the Hubble Space Telescope and Advanced X-ray and Astrophysics Facility are analyzed in order to show the benefits an OMS PBK can provide for these missions. It is shown that OMS PBKs can provide the required capability enhancement necessary to support deployment, reboost, and servicing of payloads requiring altitudes greater than 325 nautical miles.

  20. The Athena Mars Rover Science Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyes, S. W.; Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Carr, M.; Christensen, P.; DesMarais, D.; Economou, T.; Gorevan, S.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Haskin, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor missions that will be launched in April of 2001 will include a highly capable rover that is a successor to the Mars Pathfinder mission's Sojourner rover. The design goals for this rover are a total traverse distance of at least 10 km and a total lifetime of at least one Earth year. The rover's job will be to explore a site in Mars' ancient terrain, searching for materials likely to preserve a record of ancient martian water, climate, and possibly biology. The rover will collect rock and soil samples, and will store them for return to Earth by a subsequent Mars Surveyor mission in 2005. The Athena Mars rover science payload is the suite of scientific instruments and sample collection tools that will be used to perform this job. The specific science objectives that NASA has identified for the '01 rover payload are to: (1) Provide color stereo imaging of martian surface environments, and remotely-sensed point discrimination of mineralogical composition. (2) Determine the elemental and mineralogical composition of martian surface materials. (3) Determine the fine-scale textural properties of these materials. (4) Collect and store samples. The Athena payload has been designed to meet these objectives. The focus of the design is on field operations: making sure the rover can locate, characterize, and collect scientifically important samples in a dusty, dirty, real-world environment. The topography, morphology, and mineralogy of the scene around the rover will be revealed by Pancam/Mini-TES, an integrated imager and IR spectrometer. Pancam views the surface around the rover in stereo and color. It uses two high-resolution cameras that are identical in most respects to the rover's navigation cameras. The detectors are low-power, low-mass active pixel sensors with on-chip 12-bit analog-to-digital conversion. Filters provide 8-12 color spectral bandpasses over the spectral region from 0.4 to 1.1 micron Narrow-angle optics provide an angular resolution of 0

  1. Gut-associated microbes of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Nichole; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in using Drosophila melanogaster to elucidate mechanisms that underlie the complex relationships between a host and its microbiota. In addition to the many genetic resources and tools Drosophila provides, its associated microbiota is relatively simple (1–30 taxa), in contrast to the complex diversity associated with vertebrates (> 500 taxa). These attributes highlight the potential of this system to dissect the complex cellular and molecular interactions that occur between a host and its microbiota. In this review, we summarize what is known regarding the composition of gut-associated microbes of Drosophila and their impact on host physiology. We also discuss these interactions in the context of their natural history and ecology and describe some recent insights into mechanisms by which Drosophila and its gut microbiota interact. “Workers with Drosophila have been considered fortunate in that they deal with the first multicellular invertebrate to be cultured monoxenically (Delcourt and Guyenot, 1910); the first to be handled axenically on a semisynthetic diet (Guyenot, 1917); and the first to be grown on a defined diet (Schultz et al., 1946). This list of advantages is somewhat embarrassing, since it implies an interest in nutrition that, in reality, was only secondary. The very first studies were concerned with the reduction of variability in genetic experiments (Delcourt and Guyenot, 1910) and standardization of the nutritional environment.” -James Sang, 1959 Ann NY Acad 1 PMID:22572876

  2. Acetaldehyde production by major oral microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritani, K; Takeshita, T; Shibata, Y; Ninomiya, T; Kiyohara, Y; Yamashita, Y

    2015-09-01

    To assess acetaldehyde (ACH) production by bacteria constituting the oral microbiota and the inhibitory effects of sugar alcohols on ACH production. The predominant bacterial components of the salivary microbiota of 166 orally healthy subjects were determined by barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial ACH production from ethanol or glucose was measured using gas chromatography. In addition, inhibition by four sugars and five sugar alcohols of ACH production was assayed. Forty-one species from 16 genera were selected as predominant and prevalent bacteria based on the following criteria: identification in ≥95% of the subjects, ≥1% of mean relative abundance or ≥5% of maximum relative abundance. All Neisseria species tested produced conspicuous amounts of ACH from ethanol, as did Rothia mucilaginosa, Streptococcus mitis and Prevotella histicola exhibited the ability to produce ACH. In addition, xylitol and sorbitol inhibited ACH production by Neisseria mucosa by more than 90%. The oral microbiota of orally healthy subjects comprises considerable amounts of bacteria possessing the ability to produce ACH, an oral carcinogen. Consumption of sugar alcohols may regulate ACH production by oral microbes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Flowers and Wild Megachilid Bees Share Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Thomas, Jason M; Neff, John L; Vuong, Hoang Q; Russell, Kaleigh A; Hale, Amanda R; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2017-01-01

    Transmission pathways have fundamental influence on microbial symbiont persistence and evolution. For example, the core gut microbiome of honey bees is transmitted socially and via hive surfaces, but some non-core bacteria associated with honey bees are also found on flowers, and these bacteria may therefore be transmitted indirectly between bees via flowers. Here, we test whether multiple flower and wild megachilid bee species share microbes, which would suggest that flowers may act as hubs of microbial transmission. We sampled the microbiomes of flowers (either bagged to exclude bees or open to allow bee visitation), adults, and larvae of seven megachilid bee species and their pollen provisions. We found a Lactobacillus operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in all samples but in the highest relative and absolute abundances in adult and larval bee guts and pollen provisions. The presence of the same bacterial types in open and bagged flowers, pollen provisions, and bees supports the hypothesis that flowers act as hubs of transmission of these bacteria between bees. The presence of bee-associated bacteria in flowers that have not been visited by bees suggests that these bacteria may also be transmitted to flowers via plant surfaces, the air, or minute insect vectors such as thrips. Phylogenetic analyses of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Lactobacillus OTU dominating in flower- and megachilid-associated microbiomes is monophyletic, and we propose the name Lactobacillus micheneri sp. nov. for this bacterium.

  4. Chemical signaling involved in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Fernanda Oliveira; Pessotti, Rita de Cassia; Caraballo-Rodríguez, Andrés Mauricio; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2018-03-05

    Microorganisms are found everywhere, and they are closely associated with plants. Because the establishment of any plant-microbe association involves chemical communication, understanding crosstalk processes is fundamental to defining the type of relationship. Although several metabolites from plants and microbes have been fully characterized, their roles in the chemical interplay between these partners are not well understood in most cases, and they require further investigation. In this review, we describe different plant-microbe associations from colonization to microbial establishment processes in plants along with future prospects, including agricultural benefits.

  5. Results on artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds in the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubin, Y.; Planel, H.; Gasset, G.; Pianezzi, B.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of space flight factors, in particular the heavy ion component of cosmic rays, on dormant stages of life forms were investigated as part of the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Cosmos 1129 biosatellite. Artemia cysts and seeds of tobacco and lettuce plants were placed in tubes and in monolayers sandwiched between layers of visual particle track detectors. Although Artemia cysts exposed in the dry state did not differ from ground controls, hydrated cysts exhibited a slight decrease in hatchability and reduced (C-14)O2 incorporation and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. For cysts held in the monolayers, hits by HZE particles were observed to stimulate emergence, hatching and survival. Higher proportions of chromosomal aberrations were found in lettuce seeds hit by HZE particles, while space flight produced a stimulatory effect on both germination rate and abnormality frequency in both hit and nonhit tobacco seeds. 9 references

  6. An Examination of Radiation Induced Tensile Failure of Stressed and Unstressed Polymer Films Flown on MISSE-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Thin film polymers are used in many spacecraft applications for thermal control (multilayer insulation and sunshields), as lightweight structural members (solar array blankets, inflatable/deployable structures) and have been proposed for propulsion (solar sails). Polymers in these applications are often under a tensile load and are directly exposed to the space environment, therefore it is important to understand the effect of stress in combination with the environment on the durability of these polymer films. The purpose of the Polymer Film Tensile Experiment, flown as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6), was to expose a variety of polymer films to the low Earth orbital environment under both relaxed and tension conditions. This paper describes the results of post flight tensile testing of these samples.

  7. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gambara

    Full Text Available Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus. Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5 flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013, a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5, or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5. Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response. Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6 were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  8. Environmental restoration using plant-microbe bioaugmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsley, M.T.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Metting, F.B.; Seidler, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Land farming, for the purpose of bioremediation, refers traditionally to the spreading of contaminated soil, sediments, or other material over land; mechanically mixing it; incorporating various amendments, such as fertilizer or mulch; and sometimes inoculating with degradative microorganisms. Populations of bacteria added to soils often decline rapidly and become metabolically inactive. To efficiently degrade contaminants, microorganisms must be metabolically active. Thus, a significant obstacle to the successful use of microorganisms for environmental applications is their long-term survival and the expression of their degradative genes in situ. Rhizosphere microorganisms are known to be more metabolically active than those in bulk soil, because they obtain carbon and energy from root exudates and decaying root matter. Rhizosphere populations are also more abundant, often containing 10 8 or more culturable bacteria per gram of soil, and bacterial populations on the rhizoplane can exceed 10 9 /g root. Many of the critical parameters that influence the competitive ability of rhizosphere bacteria have not been identified, but microorganisms have frequently been introduced into soil (bioaugmentation) as part of routine or novel agronomic practices. However, the use of rhizosphere bacteria and their in situ stimulation by plant roots for degrading organic contaminants has received little attention. Published studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas putida) for the rapid removal of chlorinated pesticides from contaminated soil, and to promote germination of radish seeds in the presence of otherwise phytotoxic levels of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and phenoxyacetic acid (PAA). The present investigation was undertaken to determine if these strains (Pseudomonas putida PPO301/pRO101 and PPO301/pRO103) could be used to bioremediate 2,4-D-amended soil via plant-microbe bioaugmentation

  9. Sphingomonads in Microbe-Assisted Phytoremediation: Tackling Soil Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatheru Waigi, Michael; Sun, Kai; Gao, Yanzheng

    2017-09-01

    Soil pollution has become a major concern in various terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. One in situ soil bioremediation strategy that has gained popularity recently is microbe-assisted phytoremediation, which is promising for remediating pollutants. Sphingomonads, a versatile bacteria group comprising four well-known genera, are ubiquitous in vegetation grown in contaminated soils. These Gram-negative microbes have been investigated for their ability to induce innate plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits, including the formation of phytohormones, siderophores, and chelators, in addition to their evolutionary adaptations enabling biodegradation and microbe-assisted removal of contaminants. However, their capacity for bacterial-assisted phytoremediation has to date been undervalued. Here, we highlight the specific features, roles, advantages, and challenges associated with using sphingomonads in plant-microbe interactions, from the perspective of future phytotechnologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scientists discover how deadly fungal microbes enter host cells

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Barry James

    2010-01-01

    A research team led by scientists at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech has discovered a fundamental entry mechanism that allows dangerous fungal microbes to infect plants and cause disease.

  11. Volume 10 No. 11 November 2010 4340 SOIL MICROBE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-11-11

    Nov 11, 2010 ... SOIL MICROBE MEDIATED ZINC UPTAKE IN SOY BEAN: A REVIEW. Jefwa JM. 1* .... Porg, lipid Plp, high-energetic~P, sugar. Psuc and .... encouragement to prepare this presentation. ... Enviroquest Ltd Ontario, Canada.

  12. Application of photonics in next generation telecommunication satellites payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalchi, J.; Inigo, P.; Roy, B.

    2017-11-01

    Next generation broadband telecommunication satellites are required to provide very high data throughput using complex multibeam architectures. These high throughput `Terabit/s' Satellites will incorporate payloads with very large quantity of conventional RF equipment, co-axial cables, waveguides, harnesses and ancillary equipment, making the Assembly, Integration and Test (AIT) very complex. Use of `RF over Fiber' and associated photonics equipment can make the process of AIT much simpler with the added benefit of significant reduction in number of payload equipment and inherent payload mass.

  13. Anti-radiation microbe separated from traditional Chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Zhaohui; Zhao Junqi; Deng Gangqiao; Wang Qian; Li Wenge; Peng Ling; Luo Zhiping

    2007-01-01

    One batch of Jinsuo pills, a kind of Chinese herbal medicine, treated by standardized irradiation process but failed to meet the sanitation requirement. Radiation resistant microbe was separated from the pills sample and the Gram stain showed positive, the colony of the microbe is milky white and concentric circle shape. It is observed as one of bacillus by microscope, its D 10 values in physiological saline and filter paper are 6.75 and 7.18 kGy, respectively. (authors)

  14. A Molecular Study of Microbe Transfer between Distant Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Sean D.; Raes, Jeroen; Foerstner, Konrad U.; Harrington, Eoghan D.; Dalevi, Daniel; Bork, Peer

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Environments and their organic content are generally not static and isolated, but in a constant state of exchange and interaction with each other. Through physical or biological processes, organisms, especially microbes, may be transferred between environments whose characteristics may be quite different. The transferred microbes may not survive in their new environment, but their DNA will be deposited. In this study, we compare two environmental sequencing projects to find molecu...

  15. The Microbe Directory: An annotated, searchable inventory of microbes’ characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Rawhi; Danko, David; Bezdan, Daniela; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Segata, Nicola; Mason, Christopher E.

    2018-01-01

    The Microbe Directory is a collective research effort to profile and annotate more than 7,500 unique microbial species from the MetaPhlAn2 database that includes bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. By collecting and summarizing data on various microbes’ characteristics, the project comprises a database that can be used downstream of large-scale metagenomic taxonomic analyses, allowing one to interpret and explore their taxonomic classifications to have a deeper understanding of the microbial ecosystem they are studying. Such characteristics include, but are not limited to: optimal pH, optimal temperature, Gram stain, biofilm-formation, spore-formation, antimicrobial resistance, and COGEM class risk rating. The database has been manually curated by trained student-researchers from Weill Cornell Medicine and CUNY—Hunter College, and its analysis remains an ongoing effort with open-source capabilities so others can contribute. Available in SQL, JSON, and CSV (i.e. Excel) formats, the Microbe Directory can be queried for the aforementioned parameters by a microorganism’s taxonomy. In addition to the raw database, The Microbe Directory has an online counterpart ( https://microbe.directory/) that provides a user-friendly interface for storage, retrieval, and analysis into which other microbial database projects could be incorporated. The Microbe Directory was primarily designed to serve as a resource for researchers conducting metagenomic analyses, but its online web interface should also prove useful to any individual who wishes to learn more about any particular microbe. PMID:29630066

  16. [Development of a microenvironment test chamber for airborne microbe research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ningbo; Chen, Feng; Du, Yaohua; Cheng, Zhi; Li, Chenyu; Wu, Jinlong; Wu, Taihu

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important environmental cleanliness indicators is airborne microbe. However, the particularity of clean operating environment and controlled experimental environment often leads to the limitation of the airborne microbe research. This paper designed and implemented a microenvironment test chamber for airborne microbe research in normal test conditions. Numerical simulation by Fluent showed that airborne microbes were evenly dispersed in the upper part of test chamber, and had a bottom-up concentration growth distribution. According to the simulation results, the verification experiment was carried out by selecting 5 sampling points in different space positions in the test chamber. Experimental results showed that average particle concentrations of all sampling points reached 10 7 counts/m 3 after 5 minutes' distributing of Staphylococcus aureus , and all sampling points showed the accordant mapping of concentration distribution. The concentration of airborne microbe in the upper chamber was slightly higher than that in the middle chamber, and that was also slightly higher than that in the bottom chamber. It is consistent with the results of numerical simulation, and it proves that the system can be well used for airborne microbe research.

  17. Recent Research Status on the Microbes in the Radioactive Waste Disposal and Identification of Aerobic Microbes in a Groundwater Sampled from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel(KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Cho, Won Jin

    2006-11-01

    In this report, a comprehensive review on the research results and status for the various effects of microbes in the radioactive waste disposal including definition and classification of microbes, and researches related with the waste containers, engineered barriers, natural barriers, natural analogue studies, and radionuclide migration and retardation. Cultivation, isolation, and classification of aerobic microbes found in a groundwater sampled from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) located in the KAERI site have carried out and over 20 microbes were found to be present in the groundwater. Microbial identification by a 16S rDNA genetic analysis of the selected major 10 aerobic microbes was performed and the identified microbes were characterized

  18. Control system and method for payload control in mobile platform cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, III, Rush D.; Groom, Kenneth N.; Feddema, John T.; Parker, Gordon G.

    2002-01-01

    A crane control system and method provides a way to generate crane commands responsive to a desired payload motion to achieve substantially pendulation-free actual payload motion. The control system and method apply a motion compensator to maintain a payload in a defined payload configuration relative to an inertial coordinate frame. The control system and method can further comprise a pendulation damper controller to reduce an amount of pendulation between a sensed payload configuration and the defined payload configuration. The control system and method can further comprise a command shaping filter to filter out a residual payload pendulation frequency from the desired payload motion.

  19. Response Analysis Of Payload Fairing Due To Acoustic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annu Cherian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During flight missions launch vehicles are subjected to a severe dynamic pressure loading aero-acoustic and structure-borne excitations of various circumstances which can endanger the survivability of the payload and the vehicles electronic equipment and consequently the success of the mission. The purpose of the fairing is to protect the satellite from damage during launch until deployment in space. Both the structural and acoustic loads are significant during the first few minutes of a launch and have the potential to damage the payload. This paper describes the analysis of mechanical structure and the inner acoustic cavity of the payload fairing subjected to acoustic field. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of the fairing is analyzed using Statistical Energy Analysis SEA Model. The software VA One is used for the statistical energy analysis of launch vehicle payload fairing due to acoustic excitation.

  20. The American Satellite Company (ASC) satellite deployed from payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The American Satellite Company (ASC) communications satellite is deployed from the payload bay of the Shuttle Discovery. A portion of the cloudy surface of the earth can be seen to the left of the frame.

  1. A new sounding rocket payload for solar plasma studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Marilyn E.; Brown, William A.; Appert, Kevin L.

    1989-01-01

    A sounding rocket payload developed for studies of high-temperature plasmas associated with solar active regions and flares is described. The payload instruments will record both spectra and images in the UV, EUV, and soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. The instruments, including the Dual Range Spectrograph, the Flat Field Soft X-ray Spectrograph, the Normal Incidence Soft X-ray Imager, the UV Filtergraph, and the H-alpha Imaging system, are described. Attention is also given to the new structural system of the payload, based on a large optical table suspended within the payload cavity, which will support the optical elements in their correct positions and orientations and will maintain these alignments throughout the rocket launch environment.

  2. A new sounding rocket payload for solar plasma studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.E.; Brown, W.A.; Appert, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    A sounding rocket payload developed for studies of high-temperature plasmas associated with solar active regions and flares is described. The payload instruments will record both spectra and images in the UV, EUV, and soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. The instruments, including the Dual Range Spectrograph, the Flat Field Soft X-ray Spectrograph, the Normal Incidence Soft X-ray Imager, the UV Filtergraph, and the H-alpha Imaging system, are described. Attention is also given to the new structural system of the payload, based on a large optical table suspended within the payload cavity, which will support the optical elements in their correct positions and orientations and will maintain these alignments throughout the rocket launch environment. 8 refs

  3. STS-74 view of ODS from Payload Changout Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Workers at Launch Pad 39A are preparing to close the payload bay doors on the Space Shuttle Atlantis for its upcoming launch on Mission STS-74 and the second docking with the Russian Space Station Mir. Uppermost in the payload bay is the Orbiter Docking System (ODS), which also flew on the first docking flight between the Space Shuttle and MIR. Lowermost is the primary payload of STS-74, the Russian-built Docking Module. During the mission, the Docking Module will first be attached to ODS and then to Mir. It will be left attached to Mir to become a permanent extension that will afford adequate clearance between the orbiter and the station during future dockings. At left in the payload bay, looking like a very long pole, is the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System arm that will be used by the crew to hoist the Docking Module and attach it to the ODS.

  4. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This presentation outlines a brief description of the Living With a Star (LWS) Program missions and detailed information about the Space Environment Testbed (SET) payload consisting of a space weather monitor and carrier containing 4 board experiments.

  5. Plastic Melt Waste Compactor Flight Demonstrator Payload (PFDP), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PMWC Flight Demonstrator Payload is a trash dewatering and volume reduction system that uses heat melt compaction to remove nearly 100% of water from trash while...

  6. Three-Axis Gasless Sounding Rocket Payload Attitude Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gas released by current sounding rocket payload attitude control systems (ACS) has the potential to interfere with some types of science instruments. A single-axis...

  7. The Hotel Payload, plans for the period 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gudmund; Mikalsen, Per-Arne

    2003-08-01

    The cost and complexity of scientific experiments, carried by traditional sounding rocket payloads, are increasing. At the same time the scientific environment faces declining funding for this basic research. In order to meet the invitation from the science community, Andøya Rocket Range runs a programme for developing a sounding rocket payload, in order to achieve an inexpensive and cost-effective tool for atmosphere research and educational training. The Hotel Payload is a new technological payload concept in the sounding rocket family. By means of standardized mechanical structures and electronics, flexibility in data collection and transmission, roomy vehicles are affordable to most of the scientific research environments as well as for educational training. A complete vehicle - ready for installation of scientific experiments - is offered to the scientists to a fixed price. The fixed price service also includes launch services. This paper describes the Hotel Payload concept and its technology. In addition the three year plan for the development project is discussed. The opportunity of using the Hotel Payload as a platform for a collaborative triangle between research, education and industry is also discussed.

  8. Study of radial segregation during solidification-technical performance and preliminary results from a GAS payload on STS108

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, P.; Loth, K.; Larsson, B.; Carlberg, T.

    The WIS (Weak convection Influencing radial Segregation) payload was built under contract from European Space Agency (ESA) and was flown in a Get Away Special payload on Endeavour STS108 in December 2001. The experiment payload is developed and built by Swedish Space Corporation (SSC). The Principal Investigator is Dr T. Carlberg from Mid Sweden University. The intention with the experiment was to investigate the influence of weak convection, caused by surface tension forces, on radial segregation occurring in crystals grown under microgravity conditions. The geometry studied was a Bridgman configuration with a partially coated surface. The presentation will focus on the experimental technique in detail, including experiences and technical results as well as preliminary scientific results obtained during the flight. The core of the experiment equipment are seven ellipsoidal mirror furnaces with a sample processed in each furnace. The heat source was a 340 W halogen lamp with an axial oriented filament, which was positioned in one of the focal points. In the other focal point, the heating power was concentrated directly to the top of the sample rod. The advantage with this type of furnace is that there is no need for a crucible to heat the sample, which provides less mass and a faster thermal reaction. It also gives the advantage to easy achieve and control a directional melting and solidification.. The sample rods were made of Antimony doped with Tin. The rods (32 x Ø7 mm) were covered with quartz glass tubes with openings of different sizes on the envelope surface in order to induce weak convection. For the thermal control a thermocouple was mounted in the solid part of the sample rod. Each sample was contained in a sample holder with a pressure tight ampoule, pressurized with Argon at 1Atm. The sample holder was mounted directly into the bottom of the furnace. A PC/104 computer based electronic system was used for management and control of the experiment. The

  9. Explorative analysis of microbes, colloids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. In this report, part of the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and Univ. researchers with expertise in geochemistry, hydrochemistry, hydrogeochemistry, microbiology, geomicrobiology, analytical chemistry etc. The resulting site descriptive model version, mainly based on 2.2 data and complementary 2.3 data, was carried out during September 2006 to December 2007. This report focuses on microbiology, colloids and gases: - Microbes (Chapter 1): Several methods must be used to characterize active microbial communities in groundwater. Microbial parameters of interest are the total number of cells (TNC) and the presence of various metabolic groups of microorganisms. Different microbial groups influence the environment in different ways, depending on what metabolic group is dominant. Typically, the following redox couples are utilized by bacteria in granitic groundwater: H{sub 2}O/O{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}-/N{sub 2}, Mn2+/Mn(IV), Fe2+/Fe(III), S2-/SO{sub 4}2-, CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}COOH/CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}/H+. The data will indicate the activity of specific microbial populations at particular sites and how they may affect the geochemistry. - Colloids (Chapter 2): Particles in the size range from 1 to 1x10-3 mum are regarded as colloids. Their small size prohibits them from settling, which gives them the

  10. Explorative analysis of microbes, colloids and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten

    2008-08-01

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. In this report, part of the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and Univ. researchers with expertise in geochemistry, hydrochemistry, hydrogeochemistry, microbiology, geomicrobiology, analytical chemistry etc. The resulting site descriptive model version, mainly based on 2.2 data and complementary 2.3 data, was carried out during September 2006 to December 2007. This report focuses on microbiology, colloids and gases: - Microbes (Chapter 1): Several methods must be used to characterize active microbial communities in groundwater. Microbial parameters of interest are the total number of cells (TNC) and the presence of various metabolic groups of microorganisms. Different microbial groups influence the environment in different ways, depending on what metabolic group is dominant. Typically, the following redox couples are utilized by bacteria in granitic groundwater: H 2 O/O 2 , NO 3 - /N 2 , Mn 2+ /Mn(IV), Fe 2+ /Fe(III), S 2- /SO 4 2- , CH 4 /CO 2 , CH 3 COOH/CO 2 , and H 2 /H + . The data will indicate the activity of specific microbial populations at particular sites and how they may affect the geochemistry. - Colloids (Chapter 2): Particles in the size range from 1 to 1x10 -3 μm are regarded as colloids. Their small size prohibits them from settling, which gives them the potential to transport

  11. Evolutionary adaptation in three-way interactions between plants, microbes and arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Biere, A.; Tack, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary adaptations in interactions between plants, microbes and arthropods are generally studied in interactions that involve only two of these groups, that is, plants and microbes, plants and arthropods or arthropods and microbes. We review the accumulating evidence from a wide variety of systems, including plant- and arthropod-associated microbes, and symbionts as well as antagonists, that selection and adaptation in seemingly two-way interactions between plants and microbes, plants a...

  12. Nutrient-Dependent Impact of Microbes on Drosophila suzukii Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, XiaoLi; Gerlach, Joseph; Loeb, Gregory; Buchon, Nicolas

    2018-03-20

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is an invasive species of vinegar fly that has become a prominent pest of berries and other soft-skinned fruits. Unlike most other Drosophila species, female D. suzukii flies lay their eggs in ripening and ripe fruits and larvae develop within the fruit. To understand how D. suzukii larvae utilize ripe and ripening fruits, which usually have low levels of protein, we investigated the microbiota of field-captured and laboratory-reared D. suzukii flies and further examined the combined influence of diet and microbes on host fitness. Field-captured flies were associated with diverse microbiota, which varied significantly with sampling location and season. In contrast, laboratory-reared flies possessed strikingly lower bacterial abundance and diversity. A comparison of conventionally reared (CR) and germ-free (GF) flies revealed that the microbiota of D. suzukii does not alter its development significantly but decreases its life span under conditions of a nutrient-sufficient diet. However, the microbiota is essential for D. suzukii development on strawberry-based or blueberry-based fruit diets. This developmental failure could be rescued by reassociation with single bacterial or fungal species or by the addition of a high quantity of heat-killed microbes. In addition, we found that proteins are limiting with respect to fly development on fruit-based diets and that GF flies show signs of protein starvation. Taken together, our study results demonstrate that the microbiota provides key proteins required for the development of D. suzukii reared on fresh fruit. Our work shows that the impact of microbes on fly fitness depends strongly on nutritional conditions. IMPORTANCE Animals are commonly associated with specific microbes, which play important roles in host development and fitness. However, little information about the function of microbes has been available for the important invasive pest Drosophila suzukii , also known as Spotted

  13. Redesign of a Variable-Gain Output Feedback Longitudinal Controller Flown on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a redesigned longitudinal controller that flew on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) during calendar years (CY) 1995 and 1996. Linear models are developed for both the modified controller and a baseline controller that was flown in CY 1994. The modified controller was developed with three gain sets for flight evaluation, and several linear analysis results are shown comparing the gain sets. A Neal-Smith flying qualities analysis shows that performance for the low- and medium-gain sets is near the level 1 boundary, depending upon the bandwidth assumed, whereas the high-gain set indicates a sensitivity problem. A newly developed high-alpha Bode envelope criterion indicates that the control system gains may be slightly high, even for the low-gain set. A large motion-base simulator in the United Kingdom was used to evaluate the various controllers. Desired performance, which appeared to be satisfactory for flight, was generally met with both the low- and medium-gain sets. Both the high-gain set and the baseline controller were very sensitive, and it was easy to generate pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) in some of the target-tracking maneuvers. Flight target-tracking results varied from level 1 to level 3 and from no sensitivity to PIO. These results were related to pilot technique and whether actuator rate saturation was encountered.

  14. Post-Flight Analysis of Selected Fluorocarbon and Other Thin Film Polymer Specimens Flown on MISSE-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroh, Kim; Finckenor, Miria; Minton, Tim; Brunsvold, Amy; Pippin, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Twenty thin film specimens were flown on M1SSE-5 as a cooperative effort between several organizations. This presentation will report results of initial inspections and post-flight measurements of the optical properties and recession of these materials due to the approx.13 month exposure period on the exterior of the International Space Station. These specimens were located on the "anti-solar" side of the MISSE-5 container and received a low number of Equivalent Sun Hours of solar UV exposure. Profilometry and/or ATF measurements will be conducted to determine thickness changes and atomic oxygen-induced recession rates Six of the specimens were covered with thin Kapton films, 0.1 and 0.3 mil in thickness. The 0.1 mil Kapton was almost completely eroded, suggesting that the atomic oxygen fluence is <8 x 10(exp 19) atoms/sq cm, similar to levels experienced during Space Shuttle materials experiments in the 1980's and 1990's. A comparison of results from MISSE-5 and Space Shuttle experiments will be included for those materials common to both the short and long-term exposures.

  15. A molecular study of microbe transfer between distant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Sean D; Raes, Jeroen; Foerstner, Konrad U; Harrington, Eoghan D; Dalevi, Daniel; Bork, Peer

    2008-07-09

    Environments and their organic content are generally not static and isolated, but in a constant state of exchange and interaction with each other. Through physical or biological processes, organisms, especially microbes, may be transferred between environments whose characteristics may be quite different. The transferred microbes may not survive in their new environment, but their DNA will be deposited. In this study, we compare two environmental sequencing projects to find molecular evidence of transfer of microbes over vast geographical distances. By studying synonymous nucleotide composition, oligomer frequency and orthology between predicted genes in metagenomics data from two environments, terrestrial and aquatic, and by correlating with phylogenetic mappings, we find that both environments are likely to contain trace amounts of microbes which have been far removed from their original habitat. We also suggest a bias in direction from soil to sea, which is consistent with the cycles of planetary wind and water. Our findings support the Baas-Becking hypothesis formulated in 1934, which states that due to dispersion and population sizes, microbes are likely to be found in widely disparate environments. Furthermore, the availability of genetic material from distant environments is a possible font of novel gene functions for lateral gene transfer.

  16. A molecular study of microbe transfer between distant environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D Hooper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environments and their organic content are generally not static and isolated, but in a constant state of exchange and interaction with each other. Through physical or biological processes, organisms, especially microbes, may be transferred between environments whose characteristics may be quite different. The transferred microbes may not survive in their new environment, but their DNA will be deposited. In this study, we compare two environmental sequencing projects to find molecular evidence of transfer of microbes over vast geographical distances. METHODOLOGY: By studying synonymous nucleotide composition, oligomer frequency and orthology between predicted genes in metagenomics data from two environments, terrestrial and aquatic, and by correlating with phylogenetic mappings, we find that both environments are likely to contain trace amounts of microbes which have been far removed from their original habitat. We also suggest a bias in direction from soil to sea, which is consistent with the cycles of planetary wind and water. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the Baas-Becking hypothesis formulated in 1934, which states that due to dispersion and population sizes, microbes are likely to be found in widely disparate environments. Furthermore, the availability of genetic material from distant environments is a possible font of novel gene functions for lateral gene transfer.

  17. TANPOPO: Microbe and micrometeoroid capture experiments on International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yano, Hajime; Yokobori, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Masamichi

    There is a long history of the microbe-collection experiments at high altitude. Microbes have been collected using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets from 1936 to 1976. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci have been isolated in these experiments. It is not clear how high do microbes go up. If the microbes might have been present even at higher altitudes, the fact would endorse the possibility of interplanetary migration of life. TANPOPO, dandelion, is the name of a grass whose seeds with floss are spread by the wind. We propose the analyses of interplanetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Ultra low-density aerogel will be used to capture micrometeoroid and debris. Particles captured by aerogel will be used for several analyses after the initial inspection of the gel and tracks. Careful analysis of the tracks in the aerogel will provide the size and velocity dependence of debris flux. The particles will be analyzed for mineralogical, organic and microbiological characteristics. Aerogels are ready for production in Japan. Aerogels and trays are space proven. All the analytical techniques are ready. The Tanpopo mission was accepted as a candidate experiments on Exposed Facility of ISS-JEM.

  18. Microfabricated microbial fuel cell arrays reveal electrochemically active microbes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Hou

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are remarkable "green energy" devices that exploit microbes to generate electricity from organic compounds. MFC devices currently being used and studied do not generate sufficient power to support widespread and cost-effective applications. Hence, research has focused on strategies to enhance the power output of the MFC devices, including exploring more electrochemically active microbes to expand the few already known electricigen families. However, most of the MFC devices are not compatible with high throughput screening for finding microbes with higher electricity generation capabilities. Here, we describe the development of a microfabricated MFC array, a compact and user-friendly platform for the identification and characterization of electrochemically active microbes. The MFC array consists of 24 integrated anode and cathode chambers, which function as 24 independent miniature MFCs and support direct and parallel comparisons of microbial electrochemical activities. The electricity generation profiles of spatially distinct MFC chambers on the array loaded with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 differed by less than 8%. A screen of environmental microbes using the array identified an isolate that was related to Shewanella putrefaciens IR-1 and Shewanella sp. MR-7, and displayed 2.3-fold higher power output than the S. oneidensis MR-1 reference strain. Therefore, the utility of the MFC array was demonstrated.

  19. The microbes we eat: abundance and taxonomy of microbes consumed in a day's worth of meals for three diet types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jenna M; Eisen, Jonathan A; Zivkovic, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Far more attention has been paid to the microbes in our feces than the microbes in our food. Research efforts dedicated to the microbes that we eat have historically been focused on a fairly narrow range of species, namely those which cause disease and those which are thought to confer some "probiotic" health benefit. Little is known about the effects of ingested microbial communities that are present in typical American diets, and even the basic questions of which microbes, how many of them, and how much they vary from diet to diet and meal to meal, have not been answered. We characterized the microbiota of three different dietary patterns in order to estimate: the average total amount of daily microbes ingested via food and beverages, and their composition in three daily meal plans representing three different dietary patterns. The three dietary patterns analyzed were: (1) the Average American (AMERICAN): focused on convenience foods, (2) USDA recommended (USDA): emphasizing fruits and vegetables, lean meat, dairy, and whole grains, and (3) Vegan (VEGAN): excluding all animal products. Meals were prepared in a home kitchen or purchased at restaurants and blended, followed by microbial analysis including aerobic, anaerobic, yeast and mold plate counts as well as 16S rRNA PCR survey analysis. Based on plate counts, the USDA meal plan had the highest total amount of microbes at 1.3 × 10(9) CFU per day, followed by the VEGAN meal plan and the AMERICAN meal plan at 6 × 10(6) and 1.4 × 10(6) CFU per day respectively. There was no significant difference in diversity among the three dietary patterns. Individual meals clustered based on taxonomic composition independent of dietary pattern. For example, meals that were abundant in Lactic Acid Bacteria were from all three dietary patterns. Some taxonomic groups were correlated with the nutritional content of the meals. Predictive metagenome analysis using PICRUSt indicated differences in some functional KEGG categories

  20. Microbial electrosynthesis: understanding and strengthening microbe-electrode interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Höglund, Daniel; Ammam, Fariza

    2014-01-01

    in the last decade that could significantly change the current ways of synthesizing chemicals. MES is a process in which electroautotrophic microbes reduce CO2 to multicarbon organics using electrical current as a source of electron. Electricity necessary for MES can be harvested from renewable resources...... relying on co-cultures and investigating extracellular electron transfer from the cathode to the microbes are some of the strategies that we are implementing to transform MES into a commercially viable technology....... such as solar energy, wind turbine or wastewater treatment processes. The net outcome is that renewable energy get store in the covalent bonds of valuable chemicals synthesized from greenhouse gas. However, low electron transferrates from the electrode to microbes, poor adherence of cells on the electrode...

  1. Towards a systems understanding of plant-microbe interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eMine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants are closely associated with microorganisms including pathogens and mutualists that influence plant fitness. Molecular genetic approaches have uncovered a number of signaling components from both plants and microbes and their mode of actions. However, signaling pathways are highly interconnected and influenced by diverse sets of environmental factors. Therefore, it is important to have systems views in order to understand the true nature of plant-microbe interactions. Indeed, systems biology approaches have revealed previously overlooked or misinterpreted properties of the plant immune signaling network. Experimental reconstruction of biological networks using exhaustive combinatorial mutants is particularly powerful to elucidate network structure and properties and relationships among network components. Recent advances in metagenomics of microbial communities associated with plants further point to the importance of systems approaches and open a research area of microbial community reconstruction. In this review, we highlight the importance of a systems understanding of plant-microbe interactions, with a special emphasis on reconstruction strategies.

  2. The microbe-free plant: fact or artefact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila P. Pamela Partida-Martinez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant-microbe interactions are ubiquitous. Plants are often colonized by pathogens but even more commonly engaged in neutral or mutualistic interactions with microbes: below-ground microbial plant associates are mycorrhizal fungi, Rhizobia and rhizosphere bacteria, above-ground plant parts are colonized by bacterial and fungal endophytes and by microbes in the phyllosphere. We emphasize here that a completely microbe-free plant is an exotic exception rather than the biologically relevant rule. The complex interplay of such microbial communities with the host plant affects plant nutrition, growth rate, resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and plant survival and distribution. The mechanisms involved reach from nutrient acquisition, the production of plant hormones or direct antibiosis to effects on host resistance genes or interactions at higher trophic levels. Plant-associated microbes are heterotrophic and cause costs to their host plant, whereas the benefits depend on the environment. Thus, the outcome of the interaction is highly context-dependent. Considering the microbe-free plant as the ‘normal’ or control stage significantly impairs research into important phenomena such as (1 phenotypic and epigenetic plasticity, (2 the ‘normal’ ecological outcome of a given interaction and (3 the evolution of plants. For the future, we suggest cultivation-independent screening methods using direct PCR from plant tissue of more than one fungal and bacterial gene to collect data on the true microbial diversity in wild plants. The patterns found could be correlated to host species and environmental conditions, in order to formulate testable hypotheses on the biological roles of plant endophytes in nature. Experimental approaches should compare different host-endophyte combinations under various environmental conditions and study at the genetic, transcriptional and physiological level the parameters that shift the interaction along the mutualism

  3. A distributed planning concept for Space Station payload operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Jeff; Maxwell, Theresa; Reed, Tracey

    1994-01-01

    The complex and diverse nature of the payload operations to be performed on the Space Station requires a robust and flexible planning approach. The planning approach for Space Station payload operations must support the phased development of the Space Station, as well as the geographically distributed users of the Space Station. To date, the planning approach for manned operations in space has been one of centralized planning to the n-th degree of detail. This approach, while valid for short duration flights, incurs high operations costs and is not conducive to long duration Space Station operations. The Space Station payload operations planning concept must reduce operations costs, accommodate phased station development, support distributed users, and provide flexibility. One way to meet these objectives is to distribute the planning functions across a hierarchy of payload planning organizations based on their particular needs and expertise. This paper presents a planning concept which satisfies all phases of the development of the Space Station (manned Shuttle flights, unmanned Station operations, and permanent manned operations), and the migration from centralized to distributed planning functions. Identified in this paper are the payload planning functions which can be distributed and the process by which these functions are performed.

  4. Optimizing communication satellites payload configuration with exact approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathakis, Apostolos; Danoy, Grégoire; Bouvry, Pascal; Talbi, El-Ghazali; Morelli, Gianluigi

    2015-12-01

    The satellite communications market is competitive and rapidly evolving. The payload, which is in charge of applying frequency conversion and amplification to the signals received from Earth before their retransmission, is made of various components. These include reconfigurable switches that permit the re-routing of signals based on market demand or because of some hardware failure. In order to meet modern requirements, the size and the complexity of current communication payloads are increasing significantly. Consequently, the optimal payload configuration, which was previously done manually by the engineers with the use of computerized schematics, is now becoming a difficult and time consuming task. Efficient optimization techniques are therefore required to find the optimal set(s) of switch positions to optimize some operational objective(s). In order to tackle this challenging problem for the satellite industry, this work proposes two Integer Linear Programming (ILP) models. The first one is single-objective and focuses on the minimization of the length of the longest channel path, while the second one is bi-objective and additionally aims at minimizing the number of switch changes in the payload switch matrix. Experiments are conducted on a large set of instances of realistic payload sizes using the CPLEX® solver and two well-known exact multi-objective algorithms. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and limitations of the ILP approach on this real-world problem.

  5. ISS and Shuttle Payload Research Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Kyle A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's ISS and Spacecraft Processing Directorate (UB) is charged with the performance of payload development for research originating through NASA, ISS international partners, and the National Laboratory. The Payload Development sector of the Directorate takes biological research approved for on orbit experimentation from its infancy stage and finds a way to integrate and implement that research into a payload on either a Shuttle sortie or Space Station increment. From solicitation and selection, to definition, to verification, to integration and finally to operations and analysis, Payload Development is there every step of the way. My specific work as an intern this summer has consisted of investigating data received by separate flight and ground control Advanced Biological Research Systems (ABRS) units for Advanced Plant Experiments (APEX) and Cambium research. By correlation and analysis of this data and specific logbook information I have been working to explain changes in environmental conditions on both the flight and ground control unit. I have then, compiled all of that information into a form that can be presentable to the Principal Investigator (PI). This compilation allows that PI scientist to support their findings and add merit to their research. It also allows us, as the Payload Developers, to further inspect the ABRS unit and its performance

  6. International Cooperation of Payload Operations on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Tina; Onken, Jay

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the International Space Station (ISS) is to provide an orbiting laboratory to be used to conduct scientific research and commercial products utilizing the unique environment of space. The ISS Program has united multiple nations into a coalition with the objective of developing and outfitting this orbiting laboratory and sharing in the utilization of the resources available. The primary objectives of the real- time integration of ISS payload operations are to ensure safe operations of payloads, to avoid mutual interference between payloads and onboard systems, to monitor the use of integrated station resources and to increase the total effectiveness of ISS. The ISS organizational architecture has provided for the distribution of operations planning and execution functions to the organizations with expertise to perform each function. Each IPP is responsible for the integration and operations of their payloads within their resource allocations and the safety requirements defined by the joint program. Another area of international cooperation is the sharing in the development and on- orbit utilization of unique payload facilities. An example of this cooperation is the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The hardware was developed by ESA and provided to NASA as part of a barter arrangement.

  7. The payloads of Advanced Virgo: current status and upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naticchioni, L.; Virgo Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The development and integration of new detector payloads has been an important part of the Advanced Virgo (AdV) project, the major upgrade of the Virgo interferometric detector of Gravitational Waves, aiming to increase the detector sensitivity by one order of magnitude. During the integration phase of the new AdV payloads with monolithic suspension of mirrors we experienced systematic suspension failures later identified as caused by dust contamination of the vacuum system. In order to not postpone the detector commissioning, making possible to join the LIGO O2 observation run, the Collaboration decided to proceed with the integration of the payloads relying on steel wire suspensions for all the mirrors. In this proceeding the status of the currently integrated payloads is reported, including their angular control characterization and the Q-factor measurements for test mass steel wire suspensions. The payload upgrade for the re-integration of monolithic suspensions after the O2 run is reported in the last section.

  8. Musing over Microbes in Microgravity: Microbial Physiology Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickart, Randolph; McGinnis, Michael; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    New York City, the most populated city in the United States, is home to over 8 million humans. This means over 26,000 people per square mile! Imagine, though, what the view would be if you peeked into the world of microscopic organisms. Scientists estimate that a gram of soil may contain up to 1 billion of these microbes, which is as much as the entire human population of China! Scientists also know that the world of microbes is incredibly diverse-possibly 10,000 different species in one gram of soil - more than all the different types of mammals in the world. Microbes fill every niche in the world - from 20 miles below the Earth's surface to 20 miles above, and at temperatures from less than -20 C to hotter than water's boiling point. These organisms are ubiquitous because they can adapt quickly to changing environments, an effective strategy for survival. Although we may not realize it, microbes impact every aspect of our lives. Bacteria and fungi help us break down the food in our bodies, and they help clean the air and water around us. They can also cause the dark, filmy buildup on the shower curtain as well as, more seriously, illness and disease. Since humans and microbes share space on Earth, we can benefit tremendously from a better understanding of the workings and physiology of the microbes. This insight can help prevent any harmful effects on humans, on Earth and in space, as well as reap the benefits they provide. Space flight is a unique environment to study how microbes adapt to changing environmental conditions. To advance ground-based research in the field of microbiology, this STS-107 experiment will investigate how microgravity affects bacteria and fungi. Of particular interest are the growth rates and how they respond to certain antimicrobial substances that will be tested; the same tests will be conducted on Earth at the same times. Comparing the results obtained in flight to those on Earth, we will be able to examine how microgravity induces

  9. Host-microbe interactions in the gut of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eKuraishi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many insect species subsist on decaying and contaminated matter and are thus exposed to large quantities of microorganisms. To control beneficial commensals and combat infectious pathogens, insects must be armed with efficient systems for microbial recognition, signaling pathways, and effector molecules. The molecular mechanisms regulating these host-microbe interactions in insects have been largely clarified in Drosophila melanogaster with its powerful genetic and genomic tools. Here we review recent advances in this field, focusing mainly on the relationships between microbes and epithelial cells in the intestinal tract where the host exposure to the external environment is most frequent.

  10. Payloads development for European land mobile satellites: A technical and economical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, G.; Rispoli, F.; Sassorossi, T.; Spazio, Selenia

    1990-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has defined two payloads for Mobile Communication; one payload is for pre-operational use, the European Land Mobile System (EMS), and one payload is for promoting the development of technologies for future mobile communication systems, the L-band Land Mobile Payload (LLM). A summary of the two payloads and a description of their capabilities is provided. Additionally, an economic assessment of the potential mobile communication market in Europe is provided.

  11. Neural controller for adaptive movements with unforeseen payloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperstein, M; Wang, J

    1990-01-01

    A theory and computer simulation of a neural controller that learns to move and position a link carrying an unforeseen payload accurately are presented. The neural controller learns adaptive dynamic control from its own experience. It does not use information about link mass, link length, or direction of gravity, and it uses only indirect uncalibrated information about payload and actuator limits. Its average positioning accuracy across a large range of payloads after learning is 3% of the positioning range. This neural controller can be used as a basis for coordinating any number of sensory inputs with limbs of any number of joints. The feedforward nature of control allows parallel implementation in real time across multiple joints.

  12. The development of STS payload environmental engineering standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    The presently reported effort to provide a single set of standards for the design, analysis and testing of Space Transportation System (STS) payloads throughout the NASA organization must be viewed as essentially experimental, since the concept of incorporating the diverse opinions and experiences of several separate field research centers may in retrospect be judged too ambitious or perhaps even naive. While each STS payload may have unique characteristics, and the project should formulate its own criteria for environmental design, testing and evaluation, a reference source document providing coordinated standards is expected to minimize the duplication of effort and limit random divergence of practices among the various NASA payload programs. These standards would provide useful information to all potential STS users, and offer a degree of standardization to STS users outside the NASA organization.

  13. Cover estimation and payload location using Markov random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Tu-Thach

    2014-02-01

    Payload location is an approach to find the message bits hidden in steganographic images, but not necessarily their logical order. Its success relies primarily on the accuracy of the underlying cover estimators and can be improved if more estimators are used. This paper presents an approach based on Markov random field to estimate the cover image given a stego image. It uses pairwise constraints to capture the natural two-dimensional statistics of cover images and forms a basis for more sophisticated models. Experimental results show that it is competitive against current state-of-the-art estimators and can locate payload embedded by simple LSB steganography and group-parity steganography. Furthermore, when combined with existing estimators, payload location accuracy improves significantly.

  14. The concept verification testing of materials science payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, C. S.; Johnston, M. H.; Whitaker, A.

    1976-01-01

    The concept Verification Testing (CVT) project at the Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, is a developmental activity that supports Shuttle Payload Projects such as Spacelab. It provides an operational 1-g environment for testing NASA and other agency experiment and support systems concepts that may be used in shuttle. A dedicated Materials Science Payload was tested in the General Purpose Laboratory to assess the requirements of a space processing payload on a Spacelab type facility. Physical and functional integration of the experiments into the facility was studied, and the impact of the experiments on the facility (and vice versa) was evaluated. A follow-up test designated CVT Test IVA was also held. The purpose of this test was to repeat Test IV experiments with a crew composed of selected and trained scientists. These personnel were not required to have prior knowledge of the materials science disciplines, but were required to have a basic knowledge of science and the scientific method.

  15. Design decisions from the history of the EUVE science payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, W.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the design issues that arose during the development of the EUVE science payload and solutions to the problems involved are examined. In particular, attention is given to the use of parallel and serial busses, the selection of the the ROM approach for software storage and execution, implementation of memory error detection and correction, and the selection of command structures. The early design decisions paid off in the timely delivery of the scientific payload and in the successful completion of the survey phase of the EUVE science mission.

  16. HOST payload for STS-95 being moved into SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Orbiting Systems Test (HOST) is checked out by technicians in the Space Shuttle Processing Facility. One of the payloads on the STS-95 mission, the HOST platform is carrying four experiments to validate components planned for installation during the third Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission and to evaluate new technologies in an earth orbiting environment. The STS-95 mission is scheduled to launch Oct. 29. It will carry three other payloads: the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, and the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  17. The first Spacelab payload - A joint NASA/ESA venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R.; Pace, R.; Collet, J.; Sanfourche, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Planning for the 1980 qualification flight of Spacelab, which will involve a long module and one pallet, is discussed. The mission will employ two payload specialists, one sponsored by NASA and the other by ESA. Management of the Spacelab mission functions, including definition and execution of the on-board experiments, development of the experimental hardware and training of the payload specialists, is considered; studies proposed in the areas of atmospheric physics, space plasma physics, solar physics, earth observations, astronomy, astrophysics, life sciences and material sciences are reviewed. Analyses of the Spacelab environment and the Spacelab-to-orbiter and Spacelab-to-experiment interactions are also planned.

  18. ISS Payload Racks Automated Flow Control Calibration Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Boris G.

    2003-01-01

    Payload Racks utilize MTL and/or LTL station water for cooling of payloads and avionics. Flow control range from valves of fully closed, to up to 300 Ibmhr. Instrument accuracies are as high as f 7.5 Ibm/hr for flow sensors and f 3 Ibm/hr for valve controller, for a total system accuracy of f 10.5 Ibm/hr. Improved methodology was developed, tested and proven that reduces accuracy of the commanded flows to less than f 1 Ibmhr. Uethodology could be packed in a "calibration kit" for on- orbit flow sensor checkout and recalibration, extending the rack operations before return to earth. -

  19. Terrestrial microbes in martian and chondritic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airieau, S.; Picenco, Y.; Andersen, G.

    2007-08-01

    Bank sequences using the BLAST program. The closest matches were in the genus Microbacterium. Soil and plant isolates were close relatives by sequence comparison. Los Angeles. After 11 months of incubation in a fridge, a yellow colony grew at the center of a culture plate of Los Angeles dust grains (1:1000 R2A). There was no cell activity in the other agars. A DNA extraction yielded no usable results [7]. Sequencing was not performed because the culture plate became contaminated with outside organisms that overtook the colony of interest. Conclusions: The sequences for EET 87770 and Leoville were of a good quality and the sequence reads were long, so the data are clear that these are typical soil and/or plant-related bacteria commonly found in Earth habitats. Microbial species present in a dozen chondritic samples from isolates are not yet identified, and the contaminant in Los Angeles needs to be recovered. In addition, isotopic analyses of samples with various amounts of microbial contamination could help quantified isotopic impact of microbes on protoplanetary chemistry in these rocks. References : [1] Gounelle, M. and Zolensky M. LPS, (2001) LPS XXXII, Abstract #999. [2] Fries, M. et al. (2005) Meteoritical Society Meeting 68, Abstract # 5201. [3] Burckle, L. H. and Delaney, J. S (1999) Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 32, 475-478. [4] Whitby, C. et al. (2000) ) LPS XXXI, Abstract #1732. [5] Airieau, S. A. et al (2005) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69, 4166-4171. [6] Unpublished data, with H. J. Cleaves, A. Aubrey, J. Bada (Scripps Institution of Oceanography), M. Thiemens (UC San Diego) and M. Fogel (Carnegie Institution of Washington). [7] Unpublished data, with A. Steele (CIW), and N. Wainwright (Marine Biological Laboratory). Acknowledgements: Lisa Welleberger for access to SNC samples at USNM; Ralph Harvey for organizing ANSMET; Denise C. Thiry and Andrew Steele for long term storage of samples, NormWainwright for LAL measurements. A small portion of this work was funded with a

  20. Population dynamics of soil microbes and diversity of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Population dynamics of soil microbes and diversity of ... 25.78, 25.78, 86.26, 24.73, 68.0, 26.8 and 26.8 kDa proteins and equivalent to Cyt, Cry5 and Cry2 toxins ..... Molecular weight (kDa) of protein fractions of the BT isolates.

  1. Comparative gut physiology symposium: The microbe-gut-brain axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Comparative Gut Physiology Symposium titled “The Microbe-Gut-Brain Axis” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science and the American Dairy Science Association on Thursday, July 21, 2016, in Salt Lake City Utah. The goal of the symposium was to present basic r...

  2. Microbes, molecules, maladies and man | Duse | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 92, No 3 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Microbes, molecules, maladies and man. AG Duse. Abstract.

  3. Host-Microbe Interactions in Microgravity: Assessment and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S. Foster

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spaceflight imposes several unique stresses on biological life that together can have a profound impact on the homeostasis between eukaryotes and their associated microbes. One such stressor, microgravity, has been shown to alter host-microbe interactions at the genetic and physiological levels. Recent sequencing of the microbiomes associated with plants and animals have shown that these interactions are essential for maintaining host health through the regulation of several metabolic and immune responses. Disruptions to various environmental parameters or community characteristics may impact the resiliency of the microbiome, thus potentially driving host-microbe associations towards disease. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of host-microbe interactions in microgravity and assess the impact of this unique environmental stress on the normal physiological and genetic responses of both pathogenic and mutualistic associations. As humans move beyond our biosphere and undergo longer duration space flights, it will be essential to more fully understand microbial fitness in microgravity conditions in order to maintain a healthy homeostasis between humans, plants and their respective microbiomes.

  4. Host-microbe interactions in microgravity: assessment and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jamie S; Wheeler, Raymond M; Pamphile, Regine

    2014-05-26

    Spaceflight imposes several unique stresses on biological life that together can have a profound impact on the homeostasis between eukaryotes and their associated microbes. One such stressor, microgravity, has been shown to alter host-microbe interactions at the genetic and physiological levels. Recent sequencing of the microbiomes associated with plants and animals have shown that these interactions are essential for maintaining host health through the regulation of several metabolic and immune responses. Disruptions to various environmental parameters or community characteristics may impact the resiliency of the microbiome, thus potentially driving host-microbe associations towards disease. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of host-microbe interactions in microgravity and assess the impact of this unique environmental stress on the normal physiological and genetic responses of both pathogenic and mutualistic associations. As humans move beyond our biosphere and undergo longer duration space flights, it will be essential to more fully understand microbial fitness in microgravity conditions in order to maintain a healthy homeostasis between humans, plants and their respective microbiomes.

  5. The high life: Transport of microbes in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Jaffe, Daniel A.

    2011-07-01

    Microbes (bacteria, fungi, algae, and viruses) are the most successful types of life on Earth because of their ability to adapt to new environments, reproduce quickly, and disperse globally. Dispersal occurs through a number of vectors, such as migrating animals or the hydrological cycle, but transport by wind may be the most common way microbes spread. General awareness of airborne microbes predates the science of microbiology. People took advantage of wild airborne yeasts to cultivate lighter, more desirable bread as far back as ancient Egypt by simply leaving a mixture of grain and liquids near an open window. In 1862, Louis Pasteur's quest to disprove spontaneous generation resulted in the discovery that microbes were actually single-celled, living creatures, prevalent in the environment and easily killed with heat (pasteurization). His rudimentary experiments determined that any nutrient medium left open to the air would eventually teem with microbial life because of free-floating, colonizing cells. The same can happen in a kitchen: Opportunistic fungal and bacterial cells cause food items exposed to the air to eventually spoil.

  6. Preliminary biological screening of microbes isolated from cow dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary biological screening of microbes isolated from cow dung in Kampar. KC Teo, SM Teoh. Abstract. Five distinct morphologically and physiologically isolates were isolated from cow dung at Kampar, Perak, Malaysia and cultured on nutrient agar (NA) plates. Morphological studies including microscopic examination ...

  7. Microbes from raw milk for fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, J.T.M.; Ayad, E.H.E.; Hugenholtz, J.; Smit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Milk has a high nutritive value, not only For the new-born mammal and for the human consumer, but also for microbes. Raw milk kept at roam temperature will be liable to microbial spoilage. After some days, the milk will spontaneously become sour. This is generally due to the activity of lactic acid

  8. A microbent fiber optic pH sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas Lee, S.; Aneeshkumar, B.N.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Vallabhan, C.P.G.; Nampoori, V.P.N.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors developed for measuring pH values usually employ an unclad and unstrained section of the fiber. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of a microbent fiber optic sensor that can be used for pH sensing. In order to obtain the desired performance, a permanently

  9. Methods for reducing ghost rays on the Wolter-I focusing figures of the FOXSI rocket payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Glesener, Lindsay; Christe, Steven; Ramsey, Brian; Elsner, Ronald; Courtade, Sasha; Vievering, Juliana; Subramania, Athiray; Krucker, Sam; Bale, Stuart

    2017-08-01

    In high energy solar astrophysics, imaging hard X-rays by direct focusing offers higher dynamic range and greater sensitivity compared to past techniques that used indirect imaging. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is a sounding rocket payload which uses seven sets of nested Wolter-I figured mirrors that, together with seven high-sensitive semiconductor detectors, observes the Sun in hard X-rays by direct focusing. The FOXSI rocket has successfully flown twice and is funded to fly a third time in summer 2018.The Wolter-I geometry consists of two consecutive mirrors, one paraboloid, and one hyperboloid, that reflect photons at grazing angles. Correctly focused X-rays reflect twice, once per mirror segment. For extended sources, like the Sun, off-axis photons at certain incident angles can reflect on only one mirror and still reach the focal plane, generating a pattern of single-bounce photons, or ‘ghost rays’ that can limit the sensitivity of the observation of focused X-rays. Understanding and cutting down the ghost rays on the FOXSI optics will maximize the instrument’s sensitivity of the solar faintest sources for future flights. We present an analysis of the FOXSI ghost rays based on ray-tracing simulations, as well as the effectiveness of different physical strategies to reduce them.

  10. Changes in miRNA expression profile of space-flown Caenorhabditis elegans during Shenzhou-8 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Gao, Ying; Huang, Lei; Sun, Yeqing

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in the field of molecular biology have demonstrated that small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have a broad effect on gene expression networks and play a key role in biological responses to environmental stressors. However, little is known about how space radiation exposure and altered gravity affect miRNA expression. The "International Space Biological Experiments" project was carried out in November 2011 by an international collaboration between China and Germany during the Shenzhou-8 (SZ-8) mission. To study the effects of spaceflight on Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), we explored the expression profile miRNA changes in space-flown C. elegans. Dauer C. elegans larvae were taken by SZ-8 spacecraft and experienced the 16.5-day shuttle spaceflight. We performed miRNA microarray analysis, and the results showed that 23 miRNAs were altered in a complex space environment and different expression patterns were observed in the space synthetic and radiation environments. Most putative target genes of the altered miRNAs in the space synthetic environment were predicted to be involved in developmental processes instead of in the regulation of transcription, and the enrichment of these genes was due to space radiation. Furthermore, integration analysis of the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles confirmed that twelve genes were differently regulated by seven miRNAs. These genes may be involved in embryonic development, reproduction, transcription factor activity, oviposition in a space synthetic environment, positive regulation of growth and body morphogenesis in a space radiation environment. Specifically, we found that cel-miR-52, -55, and -56 of the miR-51 family were sensitive to space environmental stressors and could regulate biological behavioural responses and neprilysin activity through the different isoforms of T01C4.1 and F18A12.8. These findings suggest that C. elegans responded to spaceflight by altering the expression of miRNAs and some target

  11. Integrated Payload Data Handling Systems Using Software Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alun; Hann, Mark; Wishart, Alex

    2015-09-01

    An integrated Payload Data Handling System (I-PDHS) is one in which multiple instruments share a central payload processor for their on-board data processing tasks. This offers a number of advantages over the conventional decentralised architecture. Savings in payload mass and power can be realised because the total processing resource is matched to the requirements, as opposed to the decentralised architecture here the processing resource is in effect the sum of all the applications. Overall development cost can be reduced using a common processor. At individual instrument level the potential benefits include a standardised application development environment, and the opportunity to run the instrument data handling application on a fully redundant and more powerful processing platform [1]. This paper describes a joint program by SCISYS UK Limited, Airbus Defence and Space, Imperial College London and RAL Space to implement a realistic demonstration of an I-PDHS using engineering models of flight instruments (a magnetometer and camera) and a laboratory demonstrator of a central payload processor which is functionally representative of a flight design. The objective is to raise the Technology Readiness Level of the centralised data processing technique by address the key areas of task partitioning to prevent fault propagation and the use of a common development process for the instrument applications. The project is supported by a UK Space Agency grant awarded under the National Space Technology Program SpaceCITI scheme. [1].

  12. View of OMS burn from the payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    View of Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) burn from the payload bay. The closed cradles which held the communication satellites Columbia deployed are visible in the center of the frame. Parts of the spacecraft's wings can be seen on both the port and starboard sides can be seen. The vertical stabilizer is flanked by the twin OMS pods.

  13. Automatic maintenance payload on board of a Mexican LEO microsatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Vivas, Esaú; García-Nocetti, Fabián; Mendieta-Jiménez, Francisco

    2006-02-01

    Few research institutions from Mexico work together to finalize the integration of a technological demonstration microsatellite called Satex, aiming the launching of the first ever fully designed and manufactured domestic space vehicle. The project is based on technical knowledge gained in previous space experiences, particularly in developing GASCAN automatic experiments for NASA's space shuttle, and in some support obtained from the local team which assembled the México-OSCAR-30 microsatellites. Satex includes three autonomous payloads and a power subsystem, each one with a local microcomputer to provide intelligent and dedicated control. It also contains a flight computer (FC) with a pair of full redundancies. This enables the remote maintenance of processing boards from the ground station. A fourth communications payload depends on the flight computer for control purposes. A fifth payload was decided to be developed for the satellite. It adds value to the available on-board computers and extends the opportunity for a developing country to learn and to generate domestic space technology. Its aim is to provide automatic maintenance capabilities for the most critical on-board computer in order to achieve continuous satellite operations. This paper presents the virtual computer architecture specially developed to provide maintenance capabilities to the flight computer. The architecture is periodically implemented by software with a small amount of physical processors (FC processors) and virtual redundancies (payload processors) to emulate a hybrid redundancy computer. Communications among processors are accomplished over a fault-tolerant LAN. This allows a versatile operating behavior in terms of data communication as well as in terms of distributed fault tolerance. Obtained results, payload validation and reliability results are also presented.

  14. Spatial heterogeneity in soil microbes alters outcomes of plant competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C Abbott

    Full Text Available Plant species vary greatly in their responsiveness to nutritional soil mutualists, such as mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia, and this responsiveness is associated with a trade-off in allocation to root structures for resource uptake. As a result, the outcome of plant competition can change with the density of mutualists, with microbe-responsive plant species having high competitive ability when mutualists are abundant and non-responsive plants having high competitive ability with low densities of mutualists. When responsive plant species also allow mutualists to grow to greater densities, changes in mutualist density can generate a positive feedback, reinforcing an initial advantage to either plant type. We study a model of mutualist-mediated competition to understand outcomes of plant-plant interactions within a patchy environment. We find that a microbe-responsive plant can exclude a non-responsive plant from some initial conditions, but it must do so across the landscape including in the microbe-free areas where it is a poorer competitor. Otherwise, the non-responsive plant will persist in both mutualist-free and mutualist-rich regions. We apply our general findings to two different biological scenarios: invasion of a non-responsive plant into an established microbe-responsive native population, and successional replacement of non-responders by microbe-responsive species. We find that resistance to invasion is greatest when seed dispersal by the native plant is modest and dispersal by the invader is greater. Nonetheless, a native plant that relies on microbial mutualists for competitive dominance may be particularly vulnerable to invasion because any disturbance that temporarily reduces its density or that of the mutualist creates a window for a non-responsive invader to establish dominance. We further find that the positive feedbacks from associations with beneficial soil microbes create resistance to successional turnover. Our theoretical

  15. Spatial heterogeneity in soil microbes alters outcomes of plant competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Karen C; Karst, Justine; Biederman, Lori A; Borrett, Stuart R; Hastings, Alan; Walsh, Vonda; Bever, James D

    2015-01-01

    Plant species vary greatly in their responsiveness to nutritional soil mutualists, such as mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia, and this responsiveness is associated with a trade-off in allocation to root structures for resource uptake. As a result, the outcome of plant competition can change with the density of mutualists, with microbe-responsive plant species having high competitive ability when mutualists are abundant and non-responsive plants having high competitive ability with low densities of mutualists. When responsive plant species also allow mutualists to grow to greater densities, changes in mutualist density can generate a positive feedback, reinforcing an initial advantage to either plant type. We study a model of mutualist-mediated competition to understand outcomes of plant-plant interactions within a patchy environment. We find that a microbe-responsive plant can exclude a non-responsive plant from some initial conditions, but it must do so across the landscape including in the microbe-free areas where it is a poorer competitor. Otherwise, the non-responsive plant will persist in both mutualist-free and mutualist-rich regions. We apply our general findings to two different biological scenarios: invasion of a non-responsive plant into an established microbe-responsive native population, and successional replacement of non-responders by microbe-responsive species. We find that resistance to invasion is greatest when seed dispersal by the native plant is modest and dispersal by the invader is greater. Nonetheless, a native plant that relies on microbial mutualists for competitive dominance may be particularly vulnerable to invasion because any disturbance that temporarily reduces its density or that of the mutualist creates a window for a non-responsive invader to establish dominance. We further find that the positive feedbacks from associations with beneficial soil microbes create resistance to successional turnover. Our theoretical results constitute an

  16. Evolutionary adaptation in three-way interactions between plants, microbes and arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biere, A.; Tack, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary adaptations in interactions between plants, microbes and arthropods are generally studied in interactions that involve only two of these groups, that is, plants and microbes, plants and arthropods or arthropods and microbes. We review the accumulating evidence from a wide variety of

  17. Dual oxidase in mucosal immunity and host-microbe homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun Soo; Choi, Myoung Kwon; Lee, Won-Jae

    2010-07-01

    Mucosal epithelia are in direct contact with microbes, which range from beneficial symbionts to pathogens. Accordingly, hosts must have a conflicting strategy to combat pathogens efficiently while tolerating symbionts. Recent progress has revealed that dual oxidase (DUOX) plays a key role in mucosal immunity in organisms that range from flies to humans. Information from the genetic model of Drosophila has advanced our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of DUOX and its role in mucosal immunity. Further investigations of DUOX regulation in response to symbiotic or non-symbiotic bacteria and the in vivo consequences in host physiology will give a novel insight into the microbe-controlling system of the mucosa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Macrophage–Microbe Interactions: Lessons from the Zebrafish Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagisa Yoshida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages provide front line defense against infections. The study of macrophage–microbe interplay is thus crucial for understanding pathogenesis and infection control. Zebrafish (Danio rerio larvae provide a unique platform to study macrophage–microbe interactions in vivo, from the level of the single cell to the whole organism. Studies using zebrafish allow non-invasive, real-time visualization of macrophage recruitment and phagocytosis. Furthermore, the chemical and genetic tractability of zebrafish has been central to decipher the complex role of macrophages during infection. Here, we discuss the latest developments using zebrafish models of bacterial and fungal infection. We also review novel aspects of macrophage biology revealed by zebrafish, which can potentiate development of new therapeutic strategies for humans.

  19. Deep-Sea Microbes: Linking Biogeochemical Rates to -Omics Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndl, G. J.; Sintes, E.; Bayer, B.; Bergauer, K.; Amano, C.; Hansman, R.; Garcia, J.; Reinthaler, T.

    2016-02-01

    Over the past decade substantial progress has been made in determining deep ocean microbial activity and resolving some of the enigmas in understanding the deep ocean carbon flux. Also, metagenomics approaches have shed light onto the dark ocean's microbes but linking -omics approaches to biogeochemical rate measurements are generally rare in microbial oceanography and even more so for the deep ocean. In this presentation, we will show by combining metagenomics, -proteomics and biogeochemical rate measurements on the bulk and single-cell level that deep-sea microbes exhibit characteristics of generalists with a large genome repertoire, versatile in utilizing substrate as revealed by metaproteomics. This is in striking contrast with the apparently rather uniform dissolved organic matter pool in the deep ocean. Combining the different -omics approaches with metabolic rate measurements, we will highlight some major inconsistencies and enigmas in our understanding of the carbon cycling and microbial food web structure in the dark ocean.

  20. Nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by eukaryotic microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly......, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations....... and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate...

  1. Characteristics of the repair - deficient mutants 1435 plague microbe strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temiralieva, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Repair-deficient mutants 1435 A uvr - hcr - , 1435-17 uvr - hcr + and 1435-35 lon have been obtained from 1435 plague microbe strain, isolated from a large gerbil living in the Central Asian desert region. The mutants have the same cultural-morphological and enzymatic characteristics, the same need in growth factors and similar virulence determinants as the original strain, but they do not cause death of the experimental animals

  2. Do airborne microbes matter for atmospheric chemistry and cloud formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2014-06-01

    The role of airborne microbial cells in the chemistry of the atmosphere and cloud formation remains essentially speculative. Recent studies have indicated that microbes might be more important than previously anticipated for atmospheric processes. However, more work and direct communication between microbiologists and atmospheric scientists and modellers are necessary to better understand and model bioaerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of Gut Microbes on Nutrient Absorption and Energy Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Ilhan, Zehra-Esra; Kang, Dae-Wook; DiBaise, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition may manifest as either obesity or undernutrition. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays an important role in the harvest, storage, and expenditure of energy obtained from the diet. The composition of the gut microbiota has been shown to differ between lean and obese humans and mice; however, the specific roles that individual gut microbes play in energy harvest remain uncertain. The gut microbiota may also influence the development of conditions characteriz...

  4. Soil Microbes and soil microbial proteins: interactions with clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, A.; Kelleher, B. P.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial enumeration in soil environments estimates that the population may reach approximately 10 1 0 g - 1 of soil and comprise up to 90% of the total soil microbial biomass. Bacteria are present in soils as single cells or multicell colonies and often strongly adsorb onto mineral surfaces such as sand and clay. The interactions of microbes and microbial biomolecules with these minerals have profound impacts on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. (Author)

  5. Three-dimensional optofluidic device for isolating microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keloth, A.; Paterson, L.; Markx, G. H.; Kar, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    Development of efficient methods for isolation and manipulation of microorganisms is essential to study unidentified and yet-to-be cultured microbes originating from a variety of environments. The discovery of novel microbes and their products have the potential to contribute to the development of new medicines and other industrially important bioactive compounds. In this paper we describe the design, fabrication and validation of an optofluidic device capable of redirecting microbes within a flow using optical forces. The device holds promise to enable the high throughput isolation of single microbes for downstream culture and analysis. Optofluidic devices are widely used in clinical research, cell biology and biomedical engineering as they are capable of performing analytical functions such as controlled transportation, compact and rapid processing of nanolitres to millilitres of clinical or biological samples. We have designed and fabricated a three dimensional optofluidic device to control and manipulate microorganisms within a microfluidic channel. The device was fabricated in fused silica by ultrafast laser inscription (ULI) followed by selective chemical etching. The unique three-dimensional capability of ULI is utilized to integrate microfluidic channels and waveguides within the same substrate. The main microfluidic channel in the device constitutes the path of the sample. Optical waveguides are fabricated at right angles to the main microfluidic channel. The potential of the optical scattering force to control and manipulate microorganisms is discussed in this paper. A 980 nm continuous wave (CW) laser source, coupled to the waveguide, is used to exert radiation pressure on the particle and particle migrations at different flow velocities are recorded. As a first demonstration, device functionality is validated using fluorescent microbeads and initial trials with microalgae are presented.

  6. Sterilization of microbes by using various plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhm, Han S.; Choi, Eun H.; Cho, Guang S. [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong C. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Sterilization of various microbes was carried out by using several plasma jets. Argon plasma jets penetrate deep into ambient air and create a path for oxygen radicals to sterilize microbes including spores. A sterilization experiment with bacterial endospores indicates that an argon-oxygen plasma jet very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372), thereby demonstrating its capability to clean surfaces and its usefulness for reinstating contaminated equipment as free from toxic biological agents. The key element of the sterilization is oxygen radicals. The penciltype configuration produces a long, cold plasma jet capable of reaching 3.5 cm and having various excited plasma species shown through the optical emission spectrum. Operation of an air plasma jet at 2 W in a pencil-type electrode provides an excellent opportunity for sterilization of microbes. An electron microscope was used to observe the effects of the plasma on bacterial cell morphology. Transmission electron micrographs showed morphological changes in E. coli cells treated with an atmospheric plasma at 75 W for 2 min. The treated cells had severe cytoplasmic deformations and leakage of bacterial chromosome. The chromosomal DNA was either attached to the bacterial cells or released freely into the surrounding medium. The results clearly explain the loss of viability of bacterial cells after plasma treatment.

  7. Rarity in aquatic microbes: placing protists on the map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logares, Ramiro; Mangot, Jean-François; Massana, Ramon

    2015-12-01

    Most microbial richness at any given time tends to be represented by low-abundance (rare) taxa, which are collectively referred to as the "rare biosphere". Here we review works on the rare biosphere using high-throughput sequencing (HTS), with a particular focus on unicellular eukaryotes or protists. Evidence thus far indicates that the rare biosphere encompasses dormant as well as metabolically active microbes that could potentially play key roles in ecosystem functioning. Rare microbes appear to have biogeography, and sometimes the observed patterns can be similar to what is observed among abundant taxa, suggesting similar community-structuring mechanisms. There is limited evidence indicating that the rare biosphere contains taxa that are phylogenetically distantly related to abundant counterparts; therefore, the rare biosphere may act as a reservoir of deep-branching phylogenetic diversity. The potential role of the rare biosphere as a bank of redundant functions that can help to maintain continuous ecosystem function following oscillations in taxonomic abundances is hypothesized as its main ecological role. Future studies focusing on rare microbes are crucial for advancing our knowledge of microbial ecology and evolution and unveiling their links with ecosystem function. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring Earth's Atmospheric Biology using a Platform-Extensible Sampling Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Rothschild, L.

    2012-12-01

    The interactions between Earth's atmosphere and its biosphere, or aerobiology, remain a significant unknown. What few studies have been done conclusively show that Earth's atmosphere has a rich and dynamic microbial presence[Bowers et al., 2010]; that microbes suspended in air survive over long times (1-2 weeks)[Smith et al., 2010] and travel great distances (>5000 km)[Kellogg and Griffin, 2006]; that some airborne bacteria actively nucleate ice crystals, affecting meteorology[Delort et al., 2010]; and that the presence of microbes in the atmosphere has other planetary-scale effects[Delort et al., 2010]. Basic questions, however, such as the number of microbes present, their activity level and state, the different species present and their variance over time and space, remain largely unquantified. Compounding the significant physical and environmental challenges of reliable aerobiological sampling, collection and analysis of biological samples at altitudes above ~10-20 km has traditionally used ad hoc instrumentation and techniques, yielding primarily qualitative analytical results that lack a common basis for comparison[Bowers et al., 2010]. There is a strong need for broad-basis, repeatable, reliably comparable data about aerobiological basics. We describe here a high-altitude environmental and biological sampling project designed specifically to address these issues. The goal is a robust, reliable, re-usable sampling system, with open reproducibility and adaptability for multiple low-cost flight platforms (including ground-tethered systems, high-altitude balloons, and suborbital sounding rockets); by establishing a common modular payload structure for high-altitude sampling with appeal to a broad user base, we hope to encourage widespread collection of comparable aerobiological data. We are on our third prototype iteration, with demonstrated function of two sample capture modules, a support backbone (tracking, data logging, event response, etc.), a simple ground

  9. The use of artificial intelligence techniques to improve the multiple payload integration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, Dannie E.; Widgren, Brian K.

    1992-01-01

    A maximum return of science and products with a minimum expenditure of time and resources is a major goal of mission payload integration. A critical component then, in successful mission payload integration is the acquisition and analysis of experiment requirements from the principal investigator and payload element developer teams. One effort to use artificial intelligence techniques to improve the acquisition and analysis of experiment requirements within the payload integration process is described.

  10. UV Stellar Distribution Model for the Derivation of Payload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun Choi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a model calculation of the stellar distribution in a UV and centered at 2175Å corresponding to the well-known bump in the interstellar extinction curve. The stellar distribution model used here is based on the Bahcall-Soneira galaxy model (1980. The source code for model calculation was designed by Brosch (1991 and modified to investigate various designing factors for UV satellite payload. The model predicts UV stellar densities in different sky directions, and its results are compared with the TD-1 star counts for a number of sky regions. From this study, we can determine the field of view, size of optics, angular resolution, and number of stars in one orbit. There will provide the basic constrains in designing a satellite payload for UV observations.

  11. RTP/I Payload Type Definition for Chat Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Jürgen

    2001-01-01

    This document specifies an application-level protocol (i.e., payload type) for chat tools using the Real Time Protocol for Distributed Interactive Media (RTP/I). RTP/I defines a standardized framing for the transmission of application data and provides protocol mechanisms that are universally needed for the class of distributed interactive media. A chat tool provides an instant messaging service among an arbitrary number of users. This documents specifies how to employ a chat tool with RTP/I ...

  12. Food microbe tracker: a web-based tool for storage and comparison of food-associated microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangay, Pajau; Fugett, Eric B; Sun, Qi; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Large amounts of molecular subtyping information are generated by the private sector, academia, and government agencies. However, use of subtype data is limited by a lack of effective data storage and sharing mechanisms that allow comparison of subtype data from multiple sources. Currently available subtype databases are generally limited in scope to a few data types (e.g., MLST. net) or are not publicly available (e.g., PulseNet). We describe the development and initial implementation of Food Microbe Tracker, a public Web-based database that allows archiving and exchange of a variety of molecular subtype data that can be cross-referenced with isolate source data, genetic data, and phenotypic characteristics. Data can be queried with a variety of search criteria, including DNA sequences and banding pattern data (e.g., ribotype or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type). Food Microbe Tracker allows the deposition of data on any bacterial genus and species, bacteriophages, and other viruses. The bacterial genera and species that currently have the most entries in this database are Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., and Paenibacillus spp., with over 40,000 isolates. The combination of pathogen and spoilage microorganism data in the database will facilitate source tracking and outbreak detection, improve discovery of emerging subtypes, and increase our understanding of transmission and ecology of these microbes. Continued addition of subtyping, genetic or phenotypic data for a variety of microbial species will broaden the database and facilitate large-scale studies on the diversity of food-associated microbes.

  13. Microbes on a bottle: substrate, season and geography influence community composition of microbes colonizing marine plastic debris

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Dee A.; Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A. Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial com...

  14. A metasystem of framework model organisms to study emergence of new host-microbe adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Suresh; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2008-01-01

    An unintended consequence of global industrialization and associated societal rearrangements is new interactions of microbes and potential hosts (especially mammals and plants), providing an opportunity for the rapid emergence of host-microbe adaptation and eventual establishment of new microbe-related diseases. We describe a new model system comprising the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and several microbes, each representing different modes of interaction, to study such "maladaptations". The model microbes include human and agricultural pathogens and microbes that are commonly considered innocuous. The system has a large knowledge base corresponding to each component organism and is amenable to high-throughput automation assisted perturbation screens for identifying components that modulate host-pathogen interactions. This would aid in the study of emergence and progression of host-microbe maladaptations in a controlled environment.

  15. 14 CFR 1214.306 - Payload specialist relationship with sponsoring institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payload specialist relationship with... ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Payload Specialists for Space Transportation System (STS) Missions § 1214.306 Payload specialist relationship with sponsoring institutions. Specialists who are not U.S. Government employees must...

  16. Parachute-Payload System Flight Dynamics and Trajectory Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Guglieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work traces a general procedure for the design of a flight simulation tool still representative of the major flight physics of a parachute-payload system along decelerated trajectories. An example of limited complexity simulation models for a payload decelerated by one or more parachutes is given, including details and implementation features usually omitted as the focus of the research in this field is typically on the investigation of mission design issues, rather than addressing general implementation guidelines for the development of a reconfigurable simulation tool. The dynamics of the system are modeled through a simple multibody model that represents the expected behavior of an entry vehicle during the terminal deceleration phase. The simulators are designed according to a comprehensive vision that enforces the simplification of the coupling mechanism between the payload and the parachute, with an adequate level of physical insight still available. The results presented for a realistic case study define the sensitivity of the simulation outputs to the functional complexity of the mathematical model. Far from being an absolute address for the software designer, this paper tries to contribute to the area of interest with some technical considerations and clarifications.

  17. TRU waste certification and TRUPACT-2 payload verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, E.K.; Johnson, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) established a policy that requires each waste shipper to verify that all waste shipments meet the requirements of the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) prior to being shipped. This verification provides assurance that transuranic (TRU) wastes meet the criteria while still retained in a facility where discrepancies can be immediately corrected. Each Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste facility planning to ship waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is required to develop and implement a specific program including Quality Assurance (QA) provisions to verify that waste is in full compliance with WIPP's WAC. This program is audited by a composite DOE and contractor audit team prior to granting the facility permission to certify waste. During interaction with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on payload verification for shipping in TRUPACT-II, a similar system was established by DOE. The TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report (SAR) contains the technical requirements and physical and chemical limits that payloads must meet (like the WAC). All shippers must plan and implement a payload control program including independent QA provisions. A similar composite audit team will conduct preshipment audits, frequent subsequent audits, and operations inspections to verify that all TRU waste shipments in TRUPACT-II meet the requirements of the Certificate of Compliance issued by the NRC which invokes the SAR requirements. 1 fig

  18. Feature reduction and payload location with WAM steganalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Andrew D.; Lubenko, Ivans

    2009-02-01

    WAM steganalysis is a feature-based classifier for detecting LSB matching steganography, presented in 2006 by Goljan et al. and demonstrated to be sensitive even to small payloads. This paper makes three contributions to the development of the WAM method. First, we benchmark some variants of WAM in a number of sets of cover images, and we are able to quantify the significance of differences in results between different machine learning algorithms based on WAM features. It turns out that, like many of its competitors, WAM is not effective in certain types of cover, and furthermore it is hard to predict which types of cover are suitable for WAM steganalysis. Second, we demonstrate that only a few the features used in WAM steganalysis do almost all of the work, so that a simplified WAM steganalyser can be constructed in exchange for a little less detection power. Finally, we demonstrate how the WAM method can be extended to provide forensic tools to identify the location (and potentially content) of LSB matching payload, given a number of stego images with payload placed in the same locations. Although easily evaded, this is a plausible situation if the same stego key is mistakenly re-used for embedding in multiple images.

  19. Online payload estimation for the control of underactuated mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yu Sheng; Chiu, Hua Hsu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a payload estimation scheme for underactuated robotic manipulators with passive joints that are not driven by actuators. In the proposed scheme, only the payload, which can be quite uncertain when a robot performs various tasks, is estimated, because the manipulator's electrical and other mechanical parameters are generally known in advance. In comparison to other adaptive schemes for underactuated robotic manipulators, the proposed scheme produces satisfactory transient performance and also reduces the computational burden in real-time implementation. The proposed estimation law is also based on the theory of Variable Structure Systems. In contrast to existing adaptation laws that have an integral form, the proposed law estimates uncertain payload using lowpass filtering of a switching signal that is always bounded, which avoids the parameter-drifting problem that is often encountered when using the previous integral laws. Real-time experiments are conducted using an inverted pendulum and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  20. An embedded acceleration measurement capability for EXPRESS Rack Payloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, William M. II; Sutliff, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station provides a microgravity environment allowing long duration studies to be made on phenomena masked by the presence of earth's gravitational effects. Studies are also enabled in areas requiring a substantial decrease in steady-state and vibratory acceleration environments. In anticipation microgravity science experiments being targeted for EXPRESS (EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station) Racks, a capability has been provided to simplify and conduct a consistent measurement of the microgravity environment for payloads. The Space Acceleration Measurement System-II (SAMS-II) project has collaborated with the EXPRESS Rack Project to embed an electronics unit within the four EXPRESS Racks equipped with Active Rack Isolation Systems (ARIS). Each SAMS-II unit provides a standardized means for payload acceleration measurements to be acquired. Access to this capability is via front panel connections similar to those of power, data and water cooling provided for EXPRESS payloads. Furthermore, an International Subrack Interface Standard (ISIS) drawer configuration has been developed to provide measurement capability to the non-ARIS equipped EXPRESS Racks, as well as to other ISIS-configured racks, for non-isolated experimental measurement needs. This paper describes the SAMS-II acceleration measurement capabilities provided to ISS users and, in particular, to the EXPRESS Rack community

  1. Life sciences payload definition and integration study, task C and D. Volume 2: Payload definition, integration, and planning studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Life Sciences Payload Definition and Integration Study was composed of four major tasks. Tasks A and B, the laboratory definition phase, were the subject of prior NASA study. The laboratory definition phase included the establishment of research functions, equipment definitions, and conceptual baseline laboratory designs. These baseline laboratories were designated as Maxi-Nom, Mini-30, and Mini-7. The outputs of Tasks A and B were used by the NASA Life Sciences Payload Integration Team to establish guidelines for Tasks C and D, the laboratory integration phase of the study. A brief review of Tasks A and B is presented provide background continuity. The tasks C and D effort is the subject of this report. The Task C effort stressed the integration of the NASA selected laboratory designs with the shuttle sortie module. The Task D effort updated and developed costs that could be used by NASA for preliminary program planning.

  2. Long duration hard X-ray transatlantic payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Padula, C.D.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.; Ubertini, P.

    1981-01-01

    The HXR80M large-area hard X-ray experiment, to be flown aboard a transatlantic balloon, is described. The detectors are two multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters (MWSPC) with a 2700-sq-cm sensitive area each. The two detectors are filled with an extremely pure xenon-isobutane mixture at high pressure (3-6 atm) in order to obtain good spectral resolution and high efficiency. The onboard data handling is performed by microprocessor-controlled electronics. The scientific aim of the experiment is the survey of the sky belt around the 38th parallel and in particular the observation of faint galactic objects and galactic binary systems in the 15-200 keV range

  3. Application of RNA-seq and Bioimaging Methods to Study Microbe-Microbe Interactions and Their Effects on Biofilm Formation and Gene Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amador Hierro, Cristina Isabel; Sternberg, Claus; Jelsbak, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Complex interactions between pathogenic bacteria, the microbiota, and the host can modify pathogen physiology and behavior. We describe two different experimental approaches to study microbe-microbe interactions in in vitro systems containing surface-associated microbial populations. One method i...

  4. CETF Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study. [Critical Evaluation Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagala, Tom; Mcglew, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The expected pointing performance of an attached payload coupled to the Critical Evaluation Task Force Space Station via a payload pointing system (PPS) is determined. The PPS is a 3-axis gimbal which provides the capability for maintaining inertial pointing of a payload in the presence of disturbances associated with the Space Station environment. A system where the axes of rotation were offset from the payload center of mass (CM) by 10 in. in the Z axis was studied as well as a system having the payload CM offset by only 1 inch. There is a significant improvement in pointing performance when going from the 10 in. to the 1 in. gimbal offset.

  5. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Color orthophotos of York County, SC and the municipalities flown at 400 scale, 1 foot resolution, Published in 2005, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, York County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2005. Color orthophotos of York County, SC and the municipalities flown at 400 scale, 1 foot...

  6. Microbe participation in aroma production during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Risa; Yuzuki, Masanobu; Ito, Kotaro; Shiga, Kazuki; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2018-06-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional Japanese fermented seasoning that contains various constituents such as amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles that are produced during the long fermentation process. Although studies regarding the correlation between microbes and aroma constituents have been performed, there are no reports about the influences of the microbial products, such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol, during fermentation. Because it is known that these compounds contribute to microbial growth and to changes in the constituent profile by altering the moromi environment, understanding the influence of these compounds is important. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight metabolites, is a promising strategy for the deep understanding of constituent contributions to food characteristics. Therefore, the influences of microbes and their products such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol on aroma profiles were investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolic profiling. The presence of aroma constituents influenced by microbes and chemically influenced by lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol were proposed. Most of the aroma constituents were not produced by adding ethanol alone, confirming the participation of yeast in aroma production. It was suggested that lactic acid bacterium relates to a key aromatic compound, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone. However, most of the measured aroma constituents changed similarly in both samples with lactic acid bacterium and acids. Thus, it was clear that the effect of lactic acid and acetic acid on the aroma profile was significant. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Big Data Approaches To Coral-Microbe Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneveld, J.; Pollock, F. J.; McMinds, R.; Smith, S.; Payet, J.; Hanna, B.; Welsh, R.; Foster, A.; Ohdera, A.; Shantz, A. A.; Burkepile, D. E.; Maynard, J. A.; Medina, M.; Vega Thurber, R.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs face increasing challenges worldwide, threatened by overfishing and nutrient pollution, which drive growth of algal competitors of corals, and periods of extreme temperature, which drive mass coral bleaching. I will discuss two projects that examine how coral's complex relationships with microorganisms affect the response of coral colonies and coral species to environmental challenge. Microbiological studies have documented key roles for coral's microbial symbionts in energy harvest and defense against pathogens. However, the evolutionary history of corals and their microbes is little studied. As part of the Global Coral Microbiome Project, we are characterizing bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and Symbiodinium diversity across >1400 DNA samples from all major groups of corals, collected from 15 locations worldwide. This collection will allow us to ask how coral- microbe associations evolved over evolutionary time, and to determine whether microbial symbiosis helps predict the relative vulnerability of certain coral species to environmental stress. In the second project, we experimentally characterized how the long-term effects of human impacts such as overfishing and nutrient pollution influence coral-microbe symbiosis. We conducted a three-year field experiment in the Florida Keys applying nutrient pollution or simulated overfishing to reef plots, and traced the effects on reef communities, coral microbiomes, and coral health. The results show that extremes of temperature and algal competition destabilize coral microbiomes, increasing pathogen blooms, coral disease, and coral death. Surprisingly, these local stressors interacted strongly with thermal stress: the greatest microbiome disruption, and >80% of coral mortality happened in the hottest periods. Thus, overfishing and nutrient pollution may interact with increased climate-driven episodes of sub-bleaching thermal stress to increase coral mortality by disrupt reef communities down to microbial scales.

  8. Nutrient-Dependent Impact of Microbes on Drosophila suzukii Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoLi Bing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is an invasive species of vinegar fly that has become a prominent pest of berries and other soft-skinned fruits. Unlike most other Drosophila species, female D. suzukii flies lay their eggs in ripening and ripe fruits and larvae develop within the fruit. To understand how D. suzukii larvae utilize ripe and ripening fruits, which usually have low levels of protein, we investigated the microbiota of field-captured and laboratory-reared D. suzukii flies and further examined the combined influence of diet and microbes on host fitness. Field-captured flies were associated with diverse microbiota, which varied significantly with sampling location and season. In contrast, laboratory-reared flies possessed strikingly lower bacterial abundance and diversity. A comparison of conventionally reared (CR and germ-free (GF flies revealed that the microbiota of D. suzukii does not alter its development significantly but decreases its life span under conditions of a nutrient-sufficient diet. However, the microbiota is essential for D. suzukii development on strawberry-based or blueberry-based fruit diets. This developmental failure could be rescued by reassociation with single bacterial or fungal species or by the addition of a high quantity of heat-killed microbes. In addition, we found that proteins are limiting with respect to fly development on fruit-based diets and that GF flies show signs of protein starvation. Taken together, our study results demonstrate that the microbiota provides key proteins required for the development of D. suzukii reared on fresh fruit. Our work shows that the impact of microbes on fly fitness depends strongly on nutritional conditions.

  9. Nutrient-Dependent Impact of Microbes on Drosophila suzukii Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, XiaoLi; Gerlach, Joseph; Loeb, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is an invasive species of vinegar fly that has become a prominent pest of berries and other soft-skinned fruits. Unlike most other Drosophila species, female D. suzukii flies lay their eggs in ripening and ripe fruits and larvae develop within the fruit. To understand how D. suzukii larvae utilize ripe and ripening fruits, which usually have low levels of protein, we investigated the microbiota of field-captured and laboratory-reared D. suzukii flies and further examined the combined influence of diet and microbes on host fitness. Field-captured flies were associated with diverse microbiota, which varied significantly with sampling location and season. In contrast, laboratory-reared flies possessed strikingly lower bacterial abundance and diversity. A comparison of conventionally reared (CR) and germ-free (GF) flies revealed that the microbiota of D. suzukii does not alter its development significantly but decreases its life span under conditions of a nutrient-sufficient diet. However, the microbiota is essential for D. suzukii development on strawberry-based or blueberry-based fruit diets. This developmental failure could be rescued by reassociation with single bacterial or fungal species or by the addition of a high quantity of heat-killed microbes. In addition, we found that proteins are limiting with respect to fly development on fruit-based diets and that GF flies show signs of protein starvation. Taken together, our study results demonstrate that the microbiota provides key proteins required for the development of D. suzukii reared on fresh fruit. Our work shows that the impact of microbes on fly fitness depends strongly on nutritional conditions. PMID:29559576

  10. Gut microbes may facilitate insect herbivory of chemically defended plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Bowers, M Deane

    2015-09-01

    The majority of insect species consume plants, many of which produce chemical toxins that defend their tissues from attack. How then are herbivorous insects able to develop on a potentially poisonous diet? While numerous studies have focused on the biochemical counter-adaptations to plant toxins rooted in the insect genome, a separate body of research has recently emphasized the role of microbial symbionts, particularly those inhabiting the gut, in plant-insect interactions. Here we outline the "gut microbial facilitation hypothesis," which proposes that variation among herbivores in their ability to consume chemically defended plants can be due, in part, to variation in their associated microbial communities. More specifically, different microbes may be differentially able to detoxify compounds toxic to the insect, or be differentially resistant to the potential antimicrobial effects of some compounds. Studies directly addressing this hypothesis are relatively few, but microbe-plant allelochemical interactions have been frequently documented from non-insect systems-such as soil and the human gut-and thus illustrate their potential importance for insect herbivory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for insect diversification and coevolution with plants; for example, evolutionary transitions to host plant groups with novel allelochemicals could be initiated by heritable changes to the insect microbiome. Furthermore, the ecological implications extend beyond the plant and insect herbivore to higher trophic levels. Although the hidden nature of microbes and plant allelochemicals make their interactions difficult to detect, recent molecular and experimental techniques should enable research on this neglected, but likely important, aspect of insect-plant biology.

  11. The ``Adopt A Microbe'' project: Web-based interactive education connected with scientific ocean drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Bowman, D.; Turner, A.; Inderbitzen, K. E.; Fisher, A. T.; Peart, L. W.; Iodp Expedition 327 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    We launched the "Adopt a Microbe" project as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 327 in Summer 2010. This eight-week-long education and outreach effort was run by shipboard scientists and educators from the research vessel JOIDES Resolution, using a web site (https://sites.google.com/site/adoptamicrobe) to engage students of all ages in an exploration of the deep biosphere inhabiting the upper ocean crust. Participants were initially introduced to a cast of microbes (residing within an ‘Adoption Center’ on the project website) that live in the dark ocean and asked to select and virtually ‘adopt’ a microbe. A new educational activity was offered each week to encourage learning about microbiology, using the adopted microbe as a focal point. Activities included reading information and asking questions about the adopted microbes (with subsequent responses from shipboard scientists), writing haiku about the adopted microbes, making balloon and fabric models of the adopted microbes, answering math questions related to the study of microbes in the ocean, growing cultures of microbes, and examining the gases produced by microbes. In addition, the website featured regular text, photo and video updates about the science of the expedition using a toy microbe as narrator, as well as stories written by shipboard scientists from the perspective of deep ocean microbes accompanied by watercolor illustrations prepared by a shipboard artist. Assessment methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the Adopt a Microbe project included participant feedback via email and online surveys, website traffic monitoring, and online video viewing rates. Quantitative metrics suggest that the “Adope A Microbe” project was successful in reaching target audiences and helping to encourage and maintain interest in topics related to IODP Expedition 327. The “Adopt A Microbe” project mdel can be adapted for future oceanographic expeditions to help connect the

  12. Turbidity and microbes removal from water using an electrochemical filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, G.; Gokhale, B.K.; Belapurkar, A.D.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Balaji, V.

    2004-01-01

    An in-house designed and fabricated Electrochemical fibrous graphite filter (ECF) was used to remove turbidity and microbes. The filter was found to be effective in removing sub micron size indium turbidity from RAPS-1 moderator water, iron turbidity from Active Process Cooling Water (APCW) of Kaiga Generating Station and microbial reduction from process cooling water RAPS-2. Unlike conventional turbidity removal by addition of coagulants and biocide chemical additions for purification, ECF is a clean way to remove the turbidity without contaminating the system and is best suited for close loop systems

  13. TRU waste certification and TRUPACT-II payload verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, E.K.; Johnson, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) established a policy (subsequently confirmed and required by DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, September 1988) that requires each waste shipper to verify that all waste shipments meet the requirements of the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) prior to being shipped. This verification provides assurance that transuranic (TRU) wastes meet the criteria while still retained in a facility where discrepancies can be immediately corrected. In this manner, problems that would arise if WAC violations were discovered at the receiver, where corrective facilities are not available, are avoided. Each Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste facility planning to ship waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is required to develop and implement a specific program including Quality Assurance (QA) provisions to verify that waste is in full compliance with WIPP's WAC. This program is audited by a composite DOE and contractor audit team prior to granting the facility permission to certify waste. During interaction with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on payload verification for shipping in TRUPACT-II, a similar system was established by DOE. The TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report (SAR) contains the technical requirements and physical and chemical limits that payloads must meet (like the WAC). All shippers must plan and implement a payload control program including independent QA provisions. A similar composite audit team will conduct preshipment audits, frequent subsequent audits, and operations inspections to verify that all TRU waste shipments in TRUPACT-II meet the requirements of the Certificate of Compliance (C of C) issued by the NRC which invokes the SAR requirements. 1 fig

  14. O/OREOS Nanosatellite: A Multi-Payload Technology Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Minelli, Giovanni; Ricco, Antonio; Beasley, Christopher; Hines, John; Agasid, Elwood; Yost, Bruce; Squires, David; Friedericks, Charlie; Piccini, Matthew; Defouw, Greg; McIntyre, Mike; Ricks, Robert; Parra, Macarena; Diaz-Aguado, Millan; Timucin, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) nanosatellite follows in the footsteps of the successful GeneSat-1 and PharmaSat missions to validate key technologies developed to conduct compelling science experiments in space for a small price tag. Developed by the Small Spacecraft Division at NASA Ames Research Center, the 5.5-kg 3U satellite contains two completely independent payloads and a novel drag-enhancing device which shortens the spacecraft’s orbital lifetime, thereby ...

  15. The astronomy spacelab payloads study: executive volume. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The progress of the Astronomy Spacelab Payloads Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is reported. Astronomical research in space, using the Spacelab in conjunction with the Space Shuttle, is described. The various fields of solar astronomy or solar physics, ultraviolet and optical astronomy, and high energy astrophysics are among the topics discussed. These fields include scientific studies of the Sun and its dynamical processes, of the stars in wavelength regions not accessible to ground based observations, and the exciting new fields of X-ray, gamma ray, and particle astronomy

  16. Software engineering and data management for automated payload experiment tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Gary A.; Provancha, Anna; Chattam, David

    1994-01-01

    The Microgravity Projects Office identified a need to develop a software package that will lead experiment developers through the development planning process, obtain necessary information, establish an electronic data exchange avenue, and allow easier manipulation/reformatting of the collected information. An MS-DOS compatible software package called the Automated Payload Experiment Tool (APET) has been developed and delivered. The objective of this task is to expand on the results of the APET work previously performed by University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) and provide versions of the software in a Macintosh and Windows compatible format. Appendix 1 science requirements document (SRD) Users Manual is attached.

  17. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-05-02

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed.

  18. Evolution, human-microbe interactions, and life history plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Graham; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Levin, Bruce R; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; McLean, Angela R

    2017-07-29

    A bacterium was once a component of the ancestor of all eukaryotic cells, and much of the human genome originated in microorganisms. Today, all vertebrates harbour large communities of microorganisms (microbiota), particularly in the gut, and at least 20% of the small molecules in human blood are products of the microbiota. Changing human lifestyles and medical practices are disturbing the content and diversity of the microbiota, while simultaneously reducing our exposures to the so-called old infections and to organisms from the natural environment with which human beings co-evolved. Meanwhile, population growth is increasing the exposure of human beings to novel pathogens, particularly the crowd infections that were not part of our evolutionary history. Thus some microbes have co-evolved with human beings and play crucial roles in our physiology and metabolism, whereas others are entirely intrusive. Human metabolism is therefore a tug-of-war between managing beneficial microbes, excluding detrimental ones, and channelling as much energy as is available into other essential functions (eg, growth, maintenance, reproduction). This tug-of-war shapes the passage of each individual through life history decision nodes (eg, how fast to grow, when to mature, and how long to live). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic engineering microbes for bioremediation/ biorecovery of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apte, S.K.; Rao, A.S.; Appukuttan, D.; Nilgiriwala, K.S.; Acharya, C.

    2005-01-01

    Bioremediation (both bioremoval and biorecovery) of metals is considered a feasible, economic and eco-friendly alternative to chemical methods of metal extraction, particularly when the metal concentration is very low. Scanty distribution along with poor ore quality makes biomining of uranium an attractive preposition. Biosorption, bioprecipitation or bioaccumulation of uranium, aided by recombinant DNA technology, offer a promising technology for recovery of uranium from acidic or alkaline nuclear waste, tailings or from sea-water. Genetic engineering of bacteria, with a gene encoding an acid phosphatase, has yielded strains that can bioprecipitate uranium from very low concentrations at acidic-neutral pH, in a relatively short time. Organisms overproducing alkaline phosphatase have been selected for uranium precipitation from alkaline waste. Such abilities have now been transferred to the radioresistant microbe Deinococcus radiodurans to facilitate in situ bioremediation of nuclear waste, with some success. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are being characterized for bioremediation of uranium in tailings with the dual objective of uranium precipitation and reduction of sulfate to sulphide. Certain marine cyanobacteria have shown promise for uranium biosorption to extracellular polysaccharides, and intracellular accumulation involving metal sequestering metallothionin proteins. Future work is aimed at understanding the genetic basis of these abilities and to engineer them into suitable organisms subsequently. As photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing microbes, which are considerably resistant to ionizing radiations, cyanobacteria hold considerable potential for bioremediation of nuclear waste. (author)

  20. Nitrilase enzymes and their role in plant–microbe interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Andrew J. M.; Preston, Gail M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Nitrilase enzymes (nitrilases) catalyse the hydrolysis of nitrile compounds to the corresponding carboxylic acid and ammonia, and have a wide range of industrial and biotechnological applications, including the synthesis of industrially important carboxylic acids and bioremediation of cyanide and toxic nitriles. Nitrilases are produced by a wide range of organisms, including plants, bacteria and fungi, but despite their biotechnological importance, the role of these enzymes in living organisms is relatively underexplored. Current research suggests that nitrilases play important roles in a range of biological processes. In the context of plant–microbe interactions they may have roles in hormone synthesis, nutrient assimilation and detoxification of exogenous and endogenous nitriles. Nitrilases are produced by both plant pathogenic and plant growth‐promoting microorganisms, and their activities may have a significant impact on the outcome of plant–microbe interactions. In this paper we review current knowledge of the role of nitriles and nitrilases in plants and plant‐associated microorganisms, and discuss how greater understanding of the natural functions of nitrilases could be applied to benefit both industry and agriculture. PMID:21255276

  1. Environmental bacteriophages : viruses of microbes in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Télesphore eSIME - NGANDO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery 2-3 decades ago that viruses of microbes are abundant in marine ecosystems, viral ecology has grown increasingly to reach the status of a full scientific discipline in environmental sciences. A dedicated ISVM society, the International Society for Viruses of Microorganisms (http://www.isvm.org/, was recently launched. Increasing studies in viral ecology are sources of novel knowledge related to the biodiversity of living things, the functioning of ecosystems, and the evolution of the cellular world. This is because viruses are perhaps the most diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous biological entities in the biosphere, although local environmental conditions enrich for certain viral types through selective pressure. They exhibit various lifestyles that intimately depend on the deep-cellular mechanisms, and are ultimately replicated by members of all three domains of cellular life (Bacteria, Eukarya, Archaea, as well as by giant viruses of some eukaryotic cells. This establishes viral parasites as microbial killers but also as cell partners or metabolic manipulators in microbial ecology. The present chapter sought to review the literature on the diversity and functional roles of viruses of microbes in environmental microbiology, focusing primarily on prokaryotic viruses (i.e. phages in aquatic ecosystems, which form the bulk of our knowledge in modern environmental viral ecology.

  2. Induction of abiotic stress tolerance in plants by endophytic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, R; Chowdhury, S; Gond, S K; White, J F

    2018-04-01

    Endophytes are micro-organisms including bacteria and fungi that survive within healthy plant tissues and promote plant growth under stress. This review focuses on the potential of endophytic microbes that induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants. How endophytes promote plant growth under stressful conditions, like drought and heat, high salinity and poor nutrient availability will be discussed. The molecular mechanisms for increasing stress tolerance in plants by endophytes include induction of plant stress genes as well as biomolecules like reactive oxygen species scavengers. This review may help in the development of biotechnological applications of endophytic microbes in plant growth promotion and crop improvement under abiotic stress conditions. Increasing human populations demand more crop yield for food security while crop production is adversely affected by abiotic stresses like drought, salinity and high temperature. Development of stress tolerance in plants is a strategy to cope with the negative effects of adverse environmental conditions. Endophytes are well recognized for plant growth promotion and production of natural compounds. The property of endophytes to induce stress tolerance in plants can be applied to increase crop yields. With this review, we intend to promote application of endophytes in biotechnology and genetic engineering for the development of stress-tolerant plants. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Utilizing thermophilic microbe in lignocelluloses based bioethanol production: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharti, Agustina, Wawan; Ratnawati, Lia; Rahman, Taufik; Salim, Takiyah

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of thermophilic microbe has attracted many parties, particularly in producing an alternative fuel like ethanol. Bioethanol is one of the alternative energy sources substituting for earth oil in the future. The advantage of using bioethanol is that it can reduce pollution levels and global warming because the result of bioethanol burning doesn't bring in a net addition of CO2 into environment. Moreover, decrease in the reserves of earth oil globally has also contributed to the notion on searching renewable energy resources such as bioethanol. Indonesia has a high biomass potential and can be used as raw material for bioethanol. The utilization of these raw materials will reduce fears of competition foodstuffs for energy production. The enzymes that play a role in degrading lignocelluloses are cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, and lignolytic in nature. The main enzyme with an important role in bioethanol production is a complex enzyme capable of degrading lignocelluloses. The enzyme can be produced by the thermophilik microbes of the groups of bacteria and fungi such as Trichoderma viride, Clostridium thermocellum, Bacillus sp. Bioethanol production is heavily affected by raw material composition, microorganism type, and the condition of fermentation used.

  4. Fluorogenic Cell-Based Biosensors for Monitoring Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Theresa; Salazar, Noe; Tabb, Joel; Chase, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Fluorogenic cell-based sensor systems for detecting microbes (especially pathogenic ones) and some toxins and allergens are undergoing development. These systems harness the natural signaltransduction and amplification cascades that occur in mast cells upon activation with antigens. These systems include (1) fluidic biochips for automated containment of samples, reagents, and wastes and (2) sensitive, compact fluorometers for monitoring the fluorescent responses of mast cells engineered to contain fluorescent dyes. It should be possible to observe responses within minutes of adding immune complexes. The systems have been shown to work when utilizing either immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies or traditionally generated rat antibodies - a promising result in that it indicates that the systems could be developed to detect many target microbes. Chimeric IgE antibodies and rat immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies could be genetically engineered for recognizing biological and chemical warfare agents and airborne and food-borne allergens. Genetic engineering efforts thus far have yielded (1) CD14 chimeric antibodies that recognize both Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria and bind to the surfaces of mast cells, eliciting a degranulation response and (2) rat IgG2a antibodies that act similarly in response to low levels of canine parvovirus.

  5. Nitrilase enzymes and their role in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Andrew J M; Preston, Gail M

    2009-07-01

    Nitrilase enzymes (nitrilases) catalyse the hydrolysis of nitrile compounds to the corresponding carboxylic acid and ammonia, and have a wide range of industrial and biotechnological applications, including the synthesis of industrially important carboxylic acids and bioremediation of cyanide and toxic nitriles. Nitrilases are produced by a wide range of organisms, including plants, bacteria and fungi, but despite their biotechnological importance, the role of these enzymes in living organisms is relatively underexplored. Current research suggests that nitrilases play important roles in a range of biological processes. In the context of plant-microbe interactions they may have roles in hormone synthesis, nutrient assimilation and detoxification of exogenous and endogenous nitriles. Nitrilases are produced by both plant pathogenic and plant growth-promoting microorganisms, and their activities may have a significant impact on the outcome of plant-microbe interactions. In this paper we review current knowledge of the role of nitriles and nitrilases in plants and plant-associated microorganisms, and discuss how greater understanding of the natural functions of nitrilases could be applied to benefit both industry and agriculture. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Diet, gut microbes, and the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Kyle T; Chang, Eugene B

    2017-01-01

    The rising incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases in recent decades has notably paralleled changing lifestyle habits in Western nations, which are now making their way into more traditional societies. Diet plays a key role in IBD pathogenesis, and there is a growing appreciation that the interaction between diet and microbes in a susceptible person contributes significantly to the onset of disease. In this review, we examine what is known about dietary and microbial factors that promote IBD. We summarize recent findings regarding the effects of diet in IBD epidemiology from prospective population cohort studies, as well as new insights into IBD-associated dysbiosis. Microbial metabolism of dietary components can influence the epithelial barrier and the mucosal immune system, and understanding how these interactions generate or suppress inflammation will be a significant focus of IBD research. Our knowledge of dietary and microbial risk factors for IBD provides important considerations for developing therapeutic approaches through dietary modification or re-shaping the microbiota. We conclude by calling for increased sophistication in designing studies on the role of diet and microbes in IBD pathogenesis and disease resolution in order to accelerate progress in response to the growing challenge posed by these complex disorders. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Uncharted Microbial World: Microbes and Their Activities in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, Caroline; Buckley, Merry

    2007-12-31

    Microbes are the foundation for all of life. From the air we breathe to the soil we rely on for farming to the water we drink, everything humans need to survive is intimately coupled with the activities of microbes. Major advances have been made in the understanding of disease and the use of microorganisms in the industrial production of drugs, food products and wastewater treatment. However, our understanding of many complicated microbial environments (the gut and teeth), soil fertility, and biogeochemical cycles of the elements is lagging behind due to their enormous complexity. Inadequate technology and limited resources have stymied many lines of investigation. Today, most environmental microorganisms have yet to be isolated and identified, let alone rigorously studied. The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium in Seattle, Washington, in February 2007, to deliberate the way forward in the study of microorganisms and microbial activities in the environment. Researchers in microbiology, marine science, pathobiology, evolutionary biology, medicine, engineering, and other fields discussed ways to build on and extend recent successes in microbiology. The participants made specific recommendations for targeting future research, improving methodologies and techniques, and enhancing training and collaboration in the field. Microbiology has made a great deal of progress in the past 100 years, and the useful applications for these new discoveries are numerous. Microorganisms and microbial products are now used in industrial capacities ranging from bioremediation of toxic chemicals to probiotic therapies for humans and livestock. On the medical front, studies of microbial communities have revealed, among other things, new ways for controlling human pathogens. The immediate future for research in this field is extremely promising. In order to optimize the effectiveness of community research efforts in the future, scientists should include manageable

  8. Next-Generation Beneficial Microbes: The Case of Akkermansia muciniphila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice D. Cani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders associated with obesity and cardiometabolic disorders are worldwide epidemic. Among the different environmental factors, the gut microbiota is now considered as a key player interfering with energy metabolism and host susceptibility to several non-communicable diseases. Among the next-generation beneficial microbes that have been identified, Akkermansia muciniphila is a promising candidate. Indeed, A. muciniphila is inversely associated with obesity, diabetes, cardiometabolic diseases and low-grade inflammation. Besides the numerous correlations observed, a large body of evidence has demonstrated the causal beneficial impact of this bacterium in a variety of preclinical models. Translating these exciting observations to human would be the next logic step and it now appears that several obstacles that would prevent the use of A. muciniphila administration in humans have been overcome. Moreover, several lines of evidence indicate that pasteurization of A. muciniphila not only increases its stability but more importantly increases its efficacy. This strongly positions A. muciniphila in the forefront of next-generation candidates for developing novel food or pharma supplements with beneficial effects. Finally, a specific protein present on the outer membrane of A. muciniphila, termed Amuc_1100, could be strong candidate for future drug development. In conclusion, as plants and its related knowledge, known as pharmacognosy, have been the source for designing drugs over the last century, we propose that microbes and microbiomegnosy, or knowledge of our gut microbiome, can become a novel source of future therapies.

  9. Clinical laboratory evaluation of the Auto-Microbic system for rapid identification of Enterobacteriaceae.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasyn, J J; Cundy, K R; Dietz, C C; Wong, W

    1981-01-01

    The capability of the Auto-Microbic system (Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.) has been expanded to identify members of the family Enterobacteriaceae with the use of a sealed, disposable accessory card (the Enterobacteriaceae Biochemical Card) containing 26 biochemical tests. To judge the accuracy of the AutoMicrobic system's identification in a hospital laboratory, 933 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were studied. The AutoMicrobic system provided the correct identification for 905 of the isola...

  10. Synchrotron X-ray Investigations of Mineral-Microbe-Metal Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemner, Kenneth M.; O'Loughlin, Edward J.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between microbes and minerals can play an important role in metal transformations (i.e. changes to an element's valence state, coordination chemistry, or both), which can ultimately affect that element's mobility. Mineralogy affects microbial metabolism and ecology in a system; microbes, in turn, can affect the system's mineralogy. Increasingly, synchrotron-based X-ray experiments are in routine use for determining an element's valence state and coordination chemistry, as well as for examining the role of microbes in metal transformations.

  11. An ultrasonic method for separation of epiphytic microbes from freshwater submerged macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xianlei; Gao, Guang; Yang, Jing; Tang, Xiangming; Dai, Jiangyu; Chen, Dan; Song, Yuzhi

    2014-07-01

    Epiphytic microbes are common inhabitants of freshwater submerged macrophytes, which play an important role in aquatic ecosystems. An important precondition for studying the epiphytic microbes is having an effective method of separating the attached microbes from the host macrophytes. We developed an ultrasound-based method for separating epiphytic microbes from freshwater submerged macrophytes, optimized the conditions of ultrasonic separation with an orthogonal experimental design, and compared the optimized ultrasonic method with manual separation. This method can be particularly useful for freshwater submerged macrophytes having a complex morphology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Influence of non-radioactive payload parameters on radioactive shipping packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drez, P.E.; Murthy, D.V.S.; Temus, C.J.; Quinn, G.J.; Ozaki, C.

    1989-01-01

    The transport of radioactive waste materials in radioactive material (RAM) packages involves two components: the packaging used for transportation, and the waste which forms the payload. The payload is usually comprised of non-radioactive materials contaminated with radionuclides. The non-radionuclide payload characteristics can often be a controlling factor in determining the restrictions imposed on the certification of the package. This paper describes these package/payload interactions and the limiting parameters for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II), designed for the transportation of Contact Handled Transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. The parameters discussed include the physical and chemical form of the payload, the configuration of the waste, and resulting gas generation and gas release phenomena. Brief descriptions of the TRUPACT-II package and its payload are presented initially

  13. The Motion Planning of Overhead Crane Based on Suppressing Payload Residual Swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hua-sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the overhead crane system is subject to under actuation system due to that overhead crane and payload are connected by flexibility wire rope. The payload generates residual swing when the overhead crane is accelerating/ decelerating the motions. This may cause trouble for the payload precise positioning and motion planning. Hence, an optimization input shaping control method is presented to reduce the under actuated overhead crane’s payload swing caused via the inertia force. The dynamic model of the overhead crane is proposed according to the physics structure of the crane. The input shaper based on the motion planning of the crane is used as the feed forward input to suppress payload residual swing. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the ZV input shaper and ZVD input shaper can reduce the payload swing of the overhead crane.

  14. Toward design-based engineering of industrial microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyo, Keith E J; Kocharin, Kanokarn; Nielsen, Jens

    2010-06-01

    Engineering industrial microbes has been hampered by incomplete knowledge of cell biology. Thus an iterative engineering cycle of modeling, implementation, and analysis has been used to increase knowledge of the underlying biology while achieving engineering goals. Recent advances in Systems Biology technologies have drastically improved the amount of information that can be collected in each iteration. As well, Synthetic Biology tools are melding modeling and molecular implementation. These advances promise to move microbial engineering from the iterative approach to a design-oriented paradigm, similar to electrical circuits and architectural design. Genome-scale metabolic models, new tools for controlling expression, and integrated -omics analysis are described as key contributors in moving the field toward Design-based Engineering. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lung Homeostasis: Influence of Age, Microbes, and the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Clare M; Marsland, Benjamin J

    2017-04-18

    Pulmonary immune homeostasis is maintained by a network of tissue-resident cells that continually monitor the external environment, and in health, instruct tolerance to innocuous inhaled particles while ensuring that efficient and rapid immune responses can be mounted against invading pathogens. Here we review the multiple pathways that underlie effective lung immunity in health, and discuss how these may be affected by external environmental factors and contribute to chronic inflammation during disease. In this context, we examine the current understanding of the impact of the microbiota in immune development and function and in the setting of the threshold for immune responses that maintains the balance between tolerance and chronic inflammation in the lung. We propose that host interactions with microbes are critical for establishing the immune landscape of the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Selecting the Best: Evolutionary Engineering of Chemical Production in Microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepelin, Denis; Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    , we focus primarily on a more challenging problem-the use of evolutionary engineering for improving the production of chemicals in microbes directly. We describe recent developments in evolutionary engineering strategies, in general, and discuss, in detail, case studies where production of a chemical......Microbial cell factories have proven to be an economical means of production for many bulk, specialty, and fine chemical products. However, we still lack both a holistic understanding of organism physiology and the ability to predictively tune enzyme activities in vivo, thus slowing down rational...... engineering of industrially relevant strains. An alternative concept to rational engineering is to use evolution as the driving force to select for desired changes, an approach often described as evolutionary engineering. In evolutionary engineering, in vivo selections for a desired phenotype are combined...

  17. Arsenic-Microbe-Mineral Interactions in Mining-Affected Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Hudson-Edwards

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The toxic element arsenic (As occurs widely in solid and liquid mine wastes. Aqueous forms of arsenic are taken up in As-bearing sulfides, arsenides, sulfosalts, oxides, oxyhydroxides, Fe-oxides, -hydroxides, -oxyhydroxides and -sulfates, and Fe-, Ca-Fe- and other arsenates. Although a considerable body of research has demonstrated that microbes play a significant role in the precipitation and dissolution of these As-bearing minerals, and in the alteration of the redox state of As, in natural and simulated mining environments, the molecular-scale mechanisms of these interactions are still not well understood. Further research is required using traditional and novel mineralogical, spectroscopic and microbiological techniques to further advance this field, and to help design remediation schemes.

  18. Busting dust: from cosmic grains to terrestrial microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Electrostatic charging can have important consequences for both the growth and disruption of microparticulates immersed in a plasma. In this topical review, my emphasis is on the latter process, while I extend the term microparticulates not only to include ordinary inanimate cosmic or terrestrial dust but also to include terrestrial microbes whose sizes range from tens of nanometers (viruses) to tens of micrometers (bacteria). Following a description of the basic mechanism of electrostatic disruption of a solid body, I will discuss the role of size, shape and surface irregularity on the process. I will also consider the mitigating role of electric field emission of electrons on the disruption process of a negatively charged grain as its size falls below a critical size. I will conclude by reviewing some early evidence for the electrostatic disruption of cosmic grains, and the very recent evidence for the electrostatic disruption of the bacterial cell membranes in terrestrial sterilization experiments. (orig.)

  19. Aminoacid composition of wheat grain gluten under microbe impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolova М. G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on characteristics of gluten, protein and aminoacids content in wheat grain under the impact of microbe preparations including bacteria of Azotobacter and Bacillus geni, which inhabit plant rhizosphere. The increase of aminoacids leveland particularly the level of essential aminoacids in wheat grain under bacterization was demonstrated, this fact accounting for the quality of grain as an important protein source. Increase of aminoacids content with the use of biopreparations on low-fertile soil ensures acquisition of biologically valuable grain with the decrease of mineral fertilizers dosage and emphasizes the role of biopreparations in the production of ecologically pure high quality products. The latter is due to introdcution of environmentally safe agricultural methods.

  20. Investigations of the effects of cosmic rays on Artemia cysts and tobacco seeds: results of Exobloc II experiment, flown aboard Biocosmos 1887

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaubin, Y; Pianezzi, B; Gasset, G; Planel, H [Laboratoire de Biologie Medicale, Faculte de Medecine, Toulouse (France); Delpoux, M [Laboratoire de Biogeographie, Faculte des Sciences, Toulouse (France); Heilmann, C [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires

    1990-01-01

    Artemia (Brine shrimp) cysts and tobacco seeds, dormant biological material devoid of metabolic activity, were flown aboard the Soviet Biocosmos 1887 in order to investigate the effects of cosmic rays. Artemia cysts and tobacco seeds were used in bulk or in monolayers sandwiched with track detectors. Biological and physical units were located outside and inside the spacecraft. Stacks included lead shielding in order to expose the objects to different doses of radiation. Total dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent detectors. In spite of low levels of doses, the space flight resulted in a decrease in developmental capacity of Artemia cysts, and in a higher mutation rate in tobacco seeds. The more obvious responses occurred, in both cases, in biological objects exposed to the highest doses. These results are compared to those of previous space experiments. (author).

  1. Dual keel Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagala, Tom; Class, Brian F.; Bauer, Frank H.; Lebair, Deborah A.

    1988-01-01

    A Space Station attached Payload Pointing System (PPS) has been designed and analyzed. The PPS is responsible for maintaining fixed payload pointing in the presence of disturbance applied to the Space Station. The payload considered in this analysis is the Solar Optical Telescope. System performance is evaluated via digital time simulations by applying various disturbance forces to the Space Station. The PPS meets the Space Station articulated pointing requirement for all disturbances except Shuttle docking and some centrifuge cases.

  2. New CRISPR-Cas systems from uncultivated microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, David; Harrington, Lucas B.; Strutt, Steven C.; Probst, Alexander J.; Anantharaman, Karthik; Thomas, Brian C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2017-02-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems provide microbes with adaptive immunity by employing short DNA sequences, termed spacers, that guide Cas proteins to cleave foreign DNA. Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are streamlined versions, in which a single RNA-bound Cas protein recognizes and cleaves target sequences. The programmable nature of these minimal systems has enabled researchers to repurpose them into a versatile technology that is broadly revolutionizing biological and clinical research. However, current CRISPR-Cas technologies are based solely on systems from isolated bacteria, leaving the vast majority of enzymes from organisms that have not been cultured untapped. Metagenomics, the sequencing of DNA extracted directly from natural microbial communities, provides access to the genetic material of a huge array of uncultivated organisms. Here, using genome-resolved metagenomics, we identify a number of CRISPR-Cas systems, including the first reported Cas9 in the archaeal domain of life, to our knowledge. This divergent Cas9 protein was found in little-studied nanoarchaea as part of an active CRISPR-Cas system. In bacteria, we discovered two previously unknown systems, CRISPR-CasX and CRISPR-CasY, which are among the most compact systems yet discovered. Notably, all required functional components were identified by metagenomics, enabling validation of robust in vivo RNA-guided DNA interference activity in Escherichia coli. Interrogation of environmental microbial communities combined with in vivo experiments allows us to access an unprecedented diversity of genomes, the content of which will expand the repertoire of microbe-based biotechnologies.

  3. Functional metagenomics to decipher food-microbe-host crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraufie, Pierre; de Wouters, Tomas; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle; Blottière, Hervé M; Doré, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate mechanisms of crosstalk, especially between bacteria and human cells. Cloning of large genome fragments, either from complex intestinal communities or from selected bacteria, allows the screening of these biological resources for bioactivity towards complex plant polymers or functional food such as prebiotics. This permitted identification of novel carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in dietary fibre and host glycan breakdown, and highlighted unsuspected bacterial players at the top of the intestinal microbial food chain. Similarly, exposure of fractions from genomic and metagenomic clones onto human cells engineered with reporter systems to track modulation of immune response, cell proliferation or cell metabolism has allowed the identification of bioactive clones modulating key cell signalling pathways or the induction of specific genes. This opens the possibility to decipher mechanisms by which commensal bacteria or candidate probiotics can modulate the activity of cells in the intestinal epithelium or even in distal organs such as the liver, adipose tissue or the brain. Hence, in spite of our inability to culture many of the dominant microbes of the human intestine, functional metagenomics open a new window for the exploration of food-microbe-host crosstalk.

  4. Exploring the Optimal Strategy to Predict Essential Genes in Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Lu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting essential genes is important in many aspects of biology, medicine and bioengineering. In previous research, we have developed a machine learning based integrative algorithm to predict essential genes in bacterial species. This algorithm lends itself to two approaches for predicting essential genes: learning the traits from known essential genes in the target organism, or transferring essential gene annotations from a closely related model organism. However, for an understudied microbe, each approach has its potential limitations. The first is constricted by the often small number of known essential genes. The second is limited by the availability of model organisms and by evolutionary distance. In this study, we aim to determine the optimal strategy for predicting essential genes by examining four microbes with well-characterized essential genes. Our results suggest that, unless the known essential genes are few, learning from the known essential genes in the target organism usually outperforms transferring essential gene annotations from a related model organism. In fact, the required number of known essential genes is surprisingly small to make accurate predictions. In prokaryotes, when the number of known essential genes is greater than 2% of total genes, this approach already comes close to its optimal performance. In eukaryotes, achieving the same best performance requires over 4% of total genes, reflecting the increased complexity of eukaryotic organisms. Combining the two approaches resulted in an increased performance when the known essential genes are few. Our investigation thus provides key information on accurately predicting essential genes and will greatly facilitate annotations of microbial genomes.

  5. Planetary protection protecting earth and planets against alien microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leys, N.

    2006-01-01

    Protecting Earth and planets against the invasion of 'alien life forms' is not military science fiction, but it is the peaceful daily job of engineers and scientists of space agencies. 'Planetary Protection' is preventing microbial contamination of both the target planet and the Earth when sending robots on interplanetary space mission. It is important to preserve the 'natural' conditions of other planets and to not bring with robots 'earthly microbes' (forward contamination) when looking for 'spores of extra terrestrial life'. The Earth and its biosphere must be protected from potential extraterrestrial biological contamination when returning samples of other planets to the Earth (backward contamination). The NASA-Caltech Laboratory for Planetary Protection of Dr. Kasthuri Venkateswaran at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (California, USA) routinely monitors and characterizes the microbes of NASA spacecraft assembly rooms and space robots prior to flight. They have repeatedly isolated Cupriavidus and Ralstonia strains pre-flight from spacecraft assembly rooms (floor and air) and surfaces of space robots such as the Mars Odyssey Orbiter (La Duc et al., 2003). Cupriavidus and Ralstonia strains have also been found in-flight, in ISS cooling water and Shuttle drinking water (Venkateswaran et al., Pyle et al., Ott et al., all unpublished). The main objective of this study is to characterise the Cupriavidus and Ralstonia strains isolated at JPL and compare them to the Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34T model strain, isolated from a Belgian contaminated soil and studied since 25 years at SCK-CEN and to enhance our knowledge by performing additional tests at JPL and gathering information regarding the environmental conditions and the cleaning and isolation methods used in such spacecraft assembling facilities

  6. Climate change driven plant-metal-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Mani; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Swaminathan, Sandhya; Freitas, Helena

    2013-03-01

    Various biotic and abiotic stress factors affect the growth and productivity of crop plants. Particularly, the climatic and/or heavy metal stress influence various processes including growth, physiology, biochemistry, and yield of crops. Climatic changes particularly the elevated atmospheric CO₂ enhance the biomass production and metal accumulation in plants and help plants to support greater microbial populations and/or protect the microorganisms against the impacts of heavy metals. Besides, the indirect effects of climatic change (e.g., changes in the function and structure of plant roots and diversity and activity of rhizosphere microbes) would lead to altered metal bioavailability in soils and concomitantly affect plant growth. However, the effects of warming, drought or combined climatic stress on plant growth and metal accumulation vary substantially across physico-chemico-biological properties of the environment (e.g., soil pH, heavy metal type and its bio-available concentrations, microbial diversity, and interactive effects of climatic factors) and plant used. Overall, direct and/or indirect effects of climate change on heavy metal mobility in soils may further hinder the ability of plants to adapt and make them more susceptible to stress. Here, we review and discuss how the climatic parameters including atmospheric CO₂, temperature and drought influence the plant-metal interaction in polluted soils. Other aspects including the effects of climate change and heavy metals on plant-microbe interaction, heavy metal phytoremediation and safety of food and feed are also discussed. This review shows that predicting how plant-metal interaction responds to altering climatic change is critical to select suitable crop plants that would be able to produce more yields and tolerate multi-stress conditions without accumulating toxic heavy metals for future food security. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microfluidic Experiments Studying Pore Scale Interactions of Microbes and Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how physical phenomena, chemical reactions, and microbial behavior interact at the pore-scale is crucial to understanding larger scale trends in groundwater chemistry. Recent studies illustrate the utility of microfluidic devices for illuminating pore-scale physical-biogeochemical processes and their control(s) on the cycling of iron, uranium, and other important elements 1-3. These experimental systems are ideal for examining geochemical reactions mediated by microbes, which include processes governed by complex biological phenomenon (e.g. biofilm formation, etc.)4. We present results of microfluidic experiments using a model metal reducing bacteria and varying pore geometries, exploring the limitations of the microorganisms' ability to access tight pore spaces, and examining coupled biogeochemical-physical controls on the cycling of redox sensitive metals. Experimental results will provide an enhanced understanding of coupled physical-biogeochemical processes transpiring at the pore-scale, and will constrain and compliment continuum models used to predict and describe the subsurface cycling of redox-sensitive elements5. 1. Vrionis, H. A. et al. Microbiological and geochemical heterogeneity in an in situ uranium bioremediation field site. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 6308-6318 (2005). 2. Pearce, C. I. et al. Pore-scale characterization of biogeochemical controls on iron and uranium speciation under flow conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 7992-8000 (2012). 3. Zhang, C., Liu, C. & Shi, Z. Micromodel investigation of transport effect on the kinetics of reductive dissolution of hematite. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 4131-4139 (2013). 4. Ginn, T. R. et al. Processes in microbial transport in the natural subsurface. Adv. Water Resour. 25, 1017-1042 (2002). 5. Scheibe, T. D. et al. Coupling a genome-scale metabolic model with a reactive transport model to describe in situ uranium bioremediation. Microb. Biotechnol. 2, 274-286 (2009).

  8. Multi-Parameter Wireless Monitoring and Telecommand of a Rocket Payload: Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamungkas, Arga C.; Putra, Alma A.; Puspitaningayu, Pradini; Fransisca, Yulia; Widodo, Arif

    2018-04-01

    A rocket system generally consists of two parts, the rocket motor and the payload. The payload system is built of several sensors such as accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer, and also a surveillance camera. These sensors are used to monitor the rocket in a three-dimensional axis which determine its attitude. Additionally, the payload must be able to perform image capturing in a certain distance using telecommand. This article is intended to describe the design and also the implementation of a rocket payload which has attitude monitoring and telecommand ability from the ground control station using a long-range wireless module Digi XBee Pro 900 HP.

  9. Power requirements assessment for lunar and Mars scientific and experimental payloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotas, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of prospective scientific payloads and surface experiments for future manned missions to the moon and Mars which determined that overall mission objectives and requirements influence the selection of candidate power systems. A generic classification of these science missions was developed to examine these relationships. Scientific missions were defined for the four Synthesis Report architectures and cumulative power load and payload mix computed. Approximately half of all deployed science payloads were sited within the main surface outpost and powered by the central power generation facility. The remaining remote science payloads require either autonomous or smaller central power facilities

  10. Hardware Testing for the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagle, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Hardware for several subsystems of the proposed Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS), including the gimbal and avionics, was tested. Microswitches installed on the gimbal were evaluated to verify that their point of actuation would remain within the acceptable range even if the switches themselves move slightly during launch. An inspection of the power board was conducted to ensure that all power and ground signals were isolated, that polarized components were correctly oriented, and that all components were intact and securely soldered. Initial testing on the power board revealed several minor problems, but once they were fixed the power board was shown to function correctly. All tests and inspections were documented for future use in verifying launch requirements.

  11. Optical distribution of local oscillators in future telecommunication satellite payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazet, Benoît; Sotom, Michel; Maignan, Michel; Berthon, Jacques

    2017-11-01

    The distribution of high spectral purity reference signals over optical fibre in future telecommunication satellite payloads is presented. Several types of applications are considered, including the distribution of a reference frequency at 10 MHz (Ultra-Stable Reference Oscillator) as well as the distribution of a radiofrequency oscillator around 800 MHz (Master Local Oscillator). The results of both experimental and theoretical studies are reported. In order to meet phase noise requirements for the USRO distribution, the use of an optimised receiver circuit based on an optically synchronised oscillator is investigated. Finally, the optical distribution of microwave local oscillators at frequencies exceeding 20 GHz is described. Such a scheme paves the way to more advanced sub-systems involving optical frequency-mixing and optical transmission of microwave signals, with applications to multiple-beam active antennas.

  12. Mir Environmental Effects Payload and Returned Mir Solar Panel Cleanliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Humes, Donald H.; Kinard, William H.

    2000-01-01

    The MIR Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP) was attached to the Docking Module of the MIR space station for 18 months during calendar years 1996 and 1997 (March 1996, STS 76 to October 1997, STS 86). A solar panel array with more than 10 years space exposure was removed from the MIR core module in November 1997, and returned to Earth in January, 1998, STS 89. MEEP and the returned solar array are part of the International Space Station (ISS) Risk Mitigation Program. This space flight hardware has been inspected and studied by teams of space environmental effects (SEE) investigators for micrometeoroid and space debris effects, space exposure effects on materials, and electrical performance. This paper reports changes in cleanliness of parts of MEEP and the solar array due to the space exposures. Special attention is given to the extensive water soluble residues deposited on some of the flight hardware surfaces. Directionality of deposition and chemistry of these residues are discussed.

  13. STS-76 Payload Cmdr Ronald Sega suits up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    STS-76 Payload Commander Ronald M. Sega is donning his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. The third docking between the Russian Space Station Mir and the U.S. Space Shuttle marks the second trip into space for Sega, who recently served a five-month assignment in Russia as operations director for NASA activities there. Once suitup activities are completed the six-member STS-76 flight crew will depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis is undergoing final preparations for liftoff during an approximately seven-minute launch window opening around 3:13 a.m. EST, March 22.

  14. Earth cloud, aerosol, and radiation explorer optical payload development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélière, A.; Wallace, K.; Pereira do Carmo, J.; Lefebvre, A.

    2017-09-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) are co-operating to develop as part of ESA's Living Planet Programme, the third Earth Explorer Core Mission, EarthCARE, with the ojective of improving the understanding of the processes involving clouds, aerosols and radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. EarthCARE payload consists of two active and two passive instruments: an ATmospheric LIDar (ATLID), a Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), a Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) and a Broad-Band Radiometer (BBR). The four instruments data are processed individually and in a synergetic manner to produce a large range of products, which include vertical profiles of aerosols, liquid water and ice, observations of cloud distribution and vertical motion within clouds, and will allow the retrieval of profiles of atmospheric radiative heating and cooling. MSI is a compact instrument with a 150 km swath providing 500 m pixel data in seven channels, whose retrieved data will give context to the active instrument measurements, as well as providing cloud and aerosol information. BBR measures reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the scene. Operating in the UV range at 355 nm, ATLID provides atmospheric echoes from ground to an altitude of 40 km. Thanks to a high spectral resolution filtering, the lidar is able to separate the relative contribution of aerosol and molecular scattering, which gives access to aerosol optical depth. Co-polarised and cross-polarised components of the Mie scattering contribution are measured on dedicated channels. This paper will provide a description of the optical payload implementation, the design and characterisation of the instruments.

  15. Application Possibility of Smartphone as Payload for Photogrammetric Uav System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, M. H.; Kim, J.; Seo, D.; Lee, J.; Choi, C.

    2012-07-01

    Smartphone can not only be operated under 3G network environment anytime and anyplace but also cost less than the existing photogrammetric UAV since it provides high-resolution image, 3D location and attitude data on a real-time basis from a variety of built-in sensors. This study is aimed to assess the possibility of smartphone as a payload for photogrammetric UAV system. Prior to such assessment, a smartphone-based photogrammetric UAV system application was developed, through which real-time image, location and attitude data was obtained using smartphone under both static and dynamic conditions. Subsequently the accuracy assessment on the location and attitude data obtained and sent by this system was conducted. The smartphone images were converted into ortho-images through image triangulation. The image triangulation was conducted in accordance with presence or absence of consideration of the interior orientation (IO) parameters determined by camera calibration. In case IO parameters were taken into account in the static experiment, the results from triangulation for any smartphone type were within 1.5 pixel (RMSE), which was improved at least by 35% compared to when IO parameters were not taken into account. On the contrary, the improvement effect of considering IO parameters on accuracy in triangulation for smartphone images in dynamic experiment was not significant compared to the static experiment. It was due to the significant impact of vibration and sudden attitude change of UAV on the actuator for automatic focus control within the camera built in smartphone under the dynamic condition. This cause appears to have a negative impact on the image-based DEM generation. Considering these study findings, it is suggested that smartphone is very feasible as a payload for UAV system. It is also expected that smartphone may be loaded onto existing UAV playing direct or indirect roles significantly.

  16. A variable geometry truss manipulator for positioning large payloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoughton, R.S.; Tucker, J.C.; Horner, C.G.

    1995-02-01

    A major thrust within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Decontamination and Dismantling (D ampersand D) Robotics program is the development of a Selective Equipment Removal System (SERS). SERS will consist of a mobile vehicle, a Dual-Arm Work Module (DAWM), and a deployment manipulator capable of extending the DAWM up to 6.096m (20) from the vehicle. The DAWM, built by RedZone Robotics, includes two Schilling Titan II manipulators, a unique five degree-of-freedom (DOF) module for positioning/orienting the two Schilling arms, and a massive steel backplane to maintain structural rigidity. Together with its payload, the DAWM weighs about 975 kg (2150 pounds). In order to accurately position the DAWM, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) together with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center (NASA LARC) are developing a deployment manipulator, which includes two double-octahedral Variable Geometry Truss (VGT) modules connected with a static truss section. The entire SERS system (Figure 1) will include the mobile vehicle, a 2-DOF base actuation system (waist rotate and pitch) with an output link approximately 2.134m (7) in length, the VGT system and the DAWM. The VGT system (Figure 2) consists of a 1.067m (42) diameter (∼1.346m (53) long) base VGT, which mounts to the end of the output link of the base actuation system, a 1.524m (60) long static truss section which tapers from 1.067m (42) diameter at its base to 0.8128m (32) diameter at the end, and a 0.8128m (32) diameter (∼1.0922m (43) long) tip VGT to which the DAWM is mounted. The stiffness of the VGT system is such that with the base VGT mounted to a rigid base and the VGT system oriented horizontally (worst case), the static deflection of the DAWM together with full payload will be less than 0.0254m

  17. Ortholog - MicrobeDB.jp | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us MicrobeDB.jp Ortholog Data detail Data name Ortholog DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc01181-010.V002 V...814 triples - About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Ortholog - MicrobeDB.jp | LSDB Archive ...

  18. Microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) signatures, synergy, size and charge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslam, Shazia N.; Erbs, Gitte; Morrissey, Kate L.

    2009-01-01

    Triggering of defences by microbes has mainly been investigated using single elicitors or microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), but MAMPs are released in planta as complex mixtures together with endogenous oligogalacturonan (OGA) elicitor. We investigated the early responses in Arabidops...

  19. Plant-microbe and plant-insect interactions meet common grounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, P.; McGrath, K.C.; Lorito, M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Plant–microbe and plant–insect interactions are of global importance for agriculture and of high interest to many plant scientists, microbiologists and entomologists. Traditionally, plant–microbe and plant–insect interactions have been looked at as two separate issues, but in recent years it has

  20. Life under the Microscope: Children's Ideas about Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael; Bridle, Georgina; Briten, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Microbes (by definition) are tiny living things that are only visible through a microscope and include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protoctists (mainly single-celled life forms such as amoebae and algae). Although people are familiar with the effects of microbes, such as infectious disease and food spoilage, because of their lack of visibility,…

  1. Biogeographical diversity of plant associated microbes in arcto-alpine plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Manoj Gopala Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial plants and microbes have co-evolved since the emergence of the former on Earth. Associations with microorganisms can be either beneficial or detrimental for plants. Microbes can be found in the soil surrounding the plant roots, but also in all plant tissues, including seeds. In

  2. Expanding Single Particle Mass Spectrometer Analyses for the Identification of Microbe Signatures in Sea Spray Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Camille M; Al-Mashat, Hashim; Prather, Kimberly A

    2017-10-03

    Ocean-derived microbes in sea spray aersosol (SSA) have the potential to influence climate and weather by acting as ice nucleating particles in clouds. Single particle mass spectrometers (SPMSs), which generate in situ single particle composition data, are excellent tools for characterizing aerosols under changing environmental conditions as they can provide high temporal resolution and require no sample preparation. While SPMSs have proven capable of detecting microbes, these instruments have never been utilized to definitively identify aerosolized microbes in ambient sea spray aersosol. In this study, an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to analyze laboratory generated SSA produced from natural seawater in a marine aerosol reference tank. We present the first description of a population of biological SSA mass spectra (BioSS), which closely match the ion signatures observed in previous terrestrial microbe studies. The fraction of BioSS dramatically increased in the largest supermicron particles, consistent with field and laboratory measurements of microbes ejected by bubble bursting, further supporting the assignment of BioSS mass spectra as microbes. Finally, as supported by analysis of inorganic ion signals, we propose that dry BioSS particles have heterogeneous structures, with microbes adhered to sodium chloride nodules surrounded by magnesium-enriched coatings. Consistent with this structure, chlorine-containing ion markers were ubiquitous in BioSS spectra and identified as possible tracers for distinguishing recently aerosolized marine from terrestrial microbes.

  3. Biofilms for Babies: Introducing Microbes and Biofilms to Preschool-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian M. Couto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are beneficial to life on our planet as they facilitate natural processes such as global nutrient cycling in our environment. This article details a 30-minute activity to introduce pre-school children ranging from 3 to 5 years of age to microbes and biofilms in the natural environment.

  4. Coercion in the Evolution of Plant-Microbe Communication: A Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, S L; Norman, J S; Friesen, M L

    2018-06-06

    Plants and microbes are dependent on chemical signals as a means of interkingdom communication. There are two predicted paths for the evolution of these signals. Ritualization is the oft-assumed pathway for the evolution of plant-microbe communication systems. In this process, chemical signals, which benefit both receiver and sender, evolve from chemical cues, which benefit only the receiver. However, plant-microbe signaling may evolve from coercive interactions as well, a process known as sensory manipulation. Here, we aim to highlight the prevalence of coercive interactions and discuss sensory manipulation in the context of plant-microbe interactions. We present two examples of stabilized coercion: microbial coercion of plants via the release of phytohormones and plant coercion of microbes via manipulation of quorum-sensing compounds. Furthermore, we provide an evolutionary framework for the emergence of signaling from coercive plant-microbe interactions through the process of sensory manipulation. We hope that researchers will recognize the relevance of coercive interactions in plant-microbe systems and consider sensory manipulation as a plausible evolutionary trajectory for the emergence of plant-microbe signaling.

  5. Earthworms, Microbes and the Release of C and N in Biochar Amended Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land application of biochar has the potential to increase soil fertility and sequester carbon. It is unclear how soil microbes and earthworms interact with biochar and affect release or retention of nutrients. In order to determine the effects and interactions among soil microbes, earthworms, and bi...

  6. A Modular, Reusable Latch and Decking System for Securing Payloads During Launch and Planetary Surface Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William R.; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; King, Bruce D.; Mikulas, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient handling of payloads destined for a planetary surface, such as the moon or mars, requires robust systems to secure the payloads during transport on the ground, in space and on the planetary surface. In addition, mechanisms to release the payloads need to be reliable to ensure successful transfer from one vehicle to another. An efficient payload handling strategy must also consider the devices available to support payload handling. Cranes used for overhead lifting are common to all phases of payload handling on Earth. Similarly, both recent and past studies have demonstrated that devices with comparable functionality will be needed to support lunar outpost operations. A first generation test-bed of a new high performance device that provides the capabilities of both a crane and a robotic manipulator, the Lunar Surface Manipulation System (LSMS), has been designed, built and field tested and is available for use in evaluating a system to secure payloads to transportation vehicles. A payload handling approach must address all phases of payload management including: ground transportation, launch, planetary transfer and installation in the final system. In addition, storage may be required during any phase of operations. Each of these phases requires the payload to be lifted and secured to a vehicle, transported, released and lifted in preparation for the next transportation or storage phase. A critical component of a successful payload handling approach is a latch and associated carrier system. The latch and carrier system should minimize requirements on the: payload, carrier support structure and payload handling devices as well as be able to accommodate a wide range of payload sizes. In addition, the latch should; be small and lightweight, support a method to apply preload, be reusable, integrate into a minimal set of hard-points and have manual interfaces to actuate the latch should a problem occur. A latching system which meets these requirements has been

  7. Microbes versus microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Kieran; Dalmasso, Marion; Zentek, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    been used in food processing to improve food safety. An understanding of the mode of action of this microbial antagonism has been gained in recent years and potential applications in food and feed safety are now being explored. This review focuses on the potential opportunities presented......Foodborne illness continues as a considerable threat to public health. Despite improved hygiene management systems and increased regulation, pathogenic bacteria still contaminate food, causing sporadic cases of illness and disease outbreaks worldwide. For many centuries, microbial antagonism has......, and the limitations, of using microbial antagonism as a biocontrol mechanism to reduce contamination along the food chain; including animal feed as its first link. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry....

  8. Microbes Characteristics in Groundwater Flow System in Mountainous Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Chisato; Tsujimura, Maki; Kato, Kenji; Sakakibara, Koichi; Ogawa, Mahiro; Sugiyama, Ayumi; Nagaosa, Kazuyo

    2017-04-01

    We focus on a possibility of microbes as a tracer for groundwater flow investigation. Some previous papers showed that the total number of prokaryotes in groundwater has correlation with depth and geology (Parkes et al., 1994; Griebler et al., 2009; Kato et al., 2012). However, there are few studies investigating both microbe characteristics and groundwater flow system. Therefore, we investigated a relationship between the total number of prokaryotes and age of spring water and groundwater. Intensive field survey was conducted at four mountainous areas, namely Mt. Fuji (volcano), a headwater at Mt. Setohachi, a headwater at River Oi and a headwater at River Nagano underlain by volcanic lava at Mt. Fuji, granite at Mt. Setohachi and sedimentary rock at River Oi and River Nagano. We collected totally 40 spring water/ groundwater samples in these mountainous areas in October 2015, August, October and November 2016 and analyzed concentration of inorganic ions, the stable isotopes of oxygen - 18, deuterium, CFCs and SF6. Also, we counted prokaryotic cells under the epifluorescence microscopy after fixation and filteration. The total number of prokaryotes in the spring water/ groundwater ranged from 1.0×102 to 7.0×103cells mL-1 at the Mt. Fuji, 1.3×104 to 2.7×105cells mL-1 at Mt. Setohachi, 3.1×104cells mL-1 at River Oi and 1.8×105 to 3.2×106cells mL-1 at River Nagano. The SF6 age of the spring water/ groundwater ranged from 8 to 64 years at Mt. Fuji, 2 to 32.5 years at Mt. Setohachi, 2.5 years at River Oi and 15 to 16 years at River Nagano. The total number of prokaryotes showed a clear negative correlation with residence time of spring water/ groundwater in all regions. Especially the prokaryotes number increased in the order of 102 cells mL-1 with decreasing of residence time in approximately 10 years in the groundwater and spring water with the age less than 15 years.

  9. STS-47 MS Davis trains at Payload Crew Training Complex at Marshall SFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis, wearing the Autogenic Feedback Training System 2 suit and lightweight headset, reviews a Payload Systems Handbook in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) mockup during training at the Payload Crew Training Complex at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. View provided with alternate number 92P-137.

  10. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 3: Ground real-time mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The payloads tentatively planned to fly on the first two Spacelab missions were analyzed to examine the cost relationships of providing mission operations support from onboard vs the ground-based Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The quantitative results indicate that use of a POCC, with data processing capability, to support real-time mission operations is the most cost effective case.

  11. Cost prediction model for various payloads and instruments for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    The following cost parameters of the space shuttle were undertaken: (1) to develop a cost prediction model for various payload classes of instruments and experiments for the Space Shuttle Orbiter; and (2) to show the implications of various payload classes on the cost of: reliability analysis, quality assurance, environmental design requirements, documentation, parts selection, and other reliability enhancing activities.

  12. Measurements on an autonomous wireless payload at 635 km distance using a sensitive radio telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Leijtens, Johan; Verhoeven, Chris; van der Marel, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The Delfi-C3 spacecraft carries the first autonomous wireless payload in space. This payload is a wireless sun sensor developed by TNO in the Netherlands. The data captured by the sensor is wirelessly transported to the central computer system inside the spacecraft. Since no additional power supply

  13. STORED-AND-FORWARD PACKET COMMUNICATION PAYLOAD OF KITSAT 1/2 MICROSATELLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ro Lee

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the architecture and protocol of stored-and-forward packet communication payload of KITSAT 1/2 microsatellites and then analyze this payload in terms of the probabilities of login success and login refusal, and maximum throughput as quality of service parameters.

  14. The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) Payload Facility on the ISS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibaldi, Giuseppe; Nasca, Rosario; Neubert, Torsten

    ASIM is a payload facility to be mounted on a Columbus external platform on the International Space Station (ISS). ASIM will study the coupling of thunderstorm processes to the upper atmosphere, ionosphere and radiation belts. ASIM is the most complex Earth Observation payload facility planned fo...

  15. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) Mission – Low Energy Payload

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We present the first results from the 'Low Energy Detector' payload of 'Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)' mission, which was launched onboard GSAT-2 Indian spacecraft on 08 May 2003 by GSLV-D2 rocket to study the solar flares. The SOXS Low Energy Detector (SLD) payload was designed, developed ...

  16. LLNL Compliance Plan for TRUPACT-2 Authorized Methods for Payload Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This document describes payload control at LLNL to ensure that all shipments of CH-TRU waste in the TRUPACT-II (Transuranic Package Transporter-II) meet the requirements of the TRUPACT-II SARP (safety report for packaging). This document also provides specific instructions for the selection of authorized payloads once individual payload containers are qualified for transport. The physical assembly of the qualified payload and operating procedures for the use of the TRUPACT-II, including loading and unloading operations, are described in HWM Procedure No. 204, based on the information in the TRUPACT-II SARP. The LLNL TRAMPAC, along with the TRUPACT-II operating procedures contained in HWM Procedure No. 204, meet the documentation needs for the use of the TRUPACT-II at LLNL. Table 14-1 provides a summary of the LLNL waste generation and certification procedures as they relate to TRUPACT-II payload compliance

  17. The microbes we eat: abundance and taxonomy of microbes consumed in a day’s worth of meals for three diet types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M. Lang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Far more attention has been paid to the microbes in our feces than the microbes in our food. Research efforts dedicated to the microbes that we eat have historically been focused on a fairly narrow range of species, namely those which cause disease and those which are thought to confer some “probiotic” health benefit. Little is known about the effects of ingested microbial communities that are present in typical American diets, and even the basic questions of which microbes, how many of them, and how much they vary from diet to diet and meal to meal, have not been answered.We characterized the microbiota of three different dietary patterns in order to estimate: the average total amount of daily microbes ingested via food and beverages, and their composition in three daily meal plans representing three different dietary patterns. The three dietary patterns analyzed were: (1 the Average American (AMERICAN: focused on convenience foods, (2 USDA recommended (USDA: emphasizing fruits and vegetables, lean meat, dairy, and whole grains, and (3 Vegan (VEGAN: excluding all animal products. Meals were prepared in a home kitchen or purchased at restaurants and blended, followed by microbial analysis including aerobic, anaerobic, yeast and mold plate counts as well as 16S rRNA PCR survey analysis.Based on plate counts, the USDA meal plan had the highest total amount of microbes at 1.3 × 109 CFU per day, followed by the VEGAN meal plan and the AMERICAN meal plan at 6 × 106 and 1.4 × 106 CFU per day respectively. There was no significant difference in diversity among the three dietary patterns. Individual meals clustered based on taxonomic composition independent of dietary pattern. For example, meals that were abundant in Lactic Acid Bacteria were from all three dietary patterns. Some taxonomic groups were correlated with the nutritional content of the meals. Predictive metagenome analysis using PICRUSt indicated differences in some functional KEGG

  18. Linking plant nutritional status to plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, Lilia C; Dennis, Paul G; Fan, Ben; Fedoseyenko, Dmitri; Kierul, Kinga; Becker, Anke; von Wiren, Nicolaus; Borriss, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Plants have developed a wide-range of adaptations to overcome nutrient limitation, including changes to the quantity and composition of carbon-containing compounds released by roots. Root-associated bacteria are largely influenced by these compounds which can be perceived as signals or substrates. Here, we evaluate the effect of root exudates collected from maize plants grown under nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), iron (Fe) and potassium (K) deficiencies on the transcriptome of the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. The largest shifts in gene expression patterns were observed in cells exposed to exudates from N-, followed by P-deficient plants. Exudates from N-deprived maize triggered a general stress response in FZB42 in the exponential growth phase, which was evidenced by the suppression of numerous genes involved in protein synthesis. Exudates from P-deficient plants induced bacterial genes involved in chemotaxis and motility whilst exudates released by Fe and K deficient plants did not cause dramatic changes in the bacterial transcriptome during exponential growth phase. Global transcriptional changes in bacteria elicited by nutrient deficient maize exudates were significantly correlated with concentrations of the amino acids aspartate, valine and glutamate in root exudates suggesting that transcriptional profiling of FZB42 associated with metabolomics of N, P, Fe and K-deficient maize root exudates is a powerful approach to better understand plant-microbe interactions under conditions of nutritional stress.

  19. Selecting the Best: Evolutionary Engineering of Chemical Production in Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelin, Denis; Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca; Luo, Hao; Herrgård, Markus J

    2018-05-11

    Microbial cell factories have proven to be an economical means of production for many bulk, specialty, and fine chemical products. However, we still lack both a holistic understanding of organism physiology and the ability to predictively tune enzyme activities in vivo, thus slowing down rational engineering of industrially relevant strains. An alternative concept to rational engineering is to use evolution as the driving force to select for desired changes, an approach often described as evolutionary engineering. In evolutionary engineering, in vivo selections for a desired phenotype are combined with either generation of spontaneous mutations or some form of targeted or random mutagenesis. Evolutionary engineering has been used to successfully engineer easily selectable phenotypes, such as utilization of a suboptimal nutrient source or tolerance to inhibitory substrates or products. In this review, we focus primarily on a more challenging problem-the use of evolutionary engineering for improving the production of chemicals in microbes directly. We describe recent developments in evolutionary engineering strategies, in general, and discuss, in detail, case studies where production of a chemical has been successfully achieved through evolutionary engineering by coupling production to cellular growth.

  20. Metabolic engineering of volatile isoprenoids in plants and microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Claudia E; Bongers, Mareike; Liu, Qing; Delatte, Thierry; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2014-08-01

    The chemical properties and diversity of volatile isoprenoids lends them to a broad variety of biological roles. It also lends them to a host of biotechnological applications, both by taking advantage of their natural functions and by using them as industrial chemicals/chemical feedstocks. Natural functions include roles as insect attractants and repellents, abiotic stress protectants in pathogen defense, etc. Industrial applications include use as pharmaceuticals, flavours, fragrances, fuels, fuel additives, etc. Here we will examine the ways in which researchers have so far found to exploit volatile isoprenoids using biotechnology. Production and/or modification of volatiles using metabolic engineering in both plants and microorganisms are reviewed, including engineering through both mevalonate and methylerythritol diphosphate pathways. Recent advances are illustrated using several case studies (herbivores and bodyguards, isoprene, and monoterpene production in microbes). Systems and synthetic biology tools with particular utility for metabolic engineering are also reviewed. Finally, we discuss the practical realities of various applications in modern biotechnology, explore possible future applications, and examine the challenges of moving these technologies forward so that they can deliver tangible benefits. While this review focuses on volatile isoprenoids, many of the engineering approaches described here are also applicable to non-isoprenoid volatiles and to non-volatile isoprenoids. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Anaerobic Probiotics: The Key Microbes for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Enshasy, Hesham; Malik, Khairuddin; Malek, Roslinda Abd; Othman, Nor Zalina; Elsayed, Elsayed Ahmed; Wadaan, Mohammad

    Human gastrointestinal microbiota (HGIM) incorporate a large number of microbes from different species. Anaerobic bacteria are the dominant organisms in this microbial consortium and play a crucial role in human health. In addition to their functional role as the main source of many essential metabolites for human health, they are considered as biotherapeutic agents in the regulation of different human metabolites. They are also important in the prevention and in the treatment of different physical and mental diseases. Bifidobacteria are the dominant anaerobic bacteria in HGIM and are widely used in the development of probiotic products for infants, children and adults. To develop bifidobacteria-based bioproducts, therefore, it is necessary to develop a large-scale biomass production platform based on a good understanding of the ideal medium and bioprocessing parameters for their growth and viability. In addition, high cell viability should be maintained during downstream processing and storage of probiotic cell powder or the final formulated product. In this work we review the latest information about the biology, therapeutic activities, cultivation and industrial production of bifidobacteria.

  2. Diet, genes, and microbes: complexities of colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Diane F; Phillips, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and generally, as countries climb the economic ladder, their rates of colon cancer increase. Colon cancer was an early disease where key genetic mutations were identified as important in disease progression, and there is considerable interest in determining whether specific mutations sensitize the colon to cancer prevention strategies. Epidemiological studies have revealed that fiber- and vegetable-rich diets and physical activity are associated with reduced rates of colon cancer, while consumption of red and processed meat, or alcoholic beverages, and overconsumption as reflected in obesity are associated with increased rates. Animal studies have probed these effects and suggested directions for further refinement of diet in colon cancer prevention. Recently a central role for the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract in colon cancer development is being probed, and it is hypothesized that the microbes may integrate diet and host genetics in the etiology of the disease. This review provides background on dietary, genetic, and microbial impacts on colon cancer and describes an ongoing project using rodent models to assess the ability of digestion-resistant starch in the integration of these factors with the goal of furthering colon cancer prevention.

  3. The role of lipids in host microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Roland; Mattner, Jochen

    2017-06-01

    Lipids are one of the major subcellular constituents and serve as signal molecules, energy sources, metabolic precursors and structural membrane components in various organisms. The function of lipids can be modified by multiple biochemical processes such as (de-)phosphorylation or (de-)glycosylation, and the organization of fatty acids into distinct cellular pools and subcellular compartments plays a pivotal role for the morphology and function of various cell populations. Thus, lipids regulate, for example, phagosome formation and maturation within host cells and thus, are critical for the elimination of microbial pathogens. Vice versa, microbial pathogens can manipulate the lipid composition of phagosomal membranes in host cells, and thus avoid their delivery to phagolysosomes. Lipids of microbial origin belong also to the strongest and most versatile inducers of mammalian immune responses upon engagement of distinct receptors on myeloid and lymphoid cells. Furthermore, microbial lipid toxins can induce membrane injuries and cell death. Thus, we will review here selected examples for mutual host-microbe interactions within the broad and divergent universe of lipids in microbial defense, tissue injury and immune evasion.

  4. Utilization of waste as biogas substrateby dominan microbes identified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlina, E.; Sambasri, S.; Hartati, E.; Safitri, R.; Hodijat, A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia as the tropics have a source of biomass feedstock which is very large, so the waste biomass can be used optimally as an energy source in the form of biogas. This study was conducted to obtain alternative energy from domestic waste materials, given the limited availability of petroleum and natural gas sourced from fossil fuels. This methodology is an experimental method, the process conditions at room temperature 25-27 °C, pH adjusted to the growth of microbes to produce biogas, retention time 20-60 days, the bioreactor is operated with a batch system, the volume of waste in the bioreactor is made permanent, so that the production of biogas in large scale will increase the pressure inside the bioreactor. Biogas is formed accommodated then distributed to the stove. Factors that determine the formation of biogas is a microbial species capable methanogens convert acetate into biogas. From the results of microbial identification of the isolates in the bioreactor, has identified three types of bacteria methanogens namely Methanospirillum hungatei, Methanobacterium polustre and Methanolacinapoynteri. The results of this study, domestic waste can be utilized as a substrate in biogas production, with the highest methane composition reaches 50.79%. This result is expected to increase public knowledge to utilize the waste into biogas as a renewable energy to sufficient the energy needs of household, so it does not depend on the energy derived from fossil fuels.

  5. Detoxification of Fusaric Acid by the Soil Microbe Mucor rouxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Frankie K; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Bell, Alois A; Liu, Jinggao; Duke, Sara E; Stipanovic, Robert D; Nichols, Robert L

    2017-06-21

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4 (VCG0114), which causes root rot and wilt of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense), has been identified recently for the first time in the western hemisphere in certain fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California. This pathotype produces copious quantities of the plant toxin fusaric acid (5-butyl-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) compared to other isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) that are indigenous to the United States. Fusaric acid is toxic to cotton plants and may help the pathogen compete with other microbes in the soil. We found that a laboratory strain of the fungus Mucor rouxii converts fusaric acid into a newly identified compound, 8-hydroxyfusaric acid. The latter compound is significantly less phytotoxic to cotton than the parent compound. On the basis of bioassays of hydroxylated analogues of fusaric acid, hydroxylation of the butyl side chain of fusaric acid may affect a general detoxification of fusaric acid. Genes that control this hydroxylation may be useful in developing biocontrol agents to manage Fov.

  6. Microbe-surface interactions in biofouling and biocorrosion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Iwona B; Sunner, Jan A; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2005-09-01

    The presence of microorganisms on material surfaces can have a profound effect on materials performance. Surface-associated microbial growth, i.e. a biofilm, is known to instigate biofouling. The presence of biofilms may promote interfacial physico-chemical reactions that are not favored under abiotic conditions. In the case of metallic materials, undesirable changes in material properties due to a biofilm (or a biofouling layer) are referred to as biocorrosion or microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). Biofouling and biocorrosion occur in aquatic and terrestrial habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, pressure and pH. Interfacial chemistry in such systems reflects a wide variety of physiological activities carried out by diverse microbial populations thriving within biofilms. Biocorrosion can be viewed as a consequence of coupled biological and abiotic electron-transfer reactions, i.e. redox reactions of metals, enabled by microbial ecology. Microbially produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which comprise different macromolecules, mediate initial cell adhesion to the material surface and constitute a biofilm matrix. Despite their unquestionable importance in biofilm development, the extent to which EPS contribute to biocorrosion is not well-understood. This review offers a current perspective on material/microbe interactions pertinent to biocorrosion and biofouling, with EPS as a focal point, while emphasizing the role atomic force spectroscopy and mass spectrometry techniques can play in elucidating such interactions.

  7. Of genes and microbes: solving the intricacies in host genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Na; Xu, Xizhan; Xu, Yakun; Zhu, Baoli

    2018-05-01

    Microbiome research is a quickly developing field in biomedical research, and we have witnessed its potential in understanding the physiology, metabolism and immunology, its critical role in understanding the health and disease of the host, and its vast capacity in disease prediction, intervention and treatment. However, many of the fundamental questions still need to be addressed, including the shaping forces of microbial diversity between individuals and across time. Microbiome research falls into the classical nature vs. nurture scenario, such that host genetics shape part of the microbiome, while environmental influences change the original course of microbiome development. In this review, we focus on the nature, i.e., the genetic part of the equation, and summarize the recent efforts in understanding which parts of the genome, especially the human and mouse genome, play important roles in determining the composition and functions of microbial communities, primarily in the gut but also on the skin. We aim to present an overview of different approaches in studying the intricate relationships between host genetic variations and microbes, its underlying philosophy and methodology, and we aim to highlight a few key discoveries along this exploration, as well as current pitfalls. More evidence and results will surely appear in upcoming studies, and the accumulating knowledge will lead to a deeper understanding of what we could finally term a "hologenome", that is, the organized, closely interacting genome of the host and the microbiome.

  8. Designer cells programming quorum-sensing interference with microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmayer, Ferdinand; Hell, Dennis; Müller, Marius; Ausländer, David; Fussenegger, Martin

    2018-05-08

    Quorum sensing is a promising target for next-generation anti-infectives designed to address evolving bacterial drug resistance. The autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a key quorum-sensing signal molecule which regulates bacterial group behaviors and is recognized by many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Here we report a synthetic mammalian cell-based microbial-control device that detects microbial chemotactic formyl peptides through a formyl peptide sensor (FPS) and responds by releasing AI-2. The microbial-control device was designed by rewiring an artificial receptor-based signaling cascade to a modular biosynthetic AI-2 production platform. Mammalian cells equipped with the microbial-control gene circuit detect formyl peptides secreted from various microbes with high sensitivity and respond with robust AI-2 production, resulting in control of quorum sensing-related behavior of pathogenic Vibrio harveyi and attenuation of biofilm formation by the human pathogen Candida albicans. The ability to manipulate mixed microbial populations through fine-tuning of AI-2 levels may provide opportunities for future anti-infective strategies.

  9. Innovative on board payload optical architecture for high throughput satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudet, D.; Braux, B.; Prieur, O.; Hughes, R.; Wilkinson, M.; Latunde-Dada, K.; Jahns, J.; Lohmann, U.; Fey, D.; Karafolas, N.

    2017-11-01

    For the next generation of HighThroughPut (HTP) Telecommunications Satellites, space end users' needs will result in higher link speeds and an increase in the number of channels; up to 512 channels running at 10Gbits/s. By keeping electrical interconnections based on copper, the constraints in term of power dissipation, number of electrical wires and signal integrity will become too demanding. The replacement of the electrical links by optical links is the most adapted solution as it provides high speed links with low power consumption and no EMC/EMI. But replacing all electrical links by optical links of an On Board Payload (OBP) is challenging. It is not simply a matter of replacing electrical components with optical but rather the whole concept and architecture have to be rethought to achieve a high reliability and high performance optical solution. In this context, this paper will present the concept of an Innovative OBP Optical Architecture. The optical architecture was defined to meet the critical requirements of the application: signal speed, number of channels, space reliability, power dissipation, optical signals crossing and components availability. The resulting architecture is challenging and the need for new developments is highlighted. But this innovative optically interconnected architecture will substantially outperform standard electrical ones.

  10. Payload topography camera of Chang'e-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Guo-Bin; Liu, En-Hai; Zhao, Ru-Jin; Zhong, Jie; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Wu-Lin; Wang, Jin; Chen, Yuan-Pei; Hao, Yong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Chang'e-3 was China's first soft-landing lunar probe that achieved a successful roving exploration on the Moon. A topography camera functioning as the lander's “eye” was one of the main scientific payloads installed on the lander. It was composed of a camera probe, an electronic component that performed image compression, and a cable assembly. Its exploration mission was to obtain optical images of the lunar topography in the landing zone for investigation and research. It also observed rover movement on the lunar surface and finished taking pictures of the lander and rover. After starting up successfully, the topography camera obtained static images and video of rover movement from different directions, 360° panoramic pictures of the lunar surface around the lander from multiple angles, and numerous pictures of the Earth. All images of the rover, lunar surface, and the Earth were clear, and those of the Chinese national flag were recorded in true color. This paper describes the exploration mission, system design, working principle, quality assessment of image compression, and color correction of the topography camera. Finally, test results from the lunar surface are provided to serve as a reference for scientific data processing and application. (paper)

  11. Small Payload Launch Integrated Testing Services (SPLITS) - SPSDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotner, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    My experience working on the Small Payload Launch Integrated Testing Services project has been both educational and rewarding. I have been given the opportunity to work on and experiment with a number of exciting projects and initiatives, each offering different challenges and opportunities for teamwork and collaboration. One of my assignments is to aid in the design and construction of a small-scale two stage rocket as part of a Rocket University initiative. My duties include programming a microcontroller to control the various sensors on the rocket as well as process and transmit data. Additionally, I am writing a graphical user interface application for the ground station that will receive the transmitted data from the rocket and display the information on screen along with a 3D rendering displaying the rocket orientation. Another project I am working on is to design and develop the avionics that will be used to control a high altitude balloon flight that will test a sensor called a Micro Dosimeter that will measure the total ionizing dose absorbed by electrical components during a flight. This includes assembling and soldering the various sensors and components, programming a microcontroller to input and process data from the Micro Dosimeter, and transmitting the data down to a ground station as well as save the data to an on-board SD card. Additionally, I am aiding in the setup and development of ITOS (Integrated Test and Operations System) capability in the SPSDL (Spaceport Processing System Development Lab).

  12. REAL TIME DATA PROCESSING FOR OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING PAYLOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wohlfeil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of operational systems for remote sensing requires new approaches for data processing. It has to be the goal to derive user relevant information close the sensor itself and to downlink this information to a ground station or to provide them as input to an actuator of the space-borne platform. A complete automation of data processing is an essential first step for a thematic onboard data processing. In a second step, an appropriate onboard computer system has to be de-signed being able to fulfill the requirements. In this paper, standard data processing steps will be introduced correcting systematic errors during image capturing. A new hardware operating system, which is the interface between FPGA hardware and data processing algorithms, gives the opportunity to implement complex data processing modules in an effective way. As an example the derivation the camera's orientation based on data of an optical payload is described in detail. The thereby derived absolute or relative orientation is essential for high level data products. This will be illustrated by means of an onboard image matcher

  13. Reference payload of the ESA L1 mission candidate ATHENA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Didier; Rando, Nicola; Lumb, David; Verhoeve, Peter; Oosterbroek, Tim; Bavdaz, Marcos

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (ATHENA) is one of the three candidates that competed for the first large-class mission (L1) in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme, with a launch planned by 2022 and is the result of the IXO reformulation activities. ATHENA is an ESA-led project and is conceived as the next generation X-ray observatory. It is meant to address fundamental questions about accretion around black-holes, reveal the physics underpinning cosmic feedback, trace the large scale structure of baryons in galaxy clusters and the cosmic as well as a large number of astrophysics and fundamental physics phenomena. The observatory consists of two identical mirrors each illuminating a fixed focal plane instrument, providing collectively 1 m2 effective area at 1 keV. The reference payload consists of a medium resolution wide field imager (WFI) and a high resolution X-ray micro-calorimeter spectrometer (XMS). The WFI is based on a monolithic Si DepFET array providing imaging over a 24 × 24 arcmin2 field of view and a good PSF oversampling. The sensor will measure X-rays in the range 0.1-15 keV and provides near Fano limited energy resolution (150eV at 6keV). The XMS is based on a micro-calorimeter array operating at its transition temperature of ~100mK and provides Definition Phase.

  14. How Do Small Things Make a Big Difference? Activities to Teach about Human-Microbe Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Chandana; Hug, Barbara; Waters, Jillian L; Whitaker, Rachel J

    2014-11-01

    Recent scientific studies are providing increasing evidence for how microbes living in and on us are essential to our good health. However, many students still think of microbes only as germs that harm us. The classroom activities presented here are designed to shift student thinking on this topic. In these guided inquiry activities, students investigate human-microbe interactions as they work together to interpret and analyze authentic data from published articles and develop scientific models. Through the activities, students learn and apply ecological concepts as they come to see the human body as a fascinatingly complex ecosystem.

  15. How Do Small Things Make a Big Difference? Activities to Teach about Human–Microbe Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    JASTI, CHANDANA; HUG, BARBARA; WATERS, JILLIAN L.; WHITAKER, RACHEL J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent scientific studies are providing increasing evidence for how microbes living in and on us are essential to our good health. However, many students still think of microbes only as germs that harm us. The classroom activities presented here are designed to shift student thinking on this topic. In these guided inquiry activities, students investigate human–microbe interactions as they work together to interpret and analyze authentic data from published articles and develop scientific models. Through the activities, students learn and apply ecological concepts as they come to see the human body as a fascinatingly complex ecosystem. PMID:25520526

  16. Biosurfactant Producing Microbes from Oil Contaminated Soil - Isolation, Screening and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    , A Pandey; , D Nandi; , N Prasad; , S Arora

    2016-01-01

    Th1s paper bas1cally deals W1th 1solat10n, productıon and characterızatıon of biosurfactant producing microbes from oil contaminated soil sample. In this paper, we are comparing and discussing different methods to screen & characterize microbes from soil which can degrade oil due to their biosurfactant producing activity which helps in reduction of surface tension of oil. Oils used to check the biosurfactant activity of microbes, were engine oil and vegetable oil. Further isolation of...

  17. The effects of packaging materials on microbe population in irradiated traditional herbal medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagiawati, Sri; Hilmy, Nazly

    1983-01-01

    Microbial population and moisture content of traditional herbal medicines contaminated with 3 kinds of aerobic microbes, packed in 5 kinds of plastic packaging materials, followed by irradiation at minimum dose of 5 kGy and stored for 6 months were investigated. The highest reduction of microbial counts during storage was observed on samples packed in polyethylene bags. All of packaging materials used were found to be impermeable to microbes and water vapour. Radiation and packaging materials used acted synergistically to inactivate microbes durind storage. The microbial counts decreased as much as 2 to 4 log cycles during storage. (author)

  18. Design and Implementation of Hitl Simulator Coupleing Communications Payload and Software Spacecraft Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jun Kim

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering qualification model payload for a communications and broadcasting satellite(CBS was developed by ETRI from May, 2000 to April, 2003. For the purpose of functional test and verification of the payload, a real-time hardware-in-the-loop(HITL CBS simulator(CBSSIM was also developed. We assumed that the spacecraft platform for the CBSSIM is a geostationary communication satellite using momentum bias three-axis stabilization control technique based on Koreasat. The payload hardware is combined with CBSSIM via Power, Command and Telemetry System(PCTS of Electrical Ground Support Equipment(EGSE. CBSSIM is connected with PCTS by TCP/IP and the payload is combined with PCTS by MIL-STD-1553B protocol and DC harness. This simulator runs under the PC-based simulation environment with Windows 2000 operating system. The satellite commands from the operators are transferred to the payload or bus subsystem models through the real-time process block in the simulator. Design requirements of the CBSSIM are to operate in real-time and generate telemetry. CBSSIM provides various graphic monitoring interfaces and control functions and supports both pre-launch and after-launch of a communication satellite system. In this paper, the HITL simulator system including CBSSIM, communications payload and PCTS as the medium of interface between CBSSIM and communications payload will be described in aspects of the system architecture, spacecraft models, and simulator operation environment.

  19. Small bugs, big business: the economic power of the microbe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, A L

    2000-10-01

    The versatility of microbial biosynthesis is enormous. The most industrially important primary metabolites are the amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins, solvents, and organic acids. Millions of tons of amino acids are produced each year with a total multibillion dollar market. Many synthetic vitamin production processes are being replaced by microbial fermentations. In addition to the multiple reaction sequences of fermentations, microorganisms are extremely useful in carrying out biotransformation processes. These are becoming essential to the fine chemical industry in the production of single-isomer intermediates. Microbially produced secondary metabolites are extremely important to our health and nutrition. As a group, they have tremendous economic importance. The antibiotic market amounts to almost 30 billion dollars and includes about 160 antibiotics and derivatives such as the beta-lactam peptide antibiotics, the macrolide polyketide erythromycin, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides and others. Other important pharmaceutical products produced by microrganisms are hypocholesterolemic agents, enzyme inhibitors, immunosuppressants and antitumor compounds, some having markets of over 1 billion dollars per year. Agriculturally important secondary metabolites include coccidiostats, animal growth promotants, antihelmintics and biopesticides. The modern biotechnology industry has made a major impact in the business world, biopharmaceuticals (recombinant protein drugs, vaccines and monoclonal antibodies) having a market of 15 billion dollars. Recombinant DNA technology has also produced a revolution in agriculture and has markedly increased markets for microbial enzymes. Molecular manipulations have been added to mutational techniques as means of increasing titers and yields of microbial procresses and in discovery of new drugs. Today, microbiology is a major participant in global industry. The best is yet to come as microbes move into the environmental and energy sectors.

  20. Insight and analysis problem solving in microbes to machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2015-11-01

    A key feature for obtaining solutions to difficult problems, insight is oftentimes vaguely regarded as a special discontinuous intellectual process and/or a cognitive restructuring of problem representation or goal approach. However, this nearly century-old state of art devised by the Gestalt tradition to explain the non-analytical or non-trial-and-error, goal-seeking aptitude of primate mentality tends to neglect problem-solving capabilities of lower animal phyla, Kingdoms other than Animalia, and advancing smart computational technologies built from biological, artificial, and composite media. Attempting to provide an inclusive, precise definition of insight, two major criteria of insight, discontinuous processing and problem restructuring, are here reframed using terminology and statistical mechanical properties of computational complexity classes. Discontinuous processing becomes abrupt state transitions in algorithmic/heuristic outcomes or in types of algorithms/heuristics executed by agents using classical and/or quantum computational models. And problem restructuring becomes combinatorial reorganization of resources, problem-type substitution, and/or exchange of computational models. With insight bounded by computational complexity, humans, ciliated protozoa, and complex technological networks, for example, show insight when restructuring time requirements, combinatorial complexity, and problem type to solve polynomial and nondeterministic polynomial decision problems. Similar effects are expected from other problem types, supporting the idea that insight might be an epiphenomenon of analytical problem solving and consequently a larger information processing framework. Thus, this computational complexity definition of insight improves the power, external and internal validity, and reliability of operational parameters with which to classify, investigate, and produce the phenomenon for computational agents ranging from microbes to man-made devices. Copyright

  1. Scaling Soil Microbe-Water Interactions from Pores to Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Katul, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial scales relevant to soil microbial activity are much finer than scales relevant to whole-ecosystem function and biogeochemical cycling. On the one hand, how to link such different scales and develop scale-aware biogeochemical and ecohydrological models remains a major challenge. On the other hand, resolving these linkages is becoming necessary for testing ecological hypotheses and resolving data-theory inconsistencies. Here, the relation between microbial respiration and soil moisture expressed in water potential is explored. Such relation mediates the water availability effects on ecosystem-level heterotrophic respiration and is of paramount importance for understanding CO2 emissions under increasingly variable rainfall regimes. Respiration has been shown to decline as the soil dries in a remarkably consistent way across climates and soil types (open triangles in Figure). Empirical models based on these respiration-moisture relations are routinely used in Earth System Models to predict moisture effects on ecosystem respiration. It has been hypothesized that this consistency in microbial respiration decline is due to breakage of water film continuity causing in turn solute diffusion limitations in dry conditions. However, this hypothesis appears to be at odds with what is known about soil hydraulic properties. Water film continuity estimated from soil water retention (SWR) measurements at the 'Darcy' scale breaks at far less negative water potential (micro-level relevant to microbial activity. Such downscaling resolves the inconsistency between respiration thresholds and hydrological thresholds. This result, together with observations of residual microbial activity well below -15 MPa (dashed back curve in Figure), lends support to the hypothesis that soil microbes are substrate-limited in dry conditions.

  2. Universal ligation-detection-reaction microarray applied for compost microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romantschuk Martin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Composting is one of the methods utilised in recycling organic communal waste. The composting process is dependent on aerobic microbial activity and proceeds through a succession of different phases each dominated by certain microorganisms. In this study, a ligation-detection-reaction (LDR based microarray method was adapted for species-level detection of compost microbes characteristic of each stage of the composting process. LDR utilises the specificity of the ligase enzyme to covalently join two adjacently hybridised probes. A zip-oligo is attached to the 3'-end of one probe and fluorescent label to the 5'-end of the other probe. Upon ligation, the probes are combined in the same molecule and can be detected in a specific location on a universal microarray with complementary zip-oligos enabling equivalent hybridisation conditions for all probes. The method was applied to samples from Nordic composting facilities after testing and optimisation with fungal pure cultures and environmental clones. Results Probes targeted for fungi were able to detect 0.1 fmol of target ribosomal PCR product in an artificial reaction mixture containing 100 ng competing fungal ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS area or herring sperm DNA. The detection level was therefore approximately 0.04% of total DNA. Clone libraries were constructed from eight compost samples. The LDR microarray results were in concordance with the clone library sequencing results. In addition a control probe was used to monitor the per-spot hybridisation efficiency on the array. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the LDR microarray method is capable of sensitive and accurate species-level detection from a complex microbial community. The method can detect key species from compost samples, making it a basis for a tool for compost process monitoring in industrial facilities.

  3. How do natural, uncultivated microbes interact with organic matter? Insights from single cell genomics and metagenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, Karen; Bird, Jordan; Schreiber, Lars

    Abstract Since most of the microbes in marine sediments remain uncultured, little is known about the mechanisms by which these natural communities degrade organic matter (OM). Likewise, little is known about the make-up of labile OM in marine sediments beyond general functional classes such as pr......Abstract Since most of the microbes in marine sediments remain uncultured, little is known about the mechanisms by which these natural communities degrade organic matter (OM). Likewise, little is known about the make-up of labile OM in marine sediments beyond general functional classes...... such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, measured as monomers. However, microbes have complex interactions with specific polymers within these functional classes, which can be indicated by a microbe's enzymatic toolkit. We ...

  4. Biological invasions: economic and environmental costs of alien plant, animal, and microbe species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pimentel, David

    2011-01-01

    ...: Economic and Environmental Costs of Alien Plant, Animal, and Microbe Species, this reference discusses how non-native species invade new ecosystems and the subsequent economic and environmental effects of these species...

  5. Grow Plants the Organic Way: Give Them the Soil Microbes They Crave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Mixter

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Teaming with Microbes: The Organic Gardener’s Guide to the Soil Food Web, revised ed.; Jeff Lowenfels and Wayne Lewis; (2010. Timber Press Inc., Portland, OR. 220 pages.

  6. Adaptive digital beamforming for a CDMA mobile communications payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Garcia, Samuel G.; Ruiz, Javier Benedicto

    1993-01-01

    reference signal highly correlated with the desired user signal and uncorrelated with the interferences. CDMA lends itself very easily to the generation of such a reference signal, thanks to the a priori knowledge of the user's signature sequence. First, the integration of an adaptive antenna in an asynchronous CDMA system is analyzed. The adaptive antenna system can provide increased interference rejection - much higher than that afforded by the code alone - and, since CDMA is mainly interference limited, any reduction in interference converts directly and linearly into an increase in capacity. Analyses and computer simulations are presented that show how an asynchronous CDMA system incorporating adaptive beamforming can provide at least as much capacity as a synchronous system. More importantly, the proposed concept allows the near-far effect to be mitigated without requiring a tight coordination of the users in terms of transmitted power control or network synchronization. The system is extremely robust to the near-far effect because the signals reaching the satellite from directions other than that of the desired user - which are likely to have different power levels - are adaptively canceled by the antenna. Finally, a payload architecture is presented that illustrates the practical implementation of this concept. This digital payload architecture demonstrates that with the advent of high performance CMOS digital processing, the on-board implementation of complex DSP techniques - in particular Digital Beamforming - has become possible, being most attractive for Mobile Satellite Communications.

  7. An Experiment Support Computer for Externally-Based ISS Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, S. W.; Chen, S. E.

    2002-01-01

    The Experiment Support Facility - External (ESF-X) is a computer designed for general experiment use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) Truss Site locations. The ESF-X design is highly modular and uses commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components wherever possible to allow for maximum reconfigurability to meet the needs of almost any payload. The ESF-X design has been developed with the EXPRESS Pallet as the target location and the University of Colorado's Micron Accuracy Deployment Experiment (MADE) as the anticipated first payload and capability driver. Thus the design presented here is configured for structural dynamics and control as well as optics experiments. The ESF-X is a small (58.4 x 48.3 x 17.8") steel and copper enclosure which houses a 14 slot VME card chassis and power supply. All power and data connections are made through a single panel on the enclosure so that only one side of the enclosure must be accessed for nominal operation and servicing activities. This feature also allows convenient access during integration and checkout activities. Because it utilizes a standard VME backplane, ESF-X can make use of the many commercial boards already in production for this standard. Since the VME standard is also heavily used in industrial and military applications, many ruggedized components are readily available. The baseline design includes commercial processors, Ethernet, MIL-STD-1553, and mass storage devices. The main processor board contains four TI 6701 DSPs with a PowerPC based controller. Other standard functions, such as analog-to-digital, digital-to-analog, motor driver, temperature readings, etc., are handled on industry-standard IP modules. Carrier cards, which hold 4 IP modules each, are placed in slots in the VME backplane. A unique, custom IP carrier board with radiation event detectors allows non RAD-hard components to be used in an extended exposure environment. Thermal control is maintained by conductive cooling through the copper

  8. ACT Payload Shroud Structural Concept Analysis and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Bart B.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2010-01-01

    Aerospace structural applications demand a weight efficient design to perform in a cost effective manner. This is particularly true for launch vehicle structures, where weight is the dominant design driver. The design process typically requires many iterations to ensure that a satisfactory minimum weight has been obtained. Although metallic structures can be weight efficient, composite structures can provide additional weight savings due to their lower density and additional design flexibility. This work presents structural analysis and weight optimization of a composite payload shroud for NASA s Ares V heavy lift vehicle. Two concepts, which were previously determined to be efficient for such a structure are evaluated: a hat stiffened/corrugated panel and a fiber reinforced foam sandwich panel. A composite structural optimization code, HyperSizer, is used to optimize the panel geometry, composite material ply orientations, and sandwich core material. HyperSizer enables an efficient evaluation of thousands of potential designs versus multiple strength and stability-based failure criteria across multiple load cases. HyperSizer sizing process uses a global finite element model to obtain element forces, which are statistically processed to arrive at panel-level design-to loads. These loads are then used to analyze each candidate panel design. A near optimum design is selected as the one with the lowest weight that also provides all positive margins of safety. The stiffness of each newly sized panel or beam component is taken into account in the subsequent finite element analysis. Iteration of analysis/optimization is performed to ensure a converged design. Sizing results for the hat stiffened panel concept and the fiber reinforced foam sandwich concept are presented.

  9. The use of filtered bags to increase waste payload capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dustin, D.F.; Thorp, D.T.; Rivera, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    For the past few years, the Department of Energy has favored the direct disposal of low plutonium content residue materials from Rocky Flats rather than engage in expensive and time consuming plutonium recovery operations. One impediment to direct disposal has been the wattage limit imposed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on hydrogenous materials such as combustibles and sludges. The issue of concern is the radiolytic generation and accumulation of hydrogen and other explosive gases in waste containers. The wattage limits that existed through 1996 restricted the amount of plutonium bearing hydrogenous materials that could be packaged in a WIPP bound waste drum to only a fraction of the capacity of a drum. Typically, only about one kilogram of combustible residue could be packaged in a waste drum before the wattage limit was exceeded resulting in an excessively large number of drums to be procured, stored, shipped, and interred. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated the use of filtered plastic bags (called bag-out bags) used to remove transuranic waste materials from glove box lines. The bags contain small, disk like HEPA filters which are effective in containing radioactively contaminated particulate material but allow for the diffusion of hydrogen gas. Used in conjunction with filtered 55 gallon drums, filtered bag-out bags were pursued as a means to increase the allowable wattage limits for selected residue materials. In February 1997, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the use of filtered bag-out bags for transuranic waste materials destined for WIPP. The concomitant increase in wattage limits now allows for approximately four times the payload per waste drum for wattage limited materials

  10. The Gravity Probe B Payload Hoisted by Crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) payload was hoisted by crane to the transportation truck in the W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory in Stanford, California for shipment to the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004, the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Photo Credit: Stanford University)

  11. Life science payloads planning study. [for space shuttle orbiters and spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W. G.; Wells, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    Preferred approaches and procedures were defined for integrating the space shuttle life sciences payload from experiment solicitation through final data dissemination at mission completion. The payloads operations plan was refined and expended to include current information. The NASA-JSC facility accommodations were assessed, and modifications recommended to improve payload processing capability. Standard format worksheets were developed to permit rapid location of experiment requirements and a Spacelab mission handbook was developed to assist potential life sciences investigators at academic, industrial, health research, and NASA centers. Practical, cost effective methods were determined for accommodating various categories of live specimens during all mission phases.

  12. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 1: Management summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of a study program to determine the life sciences payloads required for conducting biomedical experiments during space missions are presented. The objectives are defined as: (1) to identify the research functions which must be performed aboard life sciences spacecraft laboratories and the equipment needed to support these functions and (2) to develop layouts and preliminary conceptual designs of several potential baseline payloads for the accomplishment of life research in space. Payload configurations and subsystems are described and illustrated. Tables of data are included to identify the material requirements for the space missions.

  13. The interactions between nanoscale zero-valent iron and microbes in the subsurface environment: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yankai; Dong, Haoran; Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin; Jiang, Zhao; Zhang, Cong; Deng, Junmin; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The interactions between various microbes and NZVI were summarized. • The adverse and positive effects of NZVI on the growth of microbes were reviewed. • The synergistic effects of NZVI and bacteria on pollutant removal were reviewed. • The effects of iron-reducing bacteria on the aged NZVI were reviewed. • Future challenges to study the interactions between NZVI and microbes are suggested. - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles, applied for in-situ subsurface remediation, are inevitable to interact with various microbes in the remediation sites directly or indirectly. This review summarizes their interactions, including the effects of NZVI on microbial activity and growth, the synergistic effect of NZVI and microbes on the contaminant removal, and the effects of microbes on the aging of NZVI. NZVI could exert either inhibitive or stimulative effects on the growth of microbes. The mechanisms of NZVI cytotoxicity (i.e., the inhibitive effect) include physical damage and biochemical destruction. The stimulative effects of NZVI on certain bacteria are associated with the creation of appropriate living environment, either through providing electron donor (e.g., H_2) or carbon sources (e.g., the engineered organic surface modifiers), or through eliminating the noxious substances that can cause bactericidal consequence. As a result of the positive interaction, the combination of NZVI and some microbes shows synergistic effect on contaminant removal. Additionally, the aged NZVI can be utilized by some iron-reducing bacteria, resulting in the transformation of Fe(III) to Fe(II), which can further contribute to the contaminant reduction. However, the Fe(III)-reduction process can probably induce environmental risks, such as environmental methylation and remobilization of the previously entrapped heavy metals.

  14. Research progress and application prospect of radiation-resistant prokaryotic microbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Zhu Jing; Zhang Zhidong; Tang Qiyong; Chen Ming

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-resistant microbe is becoming the research hotspot because of its special life phenomenon and physiological mechanism. Radiation-resistant bacteria are one kind of the most studied radiation-resistant microbe. This article summarized some aspects of the research on radiation-resistant bacteria, including the radiation resistant bacteria resources, and discussed its potential application prospects in the environmental engineering, biotechnology, human health, military and space et al. (authors)

  15. The interactions between nanoscale zero-valent iron and microbes in the subsurface environment: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yankai [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Dong, Haoran, E-mail: dongh@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin; Jiang, Zhao; Zhang, Cong; Deng, Junmin; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yi [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • The interactions between various microbes and NZVI were summarized. • The adverse and positive effects of NZVI on the growth of microbes were reviewed. • The synergistic effects of NZVI and bacteria on pollutant removal were reviewed. • The effects of iron-reducing bacteria on the aged NZVI were reviewed. • Future challenges to study the interactions between NZVI and microbes are suggested. - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles, applied for in-situ subsurface remediation, are inevitable to interact with various microbes in the remediation sites directly or indirectly. This review summarizes their interactions, including the effects of NZVI on microbial activity and growth, the synergistic effect of NZVI and microbes on the contaminant removal, and the effects of microbes on the aging of NZVI. NZVI could exert either inhibitive or stimulative effects on the growth of microbes. The mechanisms of NZVI cytotoxicity (i.e., the inhibitive effect) include physical damage and biochemical destruction. The stimulative effects of NZVI on certain bacteria are associated with the creation of appropriate living environment, either through providing electron donor (e.g., H{sub 2}) or carbon sources (e.g., the engineered organic surface modifiers), or through eliminating the noxious substances that can cause bactericidal consequence. As a result of the positive interaction, the combination of NZVI and some microbes shows synergistic effect on contaminant removal. Additionally, the aged NZVI can be utilized by some iron-reducing bacteria, resulting in the transformation of Fe(III) to Fe(II), which can further contribute to the contaminant reduction. However, the Fe(III)-reduction process can probably induce environmental risks, such as environmental methylation and remobilization of the previously entrapped heavy metals.

  16. MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehal, Paramvir; Joachimiak, Marcin; Price, Morgan; Bates, John; Baumohl, Jason; Chivian, Dylan; Friedland, Greg; Huang, Kathleen; Keller, Keith; Novichkov, Pavel; Dubchak, Inna; Alm, Eric; Arkin, Adam

    2011-07-14

    Since 2003, MicrobesOnline (http://www.microbesonline.org) has been providing a community resource for comparative and functional genome analysis. The portal includes over 1000 complete genomes of bacteria, archaea and fungi and thousands of expression microarrays from diverse organisms ranging from model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to environmental microbes such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Shewanella oneidensis. To assist in annotating genes and in reconstructing their evolutionary history, MicrobesOnline includes a comparative genome browser based on phylogenetic trees for every gene family as well as a species tree. To identify co-regulated genes, MicrobesOnline can search for genes based on their expression profile, and provides tools for identifying regulatory motifs and seeing if they are conserved. MicrobesOnline also includes fast phylogenetic profile searches, comparative views of metabolic pathways, operon predictions, a workbench for sequence analysis and integration with RegTransBase and other microbial genome resources. The next update of MicrobesOnline will contain significant new functionality, including comparative analysis of metagenomic sequence data. Programmatic access to the database, along with source code and documentation, is available at http://microbesonline.org/programmers.html.

  17. Turning the table: plants consume microbes as a source of nutrients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyarat Paungfoo-Lonhienne

    Full Text Available Interactions between plants and microbes in soil, the final frontier of ecology, determine the availability of nutrients to plants and thereby primary production of terrestrial ecosystems. Nutrient cycling in soils is considered a battle between autotrophs and heterotrophs in which the latter usually outcompete the former, although recent studies have questioned the unconditional reign of microbes on nutrient cycles and the plants' dependence on microbes for breakdown of organic matter. Here we present evidence indicative of a more active role of plants in nutrient cycling than currently considered. Using fluorescent-labeled non-pathogenic and non-symbiotic strains of a bacterium and a fungus (Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, we demonstrate that microbes enter root cells and are subsequently digested to release nitrogen that is used in shoots. Extensive modifications of root cell walls, as substantiated by cell wall outgrowth and induction of genes encoding cell wall synthesizing, loosening and degrading enzymes, may facilitate the uptake of microbes into root cells. Our study provides further evidence that the autotrophy of plants has a heterotrophic constituent which could explain the presence of root-inhabiting microbes of unknown ecological function. Our discovery has implications for soil ecology and applications including future sustainable agriculture with efficient nutrient cycles.

  18. MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehal, Paramvir S.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; Price, Morgan N.; Bates, John T.; Baumohl, Jason K.; Chivian, Dylan; Friedland, Greg D.; Huang, Katherine H.; Keller, Keith; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Dubchak, Inna L.; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2009-09-17

    Since 2003, MicrobesOnline (http://www.microbesonline.org) has been providing a community resource for comparative and functional genome analysis. The portal includes over 1000 complete genomes of bacteria, archaea and fungi and thousands of expression microarrays from diverse organisms ranging from model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to environmental microbes such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Shewanella oneidensis. To assist in annotating genes and in reconstructing their evolutionary history, MicrobesOnline includes a comparative genome browser based on phylogenetic trees for every gene family as well as a species tree. To identify co-regulated genes, MicrobesOnline can search for genes based on their expression profile, and provides tools for identifying regulatory motifs and seeing if they are conserved. MicrobesOnline also includes fast phylogenetic profile searches, comparative views of metabolic pathways, operon predictions, a workbench for sequence analysis and integration with RegTransBase and other microbial genome resources. The next update of MicrobesOnline will contain significant new functionality, including comparative analysis of metagenomic sequence data. Programmatic access to the database, along with source code and documentation, is available at http://microbesonline.org/programmers.html.

  19. Harnessing Insect-Microbe Chemical Communications To Control Insect Pests of Agricultural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, John J; Vannette, Rachel L

    2017-01-11

    Insect pests cause serious economic, yield, and food safety problems to managed crops worldwide. Compounding these problems, insect pests often vector pathogenic or toxigenic microbes to plants. Previous work has considered plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions separately. Although insects are well-understood to use plant volatiles to locate hosts, microorganisms can produce distinct and abundant volatile compounds that in some cases strongly attract insects. In this paper, we focus on the microbial contribution to plant volatile blends, highlighting the compounds emitted and the potential for variation in microbial emission. We suggest that these aspects of microbial volatile emission may make these compounds ideal for use in agricultural applications, as they may be more specific or enhance methods currently used in insect control or monitoring. Our survey of microbial volatiles in insect-plant interactions suggests that these emissions not only signal host suitability but may indicate a distinctive time frame for optimal conditions for both insect and microbe. Exploitation of these host-specific microbe semiochemicals may provide important microbe- and host-based attractants and a basis for future plant-insect-microbe chemical ecology investigations.

  20. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  1. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, A. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5–6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae—all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the

  2. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Oberbeckmann

    Full Text Available Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina. The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact

  3. Hermod: optical payload technology demonstrator flying on PROBA-V: overview of the payload development, testing and results after 1 year in orbit exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, S.; Blasco, J.; Henriksen, V.; Samuelsson, H.; Navasquillo, O.; Grimsgaard, M.; Mellab, K.

    2017-11-01

    Proba-V is the third mission of ESA's Programme for In-orbit Technology Demonstration (IOD), based on a small, high performance satellite platform and a compact payload. Besides, the main satellite instrument aiming at Vegetation imaging, Proba-V embarks five technological payloads providing early flight opportunities for novel instruments and space technologies. Successfully launched by the ESA VEGA launcher in May 2013, it has now completed its commissioning and the full calibration of platform, main instrument and additional payloads and is, since last October, fully operational. The High dEnsity space foRM cOnnector Demonstration or HERMOD is the last payload selected to fly on Proba-V. The payload objective is to validate through an actual launch and in orbit high-density optical fibre cable assembly, cumulate space heritage for fibre optics transmission and evaluate possible degradation induced by the space environment compared to on-ground tests. The future applications of this technology are for intrasatellite optical communications in view of mass reduction, the electrical grounding simplification and to increase the transmission rate. The project has been supported under an ESA GSTP contract. T&G Elektro (Norway) developed and tested the different optical cable assembly to be validated in the payload. The electrooptic modules, control, power and mechanical interfaces have been developed by DAS Photonics (Spain). The payload contains four optical channels to be studied through the experiment, two assemblies with MTP/PC connectors and two assemblies with MPO/APC connectors. Optical data is transmitted in the four independent channels using two optoelectronic conversion modules (SIOS) working at 100Mbps including 2 full duplex channels each. A FPGA is used to generate, receive and compare the different binary patterns. The number of errors (if any) and Bit Error Rate (BER) is sent to the satellite TM interface. HERMOD successfully went through all mechanical

  4. Space transportation system flight 2 OSTA-1 scientific payload data management plan: Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Flight events for the OSTA-1 scientific payload on the second flight of the Space Shuttle, STS-2 are described. Data acquisition is summarized. A discussion of problems encountered and a preliminary evaluation of data quality is also provided.

  5. Moments on a Coning M864 by a Liquid Payload: The Candlestick Problem and Porous Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Gene R

    2006-01-01

    .... Eigen frequencies and their impact on liquid moments are discussed concerning the flight stability of the projectile for a wide range of payload configurations and porosities when the projectile is subjected to various coning frequencies.

  6. International Space Station-Based Electromagnetic Launcher for Space Science Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed of lowering the cost of planetary exploration missions by using an electromagnetic propulsion/launcher, rather than a chemical-fueled rocket for propulsion. An electromagnetic launcher (EML) based at the International Space Station (ISS) would be used to launch small science payloads to the Moon and near Earth asteroids (NEAs) for the science and exploration missions. An ISS-based electromagnetic launcher could also inject science payloads into orbits around the Earth and perhaps to Mars. The EML would replace rocket technology for certain missions. The EML is a high-energy system that uses electricity rather than propellant to accelerate payloads to high velocities. The most common type of EML is the rail gun. Other types are possible, e.g., a coil gun, also known as a Gauss gun or mass driver. The EML could also "drop" science payloads into the Earth's upper

  7. Mathematical Modeling of a Moving Planar Payload Pendulum on Flexible Portal Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwar Yazid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of a moving planar payload pendulum on elastic portal framework is presented in this paper. The equations of motion of such a system are obtained by modeling the portal frame using finite element in conjunction with moving finite element method and moving planar payload pendulum by using Lagrange’s equations. The generated equations indicate the presence of nonlinear coupling between dynamics of portal framework and the payload pendulum. The combinational direct numerical integration technique, namely Newmarkand fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, is then proposed to solve the coupled equations of motion. Several numerical simulations are performed and the results are verified with several benchmarks. The results indicate that the amplitude and frequency of the payload pendulum swing angle are greatly affected by flexibility of structure and the cable in term of carriage speed. 

  8. Optimal design and experimental analyses of a new micro-vibration control payload-platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqing; Yang, Bintang; Zhao, Long; Sun, Xiaofen

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a new payload-platform, for precision devices, which possesses the capability of isolating the complex space micro-vibration in low frequency range below 5 Hz. The novel payload-platform equipped with smart material actuators is investigated and designed through optimization strategy based on the minimum energy loss rate, for the aim of achieving high drive efficiency and reducing the effect of the magnetic circuit nonlinearity. Then, the dynamic model of the driving element is established by using the Lagrange method and the performance of the designed payload-platform is further discussed through the combination of the controlled auto regressive moving average (CARMA) model with modified generalized prediction control (MGPC) algorithm. Finally, an experimental prototype is developed and tested. The experimental results demonstrate that the payload-platform has an impressive potential of micro-vibration isolation.

  9. Low Cost Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Balloon Payload, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While continuously increasing in complexity, the payloads of terrestrial high altitude balloons need a thermal management system to reject their waste heat and to...

  10. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) spacelab payload definition study, appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    An equipment list, instrument baseline data, engineering drawings, mass properties computer printouts, electrical energy management, and control and display functional analysis pertinent to the AMPS (Satellite Payload) are presented.

  11. Vibration Disturbance Damping System Design to Protect Payload of the Rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutisno Sutisno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rocket motor generates vibrations acting on whole rocket body including its contents. Part of the body which is sensitive to disturbance is the rocket payload. The payload consists of various electronic instruments including: transmitter, various sensors, accelerometer, gyro, the embedded controller system, and others. This paper presents research on rocket vibration influence to the payload and the method to avoid disturbance. Avoiding influence of vibration disturbance can be done using silicone gel material whose typical damping factors are relatively high. The rocket vibration was simulated using electromagnetic motor, and the vibrations were measured using an accelerometer sensor. The measurement results were displayed in the form of curve, indicating the vibration level on some parts of the tested material. Some measurement results can be applied to determine the good material to attenuate vibration disturbance on the instruments of the payload.

  12. Technology Disruptions in Future Communication Payloads (Technologies de rupture pour futures charges utiles de telecommunications)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gayrard, Jean-Didier

    2005-01-01

    ...: gigantism, adaptation, or modularity. Any of these ways will require satellite payloads to evolve from present levels of complexity that are mainly suited for TV broadcasting and telephone trunking in the Ku and C bands, to a new...

  13. Freeform Optics for Optical Payloads with Reduced Size and Weight, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future optical systems for NASA's low-cost missions such as CubeSat and other small-scale payloads are constrained by the traditional spherical form of optics. As...

  14. Operations planning simulation model extension study. Volume 1: Long duration exposure facility ST-01-A automated payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, D. A.; Gendiellee, R. E.; Kelly, T. M.; Giovannello, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    Ground processing and operation activities for selected automated and sortie payloads are evaluated. Functional flow activities are expanded to identify payload launch site facility and support requirements. Payload definitions are analyzed from the launch site ground processing viewpoint and then processed through the expanded functional flow activities. The requirements generated from the evaluation are compared with those contained in the data sheets. The following payloads were included in the evaluation: Long Duration Exposure Facility; Life Sciences Shuttle Laboratory; Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite; Dedicated Solar Sortie Mission; Magnetic Spectrometer; and Mariner Jupiter Orbiter. The expanded functional flow activities and descriptions for the automated and sortie payloads at the launch site are presented.

  15. ISS External Payload Platform - a new opportunity for research in the space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimle, Christian; Pape, Uwe

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a widely accepted platform for research activities in low Earth orbit. To a wide extent these activities are conducted in the pressurised laboratories of the station and less in the outside environment. Suitable locations outside the ISS are rare, existing facilities fully booked for the coming years. To overcome this limitation, an external payload platform accessible for small size payloads on a commercial basis will be launched to the ISS and installed on the Japanese Experiment Module External Facility (JEM-EF) in the third quarter of 2014 and will be ready to be used by the scientific community on a fully commercial basis. The new External Payload Platform (EPP) and its opportunities and constraints assessed regarding future research activities on-board the ISS. The small size platform is realised in a cooperation between the companies NanoRacks, Astrium North America in the United States, and Airbus Defence and Space in Germany. The hardware allows the fully robotic installation and operation of payloads. In the nominal mission scenario payload items are installed not later than one year after the signature of the contract, stay in operation for 15 weeks, and can be returned to the scientist thereafter. Payload items are transported among the pressurised cargo usually delivered to the station with various supply vehicles. Due to the high frequency of flights and the flexibility of the vehicle manifests the risk of a delay in the payload readiness can be mitigated by delaying to the next flight opportunity which on average is available not more than two months later. The mission is extra-ordinarily fast and of low cost in comparison to traditional research conducted on-board the ISS and can fit into short-term funding cycles available on national and multi-national levels. The size of the payload items is limited by handling constraints on-board the ISS. Therefore, the standard experiment payload size is a multiple of a

  16. Potential of balloon payloads for in flight validation of direct and nulling interferometry concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demangeon, Olivier; Ollivier, Marc; Le Duigou, Jean-Michel; Cassaing, Frédéric; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Mourard, Denis; Kern, Pierre; Lam Trong, Tien; Evrard, Jean; Absil, Olivier; Defrere, Denis; Lopez, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    While the question of low cost / low science precursors is raised to validate the concepts of direct and nulling interferometry space missions, balloon payloads offer a real opportunity thanks to their relatively low cost and reduced development plan. Taking into account the flight capabilities of various balloon types, we propose in this paper, several concepts of payloads associated to their flight plan. We also discuss the pros and cons of each concepts in terms of technological and science demonstration power.

  17. STS-35 payload specialists perform balancing act on OV-102's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Aided by the microgravity environment aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, STS-35 Payload Specialist Ronald A. Parise balances Payload Specialist Samuel T. Durrance on his index finger in front of the middeck starboard wall. Durrance is wearing a blood pressure cuff and is holding a beverage container and food package during the microgravity performance. The waste management compartment (WMC), side hatch, and orbiter galley are seen behind the two crewmembers. Durrance's feet are at the forward lockers.

  18. Life sciences payload definition and integration study, task C and D. Volume 1: Management summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of a study to define the required payloads for conducting life science experiments in space are presented. The primary objectives of the study are: (1) identify research functions to be performed aboard life sciences spacecraft laboratories and necessary equipment, (2) develop conceptual designs of potential payloads, (3) integrate selected laboratory designs with space shuttle configurations, and (4) establish cost analysis of preliminary program planning.

  19. ISS Payload Operations: The Need for and Benefit of Responsive Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahay, Ed; Boster, Mandee

    2000-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) payload operations are controlled through implementation of a payload operations plan. This plan, which represents the defined approach to payload operations in general, can vary in terms of level of definition. The detailed plan provides the specific sequence and timing of each component of a payload's operations. Such an approach to planning was implemented in the Spacelab program. The responsive plan provides a flexible approach to payload operations through generalization. A responsive approach to planning was implemented in the NASA/Mir Phase 1 program, and was identified as a need during the Skylab program. The current approach to ISS payload operations planning and control tends toward detailed planning, rather than responsive planning. The use of detailed plans provides for the efficient use of limited resources onboard the ISS. It restricts flexibility in payload operations, which is inconsistent with the dynamic nature of the ISS science program, and it restricts crew desires for flexibility and autonomy. Also, detailed planning is manpower intensive. The development and implementation of a responsive plan provides for a more dynamic, more accommodating, and less manpower intensive approach to planning. The science program becomes more dynamic and responsive as the plan provides flexibility to accommodate real-time science accomplishments. Communications limitations and the crew desire for flexibility and autonomy in plan implementation are readily accommodated with responsive planning. Manpower efficiencies are accomplished through a reduction in requirements collection and coordination, plan development, and maintenance. Through examples and assessments, this paper identifies the need to transition from detailed to responsive plans for ISS payload operations. Examples depict specific characteristics of the plans. Assessments identify the following: the means by which responsive plans accommodate the dynamic nature of

  20. Two-way plant mediated interactions between root-associated microbes and insects: from ecology to mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmi ePangesti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants are members of complex communities and function as a link between above- and below-ground organisms. Associations between plants and soil-borne microbes commonly occur and have often been found beneficial for plant fitness. Root-associated microbes may trigger physiological changes in the host plant that influence interactions between plants and aboveground insects at several trophic levels. Aboveground, plants are under continuous attack by insect herbivores and mount multiple responses that also have systemic effects on belowground microbes. Until recently, both ecological and mechanistic studies have mostly focused on exploring these below- and above-ground interactions using simplified systems involving both single microbe and herbivore species, which is far from the naturally occurring interactions. Increasing the complexity of the systems studied is required to increase our understanding of microbe - plant - insect interactions and to gain more benefit from the use of non-pathogenic microbes in agriculture. In this review, we explore how colonization by either single non-pathogenic microbe species or a community of such microbes belowground affects plant growth and defense and how this affects the interactions of plants with aboveground insects at different trophic levels. Moreover, we review how plant responses to foliar herbivory by insects belonging to different feeding guilds affect interactions of plants with non-pathogenic soil-borne microbes. The role of phytohormones in coordinating plant growth, plant defenses against foliar herbivores while simultaneously establishing associations with non-pathogenic soil microbes is discussed.

  1. Soil-Plant-Microbe Interactions in Stressed Agriculture Management: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shobhit Raj VIMAL; Jay Shankar SINGH; Naveen Kumar ARORA; Surendra SINGH

    2017-01-01

    The expected rise in temperature and decreased precipitation owing to climate change and unabated anthropogenic activities add complexity and uncertainty to agro-industry.The impact of soil nutrient imbalance,mismanaged use of chemicals,high temperature,flood or drought,soil salinity,and heavy metal pollutions,with regard to food security,is increasingly being explored worldwide.This review describes the role of soil-plant-microbe interactions along with organic manure in solving stressed agriculture problems.Beneficial microbes associated with plants are known to stimulate plant growth and enhance plant resistance to biotic (diseases) and abiotic (salinity,drought,pollutions,etc.) stresses.The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and mycorrhizae,a key component of soil microbiota,could play vital roles in the maintenance of plant fitness and soil health under stressed environments.The application of organic manure as a soil conditioner to stressed soils along with suitable microbial strains could further enhance the plant-microbe associations and increase the crop yield.A combination of plant,stress-tolerant microbe,and organic amendment represents the tripartite association to offer a favourable environment to the proliferation of beneficial rhizosphere microbes that in turn enhance the plant growth performance in disturbed agro-ecosystem.Agriculture land use patterns with the proper exploitation of plant-microbe associations,with compatible beneficial microbial agents,could be one of the most effective strategies in the management of the concerned agriculture lands owing to climate change resilience.However,the association of such microbes with plants for stressed agriculture management still needs to be explored in greater depth.

  2. Polythene and Plastics-degrading microbes from the mangrove soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kathiresan

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of polythene bags and plastic cups was analyzed after 2, 4, 6, and 9 months of incubation in the mangrove soil. The biodegradation of polythene bags was significantly higher (up to 4.21% in 9 months than that of plastic cups (up to 0.25% in 9 months. Microbial counts in the degrading materials were recorded up to 79.67 x 10 4 per gram for total heterotrophic bacteria, and up to 55.33 x 10 2 per gram for fungi. The microbial species found associated with the degrading materials were identified as five Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria, and eight fungal species of Aspergillus. The species that were predominant were Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus (Gram +ve, Moraxella, and Pseudomonas (Gram -ve and two species of fungi (Aspergillus glaucus and A. niger. Efficacy of the microbial species in degradation of plastics and polythene was analyzed in shaker cultures. Among the bacteria, Pseudomonas species degraded 20.54% of polythene and 8.16% of plastics in one-month period. Among the fungal species, Aspergillus glaucus degraded 28.80% of polythene and 7.26% of plastics in one-month period. This work reveals that the mangrove soil is a good source of microbes capable of degrading polythene and plasticsLa biodegradación de las bolsas de polietileno y vasos de plástico fue analizada después de 2, 4, 6 y 9 meses de incubación en suelo de manglar. La biodegradación de las bolsas fue significativamente más alta (hasta 4.21% en 9 meses que los vasos plásticos (hasta 0.25% en 9 meses. Los conteos microbianos en los materiales degradados mostraron hasta 79.67 x 10(4 por gramo para las bacterias heterotroficas totales, y hasta 55.33 x 10² por gramo para los hongos. Se identificó 5 especies microbianas Gram positivas, 2 Gram negativas, y 8 especies de hongos del género Aspergillus en asociación con materiales degradados. Las especies predominantes fueron Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus (Gram +, Moraxella

  3. Safety Assessment of Multi Purpose Small Payload Rack(MSPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Yoshinobu; Takada, Satomi; Murata, Kosei; Ozawa, Daisaku; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Nakamura, Yasuhiro

    2010-09-01

    We are reporting summary of preliminary safety assessment for Multi Purpose Small Payload Rack(MSPR), which is one of the micro gravity experiment facilities that are being developed for the 2nd phase JEM utilization(JEM: Japanese Experiment Module) that will be launched on H-II Transfer Vehicle(HTV) 2nd flight in 2011. MSPR is used for multi-purpose micro-g experiment providing experimental spaces and work stations. MSPR has three experimental spaces; first, there is a space called Work Volume(WV) with capacity volume of approximately 350 litters, in which multiple resources including electricity, communication, and moving image functions can be used. Within this space, installation of devices can be done by simple, prompt attachment by Velcro and pins with high degree of flexibility. Second, there is Small Experiment Area(SEA), with capacity volume of approximately 70 litters, in which electricity, communication, and moving image functions can also be used in the same way as WV. These spaces protect experiment devices and specimens from contingent loads by the crewmembers. Third, there is Work Bench with area of 0.5 square meters, on which can be used for maintenance, inspection and data operations of installed devices, etc. This bench can be stored in the rack during contingency. Chamber for Combustion Experiment(CCE) that is planned to be installed in WV is a pressure-resistant experimental container that can be used to seal hazardous materials from combustion experiments. This CCE has double sealing design in chamber itself, which resist gas leakage under normal the temperature and pressure. Electricity, communication, moving image function can be used in the same way as WV. JAXA Phase 2 Safety Review Panel(SRP) has been held in April, 2010. For safety analysis of MSPR, hazards were identified based on Fault Tree Analysis methodology and then these hazards were classified into either eight ISS standard-type hazards or eight unique-type hazards that requires

  4. Dipteran larvae and microbes facilitate nutrient sequestration in the Nepenthes gracilis pitcher plant host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Weng Ngai; Chong, Kwek Yan; Anand, Ganesh S; Tan, Hugh Tiang Wah

    2017-03-01

    The fluid-containing traps of Nepenthes carnivorous pitcher plants (Nepenthaceae) are often inhabited by organisms known as inquilines. Dipteran larvae are key components of such communities and are thought to facilitate pitcher nitrogen sequestration by converting prey protein into inorganic nitrogen, although this has never been demonstrated in Nepenthes Pitcher fluids are also inhabited by microbes, although the relationship(s) between these and the plant is still unclear. In this study, we examined the hypothesis of digestive mutualism between N. gracilis pitchers and both dipteran larvae and fluid microbes. Using dipteran larvae, prey and fluid volumes mimicking in situ pitcher conditions, we conducted in vitro experiments and measured changes in available fluid nitrogen in response to dipteran larvae and microbe presence. We showed that the presence of dipteran larvae resulted in significantly higher and faster releases of ammonium and soluble protein into fluids in artificial pitchers, and that the presence of fluid microbes did likewise for ammonium. We showed also that niche segregation occurs between phorid and culicid larvae, with the former fragmenting prey carcasses and the latter suppressing fluid microbe levels. These results clarify the relationships between several key pitcher-dwelling organisms, and show that pitcher communities facilitate nutrient sequestration in their host. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. The role of microbes in snowmelt and radiative forcing on an Alaskan icefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganey, Gerard Q.; Loso, Michael G.; Burgess, Annie Bryant; Dial, Roman J.

    2017-10-01

    A lack of liquid water limits life on glaciers worldwide but specialized microbes still colonize these environments. These microbes reduce surface albedo, which, in turn, could lead to warming and enhanced glacier melt. Here we present results from a replicated, controlled field experiment to quantify the impact of microbes on snowmelt in red-snow communities. Addition of nitrogen-phosphorous-potassium fertilizer increased alga cell counts nearly fourfold, to levels similar to nitrogen-phosphorus-enriched lakes; water alone increased counts by half. The manipulated alga abundance explained a third of the observed variability in snowmelt. Using a normalized-difference spectral index we estimated alga abundance from satellite imagery and calculated microbial contribution to snowmelt on an icefield of 1,900 km2. The red-snow area extended over about 700 km2, and in this area we determined that microbial communities were responsible for 17% of the total snowmelt there. Our results support hypotheses that snow-dwelling microbes increase glacier melt directly in a bio-geophysical feedback by lowering albedo and indirectly by exposing low-albedo glacier ice. Radiative forcing due to perennial populations of microbes may match that of non-living particulates at high latitudes. Their contribution to climate warming is likely to grow with increased melt and nutrient input.

  6. Thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes for multi-functional biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Hsiung; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2009-02-01

    In order to prepare the multi-functional biofertilizer, thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes including bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi were isolated from different compost plants and biofertilizers. Except Streptomycesthermophilus J57 which lacked pectinase, all isolates possessed amylase, CMCase, chitinase, pectinase, protease, lipase, and nitrogenase activities. All isolates could solubilize calcium phosphate and Israel rock phosphate; various isolates could solubilize aluminum phosphate, iron phosphate, and hydroxyapatite. During composting, biofertilizers inoculated with the tested microbes had a significantly higher temperature, ash content, pH, total nitrogen, soluble phosphorus content, and germination rate than non-inoculated biofertilizer; total organic carbon and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio showed the opposite pattern. Adding these microbes can shorten the period of maturity, improve the quality, increase the soluble phosphorus content, and enhance the populations of phosphate-solubilizing and proteolytic microbes in biofertilizers. Therefore, inoculating thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes into agricultural and animal wastes represents a practical strategy for preparing multi-functional biofertilizer.

  7. On-Line, Self-Learning, Predictive Tool for Determining Payload Thermal Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Chian-Li; Tilwick, Leon

    2000-01-01

    This paper will present the results of a joint ManTech / Goddard R&D effort, currently under way, to develop and test a computer based, on-line, predictive simulation model for use by facility operators to predict the thermal response of a payload during thermal vacuum testing. Thermal response was identified as an area that could benefit from the algorithms developed by Dr. Jeri for complex computer simulations. Most thermal vacuum test setups are unique since no two payloads have the same thermal properties. This requires that the operators depend on their past experiences to conduct the test which requires time for them to learn how the payload responds while at the same time limiting any risk of exceeding hot or cold temperature limits. The predictive tool being developed is intended to be used with the new Thermal Vacuum Data System (TVDS) developed at Goddard for the Thermal Vacuum Test Operations group. This model can learn the thermal response of the payload by reading a few data points from the TVDS, accepting the payload's current temperature as the initial condition for prediction. The model can then be used as a predictive tool to estimate the future payload temperatures according to a predetermined shroud temperature profile. If the error of prediction is too big, the model can be asked to re-learn the new situation on-line in real-time and give a new prediction. Based on some preliminary tests, we feel this predictive model can forecast the payload temperature of the entire test cycle within 5 degrees Celsius after it has learned 3 times during the beginning of the test. The tool will allow the operator to play "what-if' experiments to decide what is his best shroud temperature set-point control strategy. This tool will save money by minimizing guess work and optimizing transitions as well as making the testing process safer and easier to conduct.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Microbes in Water Tank of G.A. Siwabessy Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itjeu Karliana; Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2003-01-01

    The quality of water in reactor system has an important role because it could effect the function as a coolant and the operation of reactor indirectly. The study of microbe analyzes has been carried out to detect the existence of microbes in water tank and quantitative analyzes of microbes also has been applied as a continuation of the previous study. The samples is taken out from the end side of reactor GA Siwabessy's tank, inoculated in TSA (Tripcase Soy Agar) medium, put in incubator at 30 - 35 o C for 4 days. The results of experiment show the reconfirmation for the existence of bacteria and the un-existence of yield. The quantitative analysis with TPC method show the growth rate of bacteria is twice in 24 hours. (author)

  9. Induction of Systemic Resistance against Insect Herbivores in Plants by Beneficial Soil Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Harun-Or Rashid

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms with growth-promoting activities in plants, including rhizobacteria and rhizofungi, can improve plant health in a variety of different ways. These beneficial microbes may confer broad-spectrum resistance to insect herbivores. Here, we provide evidence that beneficial microbes modulate plant defenses against insect herbivores. Beneficial soil microorganisms can regulate hormone signaling including the jasmonic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid pathways, thereby leading to gene expression, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant defensive proteins and different enzymes and volatile compounds, that may induce defenses against leaf-chewing as well as phloem-feeding insects. In this review, we discuss how beneficial microbes trigger induced systemic resistance against insects by promoting plant growth and highlight changes in plant molecular mechanisms and biochemical profiles.

  10. [Origin of the plague microbe Yersinia pestis: structure of the process of speciation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the plague microbe Yersinia pestis are considered in the context of propositions of modern Darwinism. It was shown that the plague pathogen diverged from the pseudotuberculous microbe Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1b in the mountain steppe landscapes of Central Asia in the Sartan: 22000-15000 years ago. Speciation occurred in the tarbagan (Marmota sibirica)--flea (Oropsylla silantiewi) parasitic system. The structure of the speciation process included six stages: isolation, genetic drift, enhancement of intrapopulational polymorphism, the beginning of pesticin synthesis (genetic conflict and emergence of hiatus), specialization (stabilization of characteristics), and adaptive irradiation (transformation of the monotypic species Y. pestis tarbagani into a polytypic species). The scenario opens up wide prospects for construction of the molecular phylogeny of the plague microbe Y. pestis and for investigation of the biochemical and molecular-genetic aspects of "Darwinian" evolution of pathogens from many other nature-focal infections.

  11. Wars between microbes on roots and fruits [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lugtenberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbes in nature often live in unfavorable conditions. To survive, they have to occupy niches close to food sources and efficiently utilize nutrients that are often present in very low concentrations. Moreover, they have to possess an arsenal of attack and defense mechanisms against competing bacteria. In this review, we will discuss strategies used by microbes to compete with each other in the rhizosphere and on fruits, with a focus on mechanisms of inter- and intra-species antagonism. Special attention will be paid to the recently discovered roles of volatile organic compounds. Several microbes with proven capabilities in the art of warfare are being applied in products used for the biological control of plant diseases, including post-harvest control of fruits and vegetables.

  12. Nonribosomal Peptides from Marine Microbes and Their Antimicrobial and Anticancer Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivankar Agrawal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are largely unexplored and can be a source of new molecules for the treatment of many diseases such as malaria, cancer, tuberculosis, HIV etc. The Marine environment is one of the untapped bioresource of getting pharmacologically active nonribosomal peptides (NRPs. Bioprospecting of marine microbes have achieved many remarkable milestones in pharmaceutics. Till date, more than 50% of drugs which are in clinical use belong to the nonribosomal peptide or mixed polyketide-nonribosomal peptide families of natural products isolated from marine bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi. In recent years large numbers of nonribosomal have been discovered from marine microbes using multi-disciplinary approaches. The present review covers the NRPs discovered from marine microbes and their pharmacological potential along with role of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics in discovery and development of nonribosomal peptides drugs.

  13. A NASA Strategy for Leveraging Emerging Launch Vehicles for Routine, Small Payload Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    Orbital flight opportunities for small payloads have always been few and far between, and then on February 1, 2002, the situation got worse. In the wake of the loss of the Columbia during STS- 107, changing NASA missions and priorities led to the termination of the Shuttle Small Payloads Projects, including Get-Away Special, Hitcbker, and Space Experiment Module. In spite of the limited opportunities, long queue, and restrictions associated with flying experiments on a man-rated transportation system; the carriers provided a sustained, high quality experiment services for education, science, and technology payloads, and was one of the few games in town. Attempts to establish routine opportunities aboard existing ELVs have been unsuccessful, as the cost-per-pound on small ELVs and conflicts with primary spacecraft on larger vehicles have proven prohibitive. Ths has led to a backlog of existing NASA-sponsored payloads and no prospects or plans for fbture opportunities within the NASA community. The prospects for breaking out of this paradigm appear promising as a result of NASA s partnership with DARPA in pursuit of low-cost, responsive small ELVs under the Falcon Program. Through this partnership several new small ELVs, providing 1000 lbs. to LEO will be demonstrated in less than two years that promise costs that are reasonable enough that NASA, DoD, and other sponsors can once again invest in small payload opportunities. Within NASA, planning has already begun. NASA will be populating one or more of the Falcon demonstration flights with small payloads that are already under development. To accommodate these experiments, Goddard s Wallops Flight Facility has been tasked to develop a multi-payload ejector (MPE) to accommodate the needs of these payloads. The MPE capabilities and design is described in detail in a separately submitted abstract. Beyond use of the demonstration flights however, Goddard has already begun developing strategies to leverage these new ELVs

  14. Innovative approach for low-cost quick-access small payload missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Jan W., Jr.

    2000-11-01

    A significant part of the burgeoning commercial space industry is placing an unprecedented number of satellites into low earth orbit for a variety of new applications and services. By some estimates the commercial space industry now exceeds that of government space activities. Yet the two markets remain largely separate, with each deploying dedicated satellites and infrastructure for their respective missions. One commercial space firm, Final Analysis, has created a new program wherein either government, scientific or new technology payloads can be integrated on a commercial spacecraft on commercial satellites for a variety of mission scenarios at a fraction of the cost of a dedicated mission. NASA has recognized the advantage of this approach, and has awarded the Quick Ride program to provide frequent, low cost flight opportunities for small independent payloads aboard the Final Analysis constellation, and investigators are rapidly developing science programs that conform to the proposed payload accommodations envelope. Missions that were not feasible using dedicated launches are now receiving approval under the lower cost Quick Ride approach. Final Analysis has dedicated ten out of its thirty-eight satellites in support of the Quick Ride efforts. The benefit of this type of space access extend beyond NASA science programs. Commercial space firms can now gain valuable flight heritage for new technology and satellite product offerings. Further, emerging international space programs can now place a payload in orbit enabling the country to allocate its resources against the payload and mission requirements rather htan increased launch costs of a dedicated spacecraft. Finally, the low cost nature provides University-based research educational opportunities previously out of the reach of most space-related budgets. This paper will describe the motivation, benefits, technical features, and program costs of the Final Analysis secondary payload program. Payloads can be

  15. Filthy lucre: A metagenomic pilot study of microbes found on circulating currency in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Maritz

    Full Text Available Paper currency by its very nature is frequently transferred from one person to another and represents an important medium for human contact with-and potential exchange of-microbes. In this pilot study, we swabbed circulating $1 bills obtained from a New York City bank in February (Winter and June (Summer 2013 and used shotgun metagenomic sequencing to profile the communities found on their surface. Using basic culture conditions, we also tested whether viable microbes could be recovered from bills.Shotgun metagenomics identified eukaryotes as the most abundant sequences on money, followed by bacteria, viruses and archaea. Eukaryotic assemblages were dominated by human, other metazoan and fungal taxa. The currency investigated harbored a diverse microbial population that was dominated by human skin and oral commensals, including Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus. Other taxa detected not associated with humans included Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus, microbes typically associated with dairy production and fermentation. Culturing results indicated that viable microbes can be isolated from paper currency.We conducted the first metagenomic characterization of the surface of paper money in the United States, establishing a baseline for microbes found on $1 bills circulating in New York City. Our results suggest that money amalgamates DNA from sources inhabiting the human microbiome, food, and other environmental inputs, some of which can be recovered as viable organisms. These monetary communities may be maintained through contact with human skin, and DNA obtained from money may provide a record of human behavior and health. Understanding these microbial profiles is especially relevant to public health as money could potentially mediate interpersonal transfer of microbes.

  16. Companion animals symposium: role of microbes in canine and feline health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, D Y; Swanson, K S

    2011-05-01

    Whether in an ocean reef, a landfill, or a gastrointestinal tract (GIT), invisible communities of highly active and adaptable microbes prosper. Over time, mammals have developed a symbiosis with microbes that are important inhabitants not only in the GIT, but also in the mouth, skin, and urogenital tract. In the GIT, the number of commensal microbes exceeds the total number of host cells by at least 10 times. The GIT microbes play a critical role in nutritional, developmental, defensive, and physiologic processes in the host. Recent evidence also suggests a role of GIT microbes in metabolic phenotype and disease risk (e.g., obesity, metabolic syndrome) of the host. Proper balance is a key to maintaining GIT health. Balanced microbial colonization is also important for other body regions such as the oral cavity, the region with the greatest prevalence of disease in dogs and cats. A significant obstruction to studying microbial populations has been the lack of tools to identify and quantify microbial communities accurately and efficiently. Most of the current knowledge of microbial populations has been established by traditional cultivation methods that are not only laborious, time-consuming, and often inaccurate, but also greatly limited in scope. However, recent advances in molecular-based techniques have resulted in a dramatic improvement in studying microbial communities. These DNA-based high-throughput technologies have enabled us to more clearly characterize the identity and metabolic activity of microbes living in the host and their association with health and diseases. Despite this recent progress, however, published data pertaining to microbial communities of dogs and cats are still lacking in comparison with data in humans and other animals. More research is required to provide a more detailed description of the canine and feline microbiome and its role in health and disease.

  17. Soil microbes and successful invasions of an exotic weed Eupatorium adenophorum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, P.; Tang, T.; Zhao, P.; Chen, J.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of soil microbes collected from the two invasive species Eupatorium adenophorum and E. odoratum and the two native species E. japonicum and E. chinense on the growth and biomass of E. adenophorum was examined to explore a possible link between soil microbes and successful invasions of the weed species E. adenophorum. In most cases, plant height, stem diameter, root number and root length were significantly enhanced when E. adenophorum was grown in sterilized soils compared with those when one was grown in non-sterilized soils collected from the rhizosphere of E. adenophorum, E. japonicum and E. chinense. In contrast, the growth and biomass of E. adenophorum were apparently inhibited when grown in soils collected from the rhizosphere of E. odoratum. Plant height, stem diameter, leaf area per plant and root length of E. adenophorum was greater when it was grown in soils collected from the rhizosphere of E. adenophorum compared with those when it was grown in soils collected from the rhizosphere of E. odoratum, but the enhancement considerably greater when it was grown in soils collected from the rhizosphere of E. japonicum and E. chinense compared with those when it was grown in soils collected from the rhizosphere of E. adenophorum. In addition, the biomass allocation of E. adenophorum was not significantly affected by soil microbes and soil sources. These Results suggest that although the competitive advantage of the invasive weed E. adenophorum is not achieved solely by soil microbes, successful invasions of E. adenophorum may result partly from its release from the harmful soil microbes in its native range and the positive feedbacks of soil microbes from itself and the native species in its invading range. (author)

  18. Secondary charging effects due to icy dust particle impacts on rocket payloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kassa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of dust currents obtained with a small probe and a larger probe during the flight of the ECOMA-4 rocket through the summer polar mesosphere. The payload included two small dust probes behind a larger dust probe located centrally at the front. For certain phases of the payload rotation, the current registered by one of the small dust probes was up to 2 times the current measured with the larger probe, even though the effective collection area of the larger probe was 4 times that of the small one. We analyze the phase dependence of the currents and their difference with a model based on the assumption that the small probe was hit by charged dust fragments produced in collisions of mesospheric dust with the payload body. Our results confirm earlier findings that secondary charge production in the collision of a noctilucent cloud/Polar Summer Mesospheric Echo (NLC/PMSE dust particle with the payload body must be several orders of magnitude larger than might be expected from laboratory studies of collisions of pure ice particles with a variety of clean surfaces. An important consequence is that for some payload configurations, one should not assume that the current measured with a detector used to study mesospheric dust is simply proportional to the number density of ambient dust particles. The higher secondary charge production may be due to the NLC/PMSE particles containing multiple meteoric smoke particles.

  19. An integrated Ka/Ku-band payload for personal, mobile and private business communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Edward J.; Keelty, J. Malcolm

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Department of Communications has been studying options for a government-sponsored demonstration payload to be launched before the end of the century. A summary of the proposed system concepts and network architectures for providing an advanced private business network service at Ku-band and personal and mobile communications at Ka-band is presented. The system aspects addressed include coverage patterns, traffic capacity, and grade of service, multiple access options as well as special problems, such as Doppler in mobile applications. Earth terminal types and the advanced payload concept proposed in a feasibility study for the demonstration mission are described. This concept is a combined Ka-band/Ku-band payload which incorporates a number of advanced satellite technologies including a group demodulator to convert single-channel-per-carrier frequency division multiple access uplink signals to a time division multiplex downlink, on-board signal regeneration, and baseband switching to support packet switched data operation. The on-board processing capability of the payload provides a hubless VSAT architecture which permits single-hop full mesh interconnectivity. The Ka-band and Ku-band portions of the payload are fully integrated through an on-board switch, thereby providing the capability for fully integrated services, such as using the Ku-band VSAT terminals as gateway stations for the Ka-band personal and mobile communications services.

  20. Payload Safety: Risk and Characteristic-Based Control of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou, Seraphin Chally; Saad, Maarouf

    2013-09-01

    In the last decade progress has been made to assist organizations that are developing payloads intended for flight on the International Space Station (ISS) and/or Space Shuttle. Collaboration programs for comprehensive risk assessment have been initiated between the U.S. and the European Union to generate requirements and data needed to comply with payloads safety and to perform risk assessment and controls guidance. Yet, substantial research gaps remain, as do challenges in the translation of these research findings to control for exposure to nanoscale material payloads, and the health effects. Since nanomaterial structures are different from traditional molecules, some standard material properties can change at size of 50nm or less. Changes in material properties at this scale challenge our understanding of hazards posed by nanomaterial payloads in the ISS realistic exposure conditions, and our ability to anticipate, evaluate, and control potential health issues, and safety. The research question addressed in this framework is: what kind of descriptors can be developed for nanomaterial payloads risks assessment? Methods proposed incorporate elements of characteristic- based risk an alysis: (1) to enable characterization of anthropogenic nanomaterials which can result in incidental from natural nanoparticles; and (2) to better understand safety attributes in terms of human health impacts from exposure to varying types of engineered nanomaterials.

  1. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  2. Intuitive Tools for the Design and Analysis of Communication Payloads for Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Michael R.; Soong, Christine; Warner, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to make future communications satellite payload design more efficient and accessible, two tools were created with intuitive graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The first tool allows payload designers to graphically design their payload by using simple drag and drop of payload components onto a design area within the program. Information about each picked component is pulled from a database of common space-qualified communication components sold by commerical companies. Once a design is completed, various reports can be generated, such as the Master Equipment List. The second tool is a link budget calculator designed specifically for ease of use. Other features of this tool include being able to access a database of NASA ground based apertures for near Earth and Deep Space communication, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) base apertures, and information about the solar system relevant to link budget calculations. The link budget tool allows for over 50 different combinations of user inputs, eliminating the need for multiple spreadsheets and the user errors associated with using them. Both of the aforementioned tools increase the productivity of space communication systems designers, and have the colloquial latitude to allow non-communication experts to design preliminary communication payloads.

  3. Vibration isolation and dual-stage actuation pointing system for space precision payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yongfang; Huang, Hai

    2018-02-01

    Pointing and stability requirements for future space missions are becoming more and more stringent. This work follows the pointing control method which consists of a traditional spacecraft attitude control system and a payload active pointing loop, further proposing a vibration isolation and dual-stage actuation pointing system for space precision payloads based on a soft Stewart platform. Central to the concept is using the dual-stage actuator instead of the traditional voice coil motor single-stage actuator to improve the payload active pointing capability. Based on a specified payload, the corresponding platform was designed to be installed between the spacecraft bus and the payload. The performance of the proposed system is demonstrated by preliminary closed-loop control investigations in simulations. With the ordinary spacecraft bus, the line-of-sight pointing accuracy can be controlled to below a few milliarcseconds in tip and tilt. Meanwhile, utilizing the voice coil motor with the softening spring in parallel, which is a portion of the dual-stage actuator, the system effectively achieves low-frequency motion transmission and high-frequency vibration isolation along the other four degree-of-freedom directions.

  4. Beyond DNA Sequencing in Space: Current and Future Omics Capabilities of the Biomolecule Sequencer Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Why do we need a DNA sequencer to support the human exploration of space? (A) Operational environmental monitoring; (1) Identification of contaminating microbes, (2) Infectious disease diagnosis, (3) Reduce down mass (sample return for environmental monitoring, crew health, etc.). (B) Research; (1) Human, (2) Animal, (3) Microbes/Cell lines, (4) Plant. (C) Med Ops; (1) Response to countermeasures, (2) Radiation, (3) Real-time analysis can influence medical intervention. (C) Support astrobiology science investigations; (1) Technology superiorly suited to in situ nucleic acid-based life detection, (2) Functional testing for integration into robotics for extraplanetary exploration mission.

  5. Microbes in biological processes for municipal landfill leachate treatment: Community, function and interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Duoying; Vahala, Riku; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Landfill leachate (LFL) contains high strength of ammonium and complex organic substances including biodegradable volatile fatty acids (VFAs), refractory aquatic humic substances (AHS) and micro-scale xenobiotic organic chemicals (XOCs), which promotes the diverse microbial community in LFL...... treatment bioreactors. These microbes cooperate to remove nitrogen, biodegrade organic matters, eliminate the toxicity of XOCs and produce energy. In these diverse microbes, some show dominant in the bioreactor and are prevalent in many kinds of LFL treatment bio-processes, such as Brocadia from the phylum...

  6. The Physical Microbe; An introduction to noise, control, and communication in the prokaryotic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Stephen J.

    2017-10-01

    Physical biology is a fusion of biology and physics. This book narrows down the scope of physical biology by focusing on the microbial cell; exploring the physical phenomena of noise, feedback, and variability that arise in the cellular information-processing circuits used by bacteria. It looks at the microbe from a physics perspective, asking how the cell optimizes its function to live within the constraints of physics. It introduces a physical and information-based (as opposed to microbiological) perspective on communication and signalling between microbes.

  7. The Use of Stuffed Microbes in an Undergraduate Microbiology Course Increases Engagement and Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginny Webb

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Student engagement, attention, and attendance during a microbiology lecture are crucial for student learning.  In addition, it is challenging to cover a large number of infectious diseases during a one-semester introductory microbiology course.  The use of visual aids helps students retain the information presented during a lecture.  Here, I discuss the use of stuffed, plush microbes as visual aids during an introductory microbiology course.  The incorporation of these stuffed microbes during a microbiology lecture results in an increase in engagement, interest, attendance, and retention of material.

  8. Performance of duckweed and effective microbes in reducing arsenic in paddy and paddy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. A.; Wong, L. Y.; Lo, P. K.; Bashir, M. J. K.; Chin, S. J.; Tan, S. P.; Chong, C. Y.; Yong, L. K.

    2017-04-01

    In this study phytoremediation plant (duckweed) and effective microbes were used to investigate their effectiveness in reducing arsenic concentration in paddy soil and paddy grain. The results show that using duckweed alone is a better choice as it could decrease the arsenic concentration in paddy by 27.697 % and 8.268 % in paddy grain and paddy husk respectively. The study also found out that the concentration of arsenic in soil would affect the performance of duckweed and also delayed the reproduction rate of duckweed. Using the mixture of effective microbes and duckweed together to decrease arsenic in paddy was noticed having the least potential in reducing the arsenic concentration in paddy.

  9. Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis for Launch Vehicles with Varying Payloads and Adapters for Structural Dynamics and Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, David S.; Peck, Jeff A.; McDonald, Emmett J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis (PSA) methods and tools in an effort to understand their utility in vehicle loads and dynamic analysis. Specifically, this study addresses how these methods may be used to establish limits on payload mass and cg location and requirements on adaptor stiffnesses while maintaining vehicle loads and frequencies within established bounds. To this end, PSA methods and tools are applied to a realistic, but manageable, integrated launch vehicle analysis where payload and payload adaptor parameters are modeled as random variables. This analysis is used to study both Regional Response PSA (RRPSA) and Global Response PSA (GRPSA) methods, with a primary focus on sampling based techniques. For contrast, some MPP based approaches are also examined.

  10. Operational plans for life science payloads - From experiment selection through postflight reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccollum, G. W.; Nelson, W. G.; Wells, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    Key features of operational plans developed in a study of the Space Shuttle era life science payloads program are presented. The data describes the overall acquisition, staging, and integration of payload elements, as well as program implementation methods and mission support requirements. Five configurations were selected as representative payloads: (a) carry-on laboratories - medical emphasis experiments, (b) mini-laboratories - medical/biology experiments, (c) seven-day dedicated laboratories - medical/biology experiments, (d) 30-day dedicated laboratories - Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) with selected life science experiments, and (e) Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite (BESS) - extended duration primate (Type I) and small vertebrate (Type II) missions. The recommended operational methods described in the paper are compared to the fundamental data which has been developed in the life science Spacelab Mission Simulation (SMS) test series. Areas assessed include crew training, experiment development and integration, testing, data-dissemination, organization interfaces, and principal investigator working relationships.

  11. Nano Entry System for CubeSat-Class Payloads Project (Nano-ADEPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This project is developing a mechanically deployed system through a mission application study, deployment/ejection testing, and wind tunnel testing. Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) has been under development at NASA since 2011. Nano-ADEPT is the application of this revolutionary entry technology for small spacecraft. The unique capability of ADEPT for small science payloads comes from its ability to stow within a slender volume and deploy passively to achieve a mass-efficient drag surface with a high heat rate capability. Near-term applications for this technology include return of small science payloads or CubeSat technology from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and delivery of secondary payloads to the surface of Mars.

  12. Thermal Control Subsystem Design for the Avionics of a Space Station Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    1996-01-01

    A case study of the thermal control subsystem development for a space based payload is presented from the concept stage through preliminary design. This payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement System 2 (SAMS-2), will measure the acceleration environment at select locations within the International Space Station. Its thermal control subsystem must maintain component temperatures within an acceptable range over a 10 year life span, while restricting accessible surfaces to touch temperature limits and insuring fail safe conditions in the event of loss of cooling. In addition to these primary design objectives, system level requirements and constraints are imposed on the payload, many of which are driven by multidisciplinary issues. Blending these issues into the overall system design required concurrent design sessions with the project team, iterative conceptual design layouts, thermal analysis and modeling, and hardware testing. Multiple tradeoff studies were also performed to investigate the many options which surfaced during the development cycle.

  13. Numerical Estimation of Sound Transmission Loss in Launch Vehicle Payload Fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandana, Pawan Kumar; Tiwari, Shashi Bhushan; Vukkadala, Kishore Nath

    2017-08-01

    Coupled acoustic-structural analysis of a typical launch vehicle composite payload faring is carried out, and results are validated with experimental data. Depending on the frequency range of interest, prediction of vibro-acoustic behavior of a structure is usually done using the finite element method, boundary element method or through statistical energy analysis. The present study focuses on low frequency dynamic behavior of a composite payload fairing structure using both coupled and uncoupled vibro-acoustic finite element models up to 710 Hz. A vibro-acoustic model, characterizing the interaction between the fairing structure, air cavity, and satellite, is developed. The external sound pressure levels specified for the payload fairing's acoustic test are considered as external loads for the analysis. Analysis methodology is validated by comparing the interior noise levels with those obtained from full scale Acoustic tests conducted in a reverberation chamber. The present approach has application in the design and optimization of acoustic control mechanisms at lower frequencies.

  14. Fuzzy crane control with sensorless payload deflection feedback for vibration reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoczek, Jaroslaw

    2014-05-01

    Different types of cranes are widely used for shifting cargoes in building sites, shipping yards, container terminals and many manufacturing segments where the problem of fast and precise transferring a payload suspended on the ropes with oscillations reduction is frequently important to enhance the productivity, efficiency and safety. The paper presents the fuzzy logic-based robust feedback anti-sway control system which can be applicable either with or without a sensor of sway angle of a payload. The discrete-time control approach is based on the fuzzy interpolation of the controllers and crane dynamic model's parameters with respect to the varying rope length and mass of a payload. The iterative procedure combining a pole placement method and interval analysis of closed-loop characteristic polynomial coefficients is proposed to design the robust control scheme. The sensorless anti-sway control application developed with using PAC system with RX3i controller was verified on the laboratory scaled overhead crane.

  15. Astronaut training in view of the future: A Columbus payload instructor perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, Manuela; Bosca, Riccardo; Müllerschkowski, Uwe

    2010-02-01

    In early 2008 the Columbus module was successfully attached to the ISS. Columbus is the main European contribution to the on-board scientific activity, and is the result of the interdisciplinary effort of European professionals involved from the concept to the utilisation of the laboratory. Astronauts from different Space Agencies have been trained to operate the scientific payloads aboard Columbus, in order to return fundamental data to the scientific community. The aim of this paper is to describe the current activity of the Columbus Payload Training Team (as part of the European Astronaut Centre of ESA) and from this experience derive lessons learned for the future training development, in view of long-term missions. The general structure of the training is described. The Columbus Payload Training Team activity is outlined and the process of the lesson development (Instructional System Design) is briefly described. Finally the features of the training process that can become critical in future scenario are highlighted.

  16. Highly integrated Pluto payload system (HIPPS): a sciencecraft instrument for the Pluto mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. Alan; Slater, David C.; Gibson, William; Reitsema, Harold J.; Delamere, W. Alan; Jennings, Donald E.; Reuter, D. C.; Clarke, John T.; Porco, Carolyn C.; Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Spencer, John R.

    1995-09-01

    We describe the design concept for the highly integrated Pluto payload system (HIPPS): a highly integrated, low-cost, light-weight, low-power instrument payload designed to fly aboard the proposed NASA Pluto flyby spacecraft destined for the Pluto/Charon system. The HIPPS payload is designed to accomplish all of the Pluto flyby prime (IA) science objectives, except radio science, set forth by NASA's Outer Planets Science Working Group (OPSWG) and the Pluto Express Science Definition Team (SDT). HIPPS contains a complement of three instrument components within one common infrastructure; these are: (1) a visible/near UV CCD imaging camera; (2) an infrared spectrograph; and (3) an ultraviolet spectrograph. A detailed description of each instrument is presented along with how they will meet the IA science requirements.

  17. Acoustic Noise Prediction of the Amine Swingbed ISS ExPRESS Rack Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David; Smith, Holly; Wang, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    Acoustics plays a vital role in maintaining the health, safety, and comfort of crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In order to maintain this livable and workable environment, acoustic requirements have been established to ensure that ISS hardware and payload developers account for the acoustic emissions of their equipment and develop acoustic mitigations as necessary. These requirements are verified by an acoustic emissions test of the integrated hardware. The Amine Swingbed ExPRESS (Expedite the PRocessing of ExperimentS to Space) rack payload creates a unique challenge to the developers in that the payload hardware is transported to the ISS in phases, making an acoustic emissions test on the integrated flight hardware impossible. In addition, the payload incorporates a high back pressure fan and a diaphragm vacuum pump, which are recognized as significant and complex noise sources. In order to accurately predict the acoustic emissions of the integrated payload, the individual acoustic noise sources and paths are first characterized. These characterizations are conducted though a series of acoustic emissions tests on the individual payload components. Secondly, the individual acoustic noise sources and paths are incorporated into a virtual model of the integrated hardware. The virtual model is constructed with the use of hybrid method utilizing the Finite Element Acoustic (FEA) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) techniques, which predict the overall acoustic emissions. Finally, the acoustic model is validated though an acoustic characterization test performed on an acoustically similar mock-up of the flight unit. The results of the validated acoustic model are then used to assess the acoustic emissions of the flight unit and define further acoustic mitigation efforts.

  18. The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Volume 9: Materials processing and space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Materials Processing and Space Manufacturing group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The effects of weightlessness on the levitation processes, mixture stability, and control over heat and mass transport in fluids are considered for investigation. The research and development projects include: (1) metallurgical processes, (2) electronic materials, (3) biological applications, and (4)nonmetallic materials and processes. Additional recommendations are provided concerning the allocation of payload space, acceptance of experiments for flight, flight qualification, and private use of the space shuttle.

  19. STS-95 Payload Specialist Duque arrives at KSC to participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Payload Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, who represents the European Space Agency (ESA), waves after arriving in a T-38 jet aircraft at the Shuttle Landing Facility at KSC. He is joining other STS-95 crew members in a familiarization tour of the SPACEHAB module and the equipment that will fly with them on the Space Shuttle Discovery scheduled to launch Oct. 29, 1998. The mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  20. STS-47 MS Jemison trains in SLJ module at MSFC Payload Crew Training Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, wearing Autogenic Feedback Training System 2 suit, works with the Frog Embryology Experiment in a General Purpose Workstation (GPWS) in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) module mockup at the Payload Crew Training Complex. The experiment will study the effects of weightlessness on the development of frog eggs fertilized in space. The Payload Crew Training Complex is located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. View provided with alternate number 92P-139.

  1. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  2. Quality assurance guidance for TRUPACT-II [Transuranic Package Transporter-II] payload control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), discusses authorized methods for payload control in Appendix 1.3.7 and the Quality Assurance (QA) requirements in Section 9.3. Subsection 9.3.2.1 covers maintenance and use of the TRUPACT-II and the specific QA requirements are given in DOE/WIPP 89-012. Subsection 9.3.2.2 covers payload compliance, for which this document was written. 6 refs

  3. Onboard Autonomy and Ground Operations Automation for the Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) CubeSat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Tran, Daniel; Bellardo, John; Williams, Austin; Piug-Suari, Jordi; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) is a cubesat manifested for launch in October 2013 that will flight validate autonomous operations for onboard instrument processing and product generation for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the Hyperspectral Infra-red Imager (HyspIRI) mission concept. We first describe the ground and flight operations concept for HyspIRI IPM operations. We then describe the ground and flight operations concept for the IPEX mission and how that will validate HyspIRI IPM operations. We then detail the current status of the mission and outline the schedule for future development.

  4. STS-98 U.S. Lab Destiny is moved out of Atlantis' payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Workers in the Payload Changeout Room check the U.S. Lab Destiny as its moves from Atlantis''' payload bay into the PCR. Destiny will remain in the PCR while Atlantis rolls back to the Vehicle Assembly Building to allow workers to conduct inspections, continuity checks and X-ray analysis on the 36 solid rocket booster cables located inside each booster'''s system tunnel. An extensive evaluation of NASA'''s SRB cable inventory revealed conductor damage in four (of about 200) cables on the shelf. Shuttle managers decided to prove the integrity of the system tunnel cables already on Atlantis.

  5. STS-40 Spacelab Life Science 1 (SLS-1) module in OV-102's payload bay (PLB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Spacelab Life Science 1 (SLS-1) module is documented in the payload bay (PLB) of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Included in the view are: the spacelab (SL) transfer tunnel joggle section and support struts; SLS-1 module forward end cone with the European Space Agency (ESA) SL insignia, SLS-1 payload insignia, and the upper feed through plate (center); the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pods; and the vertical stabilizer with the Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 901 Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing (SILTS) at the top 24 inches. The vertical stabilizer points to the Earth's limb and the cloud-covered surface of the Earth below.

  6. Two-way plant mediated interactions between root-associated microbes and insects: from ecology to mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pangesti, N.P.D.; Pineda Gomez, A.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are members of complex communities and function as a link between above- and below-ground organisms. Associations between plants and soil-borne microbes commonly occur and have often been found beneficial for plant fitness. Root-associated microbes may trigger physiological changes in the

  7. Formation of a symbiotic host-microbe interface: the role of SNARE-mediated regulation of exocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Rik

    2018-01-01

    At the heart of endosymbiosis microbes are hosted inside living cells in specialized membrane compartments that from a host-microbe interface, where nutrients and signal are efficiently exchanged. Such symbiotic interfaces include arbuscules produced by arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and

  8. Metagenomics, metaMicrobesOnline and Kbase Data Integration (MICW - Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehal, Paramvir

    2011-10-12

    Berkeley Lab's Paramvir Dehal on "Managing and Storing large Datasets in MicrobesOnline, metaMicrobesOnline and the DOE Knowledgebase" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  9. Eavesdropping on plant-insect-microbe chemical communications in agricultural ecology: a virtual issue on semiochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of plant-insect interactions, and more recently the interactions among plants, insects, and microbes, have revealed that volatiles often facilitate insect movement, aggregation, and host location by herbivores, predators and parasitoids, all of which could be used to help protect agriculture...

  10. The Hsp90 Complex in Microbes and Man | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why would cancer researchers be interested in how a bacteria named Escherichia coli (E. coli) rebuilds its cellular proteins after they have been inactivated by environmental stress such as heat?  The answer lies in a protein remodeling mechanism that is shared by microbes and man.

  11. Microstructured Block Copolymer Surfaces for Control of Microbe Adhesion and Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. Hansen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The attachment and arrangement of microbes onto a substrate is influenced by both the biochemical and physical surface properties. In this report, we develop lectin-functionalized substrates containing patterned, three-dimensional polymeric structures of varied shapes and densities and use these to investigate the effects of topology and spatial confinement on lectin-mediated microbe immobilization. Films of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA were patterned on silicon surfaces into line arrays or square grid patterns with 5 μm wide features and varied pitch. The patterned films had three-dimensional geometries with 900 nm film thickness. After surface functionalization with wheat germ agglutinin, the size of Pseudomonas fluorescens aggregates immobilized was dependent on the pattern dimensions. Films patterned as parallel lines or square grids with a pitch of 10 μm or less led to the immobilization of individual microbes with minimal formation of aggregates. Both geometries allowed for incremental increases in aggregate size distribution with each increase in pitch. These engineered surfaces combine spatial confinement with affinity-based capture to control the extent of microbe adhesion and aggregation, and can also be used as a platform to investigate intercellular interactions and biofilm formation in microbial populations of controlled sizes.

  12. BRC - MicrobeDB.jp | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...table). Data file File name: brc.tar.gz File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/microbedb/LATEST/brc.ta...rains in JCM. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us BRC - MicrobeDB.jp | LSDB Archive ...

  13. SRA - MicrobeDB.jp | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...e following table). Data file File name: sra.tar.gz File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/microbedb/L...t This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us SRA - MicrobeDB.jp | LSDB Archive ...

  14. Experimental Activities in Primary School to Learn about Microbes in an Oral Health Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafra, Paulo; Lima, Nelson; Carvalho, Graça S.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental science activities in primary school enable important cross-curricular learning. In this study, experimental activities on microbiology were carried out by 16 pupils in a Portuguese grade-4 classroom (9-10?years old) and were focused on two problem-questions related to microbiology and health: (1) do your teeth carry microbes? (2) why…

  15. Interactive effects of global climate change and pollution on marine microbes: the way ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Santos, Ana L; Coimbra, Joana; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Cleary, Daniel F R; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M

    2013-06-01

    Global climate change has the potential to seriously and adversely affect marine ecosystem functioning. Numerous experimental and modeling studies have demonstrated how predicted ocean acidification and increased ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can affect marine microbes. However, researchers have largely ignored interactions between ocean acidification, increased UVR and anthropogenic pollutants in marine environments. Such interactions can alter chemical speciation and the bioavailability of several organic and inorganic pollutants with potentially deleterious effects, such as modifying microbial-mediated detoxification processes. Microbes mediate major biogeochemical cycles, providing fundamental ecosystems services such as environmental detoxification and recovery. It is, therefore, important that we understand how predicted changes to oceanic pH, UVR, and temperature will affect microbial pollutant detoxification processes in marine ecosystems. The intrinsic characteristics of microbes, such as their short generation time, small size, and functional role in biogeochemical cycles combined with recent advances in molecular techniques (e.g., metagenomics and metatranscriptomics) make microbes excellent models to evaluate the consequences of various climate change scenarios on detoxification processes in marine ecosystems. In this review, we highlight the importance of microbial microcosm experiments, coupled with high-resolution molecular biology techniques, to provide a critical experimental framework to start understanding how climate change, anthropogenic pollution, and microbiological interactions may affect marine ecosystems in the future.

  16. Progress of CRISPR-Cas based genome editing in Photosynthetic microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naduthodi, M.I.S.; Barbosa, M.J.; Oost, van der J.

    2018-01-01

    The carbon footprint caused by unsustainable development and its environmental and economic impact has become a major concern in the past few decades. Photosynthetic microbes such as microalgae and cyanobacteria are capable of accumulating value-added compounds from carbon dioxide, and have been

  17. Divergent utilization patterns of grass fructan, inulin, and other nonfiber carbohydrates by ruminal microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans are an important nonfiber carbohydrate in cool-season grasses. Their fermentation by ruminal microbes is not well described, though such information is needed to understand their nutritional value to ruminants. Our objective was to compare kinetics and product formation of orchardgrass fruc...

  18. Fungal innate immunity induced by bacterial microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ip Cho, Simon; Sundelin, Thomas; Erbs, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Plants and animals detect bacterial presence through Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs) which induce an innate immune response. The field of fungal-bacterial interaction at the molecular level is still in its infancy and little is known about MAMPs and their detection by fungi. Exposin...

  19. Uptake, Accumulation and Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticle in Autotrophic Plants, and Heterotrophic Microbes: A Concentric Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Durgesh K.; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Shweta; Singh, Swati; Singh, Yashwant; Vishwakarma, Kanchan; Yadav, Gaurav; Sharma, Shivesh; Singh, Vivek K.; Mishra, Rohit K.; Upadhyay, R. G.; Dubey, Nawal K.; Lee, Yonghoon; Chauhan, Devendra K.

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a cutting-edge field of science with the potential to revolutionize today’s technological advances including industrial applications. It is being utilized for the welfare of mankind; but at the same time, the unprecedented use and uncontrolled release of nanomaterials into the environment poses enormous threat to living organisms. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in several industries and its continuous release may hamper many physiological and biochemical processes in the living organisms including autotrophs and heterotrophs. The present review gives a concentric know-how of the effects of AgNPs on the lower and higher autotrophic plants as well as on heterotrophic microbes so as to have better understanding of the differences in effects among these two groups. It also focuses on the mechanism of uptake, translocation, accumulation in the plants and microbes, and resulting toxicity as well as tolerance mechanisms by which these microorganisms are able to survive and reduce the effects of AgNPs. This review differentiates the impact of silver nanoparticles at various levels between autotrophs and heterotrophs and signifies the prevailing tolerance mechanisms. With this background, a comprehensive idea can be made with respect to the influence of AgNPs on lower and higher autotrophic plants together with heterotrophic microbes and new insights can be generated for the researchers to understand the toxicity and tolerance mechanisms of AgNPs in plants and microbes. PMID:28184215

  20. Long-range transport of airborne microbes over the global tropical and subtropical ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Mayol, Eva; Arrieta, J M; Jimé nez, Maria A.; Martí nez-Asensio, Adriá n; Garcias Bonet, Neus; Dachs, Jordi; Gonzá lez-Gaya, Belé n; Royer, Sarah-J.; Bení tez-Barrios, Veró nica M.; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    The atmosphere plays a fundamental role in the transport of microbes across the planet but it is often neglected as a microbial habitat. Although the ocean represents two thirds of the Earth's surface, there is little information on the atmospheric microbial load over the open ocean. Here we provide a global estimate of microbial loads and air-sea exchanges over the tropical and subtropical oceans based on the data collected along the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition. Total loads of airborne prokaryotes and eukaryotes were estimated at 2.2 × 1021 and 2.1 × 1021 cells, respectively. Overall 33-68% of these microorganisms could be traced to a marine origin, being transported thousands of kilometres before re-entering the ocean. Moreover, our results show a substantial load of terrestrial microbes transported over the oceans, with abundances declining exponentially with distance from land and indicate that islands may act as stepping stones facilitating the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes.The extent to which the ocean acts as a sink and source of airborne particles to the atmosphere is unresolved. Here, the authors report high microbial loads over the tropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans and propose islands as stepping stones for the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes..

  1. Plant interactions with microbes and insects: from molecular mechanisms to ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.

    2007-01-01

    Plants are members of complex communities and interact both with antagonists and beneficial organisms. An important question in plant defense-signaling research is how plants integrate signals induced by pathogens, beneficial microbes and insects into the most appropriate adaptive response.

  2. Isolation and cultivation of planktonic freshwater microbes is essential for a comprehensive understanding of their ecology.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salcher, Michaela M.; Šimek, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2016), s. 183-196 ISSN 0948-3055 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : autecology * axenic cultures * dilution to extinction * ecophysiology * genomics * isolation of freshwater microbes * targeted enrichment Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  3. Do volatiles produced by nectar-dwelling microbes affect honey bee preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbiome of plants mediates many interactions in natural and managed systems. Among these, plant-pollinator interactions are important for ensuring high crop yields, pollinator health and successful plant reproduction. Despite initial work demonstrating effects of floral microbes on pollinatio...

  4. The MICROBE Project, A Report from the Interagency Working Group on Microbial Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    functional genomics tools (gene chips, technologies, etc.), comparative genomics, proteomics tools, novel culture techniques, in situ analyses, and...interested in supporting microarray/chip development for gene expression analysis for agricultural microbes, bioinformatics, and proteomics , and the...including one fungus ) in various stages of progress. The closely integrated Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research Program in the Office of

  5. Immobilization and mineralization of N and P by heterotrophic microbes during leaf decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beth Cheever; Erika Kratzer; Jackson Webster

    2012-01-01

    According to theory, the rate and stoichiometry of microbial mineralization depend, in part, on nutrient availability. For microbes associated with leaves in streams, nutrients are available from both the water column and the leaf. Therefore, microbial nutrient cycling may change with nutrient availability and during leaf decomposition. We explored spatial and temporal...

  6. LINKING MICROBES TO CLIMATE: INCORPORATING MICROBIAL ACTIVITY INTO CLIMATE MODELS COLLOQUIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, Edward; Harwood, Caroline; Reid, Ann

    2011-01-01

    This report explains the connection between microbes and climate, discusses in general terms what modeling is and how it applied to climate, and discusses the need for knowledge in microbial physiology, evolution, and ecology to contribute to the determination of fluxes and rates in climate models. It recommends with a multi-pronged approach to address the gaps.

  7. Disease - MicrobeDB.jp | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...File name: disease.tar.gz File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/microbedb/...iption Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Disease - MicrobeDB.jp | LSDB Archive ...

  8. Long-range transport of airborne microbes over the global tropical and subtropical ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Mayol, Eva

    2017-07-28

    The atmosphere plays a fundamental role in the transport of microbes across the planet but it is often neglected as a microbial habitat. Although the ocean represents two thirds of the Earth\\'s surface, there is little information on the atmospheric microbial load over the open ocean. Here we provide a global estimate of microbial loads and air-sea exchanges over the tropical and subtropical oceans based on the data collected along the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition. Total loads of airborne prokaryotes and eukaryotes were estimated at 2.2 × 1021 and 2.1 × 1021 cells, respectively. Overall 33-68% of these microorganisms could be traced to a marine origin, being transported thousands of kilometres before re-entering the ocean. Moreover, our results show a substantial load of terrestrial microbes transported over the oceans, with abundances declining exponentially with distance from land and indicate that islands may act as stepping stones facilitating the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes.The extent to which the ocean acts as a sink and source of airborne particles to the atmosphere is unresolved. Here, the authors report high microbial loads over the tropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans and propose islands as stepping stones for the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes..

  9. Burstiness in Viral Bursts: How Stochasticity Affects Spatial Patterns in Virus-Microbe Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hui; Taylor, Bradford P.; Weitz, Joshua S.

    Spatial patterns emerge in living systems at the scale of microbes to metazoans. These patterns can be driven, in part, by the stochasticity inherent to the birth and death of individuals. For microbe-virus systems, infection and lysis of hosts by viruses results in both mortality of hosts and production of viral progeny. Here, we study how variation in the number of viral progeny per lysis event affects the spatial clustering of both viruses and microbes. Each viral ''burst'' is initially localized at a near-cellular scale. The number of progeny in a single lysis event can vary in magnitude between tens and thousands. These perturbations are not accounted for in mean-field models. Here we developed individual-based models to investigate how stochasticity affects spatial patterns in virus-microbe systems. We measured the spatial clustering of individuals using pair correlation functions. We found that increasing the burst size of viruses while maintaining the same production rate led to enhanced clustering. In this poster we also report on preliminary analysis on the evolution of the burstiness of viral bursts given a spatially distributed host community.

  10. A new theory of plant-microbe nutrient competition resolves inconsistencies between observations and model predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Riley, William J; Tang, Jinyun

    2017-04-01

    Terrestrial plants assimilate anthropogenic CO 2 through photosynthesis and synthesizing new tissues. However, sustaining these processes requires plants to compete with microbes for soil nutrients, which therefore calls for an appropriate understanding and modeling of nutrient competition mechanisms in Earth System Models (ESMs). Here, we survey existing plant-microbe competition theories and their implementations in ESMs. We found no consensus regarding the representation of nutrient competition and that observational and theoretical support for current implementations are weak. To reconcile this situation, we applied the Equilibrium Chemistry Approximation (ECA) theory to plant-microbe nitrogen competition in a detailed grassland 15 N tracer study and found that competition theories in current ESMs fail to capture observed patterns and the ECA prediction simplifies the complex nature of nutrient competition and quantitatively matches the 15 N observations. Since plant carbon dynamics are strongly modulated by soil nutrient acquisition, we conclude that (1) predicted nutrient limitation effects on terrestrial carbon accumulation by existing ESMs may be biased and (2) our ECA-based approach may improve predictions by mechanistically representing plant-microbe nutrient competition. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Dietary inclusion of direct fed microbe on the growth performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds were obtained from a reputable hatchery and randomly assigned to four dietary treatments, each with three replicate of ten birds. ... The results show that the growth performance of the broiler chicken fed diet containing different level of direct fed microbes did not differ significantly (P>0.05) in initial weight, final ...

  12. Prominent Human Health Impacts from Several Marine Microbes: History, Ecology, and Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bienfang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews several examples of important public health impacts by marine microbes and directs readers to the extensive literature germane to these maladies. These examples include three types of dinoflagellates (Gambierdiscus spp., Karenia brevis, and Alexandrium fundyense, BMAA-producing cyanobacteria, and infectious microbes. The dinoflagellates are responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, respectively, that have plagued coastal populations over time. Research interest on the potential for marine cyanobacteria to contribute BMAA into human food supplies has been derived by BMAA's discovery in cycad seeds and subsequent implication as the putative cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex among the Chamorro people of Guam. Recent UPLC/MS analyses indicate that recent reports that BMAA is prolifically distributed among marine cyanobacteria at high concentrations may be due to analyte misidentification in the analytical protocols being applied for BMAA. Common infectious microbes (including enterovirus, norovirus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia cause gastrointestinal and skin-related illness. These microbes can be introduced from external human and animal sources, or they can be indigenous to the marine environment.

  13. Wired to the roots: impact of root-beneficial microbe interactions on aboveground plant physiology and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amutha Sampath; Bais, Harsh P

    2012-12-01

    Often, plant-pathogenic microbe interactions are discussed in a host-microbe two-component system, however very little is known about how the diversity of rhizospheric microbes that associate with plants affect host performance against pathogens. There are various studies, which specially direct the importance of induced systemic defense (ISR) response in plants interacting with beneficial rhizobacteria, yet we don't know how rhizobacterial associations modulate plant physiology. In here, we highlight the many dimensions within which plant roots associate with beneficial microbes by regulating aboveground physiology. We review approaches to study the causes and consequences of plant root association with beneficial microbes on aboveground plant-pathogen interactions. The review provides the foundations for future investigations into the impact of the root beneficial microbial associations on plant performance and innate defense responses.

  14. A place for host-microbe symbiosis in the comparative physiologist's toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Kevin D; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-11-15

    Although scientists have long appreciated that metazoans evolved in a microbial world, we are just beginning to appreciate the profound impact that host-associated microbes have on diverse aspects of animal biology. The enormous growth in our understanding of host-microbe symbioses is rapidly expanding the study of animal physiology, both technically and conceptually. Microbes associate functionally with various body surfaces of their hosts, although most reside in the gastrointestinal tract. Gut microbes convert dietary and host-derived substrates to metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, thereby providing energy and nutrients to the host. Bacterial metabolites incorporated into the host metabolome can activate receptors on a variety of cell types and, in doing so, alter host physiology (including metabolism, organ function, biological rhythms, neural activity and behavior). Given that host-microbe interactions affect diverse aspects of host physiology, it is likely that they influence animal ecology and, if they confer fitness benefits, the evolutionary trajectory of a species. Multiple variables - including sampling regime, environmental parameters, host metadata and analytical methods - can influence experimental outcomes in host-microbiome studies, making careful experimental design and execution crucial to ensure reproducible and informative studies in the laboratory and field. Integration of microbiomes into comparative physiology and ecophysiological investigations can reveal the potential impacts of the microbiota on physiological responses to changing environments, and is likely to bring valuable insights to the study of host-microbiome interactions among a broad range of metazoans, including humans. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Extracellular vesicles modulate host-microbe responses by altering TLR2 activity and phagocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen van Bergenhenegouwen

    Full Text Available Oral delivery of Gram positive bacteria, often derived from the genera Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium, can modulate immune function. Although the exact mechanisms remain unclear, immunomodulatory effects may be elicited through the direct interaction of these bacteria with the intestinal epithelium or resident dendritic cell (DC populations. We analyzed the immune activation properties of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium species and made the surprising observation that cellular responses in vitro were differentially influenced by the presence of serum, specifically the extracellular vesicle (EV fraction. In contrast to the tested Lactobacilli species, tested Bifidobacterium species induce TLR2/6 activity which is inhibited by the presence of EVs. Using specific TLR ligands, EVs were found to enhance cellular TLR2/1 and TLR4 responses while TLR2/6 responses were suppressed. No effect could be observed on cellular TLR5 responses. We determined that EVs play a role in bacterial aggregation, suggesting that EVs interact with bacterial surfaces. EVs were found to slightly enhance DC phagocytosis of Bifidobacterium breve whereas phagocytosis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus was virtually absent upon serum EV depletion. DC uptake of a non-microbial substance (dextran was not affected by the different serum fractions suggesting that EVs do not interfere with DC phagocytic capacity but rather modify the DC-microbe interaction. Depending on the microbe, combined effects of EVs on TLR activity and phagocytosis result in a differential proinflammatory DC cytokine release. Overall, these data suggest that EVs play a yet unrecognized role in host-microbe responses, not by interfering in recipient cellular responses but via attachment to, or scavenging of, microbe-associated molecular patterns. EVs can be found in any tissue or bodily fluid, therefore insights into EV-microbe interactions are important in understanding the mechanism of action of potential

  16. Plant traits related to nitrogen uptake influence plant-microbe competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Delphine; Pivato, Barbara; Bru, David; Busset, Hugues; Deau, Florence; Faivre, Céline; Matejicek, Annick; Strbik, Florence; Philippot, Laurent; Mougel, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Plant species are important drivers of soil microbial communities. However, how plant functional traits are shaping these communities has received less attention though linking plant and microbial traits is crucial for better understanding plant-microbe interactions. Our objective was to determine how plant-microbe interactions were affected by plant traits. Specifically we analyzed how interactions between plant species and microbes involved in nitrogen cycling were affected by plant traits related to 'nitrogen nutrition in interaction with soil nitrogen availability. Eleven plant species, selected along an oligotrophic-nitrophilic gradient, were grown individually in a nitrogen-poor soil with two levels of nitrate availability. Plant traits for both carbon and nitrogen nutrition were measured and the genetic structure and abundance of rhizosphere. microbial communities, in particular the ammonia oxidizer and nitrate reducer guilds, were analyzed. The structure of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere differed significantly between plant species and these differences depended on nitrogen availability. The results suggest that the rate of nitrogen uptake per unit of root biomass and per day is a key plant trait, explaining why the effect of nitrogen availability on the structure of the bacterial community depends on the plant species. We also showed that the abundance of nitrate reducing bacteria always decreased with increasing nitrogen uptake per unit of root biomass per day, indicating that there was competition for nitrate between plants and nitrate reducing bacteria. This study demonstrates that nitrate-reducing microorganisms may be adversely affected by plants with a high nitrogen uptake rate. Our work puts forward the role of traits related to nitrogen in plant-microbe interactions, whereas carbon is commonly considered as the main driver. It also suggests that plant traits related to ecophysiological processes, such as nitrogen uptake rates, are more

  17. A 3D CZT hard x-ray polarimeter for a balloon-borne payload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, E.; Alvarez, J. M.; Auricchio, N.

    2012-01-01

    be optimized also for this type of measurement. In this framework, we present the concept of a small high-performance spectrometer designed for polarimetry between 100 and 1000 keV suitable as a stratospheric balloon-borne payload dedicated to perform an accurate and reliable measurement of the polarization...

  18. Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, John D.

    1998-01-01

    In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented

  19. STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn participates in a media briefing before returning to JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio and one of the original seven Project Mercury astronauts, participates in a media briefing at the Kennedy Space Center Press Site Auditorium before returning to the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The STS-95 mission ended with landing at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility at 12:04 p.m. EST on Nov. 7. Also participating in the briefing were the other STS-95 crew members: Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Steven W. Lindsey; Mission Specialist and Payload Commander Stephen K. Robinson; Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski; Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA); and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan-201 solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  20. Concept Design of the Payload Handling Manipulator System. [space shuttle orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The design, requirements, and interface definition of a remote manipulator system developed to handle orbiter payloads are presented. End effector design, control system concepts, and man-machine engineering are considered along with crew station requirements and closed circuit television system performance requirements.

  1. Payload charging events in the mesosphere and their impact on Langmuir type electric probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Bekkeng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three sounding rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range in the ECOMA campaign in December 2010. The aim was to study the evolution of meteoric smoke particles during a major meteor shower. Of the various instruments onboard the rocket payload, this paper presents the data from a multi-Needle Langmuir Probe (m-NLP and a charged dust detector. The payload floating potential, as observed using the m-NLP instrument, shows charging events on two of the three flights. These charging events cannot be explained using a simple charging model, and have implications towards the use of fixed bias Langmuir probes on sounding rockets investigating mesospheric altitudes. We show that for a reliable use of a single fixed bias Langmuir probe as a high spatial resolution relative density measurement, each payload should also carry an additional instrument to measure payload floating potential, and an instrument that is immune to spacecraft charging and measures absolute plasma density.

  2. The VLF Wave and Particle Precipitation Mapper (VPM) Cubesat Payload Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, U.; Linscott, I.; Marshall, R. A.; Lauben, D.; Starks, M. J.; Doolittle, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The VLF Wave and Particle Precipitation Mapper (VPM) payload is under development at Stanford University for a Cubesat mission that is planned to fly in low-earth-orbit in 2015. The VPM payload suite includes a 2-meter electric-field dipole antenna; a single-axis magnetic search coil; and a two-channel relativistic electron detector, measuring both trapped and loss-cone electrons. VPM will measure waves and relativistic electrons with the following primary goals: i) develop an improved climatology of plasmaspheric hiss in the L-shell range 1 < L < 3 at all local times; ii) detect VLF waves launched by space-based VLF transmitters, as well as energetic electrons scattered by those in-situ injected waves; iii) develop an improved climatology of lightning-generated whistlers and lightning-induced electron precipitation; iv)measure waves and electron precipitation produced by ground-based VLF transmitters; and v) validate propagation and wave-particle interaction models. In this paper we outline these science objectives of the VPM payload instrument suite, and describe the payload instruments and data products that will meet these science goals.

  3. STS-9 payload specialist Merbold and backup Ockels in training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    STS-9 payload specialist Ulf Merbold, right, a West German physicist and backup Wubbo Ockels, a Dutch scientist, are pictured in a training session in JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. In this view Ockels appears to be showing Merbold how to operate a camera.

  4. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) Mission – Low Energy Payload ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)' mission, which was launched onboard GSAT-2 Indian spacecraft on 08 May 2003 by GSLV-D2 rocket to study the solar flares. The SOXS Low Energy Detector (SLD) payload was designed, developed and ...

  5. Pay-load Estimation of a 2 DOF Flexible Link Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole

    2005-01-01

    . Although the applied principle might be general in nature, the pa-per is applied to the well-known problem of identifying a pay-load of a moving flexible robot. This problem is almost impossible to solve by measurements, so an estimation technique must be applied. The presented method benefits from...

  6. Packet Payload Monitoring for Internet Worm Content Detection Using Deterministic Finite Automaton with Delayed Dictionary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet content scanning is one of the crucial threats to network security and network monitoring applications. In monitoring applications, payload of packets in a network is matched against the set of patterns in order to detect attacks like worms, viruses, and protocol definitions. During network transfer, incoming and outgoing packets are monitored in depth to inspect the packet payload. In this paper, the regular expressions that are basically string patterns are analyzed for packet payloads in detecting worms. Then the grouping scheme for regular expression matching is rewritten using Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA. DFA achieves better processing speed during regular expression matching. DFA requires more memory space for each state. In order to reduce memory utilization, decompression technique is used. Delayed Dictionary Compression (DDC is applied for achieving better speeds in the communication links. DDC achieves decoding latency during compression of payload packets in the network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides better time consumption and memory utilization during detection of Internet worm attacks.

  7. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Marsh, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in utilization and hours of payload operations being executed onboard the International Space Station (ISS), upgrading the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) ISS Payload Control Area (PCA) was essential to gaining efficiencies and assurance of current and future payload health and science return. PCA houses the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) responsible for the execution of all NASA payloads onboard the ISS. POIC Flight Controllers are responsible for the operation of voice, stowage, command, telemetry, video, power, thermal, and environmental control in support of ISS science experiments. The methodologies and execution of the PCA refurbishment were planned and performed within a four-month period in order to assure uninterrupted operation of ISS payloads and minimal impacts to payload operations teams. To vacate the PCA, three additional HOSC control rooms were reconfigured to handle ISS real-time operations, Backup Control Center (BCC) to Mission Control in Houston, simulations, and testing functions. This involved coordination and cooperation from teams of ISS operations controllers, multiple engineering and design disciplines, management, and construction companies performing an array of activities simultaneously and in sync delivering a final product with no issues that impacted the schedule. For each console operator discipline, studies of Information Technology (IT) tools and equipment layouts, ergonomics, and lines of sight were performed. Infusing some of the latest IT into the project was an essential goal in ensuring future growth and success of the ISS payload science returns. Engineering evaluations led to a state of the art Video Wall implementation and more efficient ethernet cabling distribution providing the latest products and the best solution for the POIC. These engineering innovations led to cost savings for the project. Constraints involved in the management of

  8. Osmotic pressure-dependent release profiles of payloads from nanocontainers by co-encapsulation of simple salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Shahed; Rosenauer, Christine; Kappl, Michael; Mohr, Kristin; Landfester, Katharina; Crespy, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The encapsulation of payloads in micro- to nano-scale capsules allows protection of the payload from the surrounding environment and control of its release profile. Herein, we program the release of hydrophilic payloads from nanocontainers by co-encapsulating simple inorganic salts for adjusting the osmotic pressure. The latter either leads to a burst release at high concentrations of co-encapsulated salts or a sustained release at lower concentrations. Osmotic pressure causes swelling of the nanocapsule's shell and therefore sustained release profiles can be adjusted by crosslinking it. The approach presented allows for programing the release of payloads by co-encapsulating inexpensive salts inside nanocontainers without the help of stimuli-responsive materials.The encapsulation of payloads in micro- to nano-scale capsules allows protection of the payload from the surrounding environment and control of its release profile. Herein, we program the release of hydrophilic payloads from nanocontainers by co-encapsulating simple inorganic salts for adjusting the osmotic pressure. The latter either leads to a burst release at high concentrations of co-encapsulated salts or a sustained release at lower concentrations. Osmotic pressure causes swelling of the nanocapsule's shell and therefore sustained release profiles can be adjusted by crosslinking it. The approach presented allows for programing the release of payloads by co-encapsulating inexpensive salts inside nanocontainers without the help of stimuli-responsive materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01882c

  9. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, C.; Sgobba, T.; Larsen, A.; Rose, S.; Heimann, T.; Ciancone, M.; Mulhern, V.

    2005-12-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998 the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre- existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and ISS. The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be considered when establishing the ESA PSRP. The paper will expound upon the detailed franchising model, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The paper will then address the resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date. Additionally, the paper presents ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  10. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Timothy; Larsen, Axel M.; Rose, Summer; Sgobba, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998, the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre-existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and International Space Station (ISS). The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper 1 then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be taken into account when establishing the ESA PSRP. The detailed franchising model will be expounded upon, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date will then be addressed. Additionally the paper presents the ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  11. A Robust Oil-in-Oil Emulsion for the Nonaqueous Encapsulation of Hydrophilic Payloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaocun; Katz, Joshua S; Schmitt, Adam K; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2018-03-14

    Compartmentalized structures widely exist in cellular systems (organelles) and perform essential functions in smart composite materials (microcapsules, vasculatures, and micelles) to provide localized functionality and enhance materials' compatibility. An entirely water-free compartmentalization system is of significant value to the materials community as nonaqueous conditions are critical to packaging microcapsules with water-free hydrophilic payloads while avoiding energy-intensive drying steps. Few nonaqueous encapsulation techniques are known, especially when considering just the scalable processes that operate in batch mode. Herein, we report a robust oil-in-oil Pickering emulsion system that is compatible with nonaqueous interfacial reactions as required for encapsulation of hydrophilic payloads. A major conceptual advance of this work is the notion of the partitioning inhibitor-a chemical agent that greatly reduces the payload's distribution between the emulsion's two phases, thus providing appropriate conditions for emulsion-templated interfacial polymerization. As a specific example, an immiscible hydrocarbon-amine pair of liquids is emulsified by the incorporation of guanidinium chloride (GuHCl) as a partitioning inhibitor into the dispersed phase. Polyisobutylene (PIB) is added into the continuous phase as a viscosity modifier for suitable modification of interfacial polymerization kinetics. The combination of GuHCl and PIB is necessary to yield a robust emulsion with stable morphology for 3 weeks. Shell wall formation was accomplished by interfacial polymerization of isocyanates delivered through the continuous phase and polyamines from the droplet core. Diethylenetriamine (DETA)-loaded microcapsules were isolated in good yield, exhibiting high thermal and chemical stabilities with extended shelf-lives even when dispersed into a reactive epoxy resin. The polyamine phase is compatible with a variety of basic and hydrophilic actives, suggesting that this

  12. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, We have new imagery from Pictometry's AccuPlus flown in March 2010 and to be delivered in October 2010., Published in 2010, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Augusta-Richmond County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2010. We have new imagery from Pictometry's AccuPlus flown in March 2010 and to be delivered in...

  13. Hydrography, Polk County was flown in May 1996. Ayres Associates, Madison, digitized all hydrography features and provided this data as a two-dimensional AutoCAD drawing file. In 2006 Polk County converted the AutoCAD hydrography file into and shapefile creating the h, Published in 1996, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Hydrography dataset current as of 1996. Polk County was flown in May 1996. Ayres Associates, Madison, digitized all hydrography features and provided this data as a...

  14. Simulated microbe removal around finger rings using different hand sanitation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alur, Archana A; Rane, Madhavi J; Scheetz, James P; Lorenz, Douglas J; Gettleman, Lawrence

    2009-09-01

    It is our opinion that the CDC and the WHO have underestimated cross-contamination under examination gloves in dental clinics while wearing jewelry, such as finger rings. These agencies only "recommend" removing jewelry, and only washing hands for 15 seconds with soap and warm water before donning gloves. This study examined several washing procedures and finger rings using simulated microbes. A gloved rubber hand manikin was made and fitted with a fresh disposable vinyl glove. Four fingers were fitted with rings or no ring, dusted with simulated microbes, and washed with a scrub brush for 5, 15, and 25 seconds under 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C water alone, or with liquid hand soap. Light levels (in lux) of fluorescent powder before and after washing were measured and delta scores calculated for changes in light levels, equivalent to effectiveness of hand washing procedures. A full-factorial, 3-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences among levels of the three study factors-time, temperature, and soap use. Tukey's post hoc honestly significant difference (HSD) test was applied to significant factors to examine pair-wise differences between factor levels. It was found that the longer the hands with rings were washed with a scrub brush under flowing water, the more simulated microbes were removed. By 25 seconds, all methods were essentially the same. Simulated microbes were more difficult to remove from the palm compared to the back of the hand. The liquid hand soap used in this study was more effective with warm water than cold. When given a choice of washing with cold water up to 15 seconds, it would be preferable not to use soap to remove simulated microbes. Qualitatively, the outer surface of finger rings were more effectively cleaned than the crevice below the ring, and the ring with a stone setting appeared to accumulate and retain simulated microbes more than other rings. The most effective treatment was washing with warm water

  15. MicrobesFlux: a web platform for drafting metabolic models from the KEGG database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xueyang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concurrent with the efforts currently underway in mapping microbial genomes using high-throughput sequencing methods, systems biologists are building metabolic models to characterize and predict cell metabolisms. One of the key steps in building a metabolic model is using multiple databases to collect and assemble essential information about genome-annotations and the architecture of the metabolic network for a specific organism. To speed up metabolic model development for a large number of microorganisms, we need a user-friendly platform to construct metabolic networks and to perform constraint-based flux balance analysis based on genome databases and experimental results. Results We have developed a semi-automatic, web-based platform (MicrobesFlux for generating and reconstructing metabolic models for annotated microorganisms. MicrobesFlux is able to automatically download the metabolic network (including enzymatic reactions and metabolites of ~1,200 species from the KEGG database (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and then convert it to a metabolic model draft. The platform also provides diverse customized tools, such as gene knockouts and the introduction of heterologous pathways, for users to reconstruct the model network. The reconstructed metabolic network can be formulated to a constraint-based flux model to predict and analyze the carbon fluxes in microbial metabolisms. The simulation results can be exported in the SBML format (The Systems Biology Markup Language. Furthermore, we also demonstrated the platform functionalities by developing an FBA model (including 229 reactions for a recent annotated bioethanol producer, Thermoanaerobacter sp. strain X514, to predict its biomass growth and ethanol production. Conclusion MicrobesFlux is an installation-free and open-source platform that enables biologists without prior programming knowledge to develop metabolic models for annotated microorganisms in the KEGG

  16. Metaorganisms in extreme environments: do microbes play a role in organismal adaptation?

    KAUST Repository

    Bang, Corinna

    2018-02-15

    From protists to humans, all animals and plants are inhabited by microbial organisms. There is an increasing appreciation that these resident microbes influence the fitness of their plant and animal hosts, ultimately forming a metaorganism consisting of a uni- or multicellular host and a community of associated microorganisms. Research on host–microbe interactions has become an emerging cross-disciplinary field. In both vertebrates and invertebrates a complex microbiome confers immunological, metabolic and behavioural benefits; conversely, its disturbance can contribute to the development of disease states. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling the interactions within a metaorganism are poorly understood and many key interactions between the associated organisms remain unknown. In this perspective article, we outline some of the issues in interspecies interactions and in particular address the question of how metaorganisms react and adapt to inputs from extreme environments such as deserts, the intertidal zone, oligothrophic seas, and hydrothermal vents.

  17. Gut metabolome meets microbiome: A methodological perspective to understand the relationship between host and microbe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Santosh; Sen, Partho; Dickens, Alex M; Orešič, Matej; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2018-04-30

    It is well established that gut microbes and their metabolic products regulate host metabolism. The interactions between the host and its gut microbiota are highly dynamic and complex. In this review we present and discuss the metabolomic strategies to study the gut microbial ecosystem. We highlight the metabolic profiling approaches to study faecal samples aimed at deciphering the metabolic product derived from gut microbiota. We also discuss how metabolomics data can be integrated with metagenomics data derived from gut microbiota and how such approaches may lead to better understanding of the microbial functions. Finally, the emerging approaches of genome-scale metabolic modelling to study microbial co-metabolism and host-microbe interactions are highlighted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Heap bioleaching of uranium from low-grade granite-type ore by mixed acidophilic microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuegang Wang; Zhongkui Zhou

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated uranium bioleaching from low-grade, granite-type uranium ore using mixed acidophilic microbes from uranium mine leachate. A 4854-ton plant-scale heap bioleaching process achieved sustained leaching with a uranium leaching efficiency of 88.3% using a pH of 1.0-2.0 and an Fe"3"+ dosage of 3.0-5.5 g/L. Acid consumption amounted to 25.8 g H_2SO_4 kg"-"1 ore. Uranium bioleaching follows a diffusion-controlled kinetic model with a correlation coefficient of 0.9136. Almost all uranium was dissolved in aqueous solution, except those encapsulated in quartz particles. Therefore, heap bioleaching by mixed acidophilic microbes enables efficient, economical, large-scale recovery of uranium from low-grade ores. (author)

  19. Monitoring Acidophilic Microbes with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank F. Roberto

    2008-08-01

    Many techniques that are used to characterize and monitor microbial populations associated with sulfide mineral bioleaching require the cultivation of the organisms on solid or liquid media. Chemolithotrophic species, such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, or thermophilic chemolithotrophs, such as Acidianus brierleyi and Sulfolobus solfataricus can grow quite slowly, requiring weeks to complete efforts to identify and quantify these microbes associated with bioleach samples. Real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays in which DNA targets are amplified in the presence of fluorescent oligonucleotide primers, allowing the monitoring and quantification of the amplification reactions as they progress, provide a means of rapidly detecting the presence of microbial species of interest, and their relative abundance in a sample. This presentation will describe the design and use of such assays to monitor acidophilic microbes in the environment and in bioleaching operations. These assays provide results within 2-3 hours, and can detect less than 100 individual microbial cells.

  20. Profiling the metabolic signals involved in chemical communication between microbes using imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasulli, Nikolas M; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    The ability of microbes to secrete bioactive chemical signals into their environment has been known for over a century. However, it is only in the last decade that imaging mass spectrometry has provided us with the ability to directly visualize the spatial distributions of these microbial metabolites. This technology involves collecting mass spectra from multiple discrete locations across a biological sample, yielding chemical ‘maps’ that simultaneously reveal the distributions of hundreds of metabolites in two dimensions. Advances in microbial imaging mass spectrometry summarized here have included the identification of novel strain- or coculture-specific compounds, the visualization of biotransformation events (where one metabolite is converted into another by a neighboring microbe), and the implementation of a method to reconstruct the 3D subsurface distributions of metabolites, among others. Here we review the recent literature and discuss how imaging mass spectrometry has spurred novel insights regarding the chemical consequences of microbial interactions.

  1. Towards a General Equation for the Survival of Microbes Transferred between Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Steele, A.

    2014-01-01

    It should be possible to construct a general equation describing the survival of microbes transferred between Solar System bodies. Such an equation will be useful for constraining the likelihood of transfer of viable organisms between bodies throughout the lifetime of the Solar System, and for refining Planetary Protection constraints placed on future missions. We will discuss the construction of such an equation, present a plan for definition of pertinent factors, and will describe what research will be necessary to quantify those factors. Description: We will examine the case of microbes transferred between Solar System bodies as residents in meteorite material ejected from one body (the "intial body") and deposited on another (the "target body"). Any microbes transferred in this fashion will experience four distinct phases between their initial state on the initial body, up to the point where they colonize the target body. Each of these phases features phenomena capable of reducing or exterminating the initial microbial population. They are: 1) Ejection: Material is ejected from the initial body, imparting shock followed by rapid desiccation and cooling. 2) Transport: Material travels through interplanetary space to the target body, exposing a hypothetical microbial population to extended desiccation, irradiation, and temperature extremes. 3) Infall: Material is deposited on the target body, diminishing the microbial population through shock, mass loss, and heating. 4) Adaptation: Any microbes which survive the previous three phases must then adapt to new chemophysical conditions of the target body. Differences in habitability between the initial and target bodies dominate this phase. A suitable general-form equation can be assembled from the above factors by defining the initial number of microbes in an ejected mass and applying multiplicitive factors based on the physical phenomena inherent to each phase. It should be possible to present the resulting equation

  2. Metaorganisms in extreme environments: do microbes play a role in organismal adaptation?

    KAUST Repository

    Bang, Corinna; Dagan, Tal; Deines, Peter; Dubilier, Nicole; Duschl, Wolfgang J.; Fraune, Sebastian; Hentschel, Ute; Hirt, Heribert; Hü lter, Nils; Lachnit, Tim; Picazo, Devani; Pita, Lucia; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Radecker, Nils; Saad, Maged; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Schulenburg, Hinrich; Voolstra, Christian R.; Weiland-Brä uer, Nancy; Ziegler, Maren; Bosch, Thomas C.G.

    2018-01-01

    From protists to humans, all animals and plants are inhabited by microbial organisms. There is an increasing appreciation that these resident microbes influence the fitness of their plant and animal hosts, ultimately forming a metaorganism consisting of a uni- or multicellular host and a community of associated microorganisms. Research on host–microbe interactions has become an emerging cross-disciplinary field. In both vertebrates and invertebrates a complex microbiome confers immunological, metabolic and behavioural benefits; conversely, its disturbance can contribute to the development of disease states. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling the interactions within a metaorganism are poorly understood and many key interactions between the associated organisms remain unknown. In this perspective article, we outline some of the issues in interspecies interactions and in particular address the question of how metaorganisms react and adapt to inputs from extreme environments such as deserts, the intertidal zone, oligothrophic seas, and hydrothermal vents.

  3. Digestion of crude protein and organic matter of leaves by rumen microbes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszuk, A.; Murphy, M.

    1982-01-01

    22 leaf specimens, of which 6 were from an energy-woods project, were studied by incubation in vitro with rumen microbes or pepsin-hydrochloric acid. Several were also examined in situ using the nylon-bag technique. Many leaves, despite their low fiber and high crude protein content, gave low values for organic matter digestibility. The crude protein degradation by rumen microbes or pepsin-hydrochloric acid was low, on average, compared with hay. There was a wide variation among leaf specimens. Variation was also found as regards ammonia production in short-term (4 hours) incubation. No close correlation was found between crude protein content and crude protein degradation, or between the estimates of ruminal degradation and of pepsin-hydrochloric acid digestibility. This suggest that there are leaves that gives ruminants substantial amounts of digestible protein yet escape ruminal fermentation. (Refs. 12).

  4. Cell-autonomous defense, re-organization and trafficking of membranes in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörmann, Peter; Kim, Hyeran; Ott, Thomas; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Trujillo, Marco; Wewer, Vera; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2014-12-01

    Plant cells dynamically change their architecture and molecular composition following encounters with beneficial or parasitic microbes, a process referred to as host cell reprogramming. Cell-autonomous defense reactions are typically polarized to the plant cell periphery underneath microbial contact sites, including de novo cell wall biosynthesis. Alternatively, host cell reprogramming converges in the biogenesis of membrane-enveloped compartments for accommodation of beneficial bacteria or invasive infection structures of filamentous microbes. Recent advances have revealed that, in response to microbial encounters, plasma membrane symmetry is broken, membrane tethering and SNARE complexes are recruited, lipid composition changes and plasma membrane-to-cytoskeleton signaling is activated, either for pre-invasive defense or for microbial entry. We provide a critical appraisal on recent studies with a focus on how plant cells re-structure membranes and the associated cytoskeleton in interactions with microbial pathogens, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and mycorrhiza fungi. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Glycine uptake in heath plants and soil microbes responds to elevated temperature, CO2 and drought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Luise C.; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    the responses to single factors treatments. The soil microbes were superior to plants in the short-term competition for the added glycine, as indicated by an 18 times larger 15N recovery in the microbial biomass compared to the plant biomass. The soil microbes acquired glycine largely as an intact compound (87...... here present results from a field experiment in which the effects of these three climate change factors are investigated solely and in all combinations at a temperate heath dominated by heather (Calluna vulgaris) and wavy hair-grass (Deschampsia flexuosa). Climate induced increases in plant production...... may increase plant root exudation of dissolved organic compounds such as amino acids, and the release of amino acids during decomposition of organic matter. Such free amino acids in soil serve as substrates for soil microorganisms and are also acquired as nutrients directly by plants. We investigated...

  6. Microbe and Mineral Mediated Transformation of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides, and Organic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, R.

    2011-12-01

    Microorganisms influence their surroundings in many ways and humans have utilized microbially catalyzed reactions for benefit for centuries. Over the past few decades, microorganisms have been used for the control of contaminant transport in subsurface environments where many microbe mineral interactions occur. This presentation will discuss microbially influenced mineral formation and transformation as well as their influence on the fate of organic contaminants such as chlorinated aliphatics & 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), heavy metals such as chromium, and radionuclides such as uranium & strontium. Both, batch and flow experiments have been performed, which monitor the net effect of microbe mineral interactions on the fate of these contaminants. This invited presentation will place an emphasis on the relative importance of direct microbial (i.e. biotic) transformations, mineral-mediated transformations as well as other abiotic reactions influencing the fate of environmental contaminants. Experiments will be summarized and placed in context of past and future engineered applications for the control of subsurface contaminants.

  7. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation: a bright new technique to kill resistant microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses photosensitizers (non-toxic dyes) that are activated by absorption of visible light to form reactive oxygen species (including singlet oxygen) that can oxidize biomolecules and destroy cells. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) can treat localized infections. aPDI neither causes any resistance to develop in microbes, nor is affected by existing drug resistance status. We discuss some recent developments in aPDI. New photosensitizers including polycat...

  8. Safety of Novel Microbes for Human Consumption: Practical Examples of Assessment in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Brodmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to improve health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of gut microbiota in human health. As well, some recently isolated microorganisms have promise for use as probiotics, although in-depth assessment of their safety is necessary. Recent examples of microorganisms calling for more detailed evaluation include Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Akkermansia muciniphila, fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. This paper discusses each candidate's safety evaluation for novel food or novel food ingredient approval according to European Union (EU regulations. The factors evaluated include their beneficial properties, antibiotic resistance profiling, history of safe use (if available, publication of the genomic sequence, toxicological studies in agreement with novel food regulations, and the qualified presumptions of safety. Sufficient evidences have made possible to support and authorize the use of heat-inactivated B. xylanisolvens in the European Union. In the case of A. muciniphila, the discussion focuses on earlier safety studies and the strain's suitability. FLAB are also subjected to standard safety assessments, which, along with their proximity to lactic acid bacteria generally considered to be safe, may lead to novel food authorization in the future. Further research with F. prausnitzii will increase knowledge about its safety and probiotic properties and may lead to its future use as novel food. Upcoming changes in EUU Regulation 2015/2283 on novel food will facilitate the authorization of future novel products and might increase the presence of novel microbes in the food market.

  9. Effects of the fungicide metiram in outdoor freshwater microcosms: responses of invertebrates, primany producers and microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghua, Lin; Buijse-Bogdan, L.L.; Rocha Dimitrov, M.; Dohmen, P.; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, L.; Roessink, I.; Sinkeldam, J.A.; Smidt, H.; Wijngaarden, van, R.P.A.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The ecological impact of the dithiocarbamate fungicide metiram was studied in outdoor freshwater microcosms, consisting of 14 enclosures placed in an experimental ditch. The microcosms were treated three times (interval 7 days) with the formulated product BAS 222 28F (Polyram®). Intended metiram concentrations in the overlying water were 0, 4, 12, 36, 108 and 324 μg a.i./L. Responses of zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, phytoplankton, macrophytes, microbes and community metabolism endpoints we...

  10. Microbiology and Biodegradation: Deep Ultraviolet Microscopy for the Detection, Quantification, and Characterization of Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-16

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: 14.3 Microbiology and Biodegradation: Deep Ultraviolet Microscopy for the Detection...Fluroesence; Raman Spectroscopy; Microbiology REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO...14.3 Microbiology and Biodegradation: Deep Ultraviolet Microscopy for the Detection, Quantification, and Characterization of Microbes Report Title

  11. Microbe-driven turnover offsets mineral-mediated storage of soil carbon under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin N. Sulman; Richard P. Phillips; A. Christopher Oishi; Elena Shevliakova; Stephen W. Pacala

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to changing environmental conditions represents a critical uncertainty in coupled carbon cycle–climate models1.Much of this uncertainty arises from our limited understanding of the extent to which root–microbe interactions induce SOC losses (through accelerated decomposition or ‘priming’2) or indirectly promote SOC gains (...

  12. Heavy Metal Stress, Signaling, and Tolerance Due to Plant-Associated Microbes: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shalini; Lata, Charu

    2018-01-01

    Several anthropogenic activities including mining, modern agricultural practices, and industrialization have long-term detrimental effect on our environment. All these factors lead to increase in heavy metal concentration in soil, water, and air. Soil contamination with heavy metals cause several environmental problems and imparts toxic effect on plant as well as animals. In response to these adverse conditions, plants evolve complex molecular and physiological mechanisms for better adaptability, tolerance, and survival. Nowadays conventional breeding and transgenic technology are being used for development of metal stress resistant varieties which, however, are time consuming and labor intensive. Interestingly the use of microbes as an alternate technology for improving metal tolerance of plants is gaining momentum recently. The use of these beneficial microorganisms is considered as one of the most promising methods for safe crop-management practices. Interaction of plants with soil microorganisms can play a vital role in acclimatizing plants to metalliferous environments, and can thus be explored to improve microbe-assisted metal tolerance. Plant-associated microbes decrease metal accumulation in plant tissues and also help to reduce metal bioavailability in soil through various mechanisms. Nowadays, a novel phytobacterial strategy, i.e., genetically transformed bacteria has been used to increase remediation of heavy metals and stress tolerance in plants. This review takes into account our current state of knowledge of the harmful effects of heavy metal stress, the signaling responses to metal stress, and the role of plant-associated microbes in metal stress tolerance. The review also highlights the challenges and opportunities in this continued area of research on plant–microbe–metal interaction. PMID:29681916

  13. Heavy Metal Stress, Signaling, and Tolerance Due to Plant-Associated Microbes: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Tiwari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Several anthropogenic activities including mining, modern agricultural practices, and industrialization have long-term detrimental effect on our environment. All these factors lead to increase in heavy metal concentration in soil, water, and air. Soil contamination with heavy metals cause several environmental problems and imparts toxic effect on plant as well as animals. In response to these adverse conditions, plants evolve complex molecular and physiological mechanisms for better adaptability, tolerance, and survival. Nowadays conventional breeding and transgenic technology are being used for development of metal stress resistant varieties which, however, are time consuming and labor intensive. Interestingly the use of microbes as an alternate technology for improving metal tolerance of plants is gaining momentum recently. The use of these beneficial microorganisms is considered as one of the most promising methods for safe crop-management practices. Interaction of plants with soil microorganisms can play a vital role in acclimatizing plants to metalliferous environments, and can thus be explored to improve microbe-assisted metal tolerance. Plant-associated microbes decrease metal accumulation in plant tissues and also help to reduce metal bioavailability in soil through various mechanisms. Nowadays, a novel phytobacterial strategy, i.e., genetically transformed bacteria has been used to increase remediation of heavy metals and stress tolerance in plants. This review takes into account our current state of knowledge of the harmful effects of heavy metal stress, the signaling responses to metal stress, and the role of plant-associated microbes in metal stress tolerance. The review also highlights the challenges and opportunities in this continued area of research on plant–microbe–metal interaction.

  14. A Hair & a Fungus: Showing Kids the Size of a Microbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    A simple method is presented to show kids the size of a microbe--a fungus hypha--compared to a human hair. Common household items are used to make sterile medium on a stove or hotplate, which is dispensed in the cells of a weekly plastic pill box. Mold fungi can be easily and safely grown on the medium from the classroom environment. A microscope…

  15. Soil microbes shift C-degrading activity along an ambient and experimental nitrogen gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.; Frey, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    The balance between soil carbon (C) accumulation and decomposition is determined in large part by the activity and biomass of soil microbes, and yet their sensitivity to global changes remains unresolved. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has increased 22% (for NH4+) in the last two decades despite initiation of the Clean Air Act. Nitrogen deposition alters ecosystem processes by changing nutrient availability and soil pH, creating physiologically stressful environments that select for stress tolerant microbes. The functional fungal community may switch from domination by species with traits associated with decomposition via oxidative enzymes to traits associated with stress tolerance if global changes push fungal physiological limits. We examined changes in soil microbial activity across seven sites representing a gradient of ambient atmospheric N deposition, and five of these sites also had long-term N addition experiments. We measured changes in abundance of decomposition genes and C mineralization rates as indicators of microbial activity. We expected microbes to be less active with high N deposition, thus decreasing C mineralization rates. We found that C mineralization rates declined with total N deposition (ambient plus experimental additions), and this decline was more sensitive to N deposition where it occurred naturally compared to experimental treatments. Carbon mineralization declined by 3% in experimentally fertilized soils compared to 10% in control soils for every 1 kg/ha/y increase in ambient N deposition. Thus, microbes exposed to ambient levels of N deposition (2 - 12 kg/ha/y) had a stronger response than those exposed to fertilized soils (20 - 50 kg/ha/y). Long-term experimental N-addition seems to have selected for a microbial community that is tolerant of high N deposition. In sum, we provide evidence that soil microbial activity responded to N deposition, and may shift over time to a community capable of tolerating environmental change.

  16. Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Sequestration in Soils: Plant-Microbe Interactions and Organic Matter Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa W.-M. Fan; Richard M. Higashi; David Crowley; Andrew N. Lane: Teresa A. Cassel; Peter G. Green

    2004-12-31

    For stabilization of heavy metals at contaminated sites, the three way interaction among soil organic matter (OM)-microbes-plants, and their effect on heavy metal binding is critically important for long-term sustainability, a factor that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Using a soil aging system, the humification of plant matter such as wheat straw was probed along with the effect on microbial community on soil from the former McClellan Air Force Base.

  17. Some Case Studies on Metal-Microbe Interactions to Remediate Heavy Metals- Contaminated Soils in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2015-04-01

    Conventional physicochemical technologies to remediate heavy metals-contaminated soil have many problems such as low efficiency, high cost and occurrence of byproducts. Recently bioremediation technology is getting more and more attention. Bioremediation is defined as the use of biological methods to remediate and/or restore the contaminated land. The objectives of bioremediation are to degrade hazardous organic contaminants and to convert hazardous inorganic contaminants to less toxic compounds of safe levels. The use of bioremediation in the treatment of heavy metals in soils is a relatively new concept. Bioremediation using microbes has been developed to remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated soils in laboratory scale to the contaminated field sites. Recently the application of cost-effective and environment-friendly bioremediation technology to the heavy metals-contaminated sites has been gradually realized in Korea. The merits of bioremediation include low cost, natural process, minimal exposure to the contaminants, and minimum amount of equipment. The limitations of bioremediation are length of remediation, long monitoring time, and, sometimes, toxicity of byproducts for especially organic contaminants. From now on, it is necessary to prove applicability of the technologies to contaminated sites and to establish highly effective, low-cost and easy bioremediation technology. Four categories of metal-microbe interactions are generally biosorption, bioreduction, biomineralization and bioleaching. In this paper, some case studies of the above metal-microbe interactions in author's lab which were published recently in domestic and international journals will be introduced and summarized.

  18. Does plant-Microbe interaction confer stress tolerance in plants: A review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Verma, Jay Prakash

    2018-03-01

    The biotic and abiotic stresses are major constraints for crop yield, food quality and global food security. A number of parameters such as physiological, biochemical, molecular of plants are affected under stress condition. Since the use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture practices cause degradation of soil fertility and environmental pollutions. Hence it is necessary to develop safer and sustainable means for agriculture production. The application of plant growth promoting microbes (PGPM) and mycorrhizal fungi enhance plant growth, under such conditions. It offers an economically fascinating and ecologically sound ways for protecting plants against stress condition. PGPM may promote plant growth by regulating plant hormones, improve nutrition acquisition, siderophore production and enhance the antioxidant system. While acquired systemic resistance (ASR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR) effectively deal with biotic stress. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhance the supply of nutrients and water during stress condition and increase tolerance to stress. This plant-microbe interaction is vital for sustainable agriculture and industrial purpose, because it depends on biological processes and replaces conventional agriculture practices. Therefore, microbes may play a key role as an ecological engineer to solve environmental stress problems. So, it is a feasible and potential technology in future to feed global population at available resources with reduced impact on environmental quality. In this review, we have attempted to explore about abiotic and biotic stress tolerant beneficial microorganisms and their modes of action to enhance the sustainable agricultural production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of different microbes on fermenting feed for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Wang, Yingeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Zheng; Liao, Meijie; Rong, Xiaojun

    2015-10-01

    The effects of different microbes on fermenting feed for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were compared to select the optimal fermentation strain in this study. Saccharomgces cerevisae, Candida utilis, Bacillus subtilis and Geotrichum candidum were independently added into the experimental compound feed, while only saline was mixed with the control feed. The fermentation treatments were inoculated with 10% seed solution under the condition of 25°C and 70% water content, which lasted for 5 days to elucidate the optimal microbe strain for fermenting effect. Physicochemical indexes and sensorial characteristics were measured per day during the fermentation. The indexes included dry matter recovery (DMR), crude protein (CP), the percentage of amino acid nitrogen to total nitrogen (AA-N/tN), the percentage of ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen (NH3-N/tN), and the ratio of fermentation strains and vibrios to the total microbes, color, smell and viscosity. The results showed that DMR, CP and AA-N/tN of the S. cerevisae group reached the highest level on day 3, but the ratio of fermentation strain was second to C. utilis group. In addition, its NH3-N/tN and the ratio of vibrios were maintained at low levels, and the sensory evaluation score including smell, color and viscosity was the highest in S. cerevisae group on day 3. Therefore, S. cerevisae could be the optimal strain for the feed fermentation for sea cucumber. This research developed a new production method of fermentation feed for sea cucumber.

  20. Th17 Cell Induction by Adhesion of Microbes to Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atarashi, Koji; Tanoue, Takeshi; Ando, Minoru; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Nagano, Yuji; Narushima, Seiko; Suda, Wataru; Imaoka, Akemi; Setoyama, Hiromi; Nagamori, Takashi; Ishikawa, Eiji; Shima, Tatsuichiro; Hara, Taeko; Kado, Shoichi; Jinnohara, Toshi; Ohno, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takashi; Toyooka, Kiminori; Watanabe, Eiichiro; Yokoyama, Shin-Ichiro; Tokoro, Shunji; Mori, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Yurika; Morita, Hidetoshi; Ivanov, Ivaylo I; Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Nuñez, Gabriel; Camp, J Gray; Hattori, Masahira; Umesaki, Yoshinori; Honda, Kenya

    2015-10-08

    Intestinal Th17 cells are induced and accumulate in response to colonization with a subgroup of intestinal microbes such as segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) and certain extracellular pathogens. Here, we show that adhesion of microbes to intestinal epithelial cells (ECs) is a critical cue for Th17 induction. Upon monocolonization of germ-free mice or rats with SFB indigenous to mice (M-SFB) or rats (R-SFB), M-SFB and R-SFB showed host-specific adhesion to small intestinal ECs, accompanied by host-specific induction of Th17 cells. Citrobacter rodentium and Escherichia coli O157 triggered similar Th17 responses, whereas adhesion-defective mutants of these microbes failed to do so. Moreover, a mixture of 20 bacterial strains, which were selected and isolated from fecal samples of a patient with ulcerative colitis on the basis of their ability to cause a robust induction of Th17 cells in the mouse colon, also exhibited EC-adhesive characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.