WorldWideScience

Sample records for micro-ion beam analysis

  1. Micro-ion beam analysis of physico-chemical reactions in vitro induced by nano-structured sol-gel derived bioactive glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lao, J.

    2007-07-01

    The study of bioactive glasses is a multi-field area of research aiming at a major goal: the development of new generation biomaterials that would be able to bond with host tissues through the formation of a strong interfacial bond, together with helping the body heal itself through the stimulation of specific cellular responses. Thus clinical applications of bioactive glasses mainly concern dental surgery and orthopedics, for filling osseous defects. For this purpose, we have elaborated bioactive glasses in the binary SiO 2 -CaO system, ternary SiO 2 -CaO-P 2 O 5 system, and for the first time, to our knowledge, strontium-doped SiO 2 -CaO-SrO and SiO 2 -CaO-P 2 O 5 -SrO glasses. The materials were elaborated using the sol-gel process, which allowed the synthesis of nano-porous materials with great purity and homogeneity. The bio-activity of the glasses was clearly demonstrated in vitro: in contact with biological fluids, the whole lot of mate-rials were able to induce the formation of a Ca-P-Mg layer a few microns thick at their surface. Our work is characterized by the use of PIXE-RBS nuclear microprobes to study the bioactive glass/biological fluids interface. Thanks to these methods we obtained chemical maps that made possible the analysis of major and trace elements concentrations at the interface. Moreover, quantitative information regarding the local reactivity of glasses were acquired. These data are important to evaluate the kinetics and amplitude of the physico-chemical reactions involved in the bio-activity process. Thus, we highlighted that the binary glass is the highest reactive regarding the dissolution of the glassy matrix as well as the first appearance of the Ca-P rich layer. However the Ca/P atomic ratio calculated at the glass/biological fluids interface decreases slowly, indicating that the Ca-P-Mg layer encounters difficulties to be changed into a more stable apatitic phase. For the P-containing glasses, the de-alkalinization of the matrix and

  2. Resolution Improvement and Pattern Generator Development for the Maskless Micro-Ion-Beam Reduction Lithography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Ximan

    2006-01-01

    The shrinking of IC devices has followed the Moore's Law for over three decades, which states that the density of transistors on integrated circuits will double about every two years. This great achievement is obtained via continuous advance in lithography technology. With the adoption of complicated resolution enhancement technologies, such as the phase shifting mask (PSM), the optical proximity correction (OPC), optical lithography with wavelength of 193 nm has enabled 45 nm printing by immersion method. However, this achievement comes together with the skyrocketing cost of masks, which makes the production of low volume application-specific IC (ASIC) impractical. In order to provide an economical lithography approach for low to medium volume advanced IC fabrication, a maskless ion beam lithography method, called Maskless Micro-ion-beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL), has been developed in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The development of the prototype MMRL system has been described by Dr. Vinh Van Ngo in his Ph.D. thesis. But the resolution realized on the prototype MMRL system was far from the design expectation. In order to improve the resolution of the MMRL system, the ion optical system has been investigated. By integrating a field-free limiting aperture into the optical column, reducing the electromagnetic interference and cleaning the RF plasma, the resolution has been improved to around 50 nm. Computational analysis indicates that the MMRL system can be operated with an exposure field size of 0.25 mm and a beam half angle of 1.0 mrad on the wafer plane. Ion-ion interactions have been studied with a two-particle physics model. The results are in excellent agreement with those published by the other research groups. The charge-interaction analysis of MMRL shows that the ion-ion interactions must be reduced in order to obtain a throughput higher than 10 wafers per hour on 300-mm wafers. In addition, two different maskless lithography strategies

  3. Demonstration of electronic pattern switching and 10x pattern demagnification in a maskless micro-ion beam reduction lithography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, V.V.; Akker, B.; Leung, K.N.; Noh, I.; Scott, K.L.; Wilde, S.

    2002-01-01

    A proof-of-principle ion projection lithography (IPL) system called Maskless Micro-ion beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL) has been developed and tested at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for future integrated circuits (ICs) manufacturing and thin film media patterning [1]. This MMRL system is aimed at completely eliminating the first stage of the conventional IPL system [2] that contains the complicated beam optics design in front of the stencil mask and the mask itself. It consists of a multicusp RF plasma generator, a multi-beamlet pattern generator, and an all-electrostatic ion optical column. Results from ion beam exposures on PMMA and Shipley UVII-HS resists using 75 keV H+ are presented in this paper. Proof-of-principle electronic pattern switching together with 10x reduction ion optics (using a pattern generator made of nine 50-(micro)m switchable apertures) has been performed and is reported in this paper. In addition, the fabrication of a micro-fabricated pattern generator [3] on an SOI membrane is also presented

  4. Fabrication of optical channel waveguides in crystals and glasses using macro- and micro ion beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banyasz, I.; Rajta, I.; Nagy, G. U. L.; Zolnai, Z.; Havránek, Vladimír; Veres, M.; Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G.; Righini, G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 331, JUL (2014), s. 157-162 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : channel optical waveguides * ion beam irradiation * focussed ion beam * Er-doped tungsten-tellurite glass * Bismuth germanate * Micro Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  5. Biological response to radiation. Studies of model organism, C. elegans, with micro-ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashitani, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    Described are mainly author's studies on radiation response and its biological significance in a nematode, C. elegans, particularly focusing its germ cells. The model organism is bisexual and the mature one is suitable to observe the development, differentiation and concomitant chromosome dynamics of male and female germ cells, and accordingly, the responses occurring in those cells at different stages post irradiation of the whole worm. Authors have shown in the organism irradiated by 100 Gy X-ray that pachytene cells in meiosis have high radio-resistance due to their increased expression of enzymes related with homologous recombination. They have also presented the apoptotic cascade in germ cells triggered by radiation by comparison of wild type and ab1-1-gene-deleted worms. Micro-beam of 12 C 5+ ion in Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) has been used to irradiate the body parts of the worm to study the bystander effects, which has revealed that germ cells are shielded from the effect in the worm. It is thought important to use the micro-beam, with which the irradiation area can be precisely controllable, for studying the bystander effect in a body of higher animals like a mouse as well as in worm somatic cells. (T.I.)

  6. Fabrication of optical channel waveguides in crystals and glasses using macro- and micro ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: banyasz@sunserv.kfki.hu [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Rajta, I.; Nagy, G.U.L. [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Zolnai, Z. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Havranek, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute AV CR, Řež near Prague 250 68 (Czech Republic); Pelli, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Veres, M. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Righini, G.C. [“Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    Active and passive optical waveguides are fundamental elements in modern telecommunications systems. A great number of optical crystals and glasses were identified and are used as good optoelectronic materials. However, fabrication of waveguides in some of those materials remains still a challenging task due to their susceptibility to mechanical or chemical damages during processing. Researches were initiated on ion beam fabrication of optical waveguides in tellurite glasses. Channel waveguides were written in Er:TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} glass through a special silicon mask using 1.5 MeV N{sup +} irradiation. This method was improved by increasing N{sup +} energy to 3.5 MeV to achieve confinement at the 1550 nm wavelength, too. An alternative method, direct writing of the channel waveguides in the tellurite glass using focussed beams of 6–11 MeV C{sup 3+} and C{sup 5+} and 5 MeV N{sup 3+}, has also been developed. Channel waveguides were fabricated in undoped eulytine-(Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}) and sillenite type (Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20}) bismuth germanate crystals using both a special silicon mask and a thick SU8 photoresist mask and 3.5 MeV N{sup +} irradiation. The waveguides were studied by phase contrast and interference microscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy. Guiding properties were checked by the end fire method.

  7. Micro-ion beam analysis of physico-chemical reactions in vitro induced by nano-structured sol-gel derived bioactive glasses; Caracterisation par micro-faisceau d'ions des reactions physico-chimiques induites in vitro par des verres bioactifs nanostructures elabores par la methode sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, J

    2007-07-15

    The study of bioactive glasses is a multi-field area of research aiming at a major goal: the development of new generation biomaterials that would be able to bond with host tissues through the formation of a strong interfacial bond, together with helping the body heal itself through the stimulation of specific cellular responses. Thus clinical applications of bioactive glasses mainly concern dental surgery and orthopedics, for filling osseous defects. For this purpose, we have elaborated bioactive glasses in the binary SiO{sub 2}-CaO system, ternary SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system, and for the first time, to our knowledge, strontium-doped SiO{sub 2}-CaO-SrO and SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SrO glasses. The materials were elaborated using the sol-gel process, which allowed the synthesis of nano-porous materials with great purity and homogeneity. The bio-activity of the glasses was clearly demonstrated in vitro: in contact with biological fluids, the whole lot of mate-rials were able to induce the formation of a Ca-P-Mg layer a few microns thick at their surface. Our work is characterized by the use of PIXE-RBS nuclear microprobes to study the bioactive glass/biological fluids interface. Thanks to these methods we obtained chemical maps that made possible the analysis of major and trace elements concentrations at the interface. Moreover, quantitative information regarding the local reactivity of glasses were acquired. These data are important to evaluate the kinetics and amplitude of the physico-chemical reactions involved in the bio-activity process. Thus, we highlighted that the binary glass is the highest reactive regarding the dissolution of the glassy matrix as well as the first appearance of the Ca-P rich layer. However the Ca/P atomic ratio calculated at the glass/biological fluids interface decreases slowly, indicating that the Ca-P-Mg layer encounters difficulties to be changed into a more stable apatitic phase. For the P-containing glasses, the de

  8. An ASEAN Ion Beam Analysis Center at Chiang Mai University, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippawan, U.; Kamwann, T.; Yu, L.D.; Intarasiri, S.; Puttaraksa, N.; Unai, S.; Thongleurm, C.; Singkarat, S.

    2014-01-01

    To contribute to the development of nuclear science and technology in Thailand, a comprehensive ion beam analysis center unique in the ASEAN region has recently been established at Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The center is equipped with a 1.7-MV Tandetron tandem accelerator with an ion beam analysis beam line. The beam line is currently capable of performing ion beam analysis techniques such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), RBS/channeling, Elastic BackScattering (EBS), Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ionoluminescence (IL) with assistance of commercial and in-house-developed softwares. Micro ion beam for MeV-ion mapping using programmable aperture or capillary focusing techniques is being developed. Ion beam analysis experiments and applications have been vigorously developed, especially for novel materials analysis focused on archeological, gemological and biological materials besides other conventional materials.

  9. Ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Ion beam analysis is an accelerator application area for the study of materials and the structure of matter; electrostatic accelerators of the Van de Graaff or Dynamitron type are often used for energies up to a few MeV. Two types of machines are available - the single-ended accelerator type with higher beam currents and greater flexibility of beam management, or the tandem accelerator, limited to atomic species with negative ions. The accelerators are not generally installed at specialist accelerator laboratories and have to be easy to maintain and simple to operate. The most common technique for industrial research is Rutherford Back Scattering Spectrometry (RBS). Helium ions are the preferred projectiles, since at elevated energies (above 3 MeV) nuclear resonance scattering can be used to detect photons associated with target molecules containing elements such as carbon, nitrogen or oxygen. Due to the large amount of available data on nuclear reactions in this energy range, activation analysis (detecting trace elements by irradiating the sample) can be performed with charged particles from accelerators over a wider range of atoms than with the conventional use of neutrons, which is more suited to light elements. Resonance reactions have been used to detect trace metals such as aluminium, titanium and vanadium. Hydrogen atoms are vital to the material performance of several classes of materials, such as semiconductors, insulators and ceramics. Prudent selection of the projectile ion aids the analysis of hydrogen composition; the technique is then a simple measurement of the emitted gamma radiation. Solar cell material and glass can be analysed in this way. On a world-wide basis, numerous laboratories perform ion beam analysis for research purposes; considerable work is carried out in cooperation between scientific laboratories and industry, but only a few laboratories provide a completely commercial service

  10. Bolt beam propagation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokair, I. R.

    BOLT (Beam on Laser Technology) is a rocket experiment to demonstrate electron beam propagation on a laser ionized plasma channel across the geomagnetic field in the ion focused regime (IFR). The beam parameters for BOLT are: beam current I(sub b) = 100 Amps, beam energy of 1--1.5 MeV (gamma =3-4), and a Gaussian beam and channel of radii r(sub b) = r(sub c) = 1.5 cm. The N+1 ionization scheme is used to ionize atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere. This scheme utilizes 130 nm light plus three IR lasers to excite and then ionize atomic oxygen. The limiting factor for the channel strength is the energy of the 130 nm laser, which is assumed to be 1.6 mJ for BOLT. At a fixed laser energy and altitude (fixing the density of atomic oxygen), the range can be varied by adjusting the laser tuning, resulting in a neutralization fraction axial profile of the form: f(z) = f(sub 0) e(exp minus z)/R, where R is the range. In this paper we consider the propagation of the BOLT beam and calculate the range of the electron beam taking into account the fact that the erosion rates (magnetic and inductive) vary with beam length as the beam and channel dynamically respond to sausage and hose instabilities.

  11. Ion beam analysis fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasi, Michael; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications explains the basic characteristics of ion beams as applied to the analysis of materials, as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) of art/archaeological objects. It focuses on the fundamentals and applications of ion beam methods of materials characterization.The book explains how ions interact with solids and describes what information can be gained. It starts by covering the fundamentals of ion beam analysis, including kinematics, ion stopping, Rutherford backscattering, channeling, elastic recoil detection, particle induced x-ray emission, and nucle

  12. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.

    2009-01-01

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly

  13. Thermal analysis of the SSC beam scraper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, N.; Dao, B.

    1993-04-01

    When a particle beam impacts a beam scraper, heat is generated resulting in a rise in the temperature of the material. The maximum temperature rise should be kept to a minimum in order to maintain scraper efficiency and performance. In this paper the results of a thermal analysis of a scraper are presented

  14. Wide spectral band beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Oren

    2015-03-01

    The reality in laser beam profiling is that measurements are performed over a wide spectrum of wavelengths and power ranges. Many applications use multiple laser wavelengths with very different power levels, a fact which dictates a need for a better measuring tool. Rapid progress in the fiber laser area has increased the demand for lasers in the wavelength range of 900 - 1030 nm, while the telecommunication market has increased the demand for wavelength range of 1300nm - 1600 nm, on the other hand the silicone chip manufacturing and mass production requirements tend to lower the laser wavelength towards the 190nm region. In many cases there is a need to combine several lasers together in order to perform a specific task. A typical application is to combine one visible laser for pointing, with a different laser for material processing with a very different wavelength and power level. The visible laser enables accurate pointing before the second laser is operated. The beam profile of the intensity distribution is an important parameter that indicates how a laser beam will behave in an application. Currently a lab, where many different lasers are used, will find itself using various laser beam profilers from several vendors with different specifications and accuracies. It is the propose of this article to present a technological breakthrough in the area of detectors, electronics and optics allowing intricate measurements of lasers with different wavelength and with power levels that vary many orders of magnitude by a single beam profiler.

  15. Elastic analysis of beam support impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.A.; Verma, V.K.; Youtsos, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gaps present in the seismic supports of nuclear piping systems has been studied with the use of such large general purpose analysis codes as ANSYS. Exact analytical solutions to two simple beam impact problems are obtained to serve as benchmarks for the evaluation of the ability of such codes to model impact between beam elements and their supports. Bernoulli-Euler beam theory and modal analysis are used to obtain analytical solutions for the motion of simply supported and fixed ended beams after impact with a spring support at midspan. The solutions are valid up to the time the beam loses contact with the spring support. Numerical results are obtained which show that convergence for both contact force and bending moment at the point of impact is slower as spring stiffness is increased. Finite element solutions obtained with ANSYS are compared to analytical results and good agreement is obtained

  16. Simulation based analysis of laser beam brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Michael; Wiethop, Philipp; Schmid, Daniel; Schmidt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Laser beam brazing is a well-established joining technology in car body manufacturing with main applications in the joining of divided tailgates and the joining of roof and side panels. A key advantage of laser brazed joints is the seam's visual quality which satisfies highest requirements. However, the laser beam brazing process is very complex and process dynamics are only partially understood. In order to gain deeper knowledge of the laser beam brazing process, to determine optimal process parameters and to test process variants, a transient three-dimensional simulation model of laser beam brazing is developed. This model takes into account energy input, heat transfer as well as fluid and wetting dynamics that lead to the formation of the brazing seam. A validation of the simulation model is performed by metallographic analysis and thermocouple measurements for different parameter sets of the brazing process. These results show that the multi-physical simulation model not only can be used to gain insight into the laser brazing process but also offers the possibility of process optimization in industrial applications. The model's capabilities in determining optimal process parameters are exemplarily shown for the laser power. Small deviations in the energy input can affect the brazing results significantly. Therefore, the simulation model is used to analyze the effect of the lateral laser beam position on the energy input and the resulting brazing seam.

  17. Molecular-beam epitaxial growth and ion-beam analysis systems for functional materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, H.; Aoki, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Naramoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental systems for molecular beam epitaxial growth and ion beam analysis have been designed and constructed for the research of inorganic functional materials such as thin films and superlattices. (author)

  18. Beam lifetime measurement and analysis in Indus-2 electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the beam lifetime measurement and its theoretical analysis are presented using measured vacuum pressure and applied radio frequency (RF) cavity voltage in Indus-2 electron storage ring at 2 GeV beam energy. Experimental studies of the effect of RF cavity voltage and bunched beam filling pattern on beam ...

  19. Design and Analysis Methodologies for Inflated Beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    The central theme of the thesis is bending behaviour of inflated beams. Three different types of beams have been analysed for the bending load case: a straight cylindrical beam made of anisotropic foil material, a conical beam made of an isotropic foil material, and a carbon fibre braided beam. The

  20. Bayesian analysis of ion beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, U. von; Fischer, R.; Dose, V.

    2001-01-01

    Ion beam diagnostics are routinely used for quantitative analysis of the surface composition of mixture materials up to a depth of a few μm. Unfortunately, advantageous properties of the diagnostics, like high depth resolution in combination with a large penetration depth, no destruction of the surface, high sensitivity for large as well as for small atomic numbers, and high sensitivity are mutually exclusive. Among other things, this is due to the ill-conditioned inverse problem of reconstructing depth distributions of the composition elements. Robust results for depth distributions are obtained with adaptive methods in the framework of Bayesian probability theory. The method of adaptive kernels allows for distributions which contain only the significant information of the data while noise fitting is avoided. This is achieved by adaptively reducing the degrees of freedom supporting the distribution. As applications for ion beam diagnostics Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and particle induced X-ray emission are shown

  1. Teeth characterization using ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Falla-Sotelo, F.; Curado, J.F.; Francci, C.; Markarian, R.A.; Quinelato, A.; Youssef, F.; Mori, M.; Youssef, M.

    2006-01-01

    A collaboration project between the School of Dentistry and the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo has been established to measure elemental concentrations in teeth by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (HI-ERDA) techniques. Data on trace elements in human, bovine and swine teeth, analyzed by PIXE with a 2.4 MeV proton beam, were compared and concentrations for several elements were obtained with tens of μg/g sensitivity. HI-ERDA measurements employing a 52 MeV Cl beam were done to evaluate changes in elementary concentration in dental enamel after bleaching treatment with different products in 25 bovine incisors teeth. This nondestructive technique allowed the measurements of Ca, P, O and C concentrations above the limit of 100 μg/g. (author)

  2. Ion beam analysis and modern materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Leonard C.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Modern research has provided the means of creating materials structures controlled at the atomic scale. Familiar examples include the formation of hetero-structures grown with atomic precision, nanostructures with designed electronic properties and new organic structures employing the richness of organic chemistry. The current forefront of such materials research includes the creation of new materials for energy and electronics applications. The electron transport properties of these diverse materials, and hence their performance, is invariably linked by the basic interactions at the interface. Interfaces are the critical component, and least understood aspect, of almost all such materials-based structures. Ion beam analysis, and its role in interfacial definition, will be described in the context of a number of such forefront projects underway at the Rutgers Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology (IAMDN). These include: 1) quantitative analysis of self-assembled monolayers on organic single crystals resulting in enhanced surface mobility and more effective organic field effect transistors, 2) monolayer scale interfacial analysis of complex oxide hetero-structures to elucidate the properties of the enhanced two-dimensional electron mobility and 3) characterization of the semiconductor- dielectric interface in the SiC/SiO2 system, with application for energy efficient power transmission. Despite extraordinary advances in synthesis, interface properties continue as an uncontrolled region of hetero-materials formation. Their understanding requires the detailed analysis of a complement of tools including ion beam analysis. Fellow Researchers: R. A. Bartynski, L.C.Feldman, E. Garfunkel, T. Gustafsson, H.D. Lee, D. Mastrogiovanni, V. Podzorov, L. S. Wielunski, J. R. Williams(Auburn), G. Liu, J. Williams, S. Dhar. (author)

  3. Stability Analysis of Nonuniform Rectangular Beams Using Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Pinarbasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of slender beams, that is, beams with large laterally unsupported lengths, is commonly controlled by stability limit states. Beam buckling, also called “lateral torsional buckling,” is different from column buckling in that a beam not only displaces laterally but also twists about its axis during buckling. The coupling between twist and lateral displacement makes stability analysis of beams more complex than that of columns. For this reason, most of the analytical studies in the literature on beam stability are concentrated on simple cases: uniform beams with ideal boundary conditions and simple loadings. This paper shows that complex beam stability problems, such as lateral torsional buckling of rectangular beams with variable cross-sections, can successfully be solved using homotopy perturbation method (HPM.

  4. Elemental analysis with external-beam PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. K.; Wang, C. W.; Teng, P. K.; Huang, Y. M.; Chen, C. Y.

    1992-05-01

    A beamline system and experimental setup has been established for elemental analysis using PIXE with an external beam. Experiments for the study of the elemental composition of ancient Chinese potsherds (the Min and Ching ages) were performed. Continuum X-ray spectra from the samples bombarded by 3 MeV protons have been measured with a Si(Li) detector. From the analysis of PIXE data, the concentration of the main elements (Al, Si, K, and Ca) and of more than ten trace elements in the matrices and glazed surfaces were determined. Results for two different potsherds are presented, and those obtained from the glaze colorants are compared with the results of measurements on a Ching blue-and-white porcelain vase.

  5. Development of Emittance Analysis Software for Ion Beam Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, M.J.; Liu, Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Transverse beam emittance is a crucial property of charged particle beams that describes their angular and spatial spread. It is a figure of merit frequently used to determine the quality of ion beams, the compatibility of an ion beam with a given beam transport system, and the ability to suppress neighboring isotopes at on-line mass separator facilities. Generally, a high-quality beam is characterized by a small emittance. In order to determine and improve the quality of ion beams used at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research, the emittances of the ion beams are measured at the off-line Ion Source Test Facilities. In this project, emittance analysis software was developed to perform various data processing tasks for noise reduction, to evaluate root-mean-square emittance, Twiss parameters, and area emittance of different beam fractions. The software also provides 2D and 3D graphical views of the emittance data, beam profiles, emittance contours, and RMS. Noise exclusion is essential for accurate determination of beam emittance values. A Self-Consistent, Unbiased Elliptical Exclusion (SCUBEEx) method is employed. Numerical data analysis techniques such as interpolation and nonlinear fitting are also incorporated into the software. The software will provide a simplified, fast tool for comprehensive emittance analysis. The main functions of the software package have been completed. In preliminary tests with experimental emittance data, the analysis results using the software were shown to be accurate

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF EMITTANCE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR ION BEAM CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, M. J.; Liu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Transverse beam emittance is a crucial property of charged particle beams that describes their angular and spatial spread. It is a fi gure of merit frequently used to determine the quality of ion beams, the compatibility of an ion beam with a given beam transport system, and the ability to suppress neighboring isotopes at on-line mass separator facilities. Generally a high quality beam is characterized by a small emittance. In order to determine and improve the quality of ion beams used at the Holifi eld Radioactive Ion beam Facility (HRIBF) for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research, the emittances of the ion beams are measured at the off-line Ion Source Test Facilities. In this project, emittance analysis software was developed to perform various data processing tasks for noise reduction, to evaluate root-mean-square emittance, Twiss parameters, and area emittance of different beam fractions. The software also provides 2D and 3D graphical views of the emittance data, beam profi les, emittance contours, and RMS. Noise exclusion is essential for accurate determination of beam emittance values. A Self-Consistent, Unbiased Elliptical Exclusion (SCUBEEx) method is employed. Numerical data analysis techniques such as interpolation and nonlinear fi tting are also incorporated into the software. The software will provide a simplifi ed, fast tool for comprehensive emittance analysis. The main functions of the software package have been completed. In preliminary tests with experimental emittance data, the analysis results using the software were shown to be accurate.

  7. Energy spread in ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, E.

    2000-01-01

    In ion beam analysis (IBA) the depth profiles are extracted from the experimentally determined energy profiles. The spectra, however, are subject to finite energy resolution of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. Calculation of those effects such as instrumental beam, geometry and detection-related energy and angular spreads as well as energy straggling, multiple scattering and Doppler effects in the sample itself is not trivial, especially since it involves treatment of non-independent random processes. A proper account for energy spread is vital in IBA not only for correct extraction of elemental and isotopic depth profiles from the measured spectra, but already prior to data acquisition, in optimising experimental conditions to reach the required depth resolution at a certain depth. After a short review of the literature on the different energy spread contributions experimental examples are given from resonance, RBS, elastic BS and ERDA practice in which an account for energy spread contributions is essential. Some further examples illustrate extraction of structural information (roughness, pore size, etc.) from elaborated depth resolution calculation for such layer structures

  8. Energy spread in ion beam analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, E. E-mail: szilagyi@rmki.kkfki.hu

    2000-03-01

    In ion beam analysis (IBA) the depth profiles are extracted from the experimentally determined energy profiles. The spectra, however, are subject to finite energy resolution of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. Calculation of those effects such as instrumental beam, geometry and detection-related energy and angular spreads as well as energy straggling, multiple scattering and Doppler effects in the sample itself is not trivial, especially since it involves treatment of non-independent random processes. A proper account for energy spread is vital in IBA not only for correct extraction of elemental and isotopic depth profiles from the measured spectra, but already prior to data acquisition, in optimising experimental conditions to reach the required depth resolution at a certain depth. After a short review of the literature on the different energy spread contributions experimental examples are given from resonance, RBS, elastic BS and ERDA practice in which an account for energy spread contributions is essential. Some further examples illustrate extraction of structural information (roughness, pore size, etc.) from elaborated depth resolution calculation for such layer structures.

  9. Ion beams in materials processing and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    This book covers ion beam application in modern materials research, offering the basics of ion beam physics and technology and a detailed account of the physics of ion-solid interactions for ion implantation, ion beam synthesis, sputtering and nano-patterning.

  10. Applications of ion beam analysis workshop. Workshop handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A workshop on applications of ion beam analysis was held at ANSTO, immediate prior to the IBMM-95 Conference in Canberra. It aims was to review developments and current status on use of ion beams for analysis, emphasizing the following aspects: fundamental ion beam research and secondary effects of ion beams; material sciences, geological, life sciences, environmental and industrial applications; computing codes for use in accelerator research; high energy heavy ion scattering and recoil; recent technological development using ion beams. The handbook contains the workshop's program, 29 abstracts and a list of participants

  11. Analysis of beam envelope by transverse space charge effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Shin'ichi

    1997-09-01

    It is important for high current accelerators to estimate the contribution of the space charge effect to keep the beam off its beak up. The application of an envelope equation is examined in previous report in which the beam is just coasting beam (non accelerating). The analysis of space charge effect is necessary for the comparison in coming accelerator test in PNC. In order to evaluate the beam behavior in high current, the beam dynamics and beam parameters which are input to the equation for the evaluation are developed and make it ready to estimate the beam transverse dynamics by the space charge. The estimate needs to have enough accuracy for advanced code calculation. After the preparation of the analytic expression of transverse motion, the non-linear differential equation of beam dynamics is solved by a numerical method on a personal computer. The beam envelope from the equation is estimated by means of the beam emittance, current and energy. The result from the analysis shows that the transverse beam broadening is scarecely small around the beam current value of PNC design. The contribution to the beam broadening of PNC linac comes from its beam emittance. The beam broadening in 100 MeV case is almost negligible in the view of transverse space charge effect. Therefore, the electron beam is stable up to 10 A order in PNC linac design. Of course, the problem for RF supply is out of consideration here. It is important to estimate other longitudinal effect such as beam bunch effect which is lasting unevaluated. (author)

  12. PIXE and ion beam analysis in forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Melanie; Warmenhoven, John; Chrislopher, Matt; Kirkby, Karen; Palitsin, Vladimir; Grime, Geoff; Jeynes, Chris; Jones, Brian; Wenn, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Full text: University of Surrey has, for the past four years, collaborated with police institutions from across Europe and the rest of the world lo scope potential applications of ion beam analysis (IBA) in forensic science. In doing this we have consulted practitioners across a range of forensic disciplines, and critically compared IBA with conventional characterisation techniques to investigate the areas in which IBA can add evidential value. In this talk, the results of this feasibility study will be presented, showing the types of sample for which IBA shows considerable promise. We will show how a combination of PIXE with other IBA techniques (EBS, PIGE, MeV-SIMS) can be used to give unprecedented characterisation of forensic samples and comment on the significance of these results for forensic casework. We will also show cases where IBA not appear to add any significant improvement over conventional techniques. (author)

  13. External beam PIXE analysis of painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascholati, Paulo R.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Barbosa, Marcel D.L.; Albuquerque, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    The preservation and conservation of mankind cultural heritage has become an important issue worldwide. Non-destructive analytical techniques are suitable, for example, to analyze precious and unique objects of art and archaeology. Among those techniques Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) has good advantage to identify elemental composition present in these kinds of objects. The Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos-LAMFI of the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo has been installed an external beam facility for PIXE analysis. This new setup is being used for the analysis of archaeological pottery artifacts, paintings and biological tissues (teeth and bones), which are not compatible with the high vacuum of the regular PIXE target chamber. In addition most art and archaeological objects are too large for the evacuated analysis chamber. Applications of this facility will be presented in the analysis of one painting of the beginning of the last century. The chemical elements identified in the painting were Ca, Ti, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ba. The PIXE measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated object. (author)

  14. Vlasov analysis of microbunching instability for magnetized beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. Tsai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For a high-brightness electron beam with high bunch charge traversing a recirculation beam line, coherent synchrotron radiation and space charge effects may result in microbunching instability (MBI. Both tracking simulation and Vlasov analysis for an early design of a circulator cooler ring (CCR for the Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC reveal significant MBI [Ya. Derbenev and Y. Zhang, Proceedings of the Workshop on Beam Cooling and Related Topics, COOL’09, Lanzhou, China, 2009 (2009, FRM2MCCO01]. It is envisioned that the MBI could be substantially suppressed by using a magnetized beam. In this paper we have generalized the existing Vlasov analysis, originally developed for a nonmagnetized beam (or transversely uncoupled beam, to the description of transport of a magnetized beam including relevant collective effects. The new formulation is then employed to confirm prediction of microbunching suppression for a magnetized beam transport in the recirculation arc of a recent JLEIC energy recovery linac (ERL based cooler design for electron cooling. It is found that the smearing effect in the longitudinal beam phase space originates from the large transverse beam size as a nature of the magnetized beams and becomes effective through the x-z correlation when the correlated distance is larger than the microbunched scale. As a comparison, MBI analysis of the early design of JLEIC CCR is also presented in this paper.

  15. Analysis of RHIC beam dump pre-fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Ahrens, L.; Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mi, J.; Sandberg, J.; Tan, Y.

    2011-01-01

    It has been speculated that the beam may cause instability of the RHIC Beam Abort Kickers. In this study, we explore the available data of past beam operations, the device history of key modulator components, and the radiation patterns to examine the correlations. The RHIC beam abort kicker system was designed and built in the 90's. Over last decade, we have made many improvements to bring the RHIC beam abort kicker system to a stable operational state. However, the challenge continues. We present the analysis of the pre-fire, an unrequested discharge of kicker, issues which relates to the RHIC machine safety and operational stability.

  16. Failure analysis of prestressed concrete beam under impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, N.; Sonoda, Y.; Kobayashi, N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a failure analysis of prestressed concrete (PC) beam under impact loading. At first, the failure analysis of PC beam section is performed by using the discrete section element method in order to obtain the dynamic bending moment-curvature relation. Secondary, the failure analysis of PC beam is performed by using the rigid panel-spring model. Finally, the numerical calculation is executed and is compared with the experimental results. It is found that this approach can simulate well the experiments at the local and overall failure of the PC beam as well as the impact load and the displacement-time relations. (author)

  17. Model-Independent Beam Dynamics Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.; Wang, C.X.; Yan, Y.T.; Bane, K.L.; Cai, Y.; Decker, F.; Minty, M.G.; Stupakov, G.V.; Zimmermann, F.

    1999-01-01

    Using a singular value decomposition of a beam line matrix, composed of many beam position measurements for a large number of pulses, together with the measurement of pulse-by-pulse beam properties or machine attributes, the contributions of each variable to the beam centroid motion can be identified with a greatly improved resolution. The eigenvalues above the noise floor determine the number of significant physical variables. This method is applicable to storage rings, linear accelerators, and any system involving a number of sources and a larger number of sensors with unknown correlations. Applications are presented from the Stanford Linear Collider. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. Applications of the BEam Cross section Analysis Software (BECAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert; Fedorov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used for the gener......A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used...... for the generation of beam finite element models which correctly account for effects stemming from material anisotropy and inhomogeneity in cross sections of arbitrary geometry. These type of modelling approach allows for an accurate yet computationally inexpensive representation of a general class of three...

  19. Data analysis of photon beam position at PLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, J.; Shin, S., E-mail: tlssh@postech.ac.kr; Huang, Jung-Yun; Kim, D.; Kim, C.; Kim, Ilyou; Lee, T.-Y.; Park, C.-D.; Kim, K. R. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-834 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Moohyun [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-834 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-27

    In the third generation light source, photon beam position stability is critical issue on user experiment. Generally photon beam position monitors have been developed for the detection of the real photon beam position and the position is controlled by feedback system in order to keep the reference photon beam position. In the PLS-II, photon beam position stability for front end of particular beam line, in which photon beam position monitor is installed, has been obtained less than rms 1μm for user service period. Nevertheless, detail analysis for photon beam position data in order to demonstrate the performance of photon beam position monitor is necessary, since it can be suffers from various unknown noises. (for instance, a back ground contamination due to upstream or downstream dipole radiation, undulator gap dependence, etc.) In this paper, we will describe the start to end study for photon beam position stability and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analysis to demonstrate the reliability on photon beam position data.

  20. PIXE analysis using external proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potocek, V; Potockova, J; Dzmuran, R; Sikora, J

    1985-03-01

    The possibilities were studied of the practical use of the analytical PIXE method. Calibration samples were analyzed of Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb in concentrations of 50 to 500 ..mu..g/l as well as natural samples of drinking water, pond water, human blood plasma, dry waste from ground vegetation, mushrooms, pine needles, aerosols, human hair, leaves and flowers, etc. The samples were processed using precipitation, mineralization or incineration and were trapped on a membrane filter (Synpor) or on a Tatrafan ON 15 foil. Some samples were freeze-dried and compressed into pellets. A proton beam with an intensity of 10 to 70 nA was used for analysis and the proton energy was selected 2.2 MeV. For most targets an exposure of 120 s was preset and the measurement lasted at least 60 s and 600 s at the most. It was found that Synpor filters browned and became more brittle during longer exposures. The other targets did not change during analysis.

  1. Parametric Design and Mechanical Analysis of Beams based on SINOVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z. G.; Shen, W. D.; Yang, D. Y.; Liu, W. M.

    2017-07-01

    In engineering practice, engineer needs to carry out complicated calculation when the loads on the beam are complex. The processes of analysis and calculation take a lot of time and the results are unreliable. So VS2005 and ADK are used to develop a software for beams design based on the 3D CAD software SINOVATION with C ++ programming language. The software can realize the mechanical analysis and parameterized design of various types of beams and output the report of design in HTML format. Efficiency and reliability of design of beams are improved.

  2. Asymptotic analysis of a von Koch beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Pugno, Nicola; Sapora, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Fractal geometry is used in diverse research areas, being an useful tool in describing the mechanical behaviour of natural and man-made structures. In this paper, the structural behaviour of a von Koch cantilever beam is analyzed in the small deformations regime. Analytical recursive formulae for the strain energy scaling are derived, which have been found in good agreement with numerical simulations. Energy considerations suggest a peculiar scaling for the beam rigidity in order to prevent compliance divergence. The results are then extended to evaluate the stiffness matrix of a von Koch beam.

  3. Neutron beams. Tracks analysis, imaging and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepy, G.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal neutron beams can supply informations about the arrangement of atoms and molecules and about their movement inside the matter. This article treats of the preparation of thermal neutron beams and of the applications that use their penetration and matter activation properties: 1 - thermal neutrons production; 2 - basic properties of thermal neutrons: neutrons scattering, absorbing materials, activating materials, transparent materials, preparation of a neutron beam; 3 - tracks measurement by activation: activation method, measurement of marine pollution by heavy elements, historical evolution of glass composition; 4 - neutron radiography: neutronography, neutronoscopy: viscosity measurement; 5 - cancer treatment. (J.S.)

  4. Analysis of parasitic oscillations in 42 GHz gyrotron beam tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Singh, U.; Singh, T. P.; Sinha, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    Parasitic oscillation excitation analysis has been carried out for the 42 GHz gyrotron beam tunnel. This article presents a systematic approach for the analysis of parasitic oscillation excitation. The electron trajectory code EGUN has been used for the estimation of the electron beam parameters in the beam tunnel. The electromagnetic simulation code CST-MS has been used for the eigenmode and Q value analysis. The analysis of the parasitic oscillations has been performed for the symmetric TE modes and the first three cavity side copper rings. Four different approaches- the Q value study, the mode maxima-electron beam radius mismatching, the electron cyclotron frequency-mode excitation frequency mismatching and the backward wave interaction analysis- have been used for the parasitic oscillation analysis.

  5. Collider detector beam line test table: a structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leininger, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus which sweeps calorimeter and endwall modules through the beam during testing is called a beam line test table. Because of rather stringent requirements for the physical positioning of the modules an analysis is done here to determine the modifications to the current test table design which will minimize deflections of the table under load

  6. Analysis of the beam induced heat loads on the LHC arc beam screens during Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Iadarola, Giovanni; Dijkstal, Philipp; Mether, Lotta; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    During Run 2 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been routinely operated with 25 ns bunch spacing. In these conditions large heat loads have been measured on the beam screens of the superconducting magnets, together with other observations indicating that an electron cloud develops in the beam chambers. The analysis of these heat loads has revealed several interesting features allowing to pinpoint peculiar characteristics of the observed beam-induced heating. This document describes the main findings of this analysis including the evolution taking place during the run, the observed dependence on the beam conditions and the results from special tests and dedicated instrumentation. The differences observed in the behavior of the eight LHC arcs are also discussed.

  7. Activation analysis opportunities using cold neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, R M; Zeisler, R; Rossbach, M

    1987-05-01

    Guided beams of cold neutrons being installed at a number of research reactors may become increasingly available for analytical research. A guided cold beam will provide higher neutron fluence rates and lower background interferences than in present facilities. In an optimized facility, fluence rates of 10/sup 9/ nxcm/sup -2/xs/sup -1/ are obtainable. Focusing a large area beam onto a small target will further increase the neutron intensity. In addition, the shift to lower neutron energy increases the effective cross sections. The absence of fast neutrons and gamma rays permits detectors to be placed near the sample without intolerable background, and thus the efficiency for counting prompt gamma rays can be much higher than in present systems. Measurements made at the hydrogen cold source of the FRJ-2 (DIDO) reactor at the KFA provide a numerical evaluation of the improvements in PGAA with respect to signal-to-background ratios of important elements and matrices. (author) 15 refs.

  8. Development and Commissioning of an External Beam Facility in the Union College Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Clark, Morgan; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an external beam facility for the 1.1-MV tandem Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory. The beam is extracted from an aluminum pipe through a 1 / 4 ' ' diameter window with a 7.5- μm thick Kapton foil. This external beam facility allows us to perform ion beam analysis on samples that cannot be put under vacuum, including wet samples and samples too large to fit into the scattering chamber. We have commissioned the new facility by performing proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of several samples of environmental interest. These include samples of artificial turf, running tracks, and a human tooth with an amalgam filling. A 1.7-MeV external proton beam was incident on the samples positioned 2 cm from the window. The resulting X-rays were measured using a silicon drift detector and were analyzed using GUPIX software to determine the concentrations of elements in the samples. The results on the human tooth indicate that while significant concentrations of Hg, Ag, and Sn are present in the amalgam filling, only trace amounts of Hg appear to have leached into the tooth. The artificial turf and running tracks show rather large concentrations of a broad range of elements and trace amounts of Pb in the turf infill.

  9. Cracking and Strain Analysis of Beams Reinforced with Composite Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgaras Timinskas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the results of experimental and numerical modelling using two beams reinforced with GFRP bars. One beam was made of plain concrete while the other contained short steel fibres. The influence of steel fibres on deflection and cracking behaviour was studied. A comparative analysis of experimental results has shown that steel fibres significantly reduce deflections and average crack width of the beam. Moreover, an addition of steel fibres to the concrete mix led to a more ductile failure mode of the beam. Numerical analysis employing nonlinear finite element software ATENA has revealed that a good agreement between calculated and experimental results regarding an ordinary concrete GFRP reinforced beam can be obtained.

  10. LHC Beam Dump System: Analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. It is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missin...

  11. Preliminary analysis of beam trip and beam jump events in an ADS prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, A.; Bianchini, G.; Carta, M.

    2001-01-01

    A core dynamics analysis relevant to some typical current transient events has been carried out on an 80 MW energy amplifier prototype (EAP) fuelled by mixed oxides and cooled by lead-bismuth. Fuel and coolant temperature trends relevant to recovered beam trip and beam jump events have been preliminary investigated. Beam trip results show that the drop in temperature of the core outlet coolant would be reduced a fair amount if the beam intensity could be recovered within few seconds. Due to the low power density in the EAP fuel, the beam jump from 50% of the nominal power transient evolves benignly. The worst thinkable current transient, beam jump with cold reactor, mainly depends on the coolant flow conditions. In the EAP design, the primary loop coolant flow is assured by natural convection and is enhanced by a particular system of cover gas injection into the bottom part of the riser. If this system of coolant flow enhancement is assumed in function, even the beam jump with cold reactor event evolves without severe consequences. (authors)

  12. Analysis of emissions from prebunched electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Qika

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The emissions of the prebunched electron beam, including the coherent spontaneous emission and the self-amplified stimulated emission, are analyzed by using one-dimensional FEL theory. Neglecting the interaction of the electrons and the radiation field, the formula of the coherent spontaneous emission is given, the power of which is proportional to the square of the initial bunching factor and of the undulator length. For the general emission case of the prebunched electron beam, the evolution equation of the optical field is deducted. Then the analytical expression of the emission power is obtained for the resonant case; it is applicable to the regions from the low gain to the high gain. It is found that when the undulator length is shorter than four gain lengths, the emission is just the coherent spontaneous emission, and conversely, it is the self-amplified stimulated emission growing exponentially. For the nonresonant prebunched electron beam, the variations of the emission intensity with the detuning parameter for different interaction length are presented. The radiation field characters of the prebunched electron beam are discussed and compared with that of the seeded FEL amplifier.

  13. Model Independent Analysis of Beam Centroid Dynamics in Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chun-xi

    2003-04-21

    Fundamental issues in Beam-Position-Monitor (BPM)-based beam dynamics observations are studied in this dissertation. The major topic is the Model-Independent Analysis (MIA) of beam centroid dynamics. Conventional beam dynamics analysis requires a certain machine model, which itself of ten needs to be refined by beam measurements. Instead of using any particular machine model, MIA relies on a statistical analysis of the vast amount of BPM data that often can be collected non-invasively during normal machine operation. There are two major parts in MIA. One is noise reduction and degrees-of-freedom analysis using a singular value decomposition of a BPM-data matrix, which constitutes a principal component analysis of BPM data. The other is a physical base decomposition of the BPM-data matrix based on the time structure of pulse-by-pulse beam and/or machine parameters. The combination of these two methods allows one to break the resolution limit set by individual BPMs and observe beam dynamics at more accurate levels. A physical base decomposition is particularly useful for understanding various beam dynamics issues. MIA improves observation and analysis of beam dynamics and thus leads to better understanding and control of beams in both linacs and rings. The statistical nature of MIA makes it potentially useful in other fields. Another important topic discussed in this dissertation is the measurement of a nonlinear Poincare section (one-turn) map in circular accelerators. The beam dynamics in a ring is intrinsically nonlinear. In fact, nonlinearities are a major factor that limits stability and influences the dynamics of halos. The Poincare section map plays a basic role in characterizing and analyzing such a periodic nonlinear system. Although many kinds of nonlinear beam dynamics experiments have been conducted, no direct measurement of a nonlinear map has been reported for a ring in normal operation mode. This dissertation analyzes various issues concerning map

  14. Model Independent Analysis of Beam Centroid Dynamics in Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chun-xi

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental issues in Beam-Position-Monitor (BPM)-based beam dynamics observations are studied in this dissertation. The major topic is the Model-Independent Analysis (MIA) of beam centroid dynamics. Conventional beam dynamics analysis requires a certain machine model, which itself of ten needs to be refined by beam measurements. Instead of using any particular machine model, MIA relies on a statistical analysis of the vast amount of BPM data that often can be collected non-invasively during normal machine operation. There are two major parts in MIA. One is noise reduction and degrees-of-freedom analysis using a singular value decomposition of a BPM-data matrix, which constitutes a principal component analysis of BPM data. The other is a physical base decomposition of the BPM-data matrix based on the time structure of pulse-by-pulse beam and/or machine parameters. The combination of these two methods allows one to break the resolution limit set by individual BPMs and observe beam dynamics at more accurate levels. A physical base decomposition is particularly useful for understanding various beam dynamics issues. MIA improves observation and analysis of beam dynamics and thus leads to better understanding and control of beams in both linacs and rings. The statistical nature of MIA makes it potentially useful in other fields. Another important topic discussed in this dissertation is the measurement of a nonlinear Poincare section (one-turn) map in circular accelerators. The beam dynamics in a ring is intrinsically nonlinear. In fact, nonlinearities are a major factor that limits stability and influences the dynamics of halos. The Poincare section map plays a basic role in characterizing and analyzing such a periodic nonlinear system. Although many kinds of nonlinear beam dynamics experiments have been conducted, no direct measurement of a nonlinear map has been reported for a ring in normal operation mode. This dissertation analyzes various issues concerning map

  15. Mode Shape Analysis of Multiple Cracked Functionally Graded Timoshenko Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Van Lien

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper addresses free vibration of multiple cracked Timoshenko beams made of Functionally Graded Material (FGM. Cracks are modeled by rotational spring of stiffness calculated from the crack depth and material properties vary according to the power law throughout the beam thickness. Governing equations for free vibration of the beam are formulated with taking into account actual position of the neutral plane. The obtained frequency equation and mode shapes are used for analysis of the beam mode shapes in dependence on the material and crack parameters. Numerical results validate usefulness of the proposed herein theory and show that mode shapes are good indication for detecting multiple cracks in Timoshenko FGM beams.

  16. Analysis of prestressed concrete slab-and-beam structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapountzakis, E. J.; Katsikadelis, J. T.

    In this paper a solution to the problem of prestressed concrete slab-and-beam structures including creep and shrinkage effect is presented. The adopted model takes into account the resulting inplane forces and deformations of the plate as well as the axial forces and deformations of the beam, due to combined response of the system. The analysis consists in isolating the beams from the plate by sections parallel to the lower outer surface of the plate. The forces at the interface, which produce lateral deflection and inplane deformation to the plate and lateral deflection and axial deformation to the beam, are established using continuity conditions at the interface. The influence of creep and shrinkage effect relative with the time of the casting and the time of the loading of the plate and the beams is taken into account. The estimation of the prestressing axial force of the beams is accomplished iteratively. Both instant (e.g. friction, slip of anchorage) and time dependent losses are encountered. The solution of the arising plate and beam problems, which are nonlinearly coupled, is achieved using the analog equation method (AEM). The adopted model, compared with those ignoring the inplane forces and deformations, describes better the actual response of the plate-beams system and permits the evaluation of the shear forces at the interfaces, the knowledge of which is very important in the design of prefabricated ribbed plates.

  17. Numerical analysis of beam with sinusoidally corrugated webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Marcin; Pieńko, Michał; Łagoda, GraŻyna

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents numerical tests results of the steel beam with sinusoidally corrugated web, which were performed in the Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2010. The analysis was preceded by laboratory tests including the beam's work under the influence of the four point bending as well as the study of material characteristics. Significant web's thickness and use of tools available in the software allowed to analyze the behavior of the plate girder as beam, and also to observe the occurrence of stresses in the characteristic element - the corrugated web. The stress distribution observed on the both web's surfaces was analyzed.

  18. Beam analysis spectrometer for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Subramanian, T.S.; McDonald, W.J.; Kaplan, S.N.; Sadoff, A.; Gabor, G.

    1983-01-01

    A versatile spectrometer useful for measuring the mass, charge, energy, fluence and angular distribution of primaries and fragments associated with relativistic heavy ion beams is described. The apparatus is designed to provide accurate physical data for biology experiments and medical therapy planning as a function of depth in tissue. The spectrometer can also be used to measure W, the average energy to produce an ion pair, range-energy, dE/dx, and removal cross section data of interest in nuclear physics. (orig.)

  19. Ion beam analysis of diffusion in heterogeneous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, A.S.; Jenneson, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Ion-beam analysis has been applied to a variety of problems involving diffusion in heterogeneous materials. An energy loss technique has been used to study both the diffusion of water and the surface segregation of fluoropolymers in polymeric matrices. A scanning micro-beam technique has been developed to allow water concentrations in hydrophilic polymers and cements to be measured together with associated solute elements. It has also been applied to the diffusion of shampoo into hair. (orig.)

  20. Ion beam analysis of diffusion in heterogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clough, A.S.; Jenneson, P.M. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1998-04-01

    Ion-beam analysis has been applied to a variety of problems involving diffusion in heterogeneous materials. An energy loss technique has been used to study both the diffusion of water and the surface segregation of fluoropolymers in polymeric matrices. A scanning micro-beam technique has been developed to allow water concentrations in hydrophilic polymers and cements to be measured together with associated solute elements. It has also been applied to the diffusion of shampoo into hair. (orig.) 13 refs.

  1. Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam H. El-Tayeb

    2017-04-01

    The obtained results of the studied cases reveal that material modeling of reinforced concrete beams and frames plays a major role in how these structures react to temperature variation. Cracking contributes to the release of significant portion of temperature restrain and in some cases this restrain is almost eliminated. The response of beams and frames deviates significantly based on the temperature gradient, linear or nonlinear; hence, the nonlinear temperature gradient which is the realistic profile is important to implement in the analysis.

  2. Silicon radiation detector analysis using back electron beam induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guye, R.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique for the observation and analysis of defects in silicon radiation detectors is described. This method uses an electron beam from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) impinging on the rear side of the p + n junction of the silicon detector, which itself is active and detects the electron beam induced current (EBIC). It is shown that this current is a sensitive probe of localized trapping centers, either at the junction surface or somewhere in the volume of the silicon crystal. (orig.)

  3. Contrastive Analysis and Research on Negative Pressure Beam Tube System and Positive Pressure Beam Tube System for Mine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyi; Shen, Jialong; Liu, Xinbo

    2018-01-01

    Against the technical defects of universally applicable beam tube monitoring system at present, such as air suction in the beam tube, line clogging, long sampling time, etc., the paper analyzes the current situation of the spontaneous combustion fire disaster forecast of mine in our country and these defects one by one. On this basis, the paper proposes a research thought that improving the positive pressure beam tube so as to substitute the negative pressure beam tube. Then, the paper introduces the beam tube monitoring system based on positive pressure technology through theoretical analysis and experiment. In the comparison with negative pressure beam tube, the paper concludes the advantage of the new system and draws the conclusion that the positive pressure beam tube is superior to the negative pressure beam tube system both in test result and test time. At last, the paper proposes prospect of the beam tube monitoring system based on positive pressure technology.

  4. Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutrakon, G; Wang, N; Miller, D W; Yang, Y

    2010-01-01

    All particle beam scanning systems are subject to dose delivery errors due to errors in position, energy and intensity of the delivered beam. In addition, finite scan speeds, beam spill non-uniformities, and delays in detector, detector electronics and magnet responses will all contribute errors in delivery. In this paper, we present dose errors for an 8 x 10 x 8 cm 3 target of uniform water equivalent density with 8 cm spread out Bragg peak and a prescribed dose of 2 Gy. Lower doses are also analyzed and presented later in the paper. Beam energy errors and errors due to limitations of scanning system hardware have been included in the analysis. By using Gaussian shaped pencil beams derived from measurements in the research room of the James M Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda, CA and executing treatment simulations multiple times, statistical dose errors have been calculated in each 2.5 mm cubic voxel in the target. These errors were calculated by delivering multiple treatments to the same volume and calculating the rms variation in delivered dose at each voxel in the target. The variations in dose were the result of random beam delivery errors such as proton energy, spot position and intensity fluctuations. The results show that with reasonable assumptions of random beam delivery errors, the spot scanning technique yielded an rms dose error in each voxel less than 2% or 3% of the 2 Gy prescribed dose. These calculated errors are within acceptable clinical limits for radiation therapy.

  5. Analysis of Bending Waves in Phononic Crystal Beams with Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing investigations on imperfect phononic crystal beams mainly concern periodic multi-span beams carrying either one or two channel waves with random or deterministic disorder in span-length. This paper studies the two channel bending waves in phononic crystal beams consisting of many phases of materials with defects introduced as one structural segment having different cross-sectional dimensions or material parameters. The method of reverberation-ray matrix (MRRM based on the Timoshenko beam theory, which can conduct high-frequency analysis, is extended for the theoretical analysis of dispersion and transmission of bending waves. The supercell technique and the Floquet–Bloch theorem are adopted for modeling the dispersion characteristics, and the whole finite structural model is used to calculate the transmission spectra. Experimental measurements and numerical calculations are provided to validate the displacement transmission obtained by the proposed MRRM, with the effect of damping on transmission spectra being concerned. The high-frequency calculation applicability of the proposed MRRM is also confirmed by comparing the present results with the corresponding ones either using the transfer matrix method (TMM or MRRM based on Euler—Bernoulli beam theory. The influences of defect size, defect form, and unit-cell number on the transmission spectra and the band structures are discussed. The drawn conclusions may be useful for designing or evaluating the defected phononic crystal beams in bending wave control. In addition, our conclusions are especially potential for identifying the defect location through bending wave signals.

  6. Numerical Analysis of Deflections of Multi-Layered Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biliński, Tadeusz; Socha, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    The paper concerns the rheological bending problem of wooden beams reinforced with embedded composite bars. A theoretical model of the behaviour of a multi-layered beam is presented. The component materials of this beam are described with equations for the linear viscoelastic five-parameter rheological model. Two numerical analysis methods for the long-term response of wood structures are presented. The first method has been developed with SCILAB software. The second one has been developed with the finite element calculation software ABAQUS and user subroutine UMAT. Laboratory investigations were conducted on sample beams of natural dimensions in order to validate the proposed theoretical model and verify numerical simulations. Good agreement between experimental measurements and numerical results is observed.

  7. Numerical Analysis of Deflections of Multi-Layered Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biliński Tadeusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the rheological bending problem of wooden beams reinforced with embedded composite bars. A theoretical model of the behaviour of a multi-layered beam is presented. The component materials of this beam are described with equations for the linear viscoelastic five-parameter rheological model. Two numerical analysis methods for the long-term response of wood structures are presented. The first method has been developed with SCILAB software. The second one has been developed with the finite element calculation software ABAQUS and user subroutine UMAT. Laboratory investigations were conducted on sample beams of natural dimensions in order to validate the proposed theoretical model and verify numerical simulations. Good agreement between experimental measurements and numerical results is observed.

  8. Analysis for Behavior of Reinforcement Lap Splices in Deep Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Yaser Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study includes an experimental and theoretical investigation of reinforced concrete deep beams containing tensile reinforcement lap splices at constant moment zone under static load. The study included two stages: in the first one, an experimental work included testing of eight simply supported RC deep beams having a total length (L = 2000 mm, overall depth (h= 600 mm and width (b = 150 mm. The tested specimens were divided into three groups to study the effect of main variables: lap length, location of splice, internal confinement (stirrups and external confinement (strengthening by CFRP laminates. The experimental results showed that the use of CFRP as external strengthening in deep beam with lap spliced gives best behavior such as increase in stiffness, decrease in deflection, delaying the cracks appearance and reducing the crack width. The reduction in deflection about (14-21 % than the unstrengthened beam and about (5-14 % than the beam with continuous bars near ultimate load. Also, it was observed that the beams with unstrengthened tensile reinforcement lap splices had three types of cracks: flexural, flexural-shear and splitting cracks while the beams with strengthened tensile reinforcement lap splices or continuous bars don’t observe splitting cracks. In the second stage, a numerical analysis of three dimensional finite element analysis was utilized to explore the behavior of the RC deep beams with tensile reinforcement lap splices, in addition to parametric study of many variables. The comparison between the experimental and theoretical results showed reasonable agreement. The average difference of the deflection at service load was less than 5%.

  9. Quantitative analysis of beam delivery parameters and treatment process time for proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazumichi; Gillin, Michael T.; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Lee, Andrew K.; Lippy, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate patient census, equipment clinical availability, maximum daily treatment capacity, use factor for major beam delivery parameters, and treatment process time for actual treatments delivered by proton therapy systems. Methods: The authors have been recording all beam delivery parameters, including delivered dose, energy, range, spread-out Bragg peak widths, gantry angles, and couch angles for every treatment field in an electronic medical record system. We analyzed delivery system downtimes that had been recorded for every equipment failure and associated incidents. These data were used to evaluate the use factor of beam delivery parameters, the size of the patient census, and the equipment clinical availability of the facility. The duration of each treatment session from patient walk-in and to patient walk-out of the treatment room was measured for 82 patients with cancers at various sites. Results: The yearly average equipment clinical availability in the last 3 yrs (June 2007-August 2010) was 97%, which exceeded the target of 95%. Approximately 2200 patients had been treated as of August 2010. The major disease sites were genitourinary (49%), thoracic (25%), central nervous system (22%), and gastrointestinal (2%). Beams have been delivered in approximately 8300 treatment fields. The use factor for six beam delivery parameters was also evaluated. Analysis of the treatment process times indicated that approximately 80% of this time was spent for patient and equipment setup. The other 20% was spent waiting for beam delivery and beam on. The total treatment process time can be expressed by a quadratic polynomial of the number of fields per session. The maximum daily treatment capacity of our facility using the current treatment processes was estimated to be 133 ± 35 patients. Conclusions: This analysis shows that the facility has operated at a high performance level and has treated a large number of patients with a variety of diseases. The use

  10. LHC beam dump system : analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, T.

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. lt is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. lt is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missing MKD elements. Therefore a sophisticated simulation environment was developed based on the use of the MAD-X tracking code. A system of tracking jobs was set up to study failure cases and losses for various dump events. Those jobs can be distributed to available CPU power and be calculated in parallel. Studies into the consequences of abnormal beam dump actions have been performed. Different error scenarios have been evaluated including an asynchronous dump action, prefire cases, and the impact of different orbit and collimator settings. Losses at locations in the ring and the beam dump transfer lines have been quantified as a function of different settings of the dump system protection elements. The implications for the setup and operation of these protection elements are discussed. Particle distributions can be created according to the used orbit. Simulations with different orbit parameters (including magnet field errors, beam position read out errors

  11. High resolving power spectrometer for beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, H.W.; Spencer, J.E.

    1992-03-01

    We describe a system designed to analyze the high energy, closely spaced bunches from individual RF pulses. Neither a large solid angle nor momentum range is required so this allows characteristics that appear useful for other applications such as ion beam lithography. The spectrometer is a compact, double-focusing QBQ design whose symmetry allows the Quads to range between F or D with a correspondingly large range of magnifications, dispersion and resolving power. This flexibility insures the possibility of spatially separating all of the bunches along the focal plane with minimal transverse kicks and bending angle for differing input conditions. The symmetry of the system allows a simple geometric interpretationof the resolving power in terms of thin lenses and ray optics. We discuss the optics and the hardware that is proposed to measure emittance, energy, energy spread and bunch length for each bunch in an RF pulse train for small bunch separations. We also discuss how to use such measurements for feedback and feedforward control of these bunch characteristics as well as maintain their stability. 2 refs

  12. Residual Displacements‘ Progresive Analysis of the Multisupported Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudas Liepa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a shakedown behaviour of the ideally elasto-plastic beams system under variable repeated load. The mathematical models of the analysis problems are created using numerical methods, extremum energy principles and mathematic programming. It is shown that during the shakedown process the residual displacements vary non-monotonically. By solving analysis problem, where the load locus is being progressively expanded, it is possible to determine the upper and lower bounds of residual displacements. Suggested methods are ilustrated by solving multisupported beam example problem. The results are obtained considering principle of the small displacements.

  13. An ion beam analysis software based on ImageJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udalagama, C.; Chen, X.; Bettiol, A.A.; Watt, F.

    2013-01-01

    The suit of techniques (RBS, STIM, ERDS, PIXE, IL, IF,…) available in ion beam analysis yields a variety of rich information. Typically, after the initial challenge of acquiring data we are then faced with the task of having to extract relevant information or to present the data in a format with the greatest impact. This process sometimes requires developing new software tools. When faced with such situations the usual practice at the Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA) in Singapore has been to use our computational expertise to develop ad hoc software tools as and when we need them. It then became apparent that the whole ion beam community can benefit from such tools; specifically from a common software toolset that can be developed and maintained by everyone with freedom to use and allowance to modify. In addition to the benefits of readymade tools and sharing the onus of development, this also opens up the possibility for collaborators to access and analyse ion beam data without having to depend on an ion beam lab. This has the virtue of making the ion beam techniques more accessible to a broader scientific community. We have identified ImageJ as an appropriate software base to develop such a common toolset. In addition to being in the public domain and been setup for collaborative tool development, ImageJ is accompanied by hundreds of modules (plugins) that allow great breadth in analysis. The present work is the first step towards integrating ion beam analysis into ImageJ. Some of the features of the current version of the ImageJ ‘ion beam’ plugin are: (1) reading list mode or event-by-event files, (2) energy gates/sorts, (3) sort stacks, (4) colour function, (5) real time map updating, (6) real time colour updating and (7) median and average map creation

  14. An ion beam analysis software based on ImageJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udalagama, C., E-mail: chammika@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117 542 (Singapore); Chen, X.; Bettiol, A.A.; Watt, F. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117 542 (Singapore)

    2013-07-01

    The suit of techniques (RBS, STIM, ERDS, PIXE, IL, IF,…) available in ion beam analysis yields a variety of rich information. Typically, after the initial challenge of acquiring data we are then faced with the task of having to extract relevant information or to present the data in a format with the greatest impact. This process sometimes requires developing new software tools. When faced with such situations the usual practice at the Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA) in Singapore has been to use our computational expertise to develop ad hoc software tools as and when we need them. It then became apparent that the whole ion beam community can benefit from such tools; specifically from a common software toolset that can be developed and maintained by everyone with freedom to use and allowance to modify. In addition to the benefits of readymade tools and sharing the onus of development, this also opens up the possibility for collaborators to access and analyse ion beam data without having to depend on an ion beam lab. This has the virtue of making the ion beam techniques more accessible to a broader scientific community. We have identified ImageJ as an appropriate software base to develop such a common toolset. In addition to being in the public domain and been setup for collaborative tool development, ImageJ is accompanied by hundreds of modules (plugins) that allow great breadth in analysis. The present work is the first step towards integrating ion beam analysis into ImageJ. Some of the features of the current version of the ImageJ ‘ion beam’ plugin are: (1) reading list mode or event-by-event files, (2) energy gates/sorts, (3) sort stacks, (4) colour function, (5) real time map updating, (6) real time colour updating and (7) median and average map creation.

  15. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  16. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF IN-PLANE LOADED CLT BEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jeleč

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross laminated timber (CLT is a versatile engineered timber product that is increasingly well-known and of global interest in several applications such as full size plane or linear timber elements. The aim of this study involves investigating the performance of CLT beams loaded in-plane by considering bending and shear stress analysis with a special emphasis on the in-plane shear behavior including the complex internal structure of CLT. Numerical analysis based on 3D-FE models was used and compared with two existing analytical approaches, namely representative volume sub element (method I and composite beam theory (method II. The separate verification of bending and shear stresses including tree different shear failure modes was performed, and a good agreement was obtained. The main difference between the results relates to shear failure mode in the crossing areas between the orthogonally bonded lamellas in which the distribution of shear stresses τzx over the crossing areas per height of the CLT beam is not in accordance with the analytical assumptions. The presented analyses constitute the first attempt to contribute to the on-going review process of Eurocode 5 with respect to CLT beams loaded-in plane. Currently, regulations on designing these types of beams do not exist, and thus experimental and numerical investigations are planned in the future.

  17. Nonlinear analysis of shear deformable beam-columns partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a boundary element method is developed for the nonlinear analysis of shear deformable beam-columns of arbitrary doubly symmetric simply or multiply connected constant cross section, partially supported on tensionless Winkler foundation, undergoing moderate large deflections under general boundary ...

  18. Large amplitude forced vibration analysis of cross-beam system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large amplitude forced vibration behaviour of cross-beam system under harmonic excitation is studied, incorporating the effect of geometric non-linearity. The forced vibration analysis is carried out in an indirect way, in which the dynamic system is assumed to satisfy the force equilibrium condition at peak load value, thus ...

  19. Materials science education: ion beam modification and analysis of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Robert; Muntele, Claudiu; Ila, Daryush

    2012-08-01

    The Center for Irradiation of Materials (CIM) at Alabama A&M University (http://cim.aamu.edu) was established in 1990 to serve the University in its research, education and services to the need of the local community and industry. CIM irradiation capabilities are oriented around two tandem-type ion accelerators with seven beam lines providing high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, MeV focus ion beam, high-energy ion implantation and irradiation damage studies, particle-induced X-ray emission, particle-induced gamma emission and ion-induced nuclear reaction analysis in addition to fully automated ion channeling. One of the two tandem ion accelerators is designed to produce high-flux ion beam for MeV ion implantation and ion irradiation damage studies. The facility is well equipped with a variety of surface analysis systems, such as SEM, ESCA, as well as scanning micro-Raman analysis, UV-VIS Spectrometry, luminescence spectroscopy, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, IV/CV systems, mechanical test systems, AFM, FTIR, voltammetry analysis as well as low-energy implanters, ion beam-assisted deposition and MBE systems. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how the facility is used in material science education, as well as providing services to university, government and industry researches.

  20. Ion beam analysis: New trends and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.zucchiatti@uam.es [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle de Faraday 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Redondo-Cubero, Andrés [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 s/n, Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2014-07-15

    The development and diffusion of IBA analysis are shortly reviewed paying attention to most competitive and recent advances produced within the IBA community. The paper remarks the potential that IBA maintains in terms of analytical capabilities and points out some future perspectives of the field in terms of innovation and competitiveness.

  1. Fracture analysis of HFIR beam tube caused by radiation embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    With an attempt to estimate the neutron beam tube embrittlement condition for the Oak Ridge High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), fracture mechanics calculations are carried out in this paper. The analysis provides some numerical result on how the tube has been structurally weakened. In this calculation, a lateral impact force is assumed. Numerical result is obtained on how much the critical crack size should be reduced if the beam tube has been subjected to an extended period of irradiation. It is also calculated that buckling strength of the tube is increased, not decreased, with irradiation

  2. Buckling analysis of laminated sandwich beam with soft core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Chakrabarti

    Full Text Available Stability analysis of laminated soft core sandwich beam has been studied by a C0 FE model developed by the authors based on higher order zigzag theory (HOZT. The in-plane displacement variation is considered to be cubic for the face sheets and the core, while transverse displacement is quadratic within the core and constant in the faces beyond the core. The proposed model satisfies the condition of stress continuity at the layer interfaces and the zero stress condition at the top and bottom of the beam for transverse shear. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the present model.

  3. Status of ion beam data analysis and simulation software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauhala, E. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: eero.rauhala@helsinki.fi; Barradas, N.P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional No. 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Fazinic, S. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Thompson, M. [Department of MS and E/Bard Hall 328, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2006-03-15

    The status of ion beam data analysis codes dedicated to Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil detection analysis and non-resonant nuclear reaction analysis, is reviewed. The most important methods and approaches employed are discussed. The stopping power and scattering cross-section databases used, the ion-target interaction physics, the experimental and detection system characteristics and the structure of samples all have a strong impact on the analytical results. The models and algorithms used by different codes are reviewed and discussed in detail. Limitations in existing codes and perspectives for further developments are presented. The importance of ascertaining the correctness and accuracy of different methods and codes used in ion beam data analysis is stressed.

  4. Finite element analysis of rotating beams physics based interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguli, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the solution of rotating beam free-vibration problems using the finite element method. It provides an introduction to the governing equation of a rotating beam, before outlining the solution procedures using Rayleigh-Ritz, Galerkin and finite element methods. The possibility of improving the convergence of finite element methods through a judicious selection of interpolation functions, which are closer to the problem physics, is also addressed. The book offers a valuable guide for students and researchers working on rotating beam problems – important engineering structures used in helicopter rotors, wind turbines, gas turbines, steam turbines and propellers – and their applications. It can also be used as a textbook for specialized graduate and professional courses on advanced applications of finite element analysis.

  5. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande so Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  6. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  7. Composite beam analysis linear analysis of naturally curved and twisted anisotropic beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borri, Marco; Ghiringhelli, Gian L.; Merlini, Teodoro

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this report is to present a consistent theory for the deformation of a naturally curved and twisted anisotropic beam. The proposed formulation naturally extends the classical Saint-Venant approach to the case of curved and twisted anisotropic beams. The mathematical model developed under the assumption of span-wise uniform cross-section, curvature and twist, can take into account any kind of elastic coupling due to the material properties and the curved geometry. The consistency of the presented math-model and its generality about the cross-sectional shape, make it a useful tool even in a preliminary design optimization context such as the aeroelastic tailoring of helicopter rotor blades. The advantage of the present procedure is that it only requires a two-dimensional discretization; thus, very detailed analyses can be performed and interlaminar stresses between laminae can be evaluated. Such analyses would be extremely time consuming if performed with standard finite element codes: that prevents their recursive use as for example when optimizing a beam design. Moreover, as a byproduct of the proposed formulation, one obtains the constitutive law of the cross-section in terms of stress resultant and moment and their conjugate strain measures. This constitutive law takes into account any kind of elastic couplings, e.g., torsion-tension, tension-shear, bending-shear, and constitutes a fundamental input in aeroelastic analyses of helicopter blades. Four simple examples are given in order to show the principal features of the method.

  8. Air Quality Monitoring with Routine Utilization of Ion Beam Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, D.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Information on source contributions to ambient air particulate concentrations is a vital tool for air quality management. Traditional gravimetric analysis of airborne particulate matter is unable to provide information on the sources contributing to air particulate concentrations. Ion beam analysis is used to identify the elemental composition of air particulates for source apportionment and determining the relative contribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources to air particulate pollution. The elemental composition is obtained by proton induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE), which is an ion beam analysis (IBA) technique. The element concentrations are deduced from the X ray spectra produced when the particulate collected on a filter is bombarded with a high-energy proton beam. As part of the UNDP/IAEA/RCA Project RAS/8/082 ‘Better Management of the Environment, Natural Resources and Industrial Growth through Isotope and Radiation Technology,’ a collaborative alliance was formed between the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited and the Wellington Regional Council, New Zeland [1]. The purpose of the project was to examine the elemental composition of air particulate matter and determine the origins through source apportionment techniques. In New Zealand PM 10 and PM 2.5 fractions have been collected at the industrial area of Seaview, Wellington over two years using a GENT stacked filter unit sampler. Concentrations of elements with atomic mass above neon were determined using ion beam analysis and elemental carbon concentrations were determined using a reflectometer. Specific ambient source elemental 'fingerprints' were then determined by factor analysis and the relative contributions of various local and regional sources were assessed. The significant factors (sources) were determined to be sea salt, soil, industry, and combustion sources. Local industry was found to contribute to ambient lead concentrations. (author)

  9. Hydrogen ion species analysis and related neutral beam injection power assessment in the Heliotron E neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Fumimichi; Obiki, Tokuhiro; Sasaki, Akihiko; Iiyoshi, Atsuo; Uo, Koji

    1982-01-01

    The hydrogen ion species in a Heliotron E neutral beam injection system of maximum electric power 6.3 MW were analyzed in order to assess the neutral beam power injected into the torus. The masimum p roton ratio of the cylindrical bucket type ion source used was observed to be more than 90 percent assuming that the angular divergences for the respective species in the beam are the same. The experimental data are compared with calculations using a particle balance model. The analysis indicates that the net injection power reaches nearly 2.7 MW at the optimal conditions of the system considering the geometrical limitation of the neutral beam path. (author)

  10. A molecular beam/quadrupole mass spectrometer system with synchronized beam modulation and digital waveform analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, G. L.; Adams, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    A performance evaluation is conducted for a molecular beam/mass spectrometer (MB/MS) system, as applied to a 1-30 torr microwave-discharge flow reactor (MWFR) used in the formation of the methylperoxy radical and a study of its subsequent destruction in the presence or absence of NO(x). The modulated MB/MS system is four-staged and differentially pumped. The results obtained by the MWFR study is illustrative of overall system performance, including digital waveform analysis; significant improvements over previous designs are noted in attainable S/N ratio, detection limit, and accuracy.

  11. MIA analysis of FPGA BPMs and beam optics at APS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Da-Heng; Wang, Chun-Xi; Qin, Qing

    2012-11-01

    Model independent analysis, which was developed for high precision and fast beam dynamics analysis, is a promising diagnostic tool for modern accelerators. We implemented a series of methods to analyze the turn-by-turn BPM data. Green's functions corresponding to the local transfer matrix elements R12 or R34 are extracted from BPM data and fitted with the model lattice using least-square fitting. Here, we report experimental results obtained from analyzing the transverse motion of a beam in the storage ring at the Advanced Photon Source. BPM gains and uncoupled optics parameters are successfully determined. Quadrupole strengths are adjusted for fitting but can not be uniquely determined in general due to an insufficient number of BPMs.

  12. Ion beam analysis of thin films. Applications to porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, C.; Grosman, A.; Morazzani, V.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: (1)- to present a summary of the fundamental interactions between ion beam (such as proton, deuteron or helium) of MeV energy and solids, interactions that are used in material analysis techniques such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), and (2)- to illustrate the use of these techniques to determine the composition of the surface and outer microns of material. Some examples will be given concerning porous silicon layers. (authors). 38 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Mechanical and Thermal Analysis of Classical Functionally Graded Coated Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toudehdehghan Abdolreza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The governing equation of a classical rectangular coated beam made of two layers subjected to thermal and uniformly distributed mechanical loads are derived by using the principle of virtual displacements and based on Euler-Bernoulli deformation beam theory (EBT. The aim of this paper was to analyze the static behavior of clamped-clamped thin coated beam under thermo-mechanical load using MATLAB. Two models were considered for composite coated. The first model was consisting of ceramic layer as a coated and substrate which was metal (HC model. The second model was consisting of Functionally Graded Material (FGM as a coated layer and metal substrate (FGC model. From the result it was apparent that the superiority of the FGC composite against conventional coated composite has been demonstrated. From the analysis, the stress level throughout the thickness at the interface of the coated beam for the FGC was reduced. Yet, the deflection in return was observed to increase. Therefore, this could cater to various new engineering applications where warrant the utilization of material that has properties that are well-beyond the capabilities of the conventional or yesteryears materials.

  14. Bulk Materials Analysis Using High-Energy Positron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glade, S C; Asoka-Kumar, P; Nieh, T G; Sterne, P A; Wirth, B D; Dauskardt, R H; Flores, K M; Suh, D; Odette, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews some recent materials analysis results using high-energy positron beams at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We are combining positron lifetime and orbital electron momentum spectroscopic methods to provide electron number densities and electron momentum distributions around positron annihilation sites. Topics covered include: correlation of positron annihilation characteristics with structural and mechanical properties of bulk metallic glasses, compositional studies of embrittling features in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel, pore characterization in Zeolites, and positron annihilation characteristics in alkali halides

  15. Finite element analysis of FRP-strengthened RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphot Supaviriyakit

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beam strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates. The finite element modeling of FRP-strengthened beams is demonstrated. Concrete and reinforcing bars are modeled together as 8-node isoparametric 2D RC element. The FRP plate is modeled as 8-node isoparametric 2D elastic element. The glue is modeled as perfect compatibility by directly connecting the nodes of FRP with those of concrete since there is no failure at the glue layer. The key to the analysis is the correct material models of concrete, steel and FRP. Cracks and steel bars are modeled as smeared over the entire element. Stress-strain properties of cracked concrete consist of tensile stress model normal to crack, compressive stress model parallel to crack and shear stress model tangential to crack. Stressstrain property of reinforcement is assumed to be elastic-hardening to account for the bond between concrete and steel bars. FRP is modeled as elastic-brittle material. From the analysis, it is found that FEM can predict the load-displacement relation, ultimate load and failure mode of the beam correctly. It can also capture the cracking process for both shear-flexural peeling and end peeling modes similar to the experiment.

  16. Automated analysis for detecting beams in laser wakefield simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushizima, Daniela M.; Rubel, Oliver; Prabhat, Mr.; Weber, Gunther H.; Bethel, E. Wes; Aragon, Cecilia R.; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Hamann, Bernd; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Laser wakefield particle accelerators have shown the potential to generate electric fields thousands of times higher than those of conventional accelerators. The resulting extremely short particle acceleration distance could yield a potential new compact source of energetic electrons and radiation, with wide applications from medicine to physics. Physicists investigate laser-plasma internal dynamics by running particle-in-cell simulations; however, this generates a large dataset that requires time-consuming, manual inspection by experts in order to detect key features such as beam formation. This paper describes a framework to automate the data analysis and classification of simulation data. First, we propose a new method to identify locations with high density of particles in the space-time domain, based on maximum extremum point detection on the particle distribution. We analyze high density electron regions using a lifetime diagram by organizing and pruning the maximum extrema as nodes in a minimum spanning tree. Second, we partition the multivariate data using fuzzy clustering to detect time steps in a experiment that may contain a high quality electron beam. Finally, we combine results from fuzzy clustering and bunch lifetime analysis to estimate spatially confined beams. We demonstrate our algorithms successfully on four different simulation datasets

  17. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T.; Sood, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs

  18. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P J; Chu, J W; Johnson, E P; Noorman, J T [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D K [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Ion beam analysis in cultural heritage studies: Milestones and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dran, Jean-Claude; Calligaro, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    For three decades, ion beam analysis (IBA) in external mode was considered as the best choice for the characterisation of cultural heritage materials, as it combines excellent analytical performance and non-invasive character. However, in recent years, other analytical techniques arose as serious competitors, such as those based on synchrotron radiation (X-ray absorption, fluorescence or diffraction) or those using portable instruments (XRF, micro-Raman). It is shown that nevertheless IBA remains unmatched thanks to two unique features, namely the analysis of light elements and the high-resolution 3D chemical imaging

  1. Model reduction and analysis of a vibrating beam microgyroscope

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi; Nayfeh, Ali Hasan; Choura, Slim A.

    2012-01-01

    The present work is concerned with the nonlinear dynamic analysis of a vibrating beam microgyroscope composed of a rotating cantilever beam with a tip mass at its end. The rigid mass is coupled to two orthogonal electrodes in the drive and sense directions, which are attached to the rotating base. The microbeam is driven by an AC voltage in the drive direction, which induces vibrations in the orthogonal sense direction due to rotation about the microbeam axis. The electrode placed in the sense direction is used to measure the induced motions and extract the underlying angular speed. A reduced-order model of the gyroscope is developed using the method of multiple scales and used to examine its dynamic behavior. © The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Beam Optics Analysis - An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented

  3. Model reduction and analysis of a vibrating beam microgyroscope

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2012-05-08

    The present work is concerned with the nonlinear dynamic analysis of a vibrating beam microgyroscope composed of a rotating cantilever beam with a tip mass at its end. The rigid mass is coupled to two orthogonal electrodes in the drive and sense directions, which are attached to the rotating base. The microbeam is driven by an AC voltage in the drive direction, which induces vibrations in the orthogonal sense direction due to rotation about the microbeam axis. The electrode placed in the sense direction is used to measure the induced motions and extract the underlying angular speed. A reduced-order model of the gyroscope is developed using the method of multiple scales and used to examine its dynamic behavior. © The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Nonlinear Vibrations of Cantilever Timoshenko Beams: A Homotopy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Shahlaei-Far

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzes the fourth-order nonlinear free vibration of a Timoshenko beam. We discretize the governing differential equation by Galerkin's procedure and then apply the homotopy analysis method (HAM to the obtained ordinary differential equation of the generalized coordinate. We derive novel analytical solutions for the nonlinear natural frequency and displacement to investigate the effects of rotary inertia, shear deformation, pre-tensile loads and slenderness ratios on the beam. In comparison to results achieved by perturbation techniques, this study demonstrates that a first-order approximation of HAM leads to highly accurate solutions, valid for a wide range of amplitude vibrations, of a high-order strongly nonlinear problem.

  5. Elemental analysis of artefacts - establishing external beam PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, A.; Johnston, P.; Short, R.; Bubb, I.

    1999-01-01

    The development of an external PIXE facility on the 1 MV Tandetron accelerator at RMIT has led to a wide range of research possibilities. A proton beam, generated inside a vacuum is brought into air via an Au coated Kapton foil exit window (thickness 8μm, diameter 0.35mm). Monitoring of the beam intensity is achieved by detecting backscattered protons from the inside Au coating on the window. Artefacts, which may be too large to be placed inside the vacuum, are positioned in the beamline opposite the exit window. An optical system consisting of a CCD camera, alignment laser and two mirrors allows viewing of a region of the target 10mm x 10mm. This technique provides quantitative analysis of elements in the pigments used in paintings and on ceramics, which is a valuable tool in art conservation and authentication. Application of the technique to a ceramic sample from the historic house 'Viewbank' is described

  6. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D D; Bailey, G; Martin, J; Garton, D; Noorman, H; Stelcer, E; Johnson, P [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  7. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.; Martin, J.; Garton, D.; Noorman, H.; Stelcer, E.; Johnson, P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  8. Analysis of target implosion irradiated by proton beam, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamba, Moritake; Nagata, Norimasa; Kawata, Shigeo; Niu, Keishiro.

    1982-10-01

    Numerical simulation and analysis were performed for the implosion of a hollow shell target driven by proton beam. The target consists of three layers of Pb, Al and DT. As the Al layer is heated by proton beam, the layer expands and pushes the DT layer toward the target center. To obtain the optimal velocity of DT implosion, the optimal target size and optimal layer thickness were determined. The target size is determined by, for example, the instability of the implosion or beam focusing on the target surface. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the unstable implosion due to the inhomogeneity were investigated. Dissipation, nonlinear effects and density gradient at the boundary were expected to reduce the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability during the implosion. In order that the deviation of the boundary surface during the implosion is less than the thickness of fuel, the inhomogeneity of the temperature and the density of the target should be less than ten percent. The amplitude of the boundary surface roughness is required to be less than 4 micrometer. (Kato, T.)

  9. Exact Controllability and Perturbation Analysis for Elastic Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreles, Miguel Angel

    2004-01-01

    The Rayleigh beam is a perturbation of the Bernoulli-Euler beam. We establish convergence of the solution of the Exact Controllability Problem for the Rayleigh beam to the corresponding solution of the Bernoulli-Euler beam. Convergence is related to a Singular Perturbation Problem. The main tool in solving this perturbation problem is a weak version of a lower bound for hyperbolic polynomials

  10. Analysis of concrete beams using applied element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a displacement based method of structural analysis. Some of its features are similar to that of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, the structure is analysed by dividing it into several elements similar to FEM. But, in AEM, elements are connected by springs instead of nodes as in the case of FEM. In this paper, background to AEM is discussed and necessary equations are derived. For illustrating the application of AEM, it has been used to analyse plain concrete beam of fixed support condition. The analysis is limited to the analysis of 2-dimensional structures. It was found that the number of springs has no much influence on the results. AEM could predict deflection and reactions with reasonable degree of accuracy.

  11. Reliability Analysis of the new Link between the Beam Interlock System and the LHC Beam Dumping System Zuverlässigkeitsanalyse der neuen Verbindung zwischen dem Beam Interlock System und dem LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Vatansever, Volkan

    The nominal stored energy in each LHC beam is 360 MJ, surpassing the beam energy of other accelerators by orders of magnitude. This energy threatens to damage accelerator components in case of uncontrolled beam losses To avoid damage of accelerator equipment due to impacting beam, the controlled removal of the LHC beams from the collider rings towards the dump block must be guaranteed at all times. Therefore, the LHC Beam Dumping System was built according to high reliability standards. To further reduce the risk of incapability to dump the beams in case of correlated failures in the redundant system, a new direct link from the LHC Beam Interlock System to the Re-triggering Lines of the LHC Beam Dumping System will be implemented for the startup with beam in 2015. This link represents a diverse redundancy to the current implementation, which should neither significantly increase the risk for so-called Asynchronous Beam Dumps nor compromise machine availability. Therefore, a reliability analysis down to the co...

  12. Brillouin Optical Correlation Domain Analysis in Composite Material Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Stern

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring is a critical requirement in many composites. Numerous monitoring strategies rely on measurements of temperature or strain (or both, however these are often restricted to point-sensing or to the coverage of small areas. Spatially-continuous data can be obtained with optical fiber sensors. In this work, we report high-resolution distributed Brillouin sensing over standard fibers that are embedded in composite structures. A phase-coded, Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (B-OCDA protocol was employed, with spatial resolution of 2 cm and sensitivity of 1 °K or 20 micro-strain. A portable measurement setup was designed and assembled on the premises of a composite structures manufacturer. The setup was successfully utilized in several structural health monitoring scenarios: (a monitoring the production and curing of a composite beam over 60 h; (b estimating the stiffness and Young’s modulus of a composite beam; and (c distributed strain measurements across the surfaces of a model wing of an unmanned aerial vehicle. The measurements are supported by the predictions of structural analysis calculations. The results illustrate the potential added values of high-resolution, distributed Brillouin sensing in the structural health monitoring of composites.

  13. Brillouin Optical Correlation Domain Analysis in Composite Material Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yonatan; London, Yosef; Preter, Eyal; Antman, Yair; Diamandi, Hilel Hagai; Silbiger, Maayan; Adler, Gadi; Levenberg, Eyal; Shalev, Doron; Zadok, Avi

    2017-10-02

    Structural health monitoring is a critical requirement in many composites. Numerous monitoring strategies rely on measurements of temperature or strain (or both), however these are often restricted to point-sensing or to the coverage of small areas. Spatially-continuous data can be obtained with optical fiber sensors. In this work, we report high-resolution distributed Brillouin sensing over standard fibers that are embedded in composite structures. A phase-coded, Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (B-OCDA) protocol was employed, with spatial resolution of 2 cm and sensitivity of 1 °K or 20 micro-strain. A portable measurement setup was designed and assembled on the premises of a composite structures manufacturer. The setup was successfully utilized in several structural health monitoring scenarios: (a) monitoring the production and curing of a composite beam over 60 h; (b) estimating the stiffness and Young's modulus of a composite beam; and (c) distributed strain measurements across the surfaces of a model wing of an unmanned aerial vehicle. The measurements are supported by the predictions of structural analysis calculations. The results illustrate the potential added values of high-resolution, distributed Brillouin sensing in the structural health monitoring of composites.

  14. External-beam PIXE analysis of small sculptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyodi, I.; Demeter, I.; Hollos-Nagy, K.; Kovacs, I.; Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Non-destructive analysis of precious art objects is an important tool to solve provenance problems or to facilitate restoration. External beam PIXE analysis is one of the most powerful and popular methods used in this respect. The paper summarises the external beam PIXE set-up at the Accelerator Laboratory in Budapest, and two selected applications are described. Different parts of a small Cambodian metal sculpture probably made in the 11th century were analysed. It was observed that the sculpture was composed of an iron core and an outer bronze shell. This sculptural technique was well known in the Middle-East but no indication has been found about its use in the Far-East, yet. Before its restoration paint traces on a wooden relief of St. Jerome made by an unknown artist in about 1600 were analysed. Different white and red paints were distinguished at selected points and the presence of titanium on a certain part of the relief was attributed to a repainting in modern times

  15. Transmutation technology development; thermal hydraulic power analysis and structure analysis of the HYPER target beam window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. H.; Ju, E. S.; Song, M. K.; Jeon, Y. Z. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    A thermal hydraulic power analysis, a structure analysis and optimization computation for some design factor for the design of spallation target suitable for HYPER with 1000 MW thermal power in this study was performed. Heat generation formula was used which was evaluated recently based on the LAHET code, mainly to find the maximum beam current under given computation conditions. Thermal hydraulic power of HYPER target system was calculated using FLUENT code, structure conducted by inputting the data into ANSYS. On the temp of beam windows and the pressure distribution calculated using FLUENT. Data transformation program was composed apply the data calculated using FLUENT being commercial CFD code and ANSYS being FEM code for CFX structure analysis. A basic study was conducted on various singular target to obtain fundamental data on the shape for optimum target design. A thermal hydraulic power analysis and structure analysis were conducted on the shapes of parabolic, uniform, scanning beams to choose the optimum shape of beam current analysis was done according to some turbulent model to simulate the real flow. To evaluate the reliability of numerical analysis result, benchmarking of FLUENT code reformed at SNU and Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and it was compared to CFX in the possession of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and evaluated. Reliable deviation was observed in the results calculated using FLUENT code, but temperature deviation of about 200 .deg. C was observed in the result from CFX analysis at optimum design condition. Several benchmarking were performed on the basis of numerical analysis concerning conventional HYPER. It was possible to allow a beam arrests of 17.3 mA in the case of the {phi} 350 mm parabolic beam suggested to the optimum in nuclear transmutation when stress equivalent to VON-MISES was calculated to be 140 MPa. 29 refs., 109 figs. (Author)

  16. Ion beam analysis of PECVD silicon oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lima, F.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Pedrero, E.; Fonseca Filho, H.D.; Llovera, A.; Riera, M.; Dominguez, C.; Behar, M.; Zawislak, F.C.

    2006-01-01

    A study of ion beam analysis techniques of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) silicon oxide thin films (1 μm thick) obtained from silane (SiH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is reported. The film, elemental composition and surface morphology were determined as function of the reactant gas flow ratio, R = [N 2 O]/[SiH 4 ] in the 22-110 range using the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, nuclear reaction analysis and atomic force microscopy techniques. The density of the films was determined by combining the RBS and thickness measurements. All the experiments were done at a deposition temperature of 300 deg. C. In all the cases almost stoichiometric oxides were obtained being the impurity content function of R. It was also observed that physical properties such as density, surface roughness and shape factor increase with R in the studied interval

  17. Statistical analysis of RHIC beam position monitors performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaga, R.; Tomás, R.

    2004-04-01

    A detailed statistical analysis of beam position monitors (BPM) performance at RHIC is a critical factor in improving regular operations and future runs. Robust identification of malfunctioning BPMs plays an important role in any orbit or turn-by-turn analysis. Singular value decomposition and Fourier transform methods, which have evolved as powerful numerical techniques in signal processing, will aid in such identification from BPM data. This is the first attempt at RHIC to use a large set of data to statistically enhance the capability of these two techniques and determine BPM performance. A comparison from run 2003 data shows striking agreement between the two methods and hence can be used to improve BPM functioning at RHIC and possibly other accelerators.

  18. Statistical analysis of RHIC beam position monitors performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Calaga

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed statistical analysis of beam position monitors (BPM performance at RHIC is a critical factor in improving regular operations and future runs. Robust identification of malfunctioning BPMs plays an important role in any orbit or turn-by-turn analysis. Singular value decomposition and Fourier transform methods, which have evolved as powerful numerical techniques in signal processing, will aid in such identification from BPM data. This is the first attempt at RHIC to use a large set of data to statistically enhance the capability of these two techniques and determine BPM performance. A comparison from run 2003 data shows striking agreement between the two methods and hence can be used to improve BPM functioning at RHIC and possibly other accelerators.

  19. Fast multifrequency focal beam analysis for 3D seismic acquisition geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, W.; Fu, L.; Blacquiere, G.

    2012-01-01

    A method for the efficient computation of multifrequency focal beams for 3D seismic acquisition geometry analysis has been developed. By computing them for all the frequency components of seismic data, single-frequency focal beams can be extended to multifrequency focal beams. However, this

  20. Vacuum Analysis of Scanning Horn of Electron Beam Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprapto; Sukidi; Sukaryono; Setyo Atmojo; Djasiman

    2003-01-01

    Vacuum analysis of scanning horn of electron beam machine (EBM) has been carried out. In EBM, electron beam produced by the electron gun is accelerated by the accelerating tube toward the target via scanning horn and window. To avoid the disturbance of electron beam trajectory in side the EBM, it is necessary to evacuate the EBM. In designing and constructing the scanning horn, vacuum analysis must be carried out to find the ultimate vacuum grade based on the analysis as well as on the test resulted by the vacuum pump. The ultimate vacuum grade is important and affecting the electron trajectory from electron gun to the target. The yield of the vacuum analysis show that the load gas to be evacuated were the outgassing, permeation and leakages where each value were 5.96487x10 -6 Torr liter/sec, 6.32083x10 -7 Torr liter/sec, and 1.3116234x10 -4 Torr liter/sec respectively, so that the total gas load was 1.377587x10 -4 Torr liter/sec. The total conductivity according to test result was 15.769 liter/sec, while the effective pumping rate and maximum vacuum obtained by RD 150 pump were 14.269 Torr liter/sec and 9.65x10 -6 Torr respectively, The vacuum steady state indicated by the test result was 3.5x10 -5 Torr. The pressure of 3.5x10 -5 Torr showed by the test is close to the capability of vacuum pump that is 2x10 -5 Torr. The vacuum test indicated a good result and that there was no leakage along the welding joint. In the latter of installation it considered to be has a pressure of 5x10 -6 Torr, because the aluminum gasket will be used to seal the window flanges and will be evacuated by turbomolecular pump with pumping rate of 500 liter/sec and ultimate vacuum of -10 Torr. (author)

  1. Vectorial analysis of the collimated beam of a small Gaussian source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Changqing; Wang, Ting; Zeng, Xiaodong; Feng, Zhejun; Zhang, Wenrui; Zhang, Xiaobing; Chen, Kun

    2018-03-01

    A vectorial analysis method to describe the collimated beam is proposed, the formulas of the intensity distribution and divergence angles represented in terms of Bessel functions are derived, and the propagation properties such as the vectorial structure of the collimated field and the shape of the beam spot are discussed in detail. Omitting the vectorial nature of the collimated beam can cause an error of 7.6% in determining the intensity distribution on the optical axis of the collimated beam.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Electron Beam Damage in Organic Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Leijten, Zino J. W. A.; Keizer, Arthur D. A.; de With, Gijsbertus; Friedrich, Heiner

    2017-01-01

    In transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the interaction of an electron beam with polymers such as P3HT:PCBM photovoltaic nanocomposites results in electron beam damage, which is the most important factor limiting acquisition of structural or chemical data at high spatial resolution. Beam effects can vary depending on parameters such as electron dose rate, temperature during imaging, and the presence of water and oxygen in the sample. Furthermore, beam damage will occur at different length s...

  3. Proteomic analysis of proton beam irradiated human melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kedracka-Krok

    Full Text Available Proton beam irradiation is a form of advanced radiotherapy providing superior distributions of a low LET radiation dose relative to that of photon therapy for the treatment of cancer. Even though this clinical treatment has been developing for several decades, the proton radiobiology critical to the optimization of proton radiotherapy is far from being understood. Proteomic changes were analyzed in human melanoma cells treated with a sublethal dose (3 Gy of proton beam irradiation. The results were compared with untreated cells. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was performed with mass spectrometry to identify the proteins. At the dose of 3 Gy a minimal slowdown in proliferation rate was seen, as well as some DNA damage. After allowing time for damage repair, the proteomic analysis was performed. In total 17 protein levels were found to significantly (more than 1.5 times change: 4 downregulated and 13 upregulated. Functionally, they represent four categories: (i DNA repair and RNA regulation (VCP, MVP, STRAP, FAB-2, Lamine A/C, GAPDH, (ii cell survival and stress response (STRAP, MCM7, Annexin 7, MVP, Caprin-1, PDCD6, VCP, HSP70, (iii cell metabolism (TIM, GAPDH, VCP, and (iv cytoskeleton and motility (Moesin, Actinin 4, FAB-2, Vimentin, Annexin 7, Lamine A/C, Lamine B. A substantial decrease (2.3 x was seen in the level of vimentin, a marker of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the metastatic properties of melanoma.

  4. A Simplified Analysis of the Brazier Effect in Composite Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Lund, B.

    2009-01-01

    In the design of windturbine blades composite beams are often used as the load bearing element. The beam is primarily subjected to bending moments, and the deformations are relatively large. The large displacements result in a kind of ovalization of the beam section, the so-called Brazier effect...

  5. An experimental approach to free vibration analysis of smart composite beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashavantha Kumar, G. A.; Sathish Kumar, K. M.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental vibration analysis is a main concern of this study. In designing any structural component the important parameter that has to be considered is vibration. The present work involves the experimental investigation of free vibration analysis of a smart beam. Smart beam consists of glass/epoxy composite as a main substrate and two PZT patches. The PZT patches are glued above and below the main beam. By experimentation the natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained for both with and without PZT patches of a beam. Finally through experimentation the response of the smart beam is recorded.

  6. Thermal analysis of EAST neutral beam injectors for long-pulse beam operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chundong, HU; Yongjian, XU; Yuanlai, XIE; Yahong, XIE; Lizhen, LIANG; Caichao, JIANG; Sheng, LIU; Jianglong, WEI; Peng, SHENG; Zhimin, LIU; Ling, TAO; the NBI Team

    2018-04-01

    Two sets of neutral beam injectors (NBI-1 and NBI-2) have been mounted on the EAST tokamak since 2014. NBI-1 and NBI-2 are co-direction and counter-direction, respectively. As with in-depth physics and engineering study of EAST, the ability of long pulse beam injection should be required in the NBI system. For NBIs, the most important and difficult thing that should be overcome is heat removal capacity of heat loaded components for long-pulse beam extraction. In this article, the thermal state of the components of EAST NBI is investigated using water flow calorimetry and thermocouple temperatures. Results show that (1) operation parameters have an obvious influence on the heat deposited on the inner components of the beamline, (2) a suitable operation parameter can decrease the heat loading effectively and obtain longer beam pulse length, and (3) under the cooling water pressure of 0.25 MPa, the predicted maximum beam pulse length will be up to 260 s with 50 keV beam energy by a duty factor of 0.5. The results present that, in this regard, the EAST NBI-1 system has the ability of long-pulse beam injection.

  7. Systems analysis for modular versus multi-beam HIF drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    Previous modeling for HIF drivers concentrated on designs in which 100 or more beams are grouped in an array and accelerated through a common set of induction cores. The total beam energy required by the target is achieved by the combination of final ion energy, current per beam and number of beams. Economic scaling favors a large number of small (∼1 cm dia.) beams. An alternative architecture has now been investigated, which we refer to as a modular driver. In this case, the driver is subdivided into many (>10) independent accelerators with one or many beams each. A key objective of the modular driver approach is to be able to demonstrate all aspects of the driver (source-to-target) by building a single, lower cost module compared to a full-scale, multi-beam driver. We consider and compare several design options for the modular driver including single-beam designs with solenoid instead of quadrupole magnets in order to transport the required current per module in a single beam, solenoid/quad combinations, and multi-beam, all-quad designs. The drivers are designed to meet the requirements of the hybrid target, which can accommodate a larger spot size than the distributed radiator target that was used for the Robust Point Design. We compare the multi-beam and modular driver configuration for a variety and assumptions and identify key technology advances needed for the modular design

  8. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  9. Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis in composite material beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stern, Yonatan; London, Yosef; Preter, Eyal

    2017-01-01

    Structural health monitoring is a critical requirement in many composites. Numerous monitoring strategies rely on measurements of temperature or strain (or both), however these are often restricted to point-sensing or to the coverage of small areas. Spatially-continuous data can be obtained...... with optical fiber sensors. In this work, we report high-resolution distributed Brillouin sensing over standard fibers that are embedded in composite structures. A phase-coded, Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (B-OCDA) protocol was employed, with spatial resolution of 2 cm and sensitivity of 1 °K...... or 20 micro-strain. A portable measurement setup was designed and assembled on the premises of a composite structures manufacturer. The setup was successfully utilized in several structural health monitoring scenarios: (a) monitoring the production and curing of a composite beam over 60 h; (b...

  10. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  11. Automatic Beam Path Analysis of Laser Wakefield Particle Acceleration Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,; Weber, Gunther H.; Ushizima, Daniela M.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes

    2009-10-19

    Numerical simulations of laser wakefield particle accelerators play a key role in the understanding of the complex acceleration process and in the design of expensive experimental facilities. As the size and complexity of simulation output grows, an increasingly acute challenge is the practical need for computational techniques that aid in scientific knowledge discovery. To that end, we present a set of data-understanding algorithms that work in concert in a pipeline fashion to automatically locate and analyze high energy particle bunches undergoing acceleration in very large simulation datasets. These techniques work cooperatively by first identifying features of interest in individual timesteps, then integrating features across timesteps, and based on the information derived perform analysis of temporally dynamic features. This combination of techniques supports accurate detection of particle beams enabling a deeper level of scientific understanding of physical phenomena than hasbeen possible before. By combining efficient data analysis algorithms and state-of-the-art data management we enable high-performance analysis of extremely large particle datasets in 3D. We demonstrate the usefulness of our methods for a variety of 2D and 3D datasets and discuss the performance of our analysis pipeline.

  12. Surface composition of biomedical components by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S.; Baxter, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Materials used for replacement body parts must satisfy a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and mechanical ability to handle the task with regard to strength, wear and durability. When using a CVD coated carbon fibre reinforced carbon ball, the surface must be ion implanted with uniform dose of nitrogen ions in order to make it wear resistant. The mechanism by which the wear resistance is improved is one of radiation damage and the required dose of about 10 16 cm -2 can have a tolerance of about 20%. To implant a spherical surface requires manipulation of the sample within the beam and control system (either computer or manually operated) to enable uniform dose all the way from polar to equatorial regions on the surface. A manipulator has been designed and built for this purpose. In order to establish whether the dose is uniform, nuclear reaction analysis using the reaction 14 N(d,α) 12 C is an ideal method of profiling. By taking measurements at a number of points on the surface, the uniformity of nitrogen dose can be ascertained. It is concluded that both Rutherford Backscattering and Nuclear Reaction Analysis can be used for rapid analysis of surface composition of carbon based materials used for replacement body components. 2 refs., 2 figs

  13. Establishment of an ASEAN Ion Beam Analysis Centre for Material Characterizations at Chiang Mai University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamwanna, T.; Junphong, P.; Yu, L.D.; Singkarat, S.; Intarasiri, S.; Suwannakachorn, D.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive ion beam analysis centre unique in the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region has been established at Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The centre is equipped with a 1.7 MV Tandetron tandem accelerator and a 300 kV medium energy ion beam accelerator for ion beam analysis. The Tandetron accelerator employs two ion sources, a duoplasmatron ion source and a sputter ion source, capable of producing ion beams of both light species (hydrogen and helium) and heavy species. The beamline is currently able to perform ion beam analysis techniques, such as Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), RBS/channelling, elastic backscattering (EBS), particle induced x ray emission (PIXE) and ionoluminescence (IL) with the assistance of commercial and self-developed software. The medium energy ion accelerator features an ns pulsed beam so that time of flight (ToF) RBS analysis using medium energy ion beams is available for detailed analysis of materials. Ion beam analysis experiments and applications have been vigorously developed for the real time characterization of various materials. Examples are presented and qualities of the ion beam analysis techniques are discussed. (author)

  14. SU-F-T-180: Evaluation of a Scintillating Screen Detector for Proton Beam QA and Acceptance Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghebremedhin, A; Taber, M; Koss, P; Camargo, G; Patyal, B [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Ebstein, S [Lexitek, Inc, Wellesley, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To test the performance of a commercial scintillating screen detector for acceptance testing and Quality Assurance of a proton pencil beam scanning system. Method: The detector (Lexitek DRD 400) has 40cm × 40cm field, uses a thin scintillator imaged onto a 16-bit scientific CCD with ∼0.5mm resolution. A grid target and LED illuminators are provided for spatial calibration and relative gain correction. The detector mounts to the nozzle with micron precision. Tools are provided for image processing and analysis of single or multiple Gaussian spots. Results: The bias and gain of the detector were studied to measure repeatability and accuracy. Gain measurements were taken with the LED illuminators to measure repeatability and variation of the lens-CCD pair as a function with f-stop. Overall system gain was measured with a passive scattering (broad) beam whose shape is calibrated with EDR film placed in front of the scintillator. To create a large uniform field, overlapping small fields were recorded with the detector translated laterally and stitched together to cover the full field. Due to the long exposures required to obtain multiple spills of the synchrotron and very high detector sensitivity, borated polyethylene shielding was added to reduce direct radiation events hitting the CCD. Measurements with a micro ion chamber were compared to the detector’s spot profile. Software was developed to process arrays of Gaussian spots and to correct for radiation events. Conclusion: The detector background has a fixed bias, a small component linear in time, and is easily corrected. The gain correction method was validated with 2% accuracy. The detector spot profile matches the micro ion chamber data over 4 orders of magnitude. The multiple spot analyses can be easily used with plan data for measuring pencil beam uniformity and for regular QA comparison.

  15. SU-F-T-180: Evaluation of a Scintillating Screen Detector for Proton Beam QA and Acceptance Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghebremedhin, A; Taber, M; Koss, P; Camargo, G; Patyal, B; Ebstein, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test the performance of a commercial scintillating screen detector for acceptance testing and Quality Assurance of a proton pencil beam scanning system. Method: The detector (Lexitek DRD 400) has 40cm × 40cm field, uses a thin scintillator imaged onto a 16-bit scientific CCD with ∼0.5mm resolution. A grid target and LED illuminators are provided for spatial calibration and relative gain correction. The detector mounts to the nozzle with micron precision. Tools are provided for image processing and analysis of single or multiple Gaussian spots. Results: The bias and gain of the detector were studied to measure repeatability and accuracy. Gain measurements were taken with the LED illuminators to measure repeatability and variation of the lens-CCD pair as a function with f-stop. Overall system gain was measured with a passive scattering (broad) beam whose shape is calibrated with EDR film placed in front of the scintillator. To create a large uniform field, overlapping small fields were recorded with the detector translated laterally and stitched together to cover the full field. Due to the long exposures required to obtain multiple spills of the synchrotron and very high detector sensitivity, borated polyethylene shielding was added to reduce direct radiation events hitting the CCD. Measurements with a micro ion chamber were compared to the detector’s spot profile. Software was developed to process arrays of Gaussian spots and to correct for radiation events. Conclusion: The detector background has a fixed bias, a small component linear in time, and is easily corrected. The gain correction method was validated with 2% accuracy. The detector spot profile matches the micro ion chamber data over 4 orders of magnitude. The multiple spot analyses can be easily used with plan data for measuring pencil beam uniformity and for regular QA comparison.

  16. Analysis of particle species evolution in neutral beam injection lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Haselton, H.H.

    1978-07-01

    Analytic solutions to the rate equations describing the species evolution of a multispecies positive ion beam of hydrogen due to charge exchange and molecular dissociation are derived as a function of the background gas (H 2 ) line density in the neutralizing gas cell and in the drift tube. Using the solutions, calculations are presented for the relative abundance of each species as a function of the gas cell thickness, the reionization loss rates in the drift tube, and the neutral beam power as a function of the beam energy and the species composition of the original ion beam

  17. Sensorial analysis of peanuts processed by e-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Salum, Debora C.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The development of the sensorial analysis was influenced by frequent changes in the technology of production and distribution of foods. Currently the sensorial analysis has represented a decisive part in some sectors of the nourishing industry with the purpose to improve the quality of its products. The food irradiation has as purpose to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate the diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. The process of irradiation in the recommended doses causes very few chemical alterations in some foods, the nutritional losses are considered insignificant and some of the alterations known found in irradiated foods is not harmful or dangerous. The present study evaluated the sensorial characteristics of peanuts processed by electron beam machine and was made a test of acceptance using a hedonic scale. Samples of peanut had been processed in the doses of 0, 5 and 7 kGy. Thirty volunteer panelists had participated of that acceptance study. The evaluating parameters were: appearance, odor and flavor. The result showed that the consumers had approved the peanut in the dose of 5 and 7 kGy, not having significant difference between the samples controlled and irradiated. (author)

  18. Sensorial analysis of peanuts processed by e-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Salum, Debora C.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2007-01-01

    The development of the sensorial analysis was influenced by frequent changes in the technology of production and distribution of foods. Currently the sensorial analysis has represented a decisive part in some sectors of the nourishing industry with the purpose to improve the quality of its products. The food irradiation has as purpose to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate the diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. The process of irradiation in the recommended doses causes very few chemical alterations in some foods, the nutritional losses are considered insignificant and some of the alterations known found in irradiated foods is not harmful or dangerous. The present study evaluated the sensorial characteristics of peanuts processed by electron beam machine and was made a test of acceptance using a hedonic scale. Samples of peanut had been processed in the doses of 0, 5 and 7 kGy. Thirty volunteer panelists had participated of that acceptance study. The evaluating parameters were: appearance, odor and flavor. The result showed that the consumers had approved the peanut in the dose of 5 and 7 kGy, not having significant difference between the samples controlled and irradiated. (author)

  19. X-ray trace element analysis with positive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.H.

    1973-01-01

    A new trace element analysis having the advantage that many elements may be detected in a single measurement, based on positive charged particle induced X-ray florescence and on the production of X-rays by heavy ions, is described. Because of the large cross-sections for the production of discrete X-ray and the low yield of continuum radiation, positive charged particle X-ray florescence is a competitive, fast, analytic tool. In the experiment a beam of positive charged particles from an accelerator was directed toward a target. X-rays induced by the bombardment were detected by a Si(Li) detector the ouput from which was amplified and sorted in a multichannel analyzer. For rapid data handling and analysis, the multichannel analyzer or ADC unit was connected to an on-line computer. A large variety of targets prepared in collaboration with the oceanographers have been studied and spectra obtained for different particles having the same velocity are presented to show that the yield of discrete X-rays increases at least as rapidly as Z 2 . While protons of several MeV appear to be already competitive further advantage may be gained by heavy ions at lower energies since the continuum is reduced while the peak ''signals'' retain strength due to the Z 2 dependence. (S.B.)

  20. Characteristic analysis on moderating material for obtaining epithermal neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xinbiao; Chen Da; Zhang Ying

    2000-01-01

    The one dimension discrete coordinates transport code ANISN was used to calculate three-group constants of 11 elements which could be used to consist moderating epithermal neutron material of beam. Moderating character of simple substances, compounds and mixtures consisted of the optimized elements analyzed three kinds of moderating materials were optimized for epithermal neutron beam

  1. Nonlinear analysis of a relativistic beam-plasma cyclotron instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1986-01-01

    A self-consistent set of nonlinear and relativistic wave-particle equations are derived for a magnetized beam-plasma system interacting with electromagnetic cyclotron waves. In particular, the high-frequency cyclotron mode interacting with a streaming and gyrating electron beam within a background plasma is considered in some detail. This interaction mode may possibly find application as a high-power source of coherent short-wavelength radiation for laboratory devices. The background plasma, although passive, plays a central role in this mechanism by modifying the dielectric properties in which the magnetized electron beam propagates. For a particular choice of the transverse beam velocity (i.e., the speed of light divided by the relativistic mass factor), the interaction frequency equals the nonrelativistic electron cyclotron frequency times the relativistic mass factor. For this choice of transverse beam velocity the detrimental effects of a longitudinal beam velocity spread is virtually removed. Power conversion efficiencies in excess of 18 percent are both analytically calculated and obtained through numerical simulations of the wave-particle equations. The quality of the electron beam, degree of energy and pitch angle spread, and its effect on the beam-plasma cyclotron instability is studied.

  2. A multi-centre analysis of radiotherapy beam output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Bolt

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Machine beam output measurements were largely within ±2% of 1.00 cGy/MU. Clear trends in measured output over time were seen, with some machines having large drifts which would result in additional burden to maintain within acceptable tolerances. This work may act as a baseline for future comparison of beam output measurements.

  3. Beam lifetime measurement and analysis in Indus-2 electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    was gradually reduced (at 100 mA stored current, average pressure: 1.2 × 10. −9. Torr) due ... of all working beamlines (open for synchrotron radiation users) were kept closed to avoid any variation in ... Beam lifetime (hours). Beam current (mA).

  4. Ion beam analysis of rubies and their simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juncomma, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Bootkul, D. [Department of General Science (Gems and Jewelry), Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Tippawan, U., E-mail: beary1001@gmail.com [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-07-15

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) is a set of well known powerful analytical techniques which use energetic particle beam as a probe. Among them, two techniques are suitable for gemological analysis, i.e., Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE) and Ionoluminescence (IL). We combine these two techniques for the investigations of rubies and their simulants. The main objective is to find a reference fingerprint of these gemstones. The data are collected from several natural rubies, synthetic rubies, red spinels, almandine garnets and rubellite which very much resemble and are difficult to distinguish with the gemologist loupe. From our measurements, due to their different crystal structures and compositions, can be clearly distinguished by the IL and PIXE techniques. The results show that the PIXE spectra consist of a few dominant lines of the host matrix elements of each gemstone and some weaker lines due to trace elements of transition metals. PIXE can easily differentiate rubies from other stones by evaluating their chemical compositions. It is noticed that synthetic rubies generally contain fewer impurities, lower iron and higher chromium than the natural ones. Moreover, the IL spectrum of ruby is unique and different from those of others stones. The typical spectrum of ruby is centered at 694 nm, with small sidebands that can be ascribed to a Cr{sup 3+} emission spectrum which is dominated by an R-line at the extreme red end of the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although the spectrum of synthetic ruby is centered at the same wavelength, the peak is stronger due to higher concentration of Cr and lower concentration of Fe than for natural rubies. For spinel, the IL spectrum shows strong deformation where the R-line is split due to the presence of MgO. For rubellite, the peak center is shifted to 692 nm which might be caused by the replacement of Mn{sup 3+} at the Al{sup 3+} site of the host structure. It is noticed that almandine garnet is not luminescent due

  5. Numerical design and analysis of parasitic mode oscillations for 95 GHz gyrotron beam tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Udaybir; Yadav, Vivek; Kumar, Anil; Sinha, A. K.

    2013-05-01

    The beam tunnel, equipped with the high lossy ceramics, is designed for 95 GHz gyrotron. The geometry of the beam tunnel is optimized considering the maximum RF absorption (ideally 100%) and the suppression of parasitic oscillations. The excitation of parasitic modes is a concerning problem for high frequency, high power gyrotrons. Considering the problem of parasitic mode excitation in beam tunnel, a detail analysis is performed for the suppression of these kinds of modes. Trajectory code EGUN and CST Microwave Studio are used for the simulations of electron beam trajectory and electromagnetic analysis, respectively.

  6. Direct Measurement of Neutral/Ion Beam Power using Thermocouple Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, I.; Gee, S.

    2006-01-01

    Modern Neutral Beam Injection systems such as those used on JET and MAST routinely use thermocouples embedded close to the surface of beam stopping elements, such as calorimeters and ion dumps, coupled to high speed data acquisition systems to determine beam profile and position from temperature rise data. With the availability of low cost data acquisition and storage systems it is now possible to record data from all thermocouples in a fully instrumented calorimeter or ion dump on 20 ms timescales or better. This sample rate is sufficiently fast to enable the thermocouple data to be used to calculate the incident power density from 1d heat transfer theory. This power density data coupled with appropriate Gaussian fits enables the determination of the 2d beam profile and thus allows an instantaneous and direct measurement of beam power. The theory and methodology required to analyse the fast thermocouple data from the MAST calorimeter and residual ion dump thermocouples is presented and direct measurements of beam power density are demonstrated. The power of desktop computers allows such analysis to be carried out virtually instantaneously. The methods used to automate this analysis are discussed in detail. A code, utilising the theory and methodology, has been developed to allow immediate measurements of beam power on a pulse by pulse basis. The uncertainty in determining the beam power density is shown to be less than 10 %. This power density data is then fitted to a 2d Gaussian beam profile and integrated to establish the total beam power. Results of this automated analysis for the neutral beam and residual ion power of the MAST duopigatron and PINI NBI systems are presented. This technology could be applied to a beam power safety interlock system. The application to a beam shine through protection system for the inner wall of the JET Tokamak is discussed as an example. (author)

  7. Ion beam analysis of oxidation and hydrogenation of switchable mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, M.C.; Jongerden, M.R.; Molen, S.J. van der; Vis, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Thin films of Y, La or rare earth (RE) hydrides exhibit a metal insulator transition between their di- and trihydride phase. After H loading lateral diffusion samples of these materials contain an overview of all hydride phases present in the thin film phase diagram. In this paper the thin film YH x system will be investigated. The unexpected presence of a lateral oxygen profile in the YH x sample necessitates a careful interpretation of local hydrogen concentration differences. In this paper the potential of ion beam analysis will be discussed with respect to the investigation of oxidation and hydrogenation of YH x switchable mirrors. The results of the measurements will be discussed in terms of differences between bulk- and thin-film-phase diagrams of YH x . The experimental methods used are 1 H ( 4 He, 1 H) 4 He elastic recoil detection at 5 MeV and 16 O( 4 He, 4 He) 16 O resonant backscattering around 3.036 MeV

  8. Ion beam analysis of oxidation and hydrogenation of switchable mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, M.C. E-mail: huisman@nat.vu.nl; Jongerden, M.R.; Molen, S.J. van der; Vis, R.D

    2001-07-01

    Thin films of Y, La or rare earth (RE) hydrides exhibit a metal insulator transition between their di- and trihydride phase. After H loading lateral diffusion samples of these materials contain an overview of all hydride phases present in the thin film phase diagram. In this paper the thin film YH{sub x} system will be investigated. The unexpected presence of a lateral oxygen profile in the YH{sub x} sample necessitates a careful interpretation of local hydrogen concentration differences. In this paper the potential of ion beam analysis will be discussed with respect to the investigation of oxidation and hydrogenation of YH{sub x} switchable mirrors. The results of the measurements will be discussed in terms of differences between bulk- and thin-film-phase diagrams of YH{sub x}. The experimental methods used are {sup 1}H ({sup 4}He, {sup 1}H){sup 4}He elastic recoil detection at 5 MeV and {sup 16}O({sup 4}He, {sup 4}He){sup 16}O resonant backscattering around 3.036 MeV.

  9. Calorimetric energy-dispersive detectors for ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    Energy-dispersive detectors for photons and alpha particles have recently been built. They are based on designs for infrared bolometric detectors working at liquid helium temperatures. For 5.5 Mev alpha particles the energy resolution (FWHM) has been published to be better than 35 keV in preliminary experiments, but thermodynamic limits to the resolution were calculated to be of the order of a few tens of eV. In the present paper limitations to the resolution caused by fluctuations in the processes converting particle energy to heat in the detectors will be calculated. It appears that an FWHM of a few hundred eV for MeV alphas may realistically be hoped for. As these detectors are windowless and may at the same time extend solid angles as large as surface-barrier detectors, be built in any desired geometrical shape, and work with count rates well above 10 3 Hz, exiting possibilities for ion beam analysis will open up through their realization. (orig.)

  10. Fast Monte Carlo for ion beam analysis simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiettekatte, Francois

    2008-01-01

    A Monte Carlo program for the simulation of ion beam analysis data is presented. It combines mainly four features: (i) ion slowdown is computed separately from the main scattering/recoil event, which is directed towards the detector. (ii) A virtual detector, that is, a detector larger than the actual one can be used, followed by trajectory correction. (iii) For each collision during ion slowdown, scattering angle components are extracted form tables. (iv) Tables of scattering angle components, stopping power and energy straggling are indexed using the binary representation of floating point numbers, which allows logarithmic distribution of these tables without the computation of logarithms to access them. Tables are sufficiently fine-grained that interpolation is not necessary. Ion slowdown computation thus avoids trigonometric, inverse and transcendental function calls and, as much as possible, divisions. All these improvements make possible the computation of 10 7 collisions/s on current PCs. Results for transmitted ions of several masses in various substrates are well comparable to those obtained using SRIM-2006 in terms of both angular and energy distributions, as long as a sufficiently large number of collisions is considered for each ion. Examples of simulated spectrum show good agreement with experimental data, although a large detector rather than the virtual detector has to be used to properly simulate background signals that are due to plural collisions. The program, written in standard C, is open-source and distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License

  11. Neutral-beam performance analysis using a CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.N.; Allen, S.L.; Pincosy, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed an optical diagnostic system suitable for characterizing the performance of energetic neutral beams. An absolutely calibrated CCD video camera is used to view the neutral beam as it passes through a relatively high pressure (10 -5 Torr) region outside the neutralizer: collisional excitation of the fast deuterium atoms produces H/sub proportional to/ emission (lambda = 6561A) that is proportional to the local atomic current density, independent of the species mix of accelerated ions over the energy range 5 to 20 keV. Digital processing of the video signal provides profile and aiming information for beam optimization. 6 refs., 3 figs

  12. Numerical analysis of sandwich beam with corrugated core under three-point bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenbeck, Leszek [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Mathematics Piotrowo Street No. 5, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Grygorowicz, Magdalena; Paczos, Piotr [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Applied Mechanics Jana Pawla IIStreet No. 24, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    The strength problem of sandwich beam with corrugated core under three-point bending is presented.The beam are made of steel and formed by three mutually orthogonal corrugated layers. The finite element analysis (FEA) of the sandwich beam is performed with the use of the FEM system - ABAQUS. The relationship between the applied load and deflection in three-point bending is considered.

  13. International Atomic Energy Agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barradas, N.P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional No. 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida do Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: nunoni@itn.pt; Arstila, K. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Battistig, G. [MFA Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Bianconi, M. [CNR-IMM-Sezione di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti, 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Dytlewski, N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jeynes, C. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kotai, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Lulli, G. [CNR-IMM-Sezione di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti, 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rauhala, E. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Thompson, M. [Department of MS and E/Bard Hall 328, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) includes a group of techniques for the determination of elemental concentration depth profiles of thin film materials. Often the final results rely on simulations, fits and calculations, made by dedicated codes written for specific techniques. Here we evaluate numerical codes dedicated to the analysis of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, non-Rutherford elastic backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection analysis and non-resonant nuclear reaction analysis data. Several software packages have been presented and made available to the community. New codes regularly appear, and old codes continue to be used and occasionally updated and expanded. However, those codes have to date not been validated, or even compared to each other. Consequently, IBA practitioners use codes whose validity, correctness and accuracy have never been validated beyond the authors' efforts. In this work, we present the results of an IBA software intercomparison exercise, where seven different packages participated. These were DEPTH, GISA, DataFurnace (NDF), RBX, RUMP, SIMNRA (all analytical codes) and MCERD (a Monte Carlo code). In a first step, a series of simulations were defined, testing different capabilities of the codes, for fixed conditions. In a second step, a set of real experimental data were analysed. The main conclusion is that the codes perform well within the limits of their design, and that the largest differences in the results obtained are due to differences in the fundamental databases used (stopping power and scattering cross section). In particular, spectra can be calculated including Rutherford cross sections with screening, energy resolution convolutions including energy straggling, and pileup effects, with agreement between the codes available at the 0.1% level. This same agreement is also available for the non-RBS techniques. This agreement is not limited to calculation of spectra from particular structures with predetermined

  14. Investigation of fish otoliths by combined ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huszank, R.; Simon, A.; Keresztessy, K.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. This work was implemented within the framework of the Hungarian Ion beam Physics Platform (http://hipp.atomki.hu/). Otoliths are small structures, 'the ear stones' of a fish, and are used to detect acceleration and orientation. They are composed of a combination of protein matrix and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) forming aragonite micro crystals. They have an annually deposited layered conformation with a microstructure corresponding to the seasonal and daily increments. Trace elements, such as Sr, Zn, Fe etc., are also incorporated into the otolith from the environment and the nutrition. The elemental distribution of the otolith of fresh water fish burbot (Lota lota L.) collected in Hungary was measured with Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the Nuclear Microprobe Facility of HAS ATOMKI. The spatial 3D structure of the otolith could be observed with a sub-micrometer resolution. It is confirmed that the aragonite micro-crystals are covered by an organic layer and there are some protein rich regions in the otolith, too. By applying the RBSMAST code developed for RBS on macroscopic structure, it was proven that the orientation of the needle shaped aragonite crystals is considerably different at adjacent locations in the otolith. The organic and inorganic component of the otolith could be set apart in the depth selective hydrogen and calcium maps derived by micro- ERDA and micro-RBS. Similar structural analysis could be done near the surface by combining the C, O and Ca elemental maps determined by micro-PIXE measurements. It was observed that the trace metal Zn is bound to the protein component. Acknowledgements This work was partially supported by the Hungarian OTKA Grant No. T046238 and the EU cofunded Economic Competitiveness Operative Programme (GVOP-3.2.1.-2004-04-0402/3.0)

  15. Ion beam analysis and spectrometry techniques for Cultural Heritage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of experimental techniques for the characterisation of Cultural heritage materials has to take into account some requirements. The complexity of these past materials requires the development of new techniques of examination and analysis, or the transfer of technologies developed for the study of advanced materials. In addition, due to precious aspect of artwork it is also necessary to use the non-destructive methods, respecting the integrity of objects. It is for this reason that the methods using radiations and/or particles play a important role in the scientific study of art history and archaeology since their discovery. X-ray and γ-ray spectrometry as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) are analytical tools at the service of Cultural heritage. This report mainly presents experimental developments for IBA: PIXE, RBS/EBS and NRA. These developments were applied to the study of archaeological composite materials: layered materials or mixtures composed of organic and non-organic phases. Three examples are shown: evolution of silvering techniques for the production of counterfeit coinage during the Roman Empire and in the 16. century, the characterization of composites or mixed mineral/organic compounds such as bone and paint. In these last two cases, the combination of techniques gave original results on the proportion of both phases: apatite/collagen in bone, pigment/binder in paintings. Another part of this report is then dedicated to the non-invasive/non-destructive characterization of prehistoric pigments, in situ, for rock art studies in caves and in the laboratory. Finally, the perspectives of this work are presented. (author) [fr

  16. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF DEEP BEAM UNDER DIRECT AND INDIRECT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem K. Hussain

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This research study the effect of exist of opening in web of deep beam loaded directly and indirectly and the behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams without with and without web reinforcement, the opening size and shear span ratio (a/d was constant. Nonlinear analysis using the finite element method with ANSYS software release 12.0 program was used to predict the ultimate load capacity and crack propagation for reinforced concrete deep beams with openings. The adopted beam models depend on experimental test program of reinforced concrete deep beam with and without openings and the finite element analysis result showed a good agreement with small amount of deference in ultimate beam capacity with (ANSYS analysis and it was completely efficient to simulate the behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams. The mid-span deflection at ultimate applied load and inclined cracked were highly compatible with experimental results. The model with opening in the shear span shows a reduction in the load-carrying capacity of beam and adding the vertical stirrup has improve the capacity of ultimate beam load.

  17. Post-buckling analysis of composite beams: A simple intuitive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and lateral displacement functions at any discrete location of the beam. ..... shells under combined axial compression and radial pressure. ... Razakamiadana A and Zidi M 1999 Buckling and post-buckling of concentric cylindrical tubes under.

  18. Analysis of Mode II Crack in Bilayered Composite Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizov, Victor I.; Mladensky, Angel S.

    2012-06-01

    Mode II crack problem in cantilever bilayered composite beams is considered. Two configurations are analyzed. In the first configuration the crack arms have equal heights while in the second one the arms have different heights. The modulus of elasticity and the shear modulus of the beam un-cracked part in the former case and the moment of inertia in the latter are derived as functions of the two layers characteristics. The expressions for the strain energy release rate, G are obtained on the basis of the simple beam theory according to the hypotheses of linear elastic fracture mechanics. The validity of these expressions is established by comparison with a known solution. Parametrical investigations for the influence of the moduli of elasticity ratio as well as the moments of inertia ratio on the strain energy release rate are also performed. The present article is a part of comprehensive investigation in Fracture mechanics of composite beams.

  19. Spreader beam analysis for the CASTOR GSF cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, E.P.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the 150% rated capacity load test performed by DynCorp Hoisting and Rigging on the CASTOR GSF special cask lifting beams. The two lifting beams were originally rated and tested at 20,000kg (44,000lb) by the cask manufacturer in Germany. The testing performed by DynCorp rated and tested the lifting beams to 30,000 kg (66,000 lb)+0%, -5%, for Hanford Site use. The CASTOR GSF cask, used to transport isotopic Heat Sources (canisters), must be lifted with its own designed lifting beam system (Figures 1, 2, and 3). As designed, the beam material is RSt 37-2 (equivalent to American Society for Testing and Materials[ASTM] A-570), the eye plate is St 52-2 (equivalent to ASTM A-516), and the lifting pin is St 50 (equivalent to ASTM A-515). The beam has two opposing 58 mm (2.3 in.) diameter by 120 mm(4.7 in.) length, high grade steel pins that engage the cask for lifting. The pins have a manual locking mechanism to prevent disengagement from the casks. The static, gross weight (loaded) of the cask 18,640 kg (41,000 lb) on the pins prevents movement of the pins during lifting. This is due to the frictional force of the cask on the pins when lifting begins

  20. Anisotropic beam model for analysis and design of passive controlled wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Kim, Taeseong

    . The developed fully coupled beam element and cross section analysis tool has been validated against both numerical calculations and experimental measurements. Numerical validation has been performed against beam type calculations including Variational Asymptotical Beam Section Analysis (VABS) and detailed shell...... and solid finite element analyses. Experimental validation included specially designed beams with built-in couplings, a full-scale blade section originally without couplings, which subsequently was modified with extra composite layers in order to obtain measurable couplings. Both static testing and dynamic...... modal analysis tests have been performed. The results from the project now make it possible to use structural couplings in an intelligent manner for the design of future wind turbine blades. The developed beam element is especially developed for wind turbine blades and can be used for modeling blades...

  1. Compositional analysis of YBaCuO superconducting films with ion beam analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.; Timmers, H.; Ophel, T.R.; Elliman, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    High-T c YBa x Cu y O 7-δ superconducting films are being developed for applications such as superconducting quantum interference devices. The carrier concentration, critical current density J c and critical temperature T c of these films depend sensitively on the oxygen content . Stoichiometry, uniformity with depth, homogeneity across the sample and film thickness are also important quantities for their characterisation. It has been shown, for example, that the stoichiometry of the metallic elements affects the growth characteristics and surface morphology of the films. With the deposit ion techniques used, reproducibility of film properties is difficult. The characterisation of YBa x Cu y O 7-δ films with ion beam analysis techniques is complex. Whereas the three metallic elements can be detected with helium beams and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), the oxygen signal is generally obscured by that from substrate elements. It can be better detected using resonant backscattering with 3.04MeV 4 He ions or nuclear reaction analysis. Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) with high-energetic (1MeV/amu), heavy beams (Z > 120), enables all elements to be detected and separated in a single experiment. It is well established that ion bombardment induces vacancies in the oxygen sub-lattice, driving the material to change from crystalline to amorphous, the latter phase having a reduced oxygen content. In previous heavy ion ERD measurements of YBa x Cu yO z films with 200MeV 127 I beams, the opaque films became transparent in the beam spot area, indicative of the amorphous phase. The accuracy of the oxygen measurement is therefore questionable. Indeed, using Raman spectroscopy, distortions of the crystalline structure above a fluence of 5 x 10 11 ion/cm 2 and for higher doses some signatures of a reduction in oxygen content have been observed for such beams. It appears therefore that a correct determination of the oxygen content requires either a drastic reduction in fluence or a

  2. Applications of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, K.; Azuma, H.; Fujita, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Kato, Y.; Arrabal, R. Gonzalez; Soldo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S.

    2012-01-01

    Laser produced ion beams have unique characteristics which are ultra-short pulse, very low emittance, and variety of nuclear species. These characteristics could be used for analyzing various materials like low Z ion doped heavy metals or ceramics. Energies of laser produced ion beam extend from 0.1MeV to 100MeV. Therefore, various nuclear processes can be induced in the interactions of ion beams with samples. The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. To explore the applicability of laser ion beam to the analysis of the Li ion battery, a proton beam with the diameter of ∼ 1.0 μm at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used. For the analysis, the PIGE (Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission) is used. The proton beam scans over Li battery electrode samples to diagnose Li density in the LiNi 0.85 Co 0.15 O 2 anode. As the results, PIGE images for Li area density distributions are obtained with the spatial resolution of better than 1.5μm FWHM. By the Li PIGE images, the depth dependence of de-intercalation levels of Li in the anode is obtained. By the POP experiments at TIARA, it is clarified that laser produced ion beam is appropriate for the Li ion battery analysis. 41.85.Lc, 41.75.Jv, 42.62.cf.

  3. Market segmentation and analysis of Japan's residential post and beam construction market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Roos; Ivan L. Eastin; Hisaaki Matsuguma

    2005-01-01

    A mail survey of Japanese post and beam builders was conducted to measure their level of ethnocentrism, market orientation, risk aversion, and price consciousness. The data were analyzed utilizing factor and cluster analysis. The results showed that Japanese post and beam builders can be divided into three distinct market segments: open to import...

  4. Dynamic Analysis of Thick Plates Including Deep Beams on Elastic Foundations Using Modified Vlasov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozgan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic analysis of foundation plate-beam systems with transverse shear deformation is presented using modified Vlasov foundation model. Finite element formulation of the problem is derived by using an 8-node (PBQ8 finite element based on Mindlin plate theory for the plate and a 2-node Hughes element based on Timoshenko beam theory for the beam. Selective reduced integration technique is used to avoid shear locking problem for the evaluation of the stiffness matrices for both the elements. The effect of beam thickness, the aspect ratio of the plate and subsoil depth on the response of plate-beam-soil system is analyzed. Numerical examples show that the displacement, bending moments and shear forces are changed significantly by adding the beams.

  5. Finite Element Formulation for Stability and Free Vibration Analysis of Timoshenko Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Moallemi-Oreh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-node element is suggested for analyzing the stability and free vibration of Timoshenko beam. Cubic displacement polynomial and quadratic rotational fields are selected for this element. Moreover, it is assumed that shear strain of the element has the constant value. Interpolation functions for displacement field and beam rotation are exactly calculated by employing total beam energy and its stationing to shear strain. By exploiting these interpolation functions, beam elements' stiffness matrix is also examined. Furthermore, geometric stiffness matrix and mass matrix of the proposed element are calculated by writing governing equation on stability and beam free vibration. At last, accuracy and efficiency of proposed element are evaluated through numerical tests. These tests show high accuracy of the element in analyzing beam stability and finding its critical load and free vibration analysis.

  6. Nonlinear Analysis of External Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Beams with BFRP and CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem K. Hussain

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional strengthening methods for concrete structure (girders, beams, columns…. consuming time and could be an economical, a new modern repair methods using the Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP and Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP as a laminate strips or bars,and considered a competitive solution that will increase the life-cycle of repaired structures. This study investigated the strengthen reinforced concrete girder. Nonlinear analysis have been adopted to the models using FEM analysis (ANSYS to simulate the theoretical results compared with experimental results.Using finite element packages, more efficient and better analyses can be made to fully understand the response of individual structural components and their contribution to a structure as a whole.Three type of material are used in this study as an external prestressed wire (steel, CFRP and BFRP. The prestressed beam is modeled as simply supported beam with two concentrated point load. The results showed that all tested strengthening beam increased the load carryingcapacity of the beams depend on prestressing force. Obtained Result was compared for different type of beam.This study also was enlarged to include using CFRP and BFRPbarwhich are light weight and moredurable, lead to ease of handling and maintenance. The research conducted analytical work to evaluate the effectiveness of concrete beams reinforced normally by the use of CFRP and BFRP bars. The results showed a significant gain in the beam’s ultimate capacities using CFRP bars comparing with beam reinforced with BFRP bar and reference beam

  7. Electron beam additive manufacturing with wire - Analysis of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglowski, Marek St.; Błacha, Sylwester; Pilarczyk, Jan; Dutkiewicz, Jan; Rogal, Łukasz

    2018-05-01

    The electron beam additive manufacturing process with wire is a part of global trend to find fast and efficient methods for producing complex shapes elements from costly metal alloys such as stainless steels, nickel alloys, titanium alloys etc. whose production by other conventional technologies is unprofitable or technically impossible. Demand for additive manufacturing is linked to the development of new technologies in the automotive, aerospace and machinery industries. The aim of the presented work was to carried out research on electron beam additive manufacturing with a wire as a deposited (filler) material. The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selected technological parameters such as: wire feed rate, beam current, travelling speed, acceleration voltage on stability of the deposition process and geometric dimensions of the padding welds. The research revealed that, at low beam currents, the deposition process is unstable. The padding weld reinforcement is non-uniform. Irregularity of the width, height and straightness of the padding welds can be observed. At too high acceleration voltage and beam current, burn-through of plate and excess penetration weld can be revealed. The achieved results and gained knowledge allowed to produce, based on EBAM with wire process, whole structure from stainless steel.

  8. Beams made of twisted atoms: A theoretical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayrapetyan, Armen [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Matula, Oliver [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Surzhykov, Andrey [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Fritzsche, Stephan [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We have analyzed Bessel beams of two-level atoms that are driven by a linearly polarized laser light. Based on the Schroedinger equation for two-level systems, we first determine the states of two-level atoms in a plane-wave field by taking into account propagation directions both of the atom and the field. For such laser-driven two-level atoms, we construct Bessel beams by going beyond the typical paraxial approximation. In particular, we show that the probability density of these atomic beams exhibits a non-trivial, Bessel-squared-type behavior. The profile of such twisted atoms is affected by atom and laser parameters, such as the nuclear charge, atom velocity, laser frequency, and propagation geometry of the atom and laser beams. Moreover, we spatially and temporally characterize the beam of hydrogen and selected (neutral) alkali-metal atoms that carry non-zero orbital angular momentum (OAM). The proposed spatiotemporal Bessel states (i) are able to describe twisted states of any two-level system which is driven by the radiation field and (ii) have potential applications in atomic and nuclear processes as well as in quantum communication.

  9. Transient analysis of a bunched beam free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.M.; Yu, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of the bunched beam operation of a free electron laser was studied. Assuming the electron beam to be initially monoenergetic, the Maxwell-Vlasov equations describing the system reduce to a third order partial differential equation for the envelope of the emitted light. The Green's function corresponding to an arbitrary shape of the electron bunch, which describes the transient behavior of the system, is obtained. The Green's function was used to discuss the start up problem as well as the power output and the power specrum of a self-amplified spontaneous emission

  10. Seismic analysis of the APR1400 nuclear reactor system using a verified beam element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-beom; Park, No-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Young-Pil; Choi, Youngin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simplified beam element model is constructed based on the real dynamic characteristics of the APR1400. • Time history analysis is performed to calculate the seismic responses of the structures. • Large deformations can be observed at the in-phase mode of reactor vessel and core support barrel. - Abstract: Structural integrity is the first priority in the design of nuclear reactor internal structures. In particular, nuclear reactor internals should be designed to endure external forces, such as those due to earthquakes. Many researchers have performed finite element analyses to meet these design requirements. Generally, a seismic analysis model should reflect the dynamic characteristics of the target system. However, seismic analysis based on the finite element method requires long computation times as well as huge storage space. In this research, a beam element model was developed and confirmed based on the real dynamic characteristics of an advanced pressurized water nuclear reactor 1400 (APR1400) system. That verification process enhances the accuracy of the finite element analysis using the beam elements, remarkably. Also, the beam element model reduces seismic analysis costs. Therefore, the beam element model was used to perform the seismic analysis. Then, the safety of the APR1400 was assessed based on a seismic analysis of the time history responses of its structures. Thus, efficient, accurate seismic analysis was demonstrated using the proposed beam element model.

  11. Seismic analysis of the APR1400 nuclear reactor system using a verified beam element model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-beom [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Park, No-Cheol, E-mail: pnch@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Young-Pil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Youngin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 62 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34142 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • A simplified beam element model is constructed based on the real dynamic characteristics of the APR1400. • Time history analysis is performed to calculate the seismic responses of the structures. • Large deformations can be observed at the in-phase mode of reactor vessel and core support barrel. - Abstract: Structural integrity is the first priority in the design of nuclear reactor internal structures. In particular, nuclear reactor internals should be designed to endure external forces, such as those due to earthquakes. Many researchers have performed finite element analyses to meet these design requirements. Generally, a seismic analysis model should reflect the dynamic characteristics of the target system. However, seismic analysis based on the finite element method requires long computation times as well as huge storage space. In this research, a beam element model was developed and confirmed based on the real dynamic characteristics of an advanced pressurized water nuclear reactor 1400 (APR1400) system. That verification process enhances the accuracy of the finite element analysis using the beam elements, remarkably. Also, the beam element model reduces seismic analysis costs. Therefore, the beam element model was used to perform the seismic analysis. Then, the safety of the APR1400 was assessed based on a seismic analysis of the time history responses of its structures. Thus, efficient, accurate seismic analysis was demonstrated using the proposed beam element model.

  12. An analysis of beam parameters on proton-acoustic waves through an analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipergil, Esra Aytac; Erkol, Hakan; Kaya, Serhat; Gulsen, Gultekin; Unlu, Mehmet Burcin

    2017-06-21

    It has been reported that acoustic waves are generated when a high-energy pulsed proton beam is deposited in a small volume within tissue. One possible application of proton-induced acoustics is to get real-time feedback for intra-treatment adjustments by monitoring such acoustic waves. A high spatial resolution in ultrasound imaging may reduce proton range uncertainty. Thus, it is crucial to understand the dependence of the acoustic waves on the proton beam characteristics. In this manuscript, firstly, an analytic solution for the proton-induced acoustic wave is presented to reveal the dependence of the signal on the beam parameters; then it is combined with an analytic approximation of the Bragg curve. The influence of the beam energy, pulse duration and beam diameter variation on the acoustic waveform are investigated. Further analysis is performed regarding the Fourier decomposition of the proton-acoustic signals. Our results show that the smaller spill time of the proton beam upsurges the amplitude of the acoustic wave for a constant number of protons, which is hence beneficial for dose monitoring. The increase in the energy of each individual proton in the beam leads to the spatial broadening of the Bragg curve, which also yields acoustic waves of greater amplitude. The pulse duration and the beam width of the proton beam do not affect the central frequency of the acoustic wave, but they change the amplitude of the spectral components.

  13. Analysis of contour images using optics of spiral beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volostnikov, V. G.; Kishkin, S. A.; Kotova, S. P.

    2018-03-01

    An approach is outlined to the recognition of contour images using computer technology based on coherent optics principles. A mathematical description of the recognition process algorithm and the results of numerical modelling are presented. The developed approach to the recognition of contour images using optics of spiral beams is described and justified.

  14. Reconstruction of laser beam wavefronts based on mode analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available . Experimental setup for measuring the far field of differ- ently aberrated Gaussian beams. He–Ne, helium–neon laser; L 1–3 , lenses; M, mirror; SLM 1 , spatial light modulator; CCD, camera. Fig. 8. Theoretical and measured far fields FFth and FFm of a...

  15. Beam response analysis of moving vehicle with half car modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badriyah, A.N.; Arifianto, D.; Susatio, Y.

    2016-01-01

    There were several tragedies concerning damages of bridge which seem to be sooner than the predicted period. One of hypothesis in this situation is an addition of vibration caused by long vehicle such as super long truck which has huge force transferred into the bridge and its long body causes more vibration due to phase difference of front and rear tire. The selected method which is used in this problem is using a simulation for modeling a bridge- vehicle system using half car vehicle model. The simulation is done using ANSYS Workbench 15.0 with some variation such us the thickness of beam and its supports. There are 3 kind of variation used in the thickness variety which are 2 m, 1 m, and 0.5 m. While in supports variation, we have fixed support, knife-edge support, and slider support. The results show that there is addition of vibration caused by long vehicle. It is proved by an oscillation which is showed in every response of beam's total deformation. Highest total deformation is achieved in slider support beam of 0.5 thicknesses, 1.08 mm in 1.12 second. First ripple seen in responses is at 0.84 second. Meanwhile, response of knife-edge and fixed support beam show a similarity. The ripple in this situation is caused by beat modulation from the front and rear tire. (paper)

  16. Beam response analysis of moving vehicle with half car modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badriyah, A. N.; Arifianto, D.; Susatio, Y.

    2016-11-01

    There were several tragedies concerning damages of bridge which seem to be sooner than the predicted period. One of hypothesis in this situation is an addition of vibration caused by long vehicle such as super long truck which has huge force transferred into the bridge and its long body causes more vibration due to phase difference of front and rear tire. The selected method which is used in this problem is using a simulation for modeling a bridge- vehicle system using half car vehicle model. The simulation is done using ANSYS Workbench 15.0 with some variation such us the thickness of beam and its supports. There are 3 kind of variation used in the thickness variety which are 2 m, 1 m, and 0.5 m. While in supports variation, we have fixed support, knife-edge support, and slider support. The results show that there is addition of vibration caused by long vehicle. It is proved by an oscillation which is showed in every response of beam's total deformation. Highest total deformation is achieved in slider support beam of 0.5 thicknesses, 1.08 mm in 1.12 second. First ripple seen in responses is at 0.84 second. Meanwhile, response of knife-edge and fixed support beam show a similarity. The ripple in this situation is caused by beat modulation from the front and rear tire.

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasma analysis by modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aranda Gonzalvo, Y.; Whitmore, T.D.; Rees, J.A.; Seymour, D.L.; Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.

    2006-01-01

    Fractional no. d. measurements for a radiofrequency plasma needle operating at atm. pressure were obtained using a mol. beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) system designed for diagnostics of atm. plasmas. The MBMS system comprises three differentially pumped stages and a mass/energy analyzer and includes

  18. Positron beam analysis of polymer/metal interfaces under stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escobar Galindo, R.; van Veen, A.; Garcia, A.A.; Schut, H.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Triftshauser, W; Kogel, G; Sperr, P

    2001-01-01

    The polymers Epoxy and Poly(Methyl MethAcrylate) spin coated on Interstitial Free (IF) steel were subjected to external stresses and studied using the Delft Variable Energy Positron (VEP) beam facility. The polymer/metal interface was identified using an S-W map. After tensile experiments vacancy

  19. Equilibrium problems and limit analysis of masonry beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lucchesi, M.; Šilhavý, Miroslav; Zani, N.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 2 (2012), s. 165-188 ISSN 0374-3535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : beams * arches * collapse Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.038, year: 2012 http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10659-011-9318-5

  20. Some peculiarity of element analysis using charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzev, A.P.; Abu-Alazm, S.M.; Helal, A.I.; Zahran, N.F.

    2002-01-01

    Multilayer structures, SiC -layers at Si substrate, have been analyzed by RBS, NR, ERD and PIXE methods using the charged particle beams from EG-5 Van de Graaff accelerator of JINR. The depth profiles of the based deposited layers were obtained for the multilayer structures

  1. Energy analysis of the ion beam from plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, H.; Nardi, V.; Prior, W.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have experimentally determined the energy spectrum of a deuteron beam in the energy interval 100 KeV ≤ E ≤ 10 MeV, with typical beam current I ≥ 1-2 A. A 5 kJ (15 kV, 49 μF) plasma focus machine is used to generate the ion beam at relatively low pressure 3-4 Torr D/sub 2/ (beam anode) and at higher pressure 6-8 Torr D/sub 2/ (high-neutron-yield mode). The spectrum is obtained from two different methods, i.e. from ion time of flight - by using time delays of Faraday cup signals with respect to hard x-ray signals - and from ion filtering, (mylar filter with different thickness from 2.5 μm up to 500 μm are used to cover the Faraday cup). The Faraday cup is located in a differentially pumed chamber (10/sup -4/ - 10/sup -5/ Torr) which is separated from the plasma focus chamber (8-3 Torr) by a 150 μm diam. pinhole (12.5 μm thick tungsten foil). The pinhole and Faraday cup are positioned on the gun axis at a distance of 15 cm and 25 cm from the end of the anode respectively

  2. Advances in nonlinear vibration analysis of structures. Part-I. Beams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    element analysis of nonlinear beams under static and dynamic loads. ... linearization, substitution of inplane boundary conditions at element level rather .... Modelling the nonlinear vibration problems using finite elements, albeit with a couple.

  3. Isogeometric analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams including the nonlinear effects of large deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Farhad; Hashemian, Ali; Moetakef-Imani, Behnam; Hadidimoud, Saied

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, the isogeometric analysis (IGA) of free-form planar curved beams is formulated based on the nonlinear Timoshenko beam theory to investigate the large deformation of beams with variable curvature. Based on the isoparametric concept, the shape functions of the field variables (displacement and rotation) in a finite element analysis are considered to be the same as the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) basis functions defining the geometry. The validity of the presented formulation is tested in five case studies covering a wide range of engineering curved structures including from straight and constant curvature to variable curvature beams. The nonlinear deformation results obtained by the presented method are compared to well-established benchmark examples and also compared to the results of linear and nonlinear finite element analyses. As the nonlinear load-deflection behavior of Timoshenko beams is the main topic of this article, the results strongly show the applicability of the IGA method to the large deformation analysis of free-form curved beams. Finally, it is interesting to notice that, until very recently, the large deformations analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams has not been considered in IGA by researchers.

  4. Geometrically Nonlinear Static Analysis of Edge Cracked Timoshenko Beams Composed of Functionally Graded Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref Doğuşcan Akbaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometrically nonlinear static analysis of edge cracked cantilever Timoshenko beams composed of functionally graded material (FGM subjected to a nonfollower transversal point load at the free end of the beam is studied with large displacements and large rotations. Material properties of the beam change in the height direction according to exponential distributions. The cracked beam is modeled as an assembly of two subbeams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. In the study, the finite element of the beam is constructed by using the total Lagrangian Timoshenko beam element approximation. The nonlinear problem is solved by using incremental displacement-based finite element method in conjunction with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The convergence study is performed for various numbers of finite elements. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, and various material distributions on the nonlinear static response of the FGM beam are investigated in detail. Also, the difference between the geometrically linear and nonlinear analysis of edge cracked FGM beam is investigated in detail.

  5. Determination of the polarization states of an arbitrary polarized terahertz beam: vectorial vortex analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Toshitaka; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Oikawa, Hiroki; Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Washio, Masakazu; Yonemura, Motoki; Yoshizawa, Toru; Tyo, J Scott; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2015-03-24

    Vectorial vortex analysis is used to determine the polarization states of an arbitrarily polarized terahertz (0.1-1.6 THz) beam using THz achromatic axially symmetric wave (TAS) plates, which have a phase retardance of Δ = 163° and are made of polytetrafluorethylene. Polarized THz beams are converted into THz vectorial vortex beams with no spatial or wavelength dispersion, and the unknown polarization states of the incident THz beams are reconstructed. The polarization determination is also demonstrated at frequencies of 0.16 and 0.36 THz. The results obtained by solving the inverse source problem agree with the values used in the experiments. This vectorial vortex analysis enables a determination of the polarization states of the incident THz beam from the THz image. The polarization states of the beams are estimated after they pass through the TAS plates. The results validate this new approach to polarization detection for intense THz sources. It could find application in such cutting edge areas of physics as nonlinear THz photonics and plasmon excitation, because TAS plates not only instantaneously elucidate the polarization of an enclosed THz beam but can also passively control THz vectorial vortex beams.

  6. Analysis of smart beams with piezoelectric elements using impedance matrix and inverse Laplace transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guo-Qing; Miao, Xing-Yuan; Hu, Yuan-Tai; Wang, Ji

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive study on smart beams with piezoelectric elements using an impedance matrix and the inverse Laplace transform is presented. Based on the authors’ previous work, the dynamics of some elements in beam-like smart structures are represented by impedance matrix equations, including a piezoelectric stack, a piezoelectric bimorph, an elastic straight beam or a circular curved beam. A further transform is applied to the impedance matrix to obtain a set of implicit transfer function matrices. Apart from the analytical solutions to the matrices of smart beams, one computation procedure is proposed to obtained the impedance matrices and transfer function matrices using FEA. By these means the dynamic solution of the elements in the frequency domain is transformed to that in Laplacian s-domain and then inversely transformed to time domain. The connections between the elements and boundary conditions of the smart structures are investigated in detail, and one integrated system equation is finally obtained using the symbolic operation of TF matrices. A procedure is proposed for dynamic analysis and control analysis of the smart beam system using mode superposition and a numerical inverse Laplace transform. The first example is given to demonstrate building transfer function associated impedance matrices using both FEA and analytical solutions. The second example is to verify the ability of control analysis using a suspended beam with PZT patches under close-loop control. The third example is designed for dynamic analysis of beams with a piezoelectric stack and a piezoelectric bimorph under various excitations. The last example of one smart beam with a PPF controller shows the applicability to the control analysis of complex systems using the proposed method. All results show good agreement with the other results in the previous literature. The advantages of the proposed methods are also discussed at the end of this paper. (paper)

  7. Analysis of beam acceleration and instability on TWRR accelerator structure in PNC by beam-cavity interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Shin`ichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-07-01

    It is important for high current accelerators to estimate the contribution of the space charge effect to keep the beam off its beak up (BBU). The CW electron linac is designed in order to study BBU experimentally. The design is primary on the consideration which type of accelerator structure is suitable to reduce the BBU threshold, and how to observe and control BBU when it appears. The contribution of beam charge for the acceleration characteristics is surveyed by means of the comparison between traveling wave and standing wave structures in this report. At first, the characteristics of both traveling wave and standing wave structures are calculated analytically and the conversion efficiency and accelerator gain are presented. The merits and drawbacks are also mentioned concerning with unit accelerator length. Next, the choice of RF frequency on energy conversion is mentioned as independent matter of the types of accelerator structure. After that, the characteristics of TWRR are described as the advanced accelerator structure compared with above structures. The effect of longitudinal induced field is estimated by means of the loss parameter. The result from the analysis shows that the unit accelerator length is 1 m to get high conversion ratio from RF to beam power and that the BBU for transverse component is small. Therefore, total BBU is expected small in the accelerator, for transverse BBU is already expected small in previous reports. (author)

  8. Dependability analysis of a safety critical system the LHC beam dumping system at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the dependability study of the Beam Dumping System of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high energy particle accelerator to be commissioned at CERN in summer 2007. There are two identical, independent LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS), one per LHC beam, each consisting of a series of magnets that extract the particle beam from the LHC ring into the extraction line leading to the absorbing block. The consequences of a failure within the LBDS can be very severe. This risk is reduced by applying redundancy to the design of the most critical components and on-line surveillance that, in case of a detected failure, issues a safe operation abort, called false beam dump. The system has been studied applying Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and reliability prediction. The system failure processes have been represented with a state transition diagram, governed by a Markov regenerative stochastic process, and analysed for different operational scenarios for one year of operati...

  9. Electron and ion beam degradation effects in AES analysis of silicon nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransen, F.; Vanden Berghe, R.; Vlaeminck, R.; Hinoul, M.; Remmerie, J.; Maes, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Silicon nitride films are currently investigated by AES combined with ion profiling techniques for their stoichiometry and oxygen content. During this analysis, ion beam and primary electron effects were observed. The effect of argon ion bombardment is the preferential sputtering of nitrogen, forming 'covalent' silicon at the surface layer (AES peak at 91 eV). The electron beam irradiation results in a decrease of the covalent silicon peak, either by an electron beam annealing effect in the bulk of the silicon nitride film, or by an ionization enhanced surface diffusion process of the silicon (electromigration). By the electron beam annealing, nitrogen species are liberated in the bulk of the silicon nitride film and migrate towards the surface where they react with the covalent silicon. The ionization enhanced diffusion originates from local charging of the surface, induced by the electron beam. (author)

  10. Acquisition and Initial Analysis of H+- and H--Beam Centroid Jitter at LANSCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpatrick, J. D.; Bitteker, L.; Gulley, M. S.; Kerstiens, D.; Oothoudt, M.; Pillai, C.; Power, J.; Shelley, F.

    2006-11-01

    During the 2005 Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) beam runs, beam current and centroid-jitter data were observed, acquired, analyzed, and documented for both the LANSCE H+ and H- beams. These data were acquired using three beam position monitors (BPMs) from the 100-MeV Isotope Production Facility (IPF) beam line and three BPMs from the Switchyard transport line at the end of the LANSCE 800-MeV linac. The two types of data acquired, intermacropulse and intramacropulse, were analyzed for statistical and frequency characteristics as well as various other correlations including comparing their phase-space like characteristics in a coordinate system of transverse angle versus transverse position. This paper will briefly describe the measurements required to acquire these data, the initial analysis of these jitter data, and some interesting dilemmas these data presented.

  11. NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF CFRP- PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS SUBJECTED TO INCREMENTAL STATIC LOADING BY FINITE ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain M. Husain

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work a program is developed to carry out the nonlinear analysis (material nonlinearity of prestressed concrete beams using tendons of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP instead of steel. The properties of this material include high strength, light weight, and insusceptibility to corrosion and magnetism. This material is still under investigation, therefore it needs continuous work to make it beneficial in concrete design. Four beams which are tested experimentally by Yan et al. are examined by the developed computer program to reach a certain analytical approach of the design and analysis of such beams because there is no available restrictions or recommendations covering this material in the codes. The program uses the finite element analysis by dividing the beams into isoparametric 20-noded brick elements. The results obtained are good in comparison with experimental results.

  12. Heavy Neutral Beam Probe for Edge Plasma Analysis in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castracane, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Heavy Neutral Beam Probe (HNBP) developed initially with DOE funding under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was installed on the Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) at the CCFM. This diagnostic was designed to perform fundamental measurements of edge plasma properties. The hardware was capable of measuring electron density and potential profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution. Fluctuation spectra for these parameters were obtained with HNBP for transport studies

  13. Vibrational analysis of a shipboard free electron laser beam path

    OpenAIRE

    Gallant, Bryan M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the deployment of a free electron laser (FEL) weapon system in a shipboard vibration environment. A concept solid model of a shipboard FEL is developed and used as a basis for a finite element model which is subjected to vibration simulation in MATLAB. Vibration input is obtained from ship shock trials data and wave excited motion data from ship motion simulation software. Emphasis is placed on the motion of electron beam path components of the FEL and the feasibility of ...

  14. Heavy Neutral Beam Probe for Edge Plasma Analysis in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castracane, J.

    2001-01-04

    The Heavy Neutral Beam Probe (HNBP) developed initially with DOE funding under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was installed on the Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) at the CCFM. This diagnostic was designed to perform fundamental measurements of edge plasma properties. The hardware was capable of measuring electron density and potential profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution. Fluctuation spectra for these parameters were obtained with HNBP for transport studies.

  15. Analysis of axial compressive loaded beam under random support excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wensheng; Wang, Fengde; Liu, Jian

    2017-12-01

    An analytical procedure to investigate the response spectrum of a uniform Bernoulli-Euler beam with axial compressive load subjected to random support excitations is implemented based on the Mindlin-Goodman method and the mode superposition method in the frequency domain. The random response spectrum of the simply supported beam subjected to white noise excitation and to Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum excitation is investigated, and the characteristics of the response spectrum are further explored. Moreover, the effect of axial compressive load is studied and a method to determine the axial load is proposed. The research results show that the response spectrum mainly consists of the beam's additional displacement response spectrum when the excitation is white noise; however, the quasi-static displacement response spectrum is the main component when the excitation is the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum. Under white noise excitation, the amplitude of the power spectral density function decreased as the axial compressive load increased, while the frequency band of the vibration response spectrum increased with the increase of axial compressive load.

  16. Heavy Neutral Beam Probe for edge plasma analysis in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castracane, J.; Saravia, E.; Beckstead, J.; Aceto, S.

    1993-01-01

    The contents of this report present the progress achieved to date on the Heavy Neutral Beam Probe project. This effort is an international collaboration in magnetic confinement fusion energy research sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research (Confinement Systems Division) and the Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique (CCFM). The overall objective of the effort is to develop and apply a neutral particle beam to the study of edge plasma dynamics in discharges on the Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) facility in Montreal, Canada. To achieve this goal, a research and development project was established to produce the necessary hardware to make such measurements and meet the scheduling requirements of the program. At present the project is in the middle of its second budget period with the instrumentation on-site at TdeV. The first half of this budget period was used to complete total system tests at InterScience, Inc., dismantle and ship the hardware to TdeV, re-assemble and install the HNBP on the tokamak. Integration of the diagnostic into the TdeV facility has progressed to the point of first beam production and measurement on the plasma. At this time, the HNBP system is undergoing final de-bugging prior to re-start of machine operation in early Fall of this year

  17. Heavy Neutral Beam Probe for edge plasma analysis in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy Neutral Beam Probe project presented in this document is part of an international collaboration in magnetic confinement fusion energy research sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research (Confinement Systems Division) and the Centre Canadian de Fusion Magnetique. The overall objective of the effort is to apply a neutral particle beam to the study of edge plasma dynamics in discharges on the Tokamak de Varennes facility in Montreal, Canada. To achieve this goal, a research and development project was started in December, 1990 to produce the necessary hardware to make such measurements and meet the scheduling requirements of the program. At present, satisfactory progress has been achieved. The ion gun is fully operational with the neutralizer in the final assembly stage in preparation for testing. The beam diagnostics have been completed and mounted in the computer automated test stand. The analyzer design and detailed trajectory calculations are nearing completion to allow for the vacuum interface construction. The CAMAC based data acquisition system hardware was integrated into the test stand. Part of this hardware is a component of the Tokamak de Varennes' contribution to the collaboration. Next steps on the critical path include the beginning of the neutralization tests and the start of the analyzer construction. Anticipated installation of the diagnostic on the tokamak is Spring 1992

  18. Anisotropic beam model for analysis and design of passive controlled wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branner, K; Blasques, J P; Kim, T; Fedorov, V A; Berring, P; Bitsche, R D; Berggreen, C

    2012-02-15

    The main objective of the project was, through theoretical and experimental research, to develop and validate a fully coupled, general beam element that can be used for advanced and rapid analysis of wind turbine blades. This is fully achieved in the project and the beam element has even been implemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2. It has also been demonstrated through a parametric study in the project that a promising possibility with the tool is to reduce fatigue loads through structural couplings. More work is needed before these possibilities are fully explored and blades with structural couplings can be put into production. A cross section analysis tool BECAS (BEam Cross section Analysis Software) has been developed and validated in the project. BECAS is able to predict all geometrical and material induced couplings. This tool has obtained great interest from both industry and academia. The developed fully coupled beam element and cross section analysis tool has been validated against both numerical calculations and experimental measurements. Numerical validation has been performed against beam type calculations including Variational Asymptotical Beam Section Analysis (VABS) and detailed shell and solid finite element analyses. Experimental validation included specially designed beams with built-in couplings, a full-scale blade section originally without couplings, which subsequently was modified with extra composite layers in order to obtain measurable couplings. Both static testing and dynamic modal analysis tests have been performed. The results from the project now make it possible to use structural couplings in an intelligent manner for the design of future wind turbine blades. The developed beam element is especially developed for wind turbine blades and can be used for modeling blades with initial curvature (pre-bending), initial twist and taper. Finally, it have been studied what size of structural couplings can be obtained in current and future

  19. Results and analysis of the TMX electron-beam injection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, P.; Grubb, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    Electron beams (e-beams) were injected into the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) plasma in order to investigate the effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations of the plasma. The power level of the e-beams was comparable to that of the injected neutral beams. It was found that injection of the e-beams produced no significant effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations, the measured plasma parameters, or the particle and power flow of the plasma. The increase in bulk electron temperature and the production of mirror-confined electrons found in previous experiments in which e-beams were injected into a mirror-confined plasma were not observed in this experiment. Analysis of the regions and frequencies of wave creation and absorption within the plasma shows that the plasma density and magnetic field profiles through the plasma strongly affect the resonances encountered by the waves. The steep axial density profiles produced by neutral-beam injection in the TMX experiment are not conducive to efficient coupling of the e-beam energy to the plasma

  20. Numerical analysis of the feasibility of a beam window for TEF target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, H.; Takei, H.; Iwamoto, H.; Sasa, T.

    2015-01-01

    In the various research activities for ADS (accelerator-driven systems), the construction of the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is planned within the framework of the J-PARC project as a preceding step before the construction of a pilot ADS. The ADS proposed by JAEA is a tank-type subcritical reactor with a thermal power of 800 MWth which uses lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy as a target material and a coolant, driven by a 30 MW superconducting proton linac. The beam window of ADS, which separates the proton accelerator and the LBE subcritical core vessel, is exposed to the high-temperature environment induced by the incidence of proton beam. Therefore, the feasibility of the beam window is the most important factor for the realisation of TEF. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of a designed beam window of TEF target by the numerical analysis with a three-dimensional model. The analysis was performed by considering: (1) the current density and shape of the incident beam, (2) the thermal-fluid behaviour of LBE around the beam window as a function of the flow rate and inlet temperature, (3) the material and the thickness of the beam window, (4) the structural strength of the beam window. In the reference case, the current density and the profile of the proton beam were 20 μA/cm 2 and a Gaussian shape, respectively. The flow rate of LBE and temperature at the inlet were 1 l/s and 350 C. degrees. The material of a beam window was SUS316 stainless steel 2 mm thick. In this reference case, the maximum velocity of LBE and the maximum temperature located at the top of the beam window were about 1.2 m/sec and 477 C. degrees. By increasing the flow rate of LBE up to 4 l/s, the maximum temperature of a beam window was reduced to around 420 C. degrees. The maximum shear stress was 194 MPa, which was observed at the centre on the outside surface of the beam window. The analysed stress in the reference case was lower than the tolerance level

  1. Three-beam interferogram analysis method for surface flatness testing of glass plates and wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Zofia; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    When testing transparent plates with high quality flat surfaces and a small angle between them the three-beam interference phenomenon is observed. Since the reference beam and the object beams reflected from both the front and back surface of a sample are detected, the recorded intensity distribution may be regarded as a sum of three fringe patterns. Images of that type cannot be succesfully analyzed with standard interferogram analysis methods. They contain, however, useful information on the tested plate surface flatness and its optical thickness variations. Several methods were elaborated to decode the plate parameters. Our technique represents a competitive solution which allows for retrieval of phase components of the three-beam interferogram. It requires recording two images: a three-beam interferogram and the two-beam one with the reference beam blocked. Mutually subtracting these images leads to the intensity distribution which, under some assumptions, provides access to the two component fringe sets which encode surfaces flatness. At various stages of processing we take advantage of nonlinear operations as well as single-frame interferogram analysis methods. Two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (2D CWT) is used to separate a particular fringe family from the overall interferogram intensity distribution as well as to estimate the phase distribution from a pattern. We distinguish two processing paths depending on the relative density of fringe sets which is connected with geometry of a sample and optical setup. The proposed method is tested on simulated data.

  2. Thermal analysis of injection beam dump of high-intensity rapid-cycling synchrotron in J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, J.; Saha, P. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kinsho, M.; Nihei, T.

    2017-10-01

    The beam dump at the beam injection area in the J-PARC 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) accepts beams that pass through the charge exchange foil without ideal electron stripping during the multi-turn beam injection. The injection beam dump consists of the beam pipe, beam stopper, radiation shield, and cooling mechanism. The ideal beam power into the injection beam dump is 400 W in the case of design RCS extraction beam power of 1 MW with a healthy foil, which has 99.7 % charge stripping efficiency. On the other hand, as a radiation generator, the RCS is permitted to be operated with maximum average beam power of 4 kW into the injection beam dump based on the radiation shielding calculation, in consideration of lower charge stripping efficiency due to the foil deterioration. In this research, to evaluate the health of the RCS injection beam dump system from the perspective of the heat generation, a thermal analysis was performed based on the actual configuration with sufficiently large region, including the surrounding concrete and soil. The calculated temperature and heat flux density distribution showed the validity of the mesh spacing and model range. The calculation result showed that the dumped 4 kW beam causes the temperature to increase up to 330, 400, and 140 °C at the beam pipe, beam stopper, and radiation shield, respectively. Although these high temperatures induce stress in the constituent materials, the calculated stress values were lower than the ultimate tensile strength of each material. Transient temperature analysis of the beam stopper, which simulated the sudden break of the charge stripper foil, demonstrated that one bunched beam pulse with the maximum beam power does not lead to a serious rise in the temperature of the beam stopper. Furthermore, from the measured outgassing rate of stainless steel at high temperature, the rise in beam line pressure due to additive outgassing from the heated beam pipe was estimated to have a negligible

  3. Feedback system analysis for beam breakup in a multipass multisection electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosnier, A.; Aune, B.

    1986-06-01

    A recirculating electron accelerator based upon superconducting cavities technology is envisaged in different laboratories to produce a high duty cycle beam with energy in the GeV region. Beam break up is a severe limitation in this kind of accelerator due to the positive feedback of the returning beams. We present here an analysis based upon feedback system theory which takes into account the different cavities of the linac, the optics of the linac and of the recirculating path. An example is given for the Saclay proposal of a 2 GeV accelerator consisting of 4 passes in a 500 MeV, 100 m-long superconducting linac

  4. Analysis of the strength and stiffness of timber beams reinforced with carbon fiber and glass fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis of pinewood beams (Pinus caribea var hondurensis reinforced with glass and/or carbon fibers is discussed. The theoretical model employed to calculate the beam's bending strength takes into account the timber's ultimate limit states of tensile strength and failure by compression, considering a model of fragile elastic tension and plastic elastic compression. The validity of the theoretical model is confirmed by a comparison of the theoretical and experimental results, while the efficiency of the fiber reinforcement is corroborated by the increased strength and stiffness of the reinforced timber beams.

  5. A Numerical Analysis of the Resistance and Stiffness of the Timber and Concrete Composite Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumigała, Ewa; Szumigała, Maciej; Polus, Łukasz

    2015-03-01

    The article presents the results of a numerical analysis of the load capacity and stiffness of the composite timber and concrete beam. Timber and concrete structures are relatively new, they have not been thoroughly tested and they are rarely used because of technological constraints. One of the obstacles to using them is difficulty with finding a method which would allow successful cooperation between concrete and timber, which has been proposed by the authors of the present article. The modern idea of sustainable construction design requires the use of new more environmentally-friendly solutions. Wood as an ecological material is easily accessible, less energy-consuming, and under certain conditions more corrosion-resistant than steel. The analysis presented in the article showed that cooperation between a wooden beam and a concrete slab on profiled steel sheeting is possible. The analysed composite beam has a greater load capacity and stiffness than the wooden beam.

  6. A Numerical Analysis of the Resistance and Stiffness of the Timber and Concrete Composite Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szumigała Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a numerical analysis of the load capacity and stiffness of the composite timber and concrete beam. Timber and concrete structures are relatively new, they have not been thoroughly tested and they are rarely used because of technological constraints. One of the obstacles to using them is difficulty with finding a method which would allow successful cooperation between concrete and timber, which has been proposed by the authors of the present article. The modern idea of sustainable construction design requires the use of new more environmentally-friendly solutions. Wood as an ecological material is easily accessible, less energy-consuming, and under certain conditions more corrosion-resistant than steel. The analysis presented in the article showed that cooperation between a wooden beam and a concrete slab on profiled steel sheeting is possible. The analysed composite beam has a greater load capacity and stiffness than the wooden beam.

  7. Computer codes for beam dynamics analysis of cyclotronlike accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V.

    2017-12-01

    Computer codes suitable for the study of beam dynamics in cyclotronlike (classical and isochronous cyclotrons, synchrocyclotrons, and fixed field alternating gradient) accelerators are reviewed. Computer modeling of cyclotron segments, such as the central zone, acceleration region, and extraction system is considered. The author does not claim to give a full and detailed description of the methods and algorithms used in the codes. Special attention is paid to the codes already proven and confirmed at the existing accelerating facilities. The description of the programs prepared in the worldwide known accelerator centers is provided. The basic features of the programs available to users and limitations of their applicability are described.

  8. Statistical analysis of elastic beam with unilateral frictionless supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijoo, R.A.; Barbosa, H.J.C.

    1983-06-01

    A variational formulation of the elastic beam problem with unilateral frictionless supports is presented. It is shown that the solution of this problem can be characterized as the solution of a variational inequality or as the solution of the constrained minimum of the total potential energy of the structure. THe finite dimensional counterpart of this variational formulation is obtained using the finite element method, and the Gauss-Seidel method with projection and overrelaxation can be used to obtain an approximate solution. In order to show the numerical performance of the present approach some numerical examples are also presented. (Author) [pt

  9. Material-Point Method Analysis of Bending in Elastic Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Mikkel; Andersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test different types of spatial interpolation for the material-point method. The interpolations include quadratic elements and cubic splines. A brief introduction to the material-point method is given. Simple liner-elastic problems are tested, including the classical...... cantilevered beam problem. As shown in the paper, the use of negative shape functions is not consistent with the material-point method in its current form, necessitating other types of interpolation such as cubic splines in order to obtain smoother representations of field quantities. It is shown...

  10. Material-point Method Analysis of Bending in Elastic Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Mikkel; Andersen, Lars

    The aim of this paper is to test different types of spatial interpolation for the materialpoint method. The interpolations include quadratic elements and cubic splines. A brief introduction to the material-point method is given. Simple liner-elastic problems are tested, including the classical...... cantilevered beam problem. As shown in the paper, the use of negative shape functions is not consistent with the material-point method in its current form, necessitating other types of interpolation such as cubic splines in order to obtain smoother representations of field quantities. It is shown...

  11. Pertinence analysis of intensity-modulated radiation therapy dosimetry error and parameters of beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Zifeng; Liu Dan; Cao Yankun; Li Runxiao; Han Chun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between parameter settings in the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in order to explore the effect of parameters on absolute dose verification. Methods: Forty-three esophageal carcinoma cases were optimized with Pinnacle 7.6c by experienced physicist using appropriate optimization parameters and dose constraints with a number of iterations to meet the clinical acceptance criteria. The plans were copied to water-phantom, 0.13 cc ion Farmer chamber and DOSE1 dosimeter was used to measure the absolute dose. The statistical data of the parameters of beams for the 43 cases were collected, and the relationships among them were analyzed. The statistical data of the dosimetry error were collected, and comparative analysis was made for the relation between the parameters of beams and ion chamber absolute dose verification results. Results: The parameters of beams were correlated among each other. Obvious affiliation existed between the dose accuracy and parameter settings. When the beam segment number of IMRT plan was more than 80, the dose deviation would be greater than 3%; however, if the beam segment number was less than 80, the dose deviation was smaller than 3%. When the beam segment number was more than 100, part of the dose deviation of this plan was greater than 4%. On the contrary, if the beam segment number was less than 100, the dose deviation was smaller than 4% definitely. Conclusions: In order to decrease the absolute dose verification error, less beam angles and less beam segments are needed and the beam segment number should be controlled within the range of 80. (authors)

  12. MSU 1.6 GeV/c beam analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the design of the beam analysis system which is to prepare the beam for the large high-resolution spectrograph to be used with the superconducting heavy ion cyclotrons at MSU. The system has a momentum resolving power of over 20,000 with a 1 mm object slit and is of a very flexible, modular design which is readily adaptable to other applications

  13. Analysis of beam transverse instability in electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondrus, I.N.; Shenderovich, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Dispersion equations describing transverse beam instability in a single resonator section and in an accelerator comprising a sequence of resonator sections are derived. It is shown that close to parametric resonance of any multiplicity a reduction of cumulative instability incoherent takes place between nonsymmetric defocusing wave frequency and the frequency of accelerator cluster transport. Under exact resonance the increment equals to zero and under misalignment due to resonance depending on its sign and disturbance frequency an instability of either fast or slow wave takes place. It is shown that this effect leads to beam instability suppression of sections with the opposite sign of misalignment due to resonance are located in turn. The results obtained show that application of a parametric resonance through reducing slight the single section absolute instability threshold current, allows one to effectively suppress cumulative instability. The requirement to the accuracy of tuning to a resonance of identical sections is substantially reduced under the alternation of sections with different sign misalignment due to resonance and can be easily realized in practice

  14. Finite element analysis of composite concrete-timber beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. S. FORTI

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the search for sustainable construction, timber construction is gaining in popularity around the world. Sustainably harvested wood stores carbon dioxide, while reforestation absorbs yet more CO2. One technique involves the combination of a concrete slab and a timber beam, where the two materials are assembled by the use of flexible connectors. Composite structures provide reduced costs, environmental benefits, a better acoustic performance, when compared to timber structures, and maintain structural safety. Composite structures combine materials with different mechanical properties. Their mechanical performance depends on the efficiency of the connection, which is designed to transmit shear longitudinal forces between the two materials and to prevent vertical detachment. This study contributes with the implementation of a finite element formulation for stress and displacement determination of composite concrete-timber beams. The deduced stiffness matrix and load vector are presented along to numerical examples. Numerical examples are compared to the analytical equations available in Eurocode 5 and to experimental data found in the literature.

  15. A Fourier analysis on the maximum acceptable grid size for discrete proton beam dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haisen S.; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Dempsey, James F.

    2006-01-01

    We developed an analytical method for determining the maximum acceptable grid size for discrete dose calculation in proton therapy treatment plan optimization, so that the accuracy of the optimized dose distribution is guaranteed in the phase of dose sampling and the superfluous computational work is avoided. The accuracy of dose sampling was judged by the criterion that the continuous dose distribution could be reconstructed from the discrete dose within a 2% error limit. To keep the error caused by the discrete dose sampling under a 2% limit, the dose grid size cannot exceed a maximum acceptable value. The method was based on Fourier analysis and the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem as an extension of our previous analysis for photon beam intensity modulated radiation therapy [J. F. Dempsey, H. E. Romeijn, J. G. Li, D. A. Low, and J. R. Palta, Med. Phys. 32, 380-388 (2005)]. The proton beam model used for the analysis was a near mono-energetic (of width about 1% the incident energy) and monodirectional infinitesimal (nonintegrated) pencil beam in water medium. By monodirection, we mean that the proton particles are in the same direction before entering the water medium and the various scattering prior to entrance to water is not taken into account. In intensity modulated proton therapy, the elementary intensity modulation entity for proton therapy is either an infinitesimal or finite sized beamlet. Since a finite sized beamlet is the superposition of infinitesimal pencil beams, the result of the maximum acceptable grid size obtained with infinitesimal pencil beam also applies to finite sized beamlet. The analytic Bragg curve function proposed by Bortfeld [T. Bortfeld, Med. Phys. 24, 2024-2033 (1997)] was employed. The lateral profile was approximated by a depth dependent Gaussian distribution. The model included the spreads of the Bragg peak and the lateral profiles due to multiple Coulomb scattering. The dependence of the maximum acceptable dose grid size on the

  16. An analytical method for free vibration analysis of functionally graded beams with edge cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong; Liu, Yinghua; Xiang, Zhihai

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an analytical method is proposed for solving the free vibration of cracked functionally graded material (FGM) beams with axial loading, rotary inertia and shear deformation. The governing differential equations of motion for an FGM beam are established and the corresponding solutions are found first. The discontinuity of rotation caused by the cracks is simulated by means of the rotational spring model. Based on the transfer matrix method, then the recurrence formula is developed to get the eigenvalue equations of free vibration of FGM beams. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the eigenvalue equation for vibrating beams with an arbitrary number of cracks can be conveniently determined from a third-order determinant. Due to the decrease in the determinant order as compared with previous methods, the developed method is simpler and more convenient to analytically solve the free vibration problem of cracked FGM beams. Moreover, free vibration analyses of the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams with any number of cracks can be conducted using the unified procedure based on the developed method. These advantages of the proposed procedure would be more remarkable as the increase of the number of cracks. A comprehensive analysis is conducted to investigate the influences of the location and total number of cracks, material properties, axial load, inertia and end supports on the natural frequencies and vibration mode shapes of FGM beams. The present work may be useful for the design and control of damaged structures.

  17. Analysis of charged particle induced reactions for beam monitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surendra Babu, K. [IOP, Academia Sinica, Taipe, Taiwan (China); Lee, Young-Ouk [Nuclear Data Evaluation Laboratory, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Mukherjee, S., E-mail: smukherjee_msuphy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India)

    2012-07-15

    The reaction cross sections for different residual nuclides produced in the charged particle (p, d, {sup 3}He and {alpha}) induced reactions were calculated and compared with the existing experimental data which are important for beam monitoring and medical diagnostic applications. A detailed literature compilation and comparison were made on the available data sets for the above reactions. These calculations were carried out using the statistical model code TALYS up to 100 MeV, which contains Kalbach's latest systematic for the emission of complex particles and complex particle-induced reactions. All optical model calculations were performed by ECIS-03, which is built into TALYS. The level density, optical model potential parameters were adjusted to get the better description of experimental data. Various pre-equilibrium models were used in the present calculations with default parameters.

  18. Analysis of detection performance of multi band laser beam analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Baolin; Chen, Xiaomei; Hu, Leili

    2017-10-01

    Compared with microwave radar, Laser radar has high resolution, strong anti-interference ability and good hiding ability, so it becomes the focus of laser technology engineering application. A large scale Laser radar cross section (LRCS) measurement system is designed and experimentally tested. First, the boundary conditions are measured and the long range laser echo power is estimated according to the actual requirements. The estimation results show that the echo power is greater than the detector's response power. Secondly, a large scale LRCS measurement system is designed according to the demonstration and estimation. The system mainly consists of laser shaping, beam emitting device, laser echo receiving device and integrated control device. Finally, according to the designed lidar cross section measurement system, the scattering cross section of target is simulated and tested. The simulation results are basically the same as the test results, and the correctness of the system is proved.

  19. Analysis of laser beam weldability of Inconel 738 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbewande, A.T.; Buckson, R.A.; Ojo, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility of pre-weld heat treated laser beam welded IN 738 superalloy to heat affected zone (HAZ) cracking was studied. A pre-weld heat treatment that produced the minimal grain boundary liquation resulted in a higher level of cracking compared to those with more intergranular liquation. This deviation from the general expectation of influence of intergranular liquation extent on HAZ microfissuring is attributable to the reduction in the ability of the base alloy to accommodate welding tensile stress that accompanied a pre-weld heat treatment condition designed to minimize intergranular liquation. Furthermore, in contrast to what has been generally reported in other nickel-based superalloys, a decrease in laser welding speed resulted in increased HAZ cracking in the IN 738, which can be attributed to exacerbated process instability at lower welding speeds.

  20. Analysis of ion beam teletherapy patient-specific quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Deng, Yu; Schlegel, Nicki; Huang, Zhijie; Moyers, Michael F

    2018-02-27

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the procedures for patient-specific quality assurance measurements using modulated scanned and energy stacked beams for proton and carbon ion teletherapy. Delivery records from 1734 portal measurements were analyzed using a 3-point pass criteria: more than 22 of 24 chambers in a water phantom (WP) had to have a measured dose difference from the planned portal doses less than or equal to 3%, or the distance from the measurement point location to a point location in the plan having the same dose had to be less than or equal to 3 mm (distance to agreement [DTA]), and the mean dose deviation of all chambers had to be less than 3%. Stratification of results showed some associations between measurement parameters and pass rates. For proton portals, pass rates were high at all measurement depths, but for carbon ion portals, pass rates decreased as a function of increasing measurement depth. Pass rates of both proton and carbon ion portals with 1 WP were slightly lower than those with a second WP. The total pass rates were 97.7% and 91.9% for proton and carbon ion patient portals, respectively. In general, the measured doses exhibited good agreement with the treatment planning system (TPS) calculated doses. When the chamber position was deeper than 150 mm in carbon ion beams, a lower pass rate was observed, which may have been caused by ion chamber array setup uncertainty (lateral and depth) in highly modulated portals or incorrect modeling of scatter by the TPS. These deviations need further investigation. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The safety analysis of realization of the stabilization of beams B1/B2 supports project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, A.M.; Batij, V.G.; Glukhen'kij, V.N.; Kozoriz, V.I.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Kochnev, N.A.; Pavlovskij, L.I.; Rubezhanskij, Yu.I.; Sidorenko, N.V.; Stoyanov, A.I.; Shcherbin, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the analysis of radiation safety executed at preparing for realization of the stabilization of beams B1/B2 support are given. The comparison of results of the preliminary analysis of safety with the data received during realization of works is carried out

  2. Application of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, K.; Fujita, K.; Azuma, H.; Yamazaki, A.; Kato, Y.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Sawada, H.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S.

    2013-01-01

    The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. A proton micro-beam with the beam diameter of ∼1.5 μm at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used to analyze the positive electrode of the Li-ion battery with PIGE and PIXE. WThe PIGE and PIXE images of Li and Ni respectively for Li x Ni 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 (x = 0.75 ∼ 1.0) anodes have been taken. The PIGE images of Li x Ni 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 particles and the depth profile of the Li density have been obtained with high spatial resolution (a few μm). The images of the Li density distribution are very useful for the RandD of the Li ion battery. In order to make the in-situ ion beam analysis of the Li battery possible, a compact accelerator for a high quality MeV proton beam is necessary. Form this point of view, the diagnostics of Li ion battery is an appropriate field for the applications of laser produced ion beams. (authors)

  3. Independent component analysis applied to long bunch beams in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolski, Jeffrey S.; Macek, Robert J.; McCrady, Rodney C.; Pang, Xiaoying

    2012-11-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a powerful blind source separation (BSS) method. Compared to the typical BSS method, principal component analysis, ICA is more robust to noise, coupling, and nonlinearity. The conventional ICA application to turn-by-turn position data from multiple beam position monitors (BPMs) yields information about cross-BPM correlations. With this scheme, multi-BPM ICA has been used to measure the transverse betatron phase and amplitude functions, dispersion function, linear coupling, sextupole strength, and nonlinear beam dynamics. We apply ICA in a new way to slices along the bunch revealing correlations of particle motion within the beam bunch. We digitize beam signals of the long bunch at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring with a single device (BPM or fast current monitor) for an entire injection-extraction cycle. ICA of the digitized beam signals results in source signals, which we identify to describe varying betatron motion along the bunch, locations of transverse resonances along the bunch, measurement noise, characteristic frequencies of the digitizing oscilloscopes, and longitudinal beam structure.

  4. Independent component analysis applied to long bunch beams in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Kolski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA is a powerful blind source separation (BSS method. Compared to the typical BSS method, principal component analysis, ICA is more robust to noise, coupling, and nonlinearity. The conventional ICA application to turn-by-turn position data from multiple beam position monitors (BPMs yields information about cross-BPM correlations. With this scheme, multi-BPM ICA has been used to measure the transverse betatron phase and amplitude functions, dispersion function, linear coupling, sextupole strength, and nonlinear beam dynamics. We apply ICA in a new way to slices along the bunch revealing correlations of particle motion within the beam bunch. We digitize beam signals of the long bunch at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring with a single device (BPM or fast current monitor for an entire injection-extraction cycle. ICA of the digitized beam signals results in source signals, which we identify to describe varying betatron motion along the bunch, locations of transverse resonances along the bunch, measurement noise, characteristic frequencies of the digitizing oscilloscopes, and longitudinal beam structure.

  5. Beam model for seismic analysis of complex shear wall structure based on the strain energy equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Mahajan, S.C.; Suzuki, Kohei

    1997-01-01

    A nuclear reactor building structure consists of shear walls with complex geometry, beams and columns. The complexity of the structure is explained in the section Introduction. Seismic analysis of the complex reactor building structure using the continuum mechanics approach may produce good results but this method is very difficult to apply. Hence, the finite element approach is found to be an useful technique for solving the dynamic equations of the reactor building structure. In this approach, the model which uses finite elements such as brick, plate and shell elements may produce accurate results. However, this model also poses some difficulties which are explained in the section Modeling Techniques. Therefore, seismic analysis of complex structures is generally carried out using a lumped mass beam model. This model is preferred because of its simplicity and economy. Nevertheless, mathematical modeling of a shear wall structure as a beam requires specialized skill and a thorough understanding of the structure. For accurate seismic analysis, it is necessary to model more realistically the stiffness, mass and damping. In linear seismic analysis, modeling of the mass and damping may pose few problems compared to modeling the stiffness. When used to represent a complex structure, the stiffness of the beam is directly related to the shear wall section properties such as area, shear area and moment of inertia. Various beam models which are classified based on the method of stiffness evaluation are also explained under the section Modeling Techniques. In the section Case Studies the accuracy and simplicity of the beam models are explained. Among various beam models, the one which evaluates the stiffness using strain energy equivalence proves to be the simplest and most accurate method for modeling the complex shear wall structure. (author)

  6. 2nd international conference on ion beam surface layer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The papers of this conference are concerned with the fundamental aspects and with the application of surface layer analysis. It is reported amongst others about backscattering analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, channelling and microprobe. (HPOE) [de

  7. Composite Beam Cross-Section Analysis by a Single High-Order Element Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An analysis procedure of general cross-section properties is presented. The formulation is based on the stress-strain states in the classic six equilibrium modes of a beam by considering a finite thickness slice modelled by a single layer of 3D finite elements. The theory is illustrated by applic......An analysis procedure of general cross-section properties is presented. The formulation is based on the stress-strain states in the classic six equilibrium modes of a beam by considering a finite thickness slice modelled by a single layer of 3D finite elements. The theory is illustrated...

  8. Transmission line analysis of beam deflection in a BPM stripline kicker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu Ju; Poole, B.

    1997-05-01

    In the usual treatment of impedances of beamline structures the electromagnetic response is computed under the assumption that the source charge trajectory is parallel to the propagation axis and is unaffected by the wake of the structure. For high energy beams of relatively low current this is generally a valid assumption. Under certain conditions the assumption of a parallel source charge trajectory is no longer valid and the effects of the changing trajectory must be included in the analysis. Here the usual transmission line analysis that has been applied to BPM type transverse kickers is extended to include the self-consistent motion of the beam in the structure

  9. Analysis method of beam pointing stability based on optical transmission matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanchuan; Huang, PingXian; Li, Xiaotong; Cen, Zhaofen

    2016-10-01

    Quite a lot of factors will make effects on beam pointing stability of an optical system, Among them, the element tolerance is one of the most important and common factors. In some large laser systems, it will make final micro beams spot on the image plane deviate obviously. So it is essential for us to achieve effective and accurate analysis theoretically on element tolerance. In order to make the analysis of beam pointing stability convenient and theoretical, we consider transmission of a single chief ray rather than beams approximately to stand for the whole spot deviation. According to optical matrix, we also simplify this complex process of light transmission to multiplication of many matrices. So that we can set up element tolerance model, namely having mathematical expression to illustrate spot deviation in an optical system with element tolerance. In this way, we can realize quantitative analysis of beam pointing stability theoretically. In second half of the paper, we design an experiment to get the spot deviation in a multipass optical system caused by element tolerance, then we adjust the tolerance step by step and compare the results with the datum got from tolerance model, finally prove the correction of tolerance model successfully.

  10. Modal analysis of beam with piezoelectric sensors a actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemčík R.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available One dimensional finite element is developed for the analysis of structures with applied piezoelectric sensors and actuators, i.e. smart structures, mechanical behavior of which can be controlled in real-time. The element is based on Euler-Bernoulli theory and it assumes bilinear distribution of electric field potential. Mathematical model was implemented in MATLAB environment. Sensitivity analysis is carried out for the case of modal analysis with and without piezo patches.

  11. Free vibrations and buckling analysis of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite Timoshenko beams on elastic foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yas, M.H.; Samadi, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with free vibrations and buckling analysis of nanocomposite Timoshenko beams reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) resting on an elastic foundation. The SWCNTs are assumed to be aligned and straight with a uniform layout. Four different carbon nanotubes (CNTs) distributions including uniform and three types of functionally graded distributions of CNTs through the thickness are considered. The rule of mixture is used to describe the effective material properties of the nanocomposite beams. The governing equations are derived through using Hamilton's principle and then solved by using the generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM). Natural frequencies and critical buckling load are obtained for nanocomposite beams with different boundary conditions. Effects of several parameters, such as nanotube volume fraction, foundation stiffness parameters, slenderness ratios, CNTs distribution and boundary conditions on both natural frequency and critical buckling load are investigated. The results indicate that the above-mentioned parameters play a very important role on the free vibrations and buckling characteristics of the beam. Highlights: ► Beams with FG-X distribution have highest fundamental frequency. ► Beams with FG-X distribution have highest critical buckling load. ► Using elastic foundation, lead to increase the natural frequency. ► Using elastic foundation, lead to increase the critical buckling load. ► Increasing CNT volume fraction, lead to increase the natural frequency.

  12. Unified Formulation Applied to Free Vibrations Finite Element Analysis of Beams with Arbitrary Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents hierarchical finite elements on the basis of the Carrera Unified Formulation for free vibrations analysis of beam with arbitrary section geometries. The displacement components are expanded in terms of the section coordinates, (x, y, using a set of 1-D generalized displacement variables. N-order Taylor type expansions are employed. N is a free parameter of the formulation, it is supposed to be as high as 4. Linear (2 nodes, quadratic (3 nodes and cubic (4 nodes approximations along the beam axis, (z, are introduced to develop finite element matrices. These are obtained in terms of a few fundamental nuclei whose form is independent of both N and the number of element nodes. Natural frequencies and vibration modes are computed. Convergence and assessment with available results is first made considering different type of beam elements and expansion orders. Additional analyses consider different beam sections (square, annular and airfoil shaped as well as boundary conditions (simply supported and cantilever beams. It has mainly been concluded that the proposed model is capable of detecting 3-D effects on the vibration modes as well as predicting shell-type vibration modes in case of thin walled beam sections.

  13. A compact neutron beam generator system designed for prompt gamma nuclear activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassoun, J; Mostacci, D

    2011-08-01

    In this work a compact system was designed for bulk sample analysis using the technique of PGNAA. The system consists of (252)Cf fission neutron source, a moderator/reflector/filter assembly, and a suitable enclosure to delimit the resulting neutron beam. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimised to maximise the thermal neutron component useful for samples analysis with a suitably low level of beam contamination. The neutron beam delivered by this compact system is used to irradiate the sample and the prompt gamma rays produced by neutron reactions within the sample elements are detected by appropriate gamma rays detector. Neutron and gamma rays transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP5). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis for extraction and bunching of ion beam from spherical reflex triode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Shigeo; Abe, Takashi; Kasuya, Koichi; Niu, Keishiro.

    1978-11-01

    Since an ion beam is hoped to impinge on a target in a spherically symmetric way for inertial confinement fusion, an analysis is developed here for the intense ion beam which is extracted from a spherical reflex triode. The basic equations are the Poisson equation for the electric potential and the conservation equations of energies for the ion and electron velocities. According to the asymptotic solution, the extracted ion-beam-current density is proportional to the power of 3/2 of the voltage imposed on the triode. This dependence of the current density on the voltage is improved to be the power of 1.6 by the numerical analysis. A special time-dependence of the ion-beam power at the target surface is required for an optimal implosion of the target. Using the bunching theory for the ion beam, we derive numerically an optimal time-dependence of the voltage imposed on the triode. Asymptotic forms are also obtained analytically for the voltage. (author)

  15. Magnetic analysis of the magnetic field reduction system of the ITER neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Germán, E-mail: german.barrera@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ahedo, Begoña; Alonso, Javier; Ríos, Luis [CIEMAT, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Chareyre, Julien; El-Ouazzani, Anass [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Agarici, Gilbert [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 07/08, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    The neutral beam system for ITER consists of two heating and current drive neutral beam injectors (HNB) and a diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) injector. The proposed physical plant layout allows a possible third HNB injector to be installed later. For the correct operation of the beam, the ion source and the ion path until it is neutralized must operate under a very low magnetic field environment. To prevent the stray ITER field from penetrating inside those mentioned critical areas, a magnetic field reduction system (MFRS) will envelop the beam vessels and the high voltage transmission lines to ion source. This system comprises the passive magnetic shield (PMS), a box like assembly of thick low carbon steel plates, and the Active Correction and Compensation Coils (ACCC), a set of coils carrying a current which depends on the tokamak stray field. This paper describes the magnetic model and analysis results presented at the PMS and ACCC preliminary design review held in ITER organization in April 2013. The paper focuses on the magnetic model description and on the description of the analysis results. The iterative process for obtaining optimized currents in the coils is presented. The set of coils currents chosen among the many possible solutions, the magnetic field results in the interest regions and the fulfillment of the magnetic field requirements are described.

  16. Feedback control of laser welding based on frequency analysis of light emissions and adaptive beam shaping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrňa, Libor; Šarbort, Martin; Řeřucha, Šimon; Jedlička, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, NOV (2012), s. 784-791 ISSN 1875-3892. [LANE 2012. Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering /7./ International Conference on Photonic Technologies. Fürth, 12.11.2012-15.12.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : laser welding * feedback control * frequency analysis * adaptive beam shaping Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  17. Analysis of the servo-spill control for slow beam extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hikaru; Toyama, Takeshi; Marutsuka, Katsumi; Shirakata, Masashi.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes an analysis of servo-spill control system for the slow beam extraction from the KEK PS. Transfer function of extraction process is derived from measurement of the closed-loop characteristic using measured frequency response of each equipment. Result indicates the restriction of the present servo-spill control and give a guide line for the improvement. (author)

  18. Design and analysis of all-dielectric broadband nonpolarizing parallel-plate beam splitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenliang; Xiong, Shengming; Zhang, Yundong

    2007-06-01

    Past research on the all-dielectric nonpolarizing beam splitter is reviewed. With the aid of the needle thin-film synthesis method and the conjugate graduate refine method, three different split ratio nonpolarizing parallel-plate beam splitters over a 200 nm spectral range centered at 550 nm with incidence angles of 45 degrees are designed. The chosen materials component and the initial stack are based on the Costich and Thelen theories. The results of design and analysis show that the designs maintain a very low polarization ratio in the working range of the spectrum and has a reasonable angular field.

  19. Homotopy perturbation method for free vibration analysis of beams on elastic foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Baki; Coskun, Safa Bozkurt; Koc, Mehmet Zahid; Atay, Mehmet Tarik

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is applied for free vibration analysis of beam on elastic foundation. This numerical method is applied on a previously available case study. Analytical solutions and frequency factors are evaluated for different ratios of axial load N acting on the beam to Euler buckling load, N r . The application of HPM for the particular problem in this study gives results which are in excellent agreement with both analytical solutions and the variational iteration method (VIM) solutions for the case considered in this study and the differential transform method (DTM) results available in the literature.

  20. Quantitative analysis of CT brain images: a statistical model incorporating partial volume and beam hardening effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoughlin, R.F.; Ryan, M.V.; Heuston, P.M.; McCoy, C.T.; Masterson, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a statistical model for the quantitative analysis of computed tomographic brain images. Data were derived from standard sections in 34 normal studies. A model representing the intercranial pure tissue and partial volume areas, with allowance for beam hardening, was developed. The average percentage error in estimation of areas, derived from phantom tests using the model, was 28.47%. We conclude that our model is not sufficiently accurate to be of clinical use, even though allowance was made for partial volume and beam hardening effects. (author)

  1. MultiSIMNRA: A computational tool for self-consistent ion beam analysis using SIMNRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Mayer, M.; Moro, M.V.; Trindade, G.F.; Aguirre, F.R.; Added, N.; Rizzutto, M.A.; Tabacniks, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MultiSIMNRA enables the self-consistent analysis of multiple ion beam techniques. • Self-consistent analysis enables unequivocal and reliable modeling of the sample. • Four different computational algorithms available for model optimizations. • Definition of constraints enables to include prior knowledge into the analysis. - Abstract: SIMNRA is widely adopted by the scientific community of ion beam analysis for the simulation and interpretation of nuclear scattering techniques for material characterization. Taking advantage of its recognized reliability and quality of the simulations, we developed a computer program that uses multiple parallel sessions of SIMNRA to perform self-consistent analysis of data obtained by different ion beam techniques or in different experimental conditions of a given sample. In this paper, we present a result using MultiSIMNRA for a self-consistent multi-elemental analysis of a thin film produced by magnetron sputtering. The results demonstrate the potentialities of the self-consistent analysis and its feasibility using MultiSIMNRA.

  2. Finite Element Analysis of Walking Beam of a New Compound Adjustment Balance Pumping Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jufei; Wang, Qian; Han, Yunfei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, taking the designer of the new compound balance pumping unit beam as our research target, the three-dimensional model is established by Solid Works, the load and the constraint are determined. ANSYS Workbench is used to analyze the tail and the whole of the beam, the stress and deformation are obtained to meet the strength requirements. The finite element simulation and theoretical calculation of the moment of the center axis beam are carried out. The finite element simulation results are compared with the calculated results of the theoretical mechanics model to verify the correctness of the theoretical calculation. Finally, the finite element analysis is consistent with the theoretical calculation results. The theoretical calculation results are preferable, and the bending moment value provides the theoretical reference for the follow-up optimization and research design.

  3. Coupling analysis of the target temperature and thermal stress due to pulsed ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jie; Liu Meng; Lin Jufang; An Li; Long Xinggui

    2013-01-01

    Background: Target temperature has an important effect on the target life for the sealed neutron generator without cooling system. Purpose: To carry out the thermal-mechanical coupling analysis of the film-substrate target bombarded by the pulsed ion beam. Methods: The indirect coupling Finite Element Method (FEM) with a 2-dimensional time-space Gaussian axisymmetric power density as heat source was used to simulate the target temperature and thermal stress fields. Results: The effects of the target temperature and thermal stress fields under difference pulse widths and beam sizes were analyzed in terms of the FEM results. Conclusions: Combining with the temperature requirement and the thermal stress inducing film thermal mechanical destruction effect of the sealed neutron generator film-substrate targets, an optimized pulsed ion beam work status was proposed. (authors)

  4. Beam Position Monitor and Energy Analysis at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David Juarez [Univ. of Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-08-01

    Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility has produced its first beam with an energy of 20 MeV. This energy is obtained by the acceleration at the Electron Gun and the Capture Cavity 2 (CC2). When fully completed, the accelerator will consist of a photoinjector, one International Liner Collider (ILC)-type cryomodule, multiple accelerator R&D beamlines, and a downstream beamline to inject 300 MeV electrons into the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). We calculated the total energy of the beam and the corresponding energy to the Electron Gun and CC2. Subsequently, a Beam Position Monitors (BPM) error analysis was done, to calculate the device actual resolution.

  5. Dynamics analysis of microsphere in a dual-beam fiber-optic trap with transverse offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinlin; Xiao, Guangzong; Luo, Hui; Xiong, Wei; Yang, Kaiyong

    2016-04-04

    A comprehensive dynamics analysis of microsphere has been presented in a dual-beam fiber-optic trap with transverse offset. As the offset distance between two counterpropagating beams increases, the motion type of the microsphere starts with capture, then spiral motion, then orbital rotation, and ends with escape. We analyze the transformation process and mechanism of the four motion types based on ray optics approximation. Dynamic simulations show that the existence of critical offset distances at which different motion types transform. The result is an important step toward explaining physical phenomena in a dual-beam fiber-optic trap with transverse offset, and is generally applicable to achieving controllable motions of microspheres in integrated systems, such as microfluidic systems and lab-on-a-chip systems.

  6. Wavelet-based spectral finite element dynamic analysis for an axially moving Timoshenko beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Ali; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza; Ghayour, Mostafa

    2017-08-01

    In this article, wavelet-based spectral finite element (WSFE) model is formulated for time domain and wave domain dynamic analysis of an axially moving Timoshenko beam subjected to axial pretension. The formulation is similar to conventional FFT-based spectral finite element (SFE) model except that Daubechies wavelet basis functions are used for temporal discretization of the governing partial differential equations into a set of ordinary differential equations. The localized nature of Daubechies wavelet basis functions helps to rule out problems of SFE model due to periodicity assumption, especially during inverse Fourier transformation and back to time domain. The high accuracy of WSFE model is then evaluated by comparing its results with those of conventional finite element and SFE results. The effects of moving beam speed and axial tensile force on vibration and wave characteristics, and static and dynamic stabilities of moving beam are investigated.

  7. Transverse beam stability measurement and analysis for the SNS accumulator ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zaipeng [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1691 (United States); Deibele, Craig, E-mail: deibele@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO BOX 2008 MS6483, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6461 (United States); Schulte, Michael J.; Hu, Yu-Hen [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1691 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    A field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based transverse feedback damper system was implemented in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring with the intention to stabilize the electron–proton (e–p) instability in the frequency range of 1–300 MHz. The transverse feedback damper could also be used as a diagnostic tool by measuring the beam transfer function (BTF). An analysis of the BTF measurements provides the stability diagram for the production beam at SNS. This paper describes the feedback damper system and its setup as the BTF diagnostic tool. Experimental BTF results are presented and beam stability is analyzed by use of the BTF measurements for the SNS accumulator ring.

  8. Transverse beam stability measurement and analysis for the SNS accumulator ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zaipeng; Deibele, Craig; Schulte, Michael J.; Hu, Yu-Hen

    2015-01-01

    A field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based transverse feedback damper system was implemented in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring with the intention to stabilize the electron–proton (e–p) instability in the frequency range of 1–300 MHz. The transverse feedback damper could also be used as a diagnostic tool by measuring the beam transfer function (BTF). An analysis of the BTF measurements provides the stability diagram for the production beam at SNS. This paper describes the feedback damper system and its setup as the BTF diagnostic tool. Experimental BTF results are presented and beam stability is analyzed by use of the BTF measurements for the SNS accumulator ring

  9. Statistically sound evaluation of trace element depth profiles by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, K.; Toussaint, U. von

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the underlying physics and statistical models that are used in the newly developed program NRADC for fully automated deconvolution of trace level impurity depth profiles from ion beam data. The program applies Bayesian statistics to find the most probable depth profile given ion beam data measured at different energies and angles for a single sample. Limiting the analysis to % level amounts of material allows one to linearize the forward calculation of ion beam data which greatly improves the computation speed. This allows for the first time to apply the maximum likelihood approach to both the fitting of the experimental data and the determination of confidence intervals of the depth profiles for real world applications. The different steps during the automated deconvolution will be exemplified by applying the program to artificial and real experimental data.

  10. Boundary discontinuous Fourier analysis of thick beams with clamped and simply supported edges via CUF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. CANALES

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical solution for static analysis of thick rectangular beams with different boundary conditions. Carrera’s Unified Formulation (CUF is used in order to consider shear deformation theories of arbitrary order. The novelty of the present work is that a boundary discontinuous Fourier approach is used to consider clamped boundary conditions in the analytical solution, unlike Navier-type solutions which are restricted to simply supported beams. Governing equations are obtained by employing the principle of virtual work. The numerical accuracy of results is ascertained by studying the convergence of the solution and comparing the results to those of a 3D finite element solution. Beams subjected to bending due to a uniform pressure load and subjected to torsion due to opposite linear forces are considered. Overall, accurate results close to those of 3D finite element solutions are obtained, which can be used to validate finite element results or other approximate methods.

  11. Hydrogen microscopy and analysis of DNA repair using focused high energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollinger, G. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, LRT 2, Werner Heisenberg Weg 39, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany)]. E-mail: guenther.dollinger@unibw.de; Bergmaier, A. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, LRT 2, Werner Heisenberg Weg 39, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Hauptner, A. [Physik Department E 12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Dietzel, S. [Department Biologie II, Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshaderner Str. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried (Germany); Drexler, G.A. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, LMU Muenchen, Schillerstr. 42, D-80336 Muenchen und Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Greubel, C. [Physik Department E 12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hable, V. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, LRT 2, Werner Heisenberg Weg 39, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Reichart, P. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kruecken, R. [Physik Department E 12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cremer, T. [Department Biologie II, Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshaderner Str. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried (Germany); Friedl, A.A. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, LMU Muenchen, Schillerstr. 42, D-80336 Muenchen und Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The ion microprobe SNAKE (Supraleitendes Nanoskop fuer Angewandte Kernphysikalische Experimente) at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator achieves beam focussing by a superconducting quadrupole doublet and can make use of a broad range of ions and ion energies, i.e. 4-28 MeV protons or up to 250 MeV gold ions. Due to these ion beams, SNAKE is particularly attractive for ion beam analyses in various fields. Here we describe two main applications of SNAKE. One is the unique possibility to perform three-dimensional hydrogen microscopy by elastic proton-proton scattering utilizing high energy proton beams. The high proton energies allow the analysis of samples with a thickness in the 100 {mu}m range with micrometer resolution and a sensitivity better than 1 ppm. In a second application, SNAKE is used to analyse protein dynamics in cells by irradiating live cells with single focussed ions. Fluorescence from immunostained protein 53BP1 is used as biological track detector after irradiation of HeLa cells. It is used to examine the irradiated region in comparison with the targeted region. Observed patterns of fluorescence foci agree reasonably well with irradiation patterns, indicating an overall targeting accuracy of about 2 {mu}m while the beam spot size is less than 0.5 {mu}m in diameter. This performance shows successful adaptation of SNAKE for biological experiments where cells are targeted on a sub-cellular level by energetic ions.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Connections with Governing Joint Shear Failure Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Najafgholipour

    Full Text Available Abstract Reinforced concrete (RC beam-column connections especially those without transverse reinforcement in joint region can exhibit brittle behavior when intensive damage is concentrated in the joint region during an earthquake event. Brittle behavior in the joint region can compromise the ductile design philosophy and the expected overall performance of structure when subjected to seismic loading. Considering the importance of joint shear failure influences on strength, ductility and stability of RC moment resisting frames, a finite element modeling which focuses on joint shear behavior is presented in this article. Nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA of RC beam-column connections is performed in order to investigate the joint shear failure mode in terms of joint shear capacity, deformations and cracking pattern. A 3D finite element model capable of appropriately modeling the concrete stress-strain behavior, tensile cracking and compressive damage of concrete and indirect modeling of steel-concrete bond is used. In order to define nonlinear behavior of concrete material, the concrete damage plasticity is applied to the numerical model as a distributed plasticity over the whole geometry. Finite element model is then verified against experimental results of two non-ductile beam-column connections (one exterior and one interior which are vulnerable to joint shear failure. The comparison between experimental and numerical results indicates that the FE model is able to simulate the performance of the beam-column connections and is able to capture the joint shear failure in RC beam-column connections.

  13. Modal Analysis of a Simply Supported Steel Beam with Cracks under Temperature Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijiang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the transfer matrix method, an analytical method is proposed to conduct the modal analysis of the simply supported steel beam with multiple transverse open cracks under different temperatures. The open cracks are replaced with torsion springs without mass, and local flexibility caused by each crack can be derived; the temperature module is introduced by the mechanical properties variation of the structural material, and the temperature load is caused by the temperature variation, which can be transformed to the axial force on the cross-section. The transfer matrix of the whole beam with the temperature and geometric parameters of cracks can be obtained. According to boundary conditions of the simply supported beam, natural frequencies of the beam can be calculated, which are compared with the finite element results. Results indicate that the analytical method proposed has a high accuracy; the natural frequencies of the simply supported steel beam are mostly affected by the temperature load, which cannot be ignored.

  14. Numerical analysis of thermal deformation in laser beam heating of a steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Kim, Yong-Rae; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Line heating is a widely used process for plate forming or thermal straightening. Flame heating and induction heating are the traditional heating processes used by industry for line heating. However, these two heating processes are ineffective when used on small steel plates. Thus, the laser beam heating with various power profiles were carried out in this study. A comparison of numerical simulation results and experimental results found a significant difference in the thermal deformation when apply a different power profile of laser beam heating. The one-sinusoid power profile produced largest thermal deformation in this study. The laser beam heating process was simulated by established a combined heat source model, and simulated results were compared with experimental results to confirm the model’s accuracy. The mechanism of thermal deformation was investigated and the effects of model parameters were studied intensively with the finite element method. Thermal deformation was found to have a significant relationship with the amount of central zone plastic deformation. Scientists and engineers could use this study’s verified model to select appropriate parameters in laser beam heating process. Moreover, by using the developed laser beam model, the analysis of welding residual stress or hardness could also be investigated from a power profile point of view.

  15. Measurement and Analysis of Rotational Energy of Nitrogen Molecular Beam by REMPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kataoka, K.; Sugiyama, N.; Ide, K.; Niimi, T.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular beams are powerful tools for diagnoses of solid surfaces and gas-surface interaction tests. Unfortunately, there are very few reports about experimental analysis of internal energy distribution (e.g. rotational energy) of molecular beams of diatomic or polyatomic molecules, because measurement of internal energy distribution is very difficult. Spectroscopic measurement techniques based on resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) is very powerful for measurement in highly rarefied gas flows. In this study, the REMPI method is applied to measurement of rotational energy distribution of nitrogen molecular beams. The REMPI spectrum of the molecular beam indicates the rotational temperature higher than the translational temperature of 7.2 K estimated by assuming isentropic flows. The O and P branches of the REMPI spectrum correspond to the rotational temperature of 30 K, but the S branch of the spectrum deviates from that at 30 K. It seems to be because the non-equilibrium rotational energy distribution of the molecular beam deviates from the Boltzmann distribution.

  16. Comparison of composite rotor blade models: A coupled-beam analysis and an MSC/NASTRAN finite-element model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Robert V.; Nixon, Mark W.; Rehfield, Lawrence W.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology was developed for the structural analysis of composite rotor blades. This coupled-beam analysis is relatively simple to use compared with alternative analysis techniques. The beam analysis was developed for thin-wall single-cell rotor structures and includes the effects of elastic coupling. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the new composite-beam analysis method through comparison of its results with those of an established baseline analysis technique. The baseline analysis is an MSC/NASTRAN finite-element model built up from anisotropic shell elements. Deformations are compared for three linear static load cases of centrifugal force at design rotor speed, applied torque, and lift for an ideal rotor in hover. A D-spar designed to twist under axial loading is the subject of the analysis. Results indicate the coupled-beam analysis is well within engineering accuracy.

  17. Spectrum analysis of hydrogen plasma in spherically convergent beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Kazuki; Yamauchi, Kunihito; Watanabe, Masato; Sunaga, Yoshitaka; Hotta, Eiki; Okino, Akitoshi

    2001-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of spherical glow discharge fusion device was carried out using hydrogen gas. Effects of the discharge current and cathode voltage on spectrum profiles of hydrogen Balmar lines were measured. The profiles of all hydrogen lines were broadened with the cathode voltage. From the relationship between the maximum broadening width and the cathode voltage, it was indicated that the broadening was caused by the Doppler effect. From the spatial distribution of emission intensity, it was found that plasma core size became larger with discharge current and smaller with cathode voltage. (author)

  18. Spectrum analysis of hydrogen plasma in spherically convergent beam fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, Kazuki; Yamauchi, Kunihito; Watanabe, Masato; Sunaga, Yoshitaka; Hotta, Eiki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Okino, Akitoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of spherical glow discharge fusion device was carried out using hydrogen gas. Effects of the discharge current and cathode voltage on spectrum profiles of hydrogen Balmar lines were measured. The profiles of all hydrogen lines were broadened with the cathode voltage. From the relationship between the maximum broadening width and the cathode voltage, it was indicated that the broadening was caused by the Doppler effect. From the spatial distribution of emission intensity, it was found that plasma core size became larger with discharge current and smaller with cathode voltage. (author)

  19. Advanced ion beam analysis of materials using ion-induced fast electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Atsushi; Ishihara, Toyoyuki [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); and others

    1997-03-01

    Recent progress in the study of high-energy shadowing effect using ion-induced electron spectroscopy is reported with emphasis on a possibility of determination of local electronic structure in solids, which has been a difficult problem to approach with other experimental techniques. We demonstrate real-space determination of covalent-bond electron distribution in Si crystal. The analysis technique may provide a new field of ion beam analysis of solids. (author)

  20. Development of a Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis. Report of a Coordinated Research Project on Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Ion beam analysis techniques are non-destructive analytical techniques used to identify the composition and provide elemental depth profiles in surface layers of materials. The applications of such techniques are diverse and include environmental control, cultural heritage and conservation and fusion technologies. Their reliability and accuracy depends strongly on our knowledge of the nuclear reaction cross sections, and this publication describes the coordinated effort to measure, compile and evaluate cross section data relevant to these techniques and make these data available to the user community through a comprehensive online database. It includes detailed assessments of experimental cross sections as well as attempts to benchmark these data against appropriate integral measurements

  1. Beam-Beam Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W; Pieloni, T

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities

  2. Assessment for ion beam analysis methods about hydrogen isotope in hydrogen storaged metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Wei; Long Xinggui; Shi Liqun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, experimental arrangements of measuring hydrogen isotope concentration and distribution in metal hydride with ion beam analysis methods were reported, and the advantage and disadvantage of different methods were analyzed too. Experiment results show that it can get abundant information and accurate value by these ways. It can get an accurate value since it's the Rutherford cross-section, and the Mylar film used in the experiment is thin enough for H, D and T distinguishing each other while using ERD analysis method with 6.0 MeV O ion beam to proceed this work, but the disadvantage of this method is that the sample preparing is more difficult, and the analysis depth is lower. It could get the distribution information of H, D and T and the analysis depth is about 3.0 μm while using ERD analysis method with 7.4 MeV 4 He ion beam, but the disadvantage is that the spectra of H, D and T overlap each other, which makes a big error in simulated calculation. If using PBS method with 3.0 MeV proton, the analysis depth is deeper, but it couldn't get the H distribution information. (authors)

  3. Ion beam analysis of aluminium in thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, M.J.F.; Pidduck, A.J.; Dollinger, G.; Gorgens, L.; Bergmaier, A.

    2002-01-01

    This work quantifies aluminium in thin surface and near surface layers. In one example, the layer overlies a thin gallium nitride layer on an aluminium oxide substrate and in a second example the aluminium exists just below the surface of an indium arsenide substrate. The technique of non-Rutherford elastic backscattering of protons was used for the samples where aluminum in the layer of interest needed to be resolved from aluminium in the sapphire substrate and the results were corroborated at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen using heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis. In the second example, where it was unnecessary to isolate the signal of aluminium in the layer of interest (as the substrate contained no aluminium), then the 27 Al(d,p 01 ) 28 Al nuclear reaction was used. The elastic proton scattering cross section of aluminum was found to vary very rapidly over the energy range of interest

  4. Single and multi degree of freedom analysis of steel beams under blast loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassr, Amr A., E-mail: nassraa@mcmaster.ca [Dept. of Civil Engineering, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Razaqpur, A. Ghani, E-mail: razaqpu@mcmaster.ca [Dept. of Civil Engineering, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Tait, Michael J., E-mail: taitm@mcmaster.ca [Dept. of Civil Engineering, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Campidelli, Manuel, E-mail: campide@mcmaster.ca [Dept. of Civil Engineering, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Foo, Simon, E-mail: simon.foo@pwgsc.gc.ca [Public Works and Government Services, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimentally tested beams under blast are analyzed using SDOF and MDOF models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SDOF model adequately captures the time dependant deformations and internal forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constant DIF based on a low strain rate leads to conservative estimate of the DIF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The responses of the test beams are governed by the first mode of vibration. - Abstract: This paper presents detailed analysis of the results of field tests on 13 full scale wide flange steel beams subjected to blast loads generated by the detonation of up to 250 kg of ANFO explosive. The experimental results are analyzed using an equivalent Single-Degree-of-Freedom (SDOF) model of a beam, which includes material nonlinearity and strain rate effects. To account for strain rate effect on beam stiffness and strength, its full moment-curvature response is determined by dividing its cross-section into a number of layers and a strain rate-dependent stress-strain relationship, based on the Cowper-Symonds strain rate model, is used to capture the nonlinear stress distribution over the section. To determine the effects of higher modes of vibration and the variation of beam mechanical properties along its length on its dynamic response, the test beams are also analyzed using a Multi-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF) model involving beam finite elements. Each element has two nodes and three degrees of freedom and is again divided into a number of layers to capture the strain rate effect and nonlinear stress distribution over its depth. The predicted displacements and strains by the two models are compared with the corresponding experimental data and the results show that for the given beams, the time-dependant deformations, internal forces, and moments can be adequately predicted by either model because the first mode of vibration is found to dominate their response; however, the use of a constant strain rate

  5. Single and multi degree of freedom analysis of steel beams under blast loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassr, Amr A.; Razaqpur, A. Ghani; Tait, Michael J.; Campidelli, Manuel; Foo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimentally tested beams under blast are analyzed using SDOF and MDOF models. ► SDOF model adequately captures the time dependant deformations and internal forces. ► Constant DIF based on a low strain rate leads to conservative estimate of the DIF. ► The responses of the test beams are governed by the first mode of vibration. - Abstract: This paper presents detailed analysis of the results of field tests on 13 full scale wide flange steel beams subjected to blast loads generated by the detonation of up to 250 kg of ANFO explosive. The experimental results are analyzed using an equivalent Single-Degree-of-Freedom (SDOF) model of a beam, which includes material nonlinearity and strain rate effects. To account for strain rate effect on beam stiffness and strength, its full moment-curvature response is determined by dividing its cross-section into a number of layers and a strain rate-dependent stress-strain relationship, based on the Cowper–Symonds strain rate model, is used to capture the nonlinear stress distribution over the section. To determine the effects of higher modes of vibration and the variation of beam mechanical properties along its length on its dynamic response, the test beams are also analyzed using a Multi-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF) model involving beam finite elements. Each element has two nodes and three degrees of freedom and is again divided into a number of layers to capture the strain rate effect and nonlinear stress distribution over its depth. The predicted displacements and strains by the two models are compared with the corresponding experimental data and the results show that for the given beams, the time-dependant deformations, internal forces, and moments can be adequately predicted by either model because the first mode of vibration is found to dominate their response; however, the use of a constant strain rate through the so-called Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF) can lead to highly conservative estimate of the

  6. Ion beam analysis of golden threads from Romanian medieval textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balta, Z.I.; Csedreki, L.; Furu, E.; Cretu, I.; Huszánk, R.; Lupu, M.; Török, Z.; Kertész, Z.; Szikszai, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, metal threads from Romanian religious embroideries and precious velvet brocades dated from 15th to 18th century were analyzed by using IBA methods (PIXE and RBS) which, in comparison to the traditional analytical techniques (XRF, EDS), allowed the detection of their structures and accurate identification of the trace elements (detection limits of few tens of ppm). PIXE results confirmed that both types of the metal threads studied – wires and strips – have layered structures being made of fine silver, refined by cupellation, and gilded most probably with pure gold, and not of Au–Ag alloy, or gilded Ag–Cu alloy or Au–Ag–Cu alloy, as resulted from the previously performed SEM-EDS analysis. Trace elements of historical interest like lead, mercury and bismuth have been also possible to be detected by PIXE. The resulting elemental maps allowed us to identify the areas from which the metal thread structure and quantitative composition could be accurately determined. RBS measurements revealed that the gilding layer is separated from the silver bulk by an interface layer resulting through atomic diffusion of silver into the gold, which lead to the conclusion that the methods used for gilding were probably either the diffusion bonding or the fire gilding. The gilding layers thicknesses were estimated by PIXE with the GUPIX software and also determined from RBS measurements

  7. Ion beam analysis of golden threads from Romanian medieval textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balta, Z.I., E-mail: balta_z_i@yahoo.com [National History Museum of Romania, Calea Victoriei 12, Sector 3, Bucharest (Romania); Csedreki, L.; Furu, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Cretu, I. [National Art Museum of Romania, Calea Victoriei 49-53, Sector 1, Bucharest (Romania); Huszánk, R. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Lupu, M. [National Art Museum of Romania, Calea Victoriei 49-53, Sector 1, Bucharest (Romania); Török, Z.; Kertész, Z.; Szikszai, Z. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary)

    2015-04-01

    In this study, metal threads from Romanian religious embroideries and precious velvet brocades dated from 15th to 18th century were analyzed by using IBA methods (PIXE and RBS) which, in comparison to the traditional analytical techniques (XRF, EDS), allowed the detection of their structures and accurate identification of the trace elements (detection limits of few tens of ppm). PIXE results confirmed that both types of the metal threads studied – wires and strips – have layered structures being made of fine silver, refined by cupellation, and gilded most probably with pure gold, and not of Au–Ag alloy, or gilded Ag–Cu alloy or Au–Ag–Cu alloy, as resulted from the previously performed SEM-EDS analysis. Trace elements of historical interest like lead, mercury and bismuth have been also possible to be detected by PIXE. The resulting elemental maps allowed us to identify the areas from which the metal thread structure and quantitative composition could be accurately determined. RBS measurements revealed that the gilding layer is separated from the silver bulk by an interface layer resulting through atomic diffusion of silver into the gold, which lead to the conclusion that the methods used for gilding were probably either the diffusion bonding or the fire gilding. The gilding layers thicknesses were estimated by PIXE with the GUPIX software and also determined from RBS measurements.

  8. An optimized oscillation analysis of MINOS beam data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culling, Andrew John

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents results of the MINOS long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Charged Current interactions of ν μ from the NuMI beamline have been recorded in both the Near and Far Detectors between May 2005 and February 2006, corresponding to 1.27 x 10 20 protons being delivered to the NuMI target. Several techniques for improving the sensitivity of an oscillation measurement are discussed and their impact assessed. 378 events are observed in the Far Detector during this period, compared to a prediction of 459 ± 31 events are observed in the Far Detector during this period, compared to a prediction of 459 ± 31 events when the observed Near Detector spectrum is extrapolated to the Far Detector over the 735 km baseline with no oscillations. In addition to this deficit of observed events, there is also evidence for spectral distortion in the Far Detector. A maximum likelihood analysis is used to determine the best fit point and allowed regions in Δm 2 23 and sin 2 2θ 23 parameter space. The best fit values for Δm 2 23 and sin 2 2θ 23 are found to be 2.55 +0.39 -0.24 x 10 -3 eV 2 and > 0.87 (68% CL) respectively

  9. Design and Analysis of Muon Beam Stop Support Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okafor, Udenna [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to design and analyze support structures to be used in the installation, test and final positioning of the MBS throughout the life of the Mu2e experiment. There several requirements for the MBS imposed by both the scope of the experiment and, other components within the DS bore. The functions of the MBS are: 1. To limit the induced rates in the Tracker, the Calorimeter and the Cosmic Ray Veto due to backsplash-and-secondary interactions, and 2. To reduce radiation levels external to the Detector solenoid. The structures used in supporting the MBS will also adhere to requirements imposed by its functions. These requirements are critical to the support structures and affect design decisions. Other requirements critical to the design are imposed by the weight, positional tolerance and assembly procedure of the MBS, and also, the magnetic field and vacuum dose rate of the DS bore. A detailed breakdown of how each requirement affects the structural design can be found in chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes the design of each support structure and its attachment to the MBS while chapter 4 describes the results from structural analysis of the support structures. Chapter 5 describes evaluation for the design through testing and calculations while the conclusion in chapter 6 reports the current status at the time of this thesis submission with a plan for future work to be completed until final design and installation.

  10. Cross-correlation time-of-flight analysis of molecular beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowikow, C.V.; Grice, R.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of the cross-correlation method of time-of-flight analysis is presented in a form which highlights its formal similarity to the conventional method. A time-of-flight system for the analysis of crossed molecular beam scattering is described, which is based on a minicomputer interface and can operate in both the cross-correlation and conventional modes. The interface maintains the synchronisation of chopper disc rotation and channel advance indefinitely in the cross-correlation method and can acquire data in phase with the beam modulation in both methods. The shutter function of the cross-correlation method is determined and the deconvolution analysis of the data is discussed. (author)

  11. Image acquisition and analysis for beam diagnostics, applications of the Taiwan photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.Y.; Chen, J.; Cheng, Y.S.; Hsu, K.T.; Hu, K.H.; Kuo, C.H.; Wu, C.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Design and implementation of image acquisition and analysis is in proceeding for the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) diagnostic applications. The optical system contains screen, lens, and lighting system. A CCD camera with Gigabit Ethernet interface (GigE Vision) will be a standard image acquisition device. Image acquisition will be done on EPICS IOC via PV channel and analysis the properties by using Matlab tool to evaluate the beam profile (sigma), beam size position and tilt angle et al. The EPICS IOC integrated with Matlab as a data processing system is not only could be used in image analysis but also in many types of equipment data processing applications. Progress of the project will be summarized in this report. (authors)

  12. MeV ion-beam analysis of optical data storage films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, J. A.; Mcintyre, L. C., Jr.; Lin, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives are threefold: (1) to accurately characterize optical data storage films by MeV ion-beam analysis (IBA) for ODSC collaborators; (2) to develop new and/or improved analysis techniques; and (3) to expand the capabilities of the IBA facility itself. Using H-1(+), He-4(+), and N-15(++) ion beams in the 1.5 MeV to 10 MeV energy range from a 5.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, film thickness (in atoms/sq cm), stoichiometry, impurity concentration profiles, and crystalline structure were determined by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), high-energy backscattering, channeling, nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Most of these techniques are discussed in detail in the ODSC Annual Report (February 17, 1987), p. 74. The PIXE technique is briefly discussed in the ODSC Annual Report (March 15, 1991), p. 23.

  13. Nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete beam with/without tension stiffening effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dede, T.; Ayvaz, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to do materially nonlinear failure analysis of RC beam by using finite element method. In the finite element modeling, two different approaches and different tension stress-strain models with/without tension stiffening effect are used by considering two different mesh sizes. In the first approach, the material matrices of concrete and reinforcement are constructed separately, and then superimposed to obtain the element stiffness matrix. In the second approach, the reinforcement is assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout the beam. So, the beam is modeled as a single composite element with increasing the modulus of elasticity of concrete by considering the reinforcement ratio. For these two approaches, elastic-perfectly plastic stress-strain relationship is used for concrete in compression. For the concrete in tension, a stress-strain relationship with/without tension stiffening is used. It is concluded that the approaches and the models considered in this study can be effectively used in the materially nonlinear analysis of RC beams.

  14. Possibilities and conditions of applying PIXE analysis with external proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The technical and methodological prerequisites are summed up for the use of the PIXE method with an external proton beam. The method is suitable for the preliminary analysis of unknown samples prior to the choice of the best suited analytical method, for the nondestructive analysis of rare samples such as unique works of art, of small amounts of materials which are difficult to access, etc., as well as for calibration and comparing analyses. As for the operators the application of the PIXE method with external proton beam assumes the availability of accelerator operating time, minimization of the length of exposure of the targets, optimization of parameters of the exciting beam and automation of the whole process. Attention is also devoted to technical provisions and organization of laboratory work. The design is described of an analytical unit using the PIXE method with external proton beam, and it is stated that the Van de Graaff accelerator at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Rez near Prague could be used for the purpose. (Z.M.). 6 refs

  15. Atmosphere influence on in situ ion beam analysis of thin film growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yuping; Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; Chang, R.P.H.; Auciello, O.H.; Schultz, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    In situ, nondestructive surface characterization of thin-film growth processes in an environment of chemically active gas at pressures of several mTorr is required both for the understanding of growth processes in multicomponent films and layered heterostructures and for the improvement of process reproducibility and device reliability. The authors have developed a differentially pumped pulsed ion beam surface analysis system that includes ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) and direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS), coupled to an automated ion beam sputter-deposition system (IBSD), to study film growth processes in an environment of chemically active gas, such as required for the growth of oxide, nitride, or diamond thin films. The influence of gas-phase scattering and gas-surface interactions on the ISS and DRS signal intensity and peak shape have been studied. From the intensity variation as a function of ambient gas pressure, the authors have calculated the mean free path and the scattering cross-section for a given combination of primary ion species and ambient gas. Depending on the system geometry and the combination of primary beam and background, it is shown that surface-specific data can be obtained during thin-film growth at pressures ranging from a few mtorr to approximately 1 Torr. Detailed information such as surface composition, structure, and film growth mechanism may be obtained in real-time, making ion beam analysis an ideal nondestructive, in situ probe of thin-film growth processes

  16. Ion beam analysis of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karydas, A.G. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA Laboratories, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, NCSR “Demokritos”, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens Greece (Greece); Streeck, C. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Radovic, I. Bogdanovic [Ruđer Bošković Institute (RBI), Zagreb (Croatia); Kaufmann, C.; Rissom, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Jaksic, M. [Ruđer Bošković Institute (RBI), Zagreb (Croatia); Barradas, N.P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E. N. 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Elemental depth profiles for various CIGS thin films were quantitatively determined. • Pure absorbers, complete cell and bilayer solar cells were prepared and analyzed. • Synergistic PIXE and RBS analysis of thin solar cells using alpha beam particles. • High energy alpha beam resolved completely the Indium depth profile. • Synchrotron based Reference Free GIXRF quantitative analysis validated IBA results. - Abstract: The present work investigates the potential of ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques such as the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using helium ions to provide quantitative in-depth elemental analysis of various types of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films. These films with a thickness of about 2 μm are used as absorber layers in photovoltaic devices with continuously increasing the performance of this technology. The preparation process generally aims to obtain an in-depth gradient of In and Ga concentrations that optimizes the optoelectronic and electrical properties of the solar cell. The measurements were performed at directly accessible single or double layered CIGS absorbers and at buried absorbers in completed thin film solar cells. The IBA data were analyzed simultaneously in order to derive best fitted profiles that match all experimental RBS and PIXE spectra. For some samples elemental profiles deduced form synchrotron based, reference free grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis were compared with the IBA results and an overall good agreement was observed within quoted uncertainties.

  17. Numerical analysis on seismic behavior of reinforced concrete beam to concrete filled steel tubular column connections with ring-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yi., E-mail: zhaoyi091218@163.com [School of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Zhongyuan University of Technology,Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Xu, Li. Hua. [School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, No.8, Donghu Road, WuHan 430072 (China)

    2016-06-08

    This paper presents numerical study of the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete beam to concrete filled steel tube column connections with ring-beam. The material stress-strain relations, element type and boundary condition are selected, which are consistent with actual situation. Then the seismic behavior of this type of joint are researched by ABAQUS, and finite element analyses are conducted under cyclic loading. Its parameters are discussed including thickness of steel tubular column wall, sectional dimension of the ring-beam and strength of the core concrete. The results show that the ultimate capacity of the connections is improved with sectional dimension of the ring-beam increased. In the meanwhile, the influence on skeleton curve of the joints is slight of which included thickness of steel tubular column wall and strength of the core concrete.

  18. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J; Fowler, Joanna S; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-08-01

    In this research, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([(11)C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [(11)C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of (12)C-cyanide ((12)CN¯). The [(11)C]CN¯ is produced from [(11)C]CO2, which is generated by the (14)N(p,α)(11)C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [(11)C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to (12)CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33µA for 1 and 10min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [(11)C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [(11)C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ion beam nanopatterning and micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis on HOPG for testing FIB performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archanjo, B.S.; Maciel, I.O.; Martins Ferreira, E.H.; Peripolli, S.B.; Damasceno, J.C.; Achete, C.A.; Jorio, A.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports Ga + focused ion beam nanopatterning to create amorphous defects with periodic square arrays in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and the use of Raman spectroscopy as a new protocol to test and compare progresses in ion beam optics, for low fluence bombardment or fast writing speed. This can be ultimately used as a metrological tool for comparing different FIB machines and can contribute to Focused Ion Beam (FIB) development in general for tailoring nanostructures with higher precision. In order to do that, the amount of ion at each spot was varied from about 10 6 down to roughly 1 ion per dot. These defects were also analyzed by using high resolution scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The sensitivities of these techniques were compared and a geometrical model is proposed for micro-Raman spectroscopy in which the intensity of the defect induced D band, for a fixed ion dose, is associated with the diameter of the ion beam. In addition, the lateral increase in the bombarded spot due to the cascade effect of the ions on graphite surface was extracted from this model. A semi-quantitative analysis of the distribution of ions at low doses per dot or high writing speed for soft modification of materials is discussed. -- Highlights: → Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface is bombarded using a focused ion beam. → Raman spectroscopy is used to propose a new protocol to test focused ion beam optics. → Scattering diameter of the ions on HOPG surface is experimentally obtained. → Optical limitations of the ion column in fast writing speed are discussed. → Small level of modifications is considered for changing graphene conductive properties.

  20. Application of the Frequency Map Analysis to the Study of the Beam Dynamics of Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadolski, Laurent

    2001-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of beam dynamics in storage rings with a restriction to single particle transverse dynamics. In a first part, tools (Frequency Map Analysis, Hamiltonian, Integrator) are presented for studying and exploring the dynamics. Numerical simulations of four synchrotron radiation sources (the ALS, the ESRF, SOLEIL and Super-ACO) are performed. We construct a tracking code based on a new class of symplectic integrators (Laskar and Robutel, 2000). These integrators with only positive steps are more precise by an order of magnitude than the standard Forest and Ruth's scheme. Comparisons with the BETA, DESPOT and MAD codes are carried out. Frequency Map Analysis (Laskar, 1990) is our main analysis tool. This is a numerical method for analysing a conservative dynamical system. Based on a refined Fourier technique, it enables us to compute frequency maps which are real footprints of the beam dynamics of an accelerator. We stress the high sensitivity of the dynamics to magnetics errors and sextipolar strengths. The second part of this work is dedicated to the analysis of experimental results from two light sources. Together with the ALS accelerator team (Berkeley), we succeeded in obtaining the first experimental frequency map of an accelerator. The agreement with the machine model is very impressive. At the Super-ACO ring, the study of the tune shift with amplitude enabled us to highlight a strong octupolar-like component related to the quadrupole fringe field. The aftermaths for the beam dynamics are important and give us a better understanding the measured ring performance. All these results are based on turn by turn measurements. Many closely related phenomena are treated such as response matrix analysis or beam decoherence. (author) [fr

  1. Mechanical characterization and structural analysis of recycled fiber-reinforced-polymer resin-transfer-molded beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eugene Wie Loon

    1999-09-01

    The present investigation was focussed on the mechanical characterization and structural analysis of resin-transfer-molded beams containing recycled fiber-reinforced polymers. The beams were structurally reinforced with continuous unidirectional glass fibers. The reinforcing filler materials consisted entirely of recycled fiber-reinforced polymer wastes (trim and overspray). The principal resin was a 100-percent dicyclo-pentadiene unsaturated polyester specially formulated with very low viscosity for resin transfer molding. Variations of the resin transfer molding technique were employed to produce specimens for material characterization. The basic materials that constituted the structural beams, continuous-glass-fiber-reinforced, recycled-trim-filled and recycled-overspray-filled unsaturated polyesters, were fully characterized in axial and transverse compression and tension, and inplane and interlaminar shear, to ascertain their strengths, ultimate strains, elastic moduli and Poisson's ratios. Experimentally determined mechanical properties of the recycled-trim-filled and recycled-overspray-filled materials from the present investigation were superior to those of unsaturated polyester polymer concretes and Portland cement concretes. Mechanical testing and finite element analyses of flexure (1 x 1 x 20 in) and beam (2 x 4 x 40 in) specimens were conducted. These structurally-reinforced specimens were tested and analyzed in four-point, third-point flexure to determine their ultimate loads, maximum fiber stresses and mid-span deflections. The experimentally determined load capacities of these specimens were compared to those of equivalent steel-reinforced Portland cement concrete beams computed using reinforced concrete theory. Mechanics of materials beam theory was utilized to predict the ultimate loads and mid-span deflections of the flexure and beam specimens. However, these predictions proved to be severely inadequate. Finite element (fracture propagation

  2. An analysis of main factors in electron beam flue gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Xu Guang

    2003-01-01

    Electron beam flue gas purification method is developing very quickly in recent years. Based on the experiment setting for electron beam flue gas purification in Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology, Tsinghua University, how the technique factors affect the ratio of desulphurization and denitrogenation are described. Radiation dose (D), temperature (T), humidity (H), pour ammonia quantity (α) and initial concentration of SO 2 (C SO 2 ) and NO x (C NO x ) are main factors influencing flue gas purification. Using the methods of correlation analysis and regression analysis, the primary effect factors are found out and the regression equations are set to optimize the system process, predigest the system structure and to forecast the experimental results. (authors)

  3. Normal form analysis of linear beam dynamics in a coupled storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, Andrzej; Woodley, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    The techniques of normal form analysis, well known in the literature, can be used to provide a straightforward characterization of linear betatron dynamics in a coupled lattice. Here, we consider both the beam distribution and the betatron oscillations in a storage ring. We find that the beta functions for uncoupled motion generalize in a simple way to the coupled case. Defined in the way that we propose, the beta functions remain well behaved (positive and finite) under all circumstances, and have essentially the same physical significance for the beam size and betatron oscillation amplitude as in the uncoupled case. Application of this analysis to the online modeling of the PEP-II rings is also discussed

  4. Nonlinear analysis of the progressive collapse of reinforced concrete plane frames using a multilayered beam formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. M. Oliveira

    Full Text Available This work investigates the response of two reinforced concrete (RC plane frames after the loss of a column and their potential resistance for progressive collapse. Nonlinear dynamic analysis is performed using a multilayered Euler/Bernoulli beam element, including elasto-viscoplastic effects. The material nonlinearity is represented using one-dimensional constitutive laws in the material layers, while geometrical nonlinearities are incorporated within a corotational beam formulation. The frames were designed in accordance with the minimum requirements proposed by the reinforced concrete design/building codes of Europe (fib [1-2], Eurocode 2 [3] and Brazil (NBR 6118 [4]. The load combinations considered for PC analysis follow the prescriptions of DoD [5]. The work verifies if the minimum requirements of the considered codes are sufficient for enforcing structural safety and robustness, and also points out the major differences in terms of progressive collapse potential of the corresponding designed structures.

  5. Micro/nano analysis of tooth microstructures by Focused Ion Beam (FIB cross-sectioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Sezen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since dental structures are hard and fragile, cross-sectioning of these materials using ultramicrotomy and other techniques and following micro and nano analysis cause problems. The use of FIB-SEM dual beam platforms is the most convenient solution for investigating the microstructures, site-specifically and in certain geometries. Dual beam platforms allow for imaging at high magnifications and resolutions and simultaneous elemental analysis. In this study, the micro/nano-structural and chemical differences were revealed in dentin and enamel samples. The investigation of dental tissues having different morphologies and chemical components by ion-cross-sectioning is important for the use of FIB-SEM platforms in dentistry in Turkey.

  6. Analysis of radiation pressure force exerted on a biological cell induced by high-order Bessel beams using Debye series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Renxian; Ren, Kuan Fang; Han, Xiang'e; Wu, Zhensen; Guo, Lixin; Gong, Shuxi

    2013-01-01

    Debye series expansion (DSE) is employed to the analysis of radiation pressure force (RPF) exerted on biological cells induced by high-order Bessel beams (BB). The beam shape coefficients (BSCs) for high-order Bessel beams are calculated using analytical expressions obtained by the integral localized approximation (ILA). Different types of cells, including a real Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell and a lymphocyte which are respectively modeled by a coated and five-layered sphere, are considered. The RPF induced by high-order Bessel beams is compared with that by Gaussian beams and zeroth-order Bessel beams, and the effect of different scattering processes on RPF is studied. Numerical calculations show that high-order Bessel beams with zero central intensity can also transversely trap particle in the beam center, and some scattering processes can provide longitudinal pulling force. -- Highlights: ► BSCs for high-order Bessel beam (HOBB) is derived using ILA. ► DSE is employed to study the RPF induced by HOBB exerted on multilayered cells. ► RPF is decided by radius relative to the interval of peaks in intensity profile. ► HOBB can also transversely trap high-index particle in the vicinity of beam axis. ► RPF for some scattering processes can longitudinally pull particles back

  7. 3D DVH-based metric analysis versus per-beam planar analysis in IMRT pretreatment verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, Pablo; Jornet, Núria; Latorre, Artur; Eudaldo, Teresa; Ruiz, Agustí; Ribas, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate methods of pretreatment IMRT analysis, using real measurements performed with a commercial 2D detector array, for clinical relevance and accuracy by comparing clinical DVH parameters. Methods: We divided the work into two parts. The first part consisted of six in-phantom tests aimed to study the sensitivity of the different analysis methods. Beam fluences, 3D dose distribution, and DVH of an unaltered original plan were compared to those of the delivered plan, in which an error had been intentionally introduced. The second part consisted of comparing gamma analysis with DVH metrics for 17 patient plans from various sites. Beam fluences were measured with the MapCHECK 2 detector, per-beam planar analysis was performed with the MapCHECK software, and 3D gamma analysis and the DVH evaluation were performed using 3DVH software. Results: In a per-beam gamma analysis some of the tests yielded false positives or false negatives. However, the 3DVH software correctly described the DVH of the plan which included the error. The measured DVH from the plan with controlled error agreed with the planned DVH within 2% dose or 2% volume. We also found that a gamma criterion of 3%/3 mm was too lax to detect some of the forced errors. Global analysis masked some problems, while local analysis magnified irrelevant errors at low doses. Small hotspots were missed for all metrics due to the spatial resolution of the detector panel. DVH analysis for patient plans revealed small differences between treatment plan calculations and 3DVH results, with the exception of very small volume structures such as the eyes and the lenses. Target coverage (D 98 and D 95 ) of the measured plan was systematically lower than that predicted by the treatment planning system, while other DVH characteristics varied depending on the parameter and organ. Conclusions: We found no correlation between the gamma index and the clinical impact of a discrepancy for any of the gamma index evaluation

  8. Performance Analysis of a Threshold-Based Parallel Multiple Beam Selection Scheme for WDM FSO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2018-04-09

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for a free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has occurred under independent identically distributed Gamma-Gamma fading conditions. To simplify the mathematical analysis, we additionally consider Gamma turbulence conditions, which are a good approximation of Gamma-Gamma distribution. Specifically, we statistically analyze the characteristics in operation under conventional detection schemes (i.e., heterodyne detection (HD) and intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) techniques) for both adaptive modulation (AM) case in addition to non-AM case (i.e., coherent/non-coherent binary modulation). Then, based on the statistically derived results, we evaluate the outage probability of a selected beam, the average spectral efficiency (ASE), the average number of selected beams (ANSB) and the average bit error rate (BER). Selected results show that we can obtain higher spectral efficiency and simultaneously reduce the potential for increasing the complexity of implementation caused by applying the selection-based beam selection scheme without considerable performance loss. Especially for the AM case, the ASE can be increased further compared to the non- AM cases. Our derived results based on the Gamma distribution as an approximation of the Gamma-Gamma distribution can be used as approximated performance measure bounds, especially, they may lead to lower bounds on the approximated considered performance measures.

  9. A study on the operating characteristics by heat flow analysis of HYPER beam window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Min Geun; Choi, Jin Ho; Ju, Eun Sun; Song, Tae Young

    2001-01-01

    A spent fuel problem has prevented the nuclear power from claiming to be a completely clean energy source. The nuclear transmutation technology to incinerate the long lived radioactive nuclides and produce energy during the incineration process is believed to be one or the best solutions. HYPER(HYbrid Power Extraction Reactor) is the accelerator driven transmutation system which is being developed by KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Some major feature of HYPER have been developed and employed. On-power fueling concepts are employed to keep system power constant with minimum variation of accelerator power. A hollow cylinder-type metal fuel is designed for the on-line refueling concept. Lead-bismuth(Pb-Bi) is adopted as a coolant and Spallation target material. HYPER is a subcritical reactor which needs an external neutron source. 1GeV proton beam is irradiated to Lead-bismuth(Pb-Bi) target inside HYPER, and spallation neutrons are produced. When proton beams are irradiated, much heat is also deposited in the Pb-Bi target and beam window which separates Pb-Bi and accelerator vacuum. Therefore, an effective cooling is needed for HYPER target. In this paper, we performed the thermal-hydraulic analysis of HYPER target using FLUENT code, and also calculated thermal and mechanical stress of the beam window using ANSYS code

  10. Numerical Analysis on the High-Strength Concrete Beams Ultimate Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarzewski, Piotr; Stolarski, Adam

    2017-10-01

    Development of technologies of high-strength concrete (HSC) beams production, with the aim of creating a secure and durable material, is closely linked with the numerical models of real objects. The three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models of reinforced high-strength concrete beams with a complex geometry has been investigated in this study. The numerical analysis is performed using the ANSYS finite element package. The arc-length (A-L) parameters and the adaptive descent (AD) parameters are used with Newton-Raphson method to trace the complete load-deflection curves. Experimental and finite element modelling results are compared graphically and numerically. Comparison of these results indicates the correctness of failure criteria assumed for the high-strength concrete and the steel reinforcement. The results of numerical simulation are sensitive to the modulus of elasticity and the shear transfer coefficient for an open crack assigned to high-strength concrete. The full nonlinear load-deflection curves at mid-span of the beams, the development of strain in compressive concrete and the development of strain in tensile bar are in good agreement with the experimental results. Numerical results for smeared crack patterns are qualitatively agreeable as to the location, direction, and distribution with the test data. The model was capable of predicting the introduction and propagation of flexural and diagonal cracks. It was concluded that the finite element model captured successfully the inelastic flexural behaviour of the beams to failure.

  11. The Gaussian beam mode analysis of classical phase aberrations in diffraction-limited optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Neil; Murphy, J. Anthony; Withington, Stafford

    2003-07-01

    Gaussian beam mode analysis (GBMA) offers a more intuitive physical insight into how light beams evolve as they propagate than the conventional Fresnel diffraction integral approach. In this paper we illustrate that GBMA is a computationally efficient, alternative technique for tracing the evolution of a diffracting coherent beam. In previous papers we demonstrated the straightforward application of GBMA to the computation of the classical diffraction patterns associated with a range of standard apertures. In this paper we show how the GBMA technique can be expanded to investigate the effects of aberrations in the presence of diffraction by introducing the appropriate phase error term into the propagating quasi-optical beam. We compare our technique to the standard diffraction integral calculation for coma, astigmatism and spherical aberration, taking—for comparison—examples from the classic text 'Principles of Optics' by Born and Wolf. We show the advantages of GBMA for allowing the defocusing of an aberrated image to be evaluated quickly, which is particularly important and useful for probing the consequences of astigmatism and spherical aberration.

  12. A truncated conical beam model for analysis of the vibration of rat whiskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenyi; Kan, Qianhua; Kergrene, Kenan; Kang, Guozheng; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Rajan, Ramesh

    2013-08-09

    A truncated conical beam model is developed to study the vibration behaviour of a rat whisker. Translational and rotational springs are introduced to better represent the constraint conditions at the base of the whiskers in a living rat. Dimensional analysis shows that the natural frequency of a truncated conical beam with generic spring constraints at its ends is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass density. Under all the combinations of the classical free, pinned, sliding or fixed boundary conditions of a truncated conical beam, it is proved that the natural frequency can be expressed as f = α(rb/L(2))E/ρ and the frequency coefficient α only depends on the ratio of the radii at the two ends of the beam. The natural frequencies of a representative rat whisker are predicted for two typical situations: freely whisking in air and the tip touching an object. Our numerical results show that there exists a window where the natural frequencies of a rat whisker are very sensitive to the change of the rotational constraint at the base. This finding is also confirmed by the numerical results of 18 whiskers with their data available from literature. It can be concluded that the natural frequencies of a rat whisker can be adjusted within a wide range through manipulating the constraints of the follicle on the rat base by a behaving animal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Gaussian beam mode analysis of classical phase aberrations in diffraction-limited optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trappe, Neil; Murphy, J Anthony; Withington, Stafford

    2003-01-01

    Gaussian beam mode analysis (GBMA) offers a more intuitive physical insight into how light beams evolve as they propagate than the conventional Fresnel diffraction integral approach. In this paper we illustrate that GBMA is a computationally efficient, alternative technique for tracing the evolution of a diffracting coherent beam. In previous papers we demonstrated the straightforward application of GBMA to the computation of the classical diffraction patterns associated with a range of standard apertures. In this paper we show how the GBMA technique can be expanded to investigate the effects of aberrations in the presence of diffraction by introducing the appropriate phase error term into the propagating quasi-optical beam. We compare our technique to the standard diffraction integral calculation for coma, astigmatism and spherical aberration, taking - for comparison - examples from the classic text 'Principles of Optics' by Born and Wolf. We show the advantages of GBMA for allowing the defocusing of an aberrated image to be evaluated quickly, which is particularly important and useful for probing the consequences of astigmatism and spherical aberration

  14. A systematic analysis of the influence of the surrounding media in the photothermal beam deflection signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeren, A; Prior, P; Macedo, F

    2010-01-01

    The photothermal beam deflection (PDS) technique was tested for low thermal diffusivity materials. The effect of using different liquids as surrounding media was studied in a systematic way. The fundamental experimental parameters, like the pump beam power and the modulation frequency were also studied in order to find out the best combination that still allows us to get good signals. Due to the complexity of the optical alignment required, the usual mirage setup was adapted in order to allow the decoupling of the alignment of the cell containing the liquid and the sample holder. Simple, straightforward methods (like e.g. the phase method) were used for the thermal diffusivity determination of solids once the thermal diffusivity of the liquids used is always much lower than that of solids. The obtained values for the thermal diffusivity of test samples allow us to conclude that besides being possible to use any of the studied liquids as surrounding medium, ethanol is clearly the best choice, avoiding health problems related to CCl 4 , which is the standard choice for PDS and PDS spectroscopy experiments, and technical/physical problems related to water and acetone. Modulation frequencies around 8 Hz combined with a pump beam power below 15 mW were proved to be the ideal conditions for this kind of experiment. The very low pump beam power required is also an important issue when talking about non-destructive analysis.

  15. Transient Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of the TPSG4 Beam Diluter

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Herrera-Martínez, A; Kadi, Y; Marque, S

    2002-01-01

    A new extraction channel is being built in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) Long Straight Section 4 (LSS4) to transfer proton beams to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and also to the CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target. The beam is extracted in a fast mode during a single turn. For this purpose a protection of the MSE copper septum coil, in the form of a beam diluting element placed upstream, will be required to cope with the new failure modes associated with the fast extraction operation. The present analysis focuses on the thermo-mechanical behavior of the proposed TPSG4 diluter element irradiated by a fast extracted beam (up to 4.9 x 10^13 protons per 7.2 mus pulse) from the SPS. The deposited energy densities, estimated from primary and secondary particle simulations using the high-energy particle transport code FLUKA, were converted to internal heat generation rates taken as a thermal load input for the finite-element engineering analyses code ANSYS. According to the time dependence of the extrac...

  16. In situ ion-beam analysis and modification of sol-gel zirconia thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, T.E.; Mayer, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    We report the investigation of ion-beam-induced densification of sol-gel zirconia thin films via in situ ion backscattering spectrometry. We have irradiated three regions of a sample with neon, argon, and krypton ions. For each ion species, a series of irradiation and analysis steps were performed using an interconnected 3 MV tandem accelerator. The technique offers the advantages of minimizing the variation of experimental parameters and sequentially monitoring the densification phenomenon with increasing ion dose

  17. Analysis of the Stringer-to-Cross-Beam Riveted Joints Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present results of the numerical and experimental studies related to the analysis of the real stiffness of the stringer-to-cross-beam connection in order to avoid approximation of this joint by means of complicated 2D modelling and to use simplified 1D model for global analyses of bridges with open bridge decks.

  18. Ion beams: from plasma physics to applications in analysis and irradiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodja, Hicham

    2012-01-01

    In this HDR (Accreditation to supervise research) report, the author proposes an overview of his research activities. A first part comments a research which aimed at determining the distribution of ion populations in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Then, after a brief recall of the principles and techniques of analysis based on ion beams, he presents some characteristics of the CEA/Saclay nuclear microprobe. He reports various works related to material science and to biology, and discusses the associated perspectives [fr

  19. Refined inelastic analysis of piping systems using a beam-type program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, A.; Hoffmann, A.

    1981-08-01

    A finite element for inelastic piping analysis has been presented, which enables accounting for local effects like thermal gradients and supplies local states of stresses and strains, while keeping all the advantages of a classical beam type program (easy to use, simple boundary conditions, cost effectiveness). Thanks to the local description of the cross section, geometrical non-linearity due to inertia modification can be introduced together with material non-linearity. The element can also be degenerated into a straight pipe element

  20. Comment on 'Modeling and analysis of a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beam for voltage generation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erturk, A; Inman, D J

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper, Ajitsaria et al (2007 Smart Mater. Struct. 16 447–54) presented a mathematical formulation for the modeling and analysis of a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beam for voltage generation. Their motivation was the recent increasing trend in using the piezoelectric effect to harvest electrical energy from ambient vibrations. This comment addresses the modeling errors and numerous undefined and missing terms in the mentioned work. (comment)

  1. Measurements and analysis of a high-brightness electron beam collimated in a magnetic bunch compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, F.; Bane, K.; Ding, Y.; Huang, Z.; Loos, H.; Raubenheimer, T.

    2015-05-01

    A collimator located in a magnetic bunch compressor of a linear accelerator driven x-ray free electron laser has many potential applications, such as the removal of horns in the current distribution, the generation of ultrashort beams, and as a diagnostic of the beam slice emittance. Collective effects, however, are a major concern in applying the technique. Systematic measurements of emittance and analysis were performed using a collimator in the first bunch compressor of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). In the nominal, undercompressed configuration using the collimator we find that the y emittance (nonbending plane) is not increased, and the x emittance (in the bending plane) is increased by about 25%, in comparison to the injector emittance. From the analysis we conclude that the parasitic effects associated with this method are dominated by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), which causes a "systematic error" for measuring slice emittance at the bending plane using the collimation method. In general, we find good agreement between the measurements and simulations including CSR. However, for overcompressed beams at smaller collimator gaps, an extra emittance increase is found that does not agree with 1D simulations and is not understood.

  2. Undergraduate Research and Training in Ion-Beam Analysis of Environmental Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineyard, Michael F.; Chalise, Sajju; Clark, Morgan L.; LaBrake, Scott M.; McCalmont, Andrew M.; McGuire, Brendan C.; Mendez, Iseinie I.; Watson, Heather C.; Yoskowitz, Joshua T.

    We have an active undergraduate research program at the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory (UCIBAL) focused on the study of environmental materials. Accelerator-based ion-beam analysis (IBA) is a powerful tool for the study of environmental pollution because it can provide information on a broad range of elements with high sensitivity and low detection limits, is non-destructive, and requires little or no sample preparation. It also provides excellent training for the next generation of environmental scientists. Beams of protons and alpha particles with energies of a few MeV from the 1.1-MV tandem Pelletron accelerator (NEC Model 3SDH) in the UCIBAL are used to characterize environmental samples using IBA techniques such as proton-induced X-ray emission, Rutherford back-scattering, and proton-induced gamma-ray emission. Recent projects include the characterization of atmospheric aerosols in the Adirondack Mountains of upstate New York, the study of heavy metal pollutants in river sediment, measurements of Pb diffusion in sulfide minerals to help constrain the determination of the age of iron meteorites, and the search for heavy metals and toxins in artificial turf.

  3. Temporal analysis of laser beam propagation in the atmosphere using computer-generated long phase screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dios, Federico; Recolons, Jaume; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Batet, Oscar

    2008-02-04

    Temporal analysis of the irradiance at the detector plane is intended as the first step in the study of the mean fade time in a free optical communication system. In the present work this analysis has been performed for a Gaussian laser beam propagating in the atmospheric turbulence by means of computer simulation. To this end, we have adapted a previously known numerical method to the generation of long phase screens. The screens are displaced in a transverse direction as the wave is propagated, in order to simulate the wind effect. The amplitude of the temporal covariance and its power spectrum have been obtained at the optical axis, at the beam centroid and at a certain distance from these two points. Results have been worked out for weak, moderate and strong turbulence regimes and when possible they have been compared with theoretical models. These results show a significant contribution of beam wander to the temporal behaviour of the irradiance, even in the case of weak turbulence. We have also found that the spectral bandwidth of the covariance is hardly dependent on the Rytov variance.

  4. Nucleonic analysis of a preliminary design for the ETF neutral-beam-injector duct shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.T.; Seed, T.J.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    A nucleonic analysis of the Engineering Test Facility Neutral-Beam-Injector duct shielding has been made using a hybrid Monte Carlo/discrete-ordinates method. This method used Monte Carlo to determine internal and external boundary surface sources for a subsequent discrete-ordinates calculation of the neutron and gamma-ray transport through the shield. The analysis also included determination of the energy and angular distribution of neutrons and gamma rays entering the duct from the torus plasma chamber. Confidence in the hybrid method and the results obtained were provided through a comparison with three-dimensional Monte Carlo results

  5. Beam test data analysis of the JLC-CDC baby chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooc, H.; Arogancia, D.; Magallanes, J.; Bacala, A.; Fujii, K.

    2002-01-01

    Studying the Higgs boson needs a high resolution tracker. The baby chamber was fabricated with the same cell structure as the current design of the central drift chamber of the Joint Linear Collider. Its performance is studied by looking at the wire efficiency, spatial resolution and two-track separation capability using an analysis software package already incorporated into the Joint Linear Collider Study Framework. Preliminary results of our analysis on beam test data taken with the baby chamber with signal smoothening applied on the flash ADCs are presented here. (author)

  6. Mechanics and analysis of beams, columns and cables. A modern introduction to the classic theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    The book illustrates the use of simple mathematical analysis techniques within the area of basic structural mechanics, in particular the elementary theories of beams, columns and cables. The focus is on: i) Identification of the physical background of the theories and their particular mathematical...... properties. ii) Demonstration of mathematical techniques for analysis of simple problems in structural mechanics, and identification of the relevant parameters and properties of the solution. iii) Derivation of the solutions to a number of basic problems of structural mechanics in a form suitable for later...

  7. ROOT Analysis of 2004 H8 Test Beam Data & Studies of MDT Sense Wire Displacements

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Tests are being carried out at the CERN H8 Test Facility on the subdetectors of ATLAS. Using MUTRAK, a tool developed by Dan Levin, data from test muon beam runs are converted to PAW plots and ntuples for easy analysis. ROOT classes are currently being developed to convert the PAW output of MUTRAK to ROOT files for more detailed analysis. Also studies are currently underway to understand the effect of sense wire displacements in Monitored Drift Tubes on drift time spectra. Concurrent tests using simulations in GARFIELD and Cosmic Ray MDT experiments are underway to study wire sags which may be up to 480 micrometers due to gravitational and electrostatic forces .

  8. Test beam & time resolution analysis for UFSD and CVD diamond detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Scali, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The ever-increasing luminosity in particle physics, aimed at seeking new phenomena, has led to the need for radiation-hard detectors with a remarkable time resolution. To reach the goal several tests and data analysis has been performed but further development is still required. During my internship I have participated to the test of new sensors. After an introduction to the theoretical framework this report describes the data taking procedure using SPS beam at the H8 site in Prevessin. The second part describes the data analysis and extrapolation of the time resolution for many boards.

  9. The analysis of composite laminated beams using a 2D interpolating meshless technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, S. H. M.; Belinha, J.; Parente, M. P. L.; Natal Jorge, R. M.; de Sá, J. M. A. César; Ferreira, A. J. M.

    2018-02-01

    Laminated composite materials are widely implemented in several engineering constructions. For its relative light weight, these materials are suitable for aerospace, military, marine, and automotive structural applications. To obtain safe and economical structures, the modelling analysis accuracy is highly relevant. Since meshless methods in the recent years achieved a remarkable progress in computational mechanics, the present work uses one of the most flexible and stable interpolation meshless technique available in the literature—the Radial Point Interpolation Method (RPIM). Here, a 2D approach is considered to numerically analyse composite laminated beams. Both the meshless formulation and the equilibrium equations ruling the studied physical phenomenon are presented with detail. Several benchmark beam examples are studied and the results are compared with exact solutions available in the literature and the results obtained from a commercial finite element software. The results show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed numeric technique.

  10. Buckling analysis of micro- and nano-rods/tubes based on nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C M; Zhang, Y Y; Ramesh, Sai Sudha; Kitipornchai, S

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the elastic buckling analysis of micro- and nano-rods/tubes based on Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory and the Timoshenko beam theory. In the former theory, the small scale effect is taken into consideration while the effect of transverse shear deformation is accounted for in the latter theory. The governing equations and the boundary conditions are derived using the principle of virtual work. Explicit expressions for the critical buckling loads are derived for axially loaded rods/tubes with various end conditions. These expressions account for a better representation of the buckling behaviour of micro- and nano-rods/tubes where small scale effect and transverse shear deformation effect are significant. By comparing it with the classical beam theories, the sensitivity of the small scale effect on the buckling loads may be observed

  11. Data and Analysis from a Time-Resolved Tomographic Optical Beam Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frayer, Daniel K.; Johnson, Douglas; Ekdahl, Carl

    2010-01-01

    An optical tomographic diagnostic instrument developed for the acquisition of high-speed time-resolved images has been fielded at the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The instrument was developed for the creation of time histories of electron-beam cross section through the collection of Cerenkov light. Four optical lines of sight optically collapse an image and relay projections via an optical fiber relay to recording instruments; a tomographic reconstruction algorithm creates the time history. Because the instrument may be operated in an adverse environment, it may be operated, adjusted, and calibrated remotely. The instrument was operated over the course of various activities during and after DARHT commissioning, and tomographic reconstructions reported verifiable beam characteristics. Results from the collected data and reconstructions and analysis of the data are discussed.

  12. On-site analysis of modified surface using dual beam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naramoto, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Goppelt-Langer, P; Mingle, Gan; Jianer, Zeng; Takeshita, Hidefumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Recent results obtained using a dual ion beam system at JAERI/Takasaki are reported. In this system, both of ion implantation and ion beam analysis can be made alternatively or simultaneously at low temperatures. In sapphire implanted with {sup 51}V{sup +} ions, the amorphization process is analyzed referring to the <0001> aligned spectra taken at different temperatures. The discussion is made on the defect profiles different from the simple accumulation of standard Gaussian form. The depth showing the maximum damage at the initial stage of implantation is quite shallow compared with those reported before. The thermal annealing behaviors of lattice damage and the implanted V atoms are also different between the samples implanted at low and room temperatures. In the former one fine particles of vanadium oxide are formed coherently with the easy recovery in high dose sample but in the latter the mixed oxide alloy is formed. (author)

  13. Preliminary shielding analysis in support of the CSNS target station shutter neutron beam stop design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bin; CHEN Yi-Xue; WANG Wei-Jin; YANG Shou-Hai; WU Jun; YIN Wen; LIANG Tian-Jiao; JIA Xue-Jun

    2011-01-01

    The construction of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) has been initiated in Dongguan,Guangdong, China.Thus a detailed radiation transport analysis of the shutter neutron beam stop is of vital importance. The analyses are performed using the coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates method. The target of calculations is to optimize the neutron beamline shielding design to guarantee personal safety and minimize cost. Successful elimination of the primary ray effects via the two-dimensional uncollided flux and the first collision source methodology is also illustrated. Two-dimensional dose distribution is calculated. The dose at the end of the neutron beam line is less than 2.5μSv/h. The models have ensured that the doses received by the hall staff members are below the standard limit required.

  14. Numerical analysis of the beam position monitor pickup for the Iranian light source facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiee, M., E-mail: mehdish@ipm.ir [Radiation Applications Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Feghhi, S.A.H. [Radiation Applications Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahighi, J. [Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF), Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the design of a button type Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the low emittance storage ring of the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF). First, we calculate sensitivities, induced power and intrinsic resolution based on solving Laplace equation numerically by finite element method (FEM), in order to find the potential at each point of BPM's electrode surface. After the optimization of the designed BPM, trapped high order modes (HOM), wakefield and thermal loss effects are calculated. Finally, after fabrication of BPM, it is experimentally tested by using a test-stand. The results depict that the designed BPM has a linear response in the area of 2×4 mm{sup 2} inside the beam pipe and the sensitivity of 0.080 and 0.087 mm{sup −1} in horizontal and vertical directions. Experimental results also depict that they are in a good agreement with numerical analysis.

  15. Development of Non-Conservative Joints in Beam Networks for Vibration Energy Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Hun Song

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work aims to find a general solution for the vibrational energy flow through a plane network of beams on the basis of an energy flow analysis. A joint between two semi-infinite beams are modeled by three sets of springs and dashpots. Thus, the results can incorporate the case of complaint and non-conservative in all the three degrees of freedom. In the cases of finite coupled structures connected at a certain angle, the derived non-conservative joints and developed wave energy equation were applied. The joint properties, the frequency, the coupling angle, and the internal loss factor were changed to evaluate the proposed methods for predicting medium-to-high frequency vibrational energy and intensity distributions.

  16. Analysis of art objects by means of ion beam induced luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaranta, A; Dran, J C; Salomon, J; Pivin, J C; Vomiero, A; Tonezzer, M; Maggioni, G; Carturan, S; Mea, G Della

    2006-01-01

    The impact of energetic ions on solid samples gives rise to the emission of visible light owing to the electronic excitation of intrinsic defects or extrinsic impurities. The intensity and position of the emission features provide information on the nature of the luminescence centers and on their chemical environments. This makes ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) a useful complement to other ion beam analyses, like PIXE, in the cultural heritage field in characterizing the composition and the provenience of art objects. In the present paper, IBIL measurements have been performed on inorganic pigments for underlying the complementary role played by IBIL in the analysis of artistic works. Some blue and red pigment has been presented as case study

  17. Finite element analysis of composite beam-to-column connection with cold-formed steel section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Muhammad; Saggaff, Anis; Tahir, Mahmood Md

    2017-11-01

    Cold-formed steel (CFS) sections are well known due to its lightweight and high structural performance which is very popular for building construction. Conventionally, they are used as purlins and side rails in the building envelopes of the industrial buildings. Recent research development on cold-formed steel has shown that the usage is expanded to the use in composite construction. This paper presents the modelling of the proposed composite connection of beam-to-column connection where cold-formed steel of lipped steel section is positioned back-to-back to perform as beam. Reinforcement bars is used to perform the composite action anchoring to the column and part of it is embedded into a slab. The results of the finite element and numerical analysis has showed good agreement. The results show that the proposed composite connection contributes to significant increase to the moment capacity.

  18. Band structure analysis of a thin plate with periodic arrangements of slender beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Ó.; Zaera, R.; Fernández-Sáez, J.

    2018-04-01

    This work analyzes the wave propagation in structures composed of a periodic arrangement of vertical beams rigidly joined to a plate substrate. Three different configurations for the distribution of the beams have been analyzed: square, triangular, and hexagonal. A dimensional analysis of the problem indicates the presence of three dimensionless groups of parameters controlling the response of the system. The main features of the wave propagation have been found using numerical procedures based on the Finite Element Method, through the application of the Bloch's theorem for the corresponding primitive unit cells. Illustrative examples of the effect of the different dimensionless parameters on the dynamic behavior of the system are presented, providing information relevant for design.

  19. Ultra-low energy Ar+ beam applied for SIMS depth profile analysis of layered nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarski, P.; Mierzejewska, A.; Iwanejko, I.

    2001-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile analyses of flat layered nanostructures: 10 nm Ta 2 O 3 /Ta and 20 nm (10 x B 4 C/Mo)/Si as well as microparticles of core (illite) - shell (rutile) structure, performed with the use of ultra-low energy ion beam (180-880 eV, Ar + ), are presented. The profiles were obtained using 'mesa' scanning technique and also sample rotation. Depth profile resolution below 1 nanometer was obtained for flat nanostructures. Presented experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo sputtering simulations of analysed structures. A method of finding beam energy, optimal for the best resolution SIMS depth profile analysis, is suggested. (author)

  20. Model-independent analysis of the Fermilab Tevatron turn-by-turn beam position monitor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, A. V.; Valishev, A. A.; Lebedev, V. A.

    2011-09-01

    Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA) technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM) as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.

  1. Model-independent analysis of the Fermilab Tevatron turn-by-turn beam position monitor measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Petrenko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.

  2. Applications of factor analysis to electron and ion beam surface techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Factor analysis, a mathematical technique for extracting chemical information from matrices of data, is used to enhance Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), core level electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) in studies of interfaces, thin films, and surfaces. Several examples of factor analysis enhancement of chemical bonding variations in thin films and at interfaces studied with AES and SIMS are presented. Factor analysis is also shown to be of great benefit in quantifying electron and ion beam doses required to induce surface damage. Finally, examples are presented of the use of factor analysis to reconstruct elemental profiles when peaks of interest overlap each other during the course of depth profile analysis. (author)

  3. Theoretical detection limit of PIXE analysis using 20 MeV proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keizo; Hitomi, Keitaro

    2018-02-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is usually performed using proton beams with energies in the range 2∼3 MeV because at these energies, the detection limit is low. The detection limit of PIXE analysis depends on the X-ray production cross-section, the continuous background of the PIXE spectrum and the experimental parameters such as the beam currents and the solid angle and detector efficiency of X-ray detector. Though the continuous background increases as the projectile energy increases, the cross-section of the X-ray increases as well. Therefore, the detection limit of high energy proton PIXE is not expected to increase significantly. We calculated the cross sections of continuous X-rays produced in several bremsstrahlung processes and estimated the detection limit of a 20 MeV proton PIXE analysis by modelling the Compton tail of the γ-rays produced in the nuclear reactions, and the escape effect on the secondary electron bremsstrahlung. We found that the Compton tail does not affect the detection limit when a thin X-ray detector is used, but the secondary electron bremsstrahlung escape effect does have an impact. We also confirmed that the detection limit of the PIXE analysis, when used with 4 μm polyethylene backing film and an integrated beam current of 1 μC, is 0.4∼2.0 ppm for proton energies in the range 10∼30 MeV and elements with Z = 16-90. This result demonstrates the usefulness of several 10 MeV cyclotrons for performing PIXE analysis. Cyclotrons with these properties are currently installed in positron emission tomography (PET) centers.

  4. Common analysis of the relativistic klystron and the standing-wave free-electron laser two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtele, J.S.; Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.

    1992-07-01

    This paper summarizes a new formalism which makes the analysis and understanding of both the relativistic klystron (RK) and the standing-wave free-electron laser (SWFEL) two-beam accelerator (TBA) available to a wide audience of accelerator physicists. A ''coupling impedance'' for both the RK and SWFEL is introduced, which can include realistic cavity features, such as beam and vacuum ports, in a simple manner. The RK and SWFEL macroparticle equations, which govern the energy and phase evolution of successive bunches in the beam, are of identical form, differing only by multiplicative factors. The analysis allows, for the first time, a relative comparison of the RF and SWFEL TBAs

  5. Development of APDL program for analysis of composite material multicell beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.M.; Pasha, M.; Ahmed, M.N.; Munir, A.

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of finite elements and comparison of ANSYS with MSC Patran Nastran, for analysis of composite material multicell beams, is the main idea of this paper. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a valuable tool of modeling and simulation in development, processing, production and application of modern hi-tech materials and structures for reliable design. Multicell beams have important industrial applications in the automotive and aerospace sectors. ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) is an important language in parametric modeling and analysis of structures with simple to complex geometry. Its major advantage is virtual prototyping which can be used to analyze and compare different materials. This work introduces core techniques required for APDL using the case study of composite multicell beams subjected to constrained torsional loading. The published results using MSC NASTRAN have been verified using ANSYS and the corresponding arising issues and notes are the focus of this research study. The details of geometry, material and boundary conditions have been explained in order to construct Finite Element (FE) model. This FE model was simulated several times in ANSYS by the authors using various options of APDL language. A step-wise flowchart was used to detect and reduce problems in iterations of analysis in APDL programming. Results of FEA largely depend on FE model and software used. These issues become prominent while trying to verify results of MSC NASTRAN with ANSYS. The author has introduced three error criteria to select an equivalent finite element of one FEA package (ANSYS) for an equivalent element of other FEA package (MSC NASTRAN). These criteria are the relative error criterion, the absolute error criterion and the combined error criterion. The results from this research provide an insight into finite elements for reliability in design of composite materials. The practical milestones for research to develop FE model and APDL programs related

  6. Measuring linac photon beam energy through EPID image analysis of physically wedged fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawoud, S. M., E-mail: samir.dawoud@leedsth.nhs.uk; Weston, S. J.; Bond, I.; Ward, G. C.; Rixham, P. A.; Mason, J.; Huckle, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, St. James Institute of Oncology, St. James University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Sykes, J. R. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia and Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, St. James Institute of Oncology, St. James University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    0.3%). The repeat measurements over a three month period showed the method to be reasonably consistent (i.e., well within the limits defined by local QA tolerances). The measurements were repeated on a matched machine and the same linear relationship between α and PDD{sub 10} was observed. The results for both machines were found to be indistinguishable across the energy range of interest (i.e., across and close to the thresholds defined by local QA tolerances), hence a single relation could be established across a matched fleet. Finally, the experiment was repeated on both linacs at 10 MV, where the linear relationship between α and PDD{sub 10} was again observed. Conclusions: The authors conclude that EPID image analysis of physically wedged beam profiles can be used to measure linac photon beam energy. The uncertainty in such a measurement is dominated by that associated with measuring PDD{sub 10} in the water-tank; hence, the accuracies of these two methods are directly comparable. This method provides a useful technique for quickly performing energy constancy measurements while saving significant clinical downtime for QA.

  7. Analysis of beam propagation characteristics in gain-guided, index antiguided fibers with the beam propagation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Fei; Qian, Jianqiang; Shi, Junfeng; Zhang, Machi

    2017-10-10

    The transmission properties of beams in gain fibers are studied with the complex refractive index beam propagation method (CRI-BPM). The method is checked by comparison with an analytic method. The behavior of a gain-guided, index antiguided (GG-IAG) fiber with different gain coefficients is studied. The simulation results show that the signal can transfer in the fiber with almost no loss when the gain coefficient reaches the threshold of the fundamental mode, and the shape of output spot will have no major changes when the gain coefficient is over the thresholds of high-order modes, even when the mode competition is not obvious. The CRI-BPM can predict the changes in light power and light mode at the same time, and will be very useful in the designing of fiber amplifiers and lasers with complex structures. More factors will be considered in this method to provide reference for practical application in our further research.

  8. Nonlinear static analysis of steel frames with semi rigid beam to column connections using cruciform element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Reza Afkhami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the steel frames, beam-column connections are traditionally assumed to be rigid or pinned, but in the steel frames, most types of beam-column connections are semi-rigid. Recent studies and some new codes, especially EC3 and EC4, include methods and formulas to estimate the resistance and stiffness of the panel zone. Because of weaknesses of EC3 and EC4 in some cases, Bayo et al.  proposed a new component-based method (cruciform element method to model internal and external semi-rigid connections that revived and modified EC methods. The nonlinear modelling of structures plays an important role in the analysis and design of structures and nonlinear static analysis is a rather simple and efficient technique for analysis of structures. This paper presents nonlinear static (pushover analysis technique by new nonlinearity factor and Bayo et al. model of two types of semi-rigid connections, end plate connection and top and seat angles connection. Two types of lateral loading, uniform and triangular distributions are considered.  Results show that the frames with top and seat angles connection have fewer initial stiffness than frames with semi-rigid connection and P-Δ effect more decreases base shear capacity in the case of top and seat angles connection. P-Δ effect in decrease of base shear capacity increases with the increase of number of stories.

  9. The nuclear interaction analysis methods for diagnostics of high power ion beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhkov, V A; Grushin, I I; Remnev, G E [Nuclear Physics Inst., Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The complex of Nuclear Interaction Analysis Methods including charged particle activation analysis (CPAA and HIAA), spectrometry of ion induced gamma-emission (PIGE and HIIGE) , characteristic X-ray emission (PIXE), and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), have been used for diagnostics of the High Power Ion Beam (HPIB) assisted technologies. Accelerated ion beams from the EG-2.5 electrostatic generator and U-120 cyclotron were used for implementation of the techniques. The complex allows a lot of problems of elemental and isotopic analysis to be addressed. First, it is the determination of micro- and macrocomponents of modified materials; second, determination of surface density of thin films, multilayers and coatings, total surface gaseous contamination and amounts of the elements implanted in specimens; third, measurement of concentration depth profiles of the elements. Experiments have shown that the preferable application of nuclear analysis methods allows us to avoid the considerable errors arising when the concentration depth profiles of elements are measured by SIMS or AES in studies of mass transfer processes induced by HPIBs. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 3 refs.

  10. Finite Element Analysis of the Pseudo-elastic Behavior of Shape Memory Alloy Truss and Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Bajoria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The pseudo-elastic behavior of Shape memory alloy (SMA truss and cantilever beam are investigated. Brinson’s one-dimensional material model, which uses the twinned and detwinned martensite fractions separately as internal variables, is applied in the algorithm to establish the SMA stress-strain characteristics. This material model also incorporates different young’s modulus for austenitic and martensite phase to represent the true SMA characteristics. In this model, a cosine function was used to express the evolution of the stress induced martensite fractions during the forward and reverse martensite phase transformation. A finite element formulation for the SMA truss member considering the geometric nonlinearity is proposed and the results are compared with the corresponding linear analysis. As a step forward, a finite element formulation for an SMA cantilever beam with an applied end moment is proposed. The load displacement characteristic for both the loading and unloading phases are considered to check the full pseudo-elastic hysteretic loop. In the numerical investigation, the stress-strain variation along the beam depth is also examined during the loading and unloading process to investigate the forward and reverse martensite phase transformation phenomena. Newton-Raphson’s iterative method is applied to get convergence to the equilibrium for each loading steps. During a complete loading-unloading process, the temperature is kept constant as the model is essentially an isothermal model. Numerical simulation is performed considering two different temperatures to demonstrate the effect of temperature on the hysteretic loop.

  11. 3D FE Analysis of RC Beams Externally Strengthened with SRG/SRP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bencardino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate, through a nonlinear Finite Element (FE analysis, the structural behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams externally strengthened by using Steel Reinforced Grout (SRG and Steel Reinforced Polymer (SRP systems. The parameters taken into account were the external strengthening configuration, with or without U-wrap end anchorages, as well as the strengthening materials. The numerical simulations were carried out by using a three-dimensional (3D FE model. The linear and nonlinear behavior of all materials was modeled by appropriate constitutive laws and the connection between concrete substrate and external reinforcing layer was simulated by means of cohesive surfaces with appropriate bond-slip laws. In order to overcome convergence difficulties, to simulate the quasi-static response of the strengthened RC beams, a dynamic approach was adopted. The numerical results in terms of load-displacement curves, failure modes, and load and strain values at critical stages were validated against some experimental data. As a result, the proposed 3D FE model can be used to predict the structural behavior up to ultimate stage of similar strengthened beams without carrying out experimental tests.

  12. A new mapping acquisition and processing system for simultaneous PIXE-RBS analysis with external beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, L.; Beck, L.; Walter, Ph.; Moignard, B.; Guillou, T.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of ion beam analysis techniques is particularly fruitful for the study of cultural heritage objects. For several years, the AGLAE facility of the Louvre laboratory has been implementing these techniques with an external beam. The recent set-up permits to carry out PIXE, PIGE and RBS simultaneously on the same analyzed spot with a particle beam of approximately 20 μm diameter. A new mapping system has been developed in order to provide elemental concentration maps from the PIXE and RBS spectra. This system combines the Genie2000 spectroscopy software with a homemade software that creates maps by handling acquisition with the object position. Each pixel of each PIXE and RBS maps contains the spectrum normalised by the dose. After analysing each pixel of the PIXE maps (low and high energy X-ray spectra) with the Gupixwin peak-fitting software, quantitative elemental concentrations are obtained for the major and trace elements. This paper presents the quantitative elemental maps extracted from the PIXE spectra and the development of RBS data processing for light element distribution and thin layer characterization. Examples on rock painting and lustrous ceramics will be presented.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cochlear dose reduction by proton beam therapy for medulloblastoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Emi; Kawabuchi, Koichi; Fuji, Hiroshi; Onoe, Tsuyoshi; Kumar, Vinay; Shirato, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of proton beam therapy with cochlear dose reduction compared with conventional X-ray radiotherapy for medulloblastoma in childhood. We developed a Markov model to describe health states of 6-year-old children with medulloblastoma after treatment with proton or X-ray radiotherapy. The risks of hearing loss were calculated on cochlear dose for each treatment. Three types of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of EQ-5D, HUI3 and SF-6D were used for estimation of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for proton beam therapy compared with X-ray radiotherapy was calculated for each HRQOL. Sensitivity analyses were performed to model uncertainty in these parameters. The ICER for EQ-5D, HUI3 and SF-6D were $21 716/QALY, $11 773/QALY, and $20 150/QALY, respectively. One-way sensitivity analyses found that the results were sensitive to discount rate, the risk of hearing loss after proton therapy, and costs of proton irradiation. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analysis revealed a 99% probability of proton therapy being cost effective at a societal willingness-to-pay value. Proton beam therapy with cochlear dose reduction improves health outcomes at a cost that is within the acceptable cost-effectiveness range from the payer's standpoint. (author)

  14. Articularities of Analysis and Behaviour of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fibrous Polymer Composite Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ţăranu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional steel based reinforcement systems for concrete elements are facing with serious problems mainly caused by corrosion due to chemically aggressive environments and salts used in deicing procedures, especially in case of bridge steel reinforced concrete girders. Also in some cases special applications require structural members with magnetic transparency. An alternative to this major problem has recently become the use of fiber reinforced polymer (FPR composite bars as internal reinforcement for concrete beams. The particularities of their mechanical properties are making the design process a difficult task for engineers, numerous research centers being involved in correcting this situation. The general aspects concerning the conceiving of FR.P reinforced concrete beams are firstly analyzed, compared to those reinforced with steel bars. Some results of a Finite Element Analysis, as part of a complex program which also implies full scale testing of FRP reinforced beams subjected to bending, are given and discussed in the paper. The low elasticity modulus presented by glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars does not justify its use from structural point of view when deflection is the limiting condition but for corrosive resistance reasons and special electromagnetic properties this system can be promoted.

  15. Finite Element Model for Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams and Plane Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.B. STRAMANDINOLI

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, a two-dimensional finite element (FE model for physical and geometric nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete beams and plane frames, developed by the authors, is presented. The FE model is based on the Euler-Bernoulli Beam Theory, in which shear deformations are neglected. The bar elements have three nodes with a total of seven degrees of freedom. Three Gauss-points are utilized for the element integration, with the element section discretized into layers at each Gauss point (Fiber Model. It is assumed that concrete and reinforcing bars are perfectly bonded, and each section layer is assumed to be under a uniaxial stress-state. Nonlinear constitutive laws are utilized for both concrete and reinforcing steel layers, and a refined tension-stiffening model, developed by the authors, is included. The Total Lagrangean Formulation is adopted for geometric nonlinear consideration and several methods can be utilized to achieve equilibrium convergence of the nonlinear equations. The developed model is implemented into a computer program named ANEST/CA, which is validated by comparison with some tests on RC beams and plane frames, showing an excellent correlation between numerical and experimental results.

  16. Morphometric analysis - Cone beam computed tomography to predict bone quality and quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlweg-Majert, B; Metzger, M C; Kummer, T; Schulze, D

    2011-07-01

    Modified quantitative computed tomography is a method used to predict bone quality and quantify the bone mass of the jaw. The aim of this study was to determine whether bone quantity or quality was detected by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) combined with image analysis. MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES: Different measurements recorded on two phantoms (Siemens phantom, Comac phantom) were evaluated on images taken with the Somatom VolumeZoom (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) and the NewTom 9000 (NIM s.r.l., Verona, Italy) in order to calculate a calibration curve. The spatial relationships of six sample cylinders and the repositioning from four pig skull halves relative to adjacent defined anatomical structures were assessed by means of three-dimensional visualization software. The calibration curves for computer tomography (CT) and cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) using the Siemens phantom showed linear correlation in both modalities between the Hounsfield Units (HU) and bone morphology. A correction factor for CBCT was calculated. Exact information about the micromorphology of the bone cylinders was only available using of micro computer tomography. Cone-beam computer tomography is a suitable choice for analysing bone mass, but, it does not give any information about bone quality. 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability Analysis of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Enhanced HL-RF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mohammadi Farsani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Steel corrosion of bars in concrete structures is a complex process which leads to the reduction of the cross-section bars and decreasing the resistance of the concrete and steel materials. In this study, reliability analysis of a reinforced concrete beam with corrosion defects under the distributed load was investigated using the enhanced Hasofer-Lind and Rackwitz-Fiessler (EHL-RF method based on relaxed approach. Robustness of the EHL-RF algorithm was compared with the HL-RF using a complicated example. It was seen that the EHL-RF algorithm is more robust than the HL-RF method. Finally, the effects of corrosion time were investigated using the EHL-RF algorithm for a reinforced concrete beam based on flexural strength in the pitting and general corrosion. The model uncertainties were considered in the resistance and load terms of flexural strength limit state function. The results illustrated that increasing the corrosion time-period leads to increase in the failure probability of the corroded concrete beam.

  18. Static Analysis of Steel Fiber Concrete Beam With Heterosis Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Haido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Steel fiber is considered as the most commonly used constructional fibers in concrete structures. The formulation of new nonlinearities to predict the static performance of steel fiber concrete composite structures is considered essential. Present study is devoted to investigate the efficiency of utilizing heterosis finite elements analysis in static analysis of steel fibrous beams. New and simple material nonlinearities are proposed and used in the formulation of these elements. A computer program coded in FORTRAN was developed to perform current finite element static analysis with considering four cases of elements stiffness matrix determination. The results are compared with the experimental data available in literature in terms of central deflections, strains, and failure form, good agreement was found. Suitable outcomes have been observed in present static analysis with using of tangential stiffness matrix and stiffness matrix in second iteration of the load increment.

  19. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shutthanandan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power free electron lasers (FEL. Photocathode quantum efficiency degradation is due to residual gases in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include helium ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, atomic force microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but show evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements, the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

  20. A study of small molecule ingress into planar and cylindrical materials using ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.W.

    2001-12-01

    Ion beam analysis techniques have been developed to allow profiling of small molecules diffused into materials at depths ranging from 10 -7 to 10 -1 m. A model DPS/PS/DPS triple-layer film and D( 3 He,p) 4 He nuclear reaction analysis was used to test the applicability of a novel data processing program - the IBA DataFurnace - to nuclear reaction data. The same reaction and program were used to depth profile the diffusion of heavy water into cellophane. A scanning 3 He micro-beam technique was developed to profile the diffusion of small molecules into both planar and cylindrical materials. The materials were exposed to liquids containing deuterium labelled molecules. A cross-section was exposed by cutting the material perpendicular to the surface and this was bombarded by a scanning 3 He micro-beam. Nuclear reaction analysis was used to profile the diffusing molecules, particle induced X-ray emission (in most cases) to locate the matrix and Rutherford backscattering for normalisation. Two-dimensional maps showing the molecular distribution over the cross-section were obtained. From these one-dimensional concentration profiles were produced. Water diffusion was studied into a planar and a cylindrical polymer, three different planar fibre optic grade glasses and both a fibre optic pressure sensor and communication fibre. The diffusion of dye into hair was also investigated. These studies have provided information about the diffusion mechanisms that take place, and where relevant diffusion coefficients have been obtained using either a semi-infinite medium Fickian planar diffusion model or a cylindrical Fickian diffusion model. (author)

  1. Ion beam analysis in art and archaeology: attacking the power precisions paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Meg

    2004-01-01

    It is a post-modern axiom that the closer one looks at something the more blinkered is the view, thus the result is often a failure to see the whole picture. With this in mind, the value of a tool for art and archaeology applications is greatly enhanced if the information is scientifically precise and yet is easily integrated into the broader study regarding the objects at hand. Art and archaeological objects offer some unique challenges for researchers. First, they are almost always extraordinarily inhomogeneous across individual pieces and across types. Second they are often valuable and delicate so sampling is discouraged. Finally, in most cases, each piece is unique, thus the data is also unique and is of greatest value when incorporated into the overall understanding of the object or of the culture of the artisan. Ion beam analysis solves many of these problems. With IBA, it is possible to avoid sampling by using an external beam setup or by manipulating small objects in a vacuum. The technique is largely non-destructive, allowing for multiple data points to be taken across an object. The X-ray yields are from deeper in the sample than those of other techniques and using RBS one can attain bulk concentrations from microns into the sample. And finally, the resulting X-ray spectra is easily interpreted and understood by many conservators and curators, while PIXE maps are a wonderful visual record of the results of the analysis. Some examples of the special role that ion beam analysis plays in the examination of cultural objects will be covered in this talk

  2. Ion beam analysis - development and application of nuclear reaction analysis methods, in particular at a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeland, K.A.

    1996-11-01

    This thesis treats the development of Ion Beam Analysis methods, principally for the analysis of light elements at a nuclear microprobe. The light elements in this context are defined as having an atomic number less than approx. 13. The work reported is to a large extent based on multiparameter methods. Several signals are recorded simultaneously, and the data can be effectively analyzed to reveal structures that can not be observed through one-parameter collection. The different techniques are combined in a new set-up at the Lund Nuclear Microprobe. The various detectors for reaction products are arranged in such a way that they can be used for the simultaneous analysis of hydrogen, lithium, boron and fluorine together with traditional PIXE analysis and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy as well as photon-tagged Nuclear Reaction Analysis. 48 refs

  3. Test beam analysis of the first CMS drift tube muon chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Albajar, C; Arce, P; Autermann, C; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bontenackels, M; Caballero, J; Cavallo, F R; Cerrada, M; Cirio, R; Colino, N; Conti, E; de la Cruz, B; Dal Corso, F; Dallavalle, G M; Fernández, C; Fernández de Troconiz, J; Fouz-Iglesias, M C; García-Abia, P; García-Raboso, A; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giacomelli, P; Gonella, F; Gulmini, M; Hebbeker, T; Hermann, S; Höpfner, K; Jiménez, I; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Lacaprara, S; Marcellini, S; Mariotti, C; Maron, G; Maselli, S; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Montanari, C; Montecassiano, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Odorici, F; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Peroni, C; Perrotta, A; Puerta, J; Reithler, H; Romero, A; Romero, L; Ronchese, P; Rossi, A; Rovelli, T; Sacchi, R; Sowa, M; Staiano, A; Toniolo, N; Torassa, E; Vaniev, V; Vanini, S; Ventura, Sandro; Villanueva, C; Willmott, C; Zotto, P L; Zumerle, G

    2004-01-01

    In October 2001 the first produced CMS Barrel Drift Tube (DT) Muon Chamber was tested at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) using a muon beam. A Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) was attached to the top of the DT chamber, and, for the first time, both detectors were operated coupled together. The performance of the DT chamber was studied for several operating conditions, and for gamma rates similar to the ones expected at LHC. In this paper we present the data analysis; the results are considered fully satisfactory.

  4. Ion beam modification and analysis of thin YBa2Cu3O7 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, O.

    1989-04-01

    The application of ion beams for the analysis and modification of high Tc superconductors is reviewed. Ion backscattering and channeling spectroscopy is used to optimize the film composition and the epitaxial growth performance on various single crystalline substrates. The influence of radiation damage on the transport properties and on the structure of polycrystalline as well as of single crystalline thin films is presented. The irradiation induced metal to insulator phase transition is discussed in detail. Some applications including the use of ion implantation for structuring are summarized. (orig.) [de

  5. Test beam analysis of the first CMS drift tube muon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albajar, C.; Amapane, N.; Arce, P.; Autermann, C.; Bellato, M.; Benettoni, M.; Benvenuti, A.; Bontenackels, M.; Caballero, J.; Cavallo, F.R.; Cerrada, M.; Cirio, R.; Colino, N.; Conti, E.; Cruz, B. de la; Corso, F. dal; Dallavalle, G.M.; Fernandez, C.; Troconiz, J.F. de; Fouz, M.C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Garcia-Raboso, A.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giacomelli, P.; Gonella, F.; Gulmini, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Hermann, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Jimenez, I.; Josa, I.; Lacaprara, S.; Marcellini, S.; Mariotti, C.; Maron, G.; Maselli, S.; Meneguzzo, A.T.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Montecassiano, F.; Navarria, F.L.; Odorici, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pegoraro, M.; Peroni, C.; Perrotta, A.; Puerta, J.; Reithler, H.; Romero, A.; Romero, L.; Ronchese, P.; Rossi, A.; Rovelli, T.; Sacchi, R.; Sowa, M.; Staiano, A.; Toniolo, N.; Torassa, E.; Vaniev, V.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Villanueva, C.; Willmott, C.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.

    2004-01-01

    In October 2001 the first produced CMS Barrel Drift Tube (DT) Muon Chamber was tested at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) using a muon beam. A Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) was attached to the top of the DT chamber, and, for the first time, both detectors were operated coupled together. The performance of the DT chamber was studied for several operating conditions, and for gamma rates similar to the ones expected at LHC. In this paper we present the data analysis; the results are considered fully satisfactory

  6. Test beam analysis of the first CMS drift tube muon chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albajar, C.; Amapane, N.; Arce, P.; Autermann, C.; Bellato, M.; Benettoni, M.; Benvenuti, A.; Bontenackels, M.; Caballero, J.; Cavallo, F.R.; Cerrada, M.; Cirio, R.; Colino, N.; Conti, E.; Cruz, B. de la; Corso, F. dal; Dallavalle, G.M.; Fernandez, C.; Troconiz, J.F. de E-mail: jorge.troconiz@uam.es; Fouz, M.C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Garcia-Raboso, A.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giacomelli, P.; Gonella, F.; Gulmini, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Hermann, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Jimenez, I.; Josa, I.; Lacaprara, S.; Marcellini, S.; Mariotti, C.; Maron, G.; Maselli, S.; Meneguzzo, A.T.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Montecassiano, F.; Navarria, F.L.; Odorici, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pegoraro, M.; Peroni, C.; Perrotta, A.; Puerta, J.; Reithler, H.; Romero, A.; Romero, L.; Ronchese, P.; Rossi, A.; Rovelli, T.; Sacchi, R.; Sowa, M.; Staiano, A.; Toniolo, N.; Torassa, E.; Vaniev, V.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Villanueva, C.; Willmott, C.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G

    2004-06-11

    In October 2001 the first produced CMS Barrel Drift Tube (DT) Muon Chamber was tested at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) using a muon beam. A Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) was attached to the top of the DT chamber, and, for the first time, both detectors were operated coupled together. The performance of the DT chamber was studied for several operating conditions, and for gamma rates similar to the ones expected at LHC. In this paper we present the data analysis; the results are considered fully satisfactory.

  7. Recent advances using electron beam analysis to detect cuticular changes induced by air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    Invisible or ''hidden injury'', terms from the earliest air quality literature, expressed the diagnostician's frustration in identifying abiotic disease symptoms. Direct visualization was not technically possible until the advent of electron beam analysis (EBA) hardware and software. Electron beam analysis, a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and computer-controlled image processing (CCIP) is useful for detecting changes in the cuticle and adjacent cells due to common phytotoxicants. Artifacts, caused by improper specimen preparation, inherent in the high vacuum of SEM and use of hydrated plant samples, fill the literature. Unique methodologies are necessary to interpret the minute changes to plant surfaces caused by a variety of environmental stresses such as sulfur dioxide, ozone, acidic deposition, pesticide residues, NACl, etc. EBA was used to show: the progression of surface alterations that occur to stomata of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) following exposure to SO 2 and O 3 ; between SO 2 -sensitive and SO 2 -tolerant clones of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). CCIP was especially useful in determining that acidified rain or mist and O 3 do not physically erode existing epicuticular wax of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) as previous literature stated. EBA was used to correlate field and laboratory data showing similar injury to epistomatal wax of red spruce. Improved field emission microscopy and EDXA that offer increased resolution with little sample preparation can provide opportunities to observe cuticular modifications not previously available. (orig.)

  8. Characteristic analysis of coupled transmission lines in stripline-type beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwada, T.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transmission characteristics in stripline electrodes of a stripline-type beam position monitor (BPM) are discussed on the basis of a coupled-mode analysis in electromagnetically coupled transmission lines. The physical prospect in the calibration procedure of stripline electrodes is improved in terms of signal transmission characteristics in the frequency domain. It is demonstrated that in the signal transmission with electromagnetic coupling between the stripline electrodes, the magnetic- and electric-coupling parameters play an important role depending upon the spatial configuration and mechanical structure of the stripline electrodes. In this report, a theoretical analysis, and experimental investigation into signal transmission characteristics and performance in a standard stripline-type BPM are described in detail on the basis of a coupled-mode analysis in uniform transmission lines

  9. Pierce gain analysis for a sheet beam in a rippled waveguide traveling-wave tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2001-01-01

    A Pierce-type mode analysis is presented for a planar electron beam in a rippled planar waveguide. This analysis describes the gain of a traveling-wave tube consisting of that geometry. The dispersion relation is given by the determinant of a matrix based on the coupling of different free-space modes through the boundary conditions. For the case of high-frequency, low-power amplifiers, the dispersion relation reduces to a simple cubic expression for the Compton regime, leading to three roots analogous to the Pierce solution of a standard traveling-wave tube. The analysis shows that this type of traveling-wave tube is capable of very high gain at extremely high frequencies

  10. Coupling between shear and bending in the analysis of beam problems: Planar case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Ahmed A.; Patel, Mohil

    2018-04-01

    The interpretation of invariants, such as curvatures which uniquely define the bending and twist of space curves and surfaces, is fundamental in the formulation of the beam and plate elastic forces. Accurate representations of curve and surface invariants, which enter into the definition of the strain energy equations, is particularly important in the case of large displacement analysis. This paper discusses this important subject in view of the fact that shear and bending are independent modes of deformation and do not have kinematic coupling; this is despite the fact that kinetic coupling may exist. The paper shows, using simple examples, that shear without bending and bending without shear at an arbitrary point and along a certain direction are scenarios that higher-order finite elements (FE) can represent with a degree of accuracy that depends on the order of interpolation and/or mesh size. The FE representation of these two kinematically uncoupled modes of deformation is evaluated in order to examine the effect of the order of the polynomial interpolation on the accuracy of representing these two independent modes. It is also shown in this paper that not all the curvature vectors contribute to bending deformation. In view of the conclusions drawn from the analysis of simple beam problems, the material curvature used in several previous investigations is evaluated both analytically and numerically. The problems associated with the material curvature matrix, obtained using the rotation of the beam cross-section, and the fundamental differences between this material curvature matrix and the Serret-Frenet curvature matrix are discussed.

  11. Elemental thin film depth profiles by ion beam analysis using simulated annealing - a new tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeynes, C; Barradas, N P; Marriott, P K; Boudreault, G; Jenkin, M; Wendler, E; Webb, R P

    2003-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and related techniques have long been used to determine the elemental depth profiles in films a few nanometres to a few microns thick. However, although obtaining spectra is very easy, solving the inverse problem of extracting the depth profiles from the spectra is not possible analytically except for special cases. It is because these special cases include important classes of samples, and because skilled analysts are adept at extracting useful qualitative information from the data, that ion beam analysis is still an important technique. We have recently solved this inverse problem using the simulated annealing algorithm. We have implemented the solution in the 'IBA DataFurnace' code, which has been developed into a very versatile and general new software tool that analysts can now use to rapidly extract quantitative accurate depth profiles from real samples on an industrial scale. We review the features, applicability and validation of this new code together with other approaches to handling IBA (ion beam analysis) data, with particular attention being given to determining both the absolute accuracy of the depth profiles and statistically accurate error estimates. We include examples of analyses using RBS, non-Rutherford elastic scattering, elastic recoil detection and non-resonant nuclear reactions. High depth resolution and the use of multiple techniques simultaneously are both discussed. There is usually systematic ambiguity in IBA data and Butler's example of ambiguity (1990 Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 45 160-5) is reanalysed. Analyses are shown: of evaporated, sputtered, oxidized, ion implanted, ion beam mixed and annealed materials; of semiconductors, optical and magnetic multilayers, superconductors, tribological films and metals; and of oxides on Si, mixed metal silicides, boron nitride, GaN, SiC, mixed metal oxides, YBCO and polymers. (topical review)

  12. Stress analysis of neutral beam pivot point bellows for tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Benda, B.J.; Tiong, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    The neutral beam pivot point bellows serves as an airtight flexible linkage between the torus duct and the neutral beam transition duct in Princeton University's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. The bellows considered here is basically rectangular in cross section with rounded corners; a unique shape. Its overall external dimensions are about 28 in. (about 711 mm) X about 35 in. (about 889 mm). The bellows is formed from 18 convolutions and is of the nested ripple type. It is about 11 in. (about 43.3 mm) in length, composed of Inconel 718, and each leaf has a thickness of 0.034 in. (.86 mm). The bellows is subjected to a series of design loading conditions -- vacuum, vacuum + 2 psi (.12 MPa), vacuum + stroke (10,000 cycles), vacuum + temperature increase + extension, extension to a stress of 120 ksi (838 MPa), and a series of rotational loading conditions induced in the bellows by alignment of the neutral beam injector. A stress analysis of the bellows was performed by the finite element method -- locations and magnitude of maximum stresses were calculated for all of the design loading conditions to check with allowable values and help guide placement of strain gauges during proof testing. A typical center convolution and end convolution were analyzed. Loading conditions were separated into symmetric and antisymmetric cases about the planes of symmetry of the cross-section. Iterative linear analyses were performed, i.e. compressive loading conditions led to predicted overlap of the leaves from linear analysis and restraints were added to prevent such overlap. This effect was found to be substantial in stress predicition and necessary to be taken into account. A total of eleven loading conditions and seven models were analyzed. The results showed peak stresses to be within allowable limits and the number of allowable cycles to be greater than the design condition

  13. Analysis and modification of blue sapphires from Rwanda by ion beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bootkul, D., E-mail: mo_duangkhae@hotmail.com [Department of General Science - Gems & Jewelry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Chaiwai, C.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanthanachaisaeng, B. [Gems Enhancement Research Unit, Faculty of Gems, Burapha University, Chanthaburi Campus, Chanthaburi 22170 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Ion beam analysis is an effective method for detecting trace elements. • Ion beam treatment is able to improve optical and color appearances of the blue sapphire from Rwanda. • These alternative methods can be extended to jewelry industry for large scale application. - Abstract: Blue sapphire is categorised in a corundum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) group. The gems of this group are always amazed by their beauties and thus having high value. In this study, blue sapphires from Rwanda, recently came to Thai gemstone industry, are chosen for investigations. On one hand, we have applied Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), which is a highly sensitive and precise analytical technique that can be used to identify and quantify trace elements, for chemical analysis of the sapphires. Here we have found that the major element of blue sapphires from Rwanda is Al with trace elements such as Fe, Ti, Cr, Ga and Mg as are commonly found in normal blue sapphire. On the other hand, we have applied low and medium ion implantations for color improvement of the sapphire. It seems that a high amount of energy transferring during cascade collisions have altered the gems properties. We have clearly seen that the blue color of the sapphires have been intensified after nitrogen ion bombardment. In addition, the gems were also having more transparent and luster. The UV–Vis–NIR measurement detected the modification of their absorption properties, implying of the blue color increasing. Here the mechanism of these modifications is postulated and reported. In any point of view, the bombardment by using nitrogen ion beam is a promising technique for quality improvement of the blue sapphire from Rwanda.

  14. Analysis and modification of blue sapphires from Rwanda by ion beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bootkul, D.; Chaiwai, C.; Tippawan, U.; Wanthanachaisaeng, B.; Intarasiri, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion beam analysis is an effective method for detecting trace elements. • Ion beam treatment is able to improve optical and color appearances of the blue sapphire from Rwanda. • These alternative methods can be extended to jewelry industry for large scale application. - Abstract: Blue sapphire is categorised in a corundum (Al_2O_3) group. The gems of this group are always amazed by their beauties and thus having high value. In this study, blue sapphires from Rwanda, recently came to Thai gemstone industry, are chosen for investigations. On one hand, we have applied Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), which is a highly sensitive and precise analytical technique that can be used to identify and quantify trace elements, for chemical analysis of the sapphires. Here we have found that the major element of blue sapphires from Rwanda is Al with trace elements such as Fe, Ti, Cr, Ga and Mg as are commonly found in normal blue sapphire. On the other hand, we have applied low and medium ion implantations for color improvement of the sapphire. It seems that a high amount of energy transferring during cascade collisions have altered the gems properties. We have clearly seen that the blue color of the sapphires have been intensified after nitrogen ion bombardment. In addition, the gems were also having more transparent and luster. The UV–Vis–NIR measurement detected the modification of their absorption properties, implying of the blue color increasing. Here the mechanism of these modifications is postulated and reported. In any point of view, the bombardment by using nitrogen ion beam is a promising technique for quality improvement of the blue sapphire from Rwanda.

  15. Dynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine by thin-walled beam theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Qin, Datong; Lim, Teik C.

    2010-08-01

    A mixed flexible-rigid multi-body mathematical model is applied to predict the dynamic performance of a wind turbine system. Since the tower and rotor are both flexible thin-walled structures, a consistent expression for their deformations is applied, which employs a successive series of transformations to locate any point on the blade and tower relative to an inertial coordinate system. The kinetic and potential energy terms of each flexible body and rigid body are derived for use in the Lagrange approach to formulate the wind turbine system's governing equation. The mode shapes are then obtained from the free vibration solution, while the distributions of dynamic stress and displacement of the tower and rotor are computed from the forced vibration response analysis. Using this dynamic model, the influence of the tower's stiffness on the blade tip deformation is studied. From the analysis, it is evident that the proposed model not only inherits the simplicity of the traditional 1-D beam element, but also able to provide detailed information about the tower and rotor response due to the incorporation of the flexible thin-walled beam theory.

  16. Prompt gamma-ray analysis using JRR-3M cold and thermal neutron guide beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, C.; Haji Wood, A.K.; Magara, M.; Hoshi, M.; Tachikawa, E.; Sawahata, H.; Ito, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A permanent and stand-alone neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA) system, usable at both cold and thermal neutron beam guides of JRR-3M has been constructed. Neutron flux at the sample positions were 1.4x10 8 and 2.4x10 7 n cm -2 s -1 for the cold and thermal neutrons, respectively. The γ-ray spectrometer is equipped to acquire three modes of spectra simultaneously: single mode, Compton suppression mode and pair mode, in an energy range up to 12 MeV. Owing to the cold neutron guide beam and the low γ-ray background system, analytical sensitivities and detection limits better than those in other PGA systems have been achieved. Analytical sensitivity and detection limit for 73 elements were measured. Boron, Gd, Sm and Cd are the most sensitive elements with detection limits down to 1 to 10 ng. For some elements such as F, Al, V, Eu and Hf, decay γ-rays are more sensitive compared to their respective prompt γ-ray. Analytical sensitivity of several heavy elements through detection of characteristic X-rays was higher than that through the prompt γ-ray detection. Analytical applicability of some sensitive elements such as B, H, Gd and Sm were examined. Isotopic analysis of Ni and Si were also examined. (author)

  17. High spatial resolution and high brightness ion beam probe for in-situ elemental and isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tao; Clement, Stephen W. J.; Bao, Zemin; Wang, Peizhi; Tian, Di; Liu, Dunyi

    2018-03-01

    A high spatial resolution and high brightness ion beam from a cold cathode duoplasmatron source and primary ion optics are presented and applied to in-situ analysis of micro-scale geological material with complex structural and chemical features. The magnetic field in the source as well as the influence of relative permeability of magnetic materials on source performance was simulated using COMSOL to confirm the magnetic field strength of the source. Based on SIMION simulation, a high brightness and high spatial resolution negative ion optical system has been developed to achieve Critical (Gaussian) illumination mode. The ion source and primary column are installed on a new Time-of-Flight secondary ion mass spectrometer for analysis of geological samples. The diameter of the ion beam was measured by the knife-edge method and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results show that an O2- beam of ca. 5 μm diameter with a beam intensity of ∼5 nA and an O- beam of ca. 5 μm diameter with a beam intensity of ∼50 nA were obtained, respectively. This design will open new possibilities for in-situ elemental and isotopic analysis in geological studies.

  18. Depth profile analysis of thin TiOxNy films using standard ion beam analysis techniques and HERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwitz, A.; Dytlewski, N.; Cohen, D.

    1999-01-01

    Ion beam assisted deposition is used to fabricate thin titanium oxynitride films (TiO x N y ) at Industrial Research (typical film thickness 100nm). At the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, the thin films are analysed using non-destructive standard ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques. High-resolution titanium depth profiles are measured with RBS using 1.5MeV 4 He + ions. Non-resonant nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) is performed for investigating the amounts of O and N in the deposited films using the reactions 16 O(d,p) 17 O at 920 keV and 14 N(d,α) 12 C at 1.4 MeV. Using a combination of these nuclear techniques, the stoichiometry as well as the thickness of the layers is revealed. However, when oxygen and nitrogen depth profiles are required for investigating stoichiometric changes in the films, additional nuclear analysis techniques such as heavy ion elastic recoil detection (HERDA) have to be applied. With HERDA, depth profiles of N, O, and Ti are measured simultaneously. In this paper comparative IBA measurement s of TiO x N y films with different compositions are presented and discussed

  19. Low-energy ion-beam deposition apparatus equipped with surface analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Hideki; Aoki, Yasushi; Nagai, Siro.

    1994-10-01

    A sophisticated apparatus for low energy ion beam deposition (IBD) was installed at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment of JAERI in March 1991. The apparatus is composed of an IBD system and a real time/in-situ surface analysis system for diagnosing deposited thin films. The IBD system provides various kinds of low energy ion down to 10 eV with current density of 10 μA/cm 2 and irradiation area of 15x15 mm 2 . The surface analysis system consists of RHEED, AES, ISS and SIMS. This report describes the characteristics and the operation procedure of the apparatus together with some experimental results on depositing thin carbon films. (author)

  20. Nuclear micro-beam analysis of deuterium distribution in carbon fibre composites for controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson, P.; Kreter, A.; Possnert, G.; Rubel, M.

    2010-01-01

    Probes made of carbon fibre composite NB41 were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak and in a simulator of plasma-wall interactions, PISCES. The aim was to assess the deuterium retention and its lateral and depth distribution. The analysis was performed by means of D( 3 He, p) 4 He and 12 C( 3 He, p) 14 N nuclear reactions analysis using a standard (1 mm spot) and micro-beam (20 μm resolution). The measurements have revealed non uniform distribution of deuterium atoms in micro-regions: differences by a factor of 3 between the maximum and minimum deuterium concentrations. The differences were associated with the orientation and type of fibres for samples exposed in PICSES. For surface structure in the erosion zone of samples exposed to a tokamak plasma the micro-regions were more complex. Depth profiling has indicated migration of fuel into the bulk of materials.

  1. Use of molecular beams for the analysis of liquid and solid organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devienne, F.M.; Giroud, Josiane.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical composition of every solid can be determined by the M.B.S.A. method (Molecular Beam Surface Analysis). The method was used to analyze deposits on a filter paper, obtained by evaporation of a liquid solution, as well a liquid films with very low evaporation rate (dioctyl-azelate for instance). The S.C.I.C. method (Separation of Ions by Collision) was used to know exactly the composition of ions of fixed mass, separated by an electromagnet. The separated ions collide a target gas (helium or argon); apart of them are dissociated and the composition and structure of the primary ions can be deduced from the kinetic energy of the dissociated ions. Results obtained from such analysis of a thin film of baryum acetate on a platinum substrate are given [fr

  2. RAPD analysis of mutants obtained by ion beam irradiation to hinoki cypress shoot primordia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Yamada, Y.; Hase, Y.; Shikazono, N.; Tanaka, A.

    2003-01-01

    Mutants were induced by irradiation of the shoot primordia of Hinoki cypress with 50 MeV 4 He 2+ heavy ion beam. Fresh shoot primordia on the CD medium in the plastic Petri dish (35 x 10 mm) were irradiated. Xanta mutants were induced from 38 to 266 Gy irradiation. Waxy mutants were induced from 76 to 266 Gy irradiation. Xanta, waxy and control type of regenerated Hinoki cypress in vitro were checked for their DNA level difference using RAPD analysis. Among 81 primers used, 23 primers produced the 68 bands. Among them stable 44 bands produced by 15 primers were compared between mutants and control plant. So far, there is no variation among the RAPD analysis band patterns of those mutants. Bigger test size may detect the gene variation specific for mutants

  3. Automated three-dimensional X-ray analysis using a dual-beam FIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, Miroslava; Wagner, Julian; Schaffer, Bernhard; Schmied, Mario; Mulders, Hans

    2007-01-01

    We present a fully automated method for three-dimensional (3D) elemental analysis demonstrated using a ceramic sample of chemistry (Ca)MgTiO x . The specimen is serially sectioned by a focused ion beam (FIB) microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) is used for elemental analysis of each cross-section created. A 3D elemental model is reconstructed from the stack of two-dimensional (2D) data. This work concentrates on issues arising from process automation, the large sample volume of approximately 17x17x10 μm 3 , and the insulating nature of the specimen. A new routine for post-acquisition data correction of different drift effects is demonstrated. Furthermore, it is shown that EDXS data may be erroneous for specimens containing voids, and that back-scattered electron images have to be used to correct for these errors

  4. Simultaneous Power Deposition Detection of Two EC Beams with the BIS Analysis in Moving TCV Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curchod, L.; Pochelon, A.; Decker, J.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T. P.; Moret, J.-M.; Paley, J. I.

    2009-11-01

    Modulation of power amplitude is a widespread to determine the radial absorption profile of externally launched power in fusion plasmas. There are many techniques to analyze the plasma response to such a modulation. The break-in-slope (BIS) analysis can draw an estimated power deposition profile for each power step up. In this paper, the BIS analysis is used to monitor the power deposition location of one or two EC power beams simultaneously in a non-stationary plasma being displaced vertically in the TCV tokamak vessel. Except from radial discrepancies, the results have high time resolution and compare well with simulations from the R2D2-C3PO-LUKE ray-tracing and Fokker-Planck code suite.

  5. Seismic analysis and design of steel beam - thick slab floor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a method for seismic analysis and design of floor systems composed of thick reinforced concrete slabs supported by steel beams. The response spectrum modal analysis is used to determine the dynamic response of an orthotropic finite element model. An approximate approach to find the fundamental frequency is explained, allowing an actual acceleration to be determined. The fundamental mode is found to be a major portion of the overall response, whereas the secondary modes are shown to result in a very small portion of the overall response. Dynamic multipliers for the fundamental mode and significant secondary modes are given for several typical floor layouts. These would be used to find equivalent static stress resultants which are used to design the floor. (orig.)

  6. Characteristics of ancient Egyptian glazed ceramic objects from Fatimid and Mamluk periods as revealed by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, Hamada; Abd El Hady M M

    2012-01-01

    Ion beam analysis (PIXE, μPIXE) has been successfully applied in analysis of archaeological materials, it has many advantages. In this work Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) used in analysis of ancient Egyptian glazed ceramic from 10th to the 16th centuries (Fatimid and Mamluk periods). Glazed ceramic samples from Al-Fustat Excavation store have been chosen to represent different colours (green, blue, brown, black ...etc), the colours of glaze depend on many factors such as oxides present in the glaze layer, fluxes and the conditions in which objects had been manufactured in the past. Ion Beam allows the identification of elemental composition of the glaze layer i.e., the information about colorants used in glaze, which is of great importance for compositional data play a key role in solving questions concerning dating, provenance, technology, use and the relationship between ancient cultures with the environment.

  7. SU-F-R-12: Prediction of TrueBeam Hardware Issues Using Trajectory Log Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCostanzo, D; Ayan, A; Woollard, J; Gupta, N [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To predict potential failures of hardware within the Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator in order to proactively replace parts and decrease machine downtime. Methods: Machine downtime is a problem for all radiation oncology departments and vendors. Most often it is the result of unexpected equipment failure, and increased due to lack of in-house clinical engineering support. Preventative maintenance attempts to assuage downtime, but often is ineffective at preemptively preventing many failure modes such as MLC motor failures, the need to tighten a gantry chain, or the replacement of a jaw motor, among other things. To attempt to alleviate downtime, software was developed in house that determines the maximum value of each axis enumerated in the Truebeam trajectory log files. After patient treatments, this data is stored in a SQL database. Microsoft Power BI is used to plot the average maximum error of each day of each machine as a function of time. The results are then correlated with actual faults that occurred at the machine with the help of Varian service engineers. Results: Over the course of six months, 76,312 trajectory logs have been written into the database and plotted in Power BI. Throughout the course of analysis MLC motors have been replaced on three machines due to the early warning of the trajectory log analysis. The service engineers have also been alerted to possible gantry issues on one occasion due to the aforementioned analysis. Conclusion: Analyzing the trajectory log data is a viable and effective early warning system for potential failures of the TrueBeam linear accelerator. With further analysis and tightening of the tolerance values used to determine a possible imminent failure, it should be possible to pinpoint future issues more thoroughly and for more axes of motion.

  8. SU-F-R-12: Prediction of TrueBeam Hardware Issues Using Trajectory Log Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCostanzo, D; Ayan, A; Woollard, J; Gupta, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To predict potential failures of hardware within the Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator in order to proactively replace parts and decrease machine downtime. Methods: Machine downtime is a problem for all radiation oncology departments and vendors. Most often it is the result of unexpected equipment failure, and increased due to lack of in-house clinical engineering support. Preventative maintenance attempts to assuage downtime, but often is ineffective at preemptively preventing many failure modes such as MLC motor failures, the need to tighten a gantry chain, or the replacement of a jaw motor, among other things. To attempt to alleviate downtime, software was developed in house that determines the maximum value of each axis enumerated in the Truebeam trajectory log files. After patient treatments, this data is stored in a SQL database. Microsoft Power BI is used to plot the average maximum error of each day of each machine as a function of time. The results are then correlated with actual faults that occurred at the machine with the help of Varian service engineers. Results: Over the course of six months, 76,312 trajectory logs have been written into the database and plotted in Power BI. Throughout the course of analysis MLC motors have been replaced on three machines due to the early warning of the trajectory log analysis. The service engineers have also been alerted to possible gantry issues on one occasion due to the aforementioned analysis. Conclusion: Analyzing the trajectory log data is a viable and effective early warning system for potential failures of the TrueBeam linear accelerator. With further analysis and tightening of the tolerance values used to determine a possible imminent failure, it should be possible to pinpoint future issues more thoroughly and for more axes of motion.

  9. High-performance pickups for beam diagnostics. Design, analysis, characterization and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelovski, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    This work introduces the design, analysis, characterization and implementation of high-performance pickups for two beam diagnostic instruments, a Bunch Arrival-time Monitor (BAM) and an Energy Beam Position Monitor (EBPM) at the European XFEL. As a part of the BAM the cone-shaped pickups are proposed along with the corresponding RF-frontend. The designed pickups deliver a beam induced signal with a slope steepness of around 400 mV/ps and a bandwidth of 40 GHz. These signal characteristics are well inside the design requirements, i.e., a slope steepness of 300 mV/ps and more than ten times better compared to the signal from the state-of-the-art pickups. The pickups are installed and commissioned at three accelerator facilities, FLASH at DESY, the quasi-CW SRF accelerator ELBE at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and the SwissFEL injector test facility at Paul Scherrer Institute. The obtained measurement results from the installed pickups are in good agreement with the simulations. A comparison between the signal measurements with the cone-shaped pickup and the state-of-the-art is performed at ELBE showing an improvement by a factor of ten. The potential of the pickups for sub-10 fs arrival-time measurements for bunch charges of 20 pC is demonstrated at ELBE and at SwissFEL injector test facility. The introduced coneshaped pickups are the first commercially available pickups with a bandwidth of up to 40 GHz. For the EBPM, a modular pickup structure with two types of planar pickups, microstrip transmission line and grounded coplanar waveguide with perpendicular connectors is investigated. The transition region between the connector and the line is optimized for two substrate materials, alumina and glass with a reflection coefficient better than -20 dB up to 6 GHz.

  10. Analysis of strain error sources in micro-beam Laue diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Felix; Eve, Sophie; Belnoue, Jonathan; Micha, Jean-Sébastien; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    Micro-beam Laue diffraction is an experimental method that allows the measurement of local lattice orientation and elastic strain within individual grains of engineering alloys, ceramics, and other polycrystalline materials. Unlike other analytical techniques, e.g. based on electron microscopy, it is not limited to surface characterisation or thin sections, but rather allows non-destructive measurements in the material bulk. This is of particular importance for in situ loading experiments where the mechanical response of a material volume (rather than just surface) is studied and it is vital that no perturbation/disturbance is introduced by the measurement technique. Whilst the technique allows lattice orientation to be determined to a high level of precision, accurate measurement of elastic strains and estimating the errors involved is a significant challenge. We propose a simulation-based approach to assess the elastic strain errors that arise from geometrical perturbations of the experimental setup. Using an empirical combination rule, the contributions of different geometrical uncertainties to the overall experimental strain error are estimated. This approach was applied to the micro-beam Laue diffraction setup at beamline BM32 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Using a highly perfect germanium single crystal, the mechanical stability of the instrument was determined and hence the expected strain errors predicted. Comparison with the actual strain errors found in a silicon four-point beam bending test showed good agreement. The simulation-based error analysis approach makes it possible to understand the origins of the experimental strain errors and thus allows a directed improvement of the experimental geometry to maximise the benefit in terms of strain accuracy.

  11. Finite element modeling for buckling analysis of hybrid piezoelectric beam under electromechanical loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb ur Rahman

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional finite element model for buckling analysis of hybrid piezoelectric beams under electromechanical load is presented in this work. The coupled zigzag theory is used for making the model. The inplane displacement is approximated as a combination of a global third order variation across the thickness with an additional layer wise linear variation. The longitudinal electric field is also taken into account. The deflection field is approximated to account for the transverse normal strain induced by electric fields. Two nodded elements with four mechanical and a variable number of electric degrees of freedom at each node are considered. To meet the convergence requirements for weak integral formulation, cubic Hermite interpolation function is used for deflection and electric potential at the sub-layers and linear interpolation function is used for axial displacement and shear rotation. The expressions for the variationally consistent stiffness matrix and load vector are derived and evaluated in closed form using exact integration. The present 1D-FE formulation of zigzag theory is validated by comparing the results with the analytical solution for simply-supported beam and 2D-FE results obtained using ABAQUS. The finite element model is free of shear locking. The critical buckling parameters are obtained for clamped-free and clamped-clamped hybrid beams. The obtained results are compared with the 2D-FE results to establish the accuracy of the zigzag theory for above boundary conditions. The effect of lamination angle on critical buckling load is also studied.

  12. Statistical analysis and modelling of weather radar beam propagation conditions in the Po Valley (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fornasiero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground clutter caused by anomalous propagation (anaprop can affect seriously radar rain rate estimates, particularly in fully automatic radar processing systems, and, if not filtered, can produce frequent false alarms. A statistical study of anomalous propagation detected from two operational C-band radars in the northern Italian region of Emilia Romagna is discussed, paying particular attention to its diurnal and seasonal variability. The analysis shows a high incidence of anaprop in summer, mainly in the morning and evening, due to the humid and hot summer climate of the Po Valley, particularly in the coastal zone. Thereafter, a comparison between different techniques and datasets to retrieve the vertical profile of the refractive index gradient in the boundary layer is also presented. In particular, their capability to detect anomalous propagation conditions is compared. Furthermore, beam path trajectories are simulated using a multilayer ray-tracing model and the influence of the propagation conditions on the beam trajectory and shape is examined. High resolution radiosounding data are identified as the best available dataset to reproduce accurately the local propagation conditions, while lower resolution standard TEMP data suffers from interpolation degradation and Numerical Weather Prediction model data (Lokal Model are able to retrieve a tendency to superrefraction but not to detect ducting conditions. Observing the ray tracing of the centre, lower and upper limits of the radar antenna 3-dB half-power main beam lobe it is concluded that ducting layers produce a change in the measured volume and in the power distribution that can lead to an additional error in the reflectivity estimate and, subsequently, in the estimated rainfall rate.

  13. Vibration Analysis of Beam and Block Precast Slab System due to Human Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, T. N. T.; Kamil, M. R. H.; Yusoff, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    Beam and block precast slabs system are very efficient which generally give maximum structural performance where their voids based on the design of the unit soffit block allow a significant reduction of the whole slab self-weight. Initially for some combinations of components or the joint connection of the structural slab, this structural system may be susceptible to excessive vibrations that could effects the performance and also serviceability. Dynamic forces are excited from people walking and jumping which produced vibrations to the slab system in the buildings. Few studies concluded that human induced vibration on precast slabs system may be harmful to structural performance and mitigate the human comfort level. This study will investigate the vibration analysis of beam and block precast slab by using finite element method at the school building. Human activities which are excited from jumping and walking will induce the vibrations signal to the building. Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) was used to measure the dynamic responses of slab towards the vibration sources. Five different points were assigned specifically where each of location will determine the behaviour of the entire slabs. The finite element analyses were developed in ABAQUS software and the data was further processed in MATLAB ModalV to assess the vibration criteria. The results indicated that the beam and block precast systems adequate enough to the vibration serviceability and human comfort criteria. The overall vibration level obtained was fell under VC-E curve which it is generally under the maximum permissible level of vibrations. The vibration level on the slab is acceptable within the limit that have been used by Gordon.

  14. Free vibration analysis of beams by using a third-order shear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Free vibrations of beams; the third-order shear deformation theory; ... Thus, a shear correction factor is required to compensate for the error because of ...... Wang C M, Kitipornchai S 2003 Vibration of Timoshenko beams with internal hinge.

  15. In situ analysis of thin film deposition processes using time-of-flight (TOF) ion beam analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, J.; Lin, Y.; Schultz, J.A.; Auciello, O.H.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1995-05-01

    Non-destructive, in situ methods for characterization of thin film growth phenomena is key to understand thin film growth processes and to develop more reliable deposition procedures, especially for complex layered structures involving multi-phase materials. However, surface characterization methods that use either electrons (e.g. AES or XPS) or low energy ions (SIMS) require an UHV environment and utilize instrumentation which obstructs line of sight access to the substrate and are therefore incompatible with line of sight deposition methods and thin film deposition processes which introduce gas, either part of the deposition or in order to produce the desired phase. We have developed a means of differentially pumping both the ion beam source and detectors of a TOF ion beam surface analysis spectrometer that does not interfere with the deposition process and permits compositional and structural analysis of the growing film in the present system, at pressures up to several mTorr. Higher pressures are feasible with modified source-detector geometry. In order to quantify the sensitivity of Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS) and Direct Recoil Spectroscopy (DRS), we have measured the signal intensity for stabilized clean metals in a variety of gas environments as a function of the ambient gas species and pressure, and ion beam species and kinetic energy. Results are interpreted in terms of collision cross sections which are compared with known gas phase scattering data and provide an apriori basis for the evaluation of time-of-flight ion scattering and recoil spectroscopies (ToF-ISARS) for various industrial processing environments which involve both inert and reactive cases. The cross section data for primary ion-gas molecule and recoiled atom-gas molecule interactions are also provided. from which the maximum operating pressure in any experimental configuration can be obtained

  16. Analysis of Beams with Transversal Gradations of the Young's Modulus and Variable Depths by the Meshless Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sátor Ladislav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A numerical analysis based on the meshless local Petrov- Galerkin (MLPG method is proposed for a functionally graded material FGM (FGMfunctionally graded material beam. The planar bending of the beam is considered with a transversal gradation of Young's modulus and a variable depth of the beam. The collocation formulation is constructed from the equilibrium equations for the mechanical fields. Dirac's delta function is employed as a test function in the derivation of a strong formulation. The Moving Least Squares (MLS approximation technique is applied for an approximation of the spatial variations of all the physical quantities. An investigation of the accuracy, the convergence of the accuracy, the computational efficiency and the effect of the level of the gradation of Young's modulus on the behaviour of coupled mechanical fields is presented in various boundary value problems for a rectangular beam with a functionally graded Young's modulus.

  17. Analysis of the Air Cooling for 350 keV/20 mA Electron Beam Machine Rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutadi; Suprapto; Suyamto; Sukaryono

    2003-01-01

    It has been analyzed the cooling capacity for 350 keV/20 mA electron beam machine rooms at P3TM. The analysis of cooling load based on the building construction and the device for supported the electron beam machines operation, were obtained head dissipation and provided the cooling load. From the result it can be determined that for cooling the electron beam machine rooms with 945 m cubic of volume and supporter device in the room, in order to reach the air condition about 20 o C of temperatures and 50 % of relative humidity for the electron beam machine rooms, it was needed the air conditioning system with total cooling capacity about 213.000 BTU/Hours. (author)

  18. Application of white beam synchrotron radiation topography to the analysis of twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, G.D.; Dudley, M.; Hou, S.Y.; DiSalvo, R.

    1991-01-01

    White beam synchrotron X-ray topography (WBSXRT) has been used to characterize room temperature twinning structures in lanthanum gallate and p-terphenyl single crystals. Both Laue and Bragg geometries are utilized to reveal the nature of twinning in LaGaO 3 . The geometric relationships between the twin related domains and the directions of the corresponding diffracted beams are used to establish the presence of reflection twins on (1anti 12) orth , (1anti 1anti 2) orth and (1anti 10) orth planes. Also described is the application of WBSXRT to reveal the twin law in the solution grown organic crystal p-terphenyl. The active twin plane was unambiguously determined to be (201) by determination of the orientation relationship between parent and twinned structures through Laue pattern analysis. Twin lamellae with the same twin plane were also observed. For both materials, no radiation damage was observed throughout the experiments. These results demonstrate the usefulness of WBSXRT for the study of twins. (orig.)

  19. Application of white beam synchrotron radiation topography to the analysis of twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, G.-D.; Dudley, M.; Hou, S.-Y.; DiSalvo, R.

    1991-05-01

    White beam synchrotron X-ray topography (WBSXRT) has been used to characterize room temperature twinning structures in lanthanum gallate and P-terphenyl single crystals. Both Laue and Bragg geometries are utilized to reveal the nature of twinning in LaGaO 3. The geometric relationships between the twin related domains and the directions of the corresponding diffracted beams are used to establish the presence of reflection twins on (11¯2) orth, (11¯2¯) orth and (11¯0) orth planes. Also described is the application of WBSXRT to reveal the twin law in the solution grown organic crystal p-terphenyl. The active twin plane was unambiguously determined to be (201) by determination of the orientation relationship between parent and twinned structures through Laue pattern analysis. Twin lamellae with the same twin plane were also observed. For both materials, no radiation damage was observed throughout the experiments. These results demonstrate the usefulness of WBSXRT for the study of twins.

  20. Application of white beam synchrotron radiation topography to the analysis of twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, G.D.; Dudley, M.; Hou, S.Y.; DiSalvo, R. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (USA))

    1991-05-01

    White beam synchrotron X-ray topography (WBSXRT) has been used to characterize room temperature twinning structures in lanthanum gallate and p-terphenyl single crystals. Both Laue and Bragg geometries are utilized to reveal the nature of twinning in LaGaO{sub 3}. The geometric relationships between the twin related domains and the directions of the corresponding diffracted beams are used to establish the presence of reflection twins on (1anti 12){sub orth}, (1anti 1anti 2){sub orth} and (1anti 10){sub orth} planes. Also described is the application of WBSXRT to reveal the twin law in the solution grown organic crystal p-terphenyl. The active twin plane was unambiguously determined to be (201) by determination of the orientation relationship between parent and twinned structures through Laue pattern analysis. Twin lamellae with the same twin plane were also observed. For both materials, no radiation damage was observed throughout the experiments. These results demonstrate the usefulness of WBSXRT for the study of twins. (orig.).

  1. The neutral beam test facility cryopumping operation: preliminary analysis and design of the cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravil, B.; Henry, D.; Cordier, J.J.; Hemsworth, R.; Van Houtte, D.

    2004-01-01

    The ITER neutral beam heating and current drive system is to be equipped with a cryosorption cryopump made up of 12 panels connected in parallel, refrigerated by 4.5 K 0.4 MPa supercritical helium. The pump is submitted to a non homogeneous flux of H 2 or D 2 molecules, and the absorbed flux varies from 3 Pa.m -3 .s -1 to 35 Pa.m -3 .s -1 . In the frame of the 'ITER first injector and test facility CSU-EFDA task' (TW3-THHN-IITF1), the ITER reference cryo-system and cryo-plant designs have been assessed and compared to optimised designs devoted to the Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF). The 4.5 K cryo-panel, which has a mass of about 1000 kg, must be periodically regenerated up to 90 K and occasionally to 470 K. The cool-down time after regeneration depends strongly on the refrigeration capacity. Fast regeneration and cool-down of the cryo-panels are not considered a priority for the test facility operation, and an analysis of the consequences of a limited cold power refrigerator on the cooling down time has been carried out and will be discussed. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of the NBTF cryo-plant and the associated process flow diagram. (authors)

  2. Configuration space analysis of common cost functions in radiotherapy beam-weight optimization algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowbottom, Carl Graham [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and the Royal Marsden NHS Trust, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Webb, Steve [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and the Royal Marsden NHS Trust, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-07

    The successful implementation of downhill search engines in radiotherapy optimization algorithms depends on the absence of local minima in the search space. Such techniques are much faster than stochastic optimization methods but may become trapped in local minima if they exist. A technique known as 'configuration space analysis' was applied to examine the search space of cost functions used in radiotherapy beam-weight optimization algorithms. A downhill-simplex beam-weight optimization algorithm was run repeatedly to produce a frequency distribution of final cost values. By plotting the frequency distribution as a function of final cost, the existence of local minima can be determined. Common cost functions such as the quadratic deviation of dose to the planning target volume (PTV), integral dose to organs-at-risk (OARs), dose-threshold and dose-volume constraints for OARs were studied. Combinations of the cost functions were also considered. The simple cost function terms such as the quadratic PTV dose and integral dose to OAR cost function terms are not susceptible to local minima. In contrast, dose-threshold and dose-volume OAR constraint cost function terms are able to produce local minima in the example case studied. (author)

  3. Component analysis of a mixed beam generated by vacuum electrospray of an ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Saito, Naoaki; Nonaka, Hidehiko; Ichimura, Shingo

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum electrospray of a quaternary ammonium ionic liquid, N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) amide (DEME-TFSA), was investigated to develop a primary ion source for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Since the ionic liquid contains many methyl and ethyl groups as well as protons, its beam is expected to efficiently produce protonated molecules for SIMS analysis of organic materials. Experimental results showed that the beam consisted of charged particles of m/z about 1000 and charged droplets of m/z > 10 5 . The current components of both the charged particles and droplets changed with the applied voltage and the flow rate of the ionic liquid. With decreasing flow rate, the current component of the charged droplets increased, whereas that of the charged particles decreased. The m/z values of the charged droplets diminished with decreasing flow rate and increasing capillary voltage. In addition to masses and charge numbers, the numbers of the charged droplets and the charged particles were estimated.

  4. Consequences of trapped beam ions of the analysis of neutron emission data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughlin, M.J.; Hone, M.; Jarvis, O.N.; Laundy, B.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van

    1989-01-01

    Neutron energy spectra have been measured during D o neutral beam heating of deuterium plasmas. The thermonuclear to beam-plasma neutron production ratios are deduced. For a non-radial spectrometer line-of-sight, the trapped beam-ion fraction must be considered. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  5. Analysis of the Influence of Fibre Diameter on Wirescanner Beam Profile Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    King, Quentin

    1988-01-01

    It is often important to be able to measure beam profiles in regions where the beam size is very small. Following concern that the profile measurement might be affected by having a beam size of the same order as the diameter of the wirescanner fibre, the effect was analysed numerically, and the results are presented.

  6. Automated detection and analysis of particle beams in laser-plasma accelerator simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushizima, Daniela Mayumi; Geddes, C.G.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Bethel, E. Wes; Jacobsen, J.; Prabhat; Ruebel, O.; Weber, G.; Hamann, B.

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulations of laser-plasma wakefield (particle) accelerators model the acceleration of electrons trapped in plasma oscillations (wakes) left behind when an intense laser pulse propagates through the plasma. The goal of these simulations is to better understand the process involved in plasma wake generation and how electrons are trapped and accelerated by the wake. Understanding of such accelerators, and their development, offer high accelerating gradients, potentially reducing size and cost of new accelerators. One operating regime of interest is where a trapped subset of electrons loads the wake and forms an isolated group of accelerated particles with low spread in momentum and position, desirable characteristics for many applications. The electrons trapped in the wake may be accelerated to high energies, the plasma gradient in the wake reaching up to a gigaelectronvolt per centimeter. High-energy electron accelerators power intense X-ray radiation to terahertz sources, and are used in many applications including medical radiotherapy and imaging. To extract information from the simulation about the quality of the beam, a typical approach is to examine plots of the entire dataset, visually determining the adequate parameters necessary to select a subset of particles, which is then further analyzed. This procedure requires laborious examination of massive data sets over many time steps using several plots, a routine that is unfeasible for large data collections. Demand for automated analysis is growing along with the volume and size of simulations. Current 2D LWFA simulation datasets are typically between 1GB and 100GB in size, but simulations in 3D are of the order of TBs. The increase in the number of datasets and dataset sizes leads to a need for automatic routines to recognize particle patterns as particle bunches (beam of electrons) for subsequent analysis. Because of the growth in dataset size, the application of machine learning techniques for

  7. A novel method and error analysis for beam optics measurements and corrections at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Andy Sven

    2017-02-03

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently the world's largest particle accelerator with the highest center of mass energy in particle collision experiments. The control of the particle beam focusing is essential for the performance reach of such an accelerator. For the characterization of the focusing properties at the LHC, turn-by-turn beam position data is simultaneously recorded at numerous measurement devices (BPMs) along the accelerator, while an oscillation is excited on the beam. A novel analysis method for these measurements (N-BPM method) is developed here, which is based on a detailed analysis of systematic and statistical error sources and their correlations. It has been applied during the commissioning of the LHC for operation at an unprecedented energy of 6.5TeV. In this process a stronger focusing than its design specifications has been achieved. This results in smaller transverse beam sizes at the collision points and allows for a higher rate of particle collisions. For the derivation of the focusing parameters at many synchrotron light sources, the change of the beam orbit is observed, which is induced by deliberate changes of magnetic fields (orbit response matrix). In contrast, the analysis of turn-by-turn beam position measurements is for many of these machines less precise due to the distance between two BPMs. The N-BPM method overcomes this limitation by allowing to include the measurement data from more BPMs in the analysis. It has been applied at the ALBA synchrotron light source and compared to the orbit response method. The significantly faster measurement with the N-BPM method is a considerable advantage in this case. Finally, an outlook is given to the challenges which lie ahead for the control of the beam focusing at the HL-LHC, which is a future major upgrade of the LHC.

  8. Frequency and deflection analysis of cenosphere/glass fiber interply hybrid composite cantilever beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, J.; Joladarashi, Sharnappa; Biradar, Srikumar; Kumar, P. Naveen

    2018-04-01

    Interply hybrid laminates contain plies made of two or more different composite systems. Hybrid composites have unique features that can be used to meet specified design requirements in a more cost-effective way than nonhybrid composites. They offer many advantages over conventional composites including balanced strength and stiffness, enhanced bending and membrane mechanical properties, balanced thermal distortion stability, improved fatigue/impact resistance, improved fracture toughness and crack arresting properties, reduced weight and cost. In this paper an interply hybrid laminate composite containing Cenosphere reinforced polymer composite core and glass fiber reinforced polymer composite skin is analysied and effect of volume fraction of filler on frequency and load v/s deflection of hybrid composite are studied. Cenosphere reinforced polymer composite has increased specific strength, specific stiffness, specific density, savings in cost and weight. Glass fiber reinforced polymer composite has higher torsional rigidity when compared to metals. These laminate composites are fabricated to meet several structural applications and hence there is a need to study their vibration and deflection properties. Experimental investigation starts with fabrication of interply hybrid composite with cores of cenosphere reinforced epoxy composite volume fractions of CE 15, CE 25, CE15_UC as per ASTM E756-05C, and glasss fiber reinforced epoxy skin, cast product of required dimension by selecting glass fibre of proper thickness which is currently 0.25mm E-glass bidirectional woven glass fabric having density 2500kg/m3, in standard from cast parts of size 230mmX230mmX5mm in an Aluminum mould. Modal analysis of cantilever beam is performed to study the variation of natural frequency with strain gauge and the commercially available Lab-VIEW software and deflection in each of the cases by optical Laser Displacement Measurement Sensor to perform Load versus Deflection Analysis

  9. High-resolution spectral analysis of light from neutral beams and ion source plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, D.H.; Kim, J.

    1980-05-01

    The spectral distributions of Balmer alpha emission from 7- and 22-cm-diam neutral hydrogen beams have been measured with a Fabry-Perot interferometer to obtain information on the beam energy, divergence, and species composition. Results of these measurements are compared with other data on the beam properties to evaluate high-resolution spectroscopy as a beam diagnostic technique. Measurements on ion source plasmas and on beam-produced background plasmas yield average neutral atom energies of approximately 0.3 and 2.5 eV, respectively

  10. Risk analysis of environmental hazards at the High Flux Beam Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.; Ho, V.S.; Johnson, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    In the late 1980s, a Level 1 internal event probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) was performed for the High-Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), a US Department of Energy research reactor located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Prior to the completion of that study, a level 1 PRA for external events was initiated, including environmental hazards such as fire, internal flooding, etc. Although this paper provides a brief summary of the risks from environmental hazards, emphasis will be placed on the methodology employed in utilizing industrial event databases for event frequency determination for the HFBR complex. Since the equipment in the HFBR is different from that of, say, a commercial nuclear power plant, the current approach is to categorize the industrial events according to the hazard initiators instead of categorizing by initiator location. But first a general overview of the analysis

  11. Ion beam analysis of zeolites type Li-ABW synthesized by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, E.; De Lucio, O. G.; Solis, C.; Zavala, E. P.; Cruz, J. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Alfaro, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Valenzuela, M. A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, Laboratorio de Catalisis y Materiales, Zacantenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Rocha, M. F. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Murillo, G.; Policroniades, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    This work reports a method to synthesize and characterize Li-ABW zeolites by a hydrothermal method. These materials are good candidates for CO{sub 2} capture because of the high reactivity between the Li{sup +} with CO{sub 2} to form Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. We performed and elemental profile concentration using ion beam analysis. The elastic backscattered proton energy spectra from the Al, Si, O and Li nuclei, in combination with the {alpha} particles from the {sup 7}Li ({rho}, {alpha}){sup 4}He nuclear reaction energy spectra, were employed for this task. X-ray diffraction was also applied to determine the crystalline structure. (Author)

  12. Focused ion beam analysis of banana peel and its application for arsenate ion removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Banana peel, a common fruit waste, has been investigated for its ability to remove arsenate ions from ground water as a function of pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration. Focused ion beam (FIB) analysis revealed the internal morphology of the banana peels. Arsenate ions were entered into micropores of banana peel. pH was seen to have no effect on the sorption process. Retained species were eluted using 5 mL of 2 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The kinetics of sorption were observed to follow the pseudo first order rate equation. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The energy value obtained from the D-R isotherms indicated that the sorption was physical in nature for arsenate species. Our study has shown that banana peel has the ability to remove arsenate species from ground water samples. (author)

  13. Sensorial analysis of irradiated coffee (Coffea arabica L.) by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Silva, Maria E.M. Pinto e

    2013-01-01

    Coffee is an important commodity and it is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. The acceptance of coffee by consumers depends mainly on the sensory characteristics of the beverage, that is its flavor, body, color, acidity and aroma. Food irradiation is processing technology environmental friendly and safety which aimed at the improvement of food quality. Depending on the absorbed radiation dose various effects can be achieved resulting in increase the shelf life, disinfestation, microorganism load reduction, without causing sensory changes to the food. Sensory analysis is the examination of a food through the evaluation of the attributes sensorial of product. The objective this paper was to evaluate the sensory properties, acceptance and purchase intent by the consumer of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) after the irradiation process with doses 6.0, 12.0 and 18.0kGy by electron beam. (author)

  14. Focused Ion Beam Analysis of Banana Peel and Its Application for Arsenate Ion Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil R. Memon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana peel, a common fruit waste, has been investigated for its ability to remove arsenate ions from ground water as a function of pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration. Focused ion beam (FIB analysis revealed the internal morphology of the banana peels. Arsenate ions were entered into micropores of banana peel. pH was seen to have no effect on the sorption process. Retained species were eluted using 5 mL of 2 M H2SO4. The kinetics of sorption were observed to follow the pseudo first order rate equation. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The energy value obtained from the D-R isotherms indicated that the sorption was physical in nature for arsenate species. Our study has shown that banana peel has the ability to remove arsenate species from ground water samples.

  15. The use of 6Li and 35Cl ion beams in surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Ecuyer, J.; Brassard, C.; Cardinal, C.; Terreault, B.

    1978-01-01

    The authors review attempts that have been made to find general and reliable methods of profiling light elements. One approach to this problem would be to find an ion beam capable of inducing nuclear reactions suitable for analysis in most light nuclei. In order to be of analytic interest the profiling method must have 1) good selectivity 2) good depth resolution 3) reasonable cross section. Two techniques which generally meet these criteria are discussed. Theses are a) 6 Li induced nuclear reactions and b) detection of light nuclei recoiling after being hit by a heavy incoming ion. It is concluded that the recoil method is potentially more interesting, and is particularly well adapted for the profiling of very light nuclei such as 4 He. (B.D.)

  16. Sensorial analysis of irradiated coffee (Coffea arabica L.) by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Koike, Amanda C.R.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: flaviot@ymail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Maria E.M. Pinto e [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Saude Publica. Dept. de Nutricao

    2013-07-01

    Coffee is an important commodity and it is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. The acceptance of coffee by consumers depends mainly on the sensory characteristics of the beverage, that is its flavor, body, color, acidity and aroma. Food irradiation is processing technology environmental friendly and safety which aimed at the improvement of food quality. Depending on the absorbed radiation dose various effects can be achieved resulting in increase the shelf life, disinfestation, microorganism load reduction, without causing sensory changes to the food. Sensory analysis is the examination of a food through the evaluation of the attributes sensorial of product. The objective this paper was to evaluate the sensory properties, acceptance and purchase intent by the consumer of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) after the irradiation process with doses 6.0, 12.0 and 18.0kGy by electron beam. (author)

  17. Dynamics of Plasma-Surface Interactions using In-situ Ion Beam Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal of this proposal was to develop an innovative experimental facility that would allow for the measurement of real-time response of a material surface to plasma bombardment by employing in-situ high-energy ion beam analysis. This facility was successfully developed and deployed at U. Wisconsin-Madison and was named DIONISOS (Dynamics of IONic Implantation and Sputtering on Surfaces). There were several major highlights to the DIONISOS research which we will briefly highlight below. The full technical details of the DIONISOS development, deployment and research results are contained in the Appendices which contain several peer-reviewed publications and a PhD thesis devoted to DIONISOS. The DIONISOS results on deuterium retention in molybdenum were chosen as an invited talk at the 2008 International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Toledo, Spain.

  18. On the analysis of the beam energy stabilization in the Van de Graaff accelerator 'Lech'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienkowski, A.; Jaskola, M.; Zemlo, L.

    1977-01-01

    In the Van de Graaff accelerator LECH the deviation of the beam energy from the desired value is detected by the standard analysing system consisting of the 90 0 bending magnet followed by a pair of slits. The amplified error signal from that slits is used to correct the high voltage at the terminal. Corrections of the fast component of the voltage instability are made via the corona-triode and for the slow component via adjustment of the belt charging current. In order to determine the maximum gain factors providing the stable operating conditions a definite transfer function has been adopted for the aforementioned two loop stabilizer. Next this function has been applied to the analysis of the stability of the feedback system. Although the calculation was made for parameters of the accelerator LECH, the same method is easily applicable to other Van de Graaff accelerators

  19. Gain analysis of higher-order-mode amplification in a dielectric-implanted multi-beam traveling wave structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, Anthony; Shin, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    A multi-beam traveling wave amplifier designed with an overmoded staggered double grating array was examined by small signal analysis combined with simulation. Eigenmode and S-parameter analyses show that the 2cm long slow wave structure (SWS) has 1-5dB insertion loss over the passband (TM31 mode) with ~28% cold bandwidth. Analytic gain calculation indicates that in the SWS, TM31-mode is amplified with 15–20 dB/beam at 64–84GHz with three elliptical beams of 10kV and 150mA/beam, which was compared with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. PIC analysis on the analysis of instability with zero-input driving excitations demonstrated that background noises and non-operating lower order modes are noticeably suppressed by implanting equidistant dielectric absorbers; the overmoded structure only allowed the desired 3rd order mode to propagate in the structure. The designed circuit structure can be widely applied to multi-beam devices for high power RF generation.

  20. Feasibility of X-ray analysis of multi-layer thin films at a single beam voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statham, P J

    2010-01-01

    Multi-layer analysis using electron beam excitation and X-ray spectrometry is a powerful tool for characterising layers down to 1 nm thickness and with typically 1 μm lateral resolution but does not always work. Most published applications have used WDS with many measurements at different beam voltages and considerable experience has been needed to choose lines and voltages particularly for complex multi-layer problems. A new objective mathematical approach is described which demonstrates whether X-ray analysis can obtain reliable results for an arbitrary multi-layer problem. A new algorithm embodied in 'ThinFilmID' software produces a single plot that shows feasibility of achieving results with a single EDS spectrum and suggests the optimal beam voltage. Synthesis of EDS spectra allows the precision in results to be estimated and acquisition conditions modified before wasting valuable instrument time. Thus, practicality of multi-layer thin film analysis at a single beam voltage can now be established without the extensive experimentation that was previously required by a microanalysis expert. Examples are shown where the algorithm discovers viable single-voltage conditions for applications that experts previously thought could only be addressed using measurements at more than one beam voltage.

  1. Gain analysis of higher-order-mode amplification in a dielectric-implanted multi-beam traveling wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, Anthony; Shin, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    A multi-beam traveling wave amplifier designed with an overmoded staggered double grating array was examined by small signal analysis combined with simulation. Eigenmode and S-parameter analyses show that the 2 cm long slow wave structure (SWS) has 1–5 dB insertion loss over the passband (TM 31 mode) with ∼28% cold bandwidth. Analytic gain calculation indicates that in the SWS, TM 31 -mode is amplified with 15–20 dB/beam at 64–84 GHz with three elliptical beams of 10 kV and 150 mA/beam, which was compared with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. PIC analysis on the analysis of instability with zero-input driving excitations demonstrated that background noises and non-operating lower order modes are noticeably suppressed by implanting equidistant dielectric absorbers; the overmoded structure only allowed the desired 3rd order mode to propagate in the structure. The designed circuit structure can be widely applied to multi-beam devices for high power RF generation

  2. A dedicated beam line for Rutherford backscattering analysis at IFIN-HH cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E. A.; Dudu, D.; Plostinaru, D.; Catana, D.; Vata, I.

    2003-01-01

    Rutherford back-scattering technique (RBS) is an analytical tool that uses elastic scattering of 1-5 MeV charged particles for analysis of the surface and the outer few micrometers of solids. IFIN-HH RBS system consists of the U-120 Cyclotron, a dedicated beam line and a scattering chamber with sample manipulators and particle detectors. In our RBS system the samples are bombarded with 2-5 alpha particles accelerated by U-120 Cyclotron (in 3-rd subharmonic regime) while the scattered particles are detected by a surface barrier detector. The signal from the detector is processed by common nuclear electronics and the particle energy spectra are stored in a computer based multichannel analyser. The data evaluation is accomplished using standard procedures and computer codes. The necessary vacuum inside chamber is obtained with an oil-free turbo pump. The beam spot dimension on the target is 1x1 mm. The standard measurement are done at Θ = 165 angle. The samples are electrically insulated and can be rotated around a vertical axis. The advantage of the RBS technique lies in the quantitative analysis of major and minor constituents lying in the first 0.5 to 2.0 micrometers of a material. Depending on the sample structure and composition, the detection limits vary from 10 11 to 10 15 at. cm -2 for heavy and light elements, respectively. The depth distribution of constituents can be reconstructed with a depth resolution of 10-20 nm. The RBS technique is non-destructive since the erosion and the radiation degradation of the sample material by the particle impact is negligible. The most extensive use of the RBS technique is in the field of electronic and optical materials, special coatings and in the study of various physico-chemical processes on the solid surfaces. (authors)

  3. Study on Progressive Collapse Behavior of SRC Column-Steel Beam Hybrid Frame Based on Pushdown Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liusheng Chu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the progressive collapse behavior of Steel Reinforced Concrete (SRC column-steel beam hybrid frame after the failure of key structural elements, a PQ-Fiber model for an 8-storey structure is established in ABAQUS program. Nonlinear dynamic and static pushdown analysis are carried out after the failure and removal of the bottom-middle and bottom-corner columns. Numerical results of both methods agree well with each other. Results show that SRC column-steel frame has good resistance to progressive collapse under dynamic instantaneous load. After sudden removal of a bottom middle column, the development of structural collapse exhibits two mechanisms, the beam mechanism and the catenary mechanism. When the structure is within small deformation range, the collapse resistance of the residual frame is provided by the beam bending moment capacity, which is beam mechanism. For large deformation situation, the collapse resistance is mainly provided by the beam tensile strength, which is catenary mechanism. However, with the removal of a bottom corner column, the residual structure only undergoes the beam mechanism even for large deformations. For future practical applications, the influence of the steel ratio, steel section size, and the vertical position of the removed key components are investigated through a detailed parametric study.

  4. Analysis of bite marks in foodstuffs by computer tomography (cone beam CT)--3D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Jeidson; Musse, Jamilly; Caetano, Catarina; Corte-Real, Francisco; Corte-Real, Ana Teresa

    2013-12-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) analysis of forensic evidence is highlighted in comparison with traditional methods. This three-dimensional analysis is based on the registration of the surface from a bitten object. The authors propose to use Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), which is used in dental practice, in order to study the surface and interior of bitten objects and dental casts of suspects. In this study, CBCT is applied to the analysis of bite marks in foodstuffs, which may be found in a forensic case scenario. 6 different types of foodstuffs were used: chocolate, cheese, apple, chewing gum, pizza and tart (flaky pastry and custard). The food was bitten into and dental casts of the possible suspects were made. The dental casts and bitten objects were registered using an x-ray source and the CBCT equipment iCAT® (Pennsylvania, EUA). The software InVivo5® (Anatomage Inc, EUA) was used to visualize and analyze the tomographic slices and 3D reconstructions of the objects. For each material an estimate of its density was assessed by two methods: HU values and specific gravity. All the used materials were successfully reconstructed as good quality 3D images. The relative densities of the materials in study were compared. Amongst the foodstuffs, the chocolate had the highest density (median value 100.5 HU and 1,36 g/cm(3)), while the pizza showed to have the lowest (median value -775 HU and 0,39 g/cm(3)), on both scales. Through tomographic slices and three-dimensional reconstructions it was possible to perform the metric analysis of the bite marks in all the foodstuffs, except for the pizza. These measurements could also be obtained from the dental casts. The depth of the bite mark was also successfully determined in all the foodstuffs except for the pizza. Cone Beam Computed Tomography has the potential to become an important tool for forensic sciences, namely for the registration and analysis of bite marks in foodstuffs that may be found in a crime

  5. Mission Analysis for LEO Microwave Power-Beaming Station in Orbital Launch of Microwave Lightcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Dickenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed mission analysis study has been performed for a 1 km diameter, rechargeable satellite solar power station (SPS) designed to boost 20m diameter, 2400 kg Micr,oWave Lightcraft (MWLC) into low earth orbit (LEO) Positioned in a 476 km daily-repeating oi.bit, the 35 GHz microwave power station is configured like a spinning, thin-film bicycle wheel covered by 30% efficient sola cells on one side and billions of solid state microwave transmitter elements on the other, At the rim of this wheel are two superconducting magnets that can stor,e 2000 G.J of energy from the 320 MW, solar array over a period of several orbits. In preparation for launch, the entire station rotates to coarsely point at the Lightcraft, and then phases up using fine-pointing information sent from a beacon on-board the Lightcraft. Upon demand, the station transmits a 10 gigawatt microwave beam to lift the MWLC from the earth surface into LEO in a flight of several minutes duration. The mission analysis study was comprised of two parts: a) Power station assessment; and b) Analysis of MWLC dynamics during the ascent to orbit including the power-beaming relationships. The power station portion addressed eight critical issues: 1) Drag force vs. station orbital altitude; 2) Solar pressure force on the station; 3) Station orbital lifetime; 4) Feasibility of geo-magnetic re-boost; 5) Beta angle (i..e., sola1 alignment) and power station effective area relationship; 6) Power station percent time in sun vs, mission elapsed time; 7) Station beta angle vs.. charge time; 8) Stresses in station structures.. The launch dynamics portion examined four issues: 1) Ascent mission/trajecto1y profile; 2) MWLC/power-station mission geometry; 3) MWLC thrust angle vs. time; 4) Power station pitch rate during power beaming. Results indicate that approximately 0 58 N of drag force acts upon the station when rotated edge-on to project the minimum frontal area of 5000 sq m. An ion engine or perhaps an electrodynamic

  6. Biomechanical characterization dismount from balance beam on the basis of the analysis of key elements of sports equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Potop

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Biomechanical analysis of sports performance technology with balance beam dismount. Material, methods. The study involved six young gymnasts aged 12 - 14 years old - the reserve team of Romania. Results. Identified nodal elements of sports equipment dismount from balance beam type flip off rondat and rondat - coup ago somersaults with twists caved at 360°, 540°, 720° and 900°. In the preparatory phase of the motor action performed dismount isolated and studied central element of sports equipment - starting posture of the body in the phase of the main motor action - animation body posture in the final phase of motor actions - the final posture of the body - Sustainable landing. Conclusions. The method of video - computer research dismount from balance beam type flip off rondat and rondat - coup ago, in conjunction with the method of postural orientation movements allow you to perform a detailed biomechanical analysis of the key elements of sports equipment, to develop advanced training programs.

  7. Impedance-based analysis and study of phase sensitivity in slow-wave two-beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtele, J.S.; Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.

    1992-06-01

    This paper presents a new formalism which makes the analysis and understanding of both the relativistic klystron (RK) and the standing-wave free-electron laser (SWFEL) two-beam accelerator (TBA) available to a wide audience of accelerator physicists. A ''coupling impedance'' for both the RK and SWFEWL is introduced, which can include realistic cavity features, such as beam and vacuum ports, in a simple manner. The RK and SWFEL macroparticle equations, which govern the energy and phase evolution of successive bunches in the beam, are of identical form, differing only by multiplicative factors. Expressions are derived for the phase and amplitude sensitivities of the TBA schemes to errors (shot-to-shot jitter) in current and energy. The analysis allows, for the first time, relative comparisons of the RK and the SWFEL TBAs

  8. Dynamic analysis of trapping and escaping in dual beam optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenqiang; Hu, Huizhu; Su, Heming; Li, Zhenggang; Shen, Yu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we simulate the dynamic movement of a dielectric sphere in optical trap. This dynamic analysis can be used to calibrate optical forces, increase trapping efficiency and measure viscous coefficient of surrounding medium. Since an accurate dynamic analysis is based on a detailed force calculation, we calculate all forces a sphere receives. We get the forces of dual-beam gradient radiation pressure on a micron-sized dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime and utilize Einstein-Ornstein-Uhlenbeck to deal with its Brownian motion forces. Hydrodynamic viscous force also exists when the sphere moves in liquid. Forces from buoyance and gravity are also taken into consideration. Then we simulate trajectory of a sphere when it is subject to all these forces in a dual optical trap. From our dynamic analysis, the sphere can be trapped at an equilibrium point in static water, although it permanently fluctuates around the equilibrium point due to thermal effects. We go a step further to analyze the effects of misalignment of two optical traps. Trapping and escaping phenomena of the sphere in flowing water are also simulated. In flowing water, the sphere is dragged away from the equilibrium point. This dragging distance increases with the decrease of optical power, which results in escaping of the sphere with optical power below a threshold. In both trapping and escaping process we calculate the forces and position of the sphere. Finally, we analyze a trapping region in dual optical tweezers.

  9. Investigation of hydrogen micro-kinetics in metals with ion beam implantation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.S.; Peng, H.B.; Lv, H.Y.; Han, Y.C.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important subjects in the fusion material research is to study the hydrogen and helium concentration, diffusion and evolution in the structure material of fusion reactor, since the hydrogen and helium can be continuously produced by the large dose fast neutron irradiation on material. Various analysis Methods can be used, but the ion beam analysis method has some advantages for studying the hydrogen behaviors in nano- or micrometer resolution. In this work, the hydrogen motion and three-dimensional distribution after implantation into metal has been studied by resonance NRA, micro-ERDA and XRD etc Methods. The resolution of the H-depth-profile is in nanometer level and the lateral resolution can be reached to 2 micrometers. The evolution of hydrogen depth-profile in a titanium sample has been studied versus the change of normal stress in samples. Evident hydrogen diffusion has been observed, while a normal stress is changed in the range of 107-963 MPa. A new phase transformation during the hydrogenation is observed by the in-situ XRD analysis. The further study on the hydrogen behaviors in the structure materials of fusion reactor is in plan. (authors)

  10. Effect of electron beam irradiation on forensic evidence. 2. Analysis of writing inks on porous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramotowski, Robert S; Regen, Erin M

    2007-05-01

    The effect of electron beam irradiation on a series of different writing inks is described. As the anthrax-tainted letters were discovered in October 2001, the U.S. government began to experiment with the use of the electron beam irradiation process for destroying such biological agents. Plans initially considered a large-scale countrywide use of this technology. However, over time the scope of this plan as well as the radiation dosage were reduced, especially when some adverse consequences to mailed items subjected to this process were observed. Little data existed at the time to characterize what level of damage might be expected to occur with common items sent through the mail. This was especially important to museums and other institutions that routinely ship valuable and historic items through the mail. Although the Smithsonian Institution initiated some studies of the effect of electron beam irradiation on archived materials, little data existed on the effect that this process would have on forensic evidence. Approximately 97 different black, blue, red, green, and yellow writing inks were selected. Writing ink types included ballpoint, gel, plastic/felt tip, and rollerball. All noncontrol samples were subjected to standard mail irradiation conditions used by the U.S. Postal Service at the time this experiment was performed. A video spectral comparator and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis were used to evaluate both the control and the irradiated samples. Some published studies reported changes in the presence/absence of dye bands in the chromatograms of irradiated writing inks. Some of these studies report the formation of additional dye bands on the chromatogram while others report missing dye bands. However, using standard testing guidelines and procedures, none of the 97 irradiated inks tested were found to show any significant optical or chemical differences from the control samples. In addition, random testing of some of the ink samples using a

  11. Beam-based analysis of day-night performance variations at the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Akre, R.; Assmann, R.; Bane, K.L.F.; Minty, M.G.; Phinney, N.; Spence, W.L.

    1998-07-01

    Diurnal temperature variations in the linac gallery of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) can affect the amplitude and phase of the rf used to accelerate the beam. The SLC employs many techniques for stabilization and compensation of these effects, but residual uncorrected changes still affect the quality of the delivered beam. This paper presents methods developed to monitor and investigate these errors through the beam response. Variations resulting from errors in the rf amplitude or phase can be distinguished by studying six different beam observables: betatron phase advance, oscillation amplitude growth, rms jitter along the linac, measurements of the beam phase with respect to the rf, changes in the required injection phase, and the global energy correction factor. By quantifying the beam response, an uncorrected variation of 14 degree (S-band) during 28 F temperature swings was found in the main rf drive line system between the front and end of the linac

  12. New developments for the analysis of archaeological and artistic artifacts by optical and ion beam methods at LAMFI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Barbosa, Marcel D. L.; Added, Nemitala; Curado, Jessica F.; Kajiya, Elizabet M.; Campos, Pedro H.O.V. de

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Since 2005, the analysis of artistic and cultural heritage objects at LAMFI-USP (Laboratorio de Analises de Materiais com Feixes Ionicos), initially restricted to ion beam methods, is growing steadily. Since then, alternative methodologies and procedures have been incorporated to better characterize these objects, that possess distinctive physical characteristics and also due to their high cultural and monetary value. The examinations were expanded to other non-destructive analytical techniques like portable XRF (X-ray fluorescence) analysis, X-ray radiography, visible, UV (ultraviolet) and IR (infrared) light imaging that are helping to better understand these art objects, particularly paintings, where the techniques are helping to access the conservation state and also reveal underlying drawings, which help understanding the creative process of the artist. The external beam arrangement at LAMFI was recently updated for simultaneous PIXE (Particle induced X-ray emission), RBS (Rutherford back scattering), PIGE (Particle induced gamma-ray emission) and IBL (Ion beam luminescence) analysis in open air. The new setup comprises a 2 π star-like detector assembly with 7 collimated telescopes: two openings have laser beams for optical alignment of the target, 2 are used for X-ray detectors, 1 for a particle detector, 1 for an optical spectrometer, and 1 for a image. The particle and X-ray detector telescopes can be evacuated to reduce signal losses. The 2 telescopes with the X-ray detectors have absorbers to selectively filter low energy X-rays, optimizing the PIXE detection limits. The beam exit window is made of an 8 μm aluminum foil to monitoring integrated beam charge by measuring the Al gamma rays with a NaI detector. The geometry and materials of the assembly have been carefully designed to shield the X-ray detectors from measuring the X-rays from the exit beam window as well as reducing the detection of Ar K α from the in air beam path. The new

  13. New developments for the analysis of archaeological and artistic artifacts by optical and ion beam methods at LAMFI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Barbosa, Marcel D. L.; Added, Nemitala; Curado, Jessica F.; Kajiya, Elizabet M.; Campos, Pedro H.O.V. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Since 2005, the analysis of artistic and cultural heritage objects at LAMFI-USP (Laboratorio de Analises de Materiais com Feixes Ionicos), initially restricted to ion beam methods, is growing steadily. Since then, alternative methodologies and procedures have been incorporated to better characterize these objects, that possess distinctive physical characteristics and also due to their high cultural and monetary value. The examinations were expanded to other non-destructive analytical techniques like portable XRF (X-ray fluorescence) analysis, X-ray radiography, visible, UV (ultraviolet) and IR (infrared) light imaging that are helping to better understand these art objects, particularly paintings, where the techniques are helping to access the conservation state and also reveal underlying drawings, which help understanding the creative process of the artist. The external beam arrangement at LAMFI was recently updated for simultaneous PIXE (Particle induced X-ray emission), RBS (Rutherford back scattering), PIGE (Particle induced gamma-ray emission) and IBL (Ion beam luminescence) analysis in open air. The new setup comprises a 2 {pi} star-like detector assembly with 7 collimated telescopes: two openings have laser beams for optical alignment of the target, 2 are used for X-ray detectors, 1 for a particle detector, 1 for an optical spectrometer, and 1 for a image. The particle and X-ray detector telescopes can be evacuated to reduce signal losses. The 2 telescopes with the X-ray detectors have absorbers to selectively filter low energy X-rays, optimizing the PIXE detection limits. The beam exit window is made of an 8 {mu}m aluminum foil to monitoring integrated beam charge by measuring the Al gamma rays with a NaI detector. The geometry and materials of the assembly have been carefully designed to shield the X-ray detectors from measuring the X-rays from the exit beam window as well as reducing the detection of Ar K {alpha} from the in air beam path. The

  14. Analysis and optimization of the extracted ELSA beam at the Bonn ELAN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breest, A.

    1989-09-01

    In 1987 the new electron-stretcher-ring ELSA came into operation. Before starting the first experiment at the electron scattering facility ELAN several detailed measurements on the external beam-line and the beam itself had to be performed. These measurements concerned the correct alignment and background studies and the emittance and time-structure (duty-cycle) of the ejected electron-beam. Finally the measurement of elastic electron-proton cross-sections showed that the beam and apparatus are well under control. (orig.) [de

  15. Development of a reference database for ion beam analysis. Summary report of the first research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickridge, I.; Schwerer, O.

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of the First Research Coordination Meeting on the Development of a Reference Database for Ion Beam Analysis, including background information, objectives, recommendations for measurements, and a list of tasks assigned to participants. The next research co-ordination meeting will be held in May 2007. (author)

  16. Intercomparison of ion beam analysis software for the simulation of backscattering spectra from two-dimensional structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, M.; Malinský, Petr; Schiettekatte, F.; Zolnai, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 385, OCT (2016), s. 65-73 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ion beam analysis * computer simulation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  17. NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF NONSEISMICALLY DETAILED INTERIOR RC BEAM-COLUMN CONNECTION UNDER REVERSED CYCLIC LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphot Supaviriyakit

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a nonlinear finite element analysis of non-seismically detailed RC beam column connections under reversed cyclic load. The test of half-scale nonductile reinforced concrete beam-column joints was conducted. The tested specimens represented those of the actual mid-rise reinforced concrete frame buildings designed according to the non-seismic provisions of the ACI building code.  The test results show that specimens representing small and medium column tributary area failed in brittle joint shear while specimen representing large column tributary area failed by ductile flexure though no ductile reinforcement details were provided. The nonlinear finite element analysis was applied to simulate the behavior of the specimens. The finite element analysis employs the smeared crack approach for modeling beam, column and joint, and employs the discrete crack approach for modeling the interface between beam and joint face. The nonlinear constitutive models of reinforced concrete elements consist of coupled tension-compression model to model normal force orthogonal and parallel to the crack and shear transfer model to capture the shear sliding mechanism. The FEM shows good comparison with test results in terms of load-displacement relations, hysteretic loops, cracking process and the failure mode of the tested specimens. The finite element analysis clarifies that the joint shear failure was caused by the collapse of principal diagonal concrete strut.

  18. Analysis of a short beam with application to solder joints: could larger stand-off heights relieve stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhir, Ephraim

    2015-08-01

    Physically meaningful and easy-to-use analytical (mathematical) stress model is developed for a short beam with clamped and known-in-advance offset ends. The analysis is limited to elastic deformations. While the classical Timoshenko short-beam theory seeks the beam's deflection caused by the combined bending and shear deformations for the given loading, an inverse problem is considered here: the lateral force is sought for the given ends offset. In short beams this force is larger than in long beams, since, in order to achieve the given displacement (offset), the applied force has to overcome both bending and shear resistance of the beam. It is envisioned that short beams could adequately mimic the state of stress in solder joint interconnections, including ball-grid-array (BGA) systems, with large, compared to conventional joints, stand-off heights. When the package/printed-circuit-board (PCB) assembly is subjected to the change in temperature, the thermal expansion (contraction) mismatch of the package and the PCB results in an easily predictable relative displacement (offset) of the ends of the solder joint. This offset can be determined from the known external thermal mismatch strain (determined as the product of the difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion and the change in temperature) and the position of the joint with respect to the mid-cross-section of the assembly. The maximum normal and shearing stresses could be viewed as suitable criteria of the beam's (joint's) material long-term reliability. It is shown that these stresses can be brought down by employing beam-like joints, i.e., joints with an increased stand-off height compared to conventional joints. It is imperative, of course, that, if such joints are employed, there is still enough interfacial real estate, so that the BGA bonding strength is not compromised. On the other hand, owing to the lower stress level, reliability assurance might be much less of a challenge than in the case of

  19. Dynamic analysis of I cross beam section dissimilar plate joined by TIG welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, M. S. M.; Nazri, N. A.; Rani, M. N. Abdul; Yunus, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, finite element (FE) joint modelling technique for prediction of dynamic properties of sheet metal jointed by tungsten inert gas (TTG) will be presented. I cross section dissimilar flat plate with different series of aluminium alloy; AA7075 and AA6061 joined by TTG are used. In order to find the most optimum set of TTG welding dissimilar plate, the finite element model with three types of joint modelling were engaged in this study; bar element (CBAR), beam element and spot weld element connector (CWELD). Experimental modal analysis (EMA) was carried out by impact hammer excitation on the dissimilar plates that welding by TTG method. Modal properties of FE model with joints were compared and validated with model testing. CWELD element was chosen to represent weld model for TTG joints due to its accurate prediction of mode shapes and contains an updating parameter for weld modelling compare to other weld modelling. Model updating was performed to improve correlation between EMA and FEA and before proceeds to updating, sensitivity analysis was done to select the most sensitive updating parameter. After perform model updating, average percentage of error of the natural frequencies for CWELD model is improved significantly.

  20. The analysis of dynamic characteristics and wind-induced displacement response of space Beam String Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yong Jian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Beam String Structure structural system, also called BSS, has the advantages of lighter dead weight and greater flexibility. The wind load is the main design control factor. The dynamic characteristics and wind-induced displacement response of BSS are studied by the finite element method. The roof structure of the stadium roof of the Fuzhou Olympic Sports Center is the engineering background. 1The numerical model was built by ANSYS, by shape finding, determine the initial stress state of structural members such as external cables; 2From the analysis of dynamic characteristics, the main mode of vibration is the vibration of cables; 3The wind speed spectrum of MATLAB generation structure is obtained by AR method, the structural response of the structure under static wind load and fluctuating wind load is calculated. From the analysis result, considering the equivalent static wind load of BSS , the design of adverse wind is not safe, and the fluctuating wind load should be taken into account.

  1. Ceramic glaze analysis by simultaneous in-beam PGAA and XRFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-one ready-to-use hobby glazes, of which 18 were labeled 'safe for food containers' (SFFC), were analyzed for Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Gd, Hf, K, Mn, Na, Pb, Si, Sm, Sr, Ti, Zn, and Zr by neutron capture prompt γ-ray activation analysis (PGAA). Simultaneously, Pb was also determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) using Pb K X-rays induced by the γ-ray component of the neutron beam. The XRFS limits of detection were 200-400 μg Pb x g -1 (dry weight), a factor of ∼100 better than those for PGAA. Pb concentrations (by dry weight: with weight losses ranging from 28 to 49% after air-drying) found were 0.16-27.2% in the SFFC glazes and 0.86-32% in the other glazes. The SFFC glazes contained from -1 , and Co, Cr and Cu (elements which may enhance Pb leaching from fired glazes) were found in concentrations up to 1.2, 2.7, and 5.6%, respectively. Method accuracy was demonstrated with the analysis of soil, fly ash, and glass standard reference materials. (author) 13 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. Bispectral analysis of harmonic oscillations measured using beam emission spectroscopy and magnetic probes in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Tetsutarou; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Ida, Katsumi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Minami, Takashi; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Shimizu, Akihiro; Okamura, Shoichi; Kado, Shinichiro

    2008-01-01

    The coherent MHD oscillation, which consists of the fundamental frequency of several kilohertz and its higher harmonics, (harmonic oscillation: HO) has been observed in Compact Helical System. HO consists of two pairs of harmonic series. One is located in the core region near the ι=0.5 rational surface (denoted as 'HO (core)'), the other is located in the edge region near the ι=1.0 rational surface (denoted as 'HO (edge)'). In the present study, bispectral analysis is applied to the fluctuation data, for which HO is measured by beam emission spectroscopy (BES) and using magnetic probes. The analysis has revealed that fundamental mode of HO in both the magnetic and core density fluctuations have phase correlation with the harmonics including fundamental oscillation, while HO in edge density fluctuation does not have such phase correlation. Mode numbers of HOs are identical for harmonic components having different frequencies, i.e., m/n=-2/1 for HO (core) and m/n=-1/1 for HO (edge). It suggests that the generation of harmonics cannot be interpreted simply as mode coupling because the summation rule for the wavenumber is not satisfied, even though the bicoherence value is significant. The bicoherence value and relative amplitude of higher harmonics correlate with each other, which suggests that bicoherence indicates the degree of distortion of the signals. (author)

  3. User's manual for BECAS. A cross section analysis tool for anisotropic and inhomogeneous beam sections of arbitrary geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasques, J.P.

    2012-02-15

    The BEam Cross section Analysis Software - BECAS - is a group of Matlab functions used for the analysis of the stiffness and mass properties of beam cross sections. The report presents BECAS' code and user's guide. (LN)

  4. Feasibility Analysis for the Construction of Vertical Neutron Beam in the MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayoubi, S.; Sulaiman, I.

    2009-06-01

    The MCNP-4C code was used to investigate the possibility of extracting a vertical neutron beam in the MNSR reactor. Code results showed that thermal neutron flux at the exit aperture of about ( 6 x10 5 ) cm -2 s -1 could be obtained and neutron beam properties were determined. (author)

  5. SLC beam line error analysis using a model-based expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Kleban, S.

    1988-02-01

    Commissioning particle beam line is usually a very time-consuming and labor-intensive task for accelerator physicists. To aid in commissioning, we developed a model-based expert system that identifies error-free regions, as well as localizing beam line errors. This paper will give examples of the use of our system for the SLC commissioning. 8 refs., 5 figs

  6. On The Dynamic Analysis of Non-Uniform Beams Under Uniformly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the non-uniform continuous beam was replaced by a non-continuous (discrete) system made up of beam elements. The modified elemental and overall stiffness, and mass matrices, the elemental and overall centripetal acceleration matrices as well as the load vector were derived. Next, the Newmark's direct integration ...

  7. Safety Analysis of the Movable Absorber TCDQ in the LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R

    2009-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System nominally dumps the beam synchronously with the passage of the particle free beam abort gap at the beam dump extraction kickers. In the case of an asynchronous beam dump the TCDQ absorber protects the machine aperture. It is a single sided collimator, positioned close to the beam and it has to follow the beam position and beam size during the energy ramp. This report assesses the different failure scenarios of TCDQ positioning and their likelihood. The failure probability for the two TCDQ systems together is estimated to be 3.6 E-05 (mean value) for one year of LHC operation. This corresponds to a SIL4 safety level, which is considered sufficient. The three dominant failure modes are highlighted. The calculated failure probability refers to scenarios that are generated and developed inside the TCDQ system. Potential failure sources not included are the interaction with external systems: the transmission of the start signal to the PLC from a dedicated timing card and the manual opti...

  8. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened in bending with carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. VIEIRA

    Full Text Available The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP has been widely used for the reinforcement of concrete structures due to its practicality and versatility in application, low weight, high tensile strength and corrosion resistance. Some construction companies use CFRP in flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams, but without anchor systems. Therefore, the aim of this study is analyze, through an experimental program, the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams flexural strengthened by CFRP without anchor fibers, varying steel reinforcement and the amount of carbon fibers reinforcement layers. Thus, two groups of reinforced concrete beams were produced with the same geometric feature but with different steel reinforcement. Each group had five beams: one that is not reinforced with CFRP (reference and other reinforced with two, three, four and five layers of carbon fibers. Beams were designed using a computational routine developed in MAPLE software and subsequently tested in 4-point points flexural test up to collapse. Experimental tests have confirmed the effectiveness of the reinforcement, ratifying that beams collapse at higher loads and lower deformation as the amount of fibers in the reinforcing layers increased. However, the increase in the number of layers did not provide a significant increase in the performance of strengthened beams, indicating that it was not possible to take full advantage of strengthening applied due to the occurrence of premature failure mode in the strengthened beams for pullout of the cover that could have been avoided through the use of a suitable anchoring system for CFRP.

  9. Analysis of Surface Dose Refer to Distance between Beam Spoiler and Patient in Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jong Sik; Choi, Ji Min; Shin, Eun Hyuk; Song, Ki Won; Park, Young Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Total body irradiation is used to kill the total malignant cell and for immunosuppression component of preparatory regimens for bone-marrow restitution of patients. Beam spoiler is used to increase the dose to the superficial tissues. This paper finds the property of the distance between beam spoiler and patient. Set-up conditions are 6 MV-Xray, 300 MU, SAD = 400 cm, field size = 40 x 40 cm 2 . The parallel plate chamber located in surface, midpoint and exit of solid water phantom. The surface dose is measured while the distance between beam spoiler and patient is altered. Because it should be found proper distance. The solid water phantom is fixer and beam spoiler is moving. Central dose of phantom is 10.7 cGy and exit dose is 6.7 cGy. In case of distance of 50 cm to 60 cm between beam spoiler and solid water phantom, incidence dose is 14.58-14.92 cGy. Therefore, The surface dose was measured 99.4-101% with got near most to the prescription dose. In clinical case, distance between beam spoiler and patient affect surface dose. If once 50-60 cm of distance between beam spoiler and patient, surface dose of patient got near prescription dose. It would be taken distance between beam spoiler and patient into account in clinical therapy.

  10. Manipulation and analysis of atomic and molecular beams using transmission gratings and Fresnel zone plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisenti, R.E.

    2000-06-01

    In this thesis experimental results on the diffraction of rare gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr) and molecular (D{sub 2}) beams by a 100 nm period transmission grating and on the focusing of a helium atom beam through a Fresnel zone plate have been reported. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modak, Partha; Hossain, M. Jamil, E-mail: jamil917@gmail.com; Ahmed, S. Reaz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    An accurate stress analysis has been carried out to investigate the suitability of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners. Three different balanced laminates composed of dissimilar ply material as well as fiber orientations are considered for a thick beam on simple supports with stiffened lateral ends. A displacement potential based elasticity approach is used to obtain the numerical solution of the corresponding elastic fields. The overall laminate stresses as well as individual ply stresses are analysed mainly in the perspective of laminate hybridization. Both the fiber material and ply angle of individual laminas are found to play dominant roles in defining the design stresses of the present composite beam.

  12. Comparative analysis of the influence of creep of concrete composite beams of steel - concrete model based on Volterra integral equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partov Doncho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents analysis of the stress-strain behaviour and deflection changes due to creep in statically determinate composite steel-concrete beam according to EUROCODE 2, ACI209R-92 and Gardner&Lockman models. The mathematical model involves the equation of equilibrium, compatibility and constitutive relationship, i.e. an elastic law for the steel part and an integral-type creep law of Boltzmann - Volterra for the concrete part considering the above mentioned models. On the basis of the theory of viscoelastic body of Maslov-Arutyunian-Trost-Zerna-Bažant for determining the redistribution of stresses in beam section between concrete plate and steel beam with respect to time 't', two independent Volterra integral equations of the second kind have been derived. Numerical method based on linear approximation of the singular kernel function in the integral equation is presented. Example with the model proposed is investigated.

  13. Numerical analysis for the stick-slip vibration of a transversely moving beam in contact with a frictional wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Hong-In; Chung, Jintai

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis for the stick-slip vibration of a transversely moving beam, considering both stick-slip transition and friction force discontinuity. The dynamic state of the beam was separated into the stick state and the slip state, and boundary conditions were defined for both. By applying the finite element method, two matrix-vector equations were derived: one for stick state and the other for slip state. However, the equations have different degrees of freedom depending on whether the end of a beam sticks or slips, so we encountered difficulties in time integration. To overcome the difficulties, we proposed a new numerical technique to alternatively use the matrix-vector equations with different matrix sizes. In addition, to eliminate spurious high-frequency responses, we applied the generalized-α time integration method with appropriate value of high-frequency numerical dissipation. Finally, the dynamic responses of stick-slip vibration were analyzed in time and frequency domains: the dynamic behavior of the beam was explained to facilitate understanding of the stick-slip motion, and frequency characteristics of the stick-slip vibration were investigated in relation to the natural frequencies of the beam. The effects of the axial load and the moving speed upon the dynamic response were also examined.

  14. Numerical analysis of dynamic behavior of pre-stressed shape memory alloy concrete beam-column joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, S.; Xiao, Z. F.; Lin, M. Y.; Niu, J.

    2018-04-01

    Beam-column joints are important parts of a main frame structure. Mechanical properties of beam-column joints have a great influence on dynamic performances of the frame structure. Shape memory alloy (SMA) as a new type of intelligent metal materials has wide applications in civil engineering. The paper aims at proposing a novel beam-column joint reinforced with pre-stressed SMA tendons to increase its dynamic performance. Based on the finite element analysis (FEA) software ABAQUS, a numerical simulation for 6 beam-column scaled models considering different SMA reinforcement ratios and pre-stress levels was performed, focusing on bearing capacities, energy-dissipation and self-centering capacities, etc. These models were numerically tested under a pseudo-static load on the beam end, companying a constant vertical compressive load on the top of the column. The numerical results show that the proposed SMA-reinforced joint has a significantly increased bearing capacity and a good self-centering capability after unloading even though the energy-dissipation capacity becomes smaller due the less residual deformation. The concept and mechanism of the novel joint can be used as an important reference for civil engineering applications.

  15. Reliability analysis of minimum energy on target for laser facilities with more beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangyu

    2008-01-01

    Shot reliability performance measures of laser facilities with more beam lines pertain to three categories: minimum-energy-on-target, power balance, and shot diagnostics. Accounting for symmetry of NIF beam line design and similarity of subset reliability in a same partition, a fault tree of meeting minimum-energy-on-target for the large laser facility shot of type K and a simplified method are presented, which are used to analyze hypothetic reliability of partition subsets in order to get trends of influences increasing number of beam lines and diverse shot types of large laser facilities on their shot reliability. Finally, it finds that improving component reliability is more crucial for laser facilities with more beam lines in comparison with those with beam lines and functional diversity from design flexibility is greatly helpful for improving shot reliability. (authors)

  16. Dynamic analysis of an axially moving beam subject to inner pressure using finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Hongliang; Qiu, Ming; Liao, Zhenqiang [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2017-06-15

    A dynamic model of an axially moving flexible beam subject to an inner pressure is present. The coupling principle between a flexible beam and inner pressure is analyzed first, and the potential energy of the inner pressure due to the beam bending is derived using the principle of virtual work. A 1D hollow beam element contain inner pressure is established. The finite element method and Lagrange’s equation are used to derive the motion equations of the axially moving system. The dynamic responses are analyzed by Newmark-β time integration method. Based on the computed dynamic responses, the effects of inner pressure on beam dynamics are discussed. Some interesting phenomenon is observed.

  17. The JANNUS Saclay facility: A new platform for materials irradiation, implantation and ion beam analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, S., E-mail: stephanie.pellegrino@cea.fr [CEA, INSTN, UEPTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Trocellier, P.; Miro, S.; Serruys, Y.; Bordas, E.; Martin, H. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chaabane, N.; Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, UEPTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gallien, J.P.; Beck, L. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-02-15

    The third accelerator of the multi-ion irradiation platform JANNUS (Joint Accelerators for Nanosciences and NUclear Simulation), a 6SDH-2 Pelletron from National Electrostatic Corporation, Middleton was installed at Saclay in October 2009. The first triple beam irradiation combining Fe, He and H ion beams has been performed in March 2010. In the first part of this paper, we give a technical description of the triple beam facility, its performances and experimental capabilities. Typically, damage dose up to 100 dpa can be reached in 10 h irradiation with heavy ion beams, with or without simultaneous bombardment by protons, helium-4 ions or any other heavy ion beam. In the second part of this paper, we illustrate some IBA results obtained after irradiation and implantation experiments.

  18. Static and Vibrational Analysis of Partially Composite Beams Using the Weak-Form Quadrature Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Shen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation of partially composite beams under distributed loading and free vibrations of partially composite beams under various boundary conditions are examined in this paper. The weak-form quadrature element method, which is characterized by direct evaluation of the integrals involved in the variational description of a problem, is used. One quadrature element is normally sufficient for a partially composite beam regardless of the magnitude of the shear connection stiffness. The number of integration points in a quadrature element is adjustable in accordance with convergence requirement. Results are compared with those of various finite element formulations. It is shown that the weak form quadrature element solution for partially composite beams is free of slip locking, and high computational accuracy is achieved with smaller number of degrees of freedom. Besides, it is found that longitudinal inertia of motion cannot be simply neglected in assessment of dynamic behavior of partially composite beams.

  19. Static and free vibration analysis of carbon nano wires based on Timoshenko beam theory using differential quadrature method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Janghorban

    Full Text Available Static and free vibration analysis of carbon nano wires with rectangular cross section based on Timoshenko beam theory is studied in this research. Differential quadrature method (DQM is employed to solve the governing equations. From the knowledge of author, it is the first time that free vibration of nano wires is investigated. It is also the first time that differential quadrature method is used for bending analysis of nano wires.

  20. Hygrothermal Analysis and Failure Analysis of Composite Beams under Moving Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Moiz

    Excellent combination of high structural stiffness and low weight are the qualities of composite material leading to the extensive work on such materials. In order to achieve the desired performance requirements, the designer has to take into consideration the structural requirements and the functional characteristics. Thus, in this study, the effect of hygrothermal conditions on fiber reinforced composite laminates with moving loads have been extensively studied and has been carried out that accompanies Classical Laminate Plate Theory (CLPT) as well as First Order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) on MATLAB. A glass/epoxy composite system has been chosen for study with which similar results may be expected for other laminated composites. The hygrothermal effect is incorporated by adjusting the stiffness coefficients of the laminate to its level of moisture concentration using empirical relations. The failure analysis is done using the maximum normal stress criterion and the factor of safety for the lamina calculated and compared with respect to the corresponding maximum stresses and strengths. Different fiber volume fraction with varying fiber orientation of the plies in the laminate were modeled and studied. The results presented show the effect of stresses and strains in dry conditions, whereas for hygrothermal analysis, they also indicate that not all the laminates behave in a similar fashion and so it is possible by selecting the proper laminate configuration, the effect of moisture can be reduced. Also deducing, that due to hygrothermal effects, changes in the stiffness coefficients of a laminate do not appear to affect the deflection results significantly.

  1. High energy beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Herr, H.; Linnecar, T.; Millich, A.; Milss, F.; Rubbia, C.; Taylor, C.S.; Meer, S. van der; Zotter, B.

    1980-01-01

    The group concerned itself with the analysis of cooling systems whose purpose is to maintain the quality of the high energy beams in the SPS in spite of gas scattering, RF noise, magnet ripple and beam-beam interactions. Three types of systems were discussed. The status of these activities is discussed below. (orig.)

  2. Theoretical and numerical analysis of reinforced concrete beams with confinement reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Delalibera

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of confinement in over-reinforced concrete beams. This reinforcement consists of square stirrups, placed in the compression zone of the beam cross-section, in order to improve its ductility. A parametric numerical study is initially performed, using a finite element computational program that considers the material nonlinearities and the confinement effect. To investigate the influence of the transverse reinforcing ratio on the beam ductility, an experimental program was also conducted. Four over-reinforced beams were tested; three beam specimens with additional transverse reinforcement to confine the beams, and one without it. All specimens were fabricated with a concrete designed for a compressive strength of 25 MPa. The experimental results show that the post-peak ductility factor is proportional to the confining reinforcement ratio, however the same is not observed for the pre-peak ductility factor, which varied randomly with changes in the confining reinforcement ratio. It was also observed from the experiments that the confinement effect tends to be smaller close to the beam neutral axis.

  3. Preliminary design of bellows for the DNB beam source by EJMA and FE linear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapasiya, Shobhit; Muvvala, Venkata Nagaraju; Rambilas, P.; Gangadharan, Roopesh; Rotti, Chandramouli; Chakraborty, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Dheeraj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In piping system, U-shaped Bellows are widely used among flexible elements. In general, bellows are typically design for Fatigue behavior according to the EJMA standard based on empirically generated fatigue curves. The present work proposes a methodology in the design of bellows by design by analyses and validates its design by EJMA standard. A linear FE approach is chosen to in line with the EJMA standard. The proposed methodology is benchmarked with the available literatures. The same practice is implemented in the preliminary design of a U-shaped bellows in the water line circuits of DNB beam source. DNB Beam Source is a negative ion source-based neutral beam generator for ITER operates at 100KV. The beam divergence (intrinsic) and magnetic fields from ITER torus causes deflection of beams. This calls for beam optic alignment, which are assured by BS Movement mechanism system. To accomplish the above movement requirements, bellows, which is a stringent of its kind (± 22 mm axial, ± 45 mm lateral within 400mm available space with single ply), is designed between the beam source and possible rigid interface-cooling lines coming from HVB. The paper describes right from conceptual stage to preliminary design. Optimization tools are adopted in the selecting bellow dimensions using MATLAB. At the end a coordinated approach between FE based assessment (in ANSYS) and widely applied code, EJMA is implemented for the validation of design and found FE approach is a very conservative than later in the present case. (author)

  4. Beam Pattern Analysis of the Plate-type Waveguide Sensor for Under-Sodium Viewing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hoewoong; Joo, Youngsang; Park, Changgyu; Kim, Jongbum

    2013-01-01

    Sensor for under-sodium viewing (USV) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) has been developed. In the developed WG sensor approach, the A0 mode Lamb wave is used and a thin beryllium layer is coated on the waveguide surface to improve the ultrasonic radiation ability in a sodium environment. In this work, the beam pattern radiated from the developed plate-type WG sensor is investigated analytically to understand and predict the ultrasonic beam radiation property of the WG sensor in a liquid. Analytic calculations to obtain beam patterns for two kinds of WG sensors with and without beryllium coating layers were carried out and the results were compared with those obtained by experiments. In this work, the beam pattern of the plate-type WG sensor for USV was investigated analytically. Employing the far-field approximation, the acoustic response at a given measurement position was calculated for the plate-type WG sensors with and without beryllium coating layers. The beam patterns of WG sensors were predicted by the analytic calculation and the corresponding experiments were carried out. The results showed that the far-field beam pattern radiated from the plate-type WG sensor could be well predicted by an analytic calculation. The radiation beam angles obtained by the analytical calculation were in good agreement with those obtained by experiments

  5. Analysis and seismic tests of composite shear walls with CFST columns and steel plate deep beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Jianwei; Xu, Fangfang

    2013-12-01

    A composite shear wall concept based on concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns and steel plate (SP) deep beams is proposed and examined in this study. The new wall is composed of three different energy dissipation elements: CFST columns; SP deep beams; and reinforced concrete (RC) strips. The RC strips are intended to allow the core structural elements — the CFST columns and SP deep beams — to work as a single structure to consume energy. Six specimens of different configurations were tested under cyclic loading. The resulting data are analyzed herein. In addition, numerical simulations of the stress and damage processes for each specimen were carried out, and simulations were completed for a range of location and span-height ratio variations for the SP beams. The simulations show good agreement with the test results. The core structure exhibits a ductile yielding mechanism characteristic of strong column-weak beam structures, hysteretic curves are plump and the composite shear wall exhibits several seismic defense lines. The deformation of the shear wall specimens with encased CFST column and SP deep beam design appears to be closer to that of entire shear walls. Establishing optimal design parameters for the configuration of SP deep beams is pivotal to the best seismic behavior of the wall. The new composite shear wall is therefore suitable for use in the seismic design of building structures.

  6. Ion Beam Analysis of Iridium-Based TES for Microcalorimeter Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, M. Ribeiro; Galeazzi, M.; Bogorin, D.; Barradas, N. Pessoa; Alves, E.; Franco, N.

    2009-01-01

    The physical properties of thin multilayer structures are deeply related to the crystalline quality and stoichiometry of the films. The interface roughness/mixing require a detailed study to determine its influence on the growth processes and surface topography. This is an important aspect when we have lattice mismatch between the superconducting thin-films and the substrates, and a high reliability/reproducibility is required as for large array microcalorimeter applications, as in the case of the MARE experiment, designed to measure the mass of the neutrino with sub-eV sensitivity by measuring the beta decay of 187 Re with cryogenic microcalorimeters. Ion beam analysis techniques are ideal to determine the thickness and concentration profiles of the chemical species in ultra-thin films. Here we present the results on the Ir-based superconducting films deposited on Si-substrates based on systematic investigations of the concentration depth profiles of the multilayer structure using 2.0 MeV 4 He + ions for high resolution Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry combined with X-Ray Reflectrometry to evaluate the interface/roughness mixing and the crystalline quality in the TES prototypes.

  7. Volumetric analysis of the mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayram, Mehmet, E-mail: dtmehmetbayram@yahoo.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Sezgin, Oemer Said [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Radiology, Trabzon (Turkey); Kuecuek, Murat [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: The aim was to determine the accuracy of volumetric analysis of the mandibular condyle using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: Five dry mandibles containing 9 condyles were used. CBCT scans of the mandibles and an impression of each condylar area were taken. The physical volumes of the condyles were calculated as the gold standard using the water displacement technique. After isolating, the condylar volume was sectioned in the sagittal plane, and 0.3 mm thick sections with 0.9 mm intervals were obtained from 3D reconstructions. Using the Cavalieri principle, the volume of each condyle was estimated from the CBCT images by three observers. The accuracy of the CBCT volume measurements and the relation agreements between the results of the three observers were assessed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and Pearson correlation test. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: The results of the Pearson correlation showed that there were highly significant positive correlations between the observers' measurements. According to the results of the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test comparing the physical and observers' measurements, there were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The Cavalieri principle, used in conjunction with a planimetry method, is a valid and effective method for volume estimation of the mandibular condyle on CBCT images.

  8. Ion beam analysis of hydrogen retained in carbon nanotubes and carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, F.D.; Holland, O.W.; Naab, F.U.; Mitchell, L.J.; Dhoubhadel, M.; Duggan, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are studied as a possible hydrogen storage medium for future energy needs. Typically, hydrogen is stored in the CNTs by exposure of the material to a high-pressure H 2 atmosphere at different temperatures. The maximum hydrogen concentrations stored following this method and measured using ion beam analysis do not exceed 1 wt.%. Introduction of defects by ion irradiation (i.e. implantation) prior to high-pressure H 2 treatment, offers an alternative method to activate H adsorption and enhance the chemisorption of hydrogen. This is a preliminary work where hydrogen was introduced into single-wall nanotubes and carbon films by low-energy (13.6 keV) hydrogen ion implantation. Elastic recoil detection was used to measure the quantity and depth distribution of hydrogen retained in the carbonaceous materials. Results show that there are substantial differences in the measured profiles between the CNT samples and the vitreous carbon. On another hand, only ∼43% of the implanted hydrogen in the CNTs is retained in the region where it should be located according to the SRIM simulations for a solid carbon sample

  9. Analysis of Plane-Parallel Electron Beam Propagation in Different Media by Numerical Simulation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloichikova, I. A.; Bespalov, V. I.; Krasnykh, A. A.; Stuchebrov, S. G.; Cherepennikov, Yu. M.; Dusaev, R. R.

    2018-04-01

    Simulation by the Monte Carlo method is widely used to calculate the character of ionizing radiation interaction with substance. A wide variety of programs based on the given method allows users to choose the most suitable package for solving computational problems. In turn, it is important to know exactly restrictions of numerical systems to avoid gross errors. Results of estimation of the feasibility of application of the program PCLab (Computer Laboratory, version 9.9) for numerical simulation of the electron energy distribution absorbed in beryllium, aluminum, gold, and water for industrial, research, and clinical beams are presented. The data obtained using programs ITS and Geant4 being the most popular software packages for solving the given problems and the program PCLab are presented in the graphic form. A comparison and an analysis of the results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of application of the program PCLab for simulation of the absorbed energy distribution and dose of electrons in various materials for energies in the range 1-20 MeV.

  10. An analysis of beamed wireless power transfer in the Fresnel zone using a dynamic, metasurface aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Gowda, Vinay R.; Yurduseven, Okan; Larouche, Stéphane; Lipworth, Guy; Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Reynolds, Matthew S.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) has been an active topic of research, with a number of WPT schemes implemented in the near-field (coupling) and far-field (radiation) regimes. Here, we consider a beamed WPT scheme based on a dynamically reconfigurable source aperture transferring power to receiving devices within the Fresnel region. In this context, the dynamic aperture resembles a reconfigurable lens capable of focusing power to a well-defined spot, whose dimension can be related to a point spread function. The necessary amplitude and phase distribution of the field imposed over the aperture can be determined in a holographic sense, by interfering a hypothetical point source located at the receiver location with a plane wave at the aperture location. While conventional technologies, such as phased arrays, can achieve the required control over phase and amplitude, they typically do so at a high cost; alternatively, metasurface apertures can achieve dynamic focusing with potentially lower cost. We present an initial tradeoff analysis of the Fresnel region WPT concept assuming a metasurface aperture, relating the key parameters such as spot size, aperture size, wavelength, and focal distance, as well as reviewing system considerations such as the availability of sources and power transfer efficiency. We find that approximate design formulas derived from the Gaussian optics approximation provide useful estimates of system performance, including transfer efficiency and coverage volume. The accuracy of these formulas is confirmed through numerical studies.

  11. Cone-beam CT analysis of patients with obstructive sleep apnea compared to normal controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Allison; Kalathingal Sajitha; De Rossi, Scott [Dept. of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta (United States); Cohen, Ruben [Park Avenue Oral and Facial Surgery, New York (United States); Loony, Stephen [Dept. of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Augusta University Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (United States)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the upper airway dimensions of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and control subjects using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit commonly applied in clinical practice in order to assess airway dimensions in the same fashion as that routinely employed in a clinical setting. This was a retrospective analysis utilizing existing CBCT scans to evaluate the dimensions of the upper airway in OSA and control subjects. The CBCT data of sixteen OSA and sixteen control subjects were compared. The average area, average volume, total volume, and total length of the upper airway were computed. Width and anterior-posterior (AP) measurements were obtained on the smallest axial slice. OSA subjects had a significantly smaller average airway area, average airway volume, total airway volume, and mean airway width. OSA subjects had a significantly larger airway length measurement. The mean A-P distance was not significantly different between groups. OSA subjects have a smaller upper airway compared to controls with the exception of airway length. The lack of a significant difference in the mean A-P distance may indicate that patient position during imaging (upright vs. supine) can affect this measurement. Comparison of this study with a future prospective study design will allow for validation of these results.

  12. Cone-beam CT analysis of patients with obstructive sleep apnea compared to normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, Allison; Kalathingal Sajitha; De Rossi, Scott; Cohen, Ruben; Loony, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the upper airway dimensions of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and control subjects using a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit commonly applied in clinical practice in order to assess airway dimensions in the same fashion as that routinely employed in a clinical setting. This was a retrospective analysis utilizing existing CBCT scans to evaluate the dimensions of the upper airway in OSA and control subjects. The CBCT data of sixteen OSA and sixteen control subjects were compared. The average area, average volume, total volume, and total length of the upper airway were computed. Width and anterior-posterior (AP) measurements were obtained on the smallest axial slice. OSA subjects had a significantly smaller average airway area, average airway volume, total airway volume, and mean airway width. OSA subjects had a significantly larger airway length measurement. The mean A-P distance was not significantly different between groups. OSA subjects have a smaller upper airway compared to controls with the exception of airway length. The lack of a significant difference in the mean A-P distance may indicate that patient position during imaging (upright vs. supine) can affect this measurement. Comparison of this study with a future prospective study design will allow for validation of these results

  13. Synthesis and analysis of gold nanoclusters on silicon substrates by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.K.; Venkatachalam, D.K.; Bhargava, S.K.; Evans, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    To facilitate the growth of silica nanowires on silicon substrates, two different seeding techniques: 1) ion implantation and 2) chemical deposition of as-synthesised gold colloids have been compared for the formation of catalysing gold nanoclusters. The prepared substrates of both types were analysed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry at ANSTO to determine the amount of gold and its depth distribution. The topography of the substrates deposited with chemically synthesised gold nanoparticles were studied under SEM. The preliminary ion beam (RBS) analysis has shown ion implantation as a novel technique for seeding Au nanoclusters on silicon substrates facilitating growth of nanowires. This method holds a great potential for using any metal across the periodic table that can act as catalysing seed nanoclusters for nanowire growth. The use of chemical deposition as a seeding technique to deposit as-synthesised gold nanoparticles requires further investigations. RBS results show significant difference in the depth distribution of the gold nanoparticles on silicon substrates seeded by two different techniques. (author). 6 refs., 4 figs

  14. Volumetric analysis of the mandibular condyle using cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayram, Mehmet; Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Sezgin, Ömer Said; Küçük, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to determine the accuracy of volumetric analysis of the mandibular condyle using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: Five dry mandibles containing 9 condyles were used. CBCT scans of the mandibles and an impression of each condylar area were taken. The physical volumes of the condyles were calculated as the gold standard using the water displacement technique. After isolating, the condylar volume was sectioned in the sagittal plane, and 0.3 mm thick sections with 0.9 mm intervals were obtained from 3D reconstructions. Using the Cavalieri principle, the volume of each condyle was estimated from the CBCT images by three observers. The accuracy of the CBCT volume measurements and the relation agreements between the results of the three observers were assessed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and Pearson correlation test. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: The results of the Pearson correlation showed that there were highly significant positive correlations between the observers’ measurements. According to the results of the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test comparing the physical and observers’ measurements, there were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The Cavalieri principle, used in conjunction with a planimetry method, is a valid and effective method for volume estimation of the mandibular condyle on CBCT images.

  15. Application of ion beam analysis to the selective sublimation processing of thin films for gas sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vomiero, A.; Scian, C.; Della Mea, G.; Guidi, V.; Martinelli, G.; Schiffrer, G.; Comini, E.; Ferroni, M.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2006-01-01

    Ion beam analysis was successfully applied to a novel technique, named selective sublimation process (SSP), for deposition of nanostructured gas-sensing films through reactive sputtering. The method consists of the co-deposition of a mixed oxide, one of which has a relatively low sublimation temperature. Annealing at suitable temperature causes the sublimation of the most volatile compound, leaving a layer with adjustable composition. The appropriate choice of thermal treatments and the consequent tailoring of the composition play a crucial role in the determination of the microstructural properties. We developed a model based on diffusion equations that provides a useful guide to control the deposition and processing parameters and we applied the model on the systems TiO 2 -WO 3 and TiO 2 -MoO 3 . Rutherford backscattering (RBS) was demonstrated to be effective for the characterization of the diffusion and sublimation processes during SSP. Experimental results fully agree with theoretical prediction, and allowed the calculation of all the parameters involved in SSP

  16. Analysis of dislocation loops by means of large-angle convergent beam electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Ch; Spiecker, E; Morniroli, J P; Jaeger, W

    2002-01-01

    Diffusion-induced dislocation loops in GaP and GaAs were analysed by means of large-angle convergent beam electron diffraction (LACBED) and conventional contrast methods of transmission electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that LACBED is perfectly suited for use in analysing dislocation loops. The method combines analyses of the dislocation-induced splitting of Bragg lines in a LACBED pattern for the determination of the Burgers vector with analyses of the loop contrast behaviour in transmission electron microscopy bright-field images during tilt experiments, from which the habit plane of the dislocation loop is determined. Perfect dislocation loops formed by condensation of interstitial atoms or vacancies were found, depending on the diffusion conditions. The loops possess {110}-habit planes and Burgers vectors parallel to (110). The LACBED method findings are compared with results of contrast analyses based on the so-called 'inside-outside' contrast of dislocation loops. Advantages of the LACBED method consist in the possibility of determining the complete Burgers vector of the dislocation loops and of an unambiguous and fast loop type analysis

  17. Radiation shielding analysis of a special linear accelerator for electron beam and X-ray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, W G; Pyo, S H; Alkhuraiji, T S; Han, B S; Kang, C M

    2017-01-01

    The King AbdulAziz City for Science & Technology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia plans to build a 10 MeV, 15 kW linear accelerator (LINAC) for electron beam and X-ray. The accelerator will be supplied by EB Tech, Republic of Korea, and the design and construction of the accelerator building will be conducted in the cooperation with EB Tech. This report presents the shielding analysis of the accelerator building using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). In order to improve the accuracy in estimating deep radiation penetration and to reduce computation time, various variance reduction techniques, including the weight window (WW) method, the deterministic transport (DXTRAN) spheres were considered. Radiation levels were estimated at selected locations in the shielding facility running MCNP6 for particle histories up to 1.0×10+8. The final results indicated that the calculated doses at all selected detector locations met the dose requirement of 50 mSv/yr, which is the United State Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) requirement.

  18. Analysis and modification of blue sapphires from Rwanda by ion beam techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootkul, D.; Chaiwai, C.; Tippawan, U.; Wanthanachaisaeng, B.; Intarasiri, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blue sapphire is categorised in a corundum (Al2O3) group. The gems of this group are always amazed by their beauties and thus having high value. In this study, blue sapphires from Rwanda, recently came to Thai gemstone industry, are chosen for investigations. On one hand, we have applied Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), which is a highly sensitive and precise analytical technique that can be used to identify and quantify trace elements, for chemical analysis of the sapphires. Here we have found that the major element of blue sapphires from Rwanda is Al with trace elements such as Fe, Ti, Cr, Ga and Mg as are commonly found in normal blue sapphire. On the other hand, we have applied low and medium ion implantations for color improvement of the sapphire. It seems that a high amount of energy transferring during cascade collisions have altered the gems properties. We have clearly seen that the blue color of the sapphires have been intensified after nitrogen ion bombardment. In addition, the gems were also having more transparent and luster. The UV-Vis-NIR measurement detected the modification of their absorption properties, implying of the blue color increasing. Here the mechanism of these modifications is postulated and reported. In any point of view, the bombardment by using nitrogen ion beam is a promising technique for quality improvement of the blue sapphire from Rwanda.

  19. A Novel Method and Error Analysis for Beam Optics Measurements and Corrections at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Langner, Andy Sven; Rossbach, Jörg; Tomás, Rogelio

    2017-02-17

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently the world's largest particle accelerator with the highest center of mass energy in particle collision experiments. The control of the particle beam focusing is essential for the performance reach of such an accelerator. For the characterization of the focusing properties at the LHC, turn-by-turn beam position data is simultaneously recorded at numerous measurement devices (BPMs) along the accelerator, while an oscillation is excited on the beam. A novel analysis method for these measurements ($N$-BPM method) is developed here, which is based on a detailed analysis of systematic and statistical error sources and their correlations. It has been applied during the commissioning of the LHC for operation at an unprecedented energy of 6.5 TeV. In this process a stronger focusing than its design specifications has been achieved. This results in smaller transverse beam sizes at the collision points and allows for a higher rate of particle collisions. For the derivation of ...

  20. Particle beam experiments for the analysis of reactive sputtering processes in metals and polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbella, Carles; Grosse-Kreul, Simon; Kreiter, Oliver; Arcos, Teresa de los; Benedikt, Jan; Keudell, Achim von [RD Plasmas with Complex Interactions, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    A beam experiment is presented to study heterogeneous reactions relevant to plasma-surface interactions in reactive sputtering applications. Atom and ion sources are focused onto the sample to expose it to quantified beams of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, noble gas ions, and metal vapor. The heterogeneous surface processes are monitored in situ by means of a quartz crystal microbalance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Two examples illustrate the capabilities of the particle beam setup: oxidation and nitriding of aluminum as a model of target poisoning during reactive magnetron sputtering, and plasma pre-treatment of polymers (PET, PP)

  1. Individual analysis of nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel by using the gallium focused ion beam secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyasu, Bunbunoshin; Inami, Akihiro; Abe, Masakazu; Nihei, Yoshimasa.

    1995-01-01

    Nonmetallic inclusions frequently exert a lot of unfavorable influences on the quality of steel. The size of nonmetallic inclusions in current steel products is less than a few μm in diameter. It is desirable to make clear the origin and generation process of such small particles of nonmetallic inclusion. In order to measure the shape, size, composition and inner elemental distribution, development of characterization methods for each inclusion particle is required. By employing a gallium focused ion beam (FIB) as a primary ion beam of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), the particle analysis with high spatial resolution is easily achieved. In this paper, we present the novel individual analysis of nonmetallic inclusions in steel by gallium FIB SIMS. We analyzed in two ways the nonmetallic inclusion particles segregated by electron beam melting. (1) By cross-sectioning of the particle using a gallium FIB, elemental maps of cross-section were obtained. The elements were distributed inhomogeneously on the cross-section. (2) We carried out the compositional analysis for several particles individually. Ten particles were analyzed by the shave-off analysis and the multivariate cluster analysis. Based on the composition of each particle, the inclusions were classified into six types. (author)

  2. Beam-beam phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    In colliding beam storage rings the beam collision regions are generally so short that the beam-beam interaction can be considered as a series of evenly spaced non-linear kicks superimposed on otherwise stable linear oscillations. Most of the numerical studies on computers were carried out in just this manner. But for some reason this model has not been extensively employed in analytical studies. This is perhaps because all analytical work has so far been done by mathematicians pursuing general transcendental features of non-linear mechanics for whom this specific model of the specific system of colliding beams is too parochial and too repugnantly physical. Be that as it may, this model is of direct interest to accelerator physicists and is amenable to (1) further simplification, (2) physical approximation, and (3) solution by analogy to known phenomena

  3. Ion-beam analysis of a medieval glass bottle excavated in Gyoer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzonyi, I.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kertesz, Zs.; Simon, A.; Kiss, A.Z.

    2008-01-01

    ) techniques: the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and the particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) were used. Measurements were carried out on a small glass piece from the present archaeological find which was not used for the restoration. PIXE analysis was carried out at the Scanning Nuclear Microprobe facility. The sample was irradiated at five different spots by 2 MeV H + beam focused to 2x2 μm 2 spot size and applying scan size of 2x2 mm 2 . The accumulated charge at the sample was ∼0.2 μC. Characteristic X-rays were detected by an ultra thin windowed and a Be windowed Si(Li) detectors, thus elements could be analyzed for the Z≥6 atomic number region with high sensitivity. Characteristic X-ray spectra were evaluated with the PIXEKLM-TPI software package. Efficiency calibration of detectors was based on the NIST 610 glass standard reference material. In the case of the PIGE analysis the samples were irradiated in an isolated vacuum chamber with a 3.8 MeV proton beam of about 5 nA. The accumulated charge at the sample was ∼3 μC. The gamma-rays were detected with a 40 % HPGe detector situated at 90 deg with respect to the beam direction and 20 cm distance from the sample. To calculate the concentrations of Na, Al and Si the same NIST 610 glass standard was used. The analysis revealed that the bottle was made from soda-lime glass. Comparing Na, Mg and Ca values with available literature data, 'similarity' with Venice glass can be stated. However, considering the high Ti, Fe (and Al) concentrations it can be supposed that a relatively low quality vitrifying agent (siliceous material) was used excluding late medieval (15-16th c.) fine Venetian glass. The greenish tint attributable to the high Fe content indicates incomplete decolourization (by MnO) which is also characteristic for lower quality glass products. Therefore, the analytical results does not falsify the hypotheses that the artefact can be a 13th century (supposedly Venice) glass

  4. Finite element analysis of beam-to-column joints in steel frames under cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Mashaly

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a simple and accurate three-dimensional (3D finite element model (FE capable of predicting the actual behavior of beam-to-column joints in steel frames subjected to lateral loads. The software package ANSYS is used to model the joint. The bolted extended-end-plate connection was chosen as an important type of beam–column joints. The extended-end-plate connection is chosen for its complexity in the analysis and behavior due to the number of connection components and their inheritable non-linear behavior. Two experimental tests in the literature were chosen to verify the finite element model. The results of both the experimental and the proposed finite element were compared. One of these tests was monotonically loaded, whereas the second was cyclically loaded. The finite element model is improved to enhance the defects of the finite element model used. These defects are; the long time need for the analysis and the inability of the contact element type to follow the behavior of moment–rotation curve under cyclic loading. As a contact element, the surface-to-surface element is used instead of node-to-node element to enhance the model. The FE results show good correlation with the experimental one. An attempt to improve a new technique for modeling bolts is conducted. The results show that this technique is supposed to avoid the defects above, give much less elements number and less solution time than the other modeling techniques.

  5. Modeling and analysis of Off-beam lidar returns from thick clouds, snow, and sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnai, T.; Cahalan, R. F.

    2009-01-01

    A group of recently developed lidar (laser ranging and detection) systems can detect signals returning from several wide field-of-views, allowing them to observe the way laser pulses spread in thick media. The new capability enabled accurate measurements of cloud geometrical thickness and promises improved measurements of internal cloud structure as well as snow and sea ice thickness. This paper presents a brief overview of radiation transport simulation techniques and data analysis methods that were developed for multi-view lidar applications and for and considering multiple scattering effects in single-view lidar data. In discussing methods for simulating the three-dimensional spread of lidar pulses, we present initial results from Phase 3 of the Intercomparison of 3-D Radiation Codes (I3RC) project. The results reveal some differences in the capabilities of participating models, while good agreement among several models provides consensus results suitable for testing future models. Detailed numerical results are available at the I3RC web site at http://i3rc.gsfc.nasa. gov. In considering data analysis methods, we focus on the Thickness from Off-beam Returns (THOR) lidar. THOR proved successful in measuring the geometrical thickness of optically thick clouds; here we focus on its potential for retrieving the vertical profile of scattering coefficient in clouds and for measuring snow thickness. Initial observations suggest considerable promise but also reveal some limitations, for example that the maximum retrievable snow thickness drops from about 0.5 m in pristine areas to about 0.15 m in polluted regions. (authors)

  6. Analysis of elastic wave propagation through anisotropic stainless steel using elastodynamic FEM and ultrasonic beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seog Je; Jeong, Hyun Jo

    1999-01-01

    The wave propagation problem in anisotropic media is modeled by the Gauss-Hermite beam and tile finite element method and their results are compared. Gauss-Hermite mettled is computationally fast and simple, and explicitly incorporates beam spreading. In the 2-D model problem chosen, the ultrasonic beam leaves a transducer, propagates through a layer of ferritic steel and through a planar interface into a region of columnar cast stainless steel with two directions. After propagation to a reference plane, comparison .if made of the time-domain waveforms predicted by tile two models. The predictions of the two models are found to be in good agreement near the center of the beam, with deviations developing as one moves away from tile central ray. These are interpreted to be a consequence of the Fresnel approximation, made in the Gauss-Hermite model.

  7. Performance Analysis of a Threshold-Based Parallel Multiple Beam Selection Scheme for WDM FSO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ko, Young-Chai

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for a free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has occurred

  8. Sweep excitation with order tracking: A new tactic for beam crack analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dongdong; Wang, KeSheng; Zhang, Mian; Zuo, Ming J.

    2018-04-01

    Crack detection in beams and beam-like structures is an important issue in industry and has attracted numerous investigations. A local crack leads to global system dynamics changes and produce non-linear vibration responses. Many researchers have studied these non-linearities for beam crack diagnosis. However, most reported methods are based on impact excitation and constant frequency excitation. Few studies have focused on crack detection through external sweep excitation which unleashes abundant dynamic characteristics of the system. Together with a signal resampling technique inspired by Computed Order Tracking, this paper utilize vibration responses under sweep excitations to diagnose crack status of beams. A data driven method for crack depth evaluation is proposed and window based harmonics extracting approaches are studied. The effectiveness of sweep excitation and the proposed method is experimentally validated.

  9. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of E-Beam and Thermally Curable IPN Thermosets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Robert

    2002-01-01

    .... E-beam curing of composites and adhesives offers advantages, such as reduced cure shrinkages, over traditional autoclave processing by curing multiple resins through the thickness for thick-section...

  10. Analysis of activation and shutdown contact dose rate for EAST neutral beam port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuqing; Wang, Ji; Zhong, Guoqiang; Li, Jun; Wang, Jinfang; Xie, Yahong; Wu, Bin; Hu, Chundong

    2017-12-01

    For the safe operation and maintenance of neutral beam injector (NBI), specific activity and shutdown contact dose rate of the sample material SS316 are estimated around the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) neutral beam port. Firstly, the neutron emission intensity is calculated by TRANSP code while the neutral beam is co-injected to EAST. Secondly, the neutron activation and shutdown contact dose rates for the neutral beam sample materials SS316 are derived by the Monte Carlo code MCNP and the inventory code FISPACT-2007. The simulations indicate that the primary radioactive nuclides of SS316 are 58Co and 54Mn. The peak contact dose rate is 8.52 × 10-6 Sv/h after EAST shutdown one second. That is under the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design values 1 × 10-5 Sv/h.

  11. Using the particle beam optics lab. (PBO LABtm) for beamline design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, G.H.; Hill, B.W.; Martono, H.; Moore, J.M.; Lampel, M.C.; Brown, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) represents a new approach to providing software for particle beam optics modeling. The PBO Lab includes four key elements: a graphic user interface shell; a graphic beamline construction kit for users to interactively and visually construct optical beam lines; a knowledge database on the physics and technology of optical elements, and various charged particle optics computational engines. A first-order matrix code, including a space charge model, can be used to produce scaled images of beamlines together with overlays of single trajectories and beam envelopes. The qualitative results of graphically sliding beamline components, or adjusting bend angles, can be explored interactively. Quantitative computational engines currently include the third-order TRANSPORT code and the multi-particle ray tracing program TURTLE. The use of the PBO Lab for designing and analyzing a second order achromatic bend is illustrated with the Windows 95/NT version of the software. (authors)

  12. Analysis of mutagenic effects induced by carbon beams at different LET in a red yeast strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Haining; Wang Jufang; Ma Shuang; Lu Dong; Wu Xin; Li Wenjian

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate inactive and mutagenic effects of carbon beam at different LET, the inactivation cross section and mutation cross section induced by carbon beams of different LET values were investigated in a red yeast strain Rhodotorula glutinis AY 91015. It was found that the maximum inactivation cross section of 4.37μm 2 , which was very close to the average nucleus cross section, was at LET of 120.0 keV/μm. The maximum mutation cross section was at LET of 96.0 keV/μm. Meanwhile, the highest mutagenicity of carbon ion was found around 58.2 keV/μm. It implied that the most efficient LET to induce mutation in survival yeasts was 58.2 keV/μm, which corresponded to energy of 35 MeV/u carbon beam. The most effective carbon beam to induce inactivation and mutation located at different energy region. (authors)

  13. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of E-Beam and Thermally Curable IPN Thermosets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Robert

    2002-01-01

    ... composites in a single step. Because of the complexity and thickness of composite integral armor structures, e-beam curing is an attractive processing method for Future Combat System applications, and the development...

  14. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the spectrum of transient electromagnetic field created by linac electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hiroyasu; Tomioka, Satoshi; Enoto, Takeaki

    1994-01-01

    Wave information about micro-pulses of electron beams is required in order to control an electron beam precisely, and it may be possible to obtain such information by analyzing the spectrum of the electromagnetic field created by a linac electron beam. In order to derive the spectrum, we measured the spatial distribution generated by a standing wave. Furthermore we calculated the transient electromagnetic field excited by a bunched electron beam, using the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method, and compared two spectra in the frequency domain, into which the calculated value in time variation and the measured values in spatial variation are transformed by using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) respectively. (author)

  15. Forced vibration analysis of a Timoshenko cracked beam using a continuous model for the crack

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Heydari; Alireza Ebrahimi; Mehdi Behzad

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, forced flexural vibration of a cracked beam is studied by using a continuous bilinear model for the displacement field. The effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are considered in the model. The governing equation of motion for the beam is obtained using the Hamilton principle and based on the proposed displacement field. The equation of motion is given for a general force distribution. Then, the equation of motion has been solved for a concentrated force to present a...

  16. Vibration Analysis of Cracked Composite Bending-torsion Beams for Damage Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kaihong

    2004-01-01

    An analytical model of cracked composite beams vibrating in coupled bending-torsion is developed. The beam is made of fiber-reinforced composite with fiber angles in each ply aligned in the same direction. The crack is assumed open. The local flexibility concept is implemented to model the open crack and the associated compliance matrix is derived. The crack introduces additional boundary conditions at the crack location and these effects in conjunction with those of material properties are i...

  17. Response analysis of TLD-300 dosimeters in heavy-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncol, Th.; Hamal, M.; Vynckier, S.; Scalliet, P.; Denis, J.M.; Wambersie, A.

    1996-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry is recommended as part of the quality control procedure for treatment verification in radiation therapy. Using thermoluminescence, such controls are planned in the p(65)+Be neutron and 85 MeV proton beams produced at the cyclotron at Louvain-La-Neuve and dedicated to therapy applications. A preliminary study of the peak 3 (150 deg. C) and peak 5 (250 deg. C) response of CaF 2 :Tm (TLD-300) to neutron and proton beams aimed to analyse the effect of different radiation qualities on the dosimetric behaviour of the detector irradiated in phantom. To broaden the range of investigation, the study was extended to an experimental C-12 heavy ion beam (95 MeV/nucleon). The peak 3 and 5 sensitivities in the neutron beam, compared to Co-60, varied little with depth. A major change of peak 5 sensitivity was observed for samples positioned under five leaves of the multi-leaf collimator. While peak 3 sensitivity was constant with depth in the unmodulated proton beam, peak 5 sensitivity increased by 15%. Near the Bragg peak, peak 3 showed the highest decrease of sensitivity. In the modulated proton beam, the sensitivity values were not significantly smaller than those measured in the unmodulated beam far from the Bragg peak region. The ratio of the heights of peak 3 and peak 5 decreased by 70% from the Co-60 reference radiation to the C-12 heavy-ion beam. This parameter was strongly correlated with the change of radiation quality. (author)

  18. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF COUPLED FLEXURAL-TORSIONAL SPINNING BEAMS WITH UNSYMMETRICAL CROSS SECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jie; Li, Dongxu; Jiang, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    The structural modeling and dynamic properties of a spinning beam with an unsymmetrical cross section are studied. Due to the eccentricity and spinning, transverse deflections along the two principal directions and the torsional motion about the longitudinal axis are coupled. The structural model of the beam is established based on the Hamilton principle and by incorporating the torsional inertia. Moreover, because of its significant influence on characteristics for the non-circular cross-sec...

  19. Analysis of beam feedback loops of RF acceleration system at TARN II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Takeshi.

    1992-08-01

    Two beam-feedback-loops are prepared for the frequency control of RF acceleration system at cooler-synchrotron TARN II. One is the phase-loop and the other the radial-position-loop. In the present paper, the effects of these loops on the beam dynamics in the synchrotron are studied on the basis of Laplace transformation approach as well as the numerical values for the synchrotron acceleration at TARN II. (author)

  20. Theoretical and computational analysis of IFR beam transport on curved channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienstra, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    With the successful demonstration at Sandia National Laboratory and at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of ion focused regime (IFR) electron beam guiding in accelerators there has developed interest in using IFR channels to steer beams along curved paths. The authors report the calculations of the expected emittance growth from such channels and the results of the TRACKER code simulations of IFR steering with the assistance of strong focus sector magnets

  1. Analysis of the dynamic behavior of an intense charged particle beam using the semigroup approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Dynamic models of a charged particle beam subject to external electromagnetic fields are cast into the abstract Cauchy problem form. Various applications of intense charged particle beams, i.e., beams whose self electromagnetic fields are significant, might require, or be enhanced by, the use of dynamic control constructed from suitably processed measurements of the state of the beam. This research provides a mathematical foundation for future engineering development of estimation and control designs for such beams. Beginning with the Vlasov equation, successively simpler models of intense beams are presented, along with their corresponding assumptions. Expression of a model in abstract Cauchy problem form is useful in determining whether the model is well posed. Solutions of well-posed problems can be expressed in terms of a one-parameter semigroup of linear operators. The semigroup point of view allows the application of the rapidly maturing modern control theory of infinite dimensional system. An appropriate underlying Banach space is identified for a simple, but nontrivial, single degree of freedom model (the electrostatic approximation model), and the associated one-parameter semigroup of linear operators is characterized

  2. Performance analysis of the intense slow-positron beam at the NC State University PULSTAR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxom, J.; Hathaway, A.G.; Bodnaruk, E.W.; Hawari, A.I.; Xu, J.

    2007-01-01

    An intense positron beam, for application in nanophase characterization, is now under construction at the 1 MW PULSTAR nuclear reactor at North Carolina State University (NCSU). A tungsten converter/moderator is used, allowing positrons to be emitted from the surface with energies of a few electron volts. These slow positrons will be extracted from the moderator and formed into a beam by electrostatic lenses and then injected into a solenoidal magnetic field for transport to one of three experimental stations, via a beam switch. To optimize the performance of the beam and to predict the slow-positron intensity, a series of simulations were performed. A specialized Monte-Carlo routine was integrated into the charged-particle transport calculations to allow accounting for the probabilities of positron re-emission and backscattering from multiple-bank moderator/converter configurations. The results indicate that either a two-bank or a four-bank tungsten moderator/converter system is preferred for the final beam design. The predicted slow-positron beam intensities range from nearly 7x10 8 to 9x10 8 e + /s for the two-bank and the four-bank systems, respectively

  3. Parameter Deduction and Accuracy Analysis of Track Beam Curves in Straddle-type Monorail Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the bottom curve of a PC track beam is strongly related to the production quality of the entire beam. Many factors may affect the parameters of the bottom curve, such as the superelevation of the curve and the deformation of a PC track beam. At present, no effective method has been developed to determine the bottom curve of a PC track beam; therefore, a new technique is presented in this paper to deduce the parameters of such a curve and to control the accuracy of the computation results. First, the domain of the bottom curve of a PC track beam is assumed to be a spindle plane. Then, the corresponding supposed top curve domain is determined based on a geometrical relationship that is the opposite of that identified by the conventional method. Second, several optimal points are selected from the supposed top curve domain according to the dichotomy algorithm; the supposed top curve is thus generated by connecting these points. Finally, one rigorous criterion is established in the fractal dimension to assess the accuracy of the assumed top curve deduced in the previous step. If this supposed curve coincides completely with the known top curve, then the assumed bottom curve corresponding to the assumed top curve is considered to be the real bottom curve. This technique of determining the bottom curve of a PC track beam is thus proven to be efficient and accurate.

  4. Vibration Analysis of Inclined Laminated Composite Beams under Moving Distributed Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bahmyari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of laminated composite beams subjected to distributed moving masses is investigated using the finite element method (FEM based on the both first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT and the classical beam theory (CLT. Six and ten degrees of freedom beam elements are used to discretize the CLT and FSDT equations of motion, respectively. The resulting spatially discretized beam governing equations including the effect of inertial, Coriolis, and centrifugal forces due to moving distributed mass are evaluated in time domain by applying Newmark’s scheme. The presented approach is first validated by studying its convergence behavior and comparing the results with those of existing solutions in the literature. Then, the effect of incline angle, mass, and velocity of moving body, layer orientation, load length, and inertial, Coriolis, and centrifugal forces due to the moving distributed mass and friction force between the beam and the moving distributed mass on the dynamic behavior of inclined laminated composite beams are investigated.

  5. ScreenBEAM: a novel meta-analysis algorithm for functional genomics screens via Bayesian hierarchical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiyang; Silva, Jose; Califano, Andrea

    2016-01-15

    Functional genomics (FG) screens, using RNAi or CRISPR technology, have become a standard tool for systematic, genome-wide loss-of-function studies for therapeutic target discovery. As in many large-scale assays, however, off-target effects, variable reagents' potency and experimental noise must be accounted for appropriately control for false positives. Indeed, rigorous statistical analysis of high-throughput FG screening data remains challenging, particularly when integrative analyses are used to combine multiple sh/sgRNAs targeting the same gene in the library. We use large RNAi and CRISPR repositories that are publicly available to evaluate a novel meta-analysis approach for FG screens via Bayesian hierarchical modeling, Screening Bayesian Evaluation and Analysis Method (ScreenBEAM). Results from our analysis show that the proposed strategy, which seamlessly combines all available data, robustly outperforms classical algorithms developed for microarray data sets as well as recent approaches designed for next generation sequencing technologies. Remarkably, the ScreenBEAM algorithm works well even when the quality of FG screens is relatively low, which accounts for about 80-95% of the public datasets. R package and source code are available at: https://github.com/jyyu/ScreenBEAM. ac2248@columbia.edu, jose.silva@mssm.edu, yujiyang@gmail.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Analysis of the procedures and criteria for implantation of X-ray beams for ISO 4037 reference at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Marcus Tadeu Tanuri de

    2012-01-01

    According to the radiological protection principles, practices involving ionizing radiation must be planned and carried out under the guarantee that the values of individual doses, the number of people exposed to radiation and the probability of accidental exposures are as low as reasonably achievable. Therefore, radiation dosimetry is required to be done with reliable instruments designed for measuring dosimetric quantities. The reliability of the dosimetry depends on both the calibration of the dosimeter and its proper performance under certain test conditions. The International Standardization Organization (ISO), in order to promote international standardization and metrological coherency, established sets of reference X-ray beams for dosimeter calibration and typing-test; they are expected to be implemented in metrology laboratories in compliance with specific technical requirements. At low energies there are specific requirements that need to be considered in both the implementation of the reference beams and their use in calibration and testing. The present study is an analysis of the procedures and criteria for ISO 4037 reference radiation implementation, at low energies. In the Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of the Development Center of Nuclear Technology (LCD / CDTN), experiments were performed for determining the X-ray reference radiation parameters. Alternatives to the usual methods for half-value layer determination were studied. Spectra of reference beams were simulated with software and compared with experimental measurements. Different climatic conditions were reproduced in the Laboratory for analysis of its influence on the determination of the beam parameters. Uncertainties in the measurements of studied parameters were evaluated. According to the ISO 4037 criteria, the low energy X-ray beams were considered to be implemented; they allowed the determination of the conversion coefficients from air kerma to the operational radiation protection

  7. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF RAILWAYS BOLSTER-BEAM UNDER COMMERCIAL OPERATION CONDITIONS: OVER-TRACTION AND OVER-BRAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M. MARTINOD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the operation of railway systems are closely related to the increase of the commercial demand; as a consequence, the performance of the structural elements of railways changes. The present paper focuses on a study of the structural behaviour of bolster-beams under commercial operation conditions of railway systems, specifically in the dynamic conditions generated in events of over-traction and over-braking on the vehicle running. The proposed work is constructed based on the following phases: (i analysis of the kinematics of the vehicle; (ii development of numerical models, a model based on the multibody theory, and a Finite Elements model; (iii development of experimental field tests; and (iv development of simulations for a detailed analysis of the structural behaviour for a study of the strain distribution in the main bolster-beam. This study is applied to a particular case of a railway system that provides commercial service to passengers.

  8. Construction of a scattering chamber for ion-beam analysis of environmental materials in undergraduate physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBrake, Scott M.; Vineyard, Michael F.; Turley, Colin F.; Moore, Robert D.; Johnson, Christopher [Department of Physics and Astronomy Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    We have developed a new scattering chamber for ion-beam analysis of environmental materials with the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator at the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. The chamber was constructed from a ten-inch, Conflat, multi-port cross and includes a three-axis target manipulator and target ladder assembly, an eight-inch turbo pump, an Amptek X-ray detector, and multiple charged particle detectors. Recent projects performed by our undergraduate research team include proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analyses of atmospheric aerosols collected with a nine-stage cascade impactor in Upstate New York. We will describe the construction of the chamber and discuss the results of some commissioning experiments.

  9. Nonlinear earthquake analysis of reinforced concrete frames with fiber and Bernoulli-Euler beam-column element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaton, Muhammet

    2014-01-01

    A beam-column element based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is researched for nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) structural element. Stiffness matrix of this element is obtained by using rigidity method. A solution technique that included nonlinear dynamic substructure procedure is developed for dynamic analyses of RC frames. A predicted-corrected form of the Bossak-α method is applied for dynamic integration scheme. A comparison of experimental data of a RC column element with numerical results, obtained from proposed solution technique, is studied for verification the numerical solutions. Furthermore, nonlinear cyclic analysis results of a portal reinforced concrete frame are achieved for comparing the proposed solution technique with Fibre element, based on flexibility method. However, seismic damage analyses of an 8-story RC frame structure with soft-story are investigated for cases of lumped/distributed mass and load. Damage region, propagation, and intensities according to both approaches are researched.

  10. Refined Analysis of Fatigue Crack Initiation Life of Beam-to-Column Welded Connections of Steel Frame under Strong Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilian Qu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a refined analysis for evaluating low-cycle fatigue crack initiation life of welded beam-to-column connections of steel frame structures under strong earthquake excitation. To consider different length scales between typical beam and column components as well as a few crucial beam-to-column welded connections, a multiscale finite element (FE model having three different length scales is formulated. The model can accurately analyze the inelastic seismic response of a steel frame and then obtain in detail elastoplastic stress and strain field near the welded zone of the connections. It is found that the welded zone is subjected to multiaxial nonproportional loading during strong ground motion and the elastoplastic stress-strain field of the welded zone is three-dimensional. Then, using the correlation of the Fatemi-Socie (FS parameter versus fatigue life obtained by the experimental crack initiation fatigue data of the structural steel weldment subjected to multiaxial loading, the refined evaluation approach of fatigue crack initiation life is developed based on the equivalent plastic strain at fatigue critical position of beam end seams of crucial welded connections when the steel frame is subjected to the strong earthquake excitation.

  11. Analysis of 3D Scan Measurement Distribution with Application to a Multi-Beam Lidar on a Rotating Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jesús; Plaza-Leiva, Victoria; Mandow, Anthony; Gomez-Ruiz, Jose Antonio; Serón, Javier; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2018-01-30

    Multi-beam lidar (MBL) rangefinders are becoming increasingly compact, light, and accessible 3D sensors, but they offer limited vertical resolution and field of view. The addition of a degree-of-freedom to build a rotating multi-beam lidar (RMBL) has the potential to become a common solution for affordable rapid full-3D high resolution scans. However, the overlapping of multiple-beams caused by rotation yields scanning patterns that are more complex than in rotating single beam lidar (RSBL). In this paper, we propose a simulation-based methodology to analyze 3D scanning patterns which is applied to investigate the scan measurement distribution produced by the RMBL configuration. With this purpose, novel contributions include: (i) the adaption of a recent spherical reformulation of Ripley's K function to assess 3D sensor data distribution on a hollow sphere simulation; (ii) a comparison, both qualitative and quantitative, between scan patterns produced by an ideal RMBL based on a Velodyne VLP-16 (Puck) and those of other 3D scan alternatives (i.e., rotating 2D lidar and MBL); and (iii) a new RMBL implementation consisting of a portable tilting platform for VLP-16 scanners, which is presented as a case study for measurement distribution analysis as well as for the discussion of actual scans from representative environments. Results indicate that despite the particular sampling patterns given by a RMBL, its homogeneity even improves that of an equivalent RSBL.

  12. Analysis of 3D Scan Measurement Distribution with Application to a Multi-Beam Lidar on a Rotating Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Leiva, Victoria; Serón, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Multi-beam lidar (MBL) rangefinders are becoming increasingly compact, light, and accessible 3D sensors, but they offer limited vertical resolution and field of view. The addition of a degree-of-freedom to build a rotating multi-beam lidar (RMBL) has the potential to become a common solution for affordable rapid full-3D high resolution scans. However, the overlapping of multiple-beams caused by rotation yields scanning patterns that are more complex than in rotating single beam lidar (RSBL). In this paper, we propose a simulation-based methodology to analyze 3D scanning patterns which is applied to investigate the scan measurement distribution produced by the RMBL configuration. With this purpose, novel contributions include: (i) the adaption of a recent spherical reformulation of Ripley’s K function to assess 3D sensor data distribution on a hollow sphere simulation; (ii) a comparison, both qualitative and quantitative, between scan patterns produced by an ideal RMBL based on a Velodyne VLP-16 (Puck) and those of other 3D scan alternatives (i.e., rotating 2D lidar and MBL); and (iii) a new RMBL implementation consisting of a portable tilting platform for VLP-16 scanners, which is presented as a case study for measurement distribution analysis as well as for the discussion of actual scans from representative environments. Results indicate that despite the particular sampling patterns given by a RMBL, its homogeneity even improves that of an equivalent RSBL. PMID:29385705

  13. Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Proton Beam Radiation Therapy with Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Results of an Interim Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, David A., E-mail: dbush@llu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Smith, Jason C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Slater, Jerry D. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Volk, Michael L. [Transplantation Institute and Liver Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Reeves, Mark E. [VA Loma Linda Health Care System, Loma Linda, California (United States); Cheng, Jason [Transplantation Institute and Liver Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Grove, Roger [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Vera, Michael E. de [Transplantation Institute and Liver Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To describe results of a planned interim analysis of a prospective, randomized clinical trial developed to compare treatment outcomes among patients with newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had either clinical or pathologic diagnosis of HCC and met either Milan or San Francisco transplant criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or to proton beam radiation therapy. Patients randomized to TACE received at least 1 TACE with additional TACE for persistent disease. Proton beam radiation therapy was delivered to all areas of gross disease to a total dose of 70.2 Gy in 15 daily fractions over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, with secondary endpoints of overall survival, local tumor control, and treatment-related toxicities as represented by posttreatment days of hospitalization. Results: At the time of this analysis 69 subjects were available for analysis. Of these, 36 were randomized to TACE and 33 to proton. Total days of hospitalization within 30 days of TACE/proton was 166 and 24 days, respectively (P<.001). Ten TACE and 12 proton patients underwent liver transplantation after treatment. Viable tumor identified in the explanted livers after TACE/proton averaged 2.4 and 0.9 cm, respectively. Pathologic complete response after TACE/proton was 10%/25% (P=.38). The 2-year overall survival for all patients was 59%, with no difference between treatment groups. Median survival time was 30 months (95% confidence interval 20.7-39.3 months). There was a trend toward improved 2-year local tumor control (88% vs 45%, P=.06) and progression-free survival (48% vs 31%, P=.06) favoring the proton beam treatment group. Conclusions: This interim analysis indicates similar overall survival rates for proton beam radiation therapy and TACE. There is a trend toward improved local tumor control and progression-free survival with proton beam. There are

  14. Analysis of warping deformation modes using higher order ANCF beam element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Grzegorz; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2016-02-01

    Most classical beam theories assume that the beam cross section remains a rigid surface under an arbitrary loading condition. However, in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) continuum-based beams, this assumption can be relaxed allowing for capturing deformation modes that couple the cross-section deformation and beam bending, torsion, and/or elongation. The deformation modes captured by ANCF finite elements depend on the interpolating polynomials used. The most widely used spatial ANCF beam element employs linear approximation in the transverse direction, thereby restricting the cross section deformation and leading to locking problems. The objective of this investigation is to examine the behavior of a higher order ANCF beam element that includes quadratic interpolation in the transverse directions. This higher order element allows capturing warping and non-uniform stretching distribution. Furthermore, this higher order element allows for increasing the degree of continuity at the element interface. It is shown in this paper that the higher order ANCF beam element can be used effectively to capture warping and eliminate Poisson locking that characterizes lower order ANCF finite elements. It is also shown that increasing the degree of continuity requires a special attention in order to have acceptable results. Because higher order elements can be more computationally expensive than the lower order elements, the use of reduced integration for evaluating the stress forces and the use of explicit and implicit numerical integrations to solve the nonlinear dynamic equations of motion are investigated in this paper. It is shown that the use of some of these integration methods can be very effective in reducing the CPU time without adversely affecting the solution accuracy.

  15. Cone-beam tomographic analysis of canalis sinuosus accessory intraosseous canals in the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghandourah, Abdalmalik O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the frequency, location and width of accessory canals (AC of canalis sinuosus (CS using cone beam computed tomography and compare our findings with recent literature. Additionally, intraosseous canals (IOC in the sinus wall other than the CS were noted. A retrospective analysis of 219 scans from our university department was conducted. The registered parameters were age, sex, location and width of canals. Group A consisted of 201 (85 males and 116 females adults ranged from 19 to 99 years of age (mean age = 47.5 years. A total of 136 patients (67.6% presented at least 1 AC, of which 55 cases showed a foramen width greater than 1 mm (27.4%. Group B had a sample size of 18 adolescents (7 males and 11 females with a range of age from 7 to 18 years (mean age = 15.8 years. Eight cases (44.4% presented at least one AC, of which only 3 had a foramen width greater than 1 mm (3.6%. ACs were found to occur predominantly at central incisors region (Group A and the left lateral incisor and canine as well as the central incisors regions (Group B. Adolescents showed a lower prevalence of accessory canals compared to adults. These findings supplement earlier reports on the anatomical variations of the intraosseous vessel and nerve conduits of the maxilla. Surgical interventions in this area can be planned more precisely, taking into account the three-dimensional imaging, thus possibly protecting these sensitive structures.

  16. External beam irradiation of craniopharyngiomas: long-term analysis of tumor control and morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlotto, John M.; Flickinger, John C.; Kondziolka, Douglas; Lunsford, L.D.; Deutsch, Melvin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To delineate the long-term control and morbidity with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of craniopharyngiomas. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 1992, 24 craniopharyngioma patients underwent EBRT at the University of Pittsburgh. Most (19 of 24) were treated within 1-3 months after subtotal resection. The other prior surgical procedures were biopsy (n = 2) and gross total resection (n = 1); 2 patients did not undergo any surgical procedure. The median follow-up was 12.1 years. The median patient age was 29 years (range 5-69). The total radiation doses varied from 36 to 70 Gy (median 59.75). The normalized total dose (NTD, biologically equivalent dose given in 2 Gy/fraction [α/β ratio = 2]) varied from 28 to 83 Gy (median 55.35). Results: The actuarial survival rate at 10 and 20 years was 100% and 92.3%, respectively. The actuarial local control rate at 10 and 20 years was 89.1% and 54.0%, respectively. No local failures occurred with doses ≥60 Gy (n=12) or NTDs ≥55 Gy. The complication-free survival rate at 10 and 20 years was 80.1% and 72.1%, respectively. No complications were noted with an NTD of ≤55 Gy. The actuarial survival free from any adverse outcome (recurrence or complication) was 70.1% and 31.8% at 10 and 20 years, respectively. The adverse outcome-free survival appeared optimized (at 73%) with an NTD of 55-63 Gy. Multivariate analysis found that tumor control correlated significantly with the total dose (p=0.02), treatment complications with NTD (p=0.008), and adverse outcome with hypopituitarism on presentation (p=0.03). Conclusion: We recommend treating craniopharyngioma with 1.6-1.7-Gy dose fractions to 60 Gy to optimize outcome from EBRT

  17. An in-beam Compton-suppressed Ge spectrometer for nondestructive neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, R.; Abd El-Haleam, A.; Mostafa, M.; Gantner, E.; Ache, H.J.

    1993-04-01

    A high-efficiency compton background suppressed gamma-ray spectrometer by anti-coincidence counting with a NaI(Tl)-shield around a central HPGe-detector for in-beam prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (AC-PGNAA) using a Cf-252 neutron source has been designed and built to provide simultaneous anti-coincidence spectrometry of natural, industrial and environmental samples. The spectrometer consists of a high-purity germanium detector as the main detector and a large volume cylindrical NaI(Tl) detector as a guard detector. The assembly has the ability to measure instantaneously, simultaneously and nondestructively bulk samples up to about 50 cm 3 . Major constituent elements in several rocks and minerals such as H, B, N, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, P, S, Ti, Fe, Sm, Nd, Mn and Gd can be determined, while oxygen cannot be measured due to its small capture cross section (0.27 mb). Several important minor and trace elements such as B, Cd and Hg beside the low residual activity, rare earths and short-lived isotopes could be detected. The sensitivity of the AC-PGNAA technique is limited by the available neutron flux at the target matrix and the neutron absorption cross section of the elements of interest. PGNAA has the advantage to estimate the constituent elements which are difficult to be measured through the delayed gamm-ray measurements such as B, Bi, C, H, P, Tl, Be, Cl and S in industrial and reference materials and those elements which are transformed into other stable isotopes when undergoing neutron capture. The design of the spectrometer assembly, its properties and performance are described

  18. External beam radiotherapy for painful osseous metastases: pooled data dose response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Josef, Edgar; Shamsa, Falah; Youssef, Emad; Porter, Arthur T.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Although the effectiveness of external beam irradiation in palliation of pain from osseous metastases is well established, the optimal fractionation schedule has not been determined. Clinical studies to date have failed to demonstrate an advantage for higher doses. To further address this issue, we conducted a pooled dose response analysis using data from published Phase III clinical trials. Methods and Materials: Complete response (CR) was used as an endpoint because it was felt to be least susceptible to inconsistencies in assessment.The biological effective dose (BED) was calculated for each schedule using the linear-quadratic model and an α/β of 10. Using SAS version 6.12, the data were fitted using a weighted linear regression, a logistic model, and the spline technique. Finally, BED was categorized, and odds ratios for each level were calculated. Results: CR was assessed early and late in 383 and 1,007 patients, respectively. Linear regression on the early-response data yielded a poor fit and a nonsignificant dose coefficient. With the late-response data, there was an excellent fit (R-square = 0.842) and a highly significant dose coefficient (p = 0.0002). Fitting early CR to a logistic model, we could not establish a significant dose response relationship. However, with the late-response data there was an excellent fit and the dose coefficient was significantly different from zero (0.017 ± 0.00524; p = 0.0012). Application of the spline technique or removal of an outlier resulted in an improved fit (p 0.048 and p = 0.0001, respectively). Using BED of < 14.4 Gy as a reference level, the odds ratios for late CR were 2.29-3.32 (BED of 19.5-51.4 Gy, respectively). Conclusion: Our results demonstrate a clear dose-response for pain relief. Further testing of high intensity regiments is warranted

  19. Inelastic analysis of piping systems. A beam-type method for creep and plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.; Hoffmann, A.; Millard, A.

    1979-01-01

    Since many years, piping systems are designed and calculated under elasticity assumptions, using a beam-type method. Thus, the analysis of large systems may be performed at a relatively low cost, using a finite element program. However such a method can not account for inelastic phenomena like plastic deformations or creep. The application of refined three-dimensional shell type method is possible for local components such as curved sections but leads to prohibitive costs for complete piping systems. Therefore simplified methods have been developed, based on a 'global plasticity or creep model'. Following the conventional elastic approach, the pipe element is characterized by variables associated with the center line in the following way: generalized stresses are obtained by integration of local stresses giving way to hoop and tension stresses and to bending and torsional moments; the conjugated strains are identified with uniform hoop and longitudinal strains and variations in neutral axis curvatuves. For plasticity problems, the yield surface is defined by a diagonal quadratic function in terms of the generalized stresses and work hardening parameters. By addition of the Hill's principle and a hardening rule, the formulation is similar to the one commonly used in finite element method. Geometric non linearity due to important deformations of the cross section (often termed 'ovalization') may be treated simultaneously with material non linearity. For this purpose the displacement normal to the pipe surface is represented by trigonometric series expansion, the coefficients of which are determined by minimizing the strain energy over the cross section. The method presented is believed to be a simple economical and accurate tool, for dimensioning computations of large piping systems

  20. Application of micro beam PIXE to detection of titanium ion release from dental and orthopaedic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ektessabi, A.M.; Otsuka, T.; Tsuboi, Y.; Yokoyama, K.; Albrektsson, T.; Sennerby, L.; Johansson, C.

    1994-01-01

    In the past two decades the utilization of dental and orthopaedic implants in reconstructive surgery has been spread widely. Most of these implants are inserted in the corrosive environment of the human body for long periods of time. The level of dissolution, release, and transport of metal ions as a result of corrosion of these materials are not fully known at present. We report the results of application of micro ion beam PIXE spectroscopy to detect release of titanium from titanium and titanium alloy implants inserted in the tibiae of rabbits for three months. It was found that titanium ions could be detected in the surrounding tissues, with high precision, as a gradient from the implant surface and in higher amounts in the bone tissue as compared with the soft tissues. It is concluded that application of micro ion beam PIXE spectroscopy for detection of metal ion release, and distribution of the released material around the implants with high special resolution and accuracy may be used to further investigate the mechanism of metal release, and the relation between surface micromorphology and corrosion resistance of the implant materials. (author)