WorldWideScience

Sample records for michigan recycled materials

  1. Recycling fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooms, L.

    2005-01-01

    The inherent safety and environmental advantages of fusion power in comparison with other energy sources play an important role in the public acceptance. No waste burden for future generations is therefore one of the main arguments to decide for fusion power. The waste issue has thus been studied in several documents and the final conclusion of which it is stated that there is no permanent disposal waste needed if recycling is applied. But recycling of fusion reactor materials is far to be obvious regarding mostly the very high specific activity of the materials to be handled, the types of materials and the presence of tritium. The main objective of research performed by SCK-CEN is to study the possible ways of recycling fusion materials and analyse the challenges of the materials management from fusion reactors, based on current practices used in fission reactors and the requirements for the manufacture of fusion equipment

  2. Soil stabilization with recycled materials improves subgrade performance : research spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The use of recycled materials for subgrade stabilization can provide the support needed for construction vehicle loading and more typical long-term traffic loading. This is a particular need in Michigan due to the prevalence of weak subgrade soils. U...

  3. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  4. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  5. Recycled materials in Portland cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This report pertains to a comprehensive study involving the use of recycled materials in Portland cement concrete. Three different materials were studied including crushed glass (CG), street sweepings (SS), and recycled concrete (RC). Blast furnace s...

  6. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    systematically investigated. This PhD project provided detailed quantitative data following a consistent approach to assess potential limitations for the presence of chemicals in relation to material recycling. Paper and plastics were used as illustrative examples of materials with well-established recycling...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern...... detrimental to their recycling. Finally, a material flow analysis (MFA) approach revealed the potential for accumulation and spreading of contaminants in material recycling, on the example of the European paper cycle. Assessment of potential mitigation measures indicated that prevention of chemical use...

  7. Footprint of recycled water subsidies downwind of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continental evaporation is a significant and dynamic flux within the atmospheric water budget, but few methods provide robust observational constraints on the large-scale hydroclimatological and hydroecological impacts of this ‘recycled-water’ flux. We demonstrate a geospatial analysis that provides...

  8. Recycling of nonferrous metals from waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, A

    1982-02-01

    Recycling of metals was one of the 9 central subjects of the international symposium on 'Materials and Energy from Refuse', held in Antwerpen on October 20 to 22, 1981. Six of 65 poster sessions papers were on metal recycling; four of them discussed the recycling of nonferrous metals.

  9. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  10. Resource Efficient Metal and Material Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.; van Schaik, Antoinette

    Metals enable sustainability through their use and their recyclability. However, various factors can affect the Resource Efficiency of Metal Processing and Recycling. Some typical factors that enable Resource Efficiency include and arranged under the drivers of sustainability: Environment (Maximize Resource Efficiency — Energy, Recyclates, Materials, Water, Sludges, Emissions, Land); Economic Feasibility (BAT & Recycling Systems Simulation / Digitalization, Product vis-à-vis Material Centric Recycling); and Social — Licence to Operate (Legislation, consumer, policy, theft, manual labour.). In order to realize this primary production has to be linked systemically with typical actors in the recycling chain such as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), Recyclers & Collection, Physical separation specialists as well as process metallurgical operations that produce high value metals, compounds and products that recycle back to products. This is best done with deep knowledge of multi-physics, technology, product & system design, process control, market, life cycle management, policy, to name a few. The combination of these will be discussed as Design for Sustainability (DfS) and Design for Recycling (DfR) applications.

  11. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  12. Performance evaluation of subgrade stabilization with recycled materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Due to rising costs of good quality acceptable materials for remove/replace options and traditional : subgrade stabilization materials, MDOT is in need to identify potential recycled materials to treat : unacceptable subgrade soils. Use of recycled m...

  13. Recovery of the secondary raw materials, recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter the recovery and recycling of secondary raw materials is explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: Paper and tetrapaks; Car wrecks; Scrap metal; Plastics; Used tires; Electrical and electronic equipment; Glass; Accumulators and batteries; Spent oil; Low-and non-waste technology.

  14. Composition of waste materials and recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona

    involves several steps to prepare the samples mechanically and/or chemically for final analysis. Not all sample preparation methods are equally well suited for specific waste characterization purposes. The correctness of results and practical feasibility of sample preparation was strongly affected...... for future modelling and assessment of waste management systems. The analyzed fractions were selected based on material properties with relevance for potential recycling processes. The physico-chemical analysis revealed chemical differences between residual and source-segregated samples for several fractions....... The results for parameters associated with organic matter confirmed the idea of cross-contaminated recyclables in residual waste, whereas the results for heavy metals and trace elements were more complex. For many fractions rather high metal contents were found to be intrinsic properties of the recyclables...

  15. Recovering recyclable materials from shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.; Brockmeier, Norman F.

    1994-02-01

    Each year, about 11 million tons of metals are recovered in the United States from about 10 million discarded automobiles. The recovered metals account for about 75 percent of the total weight of the discarded vehicles. The balance of the material, known as shredder residue, amounts to about three million tons annually and is currently landfilled. The residue contains a diversity of potentially recyclable materials, including polyurethane foams, iron oxides, and certain thermoplastics. This article discusses a process under development at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and recover the recyclable materials from this waste stream. The process consists essentially of two stages. First, a physical separation is used to recover the foams and the metal oxides, followed by a chemical process to extract certain thermoplastics. The status of the technology and the process economics are reviewed here.

  16. Recycling of chemical hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.F.; Davis, B.R.; Karan, K.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Light weight chemical hydrides such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and lithium borohydride (LiBH4) are promising hydrogen storage materials. They offer several advantages including high volumetric storage density, safe storage, practical storage and operating condition, controlled and rapid hydrogen release kinetics in alkaline aqueous media in the presence of catalysts. In addition, borate or borax, the reaction by-product, is environmentally friendly and can be directly disposed or recycled. One technical barrier for utilizing borohydrides as hydrogen storage material is their high production cost. Sodium borohydride currently costs $90 per kg while lithium borohydride costs $8000 per kg. For commercialization, new and improved technology to manufacture borohydrides must be developed - preferably by recycling borates. We are investigating different inorganic recycling routes for regenerating borohydrides from borates. In this paper, the results of a chlorination-based recycling route, incorporating multi-step reactions, will be discussed. Experiments were conducted to establish the efficiency of various steps of the selected regeneration process. The yields of desired products as a function of reaction temperature and composition were obtained from multi-phase batch reactor. Separation efficiency of desired product was also determined. The results obtained so far appear to be promising. (author)

  17. A composite material based on recycled tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malers, L.; Plesuma, R.; Locmele, L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is devoted to the elaboration and investigation of a composite material based on mechanically grinded recycled tires and a polymer binder. The correlation between the content of the binder, some technological parameters, and material properties of the composite was clarified. The apparent density, the compressive stress at a 10% strain, the compressive elastic modulus in static and cyclic loadings, and the insulating properties (acoustic and thermal) were the parameters of special interest of the present investigation. It is found that a purposeful variation of material composition and some technological parameters leads to multifunctional composite materials with different and predictable mechanical and insulation properties.

  18. Low to high performance recycled cementitious materials: case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Etxeberria Larrañaga, Miren

    2015-01-01

    In this work, four real case studies using concrete produced with recycled aggregates are described. The four real cases carried out in Barcelona are: 1) Pavement filling with control low strength material (CLSM) employing fine recycled aggregates, 2) pervious recycled aggregate concrete employing coarse mixed recycled aggregates in the works undertaken at Cervantes park; 3) Concrete blocks produced employing recycled and slag aggregates as well as sea water for a new breakwater dyke and 4) R...

  19. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report...

  20. Demonstrating Lenz's Law with Recycled Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    A number of interesting demonstrations of induced electric currents and of Lenz's law have been described in this journal.1-5 In this paper, a simple version of an experiment that was described6 by Léon Foucault in 1855 is presented. Foucault placed a rotating copper disk between the poles of an electromagnet. When the electromagnet was off, the disk rotated almost without friction, but when the electromagnet was turned on, the disk stopped almost immediately. Nice discussions of this sort of magnetic braking may be found in a number of textbooks.7 Here I describe how to do the demonstration quite simply using recycled materials.

  1. Dismantling of asphalt and recycling road materials in asphalt layers

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, M. L.; Batista, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Este registo pertence ao Repositório Científico do LNEC The interest of recycling of asphalt and other road materials for pavement construction and rehabilitation has been generally growing in Portugal, for the last 15 years. After some occasional demonstration projects dealing with hot and cold in situ recycling of asphalt layers, the first significant experiences with cold in situ recycling and hot mix plant recycling of asphalt applied in full scale rehabilitation projects, ...

  2. High-volume recycled materials for sustainable pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of using high-volume recycled materials for concrete production in rigid pavement. The goal was to replace 50% of the solids with recycled materials and industrial by-products. The pe...

  3. External costs of material recycling strategies for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, B.; Aquilonius, K.; Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is based on studies performed within the framework of the project Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3). Several fusion power plant designs (SEAFP Models 1-6) were compared focusing on part of the plant's life cycle: environmental impact of recycling the materials. Recycling was considered for materials replaced during normal operation, as well as materials from decommissioning of the plant. Environmental impact was assessed and expressed as external cost normalised with the total electrical energy output during plant operation. The methodology used for this study has been developed by the Commission of the European Union within the frame of the ExternE project. External costs for recycling, normalised with the energy production during plant operation, are very low compared with those for other energy sources. Results indicate that a high degree of recycling is preferable, at least when considering external costs, because external costs of manufacturing of new materials and disposal costs are higher

  4. Industry-led program recycles used oil materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Alberta Used Oil Management Association (AUOMA) is running an industry-led program for recycling used oil filters, containers and used oil. The objective of the program is to help develop an infrastructure that will make recycling simple and convenient for consumers of oil materials. It was estimated that millions of litres of used oil are improperly discarded into the Alberta environment. The program is also aimed at increasing public awareness of the importance of recycling used oil materials, particularly to those consumers who change their own motor oil. By the end of 1997 AUOMA expects to open about 50 recycling centres called EcoCentres. An environmental handling charge (EHC) will be paid to AUOMA by wholesale suppliers on the first sale of oil materials in Alberta. The EHC will be the only funds used to support the program

  5. The effect of release liner materials on adhesive contaminants, paper recycling and recycled paper properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Venditti; Richard Gilbert; Andy Zhang; Said Abubakr

    2000-01-01

    Release liner waste material is found in post-consumer waste streams and is also a significant component of the preconsumer waste stream generated in the manufacturing of adhesive products. To date, very little has been reported pertaining to the behavior of release liner in paper recycling. In this study, the effect of the release liner material on the behavior of...

  6. Material properties of frc with recycled aggregate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trčková, Jiřina; Procházka, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2011), s. 105-113 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : recycled aggregate * concrete composite * pullout test Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/02_11/1_Trckova.pdf

  7. Excretion is Faster Than Diagenesis for Nutrient Recycling in Lake Michigan Benthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, C.; Cuhel, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Regeneration of phytoplankton growth nutrients including ammonium (NH4+) and phosphate (HPO4=) occurs in aquatic systems worldwide through biogeochemical processes of diagenesis. Organic matter falling to the bottom accumulates in sediments, and bacterial decomposition removes oxygen from the sub-surface. Anaerobic metabolism is energetically inefficient, and bacteria a few cm below the surface respire or ferment organic matter into carbon dioxide or organic acids, excreting nitrogen (NH4+) or phosphorus inorganic 'waste'. Subsurface production of bacterial metabolic products often leads to sharp gradients in porewater concentrations of NH4+ and HPO4=, which drive diffusive flux out of the sediments into overlying water. Aquatic systems with totally aerobic water overlying anoxic sediment (e.g., Lake Michigan) have muted efflux of certain inorganic nutrients arising from organic matter decomposition. For example, NH4+ is oxidized to nitrate in the upper few mm of surficial sediments by nitrifying bacteria. Strong subsurface porewater gradients, especially of redox- or geochemically-reactive compounds, often decline to low values well below the sediment-water interface, indicating transformation by sediment bacterial populations, or by purely geochemical processes such as calcium hydroxyphosphate (apatite) precipitation. For these, little flux to the water column occurs. In Lake Michigan, neither NH4+ nor HPO4= escapes substantially from the biogeochemical barriers between their diagenetic sources and overlying waters, either before or after ecosystem alteration by invasive quagga mussels (QM). Silicate and total CO2 evade unimpeded in the same cores. The organic matter deposited from the water column is also the nutrition of benthic bivalve filter feeders such as QM in Lake Michigan, or the Asian Clam in San Francisco Bay. In animal metabolism for energy production, only the carbon component is oxidized through respiration, with NH4+ (from protein) and HPO4= (from

  8. Energy impacts of recycling disassembly material in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Weijun; Ariyama, Takahiro; Ojima, Toshio; Meier, Alan

    2000-01-01

    In order to stop the global warmth due to the CO2 concentration, the energy use should be decreased. The investment of building construction industry in Japan is about 20 percent of GDP. This fraction is much higher than in most developed countries. That results the Japanese building construction industry including residential use consumes about one third of all energy and resources of the entire industrial sectors. In order to save energy as well as resource, the recycle of the building materials should be urgent to be carried out. In this paper, we focus on the potential energy savings with a simple calculated method when the building materials or products are manufactured from recycled materials. We examined three kinds of residential buildings with different construction techniques and estimated the decreased amount of energy consumption and resources resulting from use of recycled materials. The results have shown for most building materials, the energy consumption needed to remake housing materials from recycled materials is lower than that to make new housing materials. The energy consumption of building materials in all case-study housing can be saved by at least 10 percent. At the same time, the resource, measured by mass of building materials (kg) can be decreased by over 50 percent

  9. Feasibility of Target Material Recycling as Waste Management Alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Wilson, P.; Henderson, D.; Varuttamaseni, A.

    2004-01-01

    The issue of waste management has been studied simultaneously along with the development of the ARIES heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion energy (IFE) concept. Options for waste management include disposal in repositories, recycling, or clearance from regulatory control, following a reasonable cooling period. This paper concerns the feasibility of recycling the heavy-ion-beam targets, in particular the hohlraum wall materials that include, for example, Au/Gd, Au, W, Pb, Hg, Ta, Pb/Ta/Cs, Hg/W/Cs, Pb/Hf, Hf, solid Kr, and solid Xe. The choice between target material disposal and recycling depends on the amount of waste generated relative to the nuclear island, the strategy to solve the recycling problem, and the impact of the additional cost and complexity of the recycling process on the overall machine. A detailed flow diagram for the elements of the recycling process was developed to analyze two extreme activation cases: (a) one-shot use and then disposal in a repository and (b) recycling continuously during plant life without removal of transmutation products. Metrics for comparing the two scenarios included waste level, dose to recycling equipment, additional cost, and design complexity. Comparing the two approaches indicated a preference for the one-shot scenario as it generates 1 m 3 /yr of extremely low-level waste (Class A) and offers attractive design and economics features. Recycling reduces the target waste stream by a factor of 10 or more but introduces additional issues. It may produce high-level waste, requires remote handling, adds radioactive storage facilities, and increases the cost and complexity of the plant. The inventory analysis indicated that the heavy-ion-beam (HIB) target materials represent a very small waste stream compared to that of the nuclear island (<1% of the total waste). This means recycling is not a 'must' requirement for IFE-HIB power plants unless the target materials have cost and/or resource problems (e.g., Au and Gd). In this

  10. Recycled materials in geotechnical applications. Geotechnical special publication No. 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Elton, D.J. [eds.

    1998-07-01

    Recycled materials have the potential for use in a variety of geotechnical and geoenvironmental applications. This proceedings contains 15 papers on field applications and laboratory testing related to recycled materials. Papers cover: geotechnics of industrial by-products; paper mill sludge for landfill cover; mitigation of void development under bridge approach slabs using rubber tire chips; tire shreds as lightweight fill for embankments and retaining walls; performance of a highway embankment and hydraulic barriers constructed using waste foundry sand, and recycled materials; lagoon-stored lime for embankment; construction and demolition debris for base and subbase applications; fly ash for fill, pavement, earth structures and aggregate; compaction of contaminated soils-reuse as a road base material; and database on beneficial reuse of foundry by-products; and more.

  11. POPULAR COOPERATIVE RECYCLING: THE CASE OF COOPERATIVE RECYCLABLE MATERIAL RIBEIRÃO PRETO

    OpenAIRE

    Mantovani, Daielly Melina Nassif; Leite, Maria FLavia Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    The social cooperatives, in view of supportive economy, are pointed as a necessity to social inclusion of many marginalized employees in the work market and society. Thisarticlepresentsthe case oftheRecycling Material Cooperativefrom Ribeirão Preto (Cooperativa dos Catadores de Material Reciclável de Ribeirão Preto). The cooperative, in partner with a non-governmental organization (Casa das Mangueiras) tries to improve the social conditions of the employees and their fair social inclusion. Th...

  12. Waste management, energy generation, material recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The concept of process pyrolysis according to the system of low-temperature pyrolysis (up to 450 Cel) for the purpose of waste processing is described. This system not only uses the material value (raw materials) but also the processing value (energetic utilization of organic components). Three product groups are mentioned where process pyrolysis can be applied: 1. rubber-metall connecting, coated and non-coated components, 2. Compound materials like pc boards, used electronic devices, films, used cables and batteries, 3. organic waste and residues like foils, insulating material, lubricating, oil and grease, flooring. Importance of waste management is emphasized, economic aspects are illustrated.

  13. Efficient use of recycled concrete in transportation infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    This study examined current national and international practices regarding the use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) as engineering materials by the transportation industry as well as a history of Michigan's experience with RCA. In the laboratory...

  14. Recycling of Metals and Materials: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Ruth K., Comp.; Castrow, Lee, Comp.

    Recycling of metals and materials has as its purpose the easing of two major environmental crises. First, we re-utilize scarce and non-renewable resources. Second, solid waste disposal problems can be alleviated. Industry has long been concerned with reclaiming its own waste products, and is now beginning to respond to the need for dealing with…

  15. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO 2 atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N 2 adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m 2 g -1 . The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials

  16. Current Condition of Michigan Curriculum Materials Centers and Collections in Academic Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrman, Rita

    2015-01-01

    A 2005 sabbatical study revealed 24 unique curriculum materials centers or collections (CMCs) in Michigan colleges or universities. The focus of the study was to investigate the number, characteristics, and quality of these centers and collections supporting education faculty and students. A follow up 2014 study asked how or if the Michigan…

  17. Recycling of radioactively contaminated materials: Public policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, E.K.

    1994-01-01

    Recycling radioactively contaminated materials requires varying degrees of interaction among Federal regulatory agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State governments and regulators, the public, and the Department of Energy. The actions of any of these parties can elicit reactions from the other parties and will raise issues that must be addressed in order to achieve a coherent policy on recycling. The paper discusses potential actions and reactions of Federal regulatory agencies (defined as NRC and EPA), the States, and the Department and the policy issues they raise

  18. Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Wallo, A. III.

    1995-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. The preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping. (author)

  19. Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Wallo, A. III

    1994-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. Preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping

  20. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J

    2004-11-15

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO{sub 2} atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials.

  1. Fracture mechanics of polymer mortar made with recycled raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jurumenha,Marco Antonio Godoy; Reis,João Marciano Laredo dos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to show that industrial residues could be used in construction applications so that production costs as well as environmental protection can be improved. The fracture properties of polymer mortar manufactured with recycled materials are investigated to evaluate the materials behaviour to crack propagation. The residues used in this work were spent sand from foundry industry as aggregate, unsaturated polyester resin from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as matrix and po...

  2. Fracture mechanics of polymer mortar made with recycled raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Godoy Jurumenha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show that industrial residues could be used in construction applications so that production costs as well as environmental protection can be improved. The fracture properties of polymer mortar manufactured with recycled materials are investigated to evaluate the materials behaviour to crack propagation. The residues used in this work were spent sand from foundry industry as aggregate, unsaturated polyester resin from polyethylene terephthalate (PET as matrix and polyester textile fibres from garment industry, producing an unique composite material fully from recycled components with low cost. The substitution of fresh by used foundry sand and the insertions of textile fibres contribute to a less brittle behaviour of polymer mortar.

  3. MICROBIALLY MEDIATED LEACHING OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS FROM RECYCLABLE MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, D. W.; Fujita, Y.; Daubaras, D. L.; Bruhn, D. F.; Reiss, J. H.; Thompson, V. S.; Jiao, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Bioleaching offers a potential approach for recovery of rare earth elements (REE) from recyclable materials, such as fluorescent lamp phosphors or degraded industrial catalysts. Microorganisms were enriched from REE-containing ores and recyclable materials with the goal of identifying strains capable of extracting REE from solid materials. Over 100 heterotrophic microorganisms were isolated and screened for their ability to produce organic acids capable of leaching REE. The ten most promising isolates were most closely related to Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Talaromyces. Of the acids produced, gluconic acid appeared to be the most effective at leaching REE (yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, europium, and terbium) from retorted phosphor powders (RPP), fluidized cracking catalyst (FCC), and europium-doped yttrium oxide (YOEu). We found that an Acinetobacter isolates, BH1, was the most capable strain and able to leach 33% of the total REE content from the FCC material. These results support the continuing evaluation of gluconic acid-producing microbes for large-scale REE recovery from recyclable materials.

  4. Reuse and recycling of radioactive material packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerulis, Eduardo; Zapparoli, Carlos Leonel; Barboza, Marycel Figols de

    2009-01-01

    Human development is directly linked to energy consumption. The political decisions (to this human development) result in economic, social and environmental aspects, whose magnitude should maintain the sustainability of every aspect for not to collapsing. The environmental aspect has been a target of research because of the excessive emission of gases which contributes to the greenhouse effect. The production processes emit gases due to the consumption of energy to get it, but it is necessary to maintain the environmental sustainability in order to minimize the contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases. The population control and the energetic efficiency are factors that contribute to the environmental sustainability. Besides them, the culture of consumption is another factor that, when applied to the reduction of emissions, also contributes to the sustainability of the environment. The reuse of materials is one of the sub-factors which contribute to the reduction of emissions. The Radiopharmacy Directory (DIRF) at IPEN-CNEN/SP, produces radiopharmaceuticals that are necessary to improve the Brazilian population's life quality. The radiopharmaceuticals are transported in packaging to the transport of radioactive material. These packages are considered non-biodegradable, because some metals, which make up these packages, pollute the environment. These packages have increased costs, in addition, because it must be approved in tests of integrity. The reuse of packaging in favorable situations to the same purpose is a way to help the environment degradation and costs reduction. The packaging reuse in unfavorable situations disobey rules or return logistics that become effective the transport back, but the consumption culture strengthening can change this situation. This paper describes IPEN's packaging, form and quantities distribution, and the packaging that comes back to be reused. (author)

  5. Developing improved opportunities for the recycling and reuse of materials in road, bridge, and construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The use of recycled and reused materials in transportation construction reduces consumption of non-renewable : resources. The objective of this research was to develop opportunities for improving the recycling and reuse of : materials in road and bri...

  6. Recycling of plastic materials collected by `Duales System Deutschland (DSD)`; Werkstoffliches Recycling von Kunststoffen aus DSD-Sammlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgaertner, D. [Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany); Heinz, H. [Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany); Hiller, W. [Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    The article deals with the importance, problems and technology of plastics recycling. It gives an overview of the specific demands of plastics recyclates, the necessary process technology, and the characteristic values of materials. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird die Bedeutung, die Problematik und Technik des werkstofflichen Recyclings von Kunststoffen dargestellt. Dabei sind sowohl die spezifischen Anforderungen des Einsatzstoffes als Recyclingmaterial, die notwendige Verfahrenstechnik als auch die werkstofflichen Kennwerte in einer Uebersicht dargestellt. (orig.)

  7. Reprocessing yields and material throughput: HTGR recycle demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, N.; Abraham, L.

    1977-08-01

    Recovery and reuse of residual U-235 and bred U-233 from the HTGR thorium-uranium fuel cycle will contribute significantly to HTGR fuel cycle economics and to uranium resource conservation. The Thorium Utilization National Program Plan for HTGR Fuel Recycle Development includes the demonstration, on a production scale, of reprocessing and refabrication processes in an HTGR Recycle Demonstration Facility (HRDF). This report addresses process yields and material throughput that may be typically expected in the reprocessing of highly enriched uranium fuels in the HRDF. Material flows will serve as guidance in conceptual design of the reprocessing portion of the HRDF. In addition, uranium loss projections, particle breakage limits, and decontamination factor requirements are identified to serve as guidance to the HTGR fuel reprocessing development program

  8. Challenge of material recycling at large public events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    infrastructure. Sound waste management is one of the challenges. Some preliminary results presented here, concern waste material flows at a large public event, illustrated on the example of Roskilde Festival (Denmark). Roskilde Festival is a large annual event, which attracts more than 120,000 participants......Large public events such as festivals, sports events or national celebrations tend to attract a considerable number of people. While some of the events are important sources of entertainment for the participants, such gatherings create a challenge to organize and maintain a functioning...... recycling at the festival have been implemented, our preliminary results suggest that there is currently large potential to recover additional materials for recycling and improve sustainability at large public events....

  9. Clearance, recycling and disposal of fusion activated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Forrest, R.; Forty, C.; Gulden, W.; Rocco, P.; Rosanvallon, S.

    2001-01-01

    The SEAFP-99 waste management studies include further explorations in the direction of activated materials management, adopting a more realistic approach in order to consolidate and refine the previous encouraging findings of SEAFP waste management studies performed till 1998. The main results were obtained in the following topics, impact of materials/components optimisation on waste management issues; integrated approach to recycling and clearance; analysis of the potential for fusion specific repositories and hazard-relevant nuclides/processes; materials detritiation. The overall conclusion is that the adoption of a more realistic approach for the analysis has been beneficial. The results further confirmed the potential for waste minimisation and hazard reduction

  10. Issues in recycling and disposal of radioactively contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluk, A.F.; Hocking, E.K.; Roberts, R.; Phillips, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's present stock of potentially re-usable and minimally radioactively contaminated materials will increase significantly as the Department's remediation activities expand. As part of its effort to minimize wastes, the Department is pursuing several approaches to recover valuable materials such as nickel, copper, and steel, and reduce the high disposal costs associated with contaminated materials. Key approaches are recycling radioactively contaminated materials or disposing of them as non-radioactive waste. These approaches are impeded by a combination of potentially conflicting Federal regulations, State actions, and Departmental policies. Actions to promote or implement these approaches at the Federal, State, or Departmental level involve issues which must be addressed and resolved. The paramount issue is the legal status of radioactively contaminated materials and the roles of the Federal and State governments in regulating those materials. Public involvement is crucial in the debate surrounding the fate of radioactively contaminated materials

  11. Reusing Recycling Material as Teaching Strategy to Strengthen Environmental Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudit Zaida del Carmen Alarcón de Palma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was centered interest implement recycling reuse the material as a teaching strategy to strengthen environmental students “Adolfo Moreno” National Basic School Barinitas parish, municipality Bolivar, Barinas state values. School Year 2014 - 2015. The study was based on the paradigm of qualitative research and research in action type. From this point of view, the study focuses on participatory action this mode, it is limited in so-called field layouts. The study its characteristics was fulfilled in the following phases: diagnosis, planning, implementation, evaluation and systematization. Finally, it can be noted that the implementation of teaching strategies reuse recycle material for strengthening environmental students "Adolfo Moreno" National Basic School values; They will be incorporating parents and guardians as well as various educational actors to implement the activities involved in the proposal which seeks to change attitudes to improve through practical actions management standards and conservation practices to achieve an environmental change in institution through technical, theoretical and practical knowledge to strengthen the benefit of recyclables properly handle procedures.

  12. Development of Solvent Extraction Approach to Recycle Enriched Molybdenum Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Brown, M. Alex [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Sen, Sujat [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Bowers, Delbert L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Wardle, Kent [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Pupek, Krzysztof Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Dzwiniel, Trevor L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Krumdick, Gregory K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, in cooperation with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, is developing a recycling process for a solution containing valuable Mo-100 or Mo-98 enriched material. Previously, Argonne had developed a recycle process using a precipitation technique. However, this process is labor intensive and can lead to production of large volumes of highly corrosive waste. This report discusses an alternative process to recover enriched Mo in the form of ammonium heptamolybdate by using solvent extraction. Small-scale experiments determined the optimal conditions for effective extraction of high Mo concentrations. Methods were developed for removal of ammonium chloride from the molybdenum product of the solvent extraction process. In large-scale experiments, very good purification from potassium and other elements was observed with very high recovery yields (~98%).

  13. Utilizing Coal Fly Ash and Recycled Glass in Developing Green Concrete Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The environmental impact of Portland cement concrete production has motivated researchers and the construction industry to evaluate alternative technologies for incorporating recycled cementing materials and recycled aggregates in concrete. One such ...

  14. Material Cycles and Chemicals: Dynamic Material Flow Analysis of Contaminants in Paper Recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Laner, David; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    material source-segregation and collection was the least effective strategy for reducing chemical contamination, if the overall recycling rates should be maintained at the current level (approximately 70% for Europe). The study provides a consistent approach for evaluating contaminant levels in material......This study provides a systematic approach for assessment of contaminants in materials for recycling. Paper recycling is used as an illustrative example. Three selected chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs), are evaluated within the paper...... cycle. The approach combines static material flow analysis (MFA) with dynamic material and substance flow modeling. The results indicate that phasing out of chemicals is the most effective measure for reducing chemical contamination. However, this scenario was also associated with a considerable lag...

  15. Raw material generated from pet bottle recycling and its derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Almeida Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recycling process is no longer a pejorative connotation business to become the main business of any company not only because of the need to conserve virgin resources, but mainly because of the benefits to the environment. In this sense, this paper aims at assessing the possibility of exports of polyethylene terephthalate - PET known for - a type of product that can be recycled and reprocessed into products of various types and applications. This article has been structured based on exploratory research bibliographic database of scientific articles, books, newspapers and magazines where we analyze the main steps involved in the recycling of PET and its exploitation for export. Support of organizations and associations such as the Brazilian Association of PET (ABIPET contributed to the development of theoretical framework. The market operated and what can still be very large, with the possibility of exponential growth supported by: the economy in the use of virgin resources reduces the impact of chemicals in the environment, saving energy used in the production process, reducing the use of financial resources allocated to the reuse of materials.

  16. Current and future priorities for mass and material in silicon PV module recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.L.; Geerligs, L.J.; Goris, M.J.A.A.; Bennett, I.J. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Clyncke, J. [PV CYCLE, Rue Montoyer 23, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    A full description of the state-of-the-art PV recycling methods and their rationale is presented, which discusses the quality of the recycled materials and the fate of the substances which end up in the landfill. The aim is to flag the PV module components currently not recycled, which may have a priority in terms of their embedded energy, chemical nature or scarcity, for the next evolution of recycling. The sustainability of different recycling options, emerging in the literature on electronic waste recycling, and the possible improvement of the environmental footprint of silicon PV modules, will be discussed.

  17. Environmentally sound management of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, T.

    2002-01-01

    Environmentally sound management or ESM has been defined under the Basel Convention as 'taking all practicable steps to ensure that hazardous wastes and other wastes are managed in a manner which will protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from such wastes'. An initiative is underway to develop and implement a Canadian Environmentally Sound Management (ESM) regime for both hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials. This ESM regime aims to assure equivalent minimum environmental protection across Canada while respecting regional differences. Cooperation and coordination between the federal government, provinces and territories is essential to the development and implementation of ESM systems since waste management is a shared jurisdiction in Canada. Federally, CEPA 1999 provides an opportunity to improve Environment Canada's ability to ensure that all exports and imports are managed in an environmentally sound manner. CEPA 1999 enabled Environment Canada to establish criteria for environmentally sound management (ESM) that can be applied by importers and exporters in seeking to ensure that wastes and recyclable materials they import or export will be treated in an environmentally sound manner. The ESM regime would include the development of ESM principles, criteria and guidelines relevant to Canada and a procedure for evaluating ESM. It would be developed in full consultation with stakeholders. The timeline for the development and implementation of the ESM regime is anticipated by about 2006. (author)

  18. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Material Recycling Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA- 60 Material Recycling Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Material Recycling Facility. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  19. Melting behaviour of raw materials and recycled stone wool waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Falk, Vickie; Agersted, Karsten; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2018-01-01

    Stone wool is a widely used material for building insulation, to provide thermal comfort along with fire stability and acoustic comfort for all types of buildings. Stone wool waste generated either during production or during renovation or demolition of buildings can be recycled back into the sto...... wool melt production. This study investigates and compares the thermal response and melting behaviour of a conventional stone wool charge and stone wool waste. The study combines differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC reveals...... that the conventional charge and stone wool waste have fundamentally different thermal responses, where the charge experiences gas release, phase transition and melting of the individual raw materials. The stone wool waste experiences glass transition, crystallization and finally melting. Both DSC and HSM measurements...

  20. Sustainability and training materials for in-place recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Hot and cold in-place recycling techniques recycle 100 percent of a hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement, in place, during the maintenance/rehabilitation process. Numerous studies have shown in-place recycling to be a sustainable, cost-effective procedure ...

  1. Introduction of the Recycling program for Nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Beom; Shin, Byung Woo; Park, Jae Whan; Park, Soo Jin

    2009-01-01

    The LOF is the abbreviation of Location outside Facilities using in safeguards. IAEA want to control the location using the small nuclear material over the world. The depleted uranium used in Industrial field should be controlled by the Government according to the agreement between the IAEA and the ROK. From 2006, The ROK is managing the locations in the LOF. The detail article governing the locations is on the Location attachment agreed between two bodies. As of end of 2007, The LOF was consisting of 64 locations. Now, A number of Locations are increasing up to 75. The KINAC(Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control) is controlling the data about the amount of nuclear material in LOF. The KINAC is trying to upgrade the efficiency and accuracy about the data. The KINAC will make a storage house at the underground of head office from 2009. The purpose of the storage system in KINAC is gathering the nuclear material, which is difficult to control by the industries, especially the nuclear material involved in LOF. The final goal for gathering the nuclear materials are recycling to new another machine. I would like to introduce the handling case of the Depleted uranium in their countries. On this paper, I will show 4 countries case briefly

  2. The Usage of Recycle Materials for Science Practicum: Is There Any Effect on Science Process Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajoko, Setiyo; Amin, Mohamad; Rohman, Fatchur; Gipayana, Muhana

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the effect of recycle materials usage for science practicum on students' basic science process skills of the Open University, Surakarta. Recycle materials are the term used for the obtained materials and equipment from the students' environment by taking back the garbage or secondhand objects into goods or new…

  3. Environmental safety issues for semiconductors (research on scarce materials recycling)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Shigekazu

    2004-01-01

    In the 21st century, in the fabrication of various industrial parts, particularly, current and future electronics devices in the semiconductor industry, environmental safety issues should be carefully considered. We coined a new term, environmental safety issues for semiconductors, considering our semiconductor research and technology which include environmental and ecological factors. The main object of this analysis is to address the present situation of environmental safety problems in the semiconductor industry; some of which are: (1) the generation and use of hazardous toxic gases in the crystal growth procedure such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), (2) the generation of industrial toxic wastes in the semiconductor process and (3) scarce materials recycling from wastes in the MBE and MOCVD growth procedure

  4. Assessing changes on poly(ethylene terephthalate) properties after recycling: Mechanical recycling in laboratory versus postconsumer recycled material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, María del Mar Castro, E-mail: quimcl02@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Ares Pernas, Ana Isabel, E-mail: aares@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Abad López, Ma José, E-mail: mjabad@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-10-15

    Keeping rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, is necessary to assure the quality of second-market applications. A comparative study of these properties has been undertaken in virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET samples. Viscoelastic characterization was carried out by rheological measurements. Mechanical properties were estimated by tensile and Charpy impact strength tests. Thermal properties and crystallinity were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and a deconvolution procedure was applied to study the population of the different crystals. Molecular conformational changes related to crystallinity values were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Variations in average molecular weight were predicted from rheology. Besides, the presence-absence of linear and cyclic oligomeric species was measured by mass spectrometry techniques, as MALDI-TOF. Mechanical recycled PET undergoes a significant decline in rheological, mechanical and thermal properties upon increasing the number of reprocessing steps. This is due to the cleavage of the ester bonds with reduction in molar mass and raise in cyclic oligomeric species, in particular [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G type. Chain shortening plus enrichment in trans conformers favour the crystallization process which occurs earlier and faster with modification in crystal populations. Additional physicochemical steps are necessary to preserve the main benefits of PET. - Highlights: • Combination of multiple techniques to characterize the effects of recycling in PET. • Cleavage of ester bonds reduced viscosity, Mw, toughness in mechanical recycled PET. • Virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET differ in crystal populations. • Cyclic oligomers [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G increase from the fourth extrusion cycle onwards.

  5. Climate Benefits of Material Recycling: Inventory of Average Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillman, Karl; Damgaard, Anders; Eriksson, Ola

    The purpose of this project is to compare emissions of greenhouse gases from material recycling with those from virgin material production, both from a material supply perspective and from a recycling system perspective. The method for estimating emissions and climate benefits is based on a review......, followed by a selection, of the most relevant publications on life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials for use in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The proposed averages show that emissions from material recycling are lower in both perspectives, comparing either material supply or complete recycling systems....... The results can be used by companies and industry associations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden to communicate the current climate benefits of material recycling in general. They may also contribute to discussions on a societal level, as long as their average and historic nature is recognised....

  6. Fuel costs of a light water reactor with fissile material recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the light of the present prices of natural uranium and separative work and fabrication costs, savings can be achieved by reloading recycled fissile material. As in all recycling techniques, the product recovered cannot meet the whole new requirement. No excessive economic expectations should be associated with fissile material recycling in ligth water reactors. The main advantages of the procedure are the conservation of resources and the safety against proliferation. Besides, the original purpose of reprocessing should not be forgotten, i.e., in addition to the recycling of fissile material, to have a safe and easy method of secular disposal of high level waste (concentrated fission products). (orig.) [de

  7. Recycling issues facing target and RTL materials of inertial fusion designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Wilson, P.; Sawan, M.; Henderson, D.; Varuttamaseni, A.

    2005-01-01

    Designers of heavy ion (HI) and Z-pinch inertial fusion power plants have explored the potential of recycling the target and recyclable transmission line (RTL) materials as an alternate option to disposal in a geological repository. This work represents the first time a comprehensive recycling assessment was performed on both machines with an exact pulse history. Our results offer two divergent conclusions on the recycling issue. For the HI concept, target recycling is not a 'must' requirement and the preferred option is the one-shot use scenario as target materials represent a small waste stream, less than 1% of the total nuclear island waste. We recommend using low-cost hohlraum materials once-through and then disposing of them instead of recycling expensive materials such as Au and Gd. On the contrary, RTL recycling is a 'must' requirement for the Z-pinch concept in order to minimize the RTL inventory and enhance the economics. The RTLs meet the low level waste and recycling dose requirements with a wide margin when recycled for the entire plant life even without a cooling period. While recycling offers advantages to the Z-pinch system, it adds complexity and cost to the HI designs

  8. Recycling ceramic industry wastes in sound absorbing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arenas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this investigation is to develop a material mainly composed (80% w/w of ceramic wastes that can be applied in the manufacture of road traffic noise reducing devices. The characterization of the product has been carried out attending to its acoustic, physical and mechanical properties, by measuring the sound absorption coefficient at normal incidence, the open void ratio, density and compressive strength. Since the sound absorbing behavior of a porous material is related to the size of the pores and the thickness of the specimen tested, the influence of the particle grain size of the ceramic waste and the thickness of the samples tested on the properties of the final product has been analyzed. The results obtained have been compared to a porous concrete made of crushed granite aggregate as a reference commercial material traditionally used in similar applications. Compositions with coarse particles showed greater sound absorption properties than compositions made with finer particles, besides presenting better sound absorption behavior than the reference porous concrete. Therefore, a ceramic waste-based porous concrete can be potentially recycled in the highway noise barriers field.

  9. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures 2013 - Assessing Trends in Materials Generation, Recycling and Disposal in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a webinar page for the Sustainable Management of Materials (SMM) Web Academy webinar titled Let’s WRAP (Wrap Recycling Action Program): Best Practices to Boost Plastic Film Recycling in Your Community

  10. Waste handling and REACH : Recycling of materials containing SVHCs: daily practice challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen MPM; van Broekhuizen FA; MSP; M&V

    2017-01-01

    To achieve a circular economy it is essential to recycle substances, materials and products created by that economy. Recycling, however, becomes more difficult when said materials and products contain substances that are so hazardous that their use is restricted. This is the case with any substance

  11. Material recycling: Presence of chemicals and their influence on the circular economy concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    of the concept is the pursuit of sustainability through re-use and recycling of products and materials once they have served their purpose. Once such materials (e.g. paper, plastics) are recycled, chemicals that they contain are reintroduced,spread or even accumulate in the newly manufactured products (Figure 1...... the recyclability of waste materials with respect to the presence of substances. The outcomes of the work will provide crucial basis for future waste characterization activities, environmental and risk assessments of material recycling, as well as provide authorities, scientific community and society...... with a necessary basis for evaluating potential future limitations to recycling and address means of mitigating accumulation and spreading of chemicals in various materials....

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  13. Transportation of radioactive material in Michigan. Final report, September 1980-August 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, M.J.; Hennigan, J.M.; Bruchmann, G.W.

    1982-05-01

    Most of the radioactive material transported into and through the State of Michigan is comprised of radiopharmaceuticals. The remainder includes radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and hospitals, uranium ore concentrate (yellowcake) from Ontario, Canada, and periodic spent fuel shipments from a university research reactor. Investigations carried out under contract with the US Department of Transportation and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have revealed that minor violations of packaging and shipping paper regulations persist but to a lesser degree than in previous years. Major operational problems associated with two courier companies have substantially improved but still require improvement. Several minor transportation accidents are reported, none of which resulted in significant radiation exposure. Joint investigations with federal agencies were made, and some resulted in legal action against shippers. Future work performed will be under a contract with the US Department of Transportation

  14. Recyclable Materials (Waste) Management in Enterprise’s Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malevskaia-Malevich, E. D.; Demidenko, D. S.

    2017-10-01

    Currently, in view of the increasing garbage crisis, the notion of a “new lease of life” for waste becomes even more relevant. Waste recycling makes it possible not only to solve obvious environmental problems, but also to offer new resource opportunities for industries. Among the obvious economic, social and environmental advantages, however, waste recycling meets various problems. These problems and solutions for them, as well as the problems of economic efficiency improvement and recycling activities’ appeal for industrial companies in Leningrad region, are discussed in the present study.

  15. An efficient method of material recycling of municipal plastic waste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortelný, Ivan; Michálková, Danuše; Kruliš, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 9 (2004), s. 975-979 ISSN 0141-3910. [IUPAC Microsymposium on Degradation, Stabilisation and Recycling of Polymers /42./. Prague, 14.07.2003-17.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS4050008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : recycling * municipal plastic waste * compatibilisation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2004

  16. Direct regeneration of recycled cathode material mixture from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelei; Zhang, Jin; Song, Dawei; Song, Jishun; Zhang, Lianqi

    2017-03-01

    A new green recycling process (named as direct regeneration process) of cathode material mixture from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries is designed for the first time. Through this direct regeneration process, high purity cathode material mixture (LiFePO4 + acetylene black), anode material mixture (graphite + acetylene black) and other by-products (shell, Al foil, Cu foil and electrolyte solvent, etc.) are recycled from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries with high yield. Subsequently, recycled cathode material mixture without acid leaching is further directly regenerated with Li2CO3. Direct regeneration procedure of recycled cathode material mixture from 600 to 800 °C is investigated in detail. Cathode material mixture regenerated at 650 °C display excellent physical, chemical and electrochemical performances, which meet the reuse requirement for middle-end Li-ion batteries. The results indicate the green direct regeneration process with low-cost and high added-value is feasible.

  17. Enabling In-Theater Processes for Indigenous, Recycled, and Reclaimed Material Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    plastic , chemicals, food, cloth , oil, grease, biological materials, animal and agricultural waste, and sludge. It is expected that one of these...ARL-TR-7560 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Enabling In-Theater Processes for Indigenous, Recycled , and Reclaimed Material...ARL-TR-7560 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Enabling In-Theater Processes for Indigenous, Recycled , and Reclaimed Material

  18. Influence of the recycled material percentage on the rheological behaviour of HDPE for injection moulding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javierre, C; Clavería, I; Ponz, L; Aísa, J; Fernández, A

    2007-01-01

    The amount of polymer material wasted during thermoplastic injection moulding is very high. It comes from both the feed system of the part, and parts necessary to set up the mould, as well as the scrap generated along the process due to quality problems. The residues are managed through polymer recycling that allows reuse of the materials in the manufacturing injection process. Recycling mills convert the parts into small pieces that are used as feed material for injection, by mixing the recycled feedstock in different percentages with raw material. This mixture of both raw and recycled material modifies material properties according to the percentage of recycled material introduced. Some of the properties affected by this modification are those related to rheologic behaviour, which strongly conditions the future injection moulding process. This paper analyzes the rheologic behaviour of material with different percentages of recycled material by means of a capillary rheometer, and evaluates the influence of the corresponding viscosity curves obtained on the injection moulding process, where small variations of parameters related to rheological behaviour, such as pressure or clamping force, can be critical to the viability and cost of the parts manufactured by injection moulding.

  19. Development of Low Cost Soil Stabilization Using Recycled Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, F.; Yahaya, A. S.; Safari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Recycled tyres have been used in many geotechnical engineering projects such as soil improvement, soil erosion and slope stability. Recycled tyres mainly in chip and shredded form are highly compressible under low and normal pressures. This characteristic would cause challenging problems in some applications of soil stabilization such as retaining wall and river bank projects. For high tensile stress and low tensile strain the use of fiberglass would be a good alternative for recycled tyre in some cases. To evaluate fiberglass as an alternative for recycled tyre, this paper focused on tests of tensile tests which have been carried out between fiberglass and recycled tyre strips. Fibreglass samples were produced from chopped strand fibre mat, a very low-cost type of fibreglass, which is cured by resin and hardener. Fibreglass samples in the thickness of 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were developed 100 mm x 300 mm pieces. It was found that 3 mm fibreglass exhibited the maximum tensile load (MTL) and maximum tensile stress (MTS) greater than other samples. Statistical analysis on 3 mm fibreglass indicated that in the approximately equal MTL fibreglass samples experienced 2% while tyre samples experienced 33.9% ultimate tensile strain (UTST) respectively. The results also showed an approximately linear relationship between stress and strain for fibreglass samples and Young's modulus (E), ranging from 3581 MPa to 4728 MPa.

  20. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Majumdar, S.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sham, T.-L. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (ORNL)

    2012-05-31

    This report summarizes the further findings from the assessments of current status and future needs in code qualification and licensing of reference structural materials and new advanced alloys for advanced recycling reactors (ARRs) in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The work is a combined effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with ANL as the technical lead, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for AFCI Reactor Campaign. The report is the second deliverable in FY08 (M505011401) under the work package 'Advanced Materials Code Qualification'. The overall objective of the Advanced Materials Code Qualification project is to evaluate key requirements for the ASME Code qualification and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of structural materials in support of the design and licensing of the ARR. Advanced materials are a critical element in the development of sodium reactor technologies. Enhanced materials performance not only improves safety margins and provides design flexibility, but also is essential for the economics of future advanced sodium reactors. Code qualification and licensing of advanced materials are prominent needs for developing and implementing advanced sodium reactor technologies. Nuclear structural component design in the U.S. must comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III (Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components) and the NRC grants the operational license. As the ARR will operate at higher temperatures than the current light water reactors (LWRs), the design of elevated-temperature components must comply with ASME Subsection NH (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). However, the NRC has not approved the use of Subsection NH for reactor components, and this puts additional burdens on materials qualification of the ARR. In the past licensing review for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP

  1. Brownfields Recover Your Resources - Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Construction and Demolition Materials at Land Revitalization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides background information on how the sustainable reuse of brownfield properties includes efforts to reduce the environmental impact by reusing and recycling materials generated during building construction, demolition, or renovation.

  2. General Motors and the University of Michigan smart materials and structures collaborative research laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Diann; Luntz, Jonathan; Shaw, John; Johnson, Nancy L.; Browne, Alan L.; Alexander, Paul W.; Mankame, Nilesh D.

    2007-04-01

    The field of Smart Materials and Structures is evolving from high-end, one-of-a-kind products for medical, military and aerospace applications to the point of viability for mainstream affordable high volume products for automotive applications. For the automotive industry, there are significant potential benefits to be realized including reduction in vehicle mass, added functionality and design flexibility and decrease in component size and cost. To further accelerate the path from basic research and development to launched competitive products, General Motors (GM) has teamed with the College of Engineering at the University of Michigan (UM) to establish a $2.9 Million Collaborative Research Laboratory (CRL) in Smart Materials and Structures. Researchers at both GM and UM are working closely together to create leap-frog technologies which start at conceptualization and proceed all the way through demonstration and handoff to product teams, thereby bridging the traditional technology gap between industry and academia. In addition to Smart Device Technology Innovation, other thrust areas in the CRL include Smart Material Maturity with a basic research focus on overcoming material issues that form roadblocks to commercialism and Mechamatronic System Design Methodology with an applied focus on development tools (synthesis and analysis) to aid the engineer in application of smart materials to system engineering. This CRL is a global effort with partners across the nation and world from GM's Global Research Network such as HRL Laboratories in California and GM's India Science Lab in Bangalore, India. This paper provides an overview of this new CRL and gives examples of several of the projects underway.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Medium Density Fibreboard Composites Material Using Recycled Rubber and Coconut Coir

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mahzan; A.M. Ahmad Zaidi; M.I. Ghazali; N. Arsat; M.N. M. Hatta

    2010-01-01

    Natural fibre reinforced composite has emerged as highly potential replacement for synthetic fibres. Various natural waste fibres have been adopted for various engineering applications. This paper investigates the mechanical properties of medium density fibreboard composites material fabricated using recycled rubber and coconut coir. The suitability of using recycled rubber and coconut coir as a raw material and polyurethane as a resin in the manufacturer of medium density fibreboard was also...

  4. Recycling and shallow land burial as goals for fusion reactor materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponti, C.

    1988-01-01

    The acceptability of each natural element as a constituent for fusion reactor materials has been determined for the purpose of limiting long-lived radioactivity, so that the material could be recycled or disposed of by near-surface burial. The results show that there is little incentive for optimizing the composition of steels for recycling. The development of a steel with an optimized composition that would allow reaching shallow land burial conditions even for the first wall is more interesting and feasible

  5. Safe recycling of materials containing persistent inorganic and carbon nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Njuguna, J.; Pielichowski, K.; Zhu, H.

    2014-01-01

    For persistent inorganic and carbon nanomaterials, considerable scope exists for a form of recycling called ‘resource cascading’. Resource cascading is aimed at the maximum exploitation of quality and service time of natural resources. Options for resource cascading include engineered nanomaterials

  6. 40 CFR 261.6 - Requirements for recyclable materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., following its original use, for any purpose (including the purpose for which the oil was originally used...)) for purpose of recovery is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR part 262, subpart H, if it is subject... recycling process itself is exempt from regulation except as provided in § 261.6(d).) (2) Owners or...

  7. Multi-material classification of dry recyclables from municipal solid waste based on thermal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundupalli, Sathish Paulraj; Hait, Subrata; Thakur, Atul

    2017-12-01

    There has been a significant rise in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the last few decades due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. Due to the lack of source segregation practice, a need for automated segregation of recyclables from MSW exists in the developing countries. This paper reports a thermal imaging based system for classifying useful recyclables from simulated MSW sample. Experimental results have demonstrated the possibility to use thermal imaging technique for classification and a robotic system for sorting of recyclables in a single process step. The reported classification system yields an accuracy in the range of 85-96% and is comparable with the existing single-material recyclable classification techniques. We believe that the reported thermal imaging based system can emerge as a viable and inexpensive large-scale classification-cum-sorting technology in recycling plants for processing MSW in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recycle and reuse of materials and components from waste streams of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    All nuclear fuel cycle processes utilize a wide range of equipment and materials to produce the final products they are designed for. However, as at any other industrial facility, during operation of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, apart from the main products some byproducts, spent materials and waste are generated. A lot of these materials, byproducts or some components of waste have a potential value and may be recycled within the original process or reused outside either directly or after appropriate treatment. The issue of recycle and reuse of valuable material is important for all industries including the nuclear fuel cycle. The level of different materials involvement and opportunities for their recycle and reuse in nuclear industry are different at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle activity, generally increasing from the front end to the back end processes and decommissioning. Minimization of waste arisings and the practice of recycle and reuse can improve process economics and can minimize the potential environmental impact. Recognizing the importance of this subject, the International Atomic Energy Agency initiated the preparation of this report aiming to review and summarize the information on the existing recycling and reuse practice for both radioactive and non-radioactive components of waste streams at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in recycle and reuse in nuclear industry

  9. Effective regeneration of anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Li, Xuelei; Song, Dawei; Miao, Yanli; Song, Jishun; Zhang, Lianqi

    2018-06-01

    Recycling high-valuable metal elements (such as Li, Ni, Co, Al and Cu elements) from scrapped lithium ion batteries can bring significant economic benefits. However, recycling and reusing anode material has not yet attracted wide attention up to now, due to the lower added-value than the above valuable metal materials and the difficulties in regenerating process. In this paper, a novel regeneration process with significant green advance is proposed to regenerate anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries for the first time. After regenerated, most acetylene black (AB) and all the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) in recycled anode material are removed, and the surface of anode material is coated with pyrolytic carbon from phenolic resin again. Finally, the regenerated anode material (graphite with coating layer, residual AB and a little CMC pyrolysis product) is obtained. As expected, all the technical indexs of regenerated anode material exceed that of a midrange graphite with the same type, and partial technical indexs are even closed to that of the unused graphite. The results indicate the effective regeneration of anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries is really achieved.

  10. BIOFILTERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT AFTER RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Kania-Surowiec

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of using biological deposits in wastewater treatment of recycled plastics were presented. There are many aspects of this issue that should be considered to be able to use information technology solutions in the industry. This includes, inter alia, specify the types of laboratory tests based on the analysis of changes in the fluid during the wastewater treatment process, knowledge and selection factors for proper growth of biofilm in the deposit and to develop the...

  11. Central sorting and recovery of MSW recyclable materials: A review of technological state-of-the-art, cases, practice and implications for materials recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Maul, Anja; Jansen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Today's waste regulation in the EU comprises stringent material recovery targets and calls for comprehensive programs in order to achieve them. A similar movement is seen in the US where more and more states and communities commit to high diversion rates from landfills. The present paper reviews...... scientific literature, case studies and results from pilot projects, on the topic of central sorting of recyclable materials commonly found in waste from households. The study contributes, inter alia, with background understanding on the development of materials recovery, both in a historical...... sorting of residual MSW is found for areas where source separation and separate collection is difficult, such as urban agglomerations, and can in such areas contribute to increasing recycling rates, either complementary to- or as a substitute for source separation of certain materials, such as plastics...

  12. Enabling Expeditionary Battlefield Manufacturing Using Recycled, Reclaimed, and/or Indigenous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    our operating bases. Indigenous materials include not only the organic and inorganic materials naturally occurring in the area, but could also...include recycled and reclaimed materials from the operating bases (metals, polymers, etc.) as well as battlefield scrap. This idea could potentially reduce

  13. Innovative technologies for recycling and reusing radioactively contaminated materials from DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, S.J.; Hyde, J.

    1993-01-01

    Through award of ten contracts under the solicitation, DOE is continuing efforts to develop innovative technologies for decontamination and recycling or reusing of process equipment, scrap metal, and concrete. These ten technologies are describe briefly in this report. There is great economic incentive for recycling or reusing materials generated during D ampersand D of DOE's facilities. If successfully developed, these superior technologies will enable DOE to clean its facilities by 2019. These technologies will also generate a reusable or recyclable product, while achieving D ampersand D in less time at lower cost with reduced health and safety risks to the workers, the public and the environment

  14. Utilisation of biological and secondary raw materials IX. Recycling - conversion to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemer, Klaus; Kern, Michael; Raussen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The book on the utilization of biological and secondary raw materials covers the following issues: Perspectives of the circular flow and resource economy, waste avoidance, closed substance cycle waste management law and biowaste assessment, economic evaluation and usage alternatives for biogas, consequences of the 4th BlmschV, the BioAbfV and the DueV for the biowaste treatment, alternative techniques of the Biowaste collection, alternative models of the recyclable substance assessment, future of the packaging and recyclable substance utilization, ElectroG and E-scrape recycling, innovative concepts for the municipal waste management, future of the MBA, MVA and EBS management.

  15. Recycling and reuse of chosen kinds of waste materials in a building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferek, B.; Harasymiuk, J.; Tyburski, J.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the current state of knowledge and practice in Poland concerning recycling as a method of reuse of chosen groups of waste materials in building industry. The recycling of building scraps is imposed by environmental, economic and technological premises. The issue of usage of sewage residues is becoming a problem of ever -growing gravity as the presence of the increasing number of pernicious contaminants makes their utilization for agricultural purposes more and more limited. The strategies of using waste materials on Polish building sites were analyzed. The analysis of predispositions to salvage for a group of traditional materials, such as: timber, steel, building debris, insulation materials, plastics, and on the example of new materials, such as: artificial light aggregates made by appropriate mixing of siliceous aggregates, glass refuses and sewage residues in order to obtain a commodity which is apt for economic usage also was made in the article. The issue of recycling of waste materials originating from building operations will be presented in the context of the binding home and EU legal regulations. It was proved that the level of recycling of building wastes in Poland is considerably different from one which is achieved in the solid market economies, both in quantity and in assortment. The method of neutralization of building refuses in connection with special waste materials, which are sewage sludge that is presented in the article may be one of the alternative solutions to the problem of recycling of these wastes not only on the Polish scale.

  16. Considerations on the Benefits of Using Recyclable Materials for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Diana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A current worldwide economy problem includes both the responsible management of the planet's non-renewable resources and the waste management. The benefits of using recyclable materials and recycling technologies with asphalt mixtures consist mainly of reducing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. It is well known that oil (from which bitumen is obtained is a non-renewable resource, hence the its price increase. Therefore, at present, the world is looking for solutions that will lead to a better use of natural resources and to an economic integration of sub-products from various industries. This paper intends to raise awareness of the possibilities for asphalt mixtures recycling and of the recyclable materials that can be used as additives with benefits of each.

  17. FY 1999 report on the development of technology to recycle architectural waste materials, glass, etc. Development of technology to recycle architectural waste materials; 1999 nendo kenchiku haizai glass nado recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kenchiku haizai recycle gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    Waste wood materials in the materials discharged from architectural disassembly were regarded as a potential wood resource, and the R and D of the technology to recycle these were conducted. Studies were made on the technology to finely grind waste wood materials, technology to compress/form waste wood materials and ground wood powder, verification of strength characteristics/dimension stability of the formed wood materials, etc. As to the wood materials which were badly degraded under ultra violet rays, they were coloring-processed by the steam treatment, and a possibility of coating substitution was confirmed. In relation to the technology to produce compressed wood materials, the optimization of heat treatment conditions was experimentally conducted. About the technology to give dimensional stability, dimensional stability was improved as a result of the improvement of chemicals feeding and the development of chemically processed drugs. In the development of light formed products, the board was successfully formed which is light in weight using lignocelluloses/inorganic hydrates and has the bending strength higher than that of the plaster board. In the development of interior materials, the technology was developed in which ground wood powder and thermo-plastic resin are mixed for die molding, and the OA floor using this was commercialized. (NEDO)

  18. Indicative quantities of recyclable materials disposed of at municipal landfills in 2011

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available of recyclable materials disposed of at municipal landfi lls in 2011 SHH OELOFSE CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 Email: soelofse@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za BACKGROUND Only a few landfills in Gauteng, where about 45..., 2011). The best resolve for the increasing pressure on available landfill airspace is a reduction in waste through waste minimisation and recycling, especially of those waste streams consuming most airspace. Reducing waste disposal at landfill...

  19. Recycling positive-electrode material of a lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloop, Steven E.

    2017-11-21

    Examples are disclosed of methods to recycle positive-electrode material of a lithium-ion battery. In one example, the positive-electrode material is heated under pressure in a concentrated lithium hydroxide solution. After heating, the positive-electrode material is separated from the concentrated lithium hydroxide solution. After separating, the positive electrode material is rinsed in a basic liquid. After rinsing, the positive-electrode material is dried and sintered.

  20. Development of construction materials using nano-silica and aggregates recycled from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2015-06-01

    The present work addresses the development of novel construction materials utilising commercial grade nano-silica and recycled aggregates retrieved from construction and demolition waste. For this, experimental work has been carried out to examine the influence of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, density and volume of voids of concrete. Fully natural and recycled aggregate concrete mixes are designed by replacing cement with three levels (0.75%, 1.5% and 3%) of nano-silica. The results of the present investigation depict that improvement in early days compressive strength is achieved with the incorporation of nano-silica in addition to the restoration of reduction in compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete mixes caused owing to the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. Moreover, the increase in water absorption and volume of voids with a reduction of bulk density was detected with the incorporation of recycled aggregates in place of natural aggregates. However, enhancement in density and reduction in water absorption and volume of voids of recycled aggregate concrete resulted from the addition of nano-silica. In addition, the results of the study reveal that nano-silica has no significant effect on elastic modulus of concrete. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Development of Mo recycle technique from generator materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Masataka; Kurosawa, Makoto; Kimura, Akihiro; Nishikata, Kaori; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kakei, Sadanori; Yoshinaga, Hideo [Taiyo Koko Corp., Ako Laboratory, Ako, Hyogo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    The domestic {sup 99}Mo production by the (n,{gamma}) method is proposed in JMTR because of low amount of radioactive wastes and easy {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc production process. For the development of domestic production, it is necessary to use the enriched {sup 98}MoO{sub 3}, which is very expensive, for high specific activity of {sup 99}Mo. A large amount of used PZC/PTC embraced {sup 98}Mo is also generated after the decay of {sup 99}Mo. JAEA and Taiyo Koko is proposed to recover molybdenum from the used PZC/PTC for an effective use of resources and reduction of radioactive wastes. Preliminary experiments of Mo recycling with un-irradiated MoO{sub 3} were carried out by the elution and sublimation methods. From the results, Mo recovery rate from the PZC/PTC was more than 95% by two kinds of methods. The prospects are bright for Mo recycle and reduction of radioactive wastes using these methods. (author)

  2. Durability of recycled aggregate concrete using pozzolanic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann, K Y; Moon, H Y; Kim, Y B; Ryou, J

    2008-01-01

    In this study, pulverized fuel ash (PFA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) were used to compensate for the loss of strength and durability of concrete containing recycled aggregate. As a result, 30% PFA and 65% GGBS concretes increased the compressive strength to the level of control specimens cast with natural granite gravel, but the tensile strength was still lowered at 28 days. Replacement with PFA and GGBS was effective in raising the resistance to chloride ion penetrability into the concrete body, measured by a rapid chloride ion penetration test based on ASTM C 1202-91. It was found that the corrosion rate of 30% PFA and 65% GGBS concretes was kept at a lower level after corrosion initiation, compared to the control specimens, presumably due to the restriction of oxygen and water access. However, it was less effective in increasing the chloride threshold level for steel corrosion. Hence, it is expected that the corrosion time for 30% PFA and 65% GGBS concrete containing recycled aggregate mostly equates to the corrosion-free life of control specimens.

  3. Central sorting and recovery of MSW recyclable materials: A review of technological state-of-the-art, cases, practice and implications for materials recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Maul, Anja; Jansen, Michael; Pretz, Thomas; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-06-01

    Today's waste regulation in the EU comprises stringent material recovery targets and calls for comprehensive programs in order to achieve them. A similar movement is seen in the US where more and more states and communities commit to high diversion rates from landfills. The present paper reviews scientific literature, case studies and results from pilot projects, on the topic of central sorting of recyclable materials commonly found in waste from households. The study contributes, inter alia, with background understanding on the development of materials recovery, both in a historical and geographical perspective. Physical processing and sorting technology has reached a high level of maturity, and many quality issues linked to cross-contamination by commingling have been successfully addressed to date. New sorting plants tend to benefit from economies of scale, and innovations in automation and process control, which are targeted at curtailing process inefficiencies shown by operational practice. Technology developed for the sorting of commingled recyclables from separate collection is also being successfully used to upgrade residual MSW processing plants. The strongest motivation for central sorting of residual MSW is found for areas where source separation and separate collection is difficult, such as urban agglomerations, and can in such areas contribute to increasing recycling rates, either complementary to- or as a substitute for source separation of certain materials, such as plastics and metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Properties of backfilling material for solidifying miscellaneous waste using recycled cement from waste concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Atsuo; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Konishi, Masao; Iwamoto, Yoshiaki; Yoshikane, Toru; Koie, Toshio; Nakashima, Yoshio.

    1997-01-01

    A large reduction of total radioactive waste is expected, if recycled cement from the waste concrete of decommissioned nuclear power plants would be able to be used the material for backfilling mortar among the miscellaneous waste. In this paper, we discuss the hydration, strength and consistency of recycled cement compared with normal portland cement. The strength of recycled cement mortar is lower than that of normal portland cement mortar on the same water to cement ratio. It is possible to obtain the required strength to reduce the water to cement ratio by using of high range water-reducing AE agent. According to reducing of water to cement ratio, the P-type funnel time of mortar increase with the increase of its viscosity. However, in new method of self-compactability for backfilling mortar, it became evident that there was no difference between the recycled cement and normal portland cement on the self-compactability. (author)

  5. National platform electromobility. Interim report of the working group 5 Materials and recycling; Nationale Plattform Elektromobilitaet. Zwischenbericht der Arbeitsgruppe 5 Materialien und Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuessle, Falk D [ThyssenKrupp AG, Essen (Germany). Business Area Components Technology; Wissel-Stoll, Kathrin [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany). Marketing Acids and Specialties

    2010-07-01

    Sufficient range, appropriate road performances, fulfilment of ecological requirements and an alternative price structuring are challenges in order to obtain the necessary acceptance for electric-powered vehicles by the customer. For this, new materials with adapted recycling strategies have to make a substantial contribution and are a driving force to an economic and sustainable electrical mobility. In order to achieve the goal of the national platform electromobility the following key fields are success critical in this connection: (a) Material for batteries; (b) Materials for construction and material lightweight construction; (c) Concepts for securing raw materials and recycling; (d) Materials for further key components.

  6. 76 FR 46290 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... States'' as part of a broader discussion about sustainable materials management. This information will be..., as well as its transparency. There is also a growing need for a more holistic assessment of how... sustainable management of these materials through safe recycling and source reduction. The Agency will...

  7. New recycling approaches for thermoset polymeric composite wastes – an experimental study on polyester based concrete materials filled with fibre reinforced plastic recyclates

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, M. C. S.; Fiúza, António; Meira Castro, A C; Dinis, M. L.; Silva, Francisco J. G.; Meixedo, João Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a new waste management solution for thermoset glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) based products was assessed. Mechanical recycling approach, with reduction of GFRP waste to powdered and fibrous materials was applied, and the prospective added-value of obtained recyclates was experimentally investigated as raw material for polyester based mortars. Different GFRP waste admixed mortar formulations were analyzed varying the content, between 4% up to 12% in we...

  8. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min"−"1 and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  9. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  10. Analysis of chromium and sulphate origins in construction recycled materials based on leaching test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rey, I; Ayuso, J; Galvín, A P; Jiménez, J R; López, M; García-Garrido, M L

    2015-12-01

    Twenty samples of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) with different compositions collected at six recycling plants in the Andalusia region (south of Spain) were characterised according to the Landfill Directive criteria. Chromium and sulphate were identified as the most critical compounds in the leachates. To detect the sources of these two pollutant constituents in recycled aggregate, environmental assessments were performed on eight construction materials (five unused ceramic materials, two old crushed concretes and one new mortar manufactured in the laboratory). The results confirmed that leached sulphate and Cr were mainly released by the ceramic materials (bricks and tiles). To predict the toxicological consequences, the oxidation states of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) were measured in the leachates of recycled aggregates and ceramic materials classified as non-hazardous. The bricks and tiles mainly released total Cr as Cr (III). However, the recycled aggregates classified as non-hazardous according to the Landfill Directive criteria mainly released Cr (VI), which is highly leachable and extremely toxic. The obtained results highlight the need for legislation that distinguishes the oxidative state in which chromium is released into the environment. Leaching level regulations must not be based solely on total Cr, which can lead to inaccurate predictions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cladding and Duct Materials for Advanced Nuclear Recycle Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Todd R.; Busby, J. T.; Klueh, R. L.; Maloy, Stuart A.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review article that provides an overview of the reactor core structural materials and clad and duct needs for the GNEP advanced burner reactor design. A short history of previous research on structural materials for irradiation environments is provided. There is also a section describing some advanced materials that may be candidate materials for various reactor core structures

  12. BIOFILTERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT AFTER RECYCLED PLASTIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kania-Surowiec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of using biological deposits in wastewater treatment of recycled plastics were presented. There are many aspects of this issue that should be considered to be able to use information technology solutions in the industry. This includes, inter alia, specify the types of laboratory tests based on the analysis of changes in the fluid during the wastewater treatment process, knowledge and selection factors for proper growth of biofilm in the deposit and to develop the right concept and a prototype for a particular processing plant, plastic processing plant. It is possible to determine the parameters that will increase the efficiency of sewage treatment while minimizing the financial effort on the part of the Company. Selection methods of wastewater treatment is also associated with the environmental strategy of the country at the enterprise level specified in the Environmental Policy. This is an additional argument for the use of biological methods in the treatment of industrial waste water.

  13. Drivers and Constraints of Critical Materials Recycling: The Case of Indium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Ylä-Mella

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Raw material criticality studies are receiving increasing attention because an increasing number of elements of great economic importance, performing essential functions face high supply risks. Scarcity of key materials is a potential barrier to large-scale deployment of sustainable energy and clean-tech technologies as resorting to several critical materials. As physical scarcity and geopolitical issues may present a barrier to the supply of critical metals, recycling is regarded as a possible solution to substitute primary resources for securing the long-term supply of critical metals. In this paper, the main drivers and constraints for critical materials recycling are analyzed from literature, considering indium as a case study of critical materials. This literature review shows that waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE could be a future source of critical metals; however, the reduction of dissipation of critical materials should have much higher priority. It is put forward that more attention should be paid to sustainable management of critical materials, especially improved practices at the waste management stage. This calls for not only more efficient WEEE recycling technologies, but also revising priorities in recycling strategies.

  14. Material Flow and Stakeholder Analysis for a Transfer & Recycling Station in Gaborone, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Landfilling waste material is still one of the most common methods to take care of waste in a big part of the world. Gaborone, the capital of Botswana located in the southern part of Africa is no different in this way. The major part of all waste is landfilled in Gaborone and there is only a minor part of all collected material that is recycled. One solution that earlier studies suggest is to build a transfer and recycling station in the city of Gaborone that can contribute to a more sustaina...

  15. State of the art of fusion material recycling and remaining issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, V.; Broden, K.; Pace, L. Di; Ooms, L.; Pampin, R.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion as a power production system presents several advantages in terms of safety and environmental impact, one of these being the limited amount of radioactive waste production which is burden for future generations. Nevertheless, even if fusion does not produce long term radioactive waste, e.g. by adequate material selection for plasma facing components, there are two important aspects deserving consideration: the presence of tritium in relatively large quantity, and the very hard neutron spectrum leading to large amounts of active materials. In order to keep radioactive waste levels to a minimum it has been proposed to recycle the materials removed from the reactor, after adequate decay period and proper handling and treatment. Treatment may include detritiation, separation of different material types and sorting of the non reusable materials, among others. Moreover if recycle or reuse (within the nuclear industry in general or, for some particular materials, within the fusion industry) are foreseen, the material has to be melted or reduced to reusable raw material, machined or the pieces fabricated again, assembled and checked (for geometrical correctness, or leak tightness for instance). And all this has to be made on industrial scale, as fusion will produce large amounts of material presenting various degrees of radioactivity and tritium content. Even if some experience of recycling exists in the nuclear fission industry, which can be used for fusion materials, the different steps mentioned above are challenging operations when dealing with tritiated materials or highly radioactive components. The paper presents a review of the current situation and state-of-the-art recycling methods for typical fusion materials (e.g. Beryllium, Tungsten, Copper and Copper alloys, steel, Carbon) and components of future fusion plants based on current conceptual design studies. It also focuses attention on R-and-D issues to be addressed in order to be able to recycle as much

  16. Replacement of reserves zinc based on the recycling of technogenic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Bryantseva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the perspective trends of the expansion of the mineral-ore base of the Russian producers of zinc by recycling of technogenic raw materials are considered. The important role of recycling of resources for sustainable development of society and improve the environmental safety is justified. The main structural and dynamic characteristics of the use of mineral resource base for the production of zinc in Russia are considered. Raw materials opportunities and constraints for the development of zinc production are analyzed. In the paper, the structure and dynamics of the use of recycled materials by the largest producer of zinc in Russia are investigated. The methodical approach to the estimation of effectiveness of the industrial processing of technogenic metallurgical raw materials with the strategic flexibility of the implementation of projects is proposed and approved. The estimation of the effectiveness of a complex industrial processing of metallurgical zinc-containing dusts in a real production is carried out. The value of the strategic flexibility of the project of the industrial processing of the zinc-containing technogenic raw material is determined on the basis of the developed systematic approach. The value of the processes of recycling for sustainable production of zinc in Russia is revealed.

  17. International measures needed to protect metal recycling facilities from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattia, M.; Wiener, R.

    1999-01-01

    In almost every major city and region of every country, there is a recycling facility that is designed to process or consume scrap metal. These same countries will probably have widespread applications of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment. This material and equipment will have metal as a primary component of its housing or instrumentation. It is this metal that will cause these sources of radioactivity, when lost, stolen or mishandled, to be taken to a metal recycling facility to be sold for the value of the metal. This is the problem that has faced scrap recycling facilities for many years. The recycling industry has spent millions of dollars for installation of radiation monitors and training in identification of radioactive material. It has expended millions more for the disposal of radioactive material that has mistakenly entered these facilities. Action must be taken to prevent this material from entering the conventional recycling process. There are more than 2,300 known incidents of radioactive material found in recycled metal scrap. Worldwide, more than 50 smeltings of radioactive sources have been confirmed. Seven fatal accidents involving uncontrolled radioactive material have also been documented. Hazardous exposures to radioactive material have plagued not just the workers at metal recycling facilities. The families of these workers, including their children, have been exposed to potentially harmful levels of radioactivity. The threat from this material does not stop there. Radioactive material that is not caught at recycling facilities can be melted and the radioactivity has been found in construction materials used to build homes, as well as shovels, fencing material, and furniture offered for sale to the general public. The time has come for the international community to address the issue of the uncontrolled sources of radioactive material. The following are the key points that must be addressed. (i) Identification of sources

  18. CO2 emission factors for waste incineration: Influence from source separation of recyclable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    variations between emission factors for different incinerators, but the background for these variations has not been thoroughly examined. One important reason may be variations in collection of recyclable materials as source separation alters the composition of the residual waste incinerated. The objective...... routed to incineration. Emission factors ranged from 27 to 40kg CO2/GJ. The results appeared most sensitive towards variations in waste composition and water content. Recycling rates and lower heating values could not be used as simple indicators of the resulting emission factors for residual household...... different studies and when using the values for environmental assessment purposes....

  19. Proposed pyrometallurgical process for rapid recycle of discharged fuel materials from the integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, L.; Steindler, M.; Miller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The pool-type Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept developed by Argonne National Laboratory includes on-site recycle of discharged core and blanket fuel materials. The process and fabrication steps will be demonstrated in the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility with IFR fuel irradiated in EBR-II and the Fast Flux Test Facility. The proposed process consists of two major steps: a halide slagging step and an electrorefining step. The fuel is maintained in the metallic form to yield directly a metal product sufficiently decontaminated to allow recycle to the reactor as new fuel. The process is further described and available information to support its feasibility is presented

  20. A proposed pyrometallurgical process for rapid recycle of discharged fuel materials from the Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, L.; Steindler, M.; Miller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept developed by Argonne National Laboratory includes on-site recycle of discharged core and blanket fuel materials. The process and fabrication steps will be demonstrated in the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility with IFR fuel irradiated in EBR-II and the Fast Flux Test Facility. The proposed process consists of two major steps -- a halide slagging step and an electrorefining step. The fuel is maintained in the metallic form to yield directly a metal product sufficiently decontaminated to allow recycle to the reactor as new fuel. The process is further described and available information to support its feasibility is presented

  1. Control criteria for residual contamination in materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is collecting data and conducting technical analyses to support the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in determining the feasibility of developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, will be risk-based and will be developed through analysis of radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analyses will consider 42 key radionuclides that are generated during DOE operations and may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment

  2. Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

    2000-01-01

    The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction

  3. Control levels for residual contamination in materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is collecting data and conducting technical analyses to support joint efforts by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232); by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop radiological control criteria for the recycle and reuse of scrap materials and equipment that contain residual radioactive contamination. The initial radiological control levels are the concentrations in or on materials considered for recycle or reuse that meet the individual (human) or industrial (electronics/film) dose criteria. The analysis identifies relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and methods to determine possible non-health-related impacts from residual radioactive contamination in materials considered for recycle or reuse. The generic methodology and scenarios described here provide a basic framework for numerically deriving radiological control criteria for recycle or reuse. These will be adequately conservative for most situations

  4. General Equilibrium Analysis of Economic Instruments in Materials-Product Chains with Materials Balance, Recycling and Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandelaars, P.A.A.H.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Optimal environmental taxation and subsidies in a materials-product (M-P) chain are examined. This incorporates the main economic activities extraction, production, consumption, recycling and waste treatment. A static general equilibrium model of this M-P chain is constructed, with environmental impacts represented as negative externalities generated by natural resource extraction and final dumping of waste. The model includes various environmental taxes and subsidies on products and materials to pay for these externalities. The originality of this analytical exercise is twofold: in all stages of the M-P chain materials balance conditions are satisfied; furthermore, recycling is explicitly included as a separate activity with inputs, outputs and objectives. Thus, the paper combines physical-environmental and welfare economic perspectives on materials flows. The results show that the externalities generated by extraction and harmful waste can only be optimized by imposing a direct tax on the new materials. In a second-best world the externalities may be sub-optimized by taxing the generation of harmful waste or by subsidizing the use of recycled materials. Changes in some variables causes a shift between the optimal taxes on new materials at the beginning and harmful waste at the end of the M-P chain. This linkage is interesting because it shows that the whole M-P chain needs to be considered instead of parts of this chain. 16 refs.

  5. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the environmental impact of recycling and incineration of household waste. ► Recycling of paper, glass, steel and aluminium is better than incineration. ► Recycling and incineration of cardboard and plastic can be equally good alternatives. ► Recyclables can be transported long distances and still have environmental benefits. ► Paper has a higher environmental benefit than recyclables found in smaller amounts. - Abstract: Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  6. Disposal of radwastes and recycling of wastes and structural materials -fundamental principles, concepts, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, G.; Arens, G.; Brennecke, P.; Goertz, R.; Poschner, J.; Thieme, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the German concept for the disposal of radioactive waste, and the re-use or recycling of contaminated materials. All radioactive waste can be disposed of in deep geological formations (practised at ERAM disposal site, planned for Konrad disposal site). Radioactively contaminated material below clearance levels can proceed for disposal at waste disposal sites and incineration plants, or for re-use and recycling, especially where the material consists of contaminated steel and of buildings. The basic principles (dose limits and model structures for deriving recommendations), reference values, or limits are described. The latest concepts are described in greater detail. Waste management in Germany is compared with international concepts. (orig.) [de

  7. Decontamination and provenance tracking. The key to acceptable recycle of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.R.; Wood, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear plants and components demands the proper management of the process, both for economic reasons and for retaining public confidence in the continued use of nuclear power. Surface decontamination has an important role to play in decommissioning. A new development, the EPRI DFDX process, produces secondary waste from decontamination in the form of powdered metal rather than ion exchange resin, thereby reducing the volume of secondary waste for storage and eventual disposal. The process has been patented and licensed and is due to be field-tested on a number of sites starting in 2002. Although the purpose of the process is to clean materials sufficiently to achieve unrestricted release, in practice there is some public unease at the prospect of formerly contaminated materials passing into unrestricted use. Greater public support for recycle can be achieved by recording the provenance of decontaminated materials and recycling them back into restricted uses in the nuclear industry. Because the materials have first been decontaminated to below free release levels, there is no objection to using non-radioactive facilities for the recycling and manufacturing activities, provided that the materials are properly tracked to prevent their uncontrolled release. (author)

  8. Cogema and the recycling of nuclear military materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The signature of the Start 1 and Start 2 treaties in 1991 and 1993 has marked the start-up of nuclear disarmament. This process covers two aspects: the destruction of vectors (missiles, planes..) and the dismantling of warheads carrying weapon grade radioactive materials (uranium and plutonium). This dossier explains the political and technical choices made by Russia and the USA for the management of their weapon grade plutonium: fabrication of MOX fuels (cooperation between Minatom (Russia), Siemens and Cogema for the building of conversion and fabrication plants, collaboration between Cogema, Duke Engineering and Stone and Webster (DCS) for the building of a MOX fabrication plant and for the irradiation of MOX fuels in US reactors), disposal of hardly convertible plutonium. (J.S.)

  9. 40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legitimate recycling of hazardous... (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of... demonstrate that the recycling is legitimate. Hazardous secondary material that is not legitimately recycled...

  10. Recycling Roof Tile Waste Material for Wall Cover Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on roof tile waste treatment has attempted to find the appropriate technology to reuse old roof tile waste by  create  wall  cladding  materials  from  it.  Through  exploration  and  experimentation,  a  treatment  method  has  been discovered  to  transform  the  tile  fragments  into  artificial  stone  that  resembles  the  shape  of  coral.  This  baked  clay artificial stone material is then processed as a decorative element for vertical surfaces that are not load-bearing, such as on the interior and exterior walls of a building. Before applying the fragments as wall tiles, several steps must be taken: 1  Blunting,  which  changes  the  look  of  tile  fragments  using  a  machine  created  specifically  to  blunt  the  roof-tile fragment  edges,  2  Closing  the  pores  of  the  blunted  fragments  as  a  finishing  step  that  can  be  done  with  a  transparent coat or a solid color of paint, 3 Planting the transformed roof-tile fragments on a prepared tile body made of concrete. In this study, the second phase is done using the method of ceramics glazing at a temperature of 700 °C. The finishing step is the strength of this product because it produces a rich color artificial pebble.

  11. Decommissioning and material recycling. Radiation risk management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, D.H.

    1996-09-01

    Once nuclear fuel cycle facilities have permanently stopped operations they have to be decommissioned. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the surveillance and dismantling of the facility systems and buildings, the management of the materials resulting from the dismantling activities and the release of the site for further use. The management of radiation risks associated with these activities plays an important role in the decommissioning process. Existing legislation covers many aspects of the decommissioning process. However, in most countries with nuclear power programmes legislation with respect to decommissioning is incomplete. In particular this is true in the Netherlands, where government policy with respect to decommissioning is still in development. Therefore a study was performed to obtain an overview of the radiation risk management issues associated with decommissioning and the status of the relevant legislation. This report describes the results of that study. It is concluded that future work at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation on decommissioning and radiation risk management issues should concentrate on surveillance and dismantling activities and on criteria for site release. (orig.)

  12. Recycling of rubber tires in asphalt paving materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piggott, M.R.; Woodhams, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    It has been known that the addition of rubber to asphalt used in paving will produced markedly superior road surfaces. Partly because of cost and because of the nonconventional paving techniques necessary, rubber has been largely ignored as a practical paving additive except in special cases. However, the large accumulation of old tires existing today provides a ready source for suitable rubber. If ground into a fine powder, this rubber can be mixed in a conventional pug mill along with sand, stone and asphalt to produce a hot mix which can be aplied in the normal manner without any special techniques. The extra cost of such modification is only 1% of a typical paving contract, whereas the advantages include lower maintenance cost, more durable road surface, and elimination of unwanted waste tires. This report has been prepared to assist civic and other authorities in the development of improved road surfacing formulations through the reuse of old tires. It includes the results of paving trials in Toronto and laboratory evaluations. These tests show that the addition of powdered rubber to asphalt paving materials markedly improves the durability and crack resistance, particularly at low temperatures. Additives in the rubber impart good strength retention in the presence of moisture. The toughness increases with age due to a slow interaction of the rubber with the asphalt which is accompanied by an increase in viscosity. As a result, performance is also enhanced at high temperatures and helps to minimize pavement distortions due to hot weather and traffic. 16 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Fires at storage sites of organic materials, waste fuels and recyclables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim; Alriksson, Stina; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William

    2013-09-01

    During the last decade, the European Union has enforced the diversion of organic wastes and recyclables to waste management companies operating incineration plants, composting plants and recycling units instead of landfills. The temporary storage sites have been established as a buffer against fluctuations in energy demand throughout the year. Materials also need to be stored at temporary storage sites before recovery and recycling. However, regulations governing waste fuel storage and handling have not yet been developed, and, as a result, companies have engaged in risky practices that have resulted in a high number of fire incidents. In this study, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 249 of the 400 members of Avfall Sverige (Swedish Waste Management Association), which represents the waste management of 95% of the Swedish population. Information regarding 122 storage facilities owned by 69 companies was obtained; these facilities were responsible for the storage of 47% of the total treated waste (incineration + digestion + composting) in 2010 in Sweden. To identify factors related to fire frequency, the questionnaire covered the amounts of material handled and burnt per year, financial losses due to fires, storage duration, storage method and types of waste. The results show that 217 fire incidents corresponded to 170 kilotonnes of material burnt and cumulative losses of 49 million SEK (€4.3 million). Fire frequency and amount of material burnt per fire was found to be dependent upon type of management group (waste operator). Moreover, a correlation was found between fire frequency and material recycled during past years. Further investigations of financial aspects and externalities of fire incidents are recommended.

  14. Development of melting facilities and techniques for decontamination and recycling of radioactively contaminated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinwarz, W.

    1998-01-01

    One decade after the accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station a melting plant for radioactively contaminated metallic materials, the so-called SURF facility is being planned and licensed for erection in the direct neighbourhood of the NPP area. Main goal is the recycling of the material, largely decontaminated by the melting process, by means of manufacturing of casks and containers for waste disposal and of shielding equipment. The melting plant will be placed as part of the Ukrainian waste handling centre (CPPRO). The technology is based on the long-term experience gained at Siempelkamp's CARLA plant in Krefeld. In 1995-1997 the licensing conditions were defined, the licensing documents prepared and the formal procedure initiated. For completion of the recycling technique and to broaden the application fields for the re-usable material a granules production method has been developed and formally qualified. The essential is the substitution of the hematite portion in concrete structures providing an alternative sink for recycling material. (author)

  15. Demonstration test on manufacturing 200 l drum inner shielding material for recycling of reactor operating metal scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, A.; Kimura, K.; Ueno, H.

    1993-01-01

    Low-level reactor wastes should be safely recycled considering those resource values, the reduction of waste disposal volume and environmental effects. The reasonable recycling system of reactor operating metal scrap has been studied and it was concluded that the 200 liter drum inner shielding material is a very promising product for recycling within the nuclear industry. The drum inner shielding material does not require high quality and so it is expected to be easily manufactured by melting and casting from roughly sorted scrap metals. This means that the economical scrap metal recycling system can be achieved by introducing it. Furthermore its use will ensure safety because of being contained in a drum. In order to realize this recycling system with the drum inner shielding material, the demonstration test program is being conducted. The construction of the test facility, which consists of a melting and refining furnace, a casting apparatus, a machining apparatus etc., was finishing in September, 1992

  16. Influence of agglomeration of a recycled cement additive on the hydration and microstructure development of cement based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, R.; Shui, Z.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study, including experimental and mechanism analysis, on investigating the effect of agglomeration of a recycled cement additive on the hydration and microstructure development of cement based materials. The recycled additive is firstly produced form waste hardened cement paste

  17. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    DOE recycling contract at the Hanford site and a central group to control the contract. 0 Using a BOA or MTS contract as a way to get proceeds from recycling back to site facilities to provide incentives for recycling. . Upgrading tracking mechanisms to track and recycle construction waste which is presently buried in onsite pits. . Establishing contract performance measures which hold each project accountable for specific waste reduction goals. * Recycling and reusing any material or equipment possible as buildings are dismantled.

  18. Microstructure characterization of multi-phase composites and utilization of phase change materials and recycled rubbers in cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshgin, Pania

    2011-12-01

    This research focuses on two important subjects: (1) Characterization of heterogeneous microstructure of multi-phase composites and the effect of microstructural features on effective properties of the material. (2) Utilizations of phase change materials and recycled rubber particles from waste tires to improve thermal properties of insulation materials used in building envelopes. Spatial pattern of multi-phase and multidimensional internal structures of most composite materials are highly random. Quantitative description of the spatial distribution should be developed based on proper statistical models, which characterize the morphological features. For a composite material with multi-phases, the volume fraction of the phases as well as the morphological parameters of the phases have very strong influences on the effective property of the composite. These morphological parameters depend on the microstructure of each phase. This study intends to include the effect of higher order morphological details of the microstructure in the composite models. The higher order statistics, called two-point correlation functions characterize various behaviors of the composite at any two points in a stochastic field. Specifically, correlation functions of mosaic patterns are used in the study for characterizing transport properties of composite materials. One of the most effective methods to improve energy efficiency of buildings is to enhance thermal properties of insulation materials. The idea of using phase change materials and recycled rubber particles such as scrap tires in insulation materials for building envelopes has been studied.

  19. New technology for recycling materials from oily cold rolling mill sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Liu; Shen-gen Zhang; Jian-jun Tian; De-an Pan; Ling Meng; Yang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge is one of metallurgical industry solid wastes. The recycle of these wastes can not only protect the environment but also permit their reutilization. In this research, a new process of“hydrometallurgical treatment+hydrothermal synthesis”was investigated for the combined recovery of iron and organic materials from oily CRM sludge. Hydrometallurgical treatment, mainly including acid leaching, centrifugal separation, neutralization reaction, oxidizing, and preparation of hydrothermal reaction precursor, was first utilized for processing the sludge. Then, micaceous iron oxide (MIO) pigment powders were prepared through hydrothermal reaction of the obtained precursor in alkaline media. The separated organic materials can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock. The quality of the prepared MIO pigments is in accordance with the standards of MIO pigments for paints (ISO 10601-2007). This clean, eff ective, and economical technology off ers a new way to recycle oily CRM sludge.

  20. Mechanical characterization of sportive tracks made with materials recycled from end-of-life tyres

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Gámiz, F. J.; Escriba, S.; García-Villena, S. A.; Bermejo, J. M.; Saiz, L.

    2015-01-01

    Congreso celebrado en la Escuela de Arquitectura de la Universidad de Sevilla desde el 24 hasta el 26 de junio de 2015. The European Framework Directive 2008/98/EC on waste established as priority reuse and recycling before other recovery alternatives. In this normative reference, one the main waste flows identified are the end-of-life tyres, as a material whose mechanical properties could provide advantage in the construction of new structures. This paper presents the mechanical character...

  1. Recycling of high purity selenium from CIGS solar cell waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Anna M.K., E-mail: anna.gustafsson@chalmers.se; Foreman, Mark R.StJ.; Ekberg, Christian

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A new method for recycling of selenium from CIGS solar cell materials is presented. • Separation of selenium as selenium dioxide after heating in oxygen atmosphere. • Complete selenium separation after oxidation of <63 μm particles at 800 °C for 1 h. • After reduction of selenium dioxide the selenium purity was higher than 99.999 wt%. - Abstract: Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is a promising material in thin film solar cell production. To make CIGS solar cells more competitive, both economically and environmentally, in comparison to other energy sources, methods for recycling are needed. In addition to the generally high price of the material, significant amounts of the metals are lost in the manufacturing process. The feasibility of recycling selenium from CIGS through oxidation at elevated temperatures was therefore examined. During oxidation gaseous selenium dioxide was formed and could be separated from the other elements, which remained in solid state. Upon cooling, the selenium dioxide sublimes and can be collected as crystals. After oxidation for 1 h at 800 °C all of the selenium was separated from the CIGS material. Two different reduction methods for reduction of the selenium dioxide to selenium were tested. In the first reduction method an organic molecule was used as the reducing agent in a Riley reaction. In the second reduction method sulphur dioxide gas was used. Both methods resulted in high purity selenium. This proves that the studied selenium separation method could be the first step in a recycling process aimed at the complete separation and recovery of high purity elements from CIGS.

  2. Torsional Shear Device for Testing the Dynamic Properties of Recycled Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabryś, Katarzyna; Sas, Wojciech; Soból, Emil; Głuchowski, Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    From the viewpoint of environmental preservation and effective utilization of resources, it is beneficial and necessary to reuse wastes, for example, concrete, as the recycled aggregates for new materials. In this work, the dynamic behavior of such aggregates under low frequency torsional loading is studied. Results show that the properties of such artificial soils match with those reported in the literature for specific natural soils.

  3. Torsional Shear Device for Testing the Dynamic Properties of Recycled Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabryś Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of environmental preservation and effective utilization of resources, it is beneficial and necessary to reuse wastes, for example, concrete, as the recycled aggregates for new materials. In this work, the dynamic behavior of such aggregates under low frequency torsional loading is studied. Results show that the properties of such artificial soils match with those reported in the literature for specific natural soils.

  4. Evaluation of sludge from paper recycling as bedding material for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrá, A; Olivas, I; Benitez, V; Lainez, M

    2011-05-01

    Several materials have been used as bedding substrates in broiler production. In this work, the sludge from paper recycling was tested for its potential use as litter material and was compared with wood shavings. Moisture content, apparent density, and water-holding capacity were measured and characterized in both materials. Later, 192 male broiler chickens were distributed among 16 experimental pens, 8 of which contained wood shavings as bedding material and 8 of which contained the sludge. Growth rate, consumption, tonic immobility, gait score, breast lesions, foot pad dermatitis, hock burn, tibial dyschondroplasia, and metatarsal thickness were determined in the birds. Although the moisture content of the sludge was high, it decreased strongly after 7 d of drying, reaching lower values than those of wood shavings. In general, few differences were found between the materials in terms of bird performance and welfare and only the incidence of hock burn was higher in the sludge than in the wood shavings. Although further research is needed, sludge from paper recycling is a possible alternative to traditional bedding materials because it achieves most of the requirements for broiler bedding materials and does not show negative effects on the birds.

  5. Revision of the inventory and recycling scenario of active material in near-term PPCS models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampin, R.; Massaut, V.; Taylor, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound approach to the recycling of fusion irradiated material is being developed. Study of industry experience, and consideration of realistic processing routes and techniques, provide a more sensible estimation of recycling feasibility than earlier studies based on purely radiological criteria. Under this approach, the analysis of active material in two models of the power plant conceptual study (PPCS) has been revised in more detail and accounting for the latest design features, nuclear data and international guidelines. A careful inventory of the materials has been performed, and estimation made of the radiological characteristics of all PPCS tokamak components, for the first time studying individual constituents and materials. Evaluation has been made of time scales for the radioactivity to decay to predetermined levels, which represent the spectrum of technological difficulties posed by the nature of the irradiated material. Three main mechanisms for the optimization of the materials management strategy have been identified during the assessments: segregation of components into individual materials, in situ refurbishment and stringent impurity control

  6. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Low temperature rheological properties of asphalt mixtures containing different recycled asphalt materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hoon Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS are valuable materials commonly reused in asphalt mixtures due to their economic and environmental benefits. However, the aged binder contained in these materials may negatively affect the low temperature performance of asphalt mixtures. In this paper, the effect of RAP and RAS on low temperature properties of asphalt mixtures is investigated through Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR tests and rheological modeling. First, a set of fourteen asphalt mixtures containing RAP and RAS is prepared and creep stiffness and m-value are experimentally measured. Then, thermal stress is calculated and graphically and statistically compared. The Huet model and the Shift-Homothety-Shift in time-Shift (SHStS transformation, developed at the École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État (ENTPE, are used to back calculate the asphalt binder creep stiffness from mixture experimental data. Finally, the model predictions are compared to the creep stiffness of the asphalt binders extracted from each mixture, and the results are analyzed and discussed. It is found that an addition of RAP and RAS beyond 15% and 3%, respectively, significantly change the low temperature properties of asphalt mixture. Differences between back-calculated results and experimental data suggest that blending between new and old binder occurs only partially. Based on the recent finding on diffusion studies, this effect may be associated to mixing and blending processes, to the effective contact between virgin and recycled materials and to the variation of the total virgin-recycled thickness of the binder film which may significantly influence the diffusion process. Keywords: Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS, Thermal stress, Statistical comparison, Back-calculation, Binder blending

  8. An Efficient approach for selective collection made by scavengers for transportation logistics of recyclable materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelino Carlos Maccarini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The advance of technology, associated to the increase in the production of recyclable waste due to the increase of consumption and population, has been led to a search for alternatives of management and minimization of this waste. A part of this recyclable material is collected by scavengers, who do it to guarantee their livelihood. Many of them face logistical difficulties in transportation, mainly when they have to walk long distances and the streets have high slopes. Therefore, to minimize these efforts, the purpose of this paper is to settle mobile warehouses to receive recyclable items, with trucks that receive in bulk all materials collected by the collectors, who will deliver them to someone who will be in the truck for weighing and subsequent payment to the collector. With the help of the Analysis of Variance – ANOVA, studies were made so that this receipt is a quick operation, with the historical record of each sampling in a spreadsheet and value calculations based on this description, thus minimizing errors in weighing in bulk and improving, in every collection, the system reliability.

  9. Developing improved opportunities for the recycle and reuse of materials in road, bridge and construction projects : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Reducing waste and reusing materials is now : a part of the everyday fabric of life. Recycling : glass, paper, and plastic is an activity in many : households and businesses. Similarly, the : transportation sector generates huge quantities : of concr...

  10. Utilization of recycled glass as aggregate in controlled low-strength material (CLSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlheiser, T.R. [Western Mobile Denver Aggregate Div., CO (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Incoming glass from curbside recycling programs is successfully being utilized as aggregate replacements. The colored glass that can not be used by local bottle manufacturers is crushed to a {1/2} in. (12.5 mm) material and used in various construction projects. The most successful use of processed glass aggregate (PGA) to date, has been in replacing up to 100% of the aggregate in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). It has proven to be successful and has gained acceptance by contractors in the Boulder, Colorado area.

  11. Dismantling techniques and recycling or other end-of-life treatments of other materials not commonly reused in roads

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, F. A.; Antunes, M. L.; Santos, C.

    2009-01-01

    Este registo pertence ao Repositório Científico do LNEC The interest of recycling of waste, industrial by-products and other road materials for pavement construction and rehabilitation has been generally growing in Portugal, for the last 10 years. Among the several types of wastes, there’s been a great interest in using recycled tyres as a raw material to be incorporated in asphalt paving mixtures. The first significant experience with asphalt rubber, manufactured by the wet...

  12. A cost-benefit analysis of landfill mining and material recycling in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chuanbin; Gong, Zhe; Hu, Junsong; Cao, Aixin; Liang, Hanwen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessing the economic feasibility of landfill mining. • We applied a cost-benefit analysis model for landfill mining. • Four material cycling and energy recovery scenarios were designed. • We used net present value to evaluate the cost-benefit efficiency. - Abstract: Landfill mining is an environmentally-friendly technology that combines the concepts of material recycling and sustainable waste management, and it has received a great deal of worldwide attention because of its significant environmental and economic potential in material recycling, energy recovery, land reclamation and pollution prevention. This work applied a cost-benefit analysis model for assessing the economic feasibility, which is important for promoting landfill mining. The model includes eight indicators of costs and nine indicators of benefits. Four landfill mining scenarios were designed and analyzed based on field data. The economic feasibility of landfill mining was then evaluated by the indicator of net present value (NPV). According to our case study of a typical old landfill mining project in China (Yingchun landfill), rental of excavation and hauling equipment, waste processing and material transportation were the top three costs of landfill mining, accounting for 88.2% of the total cost, and the average cost per unit of stored waste was 12.7 USD ton −1 . The top three benefits of landfill mining were electricity generation by incineration, land reclamation and recycling soil-like materials. The NPV analysis of the four different scenarios indicated that the Yingchun landfill mining project could obtain a net positive benefit varying from 1.92 million USD to 16.63 million USD. However, the NPV was sensitive to the mode of land reuse, the availability of energy recovery facilities and the possibility of obtaining financial support by avoiding post-closure care

  13. A cost-benefit analysis of landfill mining and material recycling in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Chuanbin, E-mail: cbzhou@rcees.ac.cn; Gong, Zhe; Hu, Junsong; Cao, Aixin; Liang, Hanwen

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Assessing the economic feasibility of landfill mining. • We applied a cost-benefit analysis model for landfill mining. • Four material cycling and energy recovery scenarios were designed. • We used net present value to evaluate the cost-benefit efficiency. - Abstract: Landfill mining is an environmentally-friendly technology that combines the concepts of material recycling and sustainable waste management, and it has received a great deal of worldwide attention because of its significant environmental and economic potential in material recycling, energy recovery, land reclamation and pollution prevention. This work applied a cost-benefit analysis model for assessing the economic feasibility, which is important for promoting landfill mining. The model includes eight indicators of costs and nine indicators of benefits. Four landfill mining scenarios were designed and analyzed based on field data. The economic feasibility of landfill mining was then evaluated by the indicator of net present value (NPV). According to our case study of a typical old landfill mining project in China (Yingchun landfill), rental of excavation and hauling equipment, waste processing and material transportation were the top three costs of landfill mining, accounting for 88.2% of the total cost, and the average cost per unit of stored waste was 12.7 USD ton{sup −1}. The top three benefits of landfill mining were electricity generation by incineration, land reclamation and recycling soil-like materials. The NPV analysis of the four different scenarios indicated that the Yingchun landfill mining project could obtain a net positive benefit varying from 1.92 million USD to 16.63 million USD. However, the NPV was sensitive to the mode of land reuse, the availability of energy recovery facilities and the possibility of obtaining financial support by avoiding post-closure care.

  14. Evaluation of the environmental, material, and structural performance of recycled aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Katherine Sarah

    Concrete is the most commonly used building material in the construction industry, and contributes to 52% of construction and demolition waste in Canada. Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) is one way to reduce this impact. To evaluate the performance of coarse and granular (fine and coarse) RCA in structural concrete applications, four studies were performed: an environmental assessment, a material testing program, a shear performance study, and a flexural performance study. To determine the environmental benefits of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC), three case studies were investigated using different populations and proximities to city centres. Environmental modelling suggested that RCA replacement could result in energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions, especially in remote areas. Tests were performed to determine if the volumetric replacement of up to 30% coarse RCA and 20% granular RCA is suitable for structural concrete applications in Canada. Fresh, hardened, and durability properties were evaluated. All five (5) of the RCA mixes showed equivalent material performance to the control mixes and met the requirements for a structural concrete mix. The five (5) RAC mixes were also used in structural testing. One-way reinforced concrete slab specimens were tested to failure to evaluate the shear and flexural performance of the RAC members. Peak capacities of and crack formation within each member were analyzed to evaluate the performance of RAC compared to conventional concrete. The shear capacity of specimens made from four (4) of the five (5) RAC mixtures was higher or equivalent to the control specimens. Specimens of the concrete mixture containing the highest content of recycled aggregate, 20% volumetric replacement of granular RCA, had shear capacities 14.1% lower, and exhibited cracking at lower loads than the control. The average flexural capacities of all RAC specimens were within 3.7% of the control specimens. Results from this research

  15. Recycling cycle of materials applied to acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/policarbonate blends with styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândido, L. H. A.; Ferreira, D. B.; Júnior, W. Kindlein; Demori, R.; Mauler, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this research is the recycling of polymers from mobile phones hulls discarded and the performance evaluation when they are submitted to the Recycling Cycle of Materials (RCM). The studied material was the ABS/PC blend in a 70/30 proportion. Different compositions were evaluated adding virgin material, recycled material and using the copolymer SBS as impact modifier. In order to evaluate the properties of material's composition, the samples were characterized by TGA, FTIR, SEM, IZOD impact strength and tensile strength tests. At the first stage, the presented results suggest the composition containing 25% of recycled material and 5% of SBS combines good mechanical performance to the higher content of recycled material and lower content of impact modifier providing major benefits to recycling plans. Five cycles (RCM) were applied in the second stage; they evidenced a decrease trend considering the impact strength. At first and second cycle the impact strength was higher than reference material (ABS/PC blend) and from the fourth cycle it was lower. The superiority impact strength in the first and second cycles can be attributed to impact modifier effect. The thermal tests and the spectrometry didn't show the presence of degradation process in the material and the TGA curves demonstrated the process stability. The impact surface of each sample was observed at SEM. The microstructures are not homogeneous presenting voids and lamellar appearance, although the outer surface presents no defects, demonstrating good moldability. The present work aims to assess the life cycle of the material from the successive recycling processes.

  16. Effect of crumb rubber on the mechanical properties of crushed recycled pavement materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Saberian, Mohammad; Nguyen, Bao Thach

    2018-07-15

    The low-carbon footprint of using recycled construction and demolition (C&D) aggregates in civil engineering infrastructure applications has been considered to be a significant solution for the replacement of conventional pavement aggregates. Investigations regarding the use of crumb rubber in the base and subbase layers of pavement have been well documented. However, information on the effects of crumb rubber and its size within C&D aggregates as the base/subbase layers is still very limited. In this study, crumb rubber with particle sizes ranging from 400 to 600 μm (fine) to 10-15 mm (coarse), 20 mm recycled crushed concrete (RCC), and 20 mm crushed rock (CR) were used. The crumb rubber was added to the two groups of C&D aggregates at 0.5, 1 and 2% by weight percentages of the aggregates. The effect of crumb rubber on the mechanical properties (such as California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength, aggregate crushing value, dynamic lightweight cone penetrometer, Clegg impact value, Los Angeles abrasion values, and resilient modulus) of the C&D aggregates was then examined. Based on the experimental test results, it was found that crumb rubber can be recycled as a waste material for the base and subbase layers in the pavement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE RESTORATION OF SEWERS USING ELEMENTS OF RECYCLED POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONCHARENKO D. F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Currently sanitary drainage systems of large cities in Ukraine are significantly worn down with prolonged use and due to inefficient solutions for protection of the structures from aggressive effects of the environment, poor quality of materials and construction and installation works during building. Restoration of performance characteristics, reliability and durability of sewer tunnels is the costly and technically complex task, which is urgently needed to be fulfilled to prevent accidents including those with serious environmental impact. Modern work technique and the materials used for restoration allow us to solve these problems with different levels of efficiency, while reducing the cost of restoration due to use of recycled polymeric raw material, as well as to improvement of technological solutions is a currently important direction of research. Purpose of the article. To develop solutions for restoring serviceability, reliability and durability of sewer tunnels taking into account the accumulated experience in renovation of water disposal networks. Conclusion. Use of components made of recycled polymer composite materials during restoring sewer tunnels has significant economic and environmental effects and allows to undertake repair work in hard-to-reach areas.

  18. Development of Composite Materials Under Ecological Aspects as Recycling Concept For Borosilicate Glass Containing Iron Slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, T.K.; Bossert, J.; Aly, H.F.; Bossert, J.

    1999-01-01

    Composite concept in materials science can be conveniently applied in the waste treatment technology to construct specific t ailor made c omposite materials, in which at least one of the phases is built by the waste material. In this work the applicability of this concept for the fixation and recycling of slags wastes is done, whereby different mixtures of blast furnace slags are mixed with two different borosilicate glasses, which serve as matrix material. Thermal behaviour of the produced compacts were studied. Both melting and powder technology are applied for the fabrication of dense products. The microstructure of sintered samples is investigated by electron microscopy. The mechanical properties such as hardness and fracture toughness are determined by a Vickers technique. An improvement of the fracture toughness of more than 50% over the value for the original glass VG 98 is achieved by slag addition

  19. Transparent Façade Panel Typologies Based on Recyclable Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Giles

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are large consumers of energy. In the United States of America; they constitute over 33% of the total annual energy consumption, produce 35% of the total carbon dioxide emissions and attribute 40% of landfill wastes. The building industry is also a large consumer of non-renewable materials and this trend has escalated dramatically over the past century. It is essential that we find ways to save on energy consumption through the use of solar energy, improved thermal insulation, and alternative efficient glazed façade systems. In this paper, we demonstrate how alternative typologies of transparent and translucent load-bearing façade systems based on biocomposite and recyclable materials, are structurally and thermally efficient at the same time they contribute towards reduced pollutant emissions and non-renewable material uses.Composite insulated panel systems are used extensively in the engineering and building industry, owing to their structural and thermal efficiency. However, these systems are generally opaque and offer little flexibility in building applications. As an alternative, we demonstrate how building products comprised of hybrid material typologie scan be made to perform efficiently as load-bearing façade systems that substitute for current glazing systems with adequate thermal and structural performance, which also possess good light transmission characteristics and integral shading capability. The materials are configured to work as composite panel systems made from a combination of biocomposite and recyclable polymer materials. These materials are environmentally sustainable, because they either originate from naturally grown renewable resources or are recyclable. Our research program includes the design and development of prototype panel systems; the evaluation of structural and thermal performance, together with their role in reducing energy consumption and pollution emission through life cycle analysis. The paper

  20. A FEM Modeling of the Concrete Pavement Made of the Recycling Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šešlija Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper is a brief review of the research focused on formulation an numerical model for the concrete pavement which is made by the recycling material. For numerical modeling the finite element model (FEM and the 3D finite element model were applied. The software EverFE 2.25, was used. The results of FEM analysis is in a chapter shape showing move value change, strees and deflections for all layers a construction road model. In the next phase of the research was provided by FEM software with appropriate general purpose non-linear models, which allows the analysis of the real behavior of solid pavement under load.

  1. Recycling solid residues recovered from glass fibre-reinforced composites – A review applied to wind turbine blade materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Lilholt, Hans; Brøndsted, Povl

    2014-01-01

    For the sustainable development of modern societies, optimized life cycle management of any technologies must be considered, from their development and implementation to their end of life (EoL). This is of main concern for the wind energy sector. Rapidly growing, this industrial sector will have...... to face large amount of future wind turbine (WT) blades coming to EoL. Among the EoL solutions available for WT blades, i.e. reuse, remanufacturing, recycling, incineration or disposal, this literature review focuses on recycling and particularly the recycling of shredded composite (SC) materials...

  2. Unconventional recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K.M.

    1996-05-01

    Despite advances made in recycling technology and markets for materials over the past few years, recycling at convention centers, particularly on the show floor itself, can be a vexing problem. Part of the problem lies in the fact that recycling at convention centers has more to do with logistics than it does with these industry trends. However, given the varied nature of convention centers, and the shows they book, a rigid approach to recycling at convention centers is not always feasible. Like the numerous different curbside programs serving communities across the country, what works for one convention center--and one show--many not work for another. These difficulties notwithstanding, more convention centers are offering recycling programs today, and more groups booking conventions these days have begun requesting recycling services.

  3. Data compilation for radiation effects on hydrogen recycle in fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Kunio; Fukushima, Kimichika; Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1984-05-01

    Irradiation tests of materials by hydrogen isotopes are under way, to investigate the hydrogen recycling process where exchange of fuel particles takes place between plasma and the wall of the nuclear fusion reactor. In the report, data on hydrogen irradiation are collected and reviewed from the view point of irradiation effects. Data are classified into, (1) Re-emmission, (2) Retention, (Retained hydrogen isotopes, Depth profile in the materials and Thermal desorption spectroscopy), (3) Permeation and (4) Ion impact desorption. Research activities in each area are arranged according to the date of publication, research institutes, materials investigated, so that overview of present status can be made. Then, institute, author and reference are shown for each classification with tables. The list of literature is also attached. (author)

  4. Concept of an integrated waste economy represented on the example of recycling of valuable materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, H

    1980-08-01

    The historical development of waste elimination is discussed, followed by the waste problem in an environmental discussion, the possibilities of recycling within the framework of a waste industry, and the solution of the waste problem from a waste-economy viewpoint, including the definition of 'waste' and the grouping by types of waste, their amounts and increase rates, composition and valuable materials in community wastes with a review of waste technologies under waste-economy viewpoints. This is followed by a discussion of the sales possibilities for valuable components from mechanical sorting facilities, including used paper, old glass, hard substances, metals, plastics, succeeded by a comparative evaluation method, and the national economy aspect of the waste industry, with the savings effect in raw materials for different branches, effects on raw material reserves, the problem of dependence on imports, waste rates and living standard, and the importance of environmental instruments which are discussed in detail.

  5. Study of Effects on Mechanical Properties of PLA Filament which is blended with Recycled PLA Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babagowda; Kadadevara Math, R. S.; Goutham, R.; Srinivas Prasad, K. R.

    2018-02-01

    Fused deposition modeling is a rapidly growing additive manufacturing technology due to its ability to build functional parts having complex geometry. The mechanical properties of the build part is depends on several process parameters and build material of the printed specimen. The aim of this study is to characterize and optimize the parameters such as layer thickness and PLA build material which is mixed with recycled PLA material. Tensile and flexural or bending test are carried out to determine the mechanical response characteristics of the printed specimen. Taguchi method is used for number of experiments and Taguchi S/N ratio is used to identify the set of parameters which give good results for respective response characteristics, effectiveness of each parameters is investigated by using analysis of variance (ANOVA).

  6. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-09-01

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives.

  7. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as … well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives

  8. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives

  9. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives.

  10. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives

  11. Production of Controlled Low Strength Material Utilizing Waste Paper Sludge Ash and Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi A. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the best method to make the concrete industry more sustainable was using the waste materials to replace the natural resources. Currently waste paper sludge is a major economic and environmental problem in this country. In this research, the alternative method is to dwindle the usage of natural resources and the usage of cement in the construction. This method is to replace the usage of cement with the waste paper sludge ash (WPSA and to use the recycle aggregate collected from the construction is used. The WPSA has ingredient likely cement such as self-cementation but for a low strength. The research was conducted at heavy laboratory UITM Pulau Pinang. Meanwhile, the WPSA is collected at MNI Industries at Mentakab, Pahang. The recycle aggregate is a separated half, which were fine aggregate and the coarse aggregate with the specific size. In this research, the ratio is divided into two (2 which is 1:1 and 1:2 for the aggregate and difference percentage levels of WPSA. The percentage levels of WPSA that use in this research are 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60%. A total of 36 cubes were prepared. Aim of this research is to develop a simple design approach for the mixture proportioning of WPSA and recycle concrete aggregate (RCA within the concrete and to assess the effect of concrete mix with different percentage of WPSA and RCA ratio on the properties. It is found that the best design mix that achieves control low strength material (CLSM is on 30% of WPSA with the ratio 1:2 on day 28 of compression test.

  12. The use of plasticizing additives based on recycled raw materials in the petrochemical rubber mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Shashok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the development of alternative products for elastomers based on recycling petrochemical raw materials is a new trend of the rubber industry progress. Petrochemical raw materials include spent lubricants and motor oils are among such recycling products. In this context, the influence of the products of recycling waste engine oil (DVCH and RA in comparison with industrial oil (I-20 on the technological properties of filled elastomeric compositions was investigated. The elastomeric compositions were based on poly isoprene and divinyl rubbers. The plasticizing components were manufactured by IOOO “DVCH-Menedzhment”. They are mixture of hydro-carbons, C16–C20 and differ from each other in the content of linear and branched paraffin. Plastic-elastic properties of rubber compounds on the shear disk viscometer MV2000 in accordance with GOST 10722–76 was carried out. Kinetics of vulcanization on the rheometer ODR2000 according to GOST 12535–84 was defined. It is shown that the introduction of RA test plasticizing component provides a significant effect on Mooney viscosity, as compared to elastomeric compositions containing a plasticizer and I-20 and plasticizing additive DVCH. It revealed that the administration of all components in the studied plasticizing elastomer compositions based on a combination poly isoprene and divinyl rubbers has no significant effect on the rate of relaxation of stress of rubber compounds. It is found that elastomeric compositions containing as additives investigated processing waste oil products (DVCH and RA are characterized by a slightly smaller value of time to reach an optimal degree of vulcanization.

  13. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  14. Application of exemption principles to the recycle and reuse of materials from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting, in a coherent and comprehensive manner, the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. The RADWASS publications will: (a) reflect the existing international consensus in the approaches and methodologies for safe waste management, including disposal, and provide mechanisms to establish consensus where it does not yet exist; and (b) provide Member States with a comprehensive series of internationally agreed upon documents to assist in the derivation of new, or to complement existing, national criteria, standards and practices. This Safety Practices publication is concerned with procedures for determining the levels of radionuclides in materials below which they can be exempted from regulatory control and recycled or reused without any further restriction. It describes how the internationally agreed upon principles for exemption can be applied in the case of recycle and reuse. The methodology is applied to derive the typical ranges of exempt concentrations for representative radionuclides. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Balanced score card for cluster of building materials scrap recycling in Voronezh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potekhi Igor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is described an effort to develop a new system of management and economy of building materials scrap recycling cluster. For this task is used conception “Management by Objective” by American legend Peter Drucker. Thus cluster participants have divergent purposes, but have common purpose, the present conception match the most for develop business strategy of uniting companies in this cluster. As result, it was developed a “Balanced Scorecard” for the cluster. This “Balanced Scorecard” take into account technological features of companies in cluster and developed common purpose system. In base of system structure of indicators there is exist model of cluster. This model can show capacity, output flows and throughput capacity of participants. During develop a system of cluster’s purposes it were learned priorities balance of economy efficiency and natural resource management. There are shown calculation of costs of reuse building recycled materials, located on solid waste landfill. Developed strategic system of purpose of cluster activity allows to get economical benefit all participants and for citizens to save environment from nature disaster.

  16. Recycling as a Pedagogical Strategy for the Reutilization of Organic and Inorganic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Aranel Gonzalez Orozco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to establish recycling as a pedagogical strategy for the reuse of organic and inorganic material with the students of the National Basic School "Sebastián Araujo Briceño" of the Pedraza Municipality Barinas State; The researcher, through a direct approach to the study reality, has been able to verify firsthand that the subject of recycling is not being given due treatment, since it has been approached as a topic of more content, without being given due importance , Especially from the use of organic and inorganic materials, which makes this study an element of great importance in terms of the contribution that can be generated from it to the institution and to conscious formation. The informants of the present study will be made up of people from the "Sebastián Araujo Briceño" National Basic School of the Pedraza Municipality of Barinas, where the research will be carried out. Specifically, two (02 teachers and two (02 students of the institution, collaborators of the different activities that take place in the same. The technique used is the semi-structured interview, and the instrument is the interview guide. The analysis of the information will be done through the codification, categorization, triangulation and structuring of theories.

  17. Notes on Michigan Boletaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Alexander H.

    1973-01-01

    Studies have continued on the diversity of the Michigan bolete flora. During the season of 1972 a variety of Boletus affinis Peck having a reticulate stipe was discovered and abundant material of Boletus bicolor var. subreticulatus Smith & Thiers was obtained. Boletus hortonii Smith & Thiers was

  18. Development and field testing of agricultural snowmelting agents made from recycled bio-waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Tanaka, H.; Suzuki, S.; Tadano, T.

    2008-01-01

    In snow-covering region of Japan, the promotion of snowmelting with application of agricultural snowmelting agents ('Yusetsuzai' in Japanese) has been widely carried out by farmers at the snowmelting season. When black colored materials with albedo-lowering effect are spread on snow surface, absorption of solar radiation by snow is increased, the snowmelting is promoted and snow thawing date becomes earlier. As a result, the growing season of crop plants is extended. Existing agricultural snowmelting agents have been mostly made from industrial waste materials or industrial processed products due to requirement for the low cost of the raw materials. These agents may contain harmful heavy metal elements and may lead to environmental pollution. To solve these problems, we developed the new agricultural snowmelting agents made from recycled bio-waste materials generated from the fields of agriculture and fishery. The developed snowmelting agents were made from shells of Patinopecten yessoensis, fowl droppings and processed wastes of fish and shellfish, etc. Especially, the shells of Patinopecten yessoensis has problems due to generation of a huge quantity in Hokkaido. Therefore, the recycling-use of these waste materials was strongly requested and expected. The developed snowmelting agents were possible to spread efficiently and safely on the snow-surface without wide scattering by controlling the particle size within the range larger than 100 microm and smaller than 1180 microm. Results obtained from the field experiment showed that the albedo was decreased from 0.70 for natural snow to 0.20 and the promotion of snowmelting for 11 days was recognized when 100 kg/10a of developed agent was spread. The promoting ability of the developed agent was equivalent to those of the existing commercial snowmelting agents. (author)

  19. Strength, shrinkage, erodibility and capillary flow characteristics of cement-treated recycled pavement materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fedrigo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Full-depth recycling with portland cement (FDR-PC has been widely used for pavement rehabilitation; however, doubts remain regarding factors affecting some properties of the recycled material. Aiming on quantifying the effects of those factors on the strength, drying shrinkage, erodibility, capillary rise and absorption of cement-treated mixtures (CTM of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP and graded crushed stone, tests were conducted considering different RAP contents, cement contents, compaction efforts and curing times. Cement addition increased the mixtures strength and reduced their erodibility and capillary flow characteristics, but increased shrinkage. Low cement contents resulted in acceptable strength for CTM, but in high capillary rise and absorption, not being suitable if the layer is exposed to long periods of water soaking. Higher compaction effort led to similar effects as cement addition, counterbalancing low cement contents usage and reducing costs and shrinkage cracking risk. Strength and shrinkage showed higher growth rates at early stages, and then precautions should be taken in order to avoid moisture loss. Increasing RAP content decreased strength; though, RAP effect on the other properties was statistically non-significant, indicating a similar behaviour as CTM without RAP. Considering the studied properties, the mixture with most satisfactory behaviour for field applications was identified. The results highlighted strength is not the only property to be considered when designing FDR-PC mixtures; although presenting acceptable strength, some mixtures may fail due to shrinkage cracking or erosion, when exposed to water content variations. Keywords: Full-depth recycling with cement, Strength, Drying shrinkage, Erodibility, Capillary rise, Absorption

  20. Recycling and disposal of FUSRAP materials from the Ashland 2 site at a licensed uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.; Conboy, D.; Rehmann, M.; Roberts, H.

    1999-01-01

    During World War II the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) used facilities near Buffalo, N.Y. to extract natural uranium from ores. Some of the byproduct material left from the ores (MED byproduct), containing low levels of uranium, thorium, and radium, was deposited on a disposal site known as Ashland 2, located in Tonawanda, NY. On behalf of the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE, or the Corps), ICF Kaiser Engineers (ICFKE) was tasked to provide the best value clean-up results that meet all of the criteria established in the Record of Decision for the site. International Uranium (USA) Corporation (IUC), the operator of the White Mesa Uranium Mill, a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed mill near Blanding, Utah, was selected to perform uranium extraction on the excavated materials, therefore giving the best value as it provided beneficial use of the material consistent with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) intent to encourage recycling and recovery, while also providing the most cost-effective means of disposal. Challenges overcome to complete this project included (1) identifying the best-value location to accept the material; (2) meeting regulatory requirements with IUC obtaining an NRC license amendment to accept and process the material as an alternate feed; (3) excavating and preparing the material for shipment, then shipping the material to the Mill for uranium recovery; and (4) processing the material, followed by disposal of tailings from the process in the Mill's licensed uranium tailings facility. Excavation from Ashland 2 and processing of the Ashland 2 material at the White Mesa Mill resulted in a cleaner environment at Tonawanda, a cost avoidance of up to $16 million, beneficial recovery of source material, and environmentally protective disposal of byproduct material. (author)

  1. A comparative study of recycled aggregates from concrete and mixed debris as material for unbound road sub-base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, J. R.; Agrela, F.; Ayuso, J.; Lopez, M.

    2011-01-01

    Seven different types of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) have been evaluated as granular materials for unbound road sub bases construction. The results showed that recycled concrete aggregates complied with all specifications for using in the construction of unbound structural layers (sub-base) for T3 and T4 traffic categories according to the Spanish General Technical Specification for Road Construction (PG-3). Some mixed recycled aggregates fell short of some specifications due to a high content of sulphur compounds and poor fragmentation resistance. Sieving off the fine fraction prior to crushing the mixed CDW reduce the total sulphur content and improve the quality of the mixed recycled aggregates, by contrast, pre-sieving concrete CDW had no effect on the quality of the resulting aggregates. The results were compared with a crushed limestone as natural aggregate. (Author) 23 refs.

  2. Development of assessment methods for transport and storage containers with higher content of metallic recycling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zencker, U.; Qiao Linan; Droste, B.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of transport and storage containers made of ductile cast iron melted with higher content of metallic recycling material from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations is investigated. With drop tests of cubic container-like models, the influence of different real targets on the stresses in the cask body and the fracture behaviour is examined. A test stand foundation is suggested, which can be manufactured simply and improves the reproducibility of the test results strongly. The test objects are partially equipped with artificial cracklike defects. Dynamic fracture mechanics analyses of these defects were performed by means of finite element calculations to uncover safety margins. Numerous test results show depending on the requirements that containers for final disposal can be built by means of a ductile cast iron with fracture toughness more than half under the lower bound value for the licensed material qualities yet. The application limits of the material are determined also by the opportunities of the safety assessment methods. This project supports the application of brittle fracture safe transport and storage packages for radioactive materials as recommended in App. VI of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA No. TS-G-1.1)

  3. Development of assessment methods for transport and storage containers with higher content of metallic recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zencker, U.; Qiao Linan; Droste, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The mechanical behaviour of transport and storage containers made of ductile cast iron melted with higher content of metallic recycling material from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations is investigated. With drop tests of cubic container-like models, the influence of different real targets on the stresses in the cask body and the fracture behaviour is examined. A test stand foundation is suggested, which can be manufactured simply and improves the reproducibility of the test results strongly. The test objects are partially equipped with artificial cracklike defects. Dynamic fracture mechanics analyses of these defects were performed by means of finite element calculations to uncover safety margins. Numerous test results show depending on the requirements that containers for final disposal can be built by means of a ductile cast iron with fracture toughness more than half under the lower bound value for the licensed material qualities yet. The application limits of the material are determined also by the opportunities of the safety assessment methods. This project supports the application of brittle fracture safe transport and storage packages for radioactive materials as recommended in App. VI of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA No. TS-G-1.1).

  4. 76 FR 53897 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source Reduction Measurement in the U.S. AGENCY... Subjects Environmental protection, municipal solid waste (MSW) characterization, MSW management, recycling, measurement, data, data collection, construction and demolition (C&D) recycling, source reduction, life cycle...

  5. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further...... rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed...... of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste....

  6. Reliable classification of moving waste materials with LIBS in concrete recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Han; Bakker, M C M

    2014-03-01

    Effective discrimination between different waste materials is of paramount importance for inline quality inspection of recycle concrete aggregates from demolished buildings. The moving targeted materials in the concrete waste stream are wood, PVC, gypsum block, glass, brick, steel rebar, aggregate and cement paste. For each material, up to three different types were considered, while thirty particles of each material were selected. Proposed is a reliable classification methodology based on integration of the LIBS spectral emissions in a fixed time window, starting from the deployment of the laser shot. PLS-DA (multi class) and the hybrid combination PCA-Adaboost (binary class) were investigated as efficient classifiers. In addition, mean centre and auto scaling approaches were compared for both classifiers. Using 72 training spectra and 18 test spectra per material, each averaged by ten shots, only PLS-DA achieved full discrimination, and the mean centre approach made it slightly more robust. Continuing with PLS-DA, the relation between data averaging and convergence to 0.3% average error was investigated using 9-fold cross-validations. Single-shot PLS-DA presented the highest challenge and most desirable methodology, which converged with 59 PC. The degree of success in practical testing will depend on the quality of the training set and the implications of the possibly remaining false positives. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Changing patterns in the use, recycling, and material substitution of mercury in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental concerns have led to numerous regulations that have dramatically decreased the reported production and use of mercury in the United States since the 1980s. Government legislation and subsequent industry actions have led to increased collection of mercury-containing materials and the recovery of mercury through recycling. Mercury emissions have been reduced and effective alternatives to mercury products have been developed for many applications. This study updates and quantifies the changes in demand, supply, use, and material flow for mercury in various sectors in the United States that have taken place since 1996. Nearly all primary mercury produced in the United States is derived as a byproduct of processing of gold and silver ore in Nevada. Since 2001, annual production of mercury from gold and silver mining in Nevada has decreased by 22 percent overall because ore from greater depths containing low grade mercury is recovered, and mercury emissions from this source have decreased by 95 percent as a result of increased regulation and improved collection and suppression technology. The distribution of consumption of mercury in the United States has changed as a result of regulation (elimination of large-scale mercury use in the paint and battery sectors), reduction by consumers (decommissioning of mercury-cell chloralkali manufacturing capacity), and technological advances (improvements in dental, lighting, and wiring sectors). Mercury use in the chloralkali sector, the leading end-use sector in the United States in 1996, has declined by 98 percent from 136 metric tons (t) in 1996 to about 0.3 t in 2010 because of increased processing and recycling efficiencies and plant closures or conversion to other technologies. As plants were closed, mercury recovered from the infrastructure of decommissioned plants has been exported, making the United States a net exporter of mercury, even though no mercury has been produced as the primary product from mines in

  8. Degradation of recycled PET fibers in Portland cement-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.A.; Betioli, A.M.; Gleize, P.J.P.; Roman, H.R.; Gomez, L.A.; Ribeiro, J.L.D.

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the durability of recycled PET fibers embedded in cement-based materials, fiber-reinforced mortar specimens were tested until 164 days after mixing. Compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths, elasticity modulus, and toughness of the specimens were determined. The mortars were also analyzed by SEM. The results have shown that PET fibers have no significant influence on mortars strengths and elasticity modulus. However, the toughness indexes I 5 , I 10 , and I 20 decreased with time due to the degradation of PET fibers by alkaline hydrolysis when embedded in the cement matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and SEM analysis of PET fibers immersed and kept for 150 days in alkaline solutions supported the conclusions

  9. Reuse of materials from recyclable-waste collection for road building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.; Ticali, D.

    2006-01-01

    A right policy of waste management should look to nature: in fact in nature nothing of produced is lost; everything could be considered food to energy resource for another subject. A diffusion of right policy of waste reuse is the leit motive of this study. Heavy problem of pollution and the protection of the natural environment, is the one of the most important problem of this society, and so to think waste to reuse for civil engineering research has a double aim: a) to reduce quantity to send to dump; b) to reuse good materials for civil engineering building, as substitute of natural aggregate. It look very innovative and actual to think to possibility of reuse glass from recyclable-waste collection for road building, and so we could consider road as a valid substitute to dump. The aim is to consider waste as an element with high energetic power and value added [it

  10. Treeing phenomenon of thermoplastic polyethylene blends for recyclable cable insulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lunzhi; Zhang, Kai; Zhong, Lisheng; Gao, Jinghui; Xu, Man; Chen, Guanghui; Fu, Mingli

    2017-02-01

    Owing to its good recyclability and low processing energy consumption, non-crosslinked polyethylene blends (e.g. LLDPE-HDPE blends) are considered as one of potential environmental-friendly substitutions for crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) as cable insulation material. Although extensive work has been performed for measuring the basic dielectric properties, there is a lack of the investigations on the aging properties for such a material system, which hinders the evaluation of reliability and lifetime of the material for cable insulation. In this paper, we study the electric aging phenomenon of 0.7LLDPE-0.3HDPE blending material by investigating the treeing behavior, and its comparison with XLPE and LLDPE. Treeing tests show that the 0.7LLDPE-0.3HDPE blends have lower probability for treeing as well as smaller treeing dimensions. Further thermal analysis and microstructure study results suggest that the blends exhibit larger proportion of thick lamellae and higher crystallinity with homogeneously-distributed amorphous region, which is responsible for good anti-treeing performance. Our finding provides the evidence that the 0.7LLDPE-0.3HDPE blends exhibits better electric-aging-retardance properties than XLPE, which may result in a potential application for cable insulation.

  11. Treeing phenomenon of thermoplastic polyethylene blends for recyclable cable insulation materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunzhi Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Owing to its good recyclability and low processing energy consumption, non-crosslinked polyethylene blends (e.g. LLDPE-HDPE blends are considered as one of potential environmental-friendly substitutions for crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE as cable insulation material. Although extensive work has been performed for measuring the basic dielectric properties, there is a lack of the investigations on the aging properties for such a material system, which hinders the evaluation of reliability and lifetime of the material for cable insulation. In this paper, we study the electric aging phenomenon of 0.7LLDPE-0.3HDPE blending material by investigating the treeing behavior, and its comparison with XLPE and LLDPE. Treeing tests show that the 0.7LLDPE-0.3HDPE blends have lower probability for treeing as well as smaller treeing dimensions. Further thermal analysis and microstructure study results suggest that the blends exhibit larger proportion of thick lamellae and higher crystallinity with homogeneously-distributed amorphous region, which is responsible for good anti-treeing performance. Our finding provides the evidence that the 0.7LLDPE-0.3HDPE blends exhibits better electric-aging-retardance properties than XLPE, which may result in a potential application for cable insulation.

  12. Fabrication of recyclable and durable superhydrophobic materials with wear/corrosion-resistance properties from kaolin and polyvinylchloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mengnan; Liu, Shanshan; He, Jinmei; Feng, Juan; Yao, Yali; Ma, Xuerui; Hou, Lingang; Liu, Xiangrong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, mechanically stable and recyclable superhydrophobic materials were prepared from polyvinylchloride (PVC) and kaolin nanoparticles modified by stearic acid using a simple and low-cost drop-coating. The obtained materials displayed liquid-repellent toward water and several other liquids of daily life (such as orange juice, coffee, milk, coca cola and ink). These superhydrophobic materials showed remarkable robustness against sandpaper abrasion, UV-irradiation and ultrasonication test, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 60 abrasion cycles loaded of 500 g with sandpaper, 7 days UV-irradiation or 120 min ultrasonication test. The excellent durability against complex conditions was attributed to the hierarchical structure and strong interfacial adhesion of the materials. More significantly, the materials used in the coating could be recycled and reconstructed without losing its superhydrophobicity. The current superhydrophobic materials tolerate rigorous environment, opening a new avenue to a variety of practical applications.

  13. Fabrication of recyclable and durable superhydrophobic materials with wear/corrosion-resistance properties from kaolin and polyvinylchloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Mengnan; Liu, Shanshan; He, Jinmei; Feng, Juan; Yao, Yali; Ma, Xuerui; Hou, Lingang; Liu, Xiangrong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The scraped debris can be recycled and easily reused to fabricate the superhydrophobic materials. • The obtained materials displayed liquid-repellent toward water and several other liquids of daily life. • The superhydrophobic materials can retain excellent chemical stability and mechanical durability after rigorous tests. • This as-prepared material can be regarded as a real superhydrophobic “material”, not just the superhydrophobic “surface”. - Abstract: In this study, mechanically stable and recyclable superhydrophobic materials were prepared from polyvinylchloride (PVC) and kaolin nanoparticles modified by stearic acid using a simple and low-cost drop-coating. The obtained materials displayed liquid-repellent toward water and several other liquids of daily life (such as orange juice, coffee, milk, coca cola and ink). These superhydrophobic materials showed remarkable robustness against sandpaper abrasion, UV-irradiation and ultrasonication test, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 60 abrasion cycles loaded of 500 g with sandpaper, 7 days UV-irradiation or 120 min ultrasonication test. The excellent durability against complex conditions was attributed to the hierarchical structure and strong interfacial adhesion of the materials. More significantly, the materials used in the coating could be recycled and reconstructed without losing its superhydrophobicity. The current superhydrophobic materials tolerate rigorous environment, opening a new avenue to a variety of practical applications.

  14. Fabrication of recyclable and durable superhydrophobic materials with wear/corrosion-resistance properties from kaolin and polyvinylchloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Mengnan, E-mail: mnanqu@gmail.com; Liu, Shanshan; He, Jinmei, E-mail: jinmhe@gmail.com; Feng, Juan; Yao, Yali; Ma, Xuerui; Hou, Lingang; Liu, Xiangrong

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • The scraped debris can be recycled and easily reused to fabricate the superhydrophobic materials. • The obtained materials displayed liquid-repellent toward water and several other liquids of daily life. • The superhydrophobic materials can retain excellent chemical stability and mechanical durability after rigorous tests. • This as-prepared material can be regarded as a real superhydrophobic “material”, not just the superhydrophobic “surface”. - Abstract: In this study, mechanically stable and recyclable superhydrophobic materials were prepared from polyvinylchloride (PVC) and kaolin nanoparticles modified by stearic acid using a simple and low-cost drop-coating. The obtained materials displayed liquid-repellent toward water and several other liquids of daily life (such as orange juice, coffee, milk, coca cola and ink). These superhydrophobic materials showed remarkable robustness against sandpaper abrasion, UV-irradiation and ultrasonication test, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 60 abrasion cycles loaded of 500 g with sandpaper, 7 days UV-irradiation or 120 min ultrasonication test. The excellent durability against complex conditions was attributed to the hierarchical structure and strong interfacial adhesion of the materials. More significantly, the materials used in the coating could be recycled and reconstructed without losing its superhydrophobicity. The current superhydrophobic materials tolerate rigorous environment, opening a new avenue to a variety of practical applications.

  15. Recycling of hazardous solid waste material using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Meier, A.; Wuillemin, D.; Hoffelner, W.; Steinfeld, A.

    2003-03-01

    A novel high-temperature solar chemical reactor is proposed for the thermal recycling of hazardous solid waste material using concentrated solar power. A 10 kW solar reactor prototype was designed and tested for the carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The reactor was subjected to mean solar flux intensities of 2000 kW/m2 and operated in both batch and continuous mode within the temperature range 1120-1400 K. Extraction of up to 99% and 90% of the Zn originally contained in the EAFD was achieved in the residue for the batch and continuous solar experiments, respectively. The condensed off-gas products consisted mainly of Zn, Pb, and Cl. No ZnO was detected when the O{sub 2} concentration remained below 2 vol.-%. The use of concentrated solar energy as the source of process heat offers the possibility of converting hazardous solid waste material into valuable commodities for processes in closed and sustainable material cycles. (author)

  16. Current studies on the decommissioning materials recycling at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiki, K.; Nakamura, H.

    1993-01-01

    Rational treatment of a large volume of solid wastes resulting from the reactor dismantling is a key to success to carry out the decommissioning smoothly. From this viewpoint, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been conducting development of the recycling technology for metal waste and an investigation study on the rational recycling system for the dismantling wastes recycling. With respect to the development of the recycling technology, series of melting tests using non-contaminated metals, metal waste dismantled from JPDR or imitated waste using radioisotopes have been conducted. The basic characteristics of the radionuclides transport behavior during the melting have been understood. In the investigation study on the rational recycling system, a scenario of recycling the wastes was developed based on the amount of waste arising from decommissioning nuclear power plants, and necessary processing facilities were examined, and safety and economy of the process were evaluated

  17. ECO-WALL SYSTEMS: USING RECYCLED MATERIAL IN THE DESIGN OF COMMERCIAL INTERIOR WALL SYSTEMS FOR BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proposal describes an interdisciplinary project involving students from several academic departments at Miami University in the design of commercial wall systems to be manufactured from recycled materials. The goal of Phase I of the project is to develop and conduct prelimi...

  18. Recycled material-based science instruments to support science education in rural area at Central Sulawesi District of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M.; Supriyatman; Saehana, S.

    2018-03-01

    It has been successfully designing low cost of science experiment from recycled materials. The science instruments were produced to explain expansion concept and hydrostatic pressure inside the liquid. Science instruments were calibrated and then validated. It was also implemented in science learning.

  19. Mixes of polymeric material II - Evaluation of the physical, mechanical properties and of process in mixtures polyethylene, virgin and recycled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparro R, Luis; Perilla, Jairo E; Huertas, Jairo; Castro German

    1999-01-01

    In this document a summary of the results in the experimental development of the necessary stages to recover hothouse polyethylene is made. Is studied the form that alter the physical properties and of process of the virgin material when is submitted to long periods of exhibition to the environment and the form of variation of these properties when preparing mixtures of polyethylene, virgin and recycled. The results suggest use as maximum of 30% polyethylene recycled in the mixtures to avoid big variations in the properties of the final product

  20. Transport of nuclear materials: a major stake for the reprocessing-conditioning-recycling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautrot, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    As the international reference in terms of fuel cycle services, the COGEMA Group has developed a wide range of industrialized products answering to its clients needs. But, as deregulation and competition are now expanding, utilities has to be perfectly aware of the cost level of their strategic choices, and to keep these costs down. This point is especially valid in the back-end of the fuel cycle. Several leading nuclear countries around the world have chosen the reprocessing-recycling option because it ensures a economically mastered vision. In that respect, transportation reliability is consequently a basic requirement. It ensures a balanced and continuous flows of materials. Transportation system must be reliable in terms of schedule, safety or industrial aspects (i.e. dedicated packaging for road, rail, sea or air transports, maintenance aspects...). Any serious flaw in one of these three points could lead to delays, thus lessening the economic advantage for utilities. But, one must not loose sight that transportation of nuclear materials is tied to extra-technical issues, such as environmental or regulatory factors, which are fundamental for a consistent understanding of this business. The COGEMA Group, through its subsidiary Transnucleaire, possesses a dedicated transport system, widely praised for its constant commitment in terms of safety, quality and operating. This papers presents the overall back-end transportation framework and details the transport organisations as well as the main achievements of Transnucleaire when it comes to sea, road or rail back-end transports. (authors)

  1. Recycling of Manganese Secondary Raw Material Via Cold-Bond Pelletizing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.M.Z.; Mohamed, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Large quantities of fines were produced during the shipping, transportation, handling and storage of manganese ore sinter imported from different countries to Sinai Company for ferromanganese production. These fines are generally considered as valuable secondary raw materials. Hence, they have a potential to be recycled back to the submerged arc furnace after having been agglomerated. For agglomerates to be considered as feed materials for submerged arc furnace they must have sufficient room temperature strength. Cold-bonded penalization process offers an economically attractive and environmentally viable method for achieving this. Ordinary Portland cement was used in this investigation for the purpose of producing a suitable cold-bonded pellet from such fines. In this investigation, the effect of adding different percentages of Portland cement on the mechanical properties of both green and pellet dried at room temperature for 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days of normal curing were studied. The results revealed that, although the compressive strength of green pellets improved with the increase of the amount of cement added. retardation in pellet drop strength was reported. Whereas, the increase in both the cement content and time of drying leads to increase in the mechanical properties of pellets normally cured at room temperature. pellets obtain with the addition of 9% cement shows reasonable mechanical properties to be charged in the submerged are furnace. ferromanganese alloy having a standard range composition was produced in a laboratory submerged are furnace using such pellets

  2. Recycling of spent lithium-ion battery cathode materials by ammoniacal leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Heesuk; Jung, Yeojin; Jo, Minsang; Park, Sanghyuk; Kim, Sookyung; Yang, Donghyo; Rhee, Kangin; An, Eung-Mo; Sohn, Jeongsoo; Kwon, Kyungjung

    2016-08-05

    As the production and consumption of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) increase, the recycling of spent LIBs appears inevitable from an environmental, economic and health viewpoint. The leaching behavior of Ni, Mn, Co, Al and Cu from treated cathode active materials, which are separated from a commercial LIB pack in hybrid electric vehicles, is investigated with ammoniacal leaching agents based on ammonia, ammonium carbonate and ammonium sulfite. Ammonium sulfite as a reductant is necessary to enhance leaching kinetics particularly in the ammoniacal leaching of Ni and Co. Ammonium carbonate can act as a pH buffer so that the pH of leaching solution changes little during leaching. Co and Cu can be fully leached out whereas Mn and Al are hardly leached and Ni shows a moderate leaching efficiency. It is confirmed that the cathode active materials are a composite of LiMn2O4, LiCoxMnyNizO2, Al2O3 and C while the leach residue is composed of LiNixMnyCozO2, LiMn2O4, Al2O3, MnCO3 and Mn oxides. Co recovery via the ammoniacal leaching is believed to gain a competitive edge on convenitonal acid leaching both by reducing the sodium hydroxide expense for increasing the pH of leaching solution and by removing the separation steps of Mn and Al. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A study on the performance of concrete containing recycled aggregates and ceramic as materials replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, N. B.; Khalid, F. S.; Irwan, J. M.; Anting, N.; Mazenan, P. N.

    2017-11-01

    Natural fine aggregate materials are commonly used in development and commercial construction in Malaysia. In fact, concrete production was increased as linear with the growing Malaysia economy. However, an issue was production of concrete was to locate adequate sources of natural fine aggregates. There lot of studies have been conducted in order to replace the fine aggregate in which natural fine aggregate replace with the waste material in concrete preparation. Therefore, this study aims to utilize the Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) and ceramic waste which has great potential to replace the natural aggregate in concrete mix with different type of method, admixture, and parameters. This research were focused on compressive strength and water absorption test to determine the optimum mix ratio of concrete mix. The concrete aggregate was chosen due to improvement capillary bonding mechanisms and ceramic presented similar strength compared to the conventional concrete using natural aggregate. Percent of replacement have been used in this study was at 25%, 35% and 45% of the RCA and 5%, 10% and 15% for ceramic, respectively. Furthermore, this research was conduct to find the optimum percentage of aggregate replacement, using water-cement ratio of 0.55 with concrete grade 25/30. The best percentage of replacement was the RCA35% C15% with the compressive strength of 34.72 MPa and the water absorption was satisfied.

  4. Photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide modified concrete materials - influence of utilizing recycled glass cullets as aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2009-08-01

    Combining the use of photocatalysts with cementitious materials is an important development in the field of photocatalytic air pollution mitigation. This paper presents the results of a systematic study on assessing the effectiveness of pollutant degradation by concrete surface layers that incorporate a photocatalytic material - Titanium Dioxide. The photocatalytic activity of the concrete samples was determined by photocatalytic oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) in the laboratory. Recycled glass cullets, derived from crushed waste beverage bottles, were used to replace sand in preparing the concrete surface layers. Factors, which may affect the pollutant removal performance of the concrete layers including glass color, aggregate size and curing age, were investigated. The results show a significant enhancement of the photocatalytic activity due to the use of glass cullets as aggregates in the concrete layers. The samples fabricated with clear glass cullets exhibited threefold NO removal efficiency compared to the samples fabricated with river sand. The light transmittance property of glass was postulated to account for the efficiency improvement, which was confirmed by a separate simulation study. But the influence of the size of glass cullets was not evident. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of concrete surface layers decreased with curing age, showing a loss of 20% photocatalytic activity after 56-day curing.

  5. Incorporation of hydrogel as a sensing medium for recycle of sensing material in chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yunjung; Park, Jeong Yong; Kwon, Oh Seok; Joo, Seokwon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Bae, Joonwon

    2018-01-01

    A hydrogel, produced with agarose extracted from seaweed, was introduced as a reusable medium in ultrasensitive sensors employing conducting polymer nanomaterials and aptamers. A basic dopamine (DA) sensor was constructed by placing a hydrogel, containing a sensing material composed of aptamer-linked carboxylated polypyrrole nanotubes (PPy-COOH NTs), onto a micropatterned gold electrode. The hydrogel provided a benign electrochemical environment, facilitated specific interactions between DA and the PPy-COOH NT sensing material, and simplified the retrieval of PPy-COOH NTs after detection. It was demonstrated that the agarose hydrogel was successfully employed as a sensing medium for detection of DA, providing a benign environment for the electrode type sensor. PPy-COOH NTs were recovered by simply heating the hydrogel in water. The hydrogel also afforded stable signal intensity after repeated use with a limit of detection of 1 nmol and a clear, stable signal up to 100 nmol DA. This work provides relevant information for future research on reusable or recyclable sensors.

  6. Phosphogypsum recycling in the building materials industry: assessment of the radon exhalation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, M P; Costa, L J P; Nisti, M B; Mazzilli, B P

    2017-06-01

    Phosphogypsum can be classified as a Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) residue of the phosphate fertilizer industry. One of the main environmental concerns of its use as building material is the radon exhalation. The aim of this study is to measure the radon exhalation rate from plates and bricks manufactured with phosphogypsum from three installations of the main Brazilian producer, Vale Fertilizantes, in order to evaluate the additional health risk to dwellers. A simple and reliable accumulator method involving a PVC pipe sealed with a PVC pipe cover commercially available with CR-39 radon detector into a diffusion chamber was used for measuring radon exhalation rate from phosphogypsum made plates and bricks. The radon exhalation rate from plates varied from 0.19 ± 0.06 Bq m -2 h -1 , for phosphogypsum from Bunge Fertilizers, from 1.3 ± 0.3 Bq m -2 h -1 , for phosphogypsum from Ultrafertil. As for the bricks, the results ranged from 0.11 ± 0.01 Bq m -2 h -1 , for phosphogypsum from Bunge Fertilizers, to 1.2 ± 0.3 Bq m -2 h -1 , for phosphogypsum from Ultrafertil. The results obtained in this study for the radon exhalation rate from phosphogypsum plates and bricks are of the same order of magnitude than those from ordinary building materials. So, it can be concluded that the recycling of phosphogypsum as building material is a safe practice, since no additional health risk is expected from the radiological point of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  8. Recycling of spent lithium-ion battery cathode materials by ammoniacal leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Heesuk; Jung, Yeojin; Jo, Minsang; Park, Sanghyuk; Kim, Sookyung; Yang, Donghyo; Rhee, Kangin; An, Eung-Mo; Sohn, Jeongsoo; Kwon, Kyungjung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ammoniacal leaching is used to recover spent Li-ion battery cathode materials. • Leaching agents consist of ammonia, ammonium sulfite and ammonium carbonate. • Ammonium sulfite is a reductant and ammonium carbonate acts as pH buffer. • Co and Cu can be fully leached while Mn and Al are not leached. • Co recovery via ammoniacal leaching is economical compared to acid leaching. - Abstract: As the production and consumption of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) increase, the recycling of spent LIBs appears inevitable from an environmental, economic and health viewpoint. The leaching behavior of Ni, Mn, Co, Al and Cu from treated cathode active materials, which are separated from a commercial LIB pack in hybrid electric vehicles, is investigated with ammoniacal leaching agents based on ammonia, ammonium carbonate and ammonium sulfite. Ammonium sulfite as a reductant is necessary to enhance leaching kinetics particularly in the ammoniacal leaching of Ni and Co. Ammonium carbonate can act as a pH buffer so that the pH of leaching solution changes little during leaching. Co and Cu can be fully leached out whereas Mn and Al are hardly leached and Ni shows a moderate leaching efficiency. It is confirmed that the cathode active materials are a composite of LiMn_2O_4, LiCo_xMn_yNi_zO_2_, Al_2O_3 and C while the leach residue is composed of LiNi_xMn_yCo_zO_2, LiMn_2O_4, Al_2O_3, MnCO_3 and Mn oxides. Co recovery via the ammoniacal leaching is believed to gain a competitive edge on convenitonal acid leaching both by reducing the sodium hydroxide expense for increasing the pH of leaching solution and by removing the separation steps of Mn and Al.

  9. Material control and accountability aspects of safeguards for the USA 233U/Th fuel recycle plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.A. Jr.; McNeany, S.R.; Angelini, P.; Holder, N.D.; Abraham, L.

    1978-01-01

    The materials control and accountability aspects of the reprocessing and refabrication of a conceptual large-scale HTGR fuel recycle plant have been discussed. Two fuel cycles were considered. The traditional highly enriched uranium cycle uses an initial or makeup fuel element with a fissile enrichment of 93% 235 U. The more recent medium enriched uranium cycle uses initial or makeup fuel elements with a fissile enrichment less than 20% 235 U. In both cases, 233 U bred from the fertile thorium is recycled. Materials control and accountability in the plant will be by means of a real-time accountability method. Accountability data will be derived from monitoring of total material mass through the processes and a system of numerous assays, both destructive and nondestructive

  10. Achievement report in fiscal 2000 on technological development to recycle waste building materials and glasses. Development of waste building material recycling technology (Research and development of recycling technology corresponding to grades of demolished building lumbers); 2000 nendo kenchiku haizai glass nado recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kenchiku haizai recycle gijutsu kaihatsu (kenchiku kaitai mokuzai no hin'i ni taioshita recycle gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to reduce wastes, and promote effective utilization of wood resources, research and development has been made on a demolished building material recycling technology. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In developing the technology to manufacture high water resistant wood boards, discussions were given on resor type phenolic resin as an adhesive, and on the medium density fiberboard (MDF) being a substitute material for plywood as the wooden board. As a result, a highly water resistant MDF that can clear JIS E0 has been developed. In the research of a technology to enhance durability of wooden boards, the in-liquid roll press method was devised to perform impregnation of chemicals into board raw materials continually and simply, whose device was fabricated on a trial basis. With regard to recycling of medium to low grade wood-based wastes, researches were performed on pulverization of the wastes, fabrication of liquefied woods, and effective utilization of the liquefied woods. Both of a hammer mill and a chip saw crusher fabricated wood powder with nearly uniform grain size regardless of types of the wood-based wastes. Liquefaction of plywood and PB boards required more stringent reaction conditions than liquefaction of such ordinary members as pillar materials and laminated lumbers. (NEDO)

  11. Advances in Magnetically Separable Photocatalysts: Smart, Recyclable Materials for Water Pollution Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gcina Mamba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic compounds utilised at different stages of various industrial processes are lost into effluent water and eventually find their way into fresh water sources where they cause devastating effects on the ecosystem due to their stability, toxicity, and non-biodegradable nature. Semiconductor photocatalysis has been highlighted as a promising technology for the treatment of water laden with organic, inorganic, and microbial pollutants. However, these semiconductor photocatalysts are applied in powdered form, which makes separation and recycling after treatment extremely difficult. This not only leads to loss of the photocatalyst but also to secondary pollution by the photocatalyst particles. The introduction of various magnetic nanoparticles such as magnetite, maghemite, ferrites, etc. into the photocatalyst matrix has recently become an area of intense research because it allows for the easy separation of the photocatalyst from the treated water using an external magnetic field. Herein, we discuss the recent developments in terms of synthesis and photocatalytic properties of magnetically separable nanocomposites towards water treatment. The influence of the magnetic nanoparticles in the optical properties, charge transfer mechanism, and overall photocatalytic activity is deliberated based on selected results. We conclude the review by providing summary remarks on the successes of magnetic photocatalysts and present some of the future challenges regarding the exploitation of these materials in water treatment.

  12. Efficient technical solution for recycling textile materials by manufacturing nonwoven geotextiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A. L.; Potop, G. L.; Hristian, L.; Manea, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to support the concept "circular economy" that was developed recently. It presents an efficient method for creating a closed loop in the Romanian textile industry by recycling textile materials, such as polyacrylonitrile knitted old products (collected from population) and small polyester woven patches from pre-consumer waste (garments manufacturing companies). Because of their properties, nonwoven geotextiles have many advantages in railways reinforcement, slopes stabilization, erosion control, drainage, filtration, paving roads, crops coverings, etc. The nonwoven geotextiles were obtained from three fibrous blends based on recovered fibers (PES and PAN) and fibers at first usage (PP) in different ratios. All experimental variants were processed on the same manufacturing line with the same technological parameters. There were tested the main physical and mechanical parameters and it was applied single factor ANOVA method for thickness, bulk density, air permeability and static puncture strength. The conclusion is that adding PP fibers in the blends represents a very important factor for geotextiles characteristics but it possible to decrease the ratio from economical reasons and still maintain a high quality level of nonwovens.

  13. Urban Mining: Quality and quantity of recyclable and recoverable material mechanically and physically extractable from residual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sordi, Alessio; Cirulli, Giuseppe; Marionni, Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Material recycling and recovery from residual waste by physical and mechanical process has been investigated. • About 6% of recyclable can be extracted by NIR and 2-3Dimension selector. • Another 2% of construction materials can be extracted by adopting modified soil washing process. • Extracted material quality is quite high even some residual heavy metal have been detected by leaching test. - Abstract: The mechanically sorted dry fraction (MSDF) and Fines (<20 mm) arising from the mechanical biological treatment of residual municipal solid waste (RMSW) contains respectively about 11% w/w each of recyclable and recoverable materials. Processing a large sample of MSDF in an existing full-scale mechanical sorting facility equipped with near infrared and 2-3 dimensional selectors led to the extraction of about 6% w/w of recyclables with respect to the RMSW weight. Maximum selection efficiency was achieved for metals, about 98% w/w, whereas it was lower for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), about 2% w/w. After a simulated lab scale soil washing treatment it was possible to extract about 2% w/w of inert exploitable substances recoverable as construction materials, with respect to the amount of RMSW. The passing curve showed that inert materials were mainly sand with a particle size ranging from 0.063 to 2 mm. Leaching tests showed quite low heavy metal concentrations with the exception of the particles retained by the 0.5 mm sieve. A minimum pollutant concentration was in the leachate from the 10 and 20 mm particle size fractions

  14. Recycled Asphalt Pavement and Crushed Concrete Backfill: State-of-the-Art Review and Material Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    This report describes research results from the first year of a three-year study focused on the use of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and crushed concrete (CC) as backfill for mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls.

  15. Some material and construction aspects regarding in situ recycling of road pavements in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ recycling as a pavement rehabilitation option in South Africa is becoming increasingly important. Use has been made of both bitumen (emulsion and foamed) and traditional chemical stabilizers (lime, cement, lime/slagment, etc). Very little...

  16. Materials Substitution and Recycling. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Structures and Materials Panel (57th) Held at Vimeiro, Portugal on 14-19 October 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    No.356 MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION AND RECYCLING Papers presented at the 5 7th Meeting of the Structures and Materials Panel in Vimneiro, Portupi. 19 -14...nation. The mission of AGARD is carried out through the Panels which are composed of experts appointed by the National Delegates, the Consultant and...composition. The quality heat treatment for monocrystalline alloys such as CMSX2 normally consists of a 3-stage process, viz., Stage 1 2-3 hours @ 1260°C

  17. Radiation dose assessments to support evaluations of radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of materials and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is providing Environmental Protection Support and Assistance to the USDOE, Office of Environmental Guidance. Air, Water, and Radiation Division. As part of this effort, PNL is collecting data and conducting technical evaluations to support DOE analyses of the feasibility of developing radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of metals, concrete, or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The radiological control levels will be risk-based, as developed through a radiation exposure scenario and pathway analysis. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and both health and non-health-related impacts. The main objective of this report is to develop a methodology for establishing radiological control levels for recycle or reuse. This report provides the results of the radiation exposure scenario and pathway analyses for 42 key radionuclides generated during DOE operations that may be contained in metals or equipment considered for either recycling or reuse. The scenarios and information developed by the IAEA. Application of Exemption Principles to the Recycle and Reuse of Materials from Nuclear Facilities, are used as the initial basis for this study. The analyses were performed for both selected worker populations at metal smelters and for the public downwind of a smelter facility. Doses to the public downwind were estimated using the US (EPA) CAP88-PC computer code with generic data on atmospheric dispersion and population density. Potential non-health-related effects of residual activity on electronics and on film were also analyzed

  18. Radiation dose assessments to support evaluations of radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of materials and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is providing Environmental Protection Support and Assistance to the USDOE, Office of Environmental Guidance. Air, Water, and Radiation Division. As part of this effort, PNL is collecting data and conducting technical evaluations to support DOE analyses of the feasibility of developing radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of metals, concrete, or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The radiological control levels will be risk-based, as developed through a radiation exposure scenario and pathway analysis. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and both health and non-health-related impacts. The main objective of this report is to develop a methodology for establishing radiological control levels for recycle or reuse. This report provides the results of the radiation exposure scenario and pathway analyses for 42 key radionuclides generated during DOE operations that may be contained in metals or equipment considered for either recycling or reuse. The scenarios and information developed by the IAEA. Application of Exemption Principles to the Recycle and Reuse of Materials from Nuclear Facilities, are used as the initial basis for this study. The analyses were performed for both selected worker populations at metal smelters and for the public downwind of a smelter facility. Doses to the public downwind were estimated using the US (EPA) CAP88-PC computer code with generic data on atmospheric dispersion and population density. Potential non-health-related effects of residual activity on electronics and on film were also analyzed.

  19. Eco-efficient concretes: the effects of using recycled ceramic material from sanitary installations on the mechanical properties of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, I; Vivar, I; Llamas, B; Juan, A; Moran, J

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate some of the physical and mechanical properties of concrete mixed under laboratory conditions, where different proportions of coarse aggregate materials were substituted by porcelain from sanitary installations. The results of the tests show that the concrete produced has the same mechanical characteristics as conventional concrete, thus opening a door to selective recycling of sanitary porcelain and its use in the production of concrete.

  20. Recycling of spent lithium-ion battery cathode materials by ammoniacal leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Heesuk; Jung, Yeojin; Jo, Minsang; Park, Sanghyuk [Department of Energy & Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sookyung [Urban Mine Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Donghyo, E-mail: ydh@kigam.re.kr [Urban Mine Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Kangin; An, Eung-Mo; Sohn, Jeongsoo [Urban Mine Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kyungjung, E-mail: kfromberk@gmail.com [Department of Energy & Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Ammoniacal leaching is used to recover spent Li-ion battery cathode materials. • Leaching agents consist of ammonia, ammonium sulfite and ammonium carbonate. • Ammonium sulfite is a reductant and ammonium carbonate acts as pH buffer. • Co and Cu can be fully leached while Mn and Al are not leached. • Co recovery via ammoniacal leaching is economical compared to acid leaching. - Abstract: As the production and consumption of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) increase, the recycling of spent LIBs appears inevitable from an environmental, economic and health viewpoint. The leaching behavior of Ni, Mn, Co, Al and Cu from treated cathode active materials, which are separated from a commercial LIB pack in hybrid electric vehicles, is investigated with ammoniacal leaching agents based on ammonia, ammonium carbonate and ammonium sulfite. Ammonium sulfite as a reductant is necessary to enhance leaching kinetics particularly in the ammoniacal leaching of Ni and Co. Ammonium carbonate can act as a pH buffer so that the pH of leaching solution changes little during leaching. Co and Cu can be fully leached out whereas Mn and Al are hardly leached and Ni shows a moderate leaching efficiency. It is confirmed that the cathode active materials are a composite of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCo{sub x}Mn{sub y}Ni{sub z}O{sub 2,} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and C while the leach residue is composed of LiNi{sub x}Mn{sub y}Co{sub z}O{sub 2}, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnCO{sub 3} and Mn oxides. Co recovery via the ammoniacal leaching is believed to gain a competitive edge on convenitonal acid leaching both by reducing the sodium hydroxide expense for increasing the pH of leaching solution and by removing the separation steps of Mn and Al.

  1. Development and application of special instrumentation for materials accountancy and process control in spent fuel recycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, P.A.; Gardner, N.; Merrill, N.H.; Whitehouse, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    Safe and optimum operations of spent fuel recycle plants rely on the availability of real time measurement systems at key points in the process. More than thirty types of special instrument systems have been developed and commissioned on the THORP reprocessing plant at Sellafield. These systems are compiled together with the associated information on measurement purpose, measurement technique and plant performance. A number of these measurement systems are of interest to support Safeguards arrangements on the plant. A more detailed overview of two such instrument systems respectively within the Head End and Product Finishing Stages of THORP is provided. The first of these is the Hulls Monitor, based on high resolution gamma spectrometry, as well as active and passive neutron measurements, of the basket of leached fuel cladding. This provides vital data for criticality assurance, nuclear material accountancy and inventory determination for ultimate disposal of the cladding waste. The second system is the Plutonium Inventory Monitoring System (PIMS) which employs passive neutron counting from a distributed array of neutron detectors within the Pu Finishing Line. This provides a near real time estimate of Pu inventories both during operations and at clean out of the Finishing Line. Both the Hulls Monitor and PIMS technologies are applicable to MOX Fuel recycle. Both systems enhance the control of fissile material in key areas of the recycle process which are of interest to the Safeguards authorities. (author)

  2. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: An Introduction to Lithium Batteries and the Challenges that they Pose to the Waste and Recycling Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a webinar page for the Sustainable Management of Materials (SMM) Web Academy webinar titled, An Introduction to Lithium Batteries and the Challenges that they Pose to the Waste and Recycling Industry.

  3. National inventory of the radioactive wastes and the recycling materials; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M.C

    2006-07-01

    This synthesis report presents the 2006 inventory of the radioactive wastes and recycling materials, in France. It contains 9 chapters: a general introduction, the radioactive wastes (definition, classification, origins and management), the inventory methodology (organization, accounting and prospecting, exhaustiveness and control tools), main results (stocks, prevision for the period 2005-2020, perspectives after 2020), the inventory for producers or owners (front end fuel cycle, electric power plants, back end fuel cycle, wastes processing and maintenance facilities, researches centers, medical activities, industrial activities, non nuclear industries using nuclear materials, defense center, storage and disposal), the polluted sites, examples of foreign inventories, conclusion and annexes. (A.L.B.)

  4. Development of a readily recyclable sound insulation material made of polyester fibers. Application of the PET fibers from plastic bottles; Recycle kanona jidoshayo polyester sei kyuon zairyo no kaihatsu. Shiyozumi pet bottle zai no insulator zai eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, K; Watanabe, K; Sugawara, H; Minemura, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have developed new polyester sound-absorbing materials made of fine and modified-cross-section polyester fabric. They provide noticeably higher sound-absorbing performance than traditional materials. Another feature of the new materials is their excellent recyclability since they are made of polyester. Application of the new materials to the dash silencer and the floor carpeting produced a great improvement in sound-insulation performance with less weight. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  5. [Research on resources chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials and resources recycling utilization ways and goals and tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jin-ao; Su, Shu-lan; Guo, Sheng; Jiang, Shu; Liu, Pei; Yan, Hui; Qian, Da-wei; Zhu, Hua-xu; Tang, Yu-ping; Wu, Qi-nan

    2015-09-01

    The objects of research on the resources chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials (RCCMM) are promotion of efficient production, rational utilization and improving quality of CMM and natural products. The development of TCM cause depends on the efficient utilization and sustainable development of CMM, hinges on the technologies and methods for using and discovering medicinal biological resources, stand or fall on the extension of industy chains, detailed utilizaion of resource chemical components by multi-way, multi-level. All of these may help to the recycling utilization and sound development of RCMM. In this article, five respects were discussed to the RCCMM researches and resources recycling utilization ways and goals and tasks. First, based on the principle of resource scarcity, discovering or replacing CMM resources, protecting the rare or endangered species or resources. Second, based on the multifunctionality of CMM, realizing the value-added and value compensation, and promoting the utilization efficiency through systermatic and detailed exploitation and utilization. Third, based on the resource conservation and environment-friendly, reducing raw material consumption, lowering cost, promoting recycling utilization and elevating utilization efficiency. Fourth, based on the stratege of turning harm into good, using the invasive alien biological resources by multi-ways and enriching the medicial resources. Fifth, based on the method of structure modification of chemical components, exploring and enhancing the utility value of resouces chemical substances. These data should provide references and attention for improving the utilization efficiency, promoting the development of recycling economy, and changing the mode of economic growth of agriculture and industry of CMM fundamentally.

  6. ADR : The use of Advanced Dry Recovery in recycling fine moist granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, W.

    2017-01-01

    Effective recycling of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ashes (MSWI-BA) and construction and demolition wastes (CDW) has proven to be a challenge, despite the high potential for recovering valuable metals in MSWI-BA and reducing the carbon footprint of the construction industry. The

  7. Recycling of Paper and Cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    waste. Recycling of paper and cardboard production waste and postconsumer waste has a long history in the pulp and paper industry. The recycled material now makes up more than half of the raw material used in European pulp and paper industry (ERPC, 2004). This chapter describes briefly how paper...... and cardboard are produced and how waste paper is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of paper recycling....

  8. From waste plastics to industrial raw materials: A life cycle assessment of mechanical plastic recycling practice based on a real-world case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fu; Guo, Jianfeng; Zhang, Wujie; Summers, Peter A; Hall, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical recycling of waste plastics is an environmental solution to the problem of waste plastic disposal, and has already become a common practice in industry. However, limited information can be found on either the industralised plastic recycling or the recycled materials, despite the use of recycled plastics has already extended to automobile production. This study investigates the life cycle environmental impacts of mechanical plastic recycling practice of a plastic recycling company in China. Waste plastics from various sources, such as agricultural wastes, plastic product manufacturers, collected solid plastic wastes and parts dismantled from waste electric and electronic equipments, are processed in three routes with products end up in different markets. The results of life cycle assessments show that the extrusion process has the largest environmental impacts, followed by the use of fillers and additives. Compared to production of virgin plastics and composites, the mechanical recycling is proved to be a superior alternative in most environmental aspects. Substituting virgin plastic composites with recycled plastic composites has achieved the highest environmental benefits, as virgin composite production has an impact almost 4 times higher that of the recycled composite production in each ReCiPe endpoint damage factor. Sensitivity analysis shows that the coverage of collecting network contribute affect little to overall environmental impact, and centralisation plays an important role in reducing overall environmental impacts. Among the fillers and additives, impact modifiers account for the most significant contributions to the environmental impacts of recycled composites. This study provides necessary information about the existing industrialised plastic recycling practice, and recommendations are given. Research implications are presented with the purpose to achieve higher substitution rate and lower environmental impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  9. Plasma melting and recycling technology for decommissioning material. Removal of zinc and lead of ferrous scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Koichi; Amakawa, Tadashi; Yasui, Shinji

    2001-01-01

    A great amount of nonradioactive waste such as concrete, metal and the like, will be generated intensively in a short period when dismantling nuclear power plants. Thus, it is very important for smooth dismantling to promote their recycling. Melting operates conditions to recycle metal easily, but degrades the quality by contamination of tramp elements. So it was performed to melt carbon steel coated with anti-corrosive paint including lead, zinc, etc. and to analyze the steel grade for study of obtaining the desired grade. On some test conditions, concentration of lead and zinc just after melting all samples lowered less than target concentration which was permissible for cast iron. About the unsatisfactory conditions when a lot of slag generated, concentration of zinc was simulated changing the sequence of plasma melting. The result showed that an efficient sequence controlled input energy to maintain molten bath after melting all samples as quickly as possible. (author)

  10. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  11. Overview of recycling technologies for decommissioned materials. Lessons learned during the dismantling of a small PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Emond, O.; Ponnet, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: SCK CEN is dismantling its 11 MWe PWR reactor. The reactor was shutdown in 1987 after 25 years of operation and the dismantling started in 1990. For the management of the low radioactive materials, we apply a strategy promoting the minimisation of the production of radioactive waste and hence the maximisation of the production of recycled materials while keeping the costs as low as possible. The recycled materials are either reused in the non- nuclear industry as raw materials (metal scrap industry or building industry for the concrete) or recycled in the nuclear industry for specific applications (reuse of metals for fabrication of shielding, potential reuse of concrete for production of 'radioactive mortar'). The clearance of radioactive materials and their reuse require the strict respect of procedures and specifications. In our case, the Health Physics department under supervision of the Competent Authority establishes the procedures. This procedure is still a case by case practice but the legislation in Belgium is progressively put in place. For the recycling in the nuclear industry, we must respect the specifications of the end-user. Up to now, we have recycled low radioactive metals for the fabrication of shielding in the USA, so we had to respect the specifications of the melting facility and to obtain the authorisations for the transport abroad and for the transfer of property. Besides the radioactive waste route, we are using several evacuation routes for the dismantled materials: Evacuation of the cleared metals (iron, stainless steel, copper, electric motors...) to a local scrap dealer; Evacuation of metals to the Studsvik melting facility situated in Sweden: after clearance by the Swedish Authority, the non radioactive materials are sent to a local scrap dealer and the secondary radioactive waste is sent back to Belgium and conditioned by Belgoprocess. This technology further decontaminates the metals and allows performing an accurate

  12. Oyster spat recruitment in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, using recycled materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosebel C. Nalesso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the effectiveness of four types of oyster spat collectors, made with recycled materials, in the recruitment of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea spp. at five sites in the Benevente river estuary, Anchieta District and on two islands in Piúma District, both in Espírito Santo State. The collectors were made of: 1- oyster shells, 2- PET bottles, 3- car tires and 4- tiles, all of them suspended by ropes and tied to roots of Rhizophora mangle or mussel long-lines. The number of spat recruited on each collector and their shell lengths were registered bimonthly, as well as the physico-chemical-trophic parameters of the water: salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, particulate organic matter and chlorophyll a, which were correlated (by Spearman's correlation with the number of spat recruited. Spat settlement was significantly higher on oyster shell, tile and tire collectors, mainly at points with higher salinities, such as Praia do Coqueiro in Anchieta and on Meio and Cabrito Islands in Piúma (Kruskal-Wallis: H= 10.01; 3 d.f.; p 0.05. The number of oyster spat was positively correlated with the salinity (ρs= 0.331; p Este trabalho avaliou a eficiência de quatro tipos de coletores de sementes no recrutamento de ostras Crassostrea sp., em cinco pontos do estuário do Rio Benevente, município de Anchieta, e em duas ilhas no município de Piúma, estado do Espírito Santo. Foram utilizados quatro tipos de coletores: 1-conchas de ostras, 2- garrafas PET, 3-tiras de pneu e 4- telhas, todos suspensos por cordas e amarrados em rizóforos de Rhizophora mangle ou em "long-lines" de mexilhões. Bimensalmente, as sementes recrutadas foram contadas e medidas quanto à altura, determinando-se os parâmetros físico-químicos-tróficos da água: salinidade, temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, matéria orgânica particulada e clorofila-a, que foram correlacionados com o número de sementes nos coletores (através de correlações de Spearman

  13. Global Warming Implications of the Use of By-Products and Recycled Materials in Western Australia’s Housing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Lawania

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Western Australia’s housing sector is growing rapidly and around half a million houses are expected to be built by 2030, which not only will result in increased energy and resources demand but will have socio-economic impacts. Majority of Western Australians live in detached houses made of energy intensive clay bricks, which have a high potential to generate construction and demolition (C&D waste. Therefore, there is a need to look into the use of alternative materials and construction methods. Due to Western Australia’s temperate climate, concrete could not only offer a comfortable living space but an operational energy saving also can be achieved. This paper has assessed the global warming implications of cast in-situ concrete sandwich wall system as an alternative to clay brick walls (CBW with partial replacement of cement in concrete with by-products such as fly ash (FA and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS, natural aggregate (NA with recycled crushed aggregate (RCA, natural sand (NS with manufactured sand (MS and, polyethylene terephthalate (PET foam core as a replacement to polystyrene core for construction of a typical 4 × 2 × 2 detached house in Perth. Life cycle management (LCM approach has been used to determine global warming reduction benefits due to the use of available by-products and recycled materials in Western Australian houses.

  14. Global Warming Implications of the Use of By-Products and Recycled Materials in Western Australia’s Housing Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawania, Krishna; Sarker, Prabir; Biswas, Wahidul

    2015-01-01

    Western Australia’s housing sector is growing rapidly and around half a million houses are expected to be built by 2030, which not only will result in increased energy and resources demand but will have socio-economic impacts. Majority of Western Australians live in detached houses made of energy intensive clay bricks, which have a high potential to generate construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Therefore, there is a need to look into the use of alternative materials and construction methods. Due to Western Australia’s temperate climate, concrete could not only offer a comfortable living space but an operational energy saving also can be achieved. This paper has assessed the global warming implications of cast in-situ concrete sandwich wall system as an alternative to clay brick walls (CBW) with partial replacement of cement in concrete with by-products such as fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), natural aggregate (NA) with recycled crushed aggregate (RCA), natural sand (NS) with manufactured sand (MS) and, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foam core as a replacement to polystyrene core for construction of a typical 4 × 2 × 2 detached house in Perth. Life cycle management (LCM) approach has been used to determine global warming reduction benefits due to the use of available by-products and recycled materials in Western Australian houses.

  15. Recycling systems and material flows from the viewpoint of thermal waste treatment; Kreislaufwirtschaft- und Stoffstrombetrachtungen aus Sicht der thermischen Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnke, B. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Mast, P.G. [Tauw Umwelt GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Material stream analysis can serve as a basis for decisions on which materials should be kept in circulation, and in what quantity, and which materials it is better to remove from the recycling system and dispose of as waste. Wastes destined for disposal are mostly transferred to waste treatment plants and landfills. The role of thermal treatment as part of the disposal system is to destroy or decompose organic pollutants contained in the waste, concentrate and remove inorganic pollutants, make the heat arising during the treatment process available for use as energy, and make the greatest possible physical use of the treatment residues. The present paper reviews the current regulations for the promotion of recycling and investigates selected material streams and the fate of these materials. In connection with the residue quality of household waste incineration slag as a thermal waste treatment product it also considers the influence of waste management measures on wastes destined for disposal. [Deutsch] Stoffstrombetrachtungen koennen als Grundlage fuer Entscheidungen dienen, welche Stoffe in welchem Umfang im Kreislauf verbleiben oder wieder integriert werden sollten und welche besser als Abfall zur Beseitigung aus dem Kreislaufsystem auszuschleusen sind. Fuer Abfaelle zur Beseitigung wird diese Aufgabe i.d.R. von thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen und Deponien uebernommen. Im Rahmen der Entsorgung kommt der thermischen Behandlung dabei die Aufgabe zu, die im Abfall zur Beseitigung enthaltenen organischen Schadstoffe zu zerstoeren oder abzubauen, anorganische Schadstoffe aufzukonzentrieren und auszuschleusen, die bei dem Behandlungsprozess entstehende Waerme einer weitgehenden Energienutzung zuzufuehren und die Rueckstaende aus der Behandlung so weit wie moeglich stofflich zu verwerten. Nachfolgend sollen insbesondere die Regelungen zur Unterstuetzung der Kreislaufwirtschaft, ausgewaehlte Stofffluesse und der Verbleib dieser Stoffe und Materialien und der

  16. Initial integration of accident safety, waste management, recycling, effluent, and maintenance considerations for low-activation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Herring, J.S.; Cheng, E.T.; Fetter, S.

    1991-01-01

    A true low-activation material should ideally achieve all of the following objectives: 1. The possible prompt dose at the site boundary from 100% release of the inventory should be <2 Sv (200 rem); hence, the design would be inherently safe in that no possible accident could result in prompt radiation fatalities. 2. The possible cancers from realistic releases should be limited such that the accident risk is <0.1%/yr of the existing background cancer risk to local residents. This includes consideration of elemental volatility. 3. The decay heat should be limited so that active mitigative measures are not needed to protect the investment from cooling transients; hence, the design would be passively safe with respect to decay heat. 4. Used materials could be either recycled or disposed of as near- surface waste. 5. Hands-on maintenance should be possible around coolant system piping and components such as the heat exchanger. 6. Effluent of activation products should be minor compared to the major challenge of limiting tritium effluents. The most recent studies in these areas are used to determine which individual elements and engineering materials are low activation. Grades from A (best) to G (worst) are given to each element in the areas of accident safety, recycling, and waste management. Structure/fluid combinations are examined for low-activation effluents and out-of-blanket maintenance. The lowest activation structural materials are silicon carbide, vanadium alloys, and ferritic steels. Impurities and minor alloying constituents must be carefully considered. The lowest activation coolants are helium, water, FLiBe, and lithium. The lowest activation breeders are lithium, lithium oxide, lithium silicate, and FLiBe. Designs focusing on these truly low-activation materials will help achieve the excellent safety and environmental potential of fusion energy

  17. Fiscal 2000 report on result of R and D of nonmetallic material recycling promotion technology (demonstration test and research, total system technology); 2000 nendo hitetsu kinzokukei sozai recycle sokushin gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Jissho shiken kenkyu, total system gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D was conducted on advanced recycling technology for aluminum and base metal/rare metal based materials, with fiscal 2000 results compiled. In the research of aluminum recycling technology, on a continuous fractional crystallization process and a purification by zinc removal process, the existing facilities for each demonstrated that they could simulate an aluminum scrap melting process capacity of 1,000 t/month, with a series of initial conditions determined. In the research of total system technology, combined test facilities were completed in which a purification process and a melt cleaning process were integrated. In the research of the recycling technology for base metal/rare metal based materials, a test was carried out by demonstrative facilities, with the aim of establishing copper regeneration technology in which high grade copper is produced using metal/resin based scraps such as shredder dust of automobiles as the materials. In structuring the total system technology, a preliminary survey and environmental load measures were carried out toward the practicability of a comprehensive copper metal collection recycling system. (NEDO)

  18. Assessment of municipal solid waste generation and recyclable materials potential in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Mohamed Osman; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Mujeebu, M Abdul

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a forecasting study of municipal solid waste generation (MSWG) rate and potential of its recyclable components in Kuala Lumpur (KL), the capital city of Malaysia. The generation rates and composition of solid wastes of various classes such as street cleansing, landscape and garden, industrial and constructional, institutional, residential and commercial are analyzed. The past and present trends are studied and extrapolated for the coming years using Microsoft office 2003 Excel spreadsheet assuming a linear behavior. The study shows that increased solid waste generation of KL is alarming. For instance, the amount of daily residential SWG is found to be about 1.62 kg/capita; with the national average at 0.8-0.9 kg/capita and is expected to be increasing linearly, reaching to 2.23 kg/capita by 2024. This figure seems reasonable for an urban developing area like KL city. It is also found that, food (organic) waste is the major recyclable component followed by mix paper and mix plastics. Along with estimated population growth and their business activities, it has been observed that the city is still lacking in terms of efficient waste treatment technology, sufficient fund, public awareness, maintaining the established norms of industrial waste treatment etc. Hence it is recommended that the concerned authority (DBKL) shall view this issue seriously.

  19. Investigation of Self Consolidating Concrete Containing High Volume of Supplementary Cementitious Materials and Recycled Asphalt Pavement Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Varun chowdary

    The use of sustainable technologies such as supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs), and/or recycled materials is expected to positively affect the performance of concrete mixtures. However, it is important to study and qualify such mixtures and check if the required specifications of their intended application are met before they can be implemented in practice. This study presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Self Consolidating concrete (SCC) containing sustainable technologies. A total of twelve concrete mixtures were prepared with various combinations of fly ash, slag, and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). The mixtures were divided into three groups with constant water to cementitiuous materials ratio of 0.37, and based on the RAP content; 0, 25, and 50% of coarse aggregate replaced by RAP. All mixtures were prepared to achieve a target slump flow equal to or higher than 500 mm (24in). A control mixture for each group was prepared with 100% Portland cement whereas all other mixtures were designed to have up to 70% of portland cement replaced by a combination of supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs) such as class C fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag. The properties of fresh concrete investigated in this study include flowability, deformability; filling capacity, and resistance to segregation. In addition, the compressive strength at 3, 14, and 28 days, the tensile strength, and the unrestrained shrinkage up to 80 days was also investigated. As expected the inclusion of the sustainable technologies affected both fresh and hardened concrete properties. Analysis of the experimental data indicated that inclusion of RAP not only reduces the ultimate strength, but it also affected the compressive strength development rate. Moreover, several mixes satisfied compressive strength requirements for pavements and bridges; those mixes included relatively high percentages of SCMs and RAP. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is not

  20. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  1. The Hydrological Performance of Lightweight Green Roofs Made From Recycled Waste Materials As the Drainage Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afizah Asman Nurul Shahadahtul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs can be used for promoting infiltration and provide temporary storage spaces. Hence, in urban stormwater structural design, the investigation of the hydrological performance investigation is often required. Thus, this paper presents the results of a hydrological investigation in term of peak flow reduction and green roof’s weight using 0, 2, and 6% slope for three specimens drainage layer in green roofs. Three types of recycled waste are selected for each test bed which is rubber crumbs, palm oil shell, and polyfoam. Another test bed without a drainage layer as a control. The result indicates that rubber crumbs can be used as a stormwater control and runoff reduction while ensuring a good drainage and aeration of the substrate and roofs. From the results obtained shows that rubber crumbs are suitable as a drainage layer and a proposed slope of 6% are suitable for lightweight green roofs.

  2. Recycling of waste polymeric materials using ionizing radiation techniques for possible applications and practical uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khozemy, E.E.Z.

    2007-01-01

    recycling of waste polypropylene (WPP) and waste rubber (WR) originated from rejected worn-out tires present very important problem due to their huge amount and their negative impact on environment. many communities in the world are struggling with this problem of how to manage waste disposal, in order to eliminate or reduce waste rubber from the environment and to reduce costs of some rubber and polypropylene articles. trials to reuse waste rubber and waste polypropylene, have encountered some difficulties.such two substrate polymers differ from each other in nature, since waste polypropylene is thermoplastic while waste rubber exists in thermosetting state. accordingly, the study and use of their mixtures should be very interesting.the aim of this work is to modify the physical and chemical properties of WR and WPP each in the form of powder (120,80 mech size), through a trial to graft some vinyl comonomers onto their surfaces using gamma radiation

  3. Processing of oil palm empty fruit bunch as filler material of polymer recycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saepulloh, D. R.; Nikmatin, S.; Hardhienata, H.

    2017-05-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) is waste from crude palm oil (CPO) processing plants. This research aims to process OPEFB to be a reinforcement polymer recycle with the mechanical milling method and identify each establishment molecular with the orbital hybridization theory. OPEFB fibers were synthesized using a mechanical milling until the size shortfiber and microfiber. Then do the biocomposite granular synthesis with single screw extruder. TAPPI chemical test shows levels of α-cellulose fibers amounted 41.68%. Based on density, the most optimum composition contained in the filler amounted 15% with the size is the microfiber. The test results of morphology with SEM showed deployment of filler OPEFB fiber is fairly equitable distributed. Regarding the molecular interaction between matrix with OPEFB fiber, described by the theory of orbital hybridization. But the explanation establishment of the bond for more complex molecules likes this from the side of the molecular orbital theory is necessary complete information of the hybrid levels.

  4. Characteristics from Recycled of Zinc Anode used as a Corrosion Preventing Material on Board Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barokah, B.; Semin, S.; Kaligis, D. D.; Huwae, J.; Fanani, M. Z.; Rompas, P. T. D.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research is to obtain the values of chemical composition, electrochemical potential and electrochemical efficiency. Methods used were experiment with physical tests conducted in metallurgical laboratory and DNV-RP-B401 cathode protection design DNV (Det Norske Veritas) standard. The results showed that the composition of chemical as Zinc (Zn), Aluminium, Cadmium, Plumbumb, Copper and Indium is suitable of standard. The values of electrochemical potential and electrochemical efficiency were respectively. However it can be concluded that the normal meaning of recycled zinc anode with increasing melting temperature can produce zinc anode better than original zinc anode and can be used as cathode protection on board ships. This research can assist in the management of used zinc anode waste, the supply of zinc anodes for consumers at relatively low prices, and recommendations of using zinc anodes for the prevention of corrosion on board ship.

  5. A comparative study of recycled aggregates from concrete and mixed debris as material for unbound road sub-base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven different types of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW have been evaluated as granular materials for unbound road sub-bases construction. The results showed that recycled concrete aggregates complied with all specifications for using in the construction of unbound structural layers (sub-base for T3 and T4 traffic categories according to the Spanish General Technical Specification for Road Construction (PG-3. Some mixed recycled aggregates fell short of some specifications due to a high content of sulphur compounds and poor fragmentation resistance. Sieving off the fine fraction prior to crushing the mixed CDW reduce the total sulphur content and improve the quality of the mixed recycled aggregates, by contrast, pre-sieving concrete CDW had no effect on the quality of the resulting aggregates. The results were compared with a crushed limestone as natural aggregate.

    Siete áridos reciclados de residuos de construcción y demolición (RCD se han evaluado como zahorras para la construcción de sub-bases de carreteras. Los resultados muestran que los áridos reciclados de hormigón cumplen todas las especificaciones del Pliego de Prescripciones Técnicas Generales para Obras de Carreteras de España (PG-3 para su uso en capas estructurales (sub-base de las categorías de tráfico T3 y T4. Algunos áridos reciclados mixtos no cumplen por escaso margen algunas de las especificaciones, debido a un alto contenido de compuestos de azufre y a una menor resistencia a la fragmentación. El precribado de la fracción fina antes de la trituración de los RCD mixtos reduce el contenido de azufre total y mejora la calidad, por el contrario, el precribado de los RCD de hormigón no tiene ningún efecto sobre la calidad de los áridos reciclados. Los resultados se compararon con una zahorra artificial caliza como árido natural.

  6. 20 years of experience on treatment of large contaminated components and on clearance of material for recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, Joachim; Lindberg, Maria; Amcoff, Bjoern; Wirendal, Bo

    2005-01-01

    This paper will describe the treatment of contaminated, large, retired components from NPP:s, at low and intermediate activity waste levels for recycling in Sweden. Decontamination and melting of various large components, as well as other metal scrap, has been conducted at Studsvik since the mid 1980:ies. Experience on clearance for recycling, i.e. for unconditional re-use of the metals in the public domain will be described. The contaminated material may be Co-60 dominated as well as Uranium Bearing Waste. During these years different techniques for decontamination and segmentation as well as pre- and post treatment have been developed and successively applied at Studsvik melting facility in Nykoeping, Sweden. This collective experience is presently used for the planning and treatment of both domestic and foreign larger components, like heat exchangers, reactors vessel heads, turbine parts, steam generators, fuel bottles and Giant boilers. During 2005 one 300 ton full size, 400 m 3 Westinghouse Steam Generator is under treatment using advanced decontamination, segmentation and melting techniques to be applied in a specifically designed and confined environment. The conduction of demonstration projects as well as commercial projects will be explained and described. The Studsvik melting facility is today treating components and scrap metal comprising stainless and carbon steel as well as aluminium, copper, brass and lead. Studsvik RadWaste has licenses for treating not only components from Swedish nuclear facilities but also for processing components from nuclear industries outside Sweden, including temporary import and export within a limited time window for each international project. Direct clearance or clearance after limited decay storage at Studsvik site is possible. The high Recycling Rate is due to optimized production to leave an extremely low percentage of secondary waste, including post-treatment of the secondary waste volume. Further, the waste volume

  7. Recycling of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaszovich, S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews potentials and problems of disposal or recycling of concrete removed from nuclear installations. Due to the difficulties in determining radioactivity limits that are compatible with utilization of recycled material in practice, a method is proposed that takes into account inhalation of dusts, as occurring during the reprocessing or recycling of the concrete, for instance in road building. This method is based on the maximum permissible radioactivity uptake by inhalation of a nuclide mixture of unknown composition. (RB) [de

  8. Regulatory Aspects of Clearance and Recycling of Metallic Material forming Part of Buildings of Nuclear Facilities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, Stefan; Woerlen, Stefan; Harding, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Metallic materials as part of buildings of nuclear installations, like reinforcement in concrete, anchor slabs, pipework buried in concrete, but also steel liners of water basins or anchor rails that are welded to the reinforcement steel etc. require special considerations during decommissioning. It is the aim to release as much of this material as possible for recycling (either by melting in conventional foundries or by melting in a controlled recycling plant for reuse in the nuclear field). This poses problems as on the one hand these metallic materials cannot be removed from the buildings prior to their demolition, while on the other hand they would in principle require a specific clearance procedure for which they should be available separately. Besides aspects of radiological characterisation and measurements, this is also a regulatory issue, as the competent authority has to grant clearance of materials that may not be fully characterised by measurements, but for which a significant part of the information required for clearance is inferred from the operational history, from conclusions by analogy and from other sources. This issue has been resolved in different ways in various NPPs in Germany. Examples of materials that pose problems of the kind listed above (including relevant contamination pathways) are given, together with examples for solving these problems by specific considerations in the clearance procedure. The clearance regulations for metal scrap in Germany require adherence to both mass specific and surface related clearance levels in Bq/g and Bq/cm 2 , respectively, which are similar to those as laid down in the EU recommendations RP 89/101. Therefore, approaches had to be developed for inferring sufficiently comprehensive and conservative estimates of the mass and surface related activities for metallic materials forming an integral part of buildings from measurements that do not cover 100% of the material. The ways are outlined in which the

  9. Certification of methylmercury content in two fresh-frozen reference materials: SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.C.; Christopher, S.J.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Donard, O.F.X.; Krupp, Eva A.; Point, David; Horvat, Milena; Gibicar, D.; Kljakovic-Gaspic, Z.; Porter, Barbara J.; Schantz, Michele M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of two independent analytical methods for the extraction and quantification of methylmercury from marine biota. The procedures involve microwave extraction, followed by derivatization and either headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated silica fiber or back-extraction into iso-octane. The identification and quantification of the extracted compounds is carried out by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (GC/ICP-MS) detection. Both methods were validated for the determination of methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in a variety of biological standard reference materials (SRMs) including fresh-frozen tissue homogenates of SRM 1946 Lake Superior fish tissue and SRM 1974a organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) and then applied to the certification effort of SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis). While past certifications of methylmercury in tissue SRMs have been based on two independent methods from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and participating laboratories, the methods described within provide improved protocols and will allow future certification efforts to be based on at least two independent analytical methods within NIST. (orig.)

  10. Certification of methylmercury content in two fresh-frozen reference materials: SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.C.; Christopher, S.J.; Pugh, Rebecca S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Hollings Marine Laboratory, Analytical Chemistry Division, Charleston, SC (United States); Donard, O.F.X.; Krupp, Eva A. [LCABIE/CNRS Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, Pau (France); Point, David [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Hollings Marine Laboratory, Analytical Chemistry Division, Charleston, SC (United States); LCABIE/CNRS Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, Pau (France); Horvat, Milena; Gibicar, D. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kljakovic-Gaspic, Z. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Porter, Barbara J.; Schantz, Michele M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2007-04-15

    This paper describes the development of two independent analytical methods for the extraction and quantification of methylmercury from marine biota. The procedures involve microwave extraction, followed by derivatization and either headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated silica fiber or back-extraction into iso-octane. The identification and quantification of the extracted compounds is carried out by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (GC/ICP-MS) detection. Both methods were validated for the determination of methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in a variety of biological standard reference materials (SRMs) including fresh-frozen tissue homogenates of SRM 1946 Lake Superior fish tissue and SRM 1974a organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) and then applied to the certification effort of SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis). While past certifications of methylmercury in tissue SRMs have been based on two independent methods from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and participating laboratories, the methods described within provide improved protocols and will allow future certification efforts to be based on at least two independent analytical methods within NIST. (orig.)

  11. Programme on the recyclability of food-packaging materials with respect to food safety considerations: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, R

    2002-01-01

    Stimulated by new ecology-driven European and national regulations, news routes of recycling waste appear on the market. Since food packages represent a large percentage of the plastics consumption and since they have a short lifetime, an important approach consists in making new packages from post-consumer used packages. On the other hand, food-packaging regulations in Europe require that packaging materials must be safe. Therefore, potential mass transfer (migration) of harmful recycling-related substances to the food must be excluded and test methods to ensure the safety-in-use of recycled materials for food packaging are needled. As a consequence of this situation, a European research project FAIR-CT98-4318, with the acronym 'Recyclability', was initiated. The project consists of three sections each focusing on a different class of recycled materials: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers. The project consortium consists of 28 project members from 11 EU countries. In addition, the project is during its lifetime in discussion with the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) to consider also US FDA regulatory viewpoints and to aim, as a consequence, to harmonizable conclusions and recommendations. The paper introduces the project and presents an overview of the project work progress.

  12. Functional properties of composite material from recycled tires and polyurethane binder in water medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesuma, R.; Malers, L.

    2016-01-01

    The present research is as a continuation of the authors’ previous research of composite material and practical application of composite material largely connected with water. The aim of present study was to establish certain functional properties of the material in water medium. Water permeability, absorption and swelling of the composite material after being exposed to water for certain period were determined. Water absorption, permeability and swelling of the composite material showed close correlation with polymer reactivity. Molding pressure, temperature and the distribution of rubber particle sizes also demonstrate a direct influence on the water absorption and permeability of the composite material. The obtained results are useful for the practical application of selected composite material with desirable and predictable functional properties. (paper)

  13. Recycling of inorganic waste in monolithic and cellular glass-based materials for structural and functional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Acacio; Marangoni, Mauro; Cetin, Suna; Bernardo, Enrico

    2016-07-01

    The stabilization of inorganic waste of various nature and origin, in glasses, has been a key strategy for environmental protection for the last decades. When properly formulated, glasses may retain many inorganic contaminants permanently, but it must be acknowledged that some criticism remains, mainly concerning costs and energy use. As a consequence, the sustainability of vitrification largely relies on the conversion of waste glasses into new, usable and marketable glass-based materials, in the form of monolithic and cellular glass-ceramics. The effective conversion in turn depends on the simultaneous control of both starting materials and manufacturing processes. While silica-rich waste favours the obtainment of glass, iron-rich wastes affect the functionalities, influencing the porosity in cellular glass-based materials as well as catalytic, magnetic, optical and electrical properties. Engineered formulations may lead to important reductions of processing times and temperatures, in the transformation of waste-derived glasses into glass-ceramics, or even bring interesting shortcuts. Direct sintering of wastes, combined with recycled glasses, as an example, has been proven as a valid low-cost alternative for glass-ceramic manufacturing, for wastes with limited hazardousness. The present paper is aimed at providing an up-to-date overview of the correlation between formulations, manufacturing technologies and properties of most recent waste-derived, glass-based materials. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Recycling of inorganic waste in monolithic and cellular glass‐based materials for structural and functional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Acacio; Marangoni, Mauro; Cetin, Suna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The stabilization of inorganic waste of various nature and origin, in glasses, has been a key strategy for environmental protection for the last decades. When properly formulated, glasses may retain many inorganic contaminants permanently, but it must be acknowledged that some criticism remains, mainly concerning costs and energy use. As a consequence, the sustainability of vitrification largely relies on the conversion of waste glasses into new, usable and marketable glass‐based materials, in the form of monolithic and cellular glass‐ceramics. The effective conversion in turn depends on the simultaneous control of both starting materials and manufacturing processes. While silica‐rich waste favours the obtainment of glass, iron‐rich wastes affect the functionalities, influencing the porosity in cellular glass‐based materials as well as catalytic, magnetic, optical and electrical properties. Engineered formulations may lead to important reductions of processing times and temperatures, in the transformation of waste‐derived glasses into glass‐ceramics, or even bring interesting shortcuts. Direct sintering of wastes, combined with recycled glasses, as an example, has been proven as a valid low‐cost alternative for glass‐ceramic manufacturing, for wastes with limited hazardousness. The present paper is aimed at providing an up‐to‐date overview of the correlation between formulations, manufacturing technologies and properties of most recent waste‐derived, glass‐based materials. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27818564

  15. Permeability of Concrete with Recycled Concrete Aggregate and Pozzolanic Materials under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Sun, Xiaoyan; Wang, Junjie; Monteiro, Paulo J M

    2016-03-30

    The research reported herein studied the permeability of concrete containing recycled-concrete aggregate (RA), superfine phosphorous slag (PHS), and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) with and without stress. Test results showed that the chloride diffusion coefficient of RA concrete (RAC) without external loads decreased with time, and the permeability of RAC is much lower than that of the reference concrete due to the on-going hydration and the pozzolanic reaction provided by the PHS and GGBS additives in the RAC mixture. The permeability of chloride under flexural load is much more sensitive than that under compressive load due to the differences in porosity and cracking pattern. At low compressive stress levels, the permeability of chloride decreased by the closing of pores and microcracks within RAC specimens. However, in a relatively short time the chloride diffusion coefficient and the chloride content increased rapidly with the increase of compressive stress when it exceeded a threshold stress level of approximate 35% of the ultimate compressive strength. Under flexural stress, the chloride transport capability increased with the increase of stress level and time. At high compressive and flexural stress levels, creep had a significant effect on the permeability of chloride in the RAC specimens due to the damage from the nucleation and propagation of microcracks over time. It is apparent that mortar cracking has more of a significant effect on the chloride transport in concrete than cracking in the interfacial transition zone (ITZ).

  16. Field site leaching from recycled concrete aggregates applied as sub-base material in road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsen, Christian J; Wibetoe, Grethe; van der Sloot, Hans A; Lund, Walter; Petkovic, Gordana

    2012-06-15

    The release of major and trace elements from recycled concrete aggregates used in an asphalt covered road sub-base has been monitored for more than 4 years. A similar test field without an asphalt cover, directly exposed to air and rain, and an asphalt covered reference field with natural aggregates in the sub-base were also included in the study. It was found that the pH of the infiltration water from the road sub-base with asphalt covered concrete aggregates decreased from 12.6 to below pH 10 after 2.5 years of exposure, whereas this pH was reached within only one year for the uncovered field. Vertical temperature profiles established for the sub-base, could explain the measured infiltration during parts of the winter season. When the release of major and trace elements as function of field pH was compared with pH dependent release data measured in the laboratory, some similar pH trends were found. The field concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn were found to be low throughout the monitoring period. During two of the winter seasons, a concentration increase of Cr and Mo was observed, possibly due to the use of de-icing salt. The concentrations of the trace constituents did not exceed Norwegian acceptance criteria for ground water and surface water Class II. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison between existing recycle processes for composite materials - a study regarding microwave pyrolysis; Jaemfoerelse av befintliga aatervinningsprocesser foer kompositmaterial - en foerstudie gaellande mikrovaagspyrolys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Carina; Andreasson, Sune (Stena Metall AB (Sweden)); Skrifvars, Mikael; Aakesson, Dan (Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate the possibilities to use recycled composites as energy recycling based on microwave pyrolysis and also to evaluate the microwave pyrolysis technique for the recycling of combined materials, such as composites. Composites can be recycled by mechanically grinding into a material which can be used as a filler in virgin composites. However, several earlier studies have showed that this will give a material with inferior quality, and there is presently no economical viable use of the recycled material. Composites can be incinerated together with other waste materials but the high content of inorganic material results in a material with low energy content. Composites typically contain 40-50 weight-% glass fibres, and in some cases be as high as 60-75 weight-%. Consequently, composites often end up at landfill sites and processes to recycle composites do not exit. Large volumes of composites are produced in Europe and these products will largely end up on landfill site after end-of-life as systems to recycle these products do not exist. These composites represent a large amount of energy which presently is not utilized. Processes and materials to produce composites are being developed continuously. This in addition to the need for light weight materials in the aerospace, windmills and automotive industry spurs the use of composites. It is therefore of outmost importance to develop processes to recycle of composites. Recycling of composites by the use of microwave pyrolysis has been studied in this project. Microwave pyrolysis is a process where the material is heated by microwave in an inert environment. The project has been focusing on the recycling of glass fibre reinforced composites as this type of composite makes the large volume of composites. Pyrolysis of glass fibre reinforce composites will result in two fractions - one oil fraction and one inorganic fraction. The oil fraction was analyzed with calorimetry and

  18. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker’s cooperatives: An alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina, E-mail: magda@pep.ufrj.br [Program of Production Engineering, School and Research in Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz, E-mail: fabio@pep.ufrj.br [Program of Production Engineering, School and Research in Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► In the marketing of recyclable materials, the waste-pickers are the least wins. ► It is proposed creating a network of recycling cooperatives to achieve viability. ► The waste-pickers contribute to waste management to the city. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city’s main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers’ cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  19. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker’s cooperatives: An alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina; Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In the marketing of recyclable materials, the waste-pickers are the least wins. ► It is proposed creating a network of recycling cooperatives to achieve viability. ► The waste-pickers contribute to waste management to the city. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city’s main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers’ cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro

  20. Recycling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P I.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is being realized that if environmental quality is to be improved the amount of waste generated by man has to be substantially reduced. There are two ways this can be achieved. First, by conserving materials and energy, and sacrificing economic growth, a solution that is completely unacceptable because it would mean some form of rationing, mass unemployment, and collapse of society as it is known. The second way to reduce the volume of waste is by planned recycling, re-use, and recovery. Already the reclamation industry recovers, processes, and turns back for re-use many products used by industry and thereby reduces the UK's import bill for raw materials. In the book, the author sets out the various ways materials may be recovered from industrial and municipal wastes. The broad technology of waste management is covered and attention is focused on man's new resources lying buried in the mountains of industrial wastes, the emissions from stocks, the effluents and sludges that turn rivers into open sewers, and municipal dumps in seventeen chapters. The final chapter lists terms and concepts used in waste technology, organizations concerned with waste management, and sources of information about recycling waste. (MCW)

  1. Leaching behaviour of different scrap materials at recovery and recycling companies: full-, pilot- and lab-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, E; Chys, M; Depuydt, V; Folens, K; Du Laing, G; Verliefde, A; Van Hulle, S W H

    2014-12-01

    Scrap material recovery and recycling companies are confronted with waste water that has a highly fluctuating flow rate and composition. Common pollutants, such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids, potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls can exceed the discharge limits. An analysis of the leaching behaviour of different scrap materials and scrap yard sweepings was performed at full-scale, pilot-scale and lab-scale in order to find possible preventive solutions for this waste water problem. The results of these leaching tests (with concentrations that frequently exceeded the Flemish discharge limits) showed the importance of regular sweeping campaigns at the company, leak proof or covered storage of specific scrap materials and oil/water separation on particular leachates. The particulate versus dissolved fraction was also studied for the pollutants. For example, up to 98% of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons, poly chlorinated biphenyls and some metals were in the particulate form. This confirms the (potential) applicability of sedimentation and filtration techniques for the treatment of the majority of the leachates, and as such the rainwater run-off as a whole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality- and dilution losses in the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life passenger cars: input-output analysis under explicit consideration of scrap quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2012-09-04

    Metals can in theory be infinitely recycled in a closed-loop without any degradation in quality. In reality, however, open-loop recycling is more typical for metal scrap recovered from end-of-life (EoL) products because mixing of different metal species results in scrap quality that no longer matches the originals. Further losses occur when meeting the quality requirement of the target product requires dilution of the secondary material by adding high purity materials. Standard LCA usually does not address these losses. This paper presents a novel approach to quantifying quality- and dilution losses, by means of hybrid input-output analysis. We focus on the losses associated with the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life vehicle (ELV) due to the mixing of copper, a typical contaminant in steel recycling. Given the quality of scrap in terms of copper density, the model determines the ratio by which scrap needs to be diluted in an electric arc furnace (EAF), and the amount of demand for EAF steel including those quantities needed for dilution. Application to a high-resolution Japanese IO table supplemented with data on ferrous materials including different grades of scrap indicates that a nationwide avoidance of these losses could result in a significant reduction of CO(2) emissions.

  3. ASSESSMENTS OF FUTURE ENVIRONMENTAL TRENDS AND PROBLEMS OF INCREASED USE, RECYCLING, AND COMBUSTION OF FIBER-REINFORCED, PLASTIC AND METAL COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study is to identify and define future environmental concerns related to the projected utilization, recycling, and combustion of composite materials. The study is being conducted for the Office of Strategic Assessment and Special Studies (OSASS) of the U.S. Env...

  4. Tritium recycling and inventory in eroded debris of plasma-facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1999-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) and structural materials due to loss of plasma confinement in magnetic fusion reactors remains one of the most serious concerns for safe, successful, and reliable tokamak operation. High erosion losses due to surface vaporization, spallation, and melt-layer splashing are expected during such an event. The eroded debris and dust of the PFCs, including trapped tritium, will be contained on the walls or within the reactor chamber therefore, they can significantly influence plasma behavior and tritium inventory during subsequent operations. Tritium containment and behavior in PFCS and in the dust and debris is an important factor in evaluating and choosing the ideal plasma-facing materials (PFMs). Tritium buildup and release in the debris of candidate materials is influenced by the effect of material porosity on diffusion and retention processes. These processes have strong nonlinear behavior due to temperature, volubility, and existing trap sites. A realistic model must therefore account for the nonlinear and multidimensional effects of tritium diffusion in the porous-redeposited and neutron-irradiated materials. A tritium-transport computer model, TRAPS (Tritium Accumulation in Porous Structure), was developed and used to evaluate and predict the kinetics of tritium transport in porous media. This model is coupled with the TRICS (Tritium In Compound Systems) code that was developed to study the effect of surface erosion during normal and abnormal operations on tritium behavior in PFCS

  5. High-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar thermal storage materials using AZO/graphene hybrids by optimizing hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Feng, Yiyu; Qin, Chengqun; Li, Man; Li, Shipei; Cao, Chen; Long, Peng; Liu, Enzuo; Hu, Wenping; Yoshino, Katsumi; Feng, Wei

    2015-10-21

    An important method for establishing a high-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar heat system is by designing and preparing novel photo-isomerizable molecules with a high enthalpy and a long thermal life by controlling molecular interactions. A meta- and ortho-bis-substituted azobenzene chromophore (AZO) is covalently grafted onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for solar thermal storage materials. High grafting degree and close-packed molecules enable intermolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) for both trans-(E) and cis-(Z) isomers of AZO on the surface of nanosheets, resulting in a dramatic increase in enthalpy and lifetime. The metastable Z-form of AZO on RGO is thermally stabilized with a half-life of 52 days by steric hindrance and intermolecular H-bonds calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The AZO-RGO fuel shows a high storage capacity of 138 Wh kg(-1) by optimizing intermolecular H-bonds with a good cycling stability for 50 cycles induced by visible light at 520 nm. Our work opens up a new method for making advanced molecular solar thermal storage materials by tuning molecular interactions on a nano-template.

  6. Study on mechanical and physical properties of composite materials with recycled PET as fillers for paving block application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, Sigit Tri; Ardhyananta, Hosta; Rasyida, Amaliya

    2018-04-01

    Base on Sidoarjo's goverment data, there was more than 4000 metric ton perday of waste that has been accumulated during 2016. More than 10 percent from overall waste is plastics. In accordance with the Indonesia government regulation, "Indonesia clean from waste" by 2020 through 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) program, we have been focusing research on how to reduce the accumulation of the plastics waste in Sidoarjo by processing it become a new product. In this research, we have made the plastic waste of PET bottle as additional fillers or agregates of composite material for construction application as a paving block. The composition of PET plastic used as fillers is vary from 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% from total volume of agregates. The ratio of cement binder to sands agregate is 1:3. The specimens were characterized its mechanical and physical properties by using flexural testing, compressive testing, density and water absorbance measurement. The results show that the mechanical (flexural and compressive) properties of composite materials is increased significantly by increasing PET fillers up to 20%, however it was decreased when PET content more than 20%. But, both the density and water absobance of specimens are decreased by increasing of PET fillers.

  7. Renewable Resources and a Recycled Polymer as Raw Materials: Mats from Electrospinning of Lignocellulosic Biomass and PET Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Passos de Oliveira Santos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of materials has been growing uninterruptedly in recent decades. The aim of this strategy is to offer alternatives to the use of fossil fuel-based raw materials and to meet the demand for materials that are less detrimental to the environment after disposal. In this context, several studies have been carried out on the use of lignocellulosic biomass and its main components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin as raw materials for polymeric materials. Lignocellulosic fibers have a high content of cellulose, but there has been a notable lack of investigations on application of the electrospinning technique for solutions prepared from raw lignocellulosic biomass, even though the presence of cellulose favors the alignment of the fiber chains during electrospinning. In this investigation, ultrathin (submicrometric and nanoscale aligned fibers were successfully prepared via electrospinning (room temperature of solutions prepared with different contents of lignocellulosic sisal fibers combined with recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA as solvent. The “macro” fibers were deconstructed by the action of TFA, resulting in solutions containing their constituents, i.e., cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, in addition to PET. The “macro” sisal fibers were reconstructed at the nanometer and submicrometric scale from these solutions. The SEM micrographs of the mats containing the components of sisal showed distinct fiber networks, likely due to differences in the solubility of these components in TFA and in their dielectric constants. The mechanical properties of the mats (dynamic mechanical analysis, DMA, and tensile properties were evaluated with the samples positioned both in the direction (dir of and in opposition (op to the alignment of the nano and ultrathin fibers, which can be considered a novelty in the analysis of this type of material

  8. Material recycling of post-consumer polyolefin bulk plastics: Influences on waste sorting and treatment processes in consideration of product qualities achievable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeisinger, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Material recycling of post-consumer bulk plastics made up of polyolefins is well developed. In this article, it is examined which effects on waste sorting and treatment processes influence the qualities of polyolefin-recyclats. It is shown that the properties and their changes during the product life-cycle of a polyolefin are defined by its way of polymerisation, its nature as a thermoplast, additives, other compound and composite materials, but also by the mechanical treatments during the production, its use where contact to foreign materials is possible and the waste sorting and treatment processes. Because of the sum of the effects influencing the quality of polyolefin-recyclats, conclusions are drawn for the material recycling of polyolefins to reach high qualities of their recyclats. Also, legal requirements like the EU regulation 1907/2006 concerning the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restrictions on chemicals are considered.

  9. A comparative study of recycled aggregates from concrete and mixed debris as material for unbound road sub-base; Estudio comparativo de los aridos reciclados de hormigon y mixtos como material para sub-bases de carreteras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J. R.; Agrela, F.; Ayuso, J.; Lopez, M.

    2011-07-01

    Seven different types of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) have been evaluated as granular materials for unbound road sub bases construction. The results showed that recycled concrete aggregates complied with all specifications for using in the construction of unbound structural layers (sub-base) for T3 and T4 traffic categories according to the Spanish General Technical Specification for Road Construction (PG-3). Some mixed recycled aggregates fell short of some specifications due to a high content of sulphur compounds and poor fragmentation resistance. Sieving off the fine fraction prior to crushing the mixed CDW reduce the total sulphur content and improve the quality of the mixed recycled aggregates, by contrast, pre-sieving concrete CDW had no effect on the quality of the resulting aggregates. The results were compared with a crushed limestone as natural aggregate. (Author) 23 refs.

  10. UPTAKE OF HEAVY METALS IN BATCH SYSTEMS BY A RECYCLED IRON-BEARING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An iron-bearing material deriving from surface finishing operations in the manufacturing of cast-iron components demonstrates potential for removal of heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. Batch isotherm and rate experiments were conducted for uptake of cadmium, zinc, and lead...

  11. Thermally Self-Healing Polymeric Materials : The Next Step to Recycling Thermoset Polymers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Youchun; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We developed thermally self-healing polymeric materials on the basis of furan-functionalized, alternating thermosetting polyketones (PK-furan) and bis-maleimide by using the Diels-Alder (DA) and Retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) reaction sequence. PK-furan can be easily obtained under mild conditions by the

  12. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  13. Replacement of Fine Aggregate by using Recyclable Materials in Paving Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koganti, Shyam Prakash; Hemanthraja, Kommineni; Sajja, Satish

    2017-08-01

    Cement concrete paving blocks are precast hard products complete out of cement concrete. The product is made in various sizes and shapes like square, round and rectangular blocks of different dimensions with designs for interlocking of adjacent tiles blocks. Several Research Works have been carried out in the past to study the possibility of utilizing waste materials and industrial byproducts in the manufacturing of paver blocks. Various industrial waste materials like quarry dust, glass powder, ceramic dust and coal dust are used as partial replacement of fine aggregate and assessed the strength parameters and compared the profit percentages after replacement with waste materials. Quarry dust can be replaced by 20% and beyond that the difference in strength is not much higher but considering cost we can replace upto 40% so that we can get a profit of almost 10%. Similarly we can replace glass powder and ceramic dust by 20% only beyond that there is decrement in strength and even with 20% replacement we can get 1.34 % and 2.42% of profit. Coal dust is not suitable for alternative material as fine aggregate as it reduces the strength.

  14. A Service Learning Project on Aluminum Recycling--Developing Soft Skills in a Material and Energy Balances Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christy Wheeler

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a project carried out in a sophomore chemical engineering course, in which students studied the energetic differences between refining and recycling aluminum. They worked in teams to prepare a presentation about the importance of aluminum recycling to a lay audience. The project reinforced classroom learning and provided an…

  15. Influence of Al-W-B Recycled Composite Material on the Properties of High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baronins Janis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to obtain high performance boron containing material with sufficient carrying capacity with increased porosity and lower density at the same time. The influence of the different concentrations of Al-W-B powder on the properties of the fresh and hardened HPC was investigated. In the concrete mix design, the allite containing White Portland cement CEM I 52,5 R, granite stone, sand, microsilica, on polycarboxylates based super plasticizer and Al-W-B powder were used. As a source of boron composite material (CM, previously grinded powder containing boron-tungsten fiber and aluminium matrix (CM Al-W-B was used. Grinding was used for processing of CM Al-W-B powder.

  16. Sequestering Lead in Paint by Utilizing Deconstructed Masonry Materials as Recycled Aggregate in Concrete. Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-27

    blocks were purchased from H. L. Munn Lumber Co., Ames, IA (masonry A) and Glen -Gary Corporation, Des Moines, IA (masonry B). One type of clay brick...approximately 1,100 lbs in total) was donated by an individual in Ames, IA (masonry C), and the other was purchased from Glen -Gary Corporation, Des...appeared to be clay brick, not concrete block, which is probably due to the fact that the clay bricks were a more brittle material than concrete blocks

  17. Pollution Prevention, Waste Minimization and Material Recycling Successes Realized during Savannah River Site's K Area Materials Storage (KAMS) Project, W226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    As DOE continues to forge ahead and re-evaluate post cold war missions, facilities that were constructed and operated for DOE/DOD over the past 50+ years are coming to the end of their useful life span. These various facilities throughout the country had served a very useful purpose in our nations history; however, their time of Cold War materials production has come to an end. With this looming finalization comes a decision as to how to remedy their existence: D and R the facilities and return to ''Greenfield''; or, retrofit the existing facilities to accommodate the newer missions of the DOE Complex. The 105-K Reactor Building located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina was retrofit on an accelerated project schedule for a new mission called K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS). Modifications to the former defense reactor's building and equipment will allow storage of Plutonium from the Rocky Flats Site in Colorado and other materials deemed necessary by the Department of Energy. Proper project planning and activity sequencing allowed the DOE and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company to realize savings from: the recycling and/or reuse of modified facility components; reduction and reclassification of waste; reduction in radiological area footprint (rollbacks)

  18. Analysis of the application of an interdisciplinar project in education of future engineers: assembly of thermal machines with recycled materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marques

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching through the four areas of learning development is increasing in educational systems. The methods used for this purpose are: analysis and solving of problems, and development of integrative or interdisciplinary projects. Both use active learning methodologies, making it possible to circumvent the low capacity for concentration and retention of information from today’s students, so globalized and dependent on computers. In this sense, the development of this project aims for the students to manufacture a steam machine with reused/recycled materials, and to present it during a trial lesson. This project was developed in the Fundamentals of Thermodynamics and Engineering and Materials Science courses, taken in the first semester of 2014, and involved 130 students enrolled in the fifth semester of the Production Engineering course at Centro Universitário Padre Anchieta. A total of 28 steam machines were presented and, after prior modification, the majority succeeded in their functioning. Most of the groups used industrial materials and/or industrial tools in order to accomplish their projects. Due to this experience, they could apply their knowledge in both student and professional routines. Based on that, it is believed that the projects may play a role of meaningful learning for students. At the end of the activity, most students signaled their satisfaction with the project and their desire to repeat such activities, which interconnect disciplines. It is possible to conclude that teaching through interdisciplinary projects is an important tool in the teaching of engineering, thus, understanding of knowledge is more articulate and less fragmented. It contributes to the use of science as an element of interpretation and intervention of reality

  19. Combined material recycling study with aesthetic of entropy and place making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    Green building is a hot topic today. The place making and urban cultures are also important issues in postindustrial society. The industrial heritage renovation projects provide a research opportunity in combination with both aspects. This paper tries to shed new light on this issue by interdisciplinary methods, to study six Guangzhou industrial heritage renovation projects, giving aesthetic values for six sites concerning place making and culture creation, especially giving an explanation for old building material's aesthetic performance in terms of concepts "entropy" and "archetype." The conclutions regard: the six places are brand spaces of "authentic Guangzhou" that make local experiential knowledge, emotional significance and creative communities in combination with historical and cultural narratives.

  20. The importance of recycling - Responsible recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Joens Petter

    2014-01-01

    7 times the total emissions from Sweden are saved each year by the recycling industry. It reduces CO 2 emissions and saves the environment. In fact it annually reduces global CO 2 emissions by 500 million tons, which is more than what is being emitted by the world wide aviation industry. Recycling of iron and steel saves 74% energy and reduces water and air pollution by respectively 76% and 86%, compared to primary production. It provides new raw materials and contributes to save energy. There's no sense in producing goods in a permanent material like plastics, that's supposed to be used only once. It's a huge waste of resources. Today the recycling industry provides half of the world's raw materials and this figure is set to increase. It's about environmentally sound management of resources. It's about plain common sense. There has to be a political willingness to facilitate recycling in every way. And from a corporate perspective social responsibility is becoming an increasingly important competitive edge. This is also a communication issue, it has to be a fact that is well known to the market when a company is doing valuable environmental work. We also need a well functioning global market with easy to understand regulations to facilitate global trade. The global demand for recycled materials should influence their collection and use. Fraud and theft has also to be kept at bay which calls for a close collaboration between organizations such as The International Chamber of Commerce, The International Trade Council and the International Maritime Bureau of the commercial crime services. Increasing recycling is the only way to go if we want to minimize our effect on the environment. We have to remember that recycling is essential for the environment. An increase would be a tremendous help to reduce the green house effect. Increasing recycling is not rocket science. We know how to do it, we just have to decide to go through with it

  1. Process for recycling mixed-cathode materials from spent lithium-ion batteries and kinetics of leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Bian, Yifan; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Guan, Yibiao; Fan, Ersha; Wu, Feng; Chen, Renjie

    2018-01-01

    A "grave-to-cradle" process for the recycling of spent mixed-cathode materials (LiCoO 2 , LiCo 1/3 Ni 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 , and LiMn 2 O 4 ) has been proposed. The process comprises an acid leaching followed by the resynthesis of a cathode material from the resulting leachate. Spent cathode materials were leached in citric acid (C 6 H 8 O 7 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Optimal leaching conditions were obtained at a leaching temperature of 90 °C, a H 2 O 2 concentration of 1.5 vol%, a leaching time of 60 min, a pulp density of 20 g L -1 , and a citric acid concentration of 0.5 M. The leaching efficiencies of Li, Co, Ni, and Mn exceeded 95%. The leachate was used to resynthesize new LiCo 1/3 Ni 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 material by using a sol-gel method. A comparison of the electrochemical properties of the resynthesized material (NCM-spent) with that synthesized directly from original chemicals (NCM-syn) indicated that the initial discharge capacity of NCM-spent at 0.2 C was 152.8 mA h g -1 , which was higher than the 149.8 mA h g -1 of NCM-syn. After 160 cycles, the discharge capacities of the NCM-spent and NCM-syn were 140.7 mA h g -1 and 121.2 mA h g -1 , respectively. After discharge at 1 C for 300 cycles, the NCM-spent material remained a higher capacity of 113.2 mA h g -1 than the NCM-syn (78.4 mA h g -1 ). The better performance of the NCM-spent resulted from trace Al doping. A new formulation based on the shrinking-core model was proposed to explain the kinetics of the leaching process. The activation energies of the Li, Co, Ni, and Mn leaching were calculated to be 66.86, 86.57, 49.46, and 45.23 kJ mol -1 , respectively, which indicates that the leaching was a chemical reaction-controlled process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of the Effect of Recycled Asphalt Pavement Material on Permeability and Bearing Capacity in the Base Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Güneş Seferoğlu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP and cement content on the permeability and bearing capacity characteristics of aggregate base courses. Mixtures containing untreated RAP ranging between 0 and 100 percent and 1, 2, and 3% cement-treated RAP were subjected to laboratory tests (bitumen content, sieve analysis, modified proctor, soaked California bearing ratio (CBR, and constant-level permeability tests. The results showed that, as the RAP percentage in the mixture increased, CBR values decreased considerably. Moreover, there is a linear increase in the CBR values with cement treatment. Optimum moisture contents (OMC and maximum dry densities (MDD showed a decreasing trend. Increasing the cement percentages in 100% RAP blend increases the OMC and MDD values. The permeability of RAP showed a decrease as the percentage of RAP and cement increased in blends. The study showed that the CBR value of the 20% RAP blend is also obtained in the 100% RAP/3% cement-treated blend. Thus, it has been understood that cement is a suitable material in order to increase the use of RAP. In addition, the increase in the percentage of RAP and cement made the base course more impermeable.

  3. Biofouling potential and material reactivity in a simulated water distribution network supplied with stormwater recycled via managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Dennis; Tjandraatmadja, Grace; Barry, Karen; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Kaksonen, Anna H; Dillon, Peter; Puzon, Geoff J; Sidhu, Jatinder; Wylie, Jason; Goodman, Nigel; Low, Jason

    2016-11-15

    The injection of stormwater into aquifers for storage and recovery during high water demand periods is a promising technology for augmenting conventional water reserves. Limited information exists regarding the potential impact of aquifer treated stormwater in distribution system infrastructure. This study describes a one year pilot distribution pipe network trial to determine the biofouling potential for cement, copper and polyvinyl chloride pipe materials exposed to stormwater stored in a limestone aquifer compared to an identical drinking water rig. Median alkalinity (123 mg/L) and colour (12 HU) in stormwater was significantly higher than in drinking water (82 mg/L and 1 HU) and pipe discolouration was more evident for stormwater samples. X-ray Diffraction and Fluorescence analyses confirmed this was driven by the presence of iron rich amorphous compounds in more thickly deposited sediments also consistent with significantly higher median levels of iron (∼0.56 mg/L) in stormwater compared to drinking water (∼0.17 mg/L). Water type did not influence biofilm development as determined by microbial density but faecal indicators were significantly higher for polyvinyl chloride and cement exposed to stormwater. Treatment to remove iron through aeration and filtration would reduce the potential for sediment accumulation. Operational and verification monitoring parameters to manage scaling, corrosion, colour, turbidity and microbial growth in recycled stormwater distribution networks are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recycling of agroindustrial solid wastes as additives in brick manufacturing for development of sustainable construction materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lisset Maritza Luna-Cañas; Carlos Alberto Ríos-Reyes; Luz Amparo Quintero-Ortíz

    2014-01-01

    La acumulación de residuos sólidos agroindustriales no administ rados especialmente en los países en vías de desarrollo ha dado lugar a una creciente preocupación ambiental. El reciclaje de tales res iduos como un material de construcción sostenible parece ser un a solución viable no sólo al problema de la contaminación, sino también un a opción económica para diseñar edificios verdes. El presente t rabajo estudia la aplicación de varios residuos agroindustriales en la fabricación de ladrillo...

  5. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  6. Modeling of geo-material durability and contaminant fate in recycling or disposal of industrial and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Windt, L.

    2011-01-01

    This report deals with the HYTEC model, coupling chemical and hydrodynamic processes, and its application to the recycling of inorganic wastes and the disposal of hazardous and radioactive wastes. A common feature is the assessment of geo-material durability while submitted to chemical disturbances by their industrial or natural environment and, reciprocally, the quantification of contaminant fate in soils and aquifers. Research papers in a first section numerically oriented, HYTEC is validated by means of an intercomparison exercise based on oxidative UO 2 dissolution and the subsequent migration of U species in subsurface environments. A numerical approach of leaching tests is also discussed. Several researches based on HYTEC follows. The evolution of the cement/clay interface is simulated in the framework of the multi-barrier system of radioactive waste disposal and the Tournemire engineering analog; discriminating between the physical and chemical key processes. The physico-chemical processes of cement biodegradation by fungi are investigated with a focus on acidic hydrolysis and complexation by biogenic carboxylic acids. Modeling of source-terms and ageing with respect to contaminant migration is discussed in the case of the chemical alteration of spent fuel pellets under disposal conditions by considering radiolytic dissolution, inhibiting effect and radioactive decay, and by analyzing the effect of fractures on the containment properties of subsurface disposal facilities of stabilized/solidified waste. Leaching lab experiments applied to steel slag and the chemical evolution of leachate from MSWI sub-bases of two pilot roads over 10 years are eventually modelled to better estimate the environmental impact of such recycling scenarios. On-going research In the straight lines of the modeling of radioactive waste disposal, a first perspective is to investigate the transient states driven by thermal gradient and water re-saturation of the near-field barriers and

  7. Nuclear recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses two aspects of the economics of recycling nuclear fuel: the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved; and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium. The authors review the relevant physical and chemical processes involved in the recycling process. Recovery of uranium and plutonium is discussed. Fuel recycling in LWRs is examined and a table presents the costs of reprocessing and not reprocessing. The subject of plutonium in fast reactors is addressed. Safeguards and weapons proliferation are discussed

  8. You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

  9. Properties of Controlled Low Strength Material with Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash and Recycled Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tsai-Lung; Cheng, An; Chao, Sao-Jeng; Hsu, Hui-Mi

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of adding circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) ash, desulfurization slag, air-cooled blast-furnace slag and coal bottom ash to the controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Test methods include slump flow test, ball drop test, water soluble chloride ion content measurement, compressive strength and length change measurement. The results show that (1) the use of CFBC hydration ash with desulfurization slag of slump flow is the best, and the use of CFBC hydration ash with coal bottom ash and slump flow is the worst; (2) CFBC hydration ash with desulfurization slag and chloride ion content is the highest; (3) 24 h ball drop test (diameter ≤ 76 mm), and test results are 70 mm to 76 mm; (4) CFBC hydration ash with desulfurization slag and compression strength is the highest, with the coal bottom ash being the lowest; increase of CFBC hydration ash can reduce compressive strength; and (5) the water-quenched blast furnace slag and CFBC hydration ash would expand, which results in length changes of CLSM specimens. PMID:29724055

  10. Materials recycle and waste management in fusion power reactors. Progress report for 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogler, S.; Jung, J.; Steindler, M.J.; Maya, I.; Levine, H.E.; Peterman, D.D.; Strausburg, S.; Schultz, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Several components of a STARFIRE fusion reactor have been studied. The breeding ratios were calculated as a function of lithium enrichment and neutron multiplier for systems containing either Li 2 O or LiAlO 2 . The lithium requirements for a fusion economy were also estimated for those cases and the current US resources were found to be adequate. However, competition with other lithium demands in the future emphasizes the need for recovering and reusing lithium. The radioactivities induced in the breeder and the impurities responsible for their formation were determined. The residual radioactivities of several low-activation structural materials were compared with the radioactivity from the prime candidate alloy (PCA) a titanium modified Type 316 stainless steel used in STARFIRE. The impurities responsible for the radioactivity levels were identified. From these radioactive impurity levels it was determined that V15Cr5Ti could meet the requirements for shallow land burial as specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10CFR61), whereas PCA would require a more restrictive disposal mode, i.e. in a geologic medium. The costs for each of these disposal modes were then estimated

  11. Recycling steel-manufacturing slag and harbor sediment into construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Lin, Chang-Yuan; Cheng, Shao-Hsiang; Wang, H Paul

    2014-01-30

    Mixtures consisting of harbor sediment and slag waste from steel industry containing toxic components are fired to produce non-hazardous construction materials. The fired pellets become lighter as firing temperature increases. At a sintering temperature of ≦1050°C, the fired pellets are in a form of brick-like product, while at 1100°C, they become lightweight aggregates. Calcium silicate, kyanite, and cristobalite are newly formed in the pellets after firing, demonstrating that calcium oxide acts as a flux component and chemically reacted with Si- and/or Al-containing components to promote sintering. Dioxin/furan content present in the pure slag is 0.003ng I-TEQg(-1) and, for the fired pellet consisting of slag and sediment, the content appears to be destructed and diminishes to 0.0003ng I-TEQg(-1) after 950°C-firing; while it is 0.002ng I-TEQg(-1) after firing at 1100°C, suggesting that dioxins/furans in the 950°C-fired pellets have a greater chance to escape to atmosphere due to a slower sintering reaction and/or that construction of dioxins/furans from molten chloride salts co-exists with their destruction. Multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure extracts Cu, Cr, Zn, Se, Cd, Pb, Ba, As, and Hg from all fired products at negligible levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Recycling of agroindustrial solid wastes as additives in brick manufacturing for development of sustainable construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisset Maritza Luna-Cañas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La acumulación de residuos sólidos agroindustriales no administ rados especialmente en los países en vías de desarrollo ha dado lugar a una creciente preocupación ambiental. El reciclaje de tales res iduos como un material de construcción sostenible parece ser un a solución viable no sólo al problema de la contaminación, sino también un a opción económica para diseñar edificios verdes. El presente t rabajo estudia la aplicación de varios residuos agroindustriales en la fabricación de ladrillos, que incluyen cáscara de cacao, aserr ín, cáscara de arroz y caña de azúcar. En primer lugar, se determinó la compos ición mineralógica y química de los residuos y del suelo arcill oso. A continuación, los ladrillos se fabricaron con diferentes cantid ades de residuos (5%, 10% y 20%. El efecto de la adición de es tos residuos en el comportamiento tecnológico del ladrillo se evaluó mediant e ensayos de resistencia a la compresión, resistencia a la flex ión y durabilidad. Con base en los resultados obtenidos, las cantidad es óptimas de residuos agroindustriales para obtener ladrillos fueron mezclando 10% de cáscara de cacao y 90% de suelo arcilloso. Est os porcentajes producen ladrillos cuyas propiedades mecánicas e ran adecuadas para su uso como materias primas secundarias en la pr oducción de ladrillos.

  13. Recycling and Reuse of Materials Arising from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities. A Report by the NEA Co-operative Program on Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooms, Bart; Verwaest, Isi; Legee, Frederic; Nokhamzon, Jean-Guy; Pieraccini, Michel; Poncet, Philippe; Franzen, Nicole; Vignaroli, Tiziano; Herschend, Bjoern; Benest, Terry; Loudon, David; Favret, Derek; Weber, Inge; )

    2017-01-01

    Large quantities of materials arising from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are non-radioactive per se. An additional, significant share of materials is of very low-level or low-level radioactivity and can, after having undergone treatment and a clearance process, be recycled and reused in a restricted or unrestricted way. Recycle and reuse options today provide valuable solutions to minimise radioactive waste from decommissioning and at the same time maximise the recovery of valuable materials. The NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning (CPD) prepared this overview on the various approaches being undertaken by international and national organisations for the management of slightly contaminated material resulting from activities in the nuclear sector. The report draws on CPD member organisations' experiences and practices related to recycling and reuse, which were gathered through an international survey. It provides information on improvements and changes in technologies, methodologies and regulations since the 1996 report on this subject, with the conclusions and recommendations taking into account 20 years of additional experience that will be useful for current and future practitioners. Case studies are provided to illustrate significant points of interest, for example in relation to scrap metals, concrete and soil

  14. Two intelligent materials, both of which are self-forming and self-repairing; one also self-senses and recycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn M.

    1996-04-01

    Two self-forming and repair polymer cementitious composites were developed over a decade apart by the author. Both relied on a nature based paradigm as a model for building, in particular bone formation, repair, and degradation. For the first composite, the proposed material accreted from the ocean, made from a fluids based chemistry, that of seawater. The land based system was not built in-situ but relied on a man made supply of materials which were self-forming, self-repairing and dissolving. But in both cases a fluid based chemistry was necessary for self-building, repair and recycling of a bone-like composite material.

  15. Recycled water reuse permit renewal application for the materials and fuels complex industrial waste ditch and industrial waste pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Name, No

    2014-10-01

    This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  16. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker's cooperatives: an alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina; Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city's main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers' cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  18. Empirical yield tables for Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Joan M. Stelman

    1984-01-01

    Describes the tables derived from the 1980 Forest Survey of Michigan and presents ways the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Michigan's four Forest Survey Units, 14 forest types, and 5 site-index classes.

  19. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  20. Long-term aging of recycled binders : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    At 80 million tons a year representing more than 80% of all milled asphalt pavement : asphalt paving is Americas most recycled material. Asphalt can be recycled in place, which is : very cost effective; however, aging of recycled binder ca...

  1. Application of Regulation for recycling metals arising from Decommissioning of an Italian Nuclear Facility - Application of national regulations for metallic materials' recycling from the decommissioning of an Italian nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varasano, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Leonardo; Petagna, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    The start of the decommissioning of nuclear Italian sites requires proper management of clearance for large volumes of metallic materials. This paper describes the current legal framework relating to the Italian regulatory system of reference for the verification of the conditions of unconditional release of materials from nuclear installations, with particular reference to the recycling of metals. The definition of clearance levels, whether general or specific, ensures the clearance of materials arising from nuclear sites without further examinations. The Italian legislation on radiation protection requires that the removal of materials from authorized practices be subject to special requirements included in the authorization provisions. These requirements provide clearance levels that take account of the recommendations and technical guidelines supplied by the European Commission. The regulatory framework requires compliance with current technical and managerial requirements, issued by the National Regulatory Authority and annexed to the Ministerial Authorization, in which are shown the levels of surface activity and specific activity established for the unconditional release of metals from nuclear sites. The real challenge for the nuclear operator is the management of large amounts of waste materials arising from decommissioning activities. For the Italian operator SOGIN SpA is of extreme importance the correct application of national regulatory framework, in order to allow the most effective reduction of the amount of radioactive waste during decommissioning activities. (authors)

  2. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly

  3. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  4. Energetic reuse: the use of energy from organic material from urban waste for plastics recycling; Reaproveitamento energetico: uso de energia proveniente de material organico dos residuos urbanos para reciclar plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Priscila Alves; Rocha, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica

    2008-07-01

    The population growth and the elevation of the purchasing status due to economic development impel the gradual increase of residues produced a year. The discarding of these residues represents a great economic and environmental challenge, mainly because of discarded plastic concentration with no energetic and economic use, a also because of the organic material that, after decomposing, produces methane, one of the most responsible for global heating when in contact with atmosphere with no control. The recycling of plastic residues is a solution to minimize its discard and to guarantee an environmental improvement for saving raw matter, however the high consumption of energy endears the process, making it difficult its economic viability. This takes the search of new alternatives for attainment of low cost energy. In the problem of discard of the organic matter it can be the solution for the recycling of these residues. The decomposition of the organic matter produces fuel (biogas) useful as power plant for the generation of necessary electricity to the recycling process. The present study analyses an alternative to recycle plastic residues, after being consumed, in some places for discarding and using energy from biogas produced in landfills or biodigestors. Initially it was carried through a data-collecting and analysis of the physical composition of the residues, indispensable to the development of the study, which allowed to daily find the average percentage of plastics (12,9%) and organic matter (41,9%) made use by the involved population. On the basis of the data of organic matter the determination in such a way of the potential of generation of the biogas as of the electric power 'recycled' was possible to leave of that they would be discarded without any use. Data-collecting on equipment used in the plastic recycling had been essential for attainment of the necessary average energy demand to the process in such a way not only for soft plastic and

  5. Quantify the energy and environmental effects of using recycled asphalt and recycled concrete for pavement construction phase I : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the energy and environment impacts from using recycled materials : for highway construction. Specifically, when recycled asphalt pavement is re-used for producing hot mix : asphalt or when recycled concrete ...

  6. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...

  7. Long-term aging of recycled binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Asphalt pavement is Americas most recycled material. Eighty million tons of asphalt, nearly 80% of all milled asphalt pavement, : is recycled every year [1]. To effectively maintain its 40,000 miles of paved roads, the Florida Department of Transp...

  8. Durable Recycled Superpave Mixes in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The use of economical and environment-friendly recycled asphalt materials has become increasingly popular for asphalt pavement construction. In general, reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) are used in hot-mix asphalt ...

  9. Michigan forest statistics, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan shows a 7% decline in commercial forest area and a 27% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Highlights and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  10. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO2 Emission Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bon-Min Koo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco

  11. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO2 Emission Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jang-Ho Jay; Kim, Sung-Bae; Mun, Sungho

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC) specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers) possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco-friendly Hwangtoh concrete

  12. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO₂ Emission Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jang-Ho Jay; Kim, Sung-Bae; Mun, Sungho

    2014-08-19

    In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC) specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers) possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco-friendly Hwangtoh concrete

  13. Commercial-scale recycling of NdFeB-type magnets with grain boundary modification yields products with 'designer properties' that exceed those of starting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakotnik, M; Tudor, C O

    2015-10-01

    NdFeB-type magnets dominate the market for high performance magnetic materials, yet production of 'virgin' magnets via mining is environmentally, financially and energetically costly. Hence, interest is growing in 'magnet to magnet' recycling schemes that offer the potential for cheaper, more environmentally-friendly solutions to the world's growing appetite for rare-earth based magnetic materials. Unfortunately, previously described recycling processes only partially capitalise on this potential, because the methods described to date are limited to 'laboratory scale' or operate only under ideal conditions and result in products that fail to recapture the coercivity of the starting, scrap materials. Herein, we report a commercial scale process (120 kg batches) that completely recovers the properties of the starting scrap magnets. Indeed, 'grain boundary modification', via careful addition of a proprietary mix of blended elements, produces magnets with 'designer properties' that can exceed those of the starting materials and can be closely tailored to meet a wide variety of end-user applications, including high-coercivity (>2000 kA/m), sintered magnets suitable for motor applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Actinide recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C; Chang, Y [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1990-07-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository.

  15. Actinide recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.; Chang, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository

  16. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  17. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 307-312

  18. Radiological characterisation and its role in the efficient management of low-level radioactive material supporting concurrent reuse, recycling and disposal. WNA Statement - Towards Greater Efficiency in the Management of Low-Level Radioactive Material that Concurrently Supports Reuse, Recycling and Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townes, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    There are currently 435 operating civil nuclear power reactors in the world with an impressive number planned or already under construction as well as a range of associated nuclear fuel cycle and research facilities. Advances in the prior radiological characterisation of the materials which exist within these facilities and which are produced through their operation have enabled these materials to be characterised to a very high degree of precision and sensitivity with associated improvements in the limits of detection for radioactivity. This has enabled an accurate and reliable knowledge of their radiological properties to be gained along with an evaluation of the associated risks from radioactive components even down to very small values. Following their use, either at the end of an operational process or at the end of the facility's life, these materials, if they cannot be re-used, must be recycled or disposed of. The knowledge derived from characterisation has shown that the major volume of such materials (excluding used nuclear fuel) fall into a category which is amenable to re-cycling through the application of established survey and treatment techniques. Such materials contain valuable resources which, in a world committed to greater efficiency and sustainability, must be conserved through recycling in order to optimise the demand for fresh resources which must be found, extracted and processed as well as to conserve valuable space in national disposal facilities. Despite these advances irrationality concerning the reuse, recycling and disposal of materials containing low levels of radioactivity continues to prevail, even in countries with large nuclear power programmes. Should the facts about the true nature of the materials, gained and refined through advances in radiological characterisation, become more widely known then this could depolarise an often negatively charged debate. Combined with a knowledge of the safe and effective treatment techniques that

  19. Electrochemical Characterisation of Bio-Bottle-Voltaic (BBV) Systems Operated with Algae and Built with Recycled Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Peter; Fleet, Jack E H; Riseley, Anthony S; Janeva, Elena; Marcella, Anastasia S; Farinea, Chiara; Kuptsova, Maria; Conde Pueyo, Núria; Howe, Christopher J; Bombelli, Paolo; Parker, Brenda M

    2018-04-17

    Photobioelectrochemical systems are an emerging possibility for renewable energy. By exploiting photosynthesis, they transform the energy of light into electricity. This study evaluates a simple, scalable bioelectrochemical system built from recycled plastic bottles, equipped with an anode made from recycled aluminum, and operated with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana . We tested whether such a system, referred to as a bio-bottle-voltaic (BBV) device, could operate outdoors for a prolonged time period of 35 days. Electrochemical characterisation was conducted by measuring the drop in potential between the anode and the cathode, and this value was used to calculate the rate of charge accumulation. The BBV systems were initially able to deliver ~500 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 , which increased throughout the experimental run to a maximum of ~2000 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 . The electrical output was consistently and significantly higher than that of the abiotic BBV system operated without algal cells (~100 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 ). The analysis of the rate of algal biomass accumulation supported the hypothesis that harvesting a proportion of electrons from the algal cells does not significantly perturb the rate of algal growth. Our finding demonstrates that bioelectrochemical systems can be built using recycled components. Prototypes of these systems have been displayed in public events; they could serve as educational toolkits in schools and could also offer a solution for powering low-energy devices off-grid.

  20. Electrochemical Characterisation of Bio-Bottle-Voltaic (BBV Systems Operated with Algae and Built with Recycled Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bateson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Photobioelectrochemical systems are an emerging possibility for renewable energy. By exploiting photosynthesis, they transform the energy of light into electricity. This study evaluates a simple, scalable bioelectrochemical system built from recycled plastic bottles, equipped with an anode made from recycled aluminum, and operated with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana. We tested whether such a system, referred to as a bio-bottle-voltaic (BBV device, could operate outdoors for a prolonged time period of 35 days. Electrochemical characterisation was conducted by measuring the drop in potential between the anode and the cathode, and this value was used to calculate the rate of charge accumulation. The BBV systems were initially able to deliver ~500 mC·bottle−1·day−1, which increased throughout the experimental run to a maximum of ~2000 mC·bottle−1·day−1. The electrical output was consistently and significantly higher than that of the abiotic BBV system operated without algal cells (~100 mC·bottle−1·day−1. The analysis of the rate of algal biomass accumulation supported the hypothesis that harvesting a proportion of electrons from the algal cells does not significantly perturb the rate of algal growth. Our finding demonstrates that bioelectrochemical systems can be built using recycled components. Prototypes of these systems have been displayed in public events; they could serve as educational toolkits in schools and could also offer a solution for powering low-energy devices off-grid.

  1. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  2. Environmental suitability of recycled concrete aggregate in highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The use of recycled concrete aggregate materials in highway constructions as compared to the use of virgin : materials reduces virgin natural resource demands on the environment. In order to evaluate their potential use of : recycle materials in high...

  3. Michigan's Forests 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Ronald J. Piva; Christopher W. Woodall; Charles J. Barnett; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith. Moser

    2012-01-01

    The seventh inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2009, describes more than 19.9 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 7,516 forested plots from 2005 to 2009. Timberland accounts for 97 percent of this forest land, and 62 percent is privately owned. The sugar maple/beech/yellow birch forest type accounts for 18...

  4. Michigan's forests 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Mark H. Hansen; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dacia Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; David E. Haugen; Christopher Woodall; Ed Jepsen

    2009-01-01

    The first annual inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2004, covers more than 19.3 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 10,355 forested plots from 2000 to 2004. In addition to detailed information on forest attributes, this report includes data on forest health, biomass, land-use change, and timber-product outputs....

  5. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  6. Nuclear fuel recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.R.; Koch, A.K.; Krawczyk, A.

    1981-01-01

    A process is provided for recycling sintered uranium dioxide fuel pellets rejected during fuel manufacture and the swarf from pellet grinding. The scrap material is prepared mechanically by crushing and milling as a high solids content slurry, using scrap sintered UO 2 pellets as the grinding medium under an inert atmosophere

  7. Overview of studies on the effect of recycled aggregates sourced from tested cylinders on concrete material and structural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Hamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of a two-phase research program that was designed at the American University of Beirut (AUB to investigate the effect of replacing different percentages of natural coarse aggregates (NCA with recycled coarse aggregates (RCA on the properties of the produced concrete. The source of RCA was tested cylinders in batching plants which would help recycling and reusing portion of the waste products of the concrete industry. In the first phase, the fresh and hardened mechanical properties of the produced concrete mix were investigated. The variables were the concrete strength (28 or 60 MPa and the percentage replacement of NCA with RCA from crushed tested cylinders [0 (control, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100%. Normal strength tested cylinders were used as source of the recycled aggregates for the normal strength concrete (NSC mix and high strength tested cylinders were used for the high strength concrete (HSC mix. Tests included plastic state slump and hardened state mechanical properties including cylinder compressive strength, cylinder splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and standard beams flexural strength. The results indicated no significant effect on the slump and around 10% average reduction in the hardened mechanical properties for both investigated levels of concrete compressive strength. In the second phase, the structural behavior of normal strength concrete (NSC reinforced concrete beams prepared by replacing different percentages of NCA with RCA from tested concrete cylinders was studied. For each of three modes of failure (flexural, shear, or bond splitting, three beams with different percentages replacement [0 (control, 40, or 100 percent] were tested. One replicate was prepared for each beam to validate the test results. Results indicated no significant difference in the ultimate load reached or load-deflection behavior that could be related to the percentage replacement of NCA with RCA.

  8. On the logistics of recycling : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, S.D.P.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the different logistic aspects of recycling, where recycling denotes "All the activities required for the reuse of materials and (semi-)finished products after they are no longer used by their last user." Special attention is paid to the forced recycling of durable

  9. Recycling of ferrous sulfate by the synthesis of a new super oxidant material 'Referox'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evrard, O. [Universite Henri Poincare, Vandoeuvre (France); Dupre, B.; Jeannot, C.; Kanari, N.; Gaballah, I.; Ninane, L.; Verstraete, W.; Denomme, S.; Belsue, M.

    2001-07-01

    This European Union-sponsored project was initiated to develop a process to recycle industrial ferrous sulfate by the synthesis of a superoxidant containing hexavalent (FeVI) iron. Hexavalent iron, also called ferrates, can be used in decontamination of industrial effluents, decolorisation and purification of effluents from the textile and tanning industries, oxidation of cyanide to cyanates, soil remediation, water treatment and in a variety of other processes. Dry synthesis of potassium ferrate, using calcium hypochlorite as the oxidizing agent, was successful. By using chlorine instead of calcium hypochlorite and by partially substituting sodium hydroxide for potassium hydroxide the cost of the synthesis was significantly reduced. Recycling of ferrous sulfate at room temperature by the synthesis of potassium ferrate (FeVI) using gaseous chlorine instead of solid calcium hypochlorite was also successful. The yield of the synthesis was about 65 per cent for the used industrial ferrous sulfate samples. Large scale experimentation of the potassium ferrate synthesis was also carried out, obtaining potassium ferrate that remained stable for several months. The ferrates were used in the treatment of drinking water, wastewater, soil remediation, and effluent decontamination. Encouraging results were obtained. An additional benefit found was that use of the ferrates as bactericide for water treatment instead of chlorine gas eliminates the generation of halo-organic compounds which are suspected to be carcinogenic. 2 figs.

  10. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  11. Effect of Extrusion on the Mechanical and Rheological Properties of a Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid): Reprocessing and Recycling of Biobased Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Víctor; Castell, Pere; García, Lidia; Fernández, Ángel

    2015-10-19

    The aim of this research paper is to study the behaviour of a common used biopolymer (Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA)) after several reprocesses and how two different types of additives (a melt strength enhancer and a nanoadditive) affect its mechanical and rheological properties. Systematic extraction of extrudate samples from a twin-screw compounder was done in order to study the effect in the properties of the reprocessed material. Detailed rheological tests on a capillary rheometer as well as mechanical studies on a universal tensile machine after preparation of injected specimens were carried out. Results evidenced that PLA and reinforced PLA materials can be reprocessed and recycled without a remarkable loss in their mechanical properties. Several processing restrictions and specific phenomena were identified and are explained in the present manuscript.

  12. Laboratory Investigation on the Effects of Natural Fine Aggregates and Recycled Waste Tire Rubber in Pervious Concrete to Develop More Sustainable Pavement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicelli, Alessandra; Fuentes, Luis G.; Khalil Dawd Bermejo, Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Pervious concrete pavement is a recognized sustainable solution for urban roads. To enhance mechanical properties of pervious concrete material, in order to allow wider use of this technology, a lot of studies are going on all over the world. The use of a little percentage of fine aggregates is proven to increase the material resistance without an excessive reduction of permeability. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing the fine virgin aggregates with r cycled tire rubber. 14 different mixes were analysed in terms of indirect tensile strength resistance, void content and density. Two different dimensions of crumb rubber were studied, as well as two different dosages, which were applied to different no-fine control mixes. All results were compared with the same control mixes containing natural fine aggregate. The mixes had a fixed granulometric curve but varied in water/cement ratio; this in order to evaluate the effect of recycled rubber depending to w/c ratio of the mix. An image analysis was also conducted to verify the rubber distribution in the mixture and the cracking surfaces. The experimental analysis showed that a correct proportioning of fine sand significantly increased the strength of the material. Moreover, the use of recycled waste tire rubber, gave interesting improvements respect to the no-fine control mixes, even though the developed resistance was lower respect to mixes containing mineral sand. This result was expected because of the cementing property of mineral sand. Although, the important result was that it was possible to use waste tire rubber in pervious concrete, with an appropriate dosage and granular dimension, for increasing the performance of traditional mix design, in order to achieve pavement materials more and more sustainable.

  13. Use of remote sensing for land use policy formulation. [in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, M.

    1977-01-01

    The use of remotely sensed data for eliminating abuses and mismanagement of land and water resources in Michigan is discussed. Applications discussed include inventory of mosquito breeding sites; analysis of biomass in old field ecosystems used for wastewater recycling; areas for agricultural use; and preservation of the Grand Mere Dune environment. Services to users are described and contact activities reported.

  14. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  15. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead

  16. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-10-15

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead.

  17. Importance and possibilities of secondary cycles (recycling), substitution and innovation in mineral raw and primary material supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Part 1-4 of the series ''The basis of raw materials supply'' is intended to bring about a better understanding of the ''Concept for the supply of Austria with mineral raw- and primary materials''. Part 3 deals with recovery of raw material from old- and waste material as an important contribution to an extension of the supply's basis and to an improvement of raw material utilization.

  18. Energetic conditions of effective recycling of composite castings

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jackowski

    2009-01-01

    The most reasonable way of recycling the metal composite materials consists in separation of the components. In case of the composites with saturated reinforcement it is the only recycling method. The process of separation of the components always undergoes in the presence of an additional liquid phase called a recycling medium. In a three-phase system including the material of composite reinforcement – liquid composite matrix – liquid recycling medium, an important role for the recycling pro...

  19. Technology options for future recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.

    2001-01-01

    Recycling of nuclear material is indispensable, not only for using valuable resources but also for reducing the debt which we may leave to the next generations. Advanced reprocessing technologies have been developed in several countries to deal with the diversification of nuclear fuels. Also technologies derived from reprocessing or other fuel cycle areas have continued to be developed in terms of recycling. Cost effectiveness and waste-free processing are increasingly important factors in the applicable of an alternate recycling policy. This paper introduces an example of the studies in this field conducted in some countries including Japan and considers the establishment of effective recycling methodologies taking into account the uncertainty of future recycling policy. (author)

  20. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  1. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  2. Recycling wastes: its application in acoustic screens and construction materials; Residuos con necesidad de reciclado: su aplicacion en plantallas acusticas y como materiales de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa Coloma, O.; Cortes, A.; Sanchez, J.A.

    1998-12-01

    The activities developed by man are origin of a great variety of wastes. These activities entail both the resource consumption and the generation of wastes. Both aspects are important because of the impact on the environment where man lives. If we focus on our attention on the consumption of natural resources, both economic aspects (every time the resources are more expensive) and its availability (it increases gradually the difficulty to get them). In this sense, it is very important to pro move the plans and programs necessary in order to minimize the wastes through the re utilization and recycling. Two of the options are the application of some wastes in the manufacture of acoustic screens and as construction materials. (Author)

  3. Lithium recycling and cathode material regeneration from acid leach liquor of spent lithium-ion battery via facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; He, Yinghe

    2017-06-01

    A novel process for extracting transition metals, recovering lithium and regenerating cathode materials based on facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes has been developed. 100% manganese, 99% cobalt and 85% nickel are co-extracted and separated from lithium by D2EHPA in kerosene. Then, Li is recovered from the raffinate as Li 2 CO 3 with the purity of 99.2% by precipitation method. Finally, organic load phase is stripped with 0.5M H 2 SO 4 , and the cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is directly regenerated from stripping liquor without separating metal individually by co-precipitation method. The regenerative cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is miro spherical morphology without any impurities, which can meet with LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 production standard of China and exhibits good electrochemical performance. Moreover, a waste battery management model is introduced to guarantee the material supply for spent battery recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianbai; Li, Naiyi; Mei, Xiaoming; Yu, Alfred; Shang, Shixiang

    Magnesium recycling now becomes a very important subject as magnesium consumption increases fast around the world. All commonly used magnesium die-casting alloys can be recycled and recovered to the primary metal quality. The recycled materials may be comprised of biscuits, sprues, runners, flash, overflows, dross, sludge, scrap parts, and old parts that are returned from service, An innovative magnesium recycle method, vacuum distillation, is developed and proved out to be able to recycle magnesium scraps, especially machining chips, oily magnesium, smelting sludge, dross or the mixture. With this process at a specific temperature and environment condition, magnesium in scraps can be gasified and then solidified to become crystal magnesium crown. This `recycled' magnesium crown is collected and used as the raw material of magnesium alloys. The experimental results show the vacuum distillation is a feasible and plausible method to recycle magnesium. Further, the cost analysis will be addressed in this paper.

  5. 75 FR 41895 - Inteva Products, LLC Adrian, Michigan; Inteva Products, LLC Troy, Michigan; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Products, LLC Adrian, Michigan; Inteva Products, LLC Troy, Michigan; Amended Certification Regarding... time period at the Troy, Michigan location of Inteva Products, LLC. The Troy, Michigan location.... Accordingly, the Department is amending the certification to include workers of the Troy, Michigan location of...

  6. Method of converting uranium fluoride to intermediate product for uranium oxide manufacture with recycling or reusing valuable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, V.; Moltasova, J.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium fluoride is acted upon by water with nitrate containing a cation capable of binding fluoride ions. The uranium is extracted, for instance, with tributyl phosphate with the generated organic phase containing the prevalent proportion of uranium and representing the required intermediate product and the aqueous phase from which is isolated the fluorine component which may be used within the fuel cycle. The nitrate component of the aqueous phase is recycled following treatment. It is also possible to act on uranium fluoride directly with an aqueous solution. Here the cations of nitrate form with the fluorides soluble nondissociated complexes and reduce the concentration of free fluoride ions. The nitrate +s mostly used in an amount corresponding to its solubility in the system prior to the introduction of UF 6 . The uranium from the solution with the reduced concentration of free fluoride ions is extracted into the reaction system under such conditions as to make the prevalent majority of fluorides and an amount of uranium smaller than 5x10 -2 mol/l remain in the aqueous phase and that such an amount of fluorides should remain in the organic phase which is smaller than corresponds to the fluorine/uranium molar ratio in the organic phase. Uranium contained in the organic phase is processed into uranium oxide, with advantage into UO 2 . From the isolated compounds of fluorine and the cation of the nitrate gaseous HF is released which is used either inside or outside of the fuel cycle. (J.P.)

  7. Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing - a GATE Center of Excellence at the University of Michigan-Dearborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, P. K.

    2012-08-30

    The Center for Lightweighting Materials and Processing (CLAMP) was established in September 1998 with a grant from the Department of Energy’s Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) program. The center received the second round of GATE grant in 2005 under the title “Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing”. Using the two grants, the Center has successfully created 10 graduate level courses on lightweight automotive materials, integrated them into master’s and PhD programs in Automotive Systems Engineering, and offered them regularly to the graduate students in the program. In addition, the Center has created a web-based lightweight automotive materials database, conducted research on lightweight automotive materials and organized seminars/symposia on lightweight automotive materials for both academia and industry. The faculty involved with the Center has conducted research on a variety of topics related to design, testing, characterization and processing of lightweight materials for automotive applications and have received numerous research grants from automotive companies and government agencies to support their research. The materials considered included advanced steels, light alloys (aluminum, magnesium and titanium) and fiber reinforced polymer composites. In some of these research projects, CLAMP faculty have collaborated with industry partners and students have used the research facilities at industry locations. The specific objectives of the project during the current funding period (2005 – 2012) were as follows: (1) develop new graduate courses and incorporate them in the automotive systems engineering curriculum (2) improve and update two existing courses on automotive materials and processing (3) upgrade the laboratory facilities used by graduate students to conduct research (4) expand the Lightweight Automotive Materials Database to include additional materials, design case studies and make it more

  8. Economics and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butlin, J A

    1977-06-01

    The current state of recycling technology could appear to be a question of supply and demand, first for storage, disposal, and reclamation facilities, and secondly, for reclaimed materials. If supply and demand are to be relied upon as an environmental policy tool, several conditions need to exist within the economy: supply data for storage and disposal facilities should reflect the full social cost of their use for this purpose relative to any other; demand data for the use of storage facilities must reflect the full social benefit of having waste go through one channel rather than some other; demand for and supply of reclaimed materials for recycling must reflect the full costs and benefits of rechanneling them back into production or consumption; and the markets for products competitive to recycled raw materials (mainly virgin raw materials) should reflect full social costs and benefits, as should the markets for the alternative uses of storage and disposal facilities. If these conditions are met (in addition to a few technical ones), then the problem of waste management will not arise. (MCW)

  9. Control of Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Material Inadvertently Incorporated into Scrap Metal and Semi-finished Products of the Metal Recycling Industries. Results of the Meetings Conducted to Develop a Draft Code of Conduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    In 2010, the IAEA initiated the development of a code of conduct on the transboundary movement of radioactive material inadvertently incorporated into scrap metal and semi- finished products of the metal recycling industries (Metal Recycling Code of Conduct). The Metal Recycling Code of Conduct was intended to harmonize the approaches of Member States in relation to the discovery of radioactive material that may inadvertently be present in scrap metals and semi-finished products subject to transboundary movement, and their safe handling and management to facilitate regulatory control. The Metal Recycling Code of Conduct was envisaged as being complementary to the Safety Guide on Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-17), which provides recommendations, principally within a national context, on the protection of workers, members of the public and the environment in relation to the control of radioactive material inadvertently incorporated in scrap metal. In February 2013, the third open-ended meeting of technical and legal experts to develop the Metal Recycling Code of Conduct was organized. The objective of this meeting was to address the comments received from Member States and to finalize the text of the draft Metal Recycling Code of Conduct. Representatives from 55 Member States, one non-Member State and the EU, together with seven observers from the metal recycling industry, reviewed the comments and revised the draft accordingly. In September 2013, in Resolution GC(57)/RES/9, the IAEA General Conference recorded that it 'Appreciates the intensive efforts undertaken by the Secretariat to develop a code of conduct on the transboundary movement of scrap metal, or materials produced from scrap metal, that may inadvertently contain radioactive material, and encourages the Secretariat to make the results of the discussion conducted on this issue available to

  10. Implementing a campus wide recycling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The University of Windsor is currently expanding its recycling program to include all buildings on campus, but faces two challenges: 1) uncertainty about the current waste composition and distribution on campus; and 2) uncertainty about the effectiveness of increased recycling. This project assesses the current waste composition and the attitudes of the students towards recycling, and evaluates the effectiveness of proposed recycling activities. At present, paper is the only material that is collected throughout the entire campus. Except for two buildings, all other potentially recyclable materials within buildings, such as metal, glass, and plastic beverage containers, are discarded. The main focus of this research is on beverage containers as they represent clearly identifiable materials, but other materials were examined as well. To quantify the waste, different buildings on campus were classified according to their function: academic,operational and administrative. The waste composition study indicated that approximately 33% of the campus waste which is landfilled is composed of potentially recyclable material. A survey was then conducted to gauge the campus population's views on recycling issues that could affect the design of a recycling program. Interestingly, 97% of the respondents indicated a high willingness to recycle, but were uncertain as to how and where to recycle on campus. The project is currently assessing potential diversion rates using new, clearly identifiable recycling receptacles placed within selected classrooms for all major materials. There is a significant tradeoff however because the cost for new receptacles is considerable: multiple materials containers are often placed in high pedestrian traffic locations (e.g., hallways) and not always in classrooms,of which there are often many. This project will evaluate the basic benefits and costs of implementing a more comprehensive recycling program, and recommend how other

  11. Primary Copper Smelter and Refinery as a Recycling Plant—A System Integrated Approach to Estimate Secondary Raw Material Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Forsén

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary production of sulfide concentrates includes smelting to copper matte or blister copper, conversion of matte to blister copper, and refining to copper. Smelting, converting, and fire-refining can use a limited amount of secondary materials. Molten copper can effectively dissolve many metals, from valuable noble metals to harmful impurities such as bismuth. However, some of the impurity metals in copper are valuable in other applications. In this paper, we outline the main material flows in copper smelting and electrorefining and describe how minor metals can be recovered from secondary raw materials using copper as a carrier material. We will use a system integrated approach to define the factors that affect the recovery of different metals and copper quality. Metals typical in copper production are used as examples, like noble metals, As, Bi, Se, and Te, including metals in the EU critical raw materials list like PGM and Sb.

  12. Long-term leaching from recycled concrete aggregates applied as sub-base material in road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsen, Christian J; van der Sloot, Hans A; Petkovic, Gordana

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, the metal leaching from recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) used in road sub-base is presented after >10years of exposure. The released levels of inorganic constituents, the effect of small variation of pH and the use of de-icing salt during winter season were studied. In addition, speciation modelling for the major elements has been provided. The pH varied from 7.5 to 8.5 for the sub-base constructed with RCA whereas the pH of around 8 was obtained for the test section not affected by the traffic and de-icing salts. Despite a small variation in pH, the leachability of Al, Ca and Mg was found to be strongly dependent on pH and fair agreement between the measured and predicted concentrations was obtained. The speciation modelling indicated that gibbsite, calcite and magnesite controlled the solubility of Al, Ca and Mg, respectively, which was in agreement with the expected carbonation products. Due to the larger pH fluctuations in the test sections exposed to the road traffic, increased concentrations were observed for the oxyanions. The same effect was not seen for the trace metal cations Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The distinct pH dependent leaching profile (solubility maximum in the mildly basic pH region) for vanadium could be seen after 10years of exposure. The simplified risk assessment showed that the released quantities did not exceed the chosen acceptance criteria for groundwater and fresh water. The results obtained for the test section not influenced by road dust and de-icing salts, complied with these criteria even without considering any dilution effects caused by the mixing of pore water with groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reciclagem de materiais plásticos: a importância da identificação correta Plastic materials recycling: the importance of the correct identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Coltro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Muitos produtos de material plástico apresentam código de identificação (normalmente um número de 1 a 7 dentro de um triângulo de três setas e sob o mesmo uma abreviatura indicando o tipo de plástico do qual o produto é feito para auxiliar sua separação e posterior reciclagem e revalorização, contribuindo com a recuperação dos materiais plásticos descartados com o resíduo sólido urbano. Como as embalagens têm rotatividade alta, é importante que as mesmas apresentem o símbolo de identificação da resina a fim de facilitar a cadeia de reciclagem do plástico. Neste trabalho, foi feito um levantamento de dados sobre os símbolos de identificação dos materiais plásticos em um total de 177 embalagens plásticas rígidas para o acondicionamento de diversos produtos alimentícios e não alimentícios disponíveis no mercado brasileiro. Apesar da norma brasileira ABNT NBR 13230 já ter 14 anos, há ainda heterogeneidade na identificação das embalagens plásticas. Somente cerca de 80% das embalagens avaliadas apresentaram o símbolo de identificação da resina. Além disso, em alguns casos até 40% das embalagens apresentaram a identificação do material de forma incorreta. Portanto, ainda existe informação errônea no mercado brasileiro sobre o tipo de material da embalagem plástica (incluindo ausência do símbolo de identificação, bem como falta de informação sobre o símbolo correto de identificação da resina, sendo que ambos os fatores prejudicam a cadeia de reciclagem do plástico.Many plastic-based products show a resin identification code - usually a number from 1 to 7 inside a three-arrow triangle above a monogram - to identify the type of plastic used to make the product, for assisting in its separation and later recycling. In other words, to facilitate the recovery of plastics discarded with the municipal solid waste. Since packages have a high rotation, the presence of the resin identification code is

  14. The direct-Mat Project: Dismantling and Recycling Techniques for road Materials. Sharing Knowledge and Practices; El proyecto DIRECT-MAT: Tecnicas de demolicion y reciclado de materiales para la carretera-Compartiendo conocimientos y practicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinis Fernandez, F.; Rubio guzman, B.; Gonzalez Abadias, A. I.

    2011-07-01

    This article describes the content of the DIRECT-MAT (Dismantling and Recycling for road Materials) project. the DIRECT MAT project objectives consist of sharing and disseminating, at the European scale, national knowledge and field practices regarding the dismantling and recycling of road and road related materials, for the benefit of all European countries. Road material recycling processes have previously been studied in national research projects in the last years; unfortunately, the results of those projects almost never benefit other European countries. This is especially true for the newer Member States. The DIRECT-MAT project, within 7{sup t}h Framework Programme, is a three year project starting in 2009, and is comparised of 20 partners from 15 participating countries. to reach the aims of the project, a WEB database will be created to compile and display the extensive and already validated research and job site data and a set of Best Practices Guides on dismantling and recycling of different types of materials will be issued. Finally, guidelines will be proposed to ensure database updating, including the results of future researches. (Author) 6 refs.

  15. Achievement report in fiscal 2000 on technical development to recycle waste building materials and glasses. Development of waste building material recycling technology (Research and development of wooden board manufacturing technology using demolished building lumbers); 2000 nendo kenchiku glass nado recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kenhciku haizai recycle gijutsu kaihatsu (kenchiku kaitai mokuzai wo mochiita mokushitsu board seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development has been made on a wooden board manufacturing technology re-utilizing demolished building lumbers and waste plastics with an intention of saving resources and reducing wastes. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In developing the technology to re-use demolished building lumbers, a method for removing metals attached to demolished building lumbers was established by using a magnetic separator and a metal detector, with which it was verified that iron can be removed nearly 100%. With regard to waste plastics, simultaneous use of specific gravity separation utilizing centrifugal force and electrostatic separation provided a prospect that metals and plastics of high melting points can be removed from mixed resins in waste household electric appliances, and that polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and ABS can be classified at high accuracy. In manufacturing waste wood and waste plastic boards, pilot plants were built to use the 'melt spray method', 'melt blow method', and 'laminating method' as the means to spray molten resin onto wood raw materials, wherein trials were performed on mixing molten resins with wood flakes, and on board forming. (NEDO)

  16. Correlation between some technological parameters and properties of composite material based on recycled tires and polymer binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2015-04-01

    The present article is dedicated to the determination of a possible connection between the composition, specific properties of the composite material and molding pressure as an important technological parameter. Apparent density, Shore C hardness, compressive modulus of elasticity and compressive stress at 10% deformation was determined for composite material samples. Definite formation conditions - varying molding pressure conditions at ambient temperature and corresponding relative air humiditywere realized. The results obtained showed a significant effect of molding pressure on the apparent density, mechanical properties of composite material as well as on the compressive stress change at a cyclic mode of loading. Some general regularities were determined - mechanical properties of the composite material, as well as values of Shore C hardness increases with an increase of molding pressure.

  17. Properties of Whey-Protein-Coated Films and Laminates as Novel Recyclable Food Packaging Materials with Excellent Barrier Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Schmid; Kerstin Dallmann; Elodie Bugnicourt; Dario Cordoni; Florian Wild; Andrea Lazzeri; Klaus Noller

    2012-01-01

    In case of food packaging applications, high oxygen and water vapour barriers are the prerequisite conditions for preserving the quality of the products throughout their whole lifecycle. Currently available polymers and/or biopolymer films are mostly used in combination with barrier materials derived from oil based plastics or aluminium to enhance their low barrier properties. In order to replace these non-renewable materials, current research efforts are focused on the development of sustain...

  18. Recycling Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  19. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, A.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the

  20. Utilisation of biological and secondary raw materials VI. Recycling - conversion to energy; Bio- und Sekundaerrohstoffverwertung VI. Stofflich - energetisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, Klaus; Kern, Michael

    2011-07-01

    In a lot of contributions the Kasseler waste and bio-energy forum reports on a sustainable management of wastes. The organizers hope that this results in a lively dialogue on sustainable activities in waste management corresponding to the responsibility towards future generations. Within the 23rd Kasseler waste and bio-energy forum at 12th to 14th April, 2010 in Kassel (Federal Republic of Germany) lectures were held to the following themes: (1) Perspectives of the waste management; (2) Ressource conservation and securing of raw material; (3) Common capture of packages and high-grade materials; (4) Bin for reusable materials - system trusteeship, material flows, qualities, financing, practical examples; (5) Industrial waste flows, EBS quality assurance and increase of efficiency; (6) New technological developments in the area of fermentation of biological wastes; (7) Perspectives of material and energetical utilization of biological wastes; (8) Renewable Energy Law and direct marketing of 'green' electricity; (9) Technology and experiences with biogas processing; (10) Fermentation of biogenic residues and catering waste; (11) Increase of efficiency of mechanical-biological treatment plants; (12) Mechanical-biological treatment technology in an international environment; (13) Concepts of energetic utilization for landfill sites; (14) Landfill law and landfill after-care; (15) Renaturation of landfills.

  1. Repair in Mourao power plant spillway: application of recycled material concrete admixtures - stage one; Reparos no vertedouro da UHE Mourao: aplicacao de concretos com adicao de material reciclado - 1a. parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Jose Carlos Alves; Portella, Kleber Franke; Joukoski, Alex; Mendes, Roberto [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails: jose.galvao@lactec.org.br, portella@lactec.org.br, alex@lactec.org.br; roberto.mendes@lactec.org.br; Ferreira, Elizeu Santos [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Email: elizeu.sf@copel.com

    2009-10-15

    The Mourao hydroelectric power plant located in the city of Campo Mourao, in the state of Parana, southern region of Brazil, was inaugurated in 1964, with 7500 kW of installed power. Defects in the spillway surface of the dam had been identified throughout the time. With the purpose of recovering the concrete hydraulic surface, repair materials were proposed in this paper, considering technology development and environment conservation. Concrete mixtures containing recycled materials - low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and waste tires - had its performance tested in laboratory. Mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, tensile strength and adherence were evaluated using cylindrical concrete specimens. Results were appraised and the best compositions were selected to be tested on spillway surface of Mourao dam. (author)

  2. Feedwater recycling system in BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Yoshiharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reactor safety by preventing thermal stresses and cracks generated in structural materials due to the fluctuations in the temperature for high temperature water - low temperature water mixture near the feedwater nozzle. Method: Feedwater pipes are connected to a pressure vessel not directly but by way of a flow control valve. While the recycled water is circulated from an inlet nozzle to an outlet nozzle through a recycle pump, flow control valve and recycling pipeways, feedwater is fed from the feedwater pipes to the recycling pipeways by way of the flow control valve. More specifically, since the high temperature recycle water and the low temperature recycle water are mixed within the pipeways, the temperature fluctuations resulted from the temperature difference between the recycle water and the feedwater is reduced to prevent thermal fatigue and generation of cracks thereby securing the reactor safety. (Furukawa, Y.)

  3. Probabilistic Analysis of Structural Member from Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broukalová, I.; Šeps, K.

    2017-09-01

    The paper aims at the topic of sustainable building concerning recycling of waste rubble concrete from demolition. Considering demands of maximising recycled aggregate use and minimising of cement consumption, composite from recycled concrete aggregate was proposed. The objective of the presented investigations was to verify feasibility of the recycled aggregate cement based fibre reinforced composite in a structural member. Reliability of wall from recycled aggregate fibre reinforced composite was assessed in a probabilistic analysis of a load-bearing capacity of the wall. The applicability of recycled aggregate fibre reinforced concrete in structural applications was demonstrated. The outcomes refer to issue of high scatter of material parameters of recycled aggregate concretes.

  4. Molten salt actinide recycler and transforming system without and with Th–U support: Fuel cycle flexibility and key material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.; Feynberg, O.; Gnidoi, I.; Merzlyakov, A.; Surenkov, A.; Uglov, V.; Zagnitko, A.; Subbotin, V.; Sannikov, I.; Toropov, A.; Afonichkin, V.; Bovet, A.; Khokhlov, V.; Shishkin, V.; Kormilitsyn, M.; Lizin, A.; Osipenko, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine feasibility of MOSART system without and with U–Th support. • We experimentally studied key material properties to prove MOSART flowsheet. • MOSART potential as the system with flexible fuel cycle scenarios is emphasized. • MOSART can operate with different TRU loadings in transmuter or even breeder modes. - Abstract: A study is under progress to examine the feasibility of MOlten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transforming (MOSART) system without and with U–Th support fuelled with different compositions of transuranic elements (TRU) trifluorides from spent LWR fuel. New design options with homogeneous core and fuel salt with high enough solubility for transuranic elements trifluorides are being examined because of new goals. The paper has the main objective of presenting the fuel cycle flexibility of the MOSART system while accounting technical constrains and experimental data received in this study. A brief description is given of the experimental results on key physical and chemical properties of fuel salt and combined materials compatibility to satisfy MOSART system requirements

  5. Recycling of plastic packaging material from separate collection from the dual system Germany. Current LCA results compared to disposal in thermal waste incineration plants; Werkstoffliche Verwertung von Verpackungskunststoffen aus der Getrenntsammlung Dualer Systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyde, Michael; Gerke, Gilian; Muehle, Sarah [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Kreislaufwirtschaft und Rohstoffe (DKR) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Due to the implementation of the European waste framework directive into German law it is discussed which contribution waste incineration makes to resource protection and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A number of players question if it is still contemporary to adhere to recycling as a priority. The following article compares today's recycling of separately collection of plastics waste from the German packaging recovery system and the disposal in thermal waste treatment plants under ecological aspects. The separate collected of packaging waste materials is a prerequisite of high quality recycling. If this were to be abandoned and - hypothetically - this waste stream would be disposed in thermal waste treatment plants in Germany, significant drawbacks in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demand would arise. This is shown in a study conducted by the Institute fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung (ifeu) in Heidelberg. Further it could be proved that there is still optimization potential in the recycling market that has been developed over the last two decades in Germany. However, to max this potential significantly depends on stable political framework requirements. The following article underlines that recycling and high quality energy recovery cause remarkable savings of CO{sub 2}-emissions and energy. (orig.)

  6. Requirements for the recycling of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, M.

    1990-09-01

    The regulatory status of materials destined to be recycled is not always clear. There have been numerous questions from DOE Field Elements regarding the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to certain materials that can be recycled. The Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has responded to questions relating to the RCRA regulations as they apply to materials that are recycled or are destined for recycling. Additional regulatory requirements for these materials may be promulgated upon the reauthorization of RCRA (e.g., regulation of used oil). Additional EH-23 information Briefs will be issued as these regulations develop. The Office of Environment, Safety and Health has convened a workshop to establish DOE's position on a number of issues associated with mixed waste and materials management, several relative to recycling

  7. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, A; Kurki, T; Wrang, T [BMH Wood Technology Oy, Rauma (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be dumped to be handled in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. One drawback of present handling systems is the fact that most of them are more or less inapplicable for handling plastic materials, especially thin plastic films and sheets. Reducing plastic waste into a particle size of 50 mm required by modern fluidized bed boilers has proved to be very difficult. An essential part of this project is the development of waste material screening after primary and/or secondary crushing. The idea is to separate plastic particles larger than the maximum allowable size from the crushed material and then feed them to a separate low-capacity plastic crusher. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis on existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions

  8. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, A.; Kurki, T.; Wrang, T. [BMH Wood Technology Oy, Rauma (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be dumped to be handled in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. One drawback of present handling systems is the fact that most of them are more or less inapplicable for handling plastic materials, especially thin plastic films and sheets. Reducing plastic waste into a particle size of 50 mm required by modern fluidized bed boilers has proved to be very difficult. An essential part of this project is the development of waste material screening after primary and/or secondary crushing. The idea is to separate plastic particles larger than the maximum allowable size from the crushed material and then feed them to a separate low-capacity plastic crusher. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis on existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions

  9. Properties of Whey-Protein-Coated Films and Laminates as Novel Recyclable Food Packaging Materials with Excellent Barrier Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schmid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of food packaging applications, high oxygen and water vapour barriers are the prerequisite conditions for preserving the quality of the products throughout their whole lifecycle. Currently available polymers and/or biopolymer films are mostly used in combination with barrier materials derived from oil based plastics or aluminium to enhance their low barrier properties. In order to replace these non-renewable materials, current research efforts are focused on the development of sustainable coatings, while maintaining the functional properties of the resulting packaging materials. This article provides an introduction to food packaging requirements, highlights prior art on the use of whey-based coatings for their barriers properties, and describes the key properties of an innovative packaging multilayer material that includes a whey-based layer. The developed whey protein formulations had excellent barrier properties almost comparable to the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH barrier layer conventionally used in food packaging composites, with an oxygen barrier (OTR of <2 [cm³(STP/(m²d bar] when normalized to a thickness of 100 μm. Further requirements of the barrier layer are good adhesion to the substrate and sufficient flexibility to withstand mechanical load while preventing delamination and/or brittle fracture. Whey-protein-based coatings have successfully met these functional and mechanical requirements.

  10. Recycling of the Granite Quarries and Municipal Incinerator Wastes for the Processing of New Materials as Porcelainized Stoneware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Crespo, M. S.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s started in the ceramic sector the material conception of porcelainized stoneware, a product with versatile and modern characteristics similar to those of the natural stone, depicting improved properties to the marble and granite. Porcelanized stoneware is a compact ceramic material, very hard and homogeneous, generally not fully vitreous (unglazed in its surface, obtained by fast firing from compositions enriched in kaolinite, which contain a large quantity of fluxes. The raw materials for body are a mixture that contains an adequate relationship of kaolinitic clays, feldspars and quartz. Such material is characterized by its low or almost zero porosity, being adequated to sustain heavy and high traffic intensity for uses in and outside of buildings with wide range of aspects, desings and colors. By considering the chemistry and mineralogical composition of the granite and incinerator wastes, this paper describes their use in the processing of construction materials, specifically, in a new type of stoneware flooring and covering materials. According to the most of the physical and mechanical properties here determined, these "Modified Porcelainized Stoneware" (MPS materials are close to the conventional porcelainized stoneware and glass ceramics products.

    Hacia la década de los años 80 se inicia en el sector cerámico la concepción del gres porcelánico, material de características modernas y versátiles semejantes a las de la piedra natural, pero que incluso supera en utilidad y prestaciones al mármol y al granito. El gres porcelánico es un material cerámico compacto, muy duro y homogéneo, no vidriado en su superficie, obtenido por cocción rápida de composiciones ricas en caolinita y una gran cantidad de fundentes; es decir, de una mezcla cerámica que contiene una relación adecuada de arcillas de tipo caolinítico, feldespatos y cuarzo. Dicho material se caracteriza por su baja o casi nula porosidad; es ideal

  11. Technology options for future recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.

    2000-01-01

    It goes without saying that recycling of nuclear material is indispensable, not only for the effective use of valuable resources but also to reduce the debt which we may leave to the next generations. Many developments in advanced reprocessing technologies have been carried out in several countries to deal with the diversification of nuclear fuels. Also technologies derived from reprocessing or other fuel cycle areas have continued to be developed in terms of recycling. Cost effectiveness and waste-free processing are increasingly important factors in the applicable of an alternate recycling policy. This paper introduces an example of the studies in this field, which has been conducted in Japan and considers the establishment of effective recycling methodologies taking into account the uncertainty of future policy. (authors)

  12. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  13. Recycling production designs: the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Tracey H.

    The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an intermediate recycling facility that can reprocess the secondary materials into a liquid product Two downstream aluminum remelters will incorporate the liquid products into their aluminum alloy production schedules. Energy and environmental benefits result from delivering the products as liquid but coordination challenges persist because of the energy cost to maintain the liquid. Further coordination challenges result from the necessity to establish a long term recycling production plan in the presence of long term downstream aluminum remelter production uncertainty and inherent variation in the daily order schedule of the downstream aluminum remelters. In this context a fundamental question arises, considering the metallurgical complexities of dross reprocessing, what is the value of operating a coordinated set of by-product reprocessing plants and remelting cast houses? A methodology is presented to calculate the optimal recycling center production parameters including 1) the number of recycled products, 2) the volume of recycled products, 3) allocation of recycled materials across recycled products, 4) allocation of recycled products across finished alloys, 4) the level of flexibility for the recycling center to operate. The methods implemented include, 1) an optimization model to describe the long term operations of the recycling center, 2) an uncertainty simulation tool, 3) a simulation optimization method, 4) a dynamic simulation tool with four embedded daily production optimization models of varying degrees of flexibility. This methodology is used to quantify the performance of several recycling center production designs of varying levels of coordination and flexibility. This analysis allowed the identification of the optimal recycling

  14. Analysis of Environmental Impact for Concrete Using LCA by Varying the Recycling Components, the Compressive Strength and the Admixture Material Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyoung Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a type of construction material in which cement, aggregate, and admixture materials are mixed. When cement is produced, large amounts of substances that impact the environment are emitted during limestone extraction and clinker manufacturing. Additionally, the extraction of natural aggregate causes soil erosion and ecosystem destruction. Furthermore, in the process of transporting raw materials such as cement and aggregate to a concrete production company, and producing concrete in a batch plant, substances with an environmental impact are emitted into the air and water system due to energy use. Considering the fact that the process of producing concrete causes various environmental impacts, an assessment of various environmental impact categories is needed. This study used a life cycle assessment (LCA to evaluate the environmental impacts of concrete in terms of its global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and abiotic depletion potential (GWP, AP, EP, ODP, POCP, ADP. The tendency was that the higher the strength of concrete, the higher the GWP, POCP, and ADP indices became, whereas the AP and EP indices became slightly lower. As the admixture mixing ratio of concrete increased, the GWP, AP, ODP, ADP, and POCP decreased, but EP index showed a tendency to increase slightly. Moreover, as the recycled aggregate mixing ratio of concrete increased, the AP, EP, ODP, and ADP decreased, while GWP and POCP increased. The GWP and POCP per unit compressed strength (1 MPa of high strength concrete were found to be about 13% lower than that for its normal strength concrete counterpart. Furthermore, in the case of AP, EP, ODP, and ADP per unit compressed strength (1 MPa, high-strength concrete was found to be about 10%~25% lower than its normal strength counterpart. Among all the environmental impact categories, ordinary cement was found to have

  15. Strength Assessment of Controlled Low Strength Materials (CLSM) Utilizing Recycled Concrete Aggregate and Waste Paper Sludge Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Ridzuan, Ahmad Ruslan Mohd; Fauzi, Mohd Azrizal; Ghazali, Ezliana; Arshad, Mohd Fadzil; Fauzi, Mohd Afiq; Mohd Fauzi, Mohd Afiq

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the strength development of low-strength material (CLSM) is controlled by using waste paper sludge ash (WPSA) in CLSM mixtures without adding Portland cement. Series of four (4) compounds which is the CLSM containing 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of waste paper sludge ash (WPSA) as a substitute for Portland cement. CLSM cubes the sizes of 100mm x 100mm x 100mm compressive strength were tested at age 7, 14 and 28days. It was found that this activity contributes to strength developmen...

  16. EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

  17. Recycling in the 90's - a shared responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Recycling means different things to different people. To consumers, recycling can mean putting out bottles and cans for curbside collection. To a product maker - a manufacturer of raw materials, fabricator of goods or products, or brand owner - recycling can mean reformulating goods to include recycled materials. To recycling service providers, recycling can mean providing cost-efficient collection services. To public policy makers in all levels of government recycling can mean establishing collection and utilization regulations. For recycling to work successfully, these diverse groups must work together and share responsibility for its success. Also, if recycling is to succeed on a large scale and over the long term, three critical points must be first addressed: These points are: approach, economics, and markets. These points are discussed

  18. Recycling of Pre-Washed Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash in the Manufacturing of Low Temperature Setting Geopolymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three samples of municipal solid waste incinerators fly ash (MSWI-FA have been stabilized in systems containing coal fly ash to create geopolymers through a polycondensation reaction. Monolithic products have been obtained with both MSWI fly ash as received and after the partial removal of chloride and sulfate by water washing. The polycondensation products have been characterized qualitatively by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively, through the determination of the volume of reacted water and silicate. Furthermore, the heavy metals and chloride releases together with the physico-mechanical properties have been evaluated on the hardened products. In conclusion, considering the technological and environmental performances of the obtained geopolymers, they could be suitable for many non-structural applications, such as backfilling of abandoned quarries, decorative materials or brick fireplaces, hearths, patios, etc.

  19. Recycling of Pre-Washed Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash in the Manufacturing of Low Temperature Setting Geopolymer Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Santoro, Luciano; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-08-12

    In this work, three samples of municipal solid waste incinerators fly ash (MSWI-FA) have been stabilized in systems containing coal fly ash to create geopolymers through a polycondensation reaction. Monolithic products have been obtained with both MSWI fly ash as received and after the partial removal of chloride and sulfate by water washing. The polycondensation products have been characterized qualitatively by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively, through the determination of the volume of reacted water and silicate. Furthermore, the heavy metals and chloride releases together with the physico-mechanical properties have been evaluated on the hardened products. In conclusion, considering the technological and environmental performances of the obtained geopolymers, they could be suitable for many non-structural applications, such as backfilling of abandoned quarries, decorative materials or brick fireplaces, hearths, patios, etc.

  20. Synthesis and chemical recycling of high polymers using C1 compounds; C1 kagobutsu ni yoru kobunshi no chemical recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, T. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    The paper outlined a study of the synthesis of high polymers using C1 compounds which are continuously usable chemical materials and the related compounds such as the derivatives, and also the chemical recycle. In the case of waste plastics mixed in urban refuse, effective is the chemical recycle where C1 compounds obtained by gasifying the mixed waste are used as high polymer material. For the synthesis and recycle of high polymers using C1 compounds, there are three routes: Route A (recycle via high polymer materials), Route B (recycle via C1 compounds and high polymer materials), and Route C including global-scale carbon recycle (recycle via carbon dioxide from biodegradable plastics using microorganism). Among high polymers, those that can be synthesized from C1 compounds, for example, polymethylene, polyacetal and polyketone can be chemically recycled by Route B. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Admissible loads in wastewater treatment, using a recycled support materials in a biological aerated filter; Cargas admisibles en depuracion de aguas residuales, usando material reciclado como soporte de un filtro sumergido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio Robles, F. [E.T.S.I. de Caminos Canales y Puertos de Granada (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This study places in the context of the research into Biological Aerated Filters that the Environmental Technology and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (University of Granada, Spain) has been developing for several years. We have achieved a high level of optimization of the system, using a recycled ceramic-based materials as biofilm support. It enables to give some design parameters, which will make possible the practical application in the future. In this article the relations among volumetric and hydraulic loads applied and effluent concentrations and elimination rates in relation to several pollutants are presented. The oxygen supplied has been accurately controlled, and the relation among the consumption value and the loads applied and the system efficiency obtained is presented. The tests were performed at a pilot plant with full scale height. The influent used was the primary effluent of a conventional treatment plant and the operational flow was counter-current flow. (Author) 11 refs.

  2. Effect of Recycling in Post-Consumer Polystyrene Cups

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mehnaz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to recycle post-consumer polystyrene cups and to analyze the changes in mechanical and rheological properties of the recycled polystyrene. The me-chanical properties were tensile strength, Young’s modulus and the rheological proper-ties was melt flow index. In order to analyze the changes in properties, material testing results of pristine polystyrene were compared with the recycled polystyrene. The same polystyrene material was recycled and tested twice in order to ...

  3. Recycling retention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; Johnson, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning with the concept of any number of physiologically meaningful compartments that recycle material with a central extracellular fluid compartment and considering various excretion pathways, we solve the differential equations describing the kinetics by the method of Laplace to obtain concise algebraic expressions for the retentions. These expressions contain both fundamental and eigenvalue rate constants; the eigenvalue rate constants are obtained from the solution of a polynomial incorporating the fundamental rate constants. Mathematically exact expressions that predict the biodistribution resulting from continuous uptakes are used to obtain very simple mathematically exact steady state expressions as well as approximate expressions applicable to any time. These steady state and approximate expressions contain only the fundamental rate constants; also, they include a recycling factor that describes the increase in the biodistributions because of recycling. To obtain the values of the fundamental rate constants, short term kinetics studies along with data on the long term distributions are suggested. Retention functions obtained in this way predict both the short term and long term distributions; they therefore are useful in the interpretation of bioassay data and in the estimation of internal doses

  4. FY 1999 report on the results of the investigational study on the promotion of application of aluminum materials to automobiles by the development of low-cost aluminum materials and aluminum resource recycling technology; 1999 nendo tei cost aluminium zai oyobi arumi shigen junkan gijutsu no kaihatsu ni yoru jidosha eno aluminium zai tekiyo suishin ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Presently, the aluminum demand in Japan is approximately 3.8 million tons, and the aluminum discharged as scrap reaches approximately 1.7 million tons/year. Out of the discharged scrap, 54% is recovered as the secondary metal, and the rest, 0.77 million tons, is not recovered and dumped for land reclamation. In future, if the present cascade type recycling goes on, it is predicted that a gap between supply and demand of about 0.5 million tons will arise. To cope with this problem, the following are the measures to be taken : 1) development of the technology to promote the use of recycled aluminum metal for automobiles in which a lot of aluminum is most likely to be used because of the increasing fuel consumption, etc. 2) establishment of a recycling system by which the waste sash discharged in quantity from the construction field is again used as sash. From the two points of view, which are needed in the case of using a lot of aluminum for automobiles, the heightening of competitiveness in the aluminum industry and the recycling in which the aluminum expanded materials used for automobiles are efficiently recycled as expanded materials in the recycling economic system, this survey extracted problems and made proposals, overlooking the state of the aluminum use in automobiles, state of the treatment of used cars, state of manufacturing/processing technology of aluminum products. (NEDO)

  5. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, A [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be taken and where it is then processed in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. The project started in the end of year 1995. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis of existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and results analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions. In the year 1996 the main stage was development of system components; especially crushing. Results of running slow-speed big crushers were collected, analysed and the main development details determined. Additionally, particle size distribution from different crushing methods were analyzed using also primary and secondary crushing. Development of a heavy-duty 2-rotor ECO-Crusher and a crushing screen was started. Regarding to the development of the REF-system, different alternatives have been analyzed and possible demonstration places have been searched. The first multi-crushing line will be demonstrated in Sweden. (orig.)

  6. Development of second generation gold-supported palladium material with low-leaching and recyclable characteristics in aromatic amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Mohammad; Arai, Satoshi; Hoshiya, Naoyoki; Honma, Tetsuo; Tamenori, Yusuke; Sato, Takatoshi; Yokoyama, Mami; Ishii, Akira; Takeuchi, Masashi; Maruko, Tomohiro; Shuto, Satoshi; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro

    2013-08-02

    An improved process for the preparation of sulfur-modified gold-supported palladium material [SAPd, second generation] is presented. The developed preparation method is safer and generates less heat (aqueous Na2S2O8 and H2SO4) for sulfur fixation on a gold surface, and it is superior to the previous method of preparing SAPd (first generation), which requires the use of the more heat-generating and dangerous piranha solution (concentrated H2SO4 and 35% H2O2) in the sulfur fixation step. This safer and improved preparation method is particularly important for the mass production of SAPd (second generation) for which the catalytic activity was examined in ligand-free Buchwald-Hartwig cross-coupling reactions. The catalytic activities were the same between the first and second generation SAPds in aromatic aminations, but the lower palladium leaching properties and safer preparative method of second generation SAPd are a significant improvement over the first generation SAPd.

  7. Role of Thiobacillus thioparus in the biodegradation of carbon disulfide in a biofilter packed with a recycled organic pelletized material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenafeta-Boldú, Francesc X; Rojo, Naiara; Gallastegui, Gorka; Guivernau, Miriam; Viñas, Marc; Elías, Ana

    2014-07-01

    This study reports the biodegradation of carbon disulfide (CS2) in air biofilters packed with a pelletized mixture of composted manure and sawdust. Experiments were carried out in two lab-scale (1.2 L) biofiltration units. Biofilter B was seeded with activated sludge enriched previously on CS2-degrading biomass under batch conditions, while biofilter A was left as a negative inoculation control. This inoculum was characterized by an acidic pH and sulfate accumulation, and contained Achromobacter xylosoxidans as the main putative CS2 biodegrading bacterium. Biofilter operation start-up was unsuccessfully attempted under xerophilic conditions and significant CS2 elimination was only achieved in biofilter A upon the implementation of an intermittent irrigation regime. Sustained removal efficiencies of 90-100 % at an inlet load of up to 12 g CS2 m(-3) h(-1) were reached. The CS2 removal in this biofilter was linked to the presence of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus thioparus, known among the relatively small number of species with a reported capacity of growing on CS2 as the sole energy source. DGGE molecular profiles confirmed that this microbe had become dominant in biofilter A while it was not detected in samples from biofilter B. Conventional biofilters packed with inexpensive organic materials are suited for the treatment of low-strength CS2 polluted gases (IL biofiltration of recalcitrant compounds has been highlighted.

  8. Recycling of spent catalyst and waste sludge from industry to substitute raw materials in the preparation of Portland cement clinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae-Long Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of using waste limestone sludge, waste stone sludge, iron oxide sludge, and spent catalyst as raw materials in the production of eco-cement. The compressive strength development of the Eco Cement-A (ECO-A paste was similar to that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC pastes. The compressive strength development of the ECO-B paste was higher than that of OPC pastes. In addition, the C2S (Ca2SiO4, C2S and C3S (Ca3SiO5 minerals in the eco-cement paste were continuously utilized to hydrate the Ca(OH2 and calcium silicate hydrates gel (Ca6Si3O12·H2O, C–S–H throughout the curing time. When ECO-C clinker contained 8% spent catalyst, the C3S mineral content decreased and C3A (3 CaO·Al2O3 content increased, thereby causing the structure to weaken and compressive strength to decrease. The results showed that the developed eco-cement with 4% spent catalyst possessed compressive strength properties similar to those of OPC pastes.

  9. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  10. Core-shelled mesoporous CoFe2O4-SiO2 material with good adsorption and high-temperature magnetic recycling capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi'ang; Wang, Jianlin; Liu, Min; Chen, Tong; Chen, Jifang; Ge, Wen; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Lu, Yalin

    2018-04-01

    Residues of organic dye in industrial effluents cause severe water system pollution. Although several methods, such as biodegradation and activated carbon adsorption, are available for treating these effluents before their discharge into waterbodies, secondary pollution by adsorbents and degrading products remains an issue. Therefore, new materials should be identified to solve this problem. In this work, CoFe2O4-SiO2 core-shell structures were synthesized using an improved Stöber method by coating mesoporous silica onto CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The specific surface areas of the synthesized particles range from 30 m2/g to 150 m2/g and vary according to the dosage amount of tetraethoxysilane. Such core-shelled nanoparticles have the following advantages for treating industrial effluents mixed with dye: good adsorption capability, above-room-temperature magnetic recycling capability, and heat-enduring stability. Through adsorption of methylene blue, a typical dyeing material, the core-shell-structured particles show a good adsorption capability of approximately 33 mg/L. The particles are easily and completely collected by magnets, which is possible due to the magnetic property of core CoFe2O4. Heat treatment can burn out the adsorbed dyes and good adsorption performance is sustained even after several heat-treating loops. This property overcomes the common problem of particles with Fe3O4 as a core, by which Fe3O4 is oxidized to nonmagnetic α-Fe2O3 at the burning temperature. We also designed a miniature of effluent-treating pipeline, which demonstrates the potential of the application.

  11. Using recycled concrete in MDOT's transportation infrastructure : manual of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    "Crushed concrete aggregate (CCA) is granular material manufactured by removing, crushing, and : processing old concrete for reuse as an aggregate source in new construction. Although the Michigan : Department of Transportation (MDOT) has used CCA si...

  12. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...

  13. Creating a Better Funding System for Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, Michigan voters approved a ballot initiative that transferred the power in Michigan's education system from local communities to the state. Proposal A succeeded in slowing the growth of local property taxes and narrowing the gap between the richest and poorest districts in Michigan. However, due to a decade of sluggish economic growth,…

  14. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  15. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  16. Measures for recycling plastic wastes in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossais, J C [Ministere de l' Industrie et de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France). Delegation aux Economies de Matieres Premieres

    1978-05-01

    Raw materials crisis and environmental awareness have lead to the question of intensively dealing with the recycling of plastics. Although plastic wastes (residues) industrially occuring have been recycled for a long time, this is certainly not always the case in the subsequent stages. One must particularly give thought to the considerable quantities of agricultural and municipal wastes. Besides the problem of collecting the waste which can only be satisfactorily solved by separate collection or setting up sorting places, it is necessary for the recycling plastic wastes on a large scale to find or develop sellable products. The product for sale is limited by economical aspects and prejudices against recycled materials. The public have taken to a series of measures in France to simplify recycling plastic wastes. Private industry is also beginning to take interest in this new sources of raw materials.

  17. Rubber Recycling: Chemistry, Processing, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myhre, M.; Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2012-01-01

    For both environmental and economic reasons, there is broad interest in recycling rubber and in the continued development of recycling technologies. The use of postindustrial materials is a fairly well-established and documented business. Much effort over the past decade has been put into dealing

  18. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  19. Improvement of Bearing Capacity in Recycled Aggregates Suitable for Use as Unbound Road Sub-Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Garach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates are specified as types of aggregates with lower densities, higher water absorption capacities, and lower mechanical strength than natural aggregates. In this paper, the mechanical behaviour and microstructural properties of natural aggregates, recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates were compared. Different specimens of unbound recycled mixtures demonstrated increased resistance properties. The formation of new cement hydrated particles was observed, and pozzolanic reactions were discovered by electronon microscopy in these novel materials. The properties of recycled concrete aggregates and mixed recycled aggregates suggest that these recycled materials can be used in unbound road layers to improve their mechanical behaviour in the long term.

  20. A closed-loop process for recycling LiNixCoyMn(1−x−yO2 from mixed cathode materials of lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujuan Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of consumer electronics and electric vehicles (EV, a large number of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs have been generated worldwide. Thus, effective recycling technologies to recapture a significant amount of valuable metals contained in spent LIBs are highly desirable to prevent the environmental pollution and resource depletion. In this work, a novel recycling technology to regenerate a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material from spent LIBs with different cathode chemistries has been developed. By dismantling, crushing, leaching and impurity removing, the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (selected as an example of LiNixCoyMn(1−x−yO2 powder can be directly prepared from the purified leaching solution via co-precipitation followed by solid-state synthesis. For comparison purposes, a fresh-synthesized sample with the same composition has also been prepared using the commercial raw materials via the same method. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and electrochemical measurements have been carried out to characterize these samples. The electrochemical test result suggests that the re-synthesized sample delivers cycle performance and low rate capability which are comparable to those of the fresh-synthesized sample. This novel recycling technique can be of great value to the regeneration of a pure and marketable LiNixCoyMn(1−x−yO2 cathode material with low secondary pollution. Keywords: Spent lithium-ion battery, Cathode material recycling, Acid leaching, Purification, Co-precipitation

  1. A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

    This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

  2. Antimony recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, James F.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of recycling has become more obvious as concerns about the environment and import dependence have grown in recent years. When materials are recycled, fewer natural resources are consumed, and less waste products go to landfills or pollute the water and air. This study, one of a series of reports on metals recycling in 2000, discusses the flow of antimony from mining through its uses and disposal with emphasis on recycling. In 2000, the recycling efficiency for antimony was estimated to be 89 percent, and the recycling rate was about 20 percent.

  3. Pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Arbuthnot, D.R.; Busness, K.M.; Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.; Lee, R.N.; Young, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    An aircraft, a chartered boat, and a constant altitude balloon were used to study pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan in a Lagrangian frame of reference. The experiments were conducted during the summer under strong atmospheric stability where diffusion and dry deposition of pollutants can be neglected

  4. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, James M.; Fryzelka, Evan E.

    2014-01-01

    Many of Michigan's public school districts are under substantial fiscal pressures from a combination of declining enrollment and increasing costs, particularly related to employee benefits, but most districts are responding to these challenges. One of the ways that districts can stretch their resources further is through competitive contracting…

  5. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Michigan single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  6. FY 1998 report on the results of the development in recycling technology for building materials such as waste concrete; 1998 nendo hai concrete nado kenzai recycle gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For increasing fields of application of concrete rubble discharged as construction waste, the recycled aggregate is recovered by heating and rubbing/grinding. To meet the recycling demand effectively, a unit was made a transfer type. Equipment with treatment capacity of 3 tons/h was manufactured and confirmed of its motion. As to the heating equipment, the low-energy consumption structure aiming at homogeneous filling and appropriate ventilation was adopted to control uneven heating and increase in packed bed pressure loss. A tube mill type of the coarse aggregate recovery device was designed/manufactured considering the size of medium and discharge of mortal particles. An attriter type was designed/manufactured considering smooth particle discharge. As to the fine aggregate recovery system, a tube mill type was designed considering the discharge of powder and using coarse aggregate as medium. Moreover, the appropriate transportation of the generated powder and storage method are also considered. The transfer type equipment (unit frame, etc.) was designed/manufactured to make it a unit considered of layout at the time of transporting and assembling the auxiliary equipment such as supply hopper. The noise prevention device was also equipped with. (NEDO)

  7. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  8. Conclusions of the DIRECT-MAT project: Dismantling and recycling techniques for road materials; Conclusiones del proyecto DIRECT-MAT: Tecnicas de demolicion y reciclado de materiales para la carretera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Abadias, A. I.; Ruiz-Aucar Berlinches, E.; Sinis Fernandez, F.

    2012-07-01

    DIRECT-MAT (Dismantling and Recycling Techniques for road Materials) is a research project included in the 7{sup t}h Framework Programme of the EU, which counted with the participation of 20 partners from 15 different European countries. The Transport Research Centre of CEDEX (Spain) has been part of this project that began in January 2009. The aim of the DIRECT-MAT project has been to enable that national experience in the field of demolition and recycling of materials related to roads can be shared and disseminated among European countries for the benefit of all of them. In 2011 the paper the Direct-Mat Project: Dismantling and recycling techniques for road materials. Sharing knowledge and practices was published in the number 161 of Ingenieria Civil magazine. That paper consisted of an extensive description of the project, explaining in detail its structure, the status of the work in early 2011 and the conclusions drawn from the milestones (review of existing national documents). This paper is a continuation of the one previously published. This this article describes the work carried out since then and the collisions of the project. During this time, the main activities have been the compilation of several case studies and the developing of best practice guides. Regarding the results of the project, it is important to mention the database in which all the information gathered during the project is being uploads. Soon, it will have free online access. This database in perhaps the most remarkable results of the project, as it represents an invaluable reference tool for all the stake holders interested in the wide variety of recycling techniques that are being carried out today in Europe. (Author) 8 refs.

  9. Surficial geologic map of Berrien County, Michigan, and the adjacent offshore area of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Kincare, Kevin A.; O'Leary, Dennis W.; Newell, Wayne L.; Taylor, Emily M.; Williams, Van S.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Abraham, Jared E.; Powers, Michael H.

    2017-12-13

    The surficial geologic map of Berrien County, southwestern Michigan (sheet 1), shows the distribution of glacial and postglacial deposits at the land surface and in the adjacent offshore area of Lake Michigan. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Drill-hole information correlated in cross sections provides details of typical stratigraphic sequences that compose one or more penetrated geologic map units. A new bedrock geologic map (on sheet 2) includes contours of the altitude of the eroded top of bedrock and shows the distribution of middle Paleozoic shale and carbonate units in the subcrop. A sediment thickness map (also on sheet 2) portrays the extent of as much as 150 meters of surficial materials that overlie the bedrock surface.The major physical features of the county are related principally to deposits of the last Laurentide ice sheet that advanced and then retreated back through the region from about 19,000 to 14,000 radiocarbon years before present. Glacial and postglacial deposits underlie the entire county; shale bedrock crops out only in the adjacent offshore area on the bottom of Lake Michigan. All glacial deposits and glacial meltwater deposits in Berrien County are related to the late Wisconsinan glacial advances of the Lake Michigan ice lobe and its three regional recessional moraines, which cross the county as three north-northeast-trending belts.From east to west (oldest to youngest), the three moraine belts are known as the Kalamazoo, Valparaiso, and Lake Border morainic systems. The till-ridge morainic systems (Lake Border and local Valparaiso morainic systems) consist of multiple, elongate moraine ridges separated by till plains and lake-bottom plains. Tills in ground and end moraines in Berrien County are distinguished as informal units, and are correlated with three proposed regional till units in southwestern Michigan

  10. Collection of Recyclables from Cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Bogh, Morten Bie; Mikkelsen, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Collection of recyclable materials is a major part of reverse logistics and an important issue in sustainable logistics. In this paper we consider a case study where paper and glass are collected from recycling cubes and transported to a treatment facility where it is processed for reuse. We...... analyze how outsourcing the planning and transportation of the service can result in conflicts of interest and as a consequence cause unsustainable solutions. Finally, we suggest an alternative payment structure which can lead to a common goal, overall economic sustainability, and an improved financial...

  11. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  12. Recycling and surplus chemical programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, T.J.

    1993-05-01

    In 1988, 45 years of defense production came to a close at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The mission of the Hanford Site was formally changed to environmental restoration and remediation. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the management and operations (M ampersand O) contractor leading the cleanup. Within the framework of future Site cleanup, Hanford recycling and surplus chemical programs are making a viable contribution today to waste minimization, diversion of materials from the waste stream, and setting a standard for future operations. This paper focuses on two successful efforts: paper recycling and surplus chemical sales

  13. UREP: gateway to uranium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.P.; Durret, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    The industrial experience accumulated in France on recycling makes their conversion service fully reliable technically and economically. Problems associated with chemical and radiochemical behavior have been solved satisfactorily in order to offer customers flexible options for their personal optimization. Economically, a price reduction by a significant factor (up to two) has been proposed by UREP as a firm commitment for the coming years. This is the result of technical experience coupled with favorable scaling effect for the large conversion plant proposed. It is believed that such a positive approach greatly helps customers in managing recycling of their material and generating savings in their fuel cycle economics. This flow of recycled uranium, on top of the 40000 t of natural uranium consumed each year, is a valuable asset available to those utilities which have selected the reprocessing route. 2 figs

  14. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  15. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made

  16. A UK perspective on recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    The United Kingdom, through the recycling of depleted uranium from Magnox reactors into Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel, has already recycled significant quantities of reprocessed material in reactors owned by Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Limited. This AGR fuel has been satisfactorily irradiated and discharged over a decade or more, and will be reprocessed in the new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), currently under construction in the UK. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) have also been exploiting the potential of plutonium recycled in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, which they have been making since 1963. All of the UK nuclear companies are committed to further recycling of Magnox depleted uranium during the 1990s, and it is anticipated that oxide recycling will also become firmly established during the next decade. British Nuclear Fuels and Urenco Ltd, as the providers of fuel cycle services, are developing an infrastructure to close the fuel cycle for oxide nuclear fuel, using both the uranium and plutonium arising from reprocessing. (author)

  17. Recycling of polymers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, Igor A; Thielemans, Wim; Vander Beke, Bob

    2014-06-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO 2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO 2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO 2 , representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

  19. Recycling of plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, W; Menzel, J; Sinn, H

    1976-01-01

    Considering the shortage of raw materials and environmental pollution, the recycling of plastic waste is a very important topic. Pilot plants for research in Funabashi Japan, Franklin (Ohio) U.S.A., and the R 80-process of Krauss Maffei, W. Germany, have demonstrated the possibility of reclaiming plastics from refuse. Old tires and waste from the plastic producing and manufacturing industries are readily available. The pyrolysis of plastic yields gaseous and liquid products, and the exploitation of this cracking reaction has been demonstrated by pilot plants in Japan and Great Britain. Further laboratory scale experiments are taking place in W. Germany. In continuous fluidized beds and in molten salts, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene and rubber are pyrolysed and better than 98 percent conversion is obtained. Up to 40 percent of the feed can be obtained as aromatic compounds, and a pilot plant is under construction. As a first step PVC-containing material can be almost quantitatively dehydrochlorinated.

  20. The chemical recycle of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Beyer Schuch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical recycle of cotton textiles and/or other cellulosic materials for the purpose of manufacturing regenerated high quality textiles fibres is a novel process. The objective of related research is based on the forecast of population growth, on resource scarcity predictions, and on the negative environmental impact of the textile industry. These facts lead the need of broadening the scope for long-term textile-to-textile recycle - as the mechanical recycle of natural fibres serve for limited number of cycles, still depends on input of virgin material, and offer a reduced-in-quality output. Critical analysis of scientific papers, relevant related reports, and personal interviews were the base of this study, which shows viable results in laboratorial scale of using low-quality cellulosic materials as input for the development of high-quality regenerated textile fibres though ecological chemical process. Nevertheless, to scale up and implement this innovative recycle method, other peripheral structures are requested, such as recover schemes or appropriate sort, for instance. Further researches should also be considered in regards to colours and impurities.

  1. Mental Models Research to Inform Community Outreach for a Campus Recycling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lauren; Arvai, Joseph; Thorp, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a better understanding of the state of knowledge of students and faculty on the Michigan State University (MSU) campus; identify relevant gaps in knowledge and misconceptions about recycling; and provide recommendations regarding how these gaps and misconceptions may be addressed through education…

  2. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  3. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  4. Recycling of LiCo0.59Mn0.26Ni0.15O2 cathodic material from spent Li-ion batteries by the method of the citrate gel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senćanski Jelena V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Li-ion batteries are the main power source for the high technology devices, such as mobile phones and electric vehicles. Because of that, the number of spent Li-ion batteries significantly increases. Today, the number of active mobile phones crossed 7.19 billion. It is estimated that the mass of the spent lithium ion batteries in China will exceed 500,000 t by 2020. The trouble is in the ingredients of these batteries. They contain Li, Co, Mn, Ni, Cu, Al and toxic and flammable electrolytes which have a harmful affection to the environment. Because of that, the recycling procedure attracts raising attention of researches. Several commercial spent Li-ion batteries were recycled by the relatively fast, economic and simple procedure. The three ways of separating the cathode material from Al collector were examined after the manual dismantling of the components of batteries with the Li(Co–Mn–NiO2 as cathode material. These were: 1. dissolution of the Al collector in the alkali medium, 2. peeling off with N-methylpyrrolidone and 3. thermal decomposition of the adhesive at 700°C. The procedure with the highest yield was the one with the dissolution in alkali medium. The chemical analysis of the single batteries'' components (the crust, Al/Cu collector, cathode material were done by the atomic absorption spectrometry. The components, before the analysis, were dissolved. The re-synthesis of the cathode material by the method of the citrate gel combustion was done after the separating the cathode material and dissolving it in the nitric acid. The obtained product was, after annealing, characterized by the methods of X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The recycled product was LiCo0.59Mn0.26Ni0.15O2 stoichiometry, with the hexagonal layered structure α-NaFeO2 type. The functionalization of the resynthesized material was examined in the 1 M solution LiClO4 in the propylene carbonate, by galvanostatic charging, with the current density of 0

  5. The copper deposits of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B.S.; Burbank, W.S.

    1929-01-01

    The copper district of Keweenaw Point, in the northern peninsula of Michigan, is the second largest producer of copper in the world.  The output of the district since 1845 has been more than 7,500,000,000 pounds and showed a rather steady and consistent increase from the beginning of production to the end of the World War in 1918, since which there has been a marked decrease.

  6. Active Traffic Management in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Pat

    2018-01-01

    The US 23 Flex Route is the first active traffic management (ATM) project in the state of Michigan. This route utilizes overhead lane control gantries equipped with various intelligent transportation system (ITS) equipment to facilitate the following ATM strategies: dynamic shoulder use, dynamic lane control, variable speed advisories, and queue warning. The focus of this presentation is how the project team overcame several challenges during the planning, design, and system management phases...

  7. Paper recycling framework, the "Wheel of Fiber".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Ilpo; Miranda, Ruben; Kauranen, Ilkka

    2016-06-01

    At present, there is no reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows and makes it possible to compare geographical regions with each other. A functioning paper industry Material Flow Account (MFA) that uses uniform terminology and standard definitions for terms and structures is necessary. Many of the presently used general level MFAs, which are called frameworks in this article, stress the importance of input and output flows but do not provide a uniform picture of material recycling. Paper industry is an example of a field in which recycling plays a key role. Additionally, terms related to paper industry recycling, such as collection rate, recycling rate, and utilization rate, are not defined uniformly across regions and time. Thus, reliably comparing material recycling activity between geographical regions or calculating any regional summaries is difficult or even impossible. The objective of this study is to give a partial solution to the problem of not having a reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows. This is done by introducing a new material flow framework for paper industry in which the flow and stage structure supports the use of uniform definitions for terms related to paper recycling. This new framework is termed the Detailed Wheel of Fiber. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aluminium beverage can recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinski, A von

    1985-08-01

    Canned beverages have become a controversial issue in this era of ecological sensitivity. METALL has already discussed the problem of can recycling. The present article discusses the technical aspects of aluminium can recycling. Two further articles will follow on aluminium can recycling in North America and on the results of European pilot projects.

  9. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  10. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  11. Electric industry restructuring in Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This Staff Report suggests a modified approach designed to significantly increase the ability of all customer classes to participate and share in the benefits of competition. The concepts discussed in this Report are designed to ensure that rates are not increased for any customers as a result of restructuring and, where possible, rates are reduced through the use of rate reduction bonds. The program outlined in this Report is designed to fulfill five objectives. First, it protects the interests of smaller customers, including low-income residential customers and senior citizens. Second, the program provides opportunities to strengthen Michigan's business community. Third, the program includes funding for employee retraining to assure that utility employees are not negatively impacted by restructuring. Fourth, the phase-in program provides the utilities with the opportunity to prepare for competition so that they remain Michigan-based companies. Fifth, the program is designed to foster competition upon a level playing field. The Commission has jurisdiction over all investor electric utilities and rural electric cooperatives in Michigan. Municipal electric utilities are not subject to Commission jurisdiction. Although this Report discusses details regarding Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, its concepts and principles are intended to apply to all jurisdictional electric utilities

  12. Management and recycling of electronic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the largest growing waste streams globally. Hence, for a sustainable environment and the economic recovery of valuable material for reuse, the efficient recycling of electronic scrap has been rendered indispensable, and must still be regarded as a major challenge for today’s society. In contrast to the well-established recycling of metallic scrap, it is much more complicated to recycle electronics products which have reached the end of their life as they contain many different types of material types integrated into each other. As illustrated primarily for the recycling of mobile phones, the efficient recycling of WEEE is not only a challenge for the recycling industry; it is also often a question of as-yet insufficient collection infrastructures and poor collection efficiencies, and a considerable lack of the consumer’s awareness for the potential of recycling electronics for the benefit of the environment, as well as for savings in energy and raw materials

  13. Electric vehicle recycling 2020: Key component power electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulach, Winfried; Schüler, Doris; Sellin, Guido; Elwert, Tobias; Schmid, Dieter; Goldmann, Daniel; Buchert, Matthias; Kammer, Ulrich

    2018-04-01

    Electromobility will play a key role in order to reach the specified ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets in the German transport sector of 42% between 1990 and 2030. Subsequently, a significant rise in the sale of electric vehicles (EVs) is to be anticipated in future. The amount of EVs to be recycled will rise correspondingly after a delay. This includes the recyclable power electronics modules which are incorporated in every EV as an important component for energy management. Current recycling methods using car shredders and subsequent post shredder technologies show high recycling rates for the bulk metals but are still associated with high losses of precious and strategic metals such as gold, silver, platinum, palladium and tantalum. For this reason, the project 'Electric vehicle recycling 2020 - key component power electronics' developed an optimised recycling route for recycling power electronics modules from EVs which is also practicable in series production and can be implemented using standardised technology. This 'WEEE recycling route' involves the disassembly of the power electronics from the vehicle and a subsequent recycling in an electronic end-of-life equipment recycling plant. The developed recycling process is economical under the current conditions and raw material prices, even though it involves considerably higher costs than recycling using the car shredder. The life cycle assessment shows basically good results, both for the traditional car shredder route and the developed WEEE recycling route: the latter provides additional benefits from some higher recovery rates and corresponding credits.

  14. Recycling radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Technology Programs Department of Fluor Daniel Fernald investigated alternatives for dealing with the World's largest concentrated supply of radium, the K-65 silos at Fernald, the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) former uranium processing facility near Cincinnati, Ohio. These two silos contain nearly 3,770 curies (by definition 3,770 grams) primarily of Ra-226 (T 1/2 = 1600 a) within 10,000 metric tons of material. Material contents of the silos were to be vitrified according to a Record of Decision (ROD) between the DOE and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Because of cost considerations, that alternative must be reconsidered. Research showed that although Ra-226 had come mostly into disfavor as a therapeutic agent for cancer, isotopes derived from the neutron bombardment of pure Ra-226 and radioactive decay of the resulting purified isotopes could be used to good effect. One of these isotopes, bismuth-213 (Bi-213, T 1/2 = 45.6 m), is being used in clinical trials against acute myelogenous leukemia. The isotope is attached to an antibody that seeks out cancer cells. Because alpha particles dissipate most of their energy within the space of one or a few cells, virtually all the surrounding healthy tissue remains unharmed. Because of the short half life, waste disposal is no problem. Because of past policies, radium for feedstock is difficult to find. A new policy is needed in the United States acknowledging radium's value for feedstock while continuing to control its health and environmental consequences

  15. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  17. The Design and Evaluation of African Language Learning Materials. Proceedings of the Spring 1984 Conference on Developing Guidelines for the Evaluation of African Language Learning Materials (East Lansing, Michigan, April 13-14, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, David J., Ed.

    Representatives from major institutions teaching African languages convened to discuss the design of African language textbooks and to propose guidelines for the writing of new textbooks and evaluation of existing ones. Conference papers include: "Language Acquisition Theory and Materials Construction" (Stephen Krashen); "The Structures of Verbal…

  18. Methods of Recycling, Properties and Applications of Recycled Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Elena Grigore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an updated survey of the main thermoplastic polymers in order to obtain recyclable materials for various industrial and indoor applications. The synthesis approach significantly impacts the properties of such materials and these properties in turn have a significant impact on their applications. Due to the ideal properties of the thermoplastic polymers such as corrosion resistance, low density or user-friendly design, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years, becoming more used than aluminum or other metals. Also, recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today.

  19. Recycling and combustion are complementary; Recycling und Verbrennung bedingen einander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, Karl J. [vivis CONSULT GmbH, Nietwerder (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In Germany, the waste management has developed to a medium position between supply and disposal. Numerous waste management companies also operate sorting plants, composting plants, biogas plants, wind power plants, biomass conversion plants and solar power plants. In addition to their traditional tasks, some companies of the energy sector are devoted to the energetic waste management and recycling. Nearly all companies have recognized this trend and have implemented the utilization of renewable energies including waste materials into their strategy.

  20. Supporting Sustainability through Recycling on Office Premises

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Quiros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about recycling at the Deloitte office. Recycling of office material can be considered as a rather easy way to influence aspects of sustainability. The starting point for this thesis was to give support to Deloitte´s Green Agenda team, who’s aim is to consider recycling and sustainability from business perspectives. One of the main objectives in this thesis is to provide Deloitte with a frame of solutions for them to establish clear rules, policies and norms that encourage...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE WASTE RECYCLING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Truptimala Patanaik*; Niharika Patel; Shilpika Panda; Subhasmita Prusty

    2016-01-01

    Construction solid waste has caused serious environmental problems. Reuse, recycling and reduction of construction materials have been advocated for many years, and various methods have been investigated. There may be six type of building materials: plastic, paper, timber, metal, glass and concrete which can be reused and recycled. This paper examines the rate of reusable & recyclable concrete waste. On the other hand, the reuse of construction waste is highly essential ...

  2. Self-protection in dry recycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.; Stanford, G.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the INFCE conclusions, the U.S. undertook development of a new dry fuel cycle. Dry recycle processes have been demonstrated to be feasible. Safeguarding such fuel cycles will be dramatically simpler than the PUREX fuel cycle. At every step of the processes, the materials meet the open-quotes spent-fuel standard.close quotes The scale is compatible with collocation of power reactors and their recycle facility, eliminating off-site transportation and storage of plutonium-bearing materials. Material diverted either covertly or overtly would be difficult (relative to material available by other means) to process into weapons feedstock

  3. The feasibility of recycling contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, K.W.; Corroon, W.; Parker, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    The changing mission of the Department of Energy along with the aging of many of its facilities has resulted in renewed emphasis on decontaminating and decommissioning surplus structures. Currently DOE is decontaminating some concrete and sending the clean material to C and D disposal facilities. In other instance, DOE is sending contaminated concrete to LLW disposal facilities. This paper examines the economic feasibility of decontaminating the concrete and recycling the rubble as clean aggregate. A probabilistic cost model was used to examine six potential recycling and disposal scenarios. The model predicted potential costs saving across the DOE complex of nearly one billion dollars. The ability of local markets to assimilate the recycled material was estimated for Washington, Idaho, Tennessee, New Mexico, and South Carolina. The relationships between a number of the economic model's variables were examined to develop operating ranges for initial managerial evaluation of recycling

  4. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition); Control de fuentes huérfanas y otros materiales radiactivos en las industrias de reciclado y producción de metales. Guía de seguridad específica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives.

  5. Economic impacts of wine tourism in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi-Kyung Kim; Seung Hyun Kim

    2003-01-01

    In Michigan, wine tourism is perceived as increasingly important concept because more and more tourists visit wineries and wine tasting rooms annually. However there have been few studies conducted concerning the economic impacts of wineries in Michigan even though the industry has been recognized as having significant economic impact potential. The primary purpose of...

  6. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium

  7. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 3. Chemistry of Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrey, M S

    1976-05-01

    The report is a synoptic review of data collected over the past twenty years on the chemistry of Lake Michigan. Changes in water quality and sediment chemistry, attributable to cultural and natural influences, are considered in relation to interacting processes and factors controlling the distribution and concentration of chemical substances within the Lake. Temperature, light, and mixing processes are among the important natural influences that affect nutrient cycling, dispersal of pollutants, and fate of materials entering the Lake. Characterization of inshore-offshore and longitudinal differences in chemical concentrations and sediment chemistry for the main body of the Lake is supplemented by discussion of specific areas such as Green Bay and Grand Traverse Bay. Residues, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, major and trace nutrients, and contaminants are described in the following context: biological essentiality and/or toxicity, sources to the Lake, concentrations in the water column and sediments, chemical forms, seasonal variations and variation with depth. A summary of existing water quality standards, statutes, and criteria applicable to Lake Michigan is appended.

  8. Determination of bisphenol-type endocrine disrupting compounds in food-contact recycled-paper materials by focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, David; Fernández-Recio, Miguel Ángel; Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María Teresa

    2012-09-15

    Focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) and reverse-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF-MS) was applied to the determination of bisphenol-type endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in food-contact recycled-paper materials. Recycled paper is a potential source of EDCs. Bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF) and their derivatives bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) are used for the production of epoxy resins employed in the formulation of printing inks. The FUSLE of bisphenol-type EDCs from packaging is reported for the first time. First, different extraction solvents were studied and methanol was selected. Then, the main FUSLE factors affecting the extraction efficiency (solvent volume, extraction time and ultrasonic irradiation power) were studied by means of a central composite design. The FUSLE conditions selected for further experiments were 20 ml of methanol at ultrasonic amplitude of 100% for 5s. Finally, the number of extraction cycles necessary for complete extraction was established in two. The analysis of the FUSLE extracts was carried out by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS with electrospray ionization and the determination of the four analytes took place in only 4 min. The FUSLE and UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS method was validated and applied to the analysis of different food-contact recycled-paper-based materials and packaging. The proposed method provided recoveries from 72% to 97%, repeatability and intermediate precision under 9% and 14%, respectively, and detection limits of 0.33, 0.16, 0.65 and 0.40 μg/g for BPA, BPF, BADGE and BFDGE, respectively. The analysis of paper and cardboard samples confirmed the presence of EDCs in these packaging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of limiter recycling in the divertor tokamak ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F.

    1981-08-01

    A divertor experiment like the ASDEX tokamak is especially suited for studying ion recycling at a material limiter, because the plasma can alternatively be limited by a magnetic limiter (separatrix) or by a material limiter. The role of the material limiter in ion recycling is documented by observing the increase in charge exchange flux emitted at the limiter position, and the decrease in external gas input necessary to keep the plasma line density invariant, when the material limiter is moved to the plasma. Ion recycling occurs predominantly at the outside section of a ring limiter. The limiter material saturates shortly after the start of the discharge. About 60% of the total recycling occurs at the limiter, which is nearly 100% of the ion recycling. The remaining 40% of the total recycling is carried by charge exchange neutrals. Due to saturation, the recycling coefficient at the limiter is 1; the recycling coefficient of the charge exchange neutrals at the wall is approximately 0.5 giving rise to a total recycling coefficient of limiter discharges of 0.8-0.9. It is observed that the plasma resistivity increases when the material limiter is moved toward the separatrix. The increase in Zsub(eff) can tentatively be explained by proton sputtering. (orig.)

  10. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Blue Box Plus Quinte regional recycling demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The Blue Box Plus recycling program was established in September 1990 in the Quinte region of Ontario. The program was intended to develop the necessary operational information so that the existing program could expand to include mixed plastics, corrugated cardboard, and boxboard. Over 33,000 recycling boxes were distributed over an area covering 15 municipalities with a population base of 95,000. The program showed the willingness of the public to participate in recycling, but advertising and promotion of the program were critical for success. Separation of the recycled materials on the collection trucks was found to be a viable approach and more efficient than sorting at the recycling plant. Adding new materials to be recycled could be done efficiently, and operating costs were in line with those for other programs collecting fewer materials. A cooperative market development with industrial players opened up a new and expanding market for boxboard. 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Lamps recycling aiming at the environment preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamachita, Roberto Akira; Gama, Paulo Henrique R. Pereira; Haddad, Jamil; Santos, Afonso H. Moreira; Guardia, Eduardo C.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of lamps recycling in Brazil: mercury lamps recycling, recycling potential, energy conservation and environmental impacts, enterprises lamps recycling, and incentives policy

  13. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  14. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  15. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  16. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  17. Materials flow management in the metal industry. Design and techno-economical analysis of industriyl recycling concepts; Stoffstrommanagement in der Metallindustrie. Zur Gestaltung und techno-oekonomischen Bewertung industrieller Recyclingkonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehre, S.

    2000-07-01

    Materials flow management is an attempt to cope with excessive consumption of resources and with the large-scale release of pollutants, both of which are hazards of our industrialised society. It is necessary to analyse materials and energy flow along interconnected product and process chains to develop suitable concepts, e.g. for innovative environmental protection and recycling measures. A planning instrument is designed for this purpose which is based on a combination of flowsheeting models common in chemical process engineering and material flow networks based on Petri nets. Its application enables computer-assisted design and techno-economic evaluation of industrial recycling concepts, so that decision makers in enterprises and administrations will be given a tool for in-house and external material flow management. In the implementation stage, the flowsheeting system 'Aspen Plus' and the eco-banancing tool 'Umberto' were used, and exemplary problems of material flow management in the steel and zinc industry were investigated. [German] Zur Ueberwindung negativer Umwelteinfluesse der Industriegesellschaft, die inbesondere aus dem Ressourcenverbrauch und der Freisetzung grosser Schadstoffmengen resultieren, werden Massnahmen im Sinne des Stoffstrommanagements gefordert. Die Entwicklung geeigneter Konzepte, etwa zum Einsatz innovativer Umweltschutz- und Recyclingmassnahmen, macht die Analyse von Stoff- und Energiestroemen entlang vernetzter Produkt- und Prozessketten erforderlich. Hierfuer wird ein Planungsinstrument konzipiert, das auf einer Kombination verfahrenstechnischer Flowsheeting-Modelle und Petri-Netz-basierter Stoffstromnetze beruht. Sein Einsatz ermoeglicht computergestuetzt die Gestaltung und techno-oekonomische Bewertung industrieller Recyclingkonzepte, so dass Entscheidungstraeger in Unternehmen und Behoerden ein Hilfsmittel zum betrieblichen und betriebsuebergreifenden Stoffstrommanagement erhalten. Bei der Implementierung

  18. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Research and development of a technology to promote non-ferrous metal based material recycling. (Research on component technologies and a total system); 1998 nendo hitetsu kinzokukei sozai recycle sokushin gijutsu seika hokokusho. Kenkyu kaihatsu yoso gijutsu kenkyu, total system kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project is intended to research and develop a high level aluminum recycling technology to realize the 'product to product' philosophy to return different aluminum scraps into the original materials, while attempting to develop and unify the aluminum recycling technologies and promote utilization of LNG. This fiscal year has studied the following methods as the component technology research: (1) an inclusion removing method, (2) a crystal sorting method, (3) a vacuum distillation method, and (4) a semi-melting method. The studies on (1), (2) and (3) were performed on identification of basic data and systematization to determine the life and facility specifications, with the full-swing demonstration tests being waited to start in fiscal 1999. The research and development on the item (4) was determined technologically feasible although additional discussions are required on the engineering aspect for practical application. The component technology study thereon will be finished with the current fiscal year. For the demonstration tests among the studies on total system technologies, the crystal sorting method and the vacuum distillation method had the achievements obtained in the research of the component technologies reflected directly to the facility design and fabrication. There has been no large-scale facility fabrication for the inclusion removing method and effective utilization of ash remaining in dross, and the researches were performed as scheduled. (NEDO)

  19. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-09-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH&S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for "green economy". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH and S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for “green economy”

  1. Case studies in rural recycling. Public service report series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosper, S.D.; Hallenbeck, W.H.; Brenniman, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    Due to state planning requirements and federal landfill regulations, solid waste management in rural areas (particularly recycling) has received much attention in recent years. The growth of recycling during the 1980s occurred mainly in urban and suburban areas. Therefore, rural recycling is still a relatively new enterprise. This report presents several rural recycling case studies from Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Tennessee, and Ontario, Canada to provide examples of successes and problems. This report also discusses the current issues of cooperative marketing of recyclables and municipal solid waste flow control. With respect to recycling, a rural region does not have ready access to markets for collected materials and has difficulty in generating easily marketable quantities of recyclables. (Copyright (c) 1994 The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois.)

  2. New self-assembled material based on Ru nanoparticles and 4-sulfocalix[4]arene as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for reduction of brilliant yellow azo dye in water: a new model catalytic reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambabu, Darsi; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Dhir, Abhimanew, E-mail: abhimanew@iitmandi.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology (India)

    2016-12-15

    New self-assembled material (Ru@SC) with ruthenium nanoparticles (Ru NPs) and 4-sulfocalix[4]arene (SC) is synthesized in water at room temperature. Ru@SC is characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, FT-IR, powder x-ray diffraction, TEM and SEM analysis. The size of Ru nanoparticles in the self-assembly is approximately 5 nm. The self-assembled material Ru@SC shows an efficient catalytic reduction of toxic ‘brilliant yellow’ (BY) azo dye. The reduced amine products were successfully separated and confirmed by single-crystal XRD, NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Ru@SC showed a better catalytic activity in comparison with commercial catalysts Ru/C (ruthenium on charcoal 5 %) and Pd/C (palladium on charcoal 5 and 10 %). The catalyst also showed a promising recyclability and heterogeneous nature as a catalyst for reduction of ‘BY’ azo dye.

  3. Considerations in recycling contaminated scrap metal and rubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluk, A.F.; Hocking, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    Management options for the Department of Energy's increasing amounts of contaminated scrap metal and rubble include reuse as is, disposal, and recycling. Recycling, with its promise of resource recovery, virgin materials conservation, and land disposal minimization, emerges as a preferred management technique. Implementing a cost effective recycling program requires resolution of several issues including: establishing release limits for contaminants, controlling use of recycled materials creating effective public communication programs; developing economical, reliable assay technologies; managing secondary waste streams, expanding availability of unrestricted markets; and solving conflicting legal considerations

  4. RECYCLING OF FERROUS METAL SHAVINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most advanced and universal way of chips recycling of ferrous metals is the technology of direct chips remelting in rotational tilting furnaces (RBF directly at the enterprises-sources of waste generation. However common practice of iron and steel chips recycling is based on its briquetting and subsequent remelting in traditional furnaces.For cost reduction when chip briquetting and organization of hot briquetting sections in places of its formation highly efficient equipment – rotational dryer and RBF is proposed. The possibility and effectiveness of developed furnaces for lowand high-temperature chip heating in briquetting lines is proved. Thermal efficiency of such furnaces when dispersed materials heating is much higher than drum or feed-through furnaces. Hot briquetting of shavings reduces the pressing force, which reduces the specific energy consumption. The use of rotary kilns can reduce technological operations and equipment of production sites for the manufacture of briquettes

  5. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  6. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  7. Mechanochemical treatment of polymeric materials. A low environmental impact solution for mixed plastic waste recycling; Il trattamento meccanochimico di materiali polimerici: una soluzione a basso impatto ambientale per il riciclaggio di plastiche eterogenee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padella, F.; Magini, M.; Masci, A. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    Standard polymeric materials as well as mixtures of them coming from urban wastes, were milled at near room temperature in suitable milling conditions. All the experiments carried out gave a material having a homogeneous fibrous aspect. Structural and thermal analysis of the resulting material clearly shows that the mechanochemical action is able to promote a deep destructuring of the starting networks with a very high energy storage in the milled materials. Further, the fibrous material can be easily consolidated whatever the starting composition of the mixture. preliminary results, coming from mechanical tests on compacted materials, lead to an optimistic conclusion as far as plastic recycling by ball milling is concerned. [Italian] Materiali polimerici standard, cosi' come miscele di materiali plastici provenienti da rifiuti solidi urbani, sono stati macinati a temperatura pressoche' ambiente in opportune condizioni operative. Tutti gli esperimenti hanno prodotto un materiale morfologicamente omogeneo di aspetto fibroso. Le analisi termiche e strutturali condotte sui prodotti mostrano chiaramente come l'azione meccanochimica sia in grado di promuovere una forte destrutturazione del materiale di partenza, accompagnata da un evidente accumulo di energia nel prodotto macinato. In aggiunta, il materiale fibroso puo' essere facilmente consolidato in forme finite, indipendemente dalla composizione di partenza. I risultati preliminari delle prove meccaniche eseguite sui materiali consolidati inducono a conclusioni ottimistiche relativamente all'utilizzo di tecniche di macinazione ad alta energia per il riciclaggio di materiali plastici.

  8. A comparison of chemical compositions of reported altered oceanic crusts and global MORB data set: implication for isotopic heterogeneity of recycled materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, G.; Kogiso, T.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical composition of altered oceanic crust is one of important constraints to delineate chemical heterogeneity of the mantle. Accordingly, many researchers have been studied to determine bulk chemical composition of altered oceanic crust mainly based on chemical compositions of old oceanic crusts at Site 801 and Site 417/418, and young crust at Site 504 (e.g., Staudigel et al., 1996; Bach et al. 2003; Kuo et al., 2016). Their careful estimation provided reliable bulk chemical compositions of these Sites and revealed common geochemical feature of alteration. To assess effect of recycling of altered oceanic crust on chemical evolution of the mantle, it might be meaningful to discuss whether the reported chemical compositions of altered oceanic crusts can represent chemical composition of globally subducted oceanic crusts. Reported chemical compositions of fresh glass or less altered samples from Site 801, 417/418 and 504 were highly depleted compared to that of global MORB reported by Gale et al. (2013), suggesting that there might be sampling bias. Hence, it could be important to consider chemical difference between oceanic crusts of these three Sites and global MORB to discuss effect of recycling of oceanic crust on isotopic heterogeneity of the mantle. It has been suggested that one of controlling factors of chemical variation of oceanic crust is crustal spreading rate because different degree of partial melting affects chemical composition of magmas produced at a mid-ocean ridge. Crustal spreading rate could also affect intensity of alteration. Namely, oceanic crusts produced at slow-spreading ridges may prone to be altered due to existence of larger displacement faults compared to fast spreading ridges which have relatively smooth topography. Thus, it might be significant to evaluate isotopic evolution of oceanic crusts those were produced at different spreading rates. In this presentation, we will provide a possible chemical variation of altered oceanic

  9. Development of recycling processes for clean rejected MOX fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khot, P.M.; Singh, G.; Shelke, B.K.; Surendra, B.; Yadav, M.K.; Mishra, A.K.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry and wet (MWDD) methods were developed for 100% recycling of CRO (0.4–44% PuO 2 ). • Dry method showed higher productivity and comparable powder/product characteristics. • MWDD batches demonstrated improved powder/product characteristics to that of virgin. • Second/multiple recycling is possible with MWDD with better powder/product characteristics. • MWDD batches prepared by little milling showed better macroscopic homogeneity to that of virgin. - Abstract: The dry and wet recycling processes have been developed for 100% recycling of Clean Reject Oxide (CRO) generated during the fabrication of MOX fuel, as CRO contains significant amount of plutonium. Plutonium being strategic material need to be circumvented from its proliferation issues related to its storage for long period. It was difficult to recycle CRO containing higher Pu content even with multiple oxidation and reduction steps. The mechanical recycling comprising of jaw crushing and sieving has been coupled with thermal pulverization for recycling CRO with higher Pu content in dry recycling technique. In wet recycling, MicroWave Direct Denitration (MWDD) technique has been developed for 100% recycling of CRO. The powder prepared by dry and wet (MWDD) recycling techniques was characterized by XRD and BET techniques and their effects on the pellets were evaluated. (U,21%Pu)O 2 pellets fabricated from virgin powder and MWDD were characterized using optical microscopy and α-autoradiography and the results obtained were compared

  10. Fish impingement at Lake Michigan power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Freeman, R.F.; Spigarelli, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was initiated in 1974 to survey the magnitude and to evaluate the impact of fish impingement at 20 power plants on the Great Lakes. Data on impingement rates, site characteristics, intake designs and operational features have been collected and analyzed. Interpretive analyses of these data are in progress. The objectives of this study were: to summarize fish impingement data for Lake Michigan (16/20 plants surveyed are on Lake Michigan); to assess the significance of total and source-related mortalities on populations of forage and predator species; and to expand the assessment of power plant impingement to include all water intakes on Lake Michigan. Data are tabulated

  11. Comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ashfaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules. It is possible to recycle even very old products by modern standard processes in a value-conserving manner. About 90% of the materials recovered from solar panels can be recycled into useful products. Carbon emission and energy cost are low in manufacturing recycled SPV. Modules can be manufactured with recycled materials and reinstalled in systems as a full quality product with today’s technology good for another 25–30 years. Analysis of all the models of PV module is done with the help of MATLAB. This helps in comparison and proves the effectiveness of the recycled PV module based systems.

  12. Passive solar homes in Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindred, G.F. [Garfield Kindred Associates, Hancock, MI (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper discussed the construction and design of 3 affordable passive solar homes located in high latitudes: (1) the Kindred house located in a wooded subdivision in Hancock, Michigan; (2) the Autio house located in Laurium, Michigan; and the Mikkola house located in South Range, Michigan. The award-winning houses were part of the United States federal government's Energy Star program. The houses were constructed with common building materials in order to introduce the general public to the principles of energy-conscious passive solar design strategies and sustainable construction technologies. Super-insulation was used to retain solar heat gain in the houses. Air infiltration was minimized through the use of an airtight drywall sealing technique. Large windows were a prominent feature of the southern facades of the houses. The windows used fixed and casement low-e argon-filled insulated glazing. Average bills for the Kindred home are US$960 per year. It was concluded that passive solar design and construction strategies are now being used more often in the area as a result of the positive media coverage that the homes has received. 5 refs.

  13. Recycled industrial and construction waste for mutual beneficial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Instead of going to landfills, certain waste materials from industry and building construction can be recycled in transportation infrastructure projects, such as roadway paving. The beneficial use of waste materials in the construction of transportat...

  14. Utilization of recycled concrete aggregates in structural concrete by applying a fraction partitioning model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de P.M.F.; Doudart de la Grée, G.C.H.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Bilek, V.; Kersner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of concrete waste into new structural concrete reduces the utilization of raw materials, decreases transport and production energy cost, and saves the use of limited landfill space. Currently, recycling involves the use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) as road base material or in

  15. HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING PROGRAMS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah M Akil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in per capita income and rapid urbanization, have contributed significantly to changes in consumption behaviour leading to increased waste generation.  Waste disposed to landfill sites is fast becoming unfeasible thus requiring a more effective management of waste material involving waste reduction, reuse and recycling. The success of recycling program, however, is largely dependent on household participation activities which are essentially behaviour driven. The recycling performance of Malaysian households is still low as it stands at 5.5% compared to Singapore and Vietnam which are 56% and 22% respectively. This study examines recycling behaviour among households and the influence of socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural characteristics on households’ participation in recycling program in Malaysia.  A sample of 300 randomly selected household were surveyed.  The findings revealed that most of the households (70% claim that they are practicing recycling particularly types of paper and old clothes. The factors of participation in recycling show equal results both for environmental concerns and economic benefits. Those who did not participate in recycling, listed household issues or behaviour, namely lack of time and materials to recycle, inconvenient, lack of space, lack of facilities and information as well as laziness, as barriers. The paper finally highlights the factors which can encourage household to be involved in recycling and give recommendations to the authorities in terms of facilities and infrastructures to facilitate the program.

  16. 239 240Pu in Lake Michigan: 1971 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Nelson, D.M.; Orlandini, K.A.; Kucera, E.T.

    1978-01-01

    The plutonium concentration data presented previously have consisted primarily of results from studies of short-term variations, i.e., the annual plutonium cycle conducted at Lake Michigan station ANL-5, 12 km SW of Grand Haven, Michigan. In this report, mean annual concentrations of total plutonium in unfiltered water from far off-shore (> 30 km) stations for the period 1971 through 1977, and from station ANL-5 (1975 through 1978) are summarized to establish the long-term trend in plutonium concentration in Lake Michigan. The results presented show that the mean annual concentration in the water column is similar at ANL-5 and at offshore stations and has decreased at the rate of only 6% per year during the period 1972 through 1978. The nearly constant concentration indicates that steady-state equilibria exist between plutonium inputs to the lake and the loss of plutonium from the water column. Observations suggest the existence of an active redox cycle for Pu in Lake Michigan. In this cycle, Pu IV atoms in solution are continually taken up by particulate materials but may be oxidized within microzones of the particles such as freshly deposited manganese coatings and also in solution by agents such as dissolved oxygen. In turn, the concentration of Pu VI in solution may be limited by reaction with reducing constituents of the coloidal-sized fraction (or decomposer organisms such as bacteria or fungi, which might have been present after filtration) and with planktonic organisms in the environment to produce Pu IV and thus maintain the cycle

  17. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  18. Reusing and recycling in Saskatchewan: Environmental benefits of reusing and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    After an introduction explaining the environmental benefits of reusing and recycling, as well as providing suggestions on minimizing waste and conserving energy, a directory of recyclers and handlers of various kinds of waste in Saskatchewan is presented. Names, addresses/telephone numbers, and types of materials accepted are given for recyclers of animal products, clothing or textiles, glass, compostable materials, industrial hardware, metals, office products, paper, plastic, and tires. Collection depots in the SARCAN recycling program for beverage containers are listed, giving town name, address, hours of operation, and telephone number. Receivers of waste dangerous goods are listed under the categories of ozone-depleting substances, waste batteries, solvents, lubricating oils and oil filters, paint, flammable liquids, antifreeze, drycleaning waste, and miscellaneous.

  19. MICHIGAN FARM DATABASE NEW DIRECTIONS FOR 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Nott, Sherrill B.; Hepp, Ralph E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide financial and production performance data for Michigan farms in 1995. Separate sections report on the farm types of Cash Grain, Dairy, Fruit, General Crop, General Livestock, and Swine. This data can be used as a comparative data base for individual farmers to conduct a financial analysis of their own farm to identify strengths and weaknesses. This report can also provide information to those interested in the financial well being of Michigan agricultur...

  20. Continuous cell recycle fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R K; Hill, G A; MacDonald, D G

    1991-10-01

    A cell recycle fermentor using a cross-flow membrane filter has been operated for extended periods. Productivities as high as 70 g/l/h were obtained at a cell concentration of 120 g/l and a product concentration of 70 g/l. The experimental results were then fitted to previously derived biokinetic models (Warren et al., 1990) for a continuous stirred tank fermentor. A good fit for growth rate was found and the cell yield was shown to decrease with product concentration. The product yield, however, was found to remain nearly constant at all cell, substrate and product concentrations. These biokinetics, along with a previous model for the membrane filter (Warren et al., 1991) were then used in a simulalation to estimate the costs of producing ethanol in a large scale system. This simulation was optimized using a variant of the steepest descent method from which a fermentor inlet substrate concentration of 150 g/l and a net cost of $CAN 253.5/1000 L ethanol were projected. From a sensitivity analysis, the yield parameters were found to have the greatest effect on ethanol net cost of the fermentor parameters, while the operating costs and the profit was found to be most sensitive to the wheat raw material cost and to the dried grains by-product value. 55 refs., 11 tabs., 7figs.

  1. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  2. The Compressor Recycle System

    OpenAIRE

    Barstad, Bjørn Ove

    2010-01-01

    The compressor recycle system is the main focus of this thesis. When the mass flow through a compressor becomes too low, the compressor can plunge into surge. Surge is a term that is used for axisymmetric oscillation through a compressor and is highly unwanted. The recycle system feeds compressed gas back to the intake when the mass flow becomes too low, and thereby act as a safety system.A mathematical model of the recycle system is extended and simulated in SIMULINK. The mathematical model ...

  3. Paper recycling and social policy. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R K; Grace, R

    1976-12-01

    The most promising new source of paper for recycling is the household and small commercial business, whose waste papers can be processed if the paper and board industry is willing to invest capital to develop the facilities and the technology needed to upgrade indigenous fibers. Cost-benefit analyses in the United Kingdom indicate that support of this type of paper recycling has more merit than a buffer stock scheme. Efforts to conserve virgin materials by increasing the use of secondary materials could be further strengthened by taxes on the disposal of virgin materials. Paper recycling policies should include a range of sources, from discarded post-consumer waste paper and boxes to the release and use of energy by incineration, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. Waste availability is influenced by product durability, replacement by other products (such as plastic wrap for paper), industry maturity, and social attitudes. Public acceptance of lower-quality paper products and improved technology to remove ink and color should combine to make recycling more feasible. Efforts to develop the household and commercial sector will result in lower import requirements for wood pulp and an improved balance of payments for the United Kingdom. Recycled fibers require less water and energy to process, but the process wastes introduce environmental pollutants. Short- and long-term forecasts show a growth rate trend that varies with paper grade and corresponds with general economic growth. (35 references) (DCK)

  4. Recycling of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstroem, Ingela

    1999-12-01

    Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is a part of the process of recycling fissile material. Extracting agents for partitioning the high level liquid waste (HLLW) from conventional PUREX reprocessing is studied. The CTH-process is based on three consecutive extraction cycles. In the first cycle protactinium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium are removed by extraction with di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) from a 6 M nitric acid HLLW solution. Distribution ratios for actinides, fission products and corrosion products between HLLW and 1 M HDEHP in an aliphatic diluent have been investigated. To avoid addition of chemicals the acidity is reduced by a tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction cycle. The distribution ratios of elements present in HLLW have been measured between 50 % TBP in an aliphatic diluent and synthetic HLLW in range 0.1-6 M nitric acid. In the third extraction cycle americium and curium are extracted. To separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides a method based on selective stripping of the actinides from 1 M HDEHP is proposed. The aqueous phase containing ammonia, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and lactic acid is recycled in a closed loop after reextraction of the actinides into a second organic phase also containing 1 M HDEHP. Distribution ratios for americium and neodymium have been measured at varying DTPA and lactic acid concentrations and at varying pH. Nitrogen-donor reagents have been shown to have a potential to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides. 2,2':6,2''-terpyridine as extractant follows the CHON-principle and can in synergy with 2-bromodecanoic acid separate americium from europium. Distribution ratios for americium and europium, in the range of 0.02-0.12 M nitric acid, between nitric acid and 0.02 M terpyridine with 1 M 2-bromodecanoic acid in tert-butylbenzene (TBB) was investigated. Comparison with other nitrogen-donor reagents show that increasing lipophilicity of the molecule, by substitution of

  5. Flows of engineered nanomaterials through the recycling process in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd, E-mail: nowack@empa.ch

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Recycling is one of the likely end-of-life fates of nanoproducts. • We assessed the material flows of four nanomaterials in the Swiss recycling system. • After recycling, most nanomaterials will flow to landfills or incineration plants. • Recycled construction waste, plastics and textiles may contain nanomaterials. - Abstract: The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in diverse applications has increased during the last years and this will likely continue in the near future. As the number of applications increase, more and more waste with nanomaterials will be generated. A portion of this waste will enter the recycling system, for example, in electronic products, textiles and construction materials. The fate of these materials during and after the waste management and recycling operations is poorly understood. The aim of this work is to model the flows of nano-TiO{sub 2}, nano-ZnO, nano-Ag and CNT in the recycling system in Switzerland. The basis for this study is published information on the ENMs flows on the Swiss system. We developed a method to assess their flow after recycling. To incorporate the uncertainties inherent to the limited information available, we applied a probabilistic material flow analysis approach. The results show that the recycling processes does not result in significant further propagation of nanomaterials into new products. Instead, the largest proportion will flow as waste that can subsequently be properly handled in incineration plants or landfills. Smaller fractions of ENMs will be eliminated or end up in materials that are sent abroad to undergo further recovery processes. Only a reduced amount of ENMs will flow back to the productive process of the economy in a limited number of sectors. Overall, the results suggest that risk assessment during recycling should focus on occupational exposure, release of ENMs in landfills and incineration plants, and toxicity assessment in a small number of recycled inputs.

  6. Flows of engineered nanomaterials through the recycling process in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Recycling is one of the likely end-of-life fates of nanoproducts. • We assessed the material flows of four nanomaterials in the Swiss recycling system. • After recycling, most nanomaterials will flow to landfills or incineration plants. • Recycled construction waste, plastics and textiles may contain nanomaterials. - Abstract: The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in diverse applications has increased during the last years and this will likely continue in the near future. As the number of applications increase, more and more waste with nanomaterials will be generated. A portion of this waste will enter the recycling system, for example, in electronic products, textiles and construction materials. The fate of these materials during and after the waste management and recycling operations is poorly understood. The aim of this work is to model the flows of nano-TiO 2 , nano-ZnO, nano-Ag and CNT in the recycling system in Switzerland. The basis for this study is published information on the ENMs flows on the Swiss system. We developed a method to assess their flow after recycling. To incorporate the uncertainties inherent to the limited information available, we applied a probabilistic material flow analysis approach. The results show that the recycling processes does not result in significant further propagation of nanomaterials into new products. Instead, the largest proportion will flow as waste that can subsequently be properly handled in incineration plants or landfills. Smaller fractions of ENMs will be eliminated or end up in materials that are sent abroad to undergo further recovery processes. Only a reduced amount of ENMs will flow back to the productive process of the economy in a limited number of sectors. Overall, the results suggest that risk assessment during recycling should focus on occupational exposure, release of ENMs in landfills and incineration plants, and toxicity assessment in a small number of recycled inputs

  7. Recycling ampersand incineration: Evaluating the choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, R.A.; Ruston, J.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling and incineration. It is intended for 'citizens, government officials, and business people who want to help resolve the solid-waste crisis.' The book is divided into three parts: recycling and incineration; health and environmental risk of incineration; and planning, public participation, and environmental review requirements. The book does an excellent job of discussing the benefits of recycling and the pitfalls of incineration. It provides helpful information for identifying questions that should be raised about incineration, but it does not raise similar queries about recycling. There is much worthwhile information here, but the book would be more useful if it identified critical issues for all waste reduction and management options

  8. Optical absorption in recycled waste plastic polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, M. P.; Rahmawati, I.; Priyanto, A.; Karunawan, J.; Wati, A. L.; Aryani, N. P.; Susanto; Wibowo, E.; Sulhadi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of UV spectrum absorption in recycled waste plastic from polyethylene polymer type. Waste plastic polyethylene showed an optical spectrum absorption after it’s recycling process. Spectrum absorption is determined using spectrophotometer UV-Nir Ocean Optics type USB 4000. Recycling method has been processed using heating treatment around the melting point temperature of the polyethylene polymer that are 200°C, 220°C, 240°C, 260°C, and 280°C. In addition, the recycling process was carried out with time variations as well, which are 1h, 1.5h, 2h, and 2.5h. The result of this experiment shows that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a spectrum absorption in the ∼ 340-550 nm wavelength range. The absorbance spectrum obtained from UV light which is absorbed in the orbital n → π* and the orbital π → π*. This process indicates the existence of electron transition phenomena. This mechanism is affected by the temperature and the heating time where the intensity of absorption increases and widens with the increase of temperature and heating time. Furthermore this study resulted that the higher temperature affected the enhancement of the band gap energy of waste plastic polyethylene. These results show that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a huge potential to be absorber materials for solar cell.

  9. Major issues associated with DOE commercial recycling initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D.; Rast, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Major initiatives are underway within DOE to recycle large volumes of scrap material generated during cleanup of the DOE Weapons Complex. These recycling initiatives are driven not only by the desire to conserve natural resources, but also by the recognition that shallow level burial is not a politically acceptable option. The Fernald facility is in the vanguard of a number of major DOE recycling efforts. These early efforts have brought issues to light that can have a major impact on the ability of Fernald and other major DOE sites to expand recycling efforts in the future. Some of these issues are; secondary waste deposition, title to material and radioactive contaminants, mixed waste generated during recycling, special nuclear material possession limits, cost benefit, transportation of waste to processing facilities, release criteria, and uses for beneficially reused products

  10. Performance of Recycled Porous Hot Mix Asphalt with Gilsonite Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Djakfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of porous asphalt using waste recycled concrete material and explore the effect of adding Gilsonite to the mixture. As many as 90 Marshall specimens were prepared with varied asphalt content, percentage of Gilsonite as an additive, and proportioned recycled and virgin coarse aggregate. The test includes permeability capability and Marshall characteristics. The results showed that recycled concrete materials seem to have a potential use as aggregate in the hot mix asphalt, particularly on porous hot mix asphalt. Adding Gilsonite at ranges 8–10% improves the Marshall characteristic of the mix, particularly its stability, without decreasing significantly the permeability capability of the mix. The use of recycled materials tends to increase the asphalt content of the mix at about 1 to 2% higher. With stability reaching 750 kg, the hot mix recycled porous asphalt may be suitable for use in the local roads with medium vehicle load.

  11. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  12. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  13. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  14. A Practical Recycling Project . . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Raymond H.; Mikuska, James M.

    1973-01-01

    Descirbes a school district's recycling program of aluminum lunch trays that are collected after their use. The trays are used as scrap metal in industrial education workshop and used for sand castings. (PS)

  15. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  16. Dual recycling for GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, H; Freise, A; Malec, M; Heinzel, G; Willke, B; Lueck, H; Strain, K A; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    Dual recycling is the combination of signal recycling and power recycling; both optical techniques improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. In addition, signal recycling can reduce the loss of light power due to imperfect interference and allows us, in principle, to beat the standard quantum limit. The interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 is the first of the kilometre-scale detectors to use signal recycling. We have recently equipped the detector with a signal-recycling mirror with a transmittance of 1%. In this paper, we present details of the detector commissioning and the first locks of the dual-recycled interferometer

  17. Recycling of steelmaking dusts: The Radust concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalkanen H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of dusts and other wastes of steelmaking is becoming to a necessity of two reasons: due to high contents of iron oxides dusts are valuable raw material for steelmaking and tightening environmental legislation makes the landfill disposal of wastes more expensive. Fine dust fractions from various stages of steelmaking route contain besides iron and carbon heavy metals especially zinc and lead and heavy hydrocarbons that are acceptable neither for landfill disposal nor for recycling back to processes without any spe4cial treatments. Some theoretical and practical aspects concerning high temperature treatments of steelmaking dusts for removal of hazardous components and production of clean high iron raw material for recycling is discussed in this paper. The Radust technology developed at Koverhar steelwork in Finland for treatment of the most problematic fine fractions of blast furnace and oxygen converter dusts is shortly presented and discussed.

  18. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R ampersand D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility

  19. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  20. Thermoset composite recycling: Properties of recovered glass fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Fraisse, Anthony; Toncelli, C.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of glass fiber thermoset polymer composite is a challenging topic and a process able to recover the glass fibers original properties in a limited cost is still under investigation. This paper focuses on the recycling technique separating the glass fiber from the matrix material. Four...