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Sample records for michaux liquidamber styraciflua

  1. Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, W.D.; Nebeker, T.E.; Gerard, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author) [es

  2. Inheritance of compartmentalization of wounds in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. W. Garrett; W. K. Randall; A. L. Shigo; W. C. Shortle

    1979-01-01

    Studies of half-sib progeny tests of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and clonal plantings of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) in Mississippi indicate that rate of wound closure and size of discolored columns associated with the wounds are both heritable traits. Both are independent of stem diameter, which was used as a...

  3. Photosynthesis and pigment production in Liquidambar styraciflua - developmental and UV-B radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillenburg, L.R.; Sullivan, J.H.; Teramura, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    Leaf expansion is very sensitive to different environmental stresses. This study describes ontogenetic changes in leaf size and physiology of Liquidambar styraciflua seedlings grown under UV-B irradiance levels simulating 0% (control), 16% (low) and 25% (high) stratospheric ozone reductions. Leaf size, light- and CO 2 -saturated rates of O 2 evolution (A max ), and concentration of chlorophylls (chl), and UV-B absorbing pigments were measured over a 4-week period. Specific leaf weight, A max and chl concentration increased with leaf age, except for a peak in A max at early development. Chlorophyll b concentration increased at a slower rate than chl a. Recently unfurled leaves has the greatest concentration of UV-B absorbing pigments. The effect of UV-B radiation on leaf growth and physiology were small and not dose-dependent. Expansion of leaves exposed to low UV-B was slightly delayed compared to controls (1.663 vs. 1.90 cm 2 /day), but final leaf size was unaffected by UV-B radiation. Physiological effects were less pronounced during the rapid expansion period. High UV-B tended to promote, while low UV-B inhibited accumulation of chl, especially chl a. In contrast, concentration of UV-B absorbing compounds was promoted only by low UV-B. The small inhibitory effects of UV-B on leaf growth and physiology suggests a high tolerance of the species to damaging UV-B radiation

  4. Textes d'ouverture et de fermeture dans La nuit remue d'Henri Michaux : mises en jeu du principe de mobilité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durain, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Résumé : Henri MICHAUX est à bien des égards un poète de la " situation ", au sens courant d'" ensemble des circonstances dans lesquelles une personne se trouve" (PETIT ROBERT, 2008 : 2379: les textes nous présentent souvent un être aux prises avec un monde agressif et impliqué dans des situations fâcheuses ; mais le sens premier, purement locatif du terme convient aussi parfaitement aux enjeux de son écriture : le " fait d'être en un lieu ", la " manière dont une chose est disposée, située ou orientée " (PETIT ROBERT, 2008 : 2379. C'est sur ce premier niveau sémantique que se fonde essentiellement l'étude qui va suivre. En prenant appui sur les deux textes-cadres que constituent le premier et le dernier poème du recueil La nuit remue, on se propose en effet d'observer une des manières dont se construit et se structure la relation à l'espace dans l'écriture michaldienne : autour du changement de situation. Ce changement - nous reprenons ici l'approche d'Andrée BORILLO dans son ouvrage La construction de l'espace en français- peut être de deux natures : le " changement d'emplacement ", où " le déplacement s'effectue tout en restant dans un même lieu établi ", et le " changement de lieu ", où se joue un véritable " changement de relation spatiale avec un lieu établi " (BORILLO, 1998 : 39. Nous avons choisi d'étudier conjointement ces deux modes de changement, les réunissant dans le cadre d'une exploration du principe de mobilité. Cette notion, on le verra, permet de rendre compte de bien des phénomènes à l'œuvre dans la poésie de MICHAUX : phénomènes d'ordre spatial, bien sûr, mais aussi d'ordre ontologique et linguistique. Les deux poèmes sélectionnés, " La nuit remue " et " L'avenir ", nous semblent des lieux tout désignés pour engager cette étude du principe de mobilité : il s'agit de textes-seuils, et en tant que tels, ils sont, dans l'ordre de la construction et de la lecture de l

  5. Reproductive Ecology of Vallisneria americana Michaux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    River and Estuary, Maryland and Virginia, May 1978 to November 1981. U.S. Geologi- cal Survey Water Supply Paper 2234A. Carter, V. A., and N. B...Information Network, reference website: http://www.ars-grin.gov/. Haccius, B. 1952. Über die Blattstellung einiger Hydrocharitaceen-Embryonen. Planta 40: 333...Hydrocharitaceae). Aquatic Botany 13: 269- 298. Marie-Victorin, F. 1943. Les Vallisnéries américaines. Contributions de l’Institut Botanique de l’Universite de

  6. Quelques conséquences de l'introduction de deux espèces de macrophytes, Elodea canadensis Michaux et Elodea nuttallii St. John, dans les écosystèmes aquatiques continentaux : exemple de la plaine d'Alsace et des Vosges du Nord (Nord-Est de la France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THIEBAUT G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available L'introduction au XIXème et XXème siècle, de deux espèces d'élodées Elodea canadensis Michaux et Elodea nuttallii St. John, dans les cours d'eau du nord-est de la France, a induit des modifications dans la composition floristique et le fonctionnement des écosystèmes aquatiques. L'analyse comparative de la distribution géographique de ces deux hydrophytes dans les eaux calcaires (plaine d'Alsace et acides (Vosges du Nord a permis de préciser leur écologie. Après des phases successives d'expansion des deux espèces, celles-ci se sont intégrées dans les phytocénoses aquatiques. L'introduction dans les écosystèmes aquatiques d'Elodea canadensis et d'E. nuttallii a induit des phénomènes de compétition interspécifique, en faveur essentiellement d'Elodea nuttallii. Cette dernière apparaît comme l'espèce la plus compétitive dans les cours d'eau eutrophes de la plaine d'Alsace (aptitude à accumuler le phosphore, sensibilité moindre à l'azote ammoniacal. Les élodées peuvent réaliser une épuration biologique, mais provoquent, lors de leur décomposition, une eutrophisation secondaire des eaux en absence de faucardage.

  7. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 11. Forest Vegetation of the Leveed Floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    styraciflua, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Carya illinoensis and Quercus CC .-. sp. may occur but are rare and were not sampled in this study. 88. The subtype... illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch Carya laciniosa (Michaux f.) Loudon Juglans nigra L. BETULACEAE Carpinus caroliniana Walter Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. Koch...between Baton Rouge and Memphis include Quercus nuttallii and Ulmus crassifolia. Acer saccharinum, Carya cordiformis, Carya laciniosa, and Juglans nigra

  8. Comparison of revegetation of a gas pipeline right-of-way in two forested wetland crossings involving conventional methods of pipeline installation and horizontal drilling, Nassau County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology; Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-10-01

    One year after pipeline installation, vegetation in the right-of-way (ROW) was inventoried at two stream floodplain crossings in Nassau County, Florida. Both sites were forested wetlands composed of Acer rubrum, Fraxinus caroliniana, Liquidamber styraciflua, Nyssa ogecho, Quercus laurifolia, and Taxodium distichum, together with other wetland trees. Pipeline installation across the Brandy Branch floodplain was by conventional ditching and backfill methods. Installation across the Deep Creek floodplain was by horizontal drilling after clearcutting the ROW. The latter method left tree stumps, understory vegetation, and soil layers intact, except for disruptions caused by logging. According to the inventory, vegetation at the drilled site was more diverse (nearly twice as many species occurring in the ROW as at the trenched site) and more robust (no unvegetated exposed soil compared to 15% at the trenched site). Differences between the ROW vegetation at the two sites can be attributed to both site differences and installation technologies used.

  9. Using Seeds to Propagate and Restore Vallisneria americana Michaux (Wild Celery) in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    the capacity of the plants to elongate so that the leaves can reach closer to the water surface to gather adequate light for photosynthesis . When...transplant eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Chesapeake Bay and the Virginia Coastal Bays, In Proc. Conf. Seagrass Restoration: Success, Failure, and

  10. Chemical and anatomical changes in Liquidambar styraciflua L. xylem after long term exposure to elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keonhee; Labbé, Nicole; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Elder, Thomas; Rials, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical and chemical characteristics of sweetgum were studied after 11 years of elevated CO 2 (544 ppm, ambient at 391 ppm) exposure. Anatomically, branch xylem cells were larger for elevated CO 2 trees, and the cell wall thickness was thinner. Chemically, elevated CO 2 exposure did not impact the structural components of the stem wood, but non-structural components were significantly affected. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to detect differences between the CO 2 treatments by considering numerous structural and chemical variables, as well as tree size, and data from previously published sources (i.e., root biomass, production and turnover). The PCA results indicated a clear separation between trees exposed to ambient and elevated CO 2 conditions. Correlation loadings plots of the PCA revealed that stem structural components, ash, Ca, Mg, total phenolics, root biomass, production and turnover were the major responses that contribute to the separation between the elevated and ambient CO 2 treated trees. - Highlights: • First study of wood properties after 11 years of higher level of CO 2 treatment. • Elevated CO 2 exposure does not impact structural components of wood. • Total phenolics content and some inorganics were significantly affected. • Branch xylem cells were larger under elevated CO 2 . • Cell wall thickness was thinner under elevated CO 2 . - Elevated CO 2 in atmosphere did not impact the structural components yet altered some of non-structural components and anatomical properties after 11 years of exposure on sweetgum

  11. Runoff, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from agricultural land converted to sweetgum and switchgrass bioenergy feedstock production in north Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyakatawa, E.Z.; Mays, D.A. [Alabama A and M University, Normal (United States). Department of Plant and Soil Science; Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Bionergy Feedstock Development Project; Green, T.H.; Bingham, L. [Alabama A and M University, Normal (United States). Center for Forestry and Ecology

    2006-07-15

    Renewable energy sources such as bioenergy crops have significant potential as alternatives to fossil fuels. Potential environmental problems arising from soil sediment and nutrient losses in runoff water from bioenergy crops need to be evaluated in order to determine the sustainability and overall feasibility of implementing bioenergy development strategies. This paper discusses runoff, sediment, N, and total P losses from agricultural land (continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)) converted to short-rotation sweetgum (Liquidamber styraciflua L.) plantations with and without fescue (Festuca elatior L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) bioenergy crops, compared to corn (Zea mays L.), on a Decatur silt loam soil in north Alabama, from 1995 to 1999. Runoff volume was significantly correlated to total rainfall and sediment yield in each year, but treatment differences were not significant. Sweetgum plots produced the highest mean sediment yield of up to 800kgha{sup -1}compared to corn and switchgrass plots, which averaged less than 200kgha{sup -1}. Runoff NH{sub 4}{sup +} N losses averaged over treatments and years for spring season (3.1kgha{sup -1}) were three to five times those for summer, fall, and winter seasons. Runoff NO{sub 3}{sup -} N for no-till corn and switchgrass plots in spring and summer were five to ten times that for sweetgum plots. No-till corn and switchgrass treatments had 2.4 and 2.1kgha{sup -1} average runoff total P, respectively, which were two to three times that for sweetgum treatments. Growing sweetgum with a fescue cover crop provides significantly lower risk of water pollution from sediment, runoff NH{sub 4}{sup +} N, and NO{sub 3}{sup -} N. (author)

  12. Leaf respiration at different canopy positions in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) grown in ambient and elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue, D. T.; Lewis, J. D.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Amthro, J. S.; Griffin, K. L.; Anderson, O. R.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of elevated carbon dioxide and canopy position on leaf respiration in sweetgum trees in a closed canopy forest were measured in an effort to determine if, and why, enriched atmospheric carbon dioxide might affect leaf respiration in sweetgum. To account for the dark respiratory response to growth in elevated carbon dioxide, cell ultrastructure and cytochrome c oxidase activity in leaves were measured at different seasonal growth periods. Leaf respiration under light conditions was also estimated to determine whether elevated carbon dioxide affected daytime respiration. Results showed that long-term exposure to elevated carbon dioxide did not effect night-time or day- time respiration in trees grown in a plantation in the field. Canopy position affected night-time respiration partially, through the effects on leaf soluble sugar, starch, nitrogen and leaf mass per unit area. In carbon dioxide partial pressure the effects of canopy position were insignificant. It was concluded that elevated carbon dioxide does not directly impact leaf respiration in sweetgum and assuming no changes in leaf nitrogen or leaf chemical composition, the long-term effects on respiration in this species will be minimal. 50 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Progonomys Schaub, 1938 and Huerzelerimys gen. nov. (Rodentia) : their evolution in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mein, P.; Martín Suárez, E.; Agustí, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the various species and populations attributed to the genus Progonomys Schaub, 1938 are revised. Valerymys Michaux, 1969 is considered to be synonymous with Occitanomys Michaux, 1969, since the type-species V. ellenbergeri (Thaler, 1966) was included in Occitanomys by Aguilar et al.

  14. INvENTAIRE FLORISTIqUE ET EFFET DE LA DENSITÉ DE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KyllingaerectaSchum. var. flabelliformis (Cyperaceae). +. +. +. 92. Kyllingapumila Michaux (Cyperaceae). +. +. +. 93. Lantana camara L. (verbenaceae). +. -. -. 94. Leptoderrisfasciculata(Benth.) Dunn. (Fabaceae). -. +. -. 95. Lindernia diffusa (L.) Wettst. (Scrophulariaceae). +. -. -. 96. Ludwigiaabyssinica A. Rich. (Onagraceae).

  15. Progonomys Schaub, 1938 and Huerzelerimys gen. nov. (Rodentia) : their evolution in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Mein, P.; Martín Suárez, E.; Agustí, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the various species and populations attributed to the genus Progonomys Schaub, 1938 are revised. Valerymys Michaux, 1969 is considered to be synonymous with Occitanomys Michaux, 1969, since the type-species V. ellenbergeri (Thaler, 1966) was included in Occitanomys by Aguilar et al. (1986a). Other species from Western Europe that had been included in Valerymys cannot be transferred to Occitanomys. They are the descendants of Progonomys cathalai, for which we create the new genus...

  16. Final Environmental Assessment of Military Housing Privatization Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), water oak (Quercus nigra), red oak (Quercus sp...blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), mockernut hickory ( Carya tomentosa), pignut hickory (C. glabra), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), winged elm (Ulmus alata

  17. Fine root responses to temporal nutrient heterogeneity and competition in seedlings of two tree species with different rooting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Shu, Meng; Mou, Pu; Weiner, Jacob

    2018-03-01

    There is little direct evidence for effects of soil heterogeneity and root plasticity on the competitive interactions among plants. In this study, we experimentally examined the impacts of temporal nutrient heterogeneity on root growth and interactions between two plant species with very different rooting strategies: Liquidambar styraciflua (sweet gum), which shows high root plasticity in response to soil nutrient heterogeneity, and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine), a species with less plastic roots. Seedlings of the two species were grown in sandboxes in inter- and intraspecific combinations. Nutrients were applied in a patch either in a stable (slow-release) or in a variable (pulse) manner. Plant aboveground biomass, fine root mass, root allocation between nutrient patch and outside the patch, and root vertical distribution were measured. L. styraciflua grew more aboveground (40% and 27% in stable and variable nutrient treatment, respectively) and fine roots (41% and 8% in stable and variable nutrient treatment, respectively) when competing with P. taeda than when competing with a conspecific individual, but the growth of P. taeda was not changed by competition from L. styraciflua . Temporal variation in patch nutrient level had little effect on the species' competitive interactions. The more flexible L. styraciflua changed its vertical distribution of fine roots in response to competition from P. taeda , growing more roots in deeper soil layers compared to its roots in conspecific competition, leading to niche differentiation between the species, while the fine root distribution of P. taeda remained unchanged across all treatments. Synthesis . L. styraciflua showed greater flexibility in root growth by changing its root vertical distribution and occupying space of not occupied by P. taeda . This flexibility gave L. styraciflua an advantage in interspecific competition.

  18. Effects of genotype, elevated CO2 and elevated O3 on aspen phytochemistry and aspen leaf beetle Chrysomela crotchi performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leanne M. Vigue; Richard L. Lindroth

    2010-01-01

    Trembling aspen Populus tremuloides Michaux is an important forest species in the Great Lakes region and displays tremendous genetic variation in foliar chemistry. Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) may also influence phytochemistry and thereby alter the performance of insect herbivores such as...

  19. Phytophthora stricta isolated from Rhododendron maximum in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a survey in October 2013, in the Michaux State Forest in Pennsylvania , necrotic Rhododendron maximum leaves were noticed on mature plants alongside a stream. Symptoms were nondescript necrotic lesions at the tips of mature leaves. Colonies resembling a Phytophthora sp. were observed from c...

  20. Influence of plant growth regulators on somatic embryos induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TANOH

    2013-04-17

    Theobroma cacao L.) using Thidiazuron. In vitro Cell Dev. Biol. 34:293-299. Michaux-Ferrière N, Carron MP (1989). Histology of early somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis. The importance of timing of subculturing. Plant Cell Tiss ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 11, No 79 (2012), Assessment of non-genetic parameters of the racing performances of Arabian and Thoroughbred horses in Algeria, Abstract PDF. S Tennah, N Kafidi, N Antoine-Moussiaux, C Michaux, P Leroy, F Farnir. Vol 6, No 3 (2007), Assessment of nutritional status of soil supporting coconut (Cocus nucifera) ...

  2. Rainfall interception of three trees in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingfu Xiao; E. Gregory McPherson

    2011-01-01

    A rainfall interception study was conducted in Oakland, California to determine the partitioning of rainfall and the chemical composition of precipitation, throughfall, and stemflow. Rainfall interception measurements were conducted on a gingko (Ginkgo biloba) (13.5 m tall deciduous tree), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) (8...

  3. Thinning to improve growth, bole quality, and forest health in an Inonotus hispidus-infected, red oak-sweetgum stand in the Mississippi Delta: 10-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; Theodor D. Leininger; David Montwé; T. Evan Nebeker

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old red oak-sweetgum (Quercus spp.- Liquidambar styraciflua) stand on the Delta National Forest in western Mississippi was subjected to a combination of low thinning and improvement cutting in 1997. Special emphasis was placed on removing all red oaks infected with Inonotus hispidus, a canker decay...

  4. Twenty-nine years of development in planted cherrybark oak-sweetgum mixtures: implications for future mixed-species hardwood plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Andrew W. Ezell; John D. Hodges; Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2012-01-01

    Results from a long-term planted mixture of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) showed sweetgum taller in height and larger in diameter than cherrybark oak early in plantation development. By age 17, cherrybark oak was similar in height and diameter with sweetgum and by age 21 was taller...

  5. Ecological Requirements of Chigger Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-31

    our mature forest sites were in riverbottom hardwood forest, dominated by Acer negundo, Betula nigra and Liquidambar styraciflua with DBH greater than...Res. Malaysia , 16:1-67. Nutting, W. R. 1968. Host specificity in parasitic acarines. Acarolgia 10:165-180. Ott, Lyman. 1977. An introduction to

  6. Sucrose metabolic pathways in sweetgum and pecan seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.S. Sung; P.P. Kormanik; D.P. Xu; C.C. Black

    1989-01-01

    Sucrose metabolism and glycolysis were studied in one- to two-year-old seedlings of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch). The sucrose synthase pathway was identified as the dominant sucrose metabolic activity in sucrose sink tissues such as terminal buds and the root cambial...

  7. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Wetland and Riparian Forests in the Ouachita Mountains and Crowley’s Ridge Regions of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Liquidambar styraciflua Gleditsia triacanthos Quercus alba Pinus taeda Juniperus virginiana Quercus pagoda Quercus nigra Prunus serotina Quercus phellos...maple, sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), American elm (Ulmus americana), and persimmon (Diospyros virginiana ). Wetlands of higher terraces typically are...hazels (Hamamelis virginiana , H. vernalis), and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium arboreum). The groundcover layer is usually very diverse and may include

  8. Leaf Litter Decomposition and Nutrient Dynamics in Four Southern Forested Floodplain Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell T. Baker; B. Graeme Lockaby; William H. Conner; Calvin E. Meier; John A. Stanturf

    2001-01-01

    Decomposition of site-specific litter mixtures was monitored for 100 wk in four Roodplaht communities: (i) a mixed oak community along the Cache River in central Arkansas, (ii) a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.)-cherrybark oak (Quercus falcata var. pagodaefolia Ell.) community along Iatt Creek in...

  9. A Quantitative Assessment of the Structure and Functions of a Mature Bottomland Hardwood Community: The Iatt Creek Ecosystem Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin E. Meier; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Paul B. Hamel; Melvin L. Warren

    1999-01-01

    We report our efforts, initiated in 1995, to quantify ecological processes and functions in a relatively undisturbed, mature hardwood forest. The 320-ha site is located in central Louisiana on the upper reaches of Iatt Creek, an anastomosing minor stream bottom. The forest is a mature sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.)-cherrybark oak (

  10. Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement for Navigation Improvements at Bayou La Batre, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-12

    and plant corn. When coastal Alabama was opened to British and American settlers; fishing, livestock and, later, resort hotels became the important...bay (Magnolia virginiana), swamp bay ( Persea palustris), water oak (Quercus nigra), and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua). Bald cypress (Taxodium

  11. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to the Functional Assessment of Forested Wetlands in Alluvial Valleys of East Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    plant species as the low-gradient riverine subclass. However, species such as American elm (Ulmus americana), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), winged elm ...americana American elm Ulmus crassifolia cedar elm Ulmus rubra slippery elm Ulmus spp. elm Viburnum nudum possumhaw Vitis rotundifolia muscadine...laurel oak (Q. laurifolia), Shumard oak (Q. shumardii), elms (Ulmus sp.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), southern magnolia (Magnolia

  12. DRIS Analysis Identifies a Common Potassium Imbalance in Sweetgum Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; S.X. Chang; D.J. Robison

    2003-01-01

    DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System) analysis was applied to fast-growing sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeast United States as a tool for nutrient diagnosis and fertilizer recommendations. First, standard foliar nutrient ratios for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and...

  13. Genotype X Fertility Interactions in Seedling Sweetgum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott X. Chang; Daniel J. Robison

    2002-01-01

    Genotype x fertility interactions may affect the suitability of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) for specific sites or the efficiency of nutrient use. To gain a better understanding of these interactions, 2-year-old sweetgum seedlings from two half-sib families were tested for growth response to N (0 and 100 kg/ha equivalent) and P (0 and 50 kg...

  14. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Chow; Guang Nong; Franz J. St. John; John D. Rice; Ellen Dickstein; Olga Chertkov; David Bruce; Chris Detter; Thomas Brettin; James Han; Tanja Woyke; Sam Pitluck; Matt Nolan; Amrita Pati; Joel Martin; Alex Copeland; Miriam L. Land; Lynne Goodwin; Jeffrey B. Jones; Lonnie O. Ingram; Keelnathan T. Shanmugam; James F. Preston

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) wood, is able to efficiently depolymerize, assimilate and metabolize 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, the predominant structural component of hardwood hemicelluloses. A basis for this capability was first supported by...

  15. Growth and nutrition response of young sweetgum plantations to repeated nitrogen fertilization on two site types

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger; Donald J. Kaczmarek; Michael B. Kane

    2004-01-01

    Short-rotation intensive tree culture is being investigated in the southern United States as a method of producing hardwood fiber, but little is known about the early productivity and nutritional needs of these systems, especially on different site types. We studied the growth and foliar nutrition response of two sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L...

  16. Stand-level growth and yield component models for red oak-sweetgum forests on Mid-South minor stream bottoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily B. Schultz; J. Clint Iles; Thomas G. Matney; Andrew W. Ezell; James S. Meadows; Theodor D. Leininger; al. et.

    2010-01-01

    Greater emphasis is being placed on Southern bottomland hardwood management, but relatively few growth and yield prediction systems exist that are based on sufficient measurements. We present the aggregate stand-level expected yield and structural component equations for a red oak (Quercus section Lobatae)-sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) growth and yield model....

  17. An Archival and Field Survey of Selected Historic Cultural Resources, Allatona Lake, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-25

    P. echinata white Oak Quercus alba Red oak 2. falcata Hickory Genus Carya Maple Acer rubrum L. Sweetgui Liguidambar styraciflua L. Tupelo Nyssa...sylvatica Marsh. Yellow-popular Genus Populus’L. Source: Preston, North American Trees, Rev. Ed., 1961. 10 4 40 380 380 400 42 Chart 7.311 I44* GEORGIA -e...unfortunate stereotype that exists to this day. The tenant house was similar for both black and white and apart from contemporary building practices was

  18. Wood decay by brown-rot fungi : changes in pore structure and cell wall volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas S. Flournoy; T. Kent Kirk; T.L. Highley

    1991-01-01

    Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) wood blocks were decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta in soilblock cultures. Decay was terminated at various weight losses, and the pore volumes available to four low molecular weight molecules, (water, 4 Å,; glucose, 8 Å,; maltose, 10 Å; and raffinose, 128,) and three dextrans (Mr 6,000, 38 Å; 11,200, 51 Å; nd 17,500, 61 Å) were...

  19. Archeological Testing at Two Sites Near White Castle, Iberville Parish, Louisiana: 16 IV 147 and 16 IV 149

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-26

    styraciflua), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvania), nutall oak (Quercus nutalli), water oak (Quercus arkansana), elm (Ulmus), and pecan (Carya illinoensis) may...Cotton production lessened, while rice, corn, fruit and pecans increased (Iberville Parish Planning Board 1945). Livestock breeding increased during the...glazed ware manufactured in France. Similar wares from Holland and England are known as delft. Equivalents in Italy , Iberia, and Mexico are called

  20. Location and Description of Transects for Ecological Studies in Floodplain Forests of the Lower Suwannee River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Level Datum of 1929. Horizontal datum: In this report, horizontal coordinate information is referenced to the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27...ileopa Ilex opaca Ait. var. opaca American holly junsil Juniperus silicicola (Small) Bailey 1 southern red cedar liqsty Liquidambar styraciflua L...swamp gum nyssyl Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.1 blackgum ostvir Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch eastern hophornbeam perpal Persea palustris (Raf.) Sarg

  1. Application of the gamma-ray attenuation technique to forest sciences in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, Marcos Antonio de; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro; Bruder, Edson Marcelo

    2005-01-01

    The study of the physical characteristics of wood is fundamental to its correct utilization by the industry and to an efficient exploitation of this raw material. The most important characteristics of wood are the specific gravity, the shrinkage and the porosity. Those traits are related one to each other and to mechanic resistance and hygroscopicity. The present work proposes the utilization of the gamma-ray attenuation technique, through a sealed source of the radioisotope 241 Am with an activity of 7.4 GBq and an energy of 60 keV, to the determination of physical characteristics of the wood of Pinus tecunumannii, Liquidambar styraciflua and Eucalyptus grandis from cultivated fields of Duratex S/A, in Agudos, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This work presents the advantages and the facilities of the utilization of this technique in the qualitative and quantitative study of the wood from reforestation fields. This technique is employed to determine the specific gravity of a material through the attenuation of gamma-ray after crossing a sample of uniform thickness. Results revealed superior quality of wood to the species L. styraciflua, followed by E. grandis. Considerable variation in the physical properties of the sample of P. tecunumannii was observed along the radial sense, indicating that this species is highly responsive to climatic factors. The more uniform wood of E. grandis and L. styraciflua suggest that these species may be more adapted to the climatic conditions of the Sao Paulo State than P. tecunumannii. (author)

  2. The effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on stomatal conductance estimated from 11 years of scaled sap flux measurements at Duke FACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Eric J; Oren, Ram; Bell, David M; Clark, James S; McCarthy, Heather R; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we employ a network of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) monitoring sap flux density to estimate leaf-specific transpiration (E(L)) and stomatal conductance (G(S)) in Pinus taeda (L.) and Liquidambar styraciflua L. exposed to +200 ppm atmospheric CO(2) levels (eCO(2)) and nitrogen fertilization. Scaling half-hourly measurements from hundreds of sensors over 11 years, we found that P. taeda in eCO(2) intermittently (49% of monthly values) decreased stomatal conductance (G(S)) relative to the control, with a mean reduction of 13% in both total E(L) and mean daytime G(S). This intermittent response was related to changes in a hydraulic allometry index (A(H)), defined as sapwood area per unit leaf area per unit canopy height, which decreased a mean of 15% with eCO(2) over the course of the study, due mostly to a mean 19% increase in leaf area (A(L)). In contrast, L. styraciflua showed a consistent (76% of monthly values) reduction in G(S) with eCO(2) with a total reduction of 32% E(L), 31% G(S) and 23% A(H) (due to increased A(L) per sapwood area). For L. styraciflua, like P. taeda, the relationship between A(H) and G(S) at reference conditions suggested a decrease in G(S) across the range of A(H). Our findings suggest an indirect structural effect of eCO(2) on G(S) in P. taeda and a direct leaf level effect in L. styraciflua. In the initial year of fertilization, P. taeda in both CO(2) treatments, as well as L. styraciflua in eCO(2), exhibited higher G(S) with N(F) than expected from shifts in A(H), suggesting a transient direct effect on G(S). Whether treatment effects on mean leaf-specific G(S) are direct or indirect, this paper highlights that long-term treatment effects on G(S) are generally reflected in A(H) as well.

  3. [Population structure and regeneration strategy of relict deciduous broadleaved trees on Mount Tianmu, Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Kan Kan; Chen, Bo; Da, Liang Jun

    2018-02-01

    The population structure, regeneration ways and spatial relationships of six relict deci-duous broadleaved trees were examined based on community investigation on Mount Tianmu, East China. The results showed that relict deciduous broadleaved trees had a strong ability of vegetative reproduction and their population structure was generally belonged to intermittent type. Some relict species such as Cyclocarya paliurus and Liquidamb aracalycina regenerated discontinuously at appropriate sites via long-distance diffusion. Some species such as Emmenoptery henryi and Euptelea pleiospermum regenerated discontinuously around mature trees due to habitat limitation and frequent disturbance. After occupying forest gaps by seedling regeneration, C. paliurus, L. acalycina, Nyssasinensis and Liquidambar formosana could recruit and form multi-stemmed individuals by their inherent sprouting ability at relatively stable sites such as crest slope and side slope. At riverbed, valley slope and head hollow, recognized as unstable habitats, Emmenopterys henryi, E. pleiospermum, and L. formosana could also recruit by strong sprouting ability due to sparse seedlings and individual loss incurred by disturbance. Therefore, the relict deciduous broadleaved trees could be classified into two ecological species groups (repairment species for forest gap and supplement species for special habitat) based on spatial distribution and strategy of regeneration and competition. We suggested that the protection of special habitats of their communities should be strengthened.

  4. Woody biomass production in a spray irrigation wastewater treatment facility in North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, D.; Lea, R.; Milosh, R.

    1993-01-01

    Application of municipal wastewater to deciduous tree plantations offers a viable opportunity to dispose of nutrients and pollutants, while protecting water quality. Production of woody biomass for energy or pulp mill furnish, using wastewater if feasible and markets exist in may parts of the world for this biomass. Plantations of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), have been established in Edenton, North Carolina for application of municipal wastewater. Research describing the dry weight biomass following the fifth year of seedling growth is presented along with future estimates for seedling and coppice yields. Ongoing and future work for estimating nutrient assimilation and wastewater renovation are described and discussed

  5. Effectiveness of native arbuscular mycorrhiza on the growth of four tree forest species from the Santa Marta Mountain, Veracruz (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retama-Ortiz, Y.; Ávila-Bello, C.H.; Alarcón, A.; Ferrera-Cerrato, R.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of this work was to isolate consortia of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated to Liquidambar styraciflua in soils of the Santa Marta Mountain in Veracruz, and to select highly effective mycorrhizal consortia on promoting the growth of four tree forest species with economic and ecological importance. Area of study: Santa Marta Mountain, inside the buffer area of the Los Tuxtlas Biological Reserve in Veracruz (México). Materials and methods: Ten composite samples of rhizosphere soil were collected from L. styraciflua trees of 13-15 cm DBH (diameter at breast height). Roots were fixed in FAA solution to determine the mycorrhizal colonization percentage, the abundance of morphospecies, and its effectiveness in promoting the growth of L. styraciflua, Terminalia amazonia, Cordia alliodora, and Cojoba arborea. Soil physical and chemical characteristics were also analysed, and soil type recognition was performed with the Reference Base for Soil FAO-ISRIC World-SICS. Mycorrhizal colonization was determined by the method of clearing and staining roots with trypan blue; total percentage of colonization was estimated by the Linderman-Biermann method. Spores were extracted for counting and identifying morphospecies from each soil sample, those with more effectiveness were selected and inoculated in the four tree species, based upon a completely random design there were evaluated height, number of leaves, total dry weight and foliar area. Main results: Average mycorrhizal colonization percentage was 45% from natural conditions, samples one and four showed 80% of AMF-colonization. Average number of spores was 617 in 100 g-1 of dry soil. Forty-seven AMF-morphospecies were identified. After eight months significant differences were observed in root colonization, height, number of leaves, total dry weight, leaf area and foliar analysis of N5+, P5+ and K+ on plants inoculated with rhizosphere samples of L. styraciflua. Terminalia amazonia and

  6. Estructura y composición de la vegetación del bosque de niebla de Copalillos, San Luis Potosí, México

    OpenAIRE

    Fortanelli-Martínez, Javier; García-Pérez, José; Castillo-Lara, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta la lista florística y se describe la estructura de un bosque de niebla en Copalillos, San Luis Potosí, el cual, hasta hace muy poco tiempo estuvo ausente en la cartografía de vegetación existente. Se registraron 199 especies, correspondientes a 165 géneros y 91 familias botánicas. La estructura vertical mostró tres estratos arbóreos, uno arbustivo y otro herbáceo. Las especies dominantes en el arbóreo superior fueron Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus germana y Q. pinnativenulosa. E...

  7. Effectiveness of native arbuscular mycorrhiza on the growth of four tree forest species from the Santa Marta Mountain, Veracruz (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retama-Ortiz, Y.; Ávila-Bello, C.H.; Alarcón, A.; Ferrera-Cerrato, R.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of this work was to isolate consortia of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated to Liquidambar styraciflua in soils of the Santa Marta Mountain in Veracruz, and to select highly effective mycorrhizal consortia on promoting the growth of four tree forest species with economic and ecological importance. Area of study: Santa Marta Mountain, inside the buffer area of the Los Tuxtlas Biological Reserve in Veracruz (México). Materials and methods: Ten composite samples of rhizosphere soil were collected from L. styraciflua trees of 13-15 cm DBH (diameter at breast height). Roots were fixed in FAA solution to determine the mycorrhizal colonization percentage, the abundance of morphospecies, and its effectiveness in promoting the growth of L. styraciflua, Terminalia amazonia, Cordia alliodora, and Cojoba arborea. Soil physical and chemical characteristics were also analysed, and soil type recognition was performed with the Reference Base for Soil FAO-ISRIC World-SICS. Mycorrhizal colonization was determined by the method of clearing and staining roots with trypan blue; total percentage of colonization was estimated by the Linderman-Biermann method. Spores were extracted for counting and identifying morphospecies from each soil sample, those with more effectiveness were selected and inoculated in the four tree species, based upon a completely random design there were evaluated height, number of leaves, total dry weight and foliar area. Main results: Average mycorrhizal colonization percentage was 45% from natural conditions, samples one and four showed 80% of AMF-colonization. Average number of spores was 617 in 100 g-1 of dry soil. Forty-seven AMF-morphospecies were identified. After eight months significant differences were observed in root colonization, height, number of leaves, total dry weight, leaf area and foliar analysis of N5+, P5+ and K+ on plants inoculated with rhizosphere samples of L. styraciflua. Terminalia amazonia and

  8. Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Functional Assessment of High-gradient Ephemeral and Intermittent Headwater Streams in Western West Virginia and Eastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Liriodendron tulipifera tuliptree Ulmus rubra slippery elm Magnolia acuminata cucumber-tree Ulmus thomasii rock elm ERDC/EL TR-10-11 103 Watershed...americana American elm ERDC/EL TR-10-11 41 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 SRV per 100 feet of stream reach 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Va ria bl e S...canadensis eastern hemlock Juglans nigra black walnut Ulmus americana American elm Liquidambar styraciflua sweetgum Ulmus parvifolia Chinese elm

  9. Producción de frutos y semillas de dos especies arbóreas nativas en un bosque mesófilo de montaña de Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yureli García-De La Cruz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó y comparó la producción de frutos y semillas de una muestra de árboles pertenecientes a Alchornea latifolia y Liquidambar styraciflua en un bosque de niebla en la zona centro del estado de Veracruz. Los individuos se seleccionaron con base en sus características fenotípicas; se tomaron datos estructurales (diámetro a la altura del pecho, altura y cobertura y éstas se compararon con la producción semillera en cada especie. Se estimó una producción de 70 380 frutos, 140 760 semillas y 6.02 kg por árbol en Alchornea latifolia y, 5 738 frutos, 303 218 semillas y 0.7 kg por árbol en Liquidambar styraciflua. Ninguna de las variables estructurales de los árboles superiores contribuyó a explicar la producción de frutos y semillas. Sin embargo, la variación entre individuos (identidad del árbol contribuyó a explicar las diferencias observadas en la producción de infrutescencias por rama, el número de semillas por infrutescencia, así como el peso de las semillas por infrutescencia en ambas especies.

  10. [Soil soluble organic matter, microbial biomass, and enzyme activities in forest plantations in degraded red soil region of Jiangxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-mei; Chen, Cheng-long; Xu, Zhi-hong; Liu, Yuan-qiu; Ouyang, Jing; Wang, Fang

    2010-09-01

    Taking the adjacent 18-year-old pure Pinus massoniana pure forest (I), P. massoniana, Liquidamber fomosana, and Schima superba mixed forest (II), S. superba pure forest (III), L. fomosana (IV) pure forest, and natural restoration fallow land (CK) in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province as test sites, a comparative study was made on their soil soluble organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON), soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), and soil urease and asparaginase activities. In 0-10 cm soil layer, the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN at test sites ranged in 354-1007 mg x kg(-1), 24-73 mg x kg(-1), 203-488 mg x kg(-1), and 24-65 mg x kg(-1), and the soil urease and asparaginase activities were 95-133 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) and 58-113 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively. There were significant differences in the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN and the asparaginase activity among the test sites, but no significant difference was observed in the urease activity. The pool sizes of SOC and SON were in the order of IV > CK > III > I > II, those of MBC and MBN were in the order of CK > IV > III > I > II, and asparaginase activity followed the order of IV > CK > III > II > I. With the increase of soil depth, the pool sizes of SOC, SON, MBC, and MBN and the activities of soil asparaginase and urease decreased. In 0-20 cm soil layer, the SOC, SON, MBC, MBN, total C, and total N were highly correlated with each other, soil asparaginase activity was highly correlated with SOC, SON, TSN, total C, total N, MBC, and MBN, and soil urease activity was highly correlated with SON, TSN, total C, MBC and MBN.

  11. Assessing the effect of marginal water use efficiency on water use of loblolly pine and sweetgum in ambient and elevated CO2 conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Medvigy, D.; Xu, X.; Oren, R.; Ward, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Stomata are the common pathways through which diffusion of CO2 and water vapor take place in a plant. Therefore, the responses of stomatal conductance to environmental conditions are important to quantify carbon assimilation and water use of plants. In stomatal optimality theory, plants may adjust the stomatal conductance to maximize carbon assimilation for a given water availability. The carbon cost for unit water loss, marginal water use efficiency (λ), depends on changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and pre-dawn leaf water potential. The relationship can be described by λ with no water stress (λ0) and the sensitivity of λ to pre-dawn leaf water potential (β0), which may vary by plant functional type. Assessment of sensitivity of tree and canopy water use to those parameters and the estimation of the parameters for individual plant functional type or species are needed. We modeled tree water use of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) in ambient and elevated CO2 (+200 µmol mol-1) at the Duke Forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) site with Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2), a demographic terrestrial biosphere model that scales up individual-level competition for light, water and nutrients to the ecosystem-level. Simulated sap flux density for different tree size classes and species was compared to observations. The sensitivity analysis with respect to the model's hydraulic parameters was performed. The initial results showed that the impacts of λ on tree water use were greater than other hydraulic traits in the model, such as vertical hydraulic conductivity and leaf and stem capacitance. With 10% increase in λ, modeled water flow from root to leaf decreased by 2.5 and 1.6% for P. taeda and by 7.9 and 5.1% for L. styraciflua in ambient and elevated CO2 conditions, respectively. Values of hydraulic traits (λ0 and β0) for P. taeda and L. styraciflua in ambient an elevated CO2 conditions were also suggested.

  12. Phytoextraction of uranium and thorium by native trees in a contaminated wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Sharitz, R.

    2005-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential of native trees in a U and Th contaminated wetland was examined. Based on measurements of the annual biomass of leaves and their contaminant concentrations, we estimated the reduction in soil contamination over time. Significant differences among tree species were found, with tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) having a significantly greater capacity to remove U and Th from the soil than the other tree species. More U was phytoextracted than Th from the site. Phytoextraction rate constants were developed and revealed that although U and Th phytoextraction was exceptionally high at the site, an order of magnitude greater than predicted, the community of native trees would lower the soil inventory of 238 U and 232 Th by only 1% over the next 100 years. (author)

  13. Monograph of the Genus Elodea (Hydrocharitaceae: Part 2. The species found in the Andes and Western South America Monograph of the Genus Elodea (Hydrocharitaceae: Part 2. The species found in the Andes and Western South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. John Harold

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Elodea Richard in Michaux was first published in 1803 (Fl. Bor.-Am. 1: 20, 1803, based upon the single species. E. Canadensis from Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Though this was stated to have perfect flowers, it is now certain that the holotype specimens and the plants in nature are dioecious. Very abundant are plants bearing pistillate flowers with three stigmas and three acicular staminodia. Staminate plants are rare, but occur throughout the natural range of the species. Their flowers have nine stamens, but no trace of a gynoecium. Two well known species are now separated and placed in the genus Egeria Planch., a group just monographed by the writer. Left in Elodea are seventeen species. These are to be found in two broad areas, the northern ones in the United States and southern Canada; the southern ones in South America. As yet there is no evidence of any indigenous species of Elodea in Central America.The genus Elodea Richard in Michaux was first published in 1803(Fl. Bor.-Am. 1: 20, 1803, based upon the single species. E. Canadensis from Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Though this was stated to have perfect flowers, it is now certain that the holotype specimens and the plants in nature are dioecious. Very abundant are plants bearing pistillate flowers with three stigmas and three acicular staminodia. Staminate plants are rare, but occur throughout the natural range of the species. Their flowers have nine stamens, but no trace of a gynoecium. Two well known species are now separated and placed in the genus Egeria Planch., a group just monographed by the writer. Left in Elodeaare seventeen species. These are to be found in two broad areas, the northern ones in the United Statesand southern Canada; the southern ones in South America. As yet there is no evidence of any indigenous species of Elodea in Central America.

  14. Short-term effects of benzalkonium chloride and atrazine on Elodea canadensis using a miniaturised microbioreactor system for an online monitoring of physiologic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco; Ritzenthaler, Raphael; Normann, Johannes; Wagner, Edgar

    2008-02-01

    The study evaluated the effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and atrazine on the macrophyte Elodea canadensis (Michaux) using a miniaturised monitoring test system consisting of a microbioreactor of reduced volume and integrated sensors for the online measurement of physiologic parameters, like oxygen production and different parameters of fluorescence. Different concentrations of both chemicals were applied to leaves of E. canadensis and the physiologic endpoints evaluated after 1h. A concentration-dependent reduction of the oxygen production and of the effective quantum yield of energy conversion was recorded. The mini-PAM technique implemented in the presented system allowed for a clear monitoring of the kinetic of BAC and atrazine, showing their distinct mode of action. No observable adverse effects were recorded up to concentrations of 2.5 mg/L and 10 microg/L, for BAC and atrazine, respectively. These values are in accordance with available results in the literature, hence indicating that the microbioreactor test system might be suitable, on the one hand, for the laboratory screening of potential short-term toxicity of contaminants on aquatic plants, and on the other hand, serve as an in situ field biomonitoring system for the rapid detection of pollutants in water.

  15. The Art of the Motorcycle and the History of Art (and Condensed Matter Physics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles

    Many topics in physics are such that they are difficult to present in ways that the general public finds engaging. In this talk I will discuss two topics I have worked on, directly related to my research in optical and condensed matter physics, that continue to have widespread appeal. In 1871 Louis Guillaume Perreaux installed a compact steam engine in a commercial bicycle and thus produced the world's first motorcycle. The 145 years since the Michaux-Perreaux have resulted in standard production motorcycles incorporating such materials as carbon-fiber composites, maraging steels, and ''exotic'' alloys of magnesium, titanium and aluminum that can exceed 190 mph straight from the show room floor. As a result of 'The Art of the Motorcycle' exhibition I co-curated at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum the public has learned the evolution of motorcycles is interwoven with developments in materials physics. In a second topic, discoveries I made with the renowned artist David Hockney convincingly demonstrated optical instruments were in use - by artists, not scientists - nearly 200 years earlier than commonly thought possible, and for the first time account for the remarkable transformation in the reality of portraits that occurred early in the 15th century. By learning a few principles of geometrical optics the public gains insight into the working process of artists such as van Eyck, Bellini and Caravaggio. Acknowledgement: Portions of this work done in collaboration with David Hockney.

  16. Ill-mannered poet. Piotr Chmielowski’s opinion on Miron and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Karpow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Piotr Chmielowski, one of the most important literary critics and historians of the literature of the Positivist period, had an enormous role in shaping the opinion on the literary output of Aleksander Michaux (pen-name Miron. The critic contributed much to strengthen the negative image of the poet by discrediting his works using unfounded and groundless accusations of their non-original character, or by a selective choice of citations aimed to ridicule the author, among others. The accusations forwarded by Chmielowski, mainly those referring to the alleged anachronism or even Miron’s dislike of progress, were simplyichaux reflected well the universal resentment of Positivist critics towards contemporary poets and testified to a particular understanding of the goals of lyric poetry and the principles governing it. Any literary output that did not fulfill the requirements of utilitarianism was supposed to be shunned and removed beyond the mainstream of the Polish literature of the time. The conviction on low artistic merit of the poetic output of the Positivist period, formed as early as the latter half of the nineteenth century, has lingered among a sizeable number of modern readers of literature.

  17. Comparative behavior of three long-lived radionuclides in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with studies in three forest ecosystems in eastern Tennessee, an area of rich temperate deciduous forests, sometimes referred to as mixed mesophytic forests. Two of these forest ecosystems were contaminated as a result of waste disposal operations. The third was experimentally tagged with millicurie quantities of 137 Cs. One of these ecosystems is a floodplain forest that is typical of this region. This forest has been growing on alluvial soils since 1944. Prior to that time the area was a temporary holding pond within White Oak Creek which received radioactive effluents from ORNL. Radiocesium was deposited in the pond sediments as were 90 Sr, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and other radionuclides. The dam which created the pond failed in late 1944, and the area was allowed to revert to natural conditions. The result was the development of a floodplain forest consisting of three different forest communities. The soils are fertile alluvials representative of bottomlands. The overstory tree species are principally ash, sycamore, boxelder, willow, and sweetgum (Fraxinus americana L., Plantanus occidentalis L., Acer negundo L., Salix nigra Marsh, and Liquidambar styraciflua L., respectively)

  18. SELECCIÓN DE PREDICTORES AMBIENTALES PARA EL MODELADO DE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE ESPECIES EN MAXENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cruz-Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A ntes de realizar el modelado de la distribución potencial de una especie, se recomienda ha - cer una preselección de covariables pues la redundancia o variables irrelevantes pueden in - ducir sesgos en la mayoría de los modelos. En este estudio, se propuso un método automati - zado para la selección a priori de covariables utilizadas en el modelado. Se emplearon cinco especies típicas de la flora mexicana ( Catopheria chiapensis, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus martinezii, Telanthopora grandifolia y Viburnum acutifolium y 56 covariables ambientales. Se generaron matrices de presencia-ausencia para cada especie y se analizaron empleando regresión logística; el modelo resul - tante de cada especie se evaluó mediante un remuestreo bootstrap. La distribución de las cinco especies se modeló usando el algoritmo de máxima entropía y con el empleo de tres conjuntos de covariables ambientales. La precisión de los modelos generados se evaluó con intervalos de confianza de cada curva característica operativa del receptor (COR. Los intervalos de confianza de las curvas COR resultantes no mostraron diferencia significativa ( P < 0.05 entre los tres modelos predictivos generados; sin em - bargo, el modelo más parsimonioso se obtuvo con el método propuesto.

  19. Nutritional ecology of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): growth and survival of incipient colonies feeding on preferred wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2003-02-01

    The wood of 11 plant species was evaluated as a food source significantly impacting the growth and survival of incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.), and red gum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., produced significantly more progeny than colonies feeding on other wood species tested. Progeny of colonies feeding on pecan and American ash, Fraxinus americana L., had significantly greater survival than progeny of colonies feeding on other wood species. Colonies feeding on a nutritionally supplemented cellulose based matrix showed similar fitness characteristics as colonies feeding on the best wood treatments. These results indicate that differences observed in colony fitness can be partially explained by nutritional value of the food treatment, raising the possibility that wood from different tree species have different nutritional values to the Formosan subterranean termites. Colonies feeding on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., had significantly lower survival and produced significantly fewer workers and soldiers than colonies feeding on other wood species. Colony survival from 90 to 180 d of age and from 90 to 360 d of age was significantly correlated with the number of workers present at 90 d of colony age, indicating that colony survival depends on the presence of workers. Wood consumption in a multiple-choice study was significantly correlated with colony fitness value. This suggests that feeding preference of C. formosanus is at least partially influenced by the nutritional value of the food source.

  20. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  1. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps six years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Guldin, James M.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  2. Effects of Repeated Growing Season Prescribed Fire on the Structure and Composition of Pine–Hardwood Forests in the Southeastern Piedmont, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Reilly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of repeated growing season prescribed fire on the structure and composition of mixed pine–hardwood forests in the southeastern Piedmont region, Georgia, USA. Plots were burned two to four times over an eight-year period with low intensity surface fires during one of four six-week long periods from early April to mid-September. Density of saplings (0.25–11.6 cm diameter at breast height was significantly reduced after one or two fires during the first four-year period. Sapling density declined with additional burning over the next four years, but density of mesic hardwoods including sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua and red maple (Acer rubrum remained relatively high (~865 stems ha−1. Repeated burning had little effect on density or basal area of trees (≥11.7 cm dbh and changes in overstory structure were limited to small increases in the quadratic mean diameter of all trees and pines. We found little evidence to suggest differential effects on structure or composition due to timing of burn within the growing season. Although repeated growing season burning alters midstory structure and composition, burning alone is unlikely to result in immediate shifts in overstory composition or structure in mixed pine–hardwood forests of the southeastern Piedmont region.

  3. Chocolate das bagas e clorose foliar: anomalia da videira causada por deficiência de boro Internal browning ("chocolate" and leaf chlorosis of the 'pink Niagara' grafe, a boron deficiency anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Kuniyuki

    1985-01-01

    small ones. Some small fruits are slightly elongated and show dark areas on the skin; many have dark brown pulp, easily visible when they are still green. Severely affected plants become stunted. Chemical analysis showed a lower boron content in the affected plants (18 ppm in the leaf blades and 7 ppm in the fruit than in normal ones (24 ppm in the leaf blades and 10 ppm in the fruit. Leaf samples from three nearby vineyards without the anomaly presented a boron content of 35 ppm. Leaf blades from abnormal and normal 'Traviú' rootstocks (V. riparia Michaux. x V. rupestris Scheele x V. cordifolia Michaux., '106-8' had 16 ppm and 43 ppm B, respectively. An efficient control of the anomaly was got with borax, applied after prunning to affected plants at the rates of 5, 10 and 20 g per plant, or with boric acid at the concentrations of 0.3 and 0.6%a sprayed at flowering and when the fruits were small. There was a residual effect of the treatment on the anomaly for at least one more season.

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  5. Identification of cotton fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) host plants in central Texas and compendium of reported hosts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Esquivel, S V

    2009-06-01

    The cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), is an early-season pest of developing cotton in Central Texas and other regions of the Cotton Belt. Cotton fleahopper populations develop on spring weed hosts and move to cotton as weed hosts senesce or if other weed hosts are not readily available. To identify weed hosts that were seasonably available for the cotton fleahopper in Central Texas, blooming weed species were sampled during early-season (17 March-31 May), mid-season (1 June-14 August), late-season (15 August-30 November), and overwintering (1 December-16 March) periods. The leading hosts for cotton fleahopper adults and nymphs were evening primrose (Oenothera speciosa T. Nuttall) and Mexican hat [Ratibida columnifera (T. Nuttall) E. Wooton and P. Standley], respectively, during the early season. During the mid-season, silver-leaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium A. Cavanilles) was consistently a host for fleahopper nymphs and adults. Woolly croton (Croton capitatus A. Michaux) was a leading host during the late season. Cotton fleahoppers were not collected during the overwintering period. Other suitable hosts were available before previously reported leading hosts became available. Eight previously unreported weed species were documented as temporary hosts. A compendium of reported hosts, which includes >160 plant species representing 35 families, for the cotton fleahopper is provided for future research addressing insect-host plant associations. Leading plant families were Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Onagraceae. Results presented here indicate a strong argument for assessing weed species diversity and abundance for the control of the cotton fleahopper in the Cotton Belt.

  6. Anatomia e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos de Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx., Polygonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela E. Silva Lopes

    Full Text Available Polygonum hydropiperoides Michaux é uma espécie conhecida popularmente como "erva-de-bicho", amplamente utilizada na medicina tradicional como anti-hemorroidal, antiinflamatória e antidiarréica. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo a caracterização anatômica e histoquímica da folha, caule e raiz, que constituem a droga vegetal, visando estabelecer parâmetros para o controle de qualidade. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às técnicas usuais de microscopia de luz e aos testes histoquímicos. A folha é anfiestomática, dorsiventral e com estômatos paracíticos e anisocíticos. É comum a presença de estruturas secretoras como: tricomas glandulares capitados e glândulas epidérmicas e subepidérmicas em ambas as faces da lâmina foliar e também no caule. O material secretado pelas glândulas apresenta composição heterogênea de lipídios e flavonóides, segundo análises histoquímicas. Cristais de oxalato de cálcio e grãos de amido são freqüentes em células parenquimáticas da folha e do caule. Compostos fenólicos estão presentes na folha (parênquima paliçádico, no caule (parênquima cortical e floema e na raiz (parênquima cortical.

  7. Preliminary Micropaleontological Investigation of a Preserved, Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, J. T.; DeLong, K. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, A.; Gonzalez, S.; Obelcz, J.; Caporaso, A.

    2017-12-01

    Exposed at the bottom of a trough 13 km offshore Orange Beach, AL on the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shelf in 18 m water depth are exceptionally preserved in situ bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) stumps. Preserved seeds (T. distichum, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Hibiscus lasiocarpos, Liquidambar styraciflua) discovered in core catcher samples illustrate the exceptional preservation of the site. Woody debris samples have come back radiocarbon dead with an exception to samples located in the upper peat layer with 14C ages from 37,350-41,830 years BP. Optically stimulated luminescence and 14C dates, in combination with GOM eustatic sea level curves, suggest the forest was located 30 m above the paleoshoreline. How the forest remained preserved during subaerial exposure of the continental shelf through the Last Glacial Maximum lowstand until ensuing Holocene sea level transgression remains unknown. The R/V Coastal Profiler collected 7 vibracores from the study site in 2015 and an additional 11 in 2016. A single core (DF1) contains facies identified as the Holocene Mississippi-Alabama-Florida sand sheet, a transitional facies of interbedded sand and mud, and a basal floodplain facies in which the stumps reside. This study seeks to identify the location of the Pleistocene-Holocene unconformity and to assist in stratigraphy of the area. Foraminiferal assemblages found within the transitional facies are of a shallow marine environment that suggests Holocene in age. It is hypothesized that a pulse of sea level rise during Marine Isotope Stages 3-4 caused subsequent rapid aggradation of the paleovalley system allowing for preservation through >30 kyrs of subaerial exposure. One of the ultimate goals of this study is to serve as a guide for identification of other possible sites along the gulf coast.

  8. SRWC bioenergy productivity and economic feasibility on marginal lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezehei, Solomon B; Shifflett, Shawn D; Hazel, Dennis W; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2015-09-01

    Evolving bioenergy markets necessitate consideration of marginal lands for woody biomass production worldwide particularly the southeastern U.S., a prominent wood pellet exporter to Europe. Growing short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) on marginal lands minimizes concerns about using croplands for bioenergy production and reinforces sustainability of wood supply to existing and growing global biomass markets. We estimated mean annual aboveground green biomass increments (MAIs) and assessed economic feasibility of various operationally established (0.5 ha-109 ha) SRWC stands on lands used to mitigate environmental liabilities of municipal wastewater, livestock wastewater and sludge, and subsurface contamination by petroleum and pesticides. MAIs (Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) had no consistent relationship with stand density or age. Non-irrigated Populus, Plantanus occidentalis L. and Pinus taeda L. stands produced 2.4-12.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). Older, irrigated Taxodium distchum L., Fraxinus pennsylvanica L., and coppiced P. occidentalis stands had higher MAIs (10.6-21.3 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) than irrigated Liquidambar styraciflua L. and non-coppiced, irrigated P. occidentalis (8-18 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Natural hardwood MAIs at 20-60 years were less than hardwood and P. taeda productivities at 5-20 years. Unlike weed control, irrigation and coppicing improved managed hardwood productivity. Rotation length affected economic outcomes although the returns were poor due to high establishment and maintenance costs, low productivities and low current stumpage values, which are expected to quickly change with development of robust global markets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exotic plant species around Jeongeup Research Complex and RFT industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Cha, Min Kyoung; Ryu, Tae Ho; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Jin Hong

    2015-01-01

    In Shinjeong-dong of Jeongeup, there are three government-supported research institutes and an RFT industrial complex which is currently being established. Increased human activities can affect flora and fauna as a man-made pressure onto the region. As a baseline study, status of exotic plants was investigated prior to a full operation of the RFT industrial complex. A total of 54 species and 1 variety of naturalized or introduced plants were found in the study area. Among them, three species (Ambrosia artemisifolia var. elatior, Rumex acetocella and Aster pilosus) belong to 'nuisance species', and four species (Phytolacca americana, Iopomoea hederacea, Ereechtites hieracifolia and Rudbeckia laciniata) to ‘monitor species’ designated by the ministry of Environment. Some of naturalized trees and plants were intentionally introduced in this area, while others naturally immigrated. Physalis angulata seems to immigrate in the study area in the form of mixture with animal feeds as its distribution coincided with the transportation route of the animal feeds. Liquidambar styraciflua is amenable to the ecological investigation on the possible expansion of the species to the nearby Naejang National Park as its leave shape and autumn color are very similar to those of maple trees. The number of naturalized plants around the RFT industrial complex will increase with an increase in floating population, in human activities in association with constructions of factories and operations of the complex. The result of this study provides baseline data for assessing the ecological change of the region according to the operation of the RFT industrial complex

  10. Exotic plant species around Jeongeup Research Complex and RFT industrial complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Cha, Min Kyoung; Ryu, Tae Ho; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Jin Hong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In Shinjeong-dong of Jeongeup, there are three government-supported research institutes and an RFT industrial complex which is currently being established. Increased human activities can affect flora and fauna as a man-made pressure onto the region. As a baseline study, status of exotic plants was investigated prior to a full operation of the RFT industrial complex. A total of 54 species and 1 variety of naturalized or introduced plants were found in the study area. Among them, three species (Ambrosia artemisifolia var. elatior, Rumex acetocella and Aster pilosus) belong to 'nuisance species', and four species (Phytolacca americana, Iopomoea hederacea, Ereechtites hieracifolia and Rudbeckia laciniata) to ‘monitor species’ designated by the ministry of Environment. Some of naturalized trees and plants were intentionally introduced in this area, while others naturally immigrated. Physalis angulata seems to immigrate in the study area in the form of mixture with animal feeds as its distribution coincided with the transportation route of the animal feeds. Liquidambar styraciflua is amenable to the ecological investigation on the possible expansion of the species to the nearby Naejang National Park as its leave shape and autumn color are very similar to those of maple trees. The number of naturalized plants around the RFT industrial complex will increase with an increase in floating population, in human activities in association with constructions of factories and operations of the complex. The result of this study provides baseline data for assessing the ecological change of the region according to the operation of the RFT industrial complex.

  11. Thirteen-year hardwood tree performance on a Midwest surface mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, W.C.; Kolar, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa Michx.), and pin oak (Q. palustris Muenchh.) seedlings were planted both fall 1980 and spring 1981 on mixed overburden strip-mining banks (ungraded), mixed overburden graded to approximate original contour (AOC) (graded), mixed overburden graded to AOC wit h 60 cm of replaced pre-mining surface soil materials (topsoil), and on old fields near the strip-mine (unmined). Black walnut and pin oak were also planted as seed, with a total of 6000 seedlings/seed spots in the study. Initial species field viability ranged from 86 to 100%. With one exception, after 3 growing seasons oak seedlings had 50% or greater survival. Survival was mostly lower after 3 years with some additional mortality by years 8 and 13. Height and diameter breast height were measured after 13 years. Survival and growth of trees planted fall or spring was similar overall with variable performance by species. Seedlings of several species on the ungraded site had over 50% survival after 13 years, with fewer trees where planted as seed. Mean height of all species combined was significantly greater on the ungraded than on any other site and was lowest on the topsoil site. The unmined sites had high variability in species survival and height. Better reclamation with trees resulted from a deep, well-drained rooting medium with minimal compaction and a mineral-rich surface soil including coarse fragments over 2 mm in size for long-term productivity

  12. Growth and elemental content of two tree species growing on abandoned coal fly ash basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.L.; Adriano, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    Differences in aboveground tissue concentrations of trace elements were assessed for sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and sycamore (Plantanus occidentalis L.) growing on two abandoned coal fly ash basins and a control soil. The wet basin (pH = 5.58) had originally received precipitator ash in an ash-water slurry, while the dry basin (pH = 8.26) had received both precipitator and bottom ash in dry form. In general, trees from the wet basin exhibited elevated trace element concentrations in comparison to the controls, while the dry basin trees exhibited reduced concentrations. On eof the most striking differenced in elemental concentrations among the ash basin and control trees was observed for Mn, with the control trees exhibiting concentrations orders of magnitude greater than the ash basin trees. Differences in foliar trace element concentrations among the sites can generally be explained by differences in substrate trace element concentrations and/or substrate pH. While trees from the wet ash basin generally had the highest trace element concentrations, these trees also attained the greatest height and diameter growth, suggesting that the elevated trace element concentrations in the wet basin substrate are not limiting the establishment of these two species. The greater height and diameter growth of the wet basin trees is presumably a result of the greater water-holding capacity of the substrate on this site. Differences in growth and tissue concentrations between sweetgum and sycamore highlight the importance of using more than one species when assessing metal toxicity or deficiency on a given substrate

  13. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  14. Evaluating small mammal response to natural disturbance and restoration in oak ecosystems in the Mississippi alluvial valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Carl G; Hamel Paul B; Fuzaro Gullo, Manoelle

    2010-01-01

    Oak species form a conspicuous and often dominant component of bottom land forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The extent of these forests has been drastically reduced as a result of clearing for agriculture in the past two centuries. Patterns of clearing have reduced the distribution of remaining forest patches to a much more flood-prone subset of the landscape than was historically the case, reducing the diversity of oak species currently present on the landscape. Intensive harvesting has further changed the composition of the remaining stands. Small remnant patches of primary forest continue to exist as Research Natural Areas on the Delta National Forest in Sharkey County, Mississippi. In particular, the Over cup Oak (Quercus lyrata) and Redgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Research Natural Areas pres ent substantial components of the trees for which the areas were named, as well as Quercus nuttallii and smaller components of other species. Recent interest in afforestation has produced a resurgence of interest in restoration of oak forest to abandoned farmland in the region. We have studied small mammal response to restoration on an extensive experiment near the Delta National Forest since 1995. We have also examined small mammal response to a tornado that disturbed approximately half of the Over cup Oak Research Natural Area in 2008. We use these studies to demonstrate how population estimates of small mammals can be obtained from capture-recapture studies, employing different designs, and utilizing Program Capture for population estimation. Small mammal communities in these stands are more species-rich in early succession than in primary forest. The study of response to tornado damage to the Over cup Oak Research Natural Area is complicated by the fact that this particular forest type is very flood-prone, creating obstacles to colonization by small mammals. Analysis of capture-recapture data with robust methods illustrated in this study permits extraction

  15. Experimental insights into angiosperm origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Barry; Lee, Alex; Smilie, Ian; Knight, Charles; Upchurch, Garland

    2017-04-01

    The angiosperms occupy almost every habitat type on Earth and comprise nearly 90% of extant plant species. Yet this ascendency is a relatively recent (geological) phenomenon. Palaeobotanical evidence indicates a likely first occurrence in the Early Cretaceous followed by a relatively rapid increase in diversity with their rise to dominance marking the onset of modern world. Understanding this diversification event has been a key research question since Darwin commented on this "abominable mystery", and it remains one of the most significant unanswered questions in plant biology. Sequencing work shows that the diversification and radiation was accompanied by successive whole genome duplication (WGD) events. Furthermore proxy data and predictions from long-term carbon cycle models indicate that the angiosperm diversification was accompanied by a decline in atmospheric CO2. These observation raise the intriguing possibility that declining atmospheric CO2 concentration and capacity to undergo polyploidy could have given angiosperms a competitive advantage when compared to other plant groups. Using comparative ecophysiology we set out to test the effects of declining atmospheric CO2 by growing a six species (Ranunculus acris and Polypodium vulgare, chosen to represent Cretaceous understorey angiosperms and pteridophytes respectively. Liquidambar styraciflua and Laurus nobilis represented canopy angiosperms and Ginkgo biloba and Metasequoia glyptostroboides canopy gymnosperms) in controlled conditions across a CO2 gradient (2000, 1200, 800 and 400 ppm) to simulate Cretaceous CO2decline. To test for WGDs we use the relationship between guard cell size and genome size to reconstruct angiosperm genome size as they radiated. Analysis of our fossil dataset shows that earliest angiosperms had a small genome size. Our experimental work shows that angiosperms have a greater capacity for acclimation suggesting that declining CO2 could have acted as a trigger for the angiosperm

  16. Forest Resources of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast: Problems and Prospects of Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bebia

    2015-02-01

    1750 m3/ha, Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng in the same crop forms 1478 m3/ha, Liquidambar styraciflua L. 1000 m3/ha, Liriodendron tulipifera L. forms 852 m3/ha. The most productive local tree species Abies nordmanniana (Stev. Spach of 50 year age forms a tree stand with timber stock of 350 m3/ha. It is noted that the negative impact on the state of forests and forestry in the region has a significant impact on management of forest resources, as well as global climate change of the planet, and example of which is desiccation of fir forests as a result of climate warming. For efficient use of forest resources, an environmentally and socio-economically sound development strategy for the forest industry in the region must be developed.More than 70 % of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast (CBSC forests grow in mountainous conditions of the Colchis phytogeographical province and perform primary environmental functions. In these forests for a long period of time excessively intense logging has been in practice, which caused serious damage to their health. The main issues of forestry here are the introduction of effective methods of harvesting, using rational technology in logging operations, restoring native forest types at past logging sites, increasing the productivity and sustainability of forests on the bioecological biogeocenotical level, and preserving the riparian-protective role of forests. In the article, the author analyzes the results of many years of research in forests of the CBSC, that consider the question of condition of forests, peculiarity the multifunctional values and priority direction forestry in them. The author also considers the basic conformity of structure and com-position of forest stands, and presents evidence about the natural renewal of logging sites in fir and beech forests. It has been established that high intensity selective logging more than 50 % canopy cover and bringing the stand after logging 0.5 and below leads to degradation of

  17. Evaluating potential impacts of species conversion on transpiration in the Piedmont of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, J.; Treasure, E.; Simpson, G.; Domec, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.

    2010-12-01

    Land management practices that include species conversion or vegetation manipulation can have consequences to surface water availability, groundwater recharge, streamflow generation, and water quality through altering the transpiration processes in forested watersheds. Our objective in this study is to compare stand water use or transpiration in a piedmont mixed hardwood stand (i.e., present stand) to five hypothetical single species stands (i.e., management scenarios), [Quercus spp. (oak), Acer Rubrum (red maple), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar), and Pinus Taeda (loblolly pine]. Since October 2007, six watersheds with a flume or v-notch weir installed at the watershed outlet have been monitored for baseline streamflow rates (mm d-1). In the summer of 2010, five trees from each of the above species were instrumented with sap flow sensors in the riparian upland of one watershed to develop linkages between stand stream runoff and transpiration. The sap flow or thermal heat dissipation method was used to calculate tree sap flux density for the mixed hardwood stand. Tree sapwood area and stand tree density were then used to compute stand transpiration rates, mm d-1, from June - August 2010. The parameters of the hypothetical single species stands were based on values determined from mixed hardwood stand conditions (e.g., the same stand sapwood area and stand tree density were applied to each option). The diameter at beast height of the monitored trees ranged from 10 cm to 38 cm with a water use range of 1.8 kg d-1 to 104 kg d-1. From our preliminary data, we found daily transpiration from the mixed hardwood stand (2.8 mm d-1 ± 0.06) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than daily transpiration from the red maple (3.7 mm d-1 ± 0.14) and tulip poplar (3.5 mm d-1 ± 0.12) single species stand management option and significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the loblolly pine (2.3 mm d-1 ± 0.08), sweetgum (2.1 mm d-1 ± 0.08) and oak